Sample records for ratios sediments displayed

  1. Measurement of Contrast Ratios for 3D Display


    stereoscopic, autostereoscopic , 3D , display ABSTRACT 3D image display devices have wide applications in medical and entertainment areas. Binocular (stereoscopic...and system crosstalk. In many 3D display systems viewer’ crosstalk is an important issue for good performance, especial in autostereoscopic display...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11343 TITLE: Measurement of Contrast Ratios for 3D Display

  2. Riparian Sediment Delivery Ratio: Stiff Diagrams and Artifical Neural Networks

    Various methods are used to estimate sediment transport through riparian buffers and grass jilters with the sediment delivery ratio having been the most widely applied. The U.S. Forest Service developed a sediment delivery ratio using the stiff diagram and a logistic curve to int...

  3. Riparian Sediment Delivery Ratio: Stiff Diagrams and Artifical Neural Networks

    Various methods are used to estimate sediment transport through riparian buffers and grass jilters with the sediment delivery ratio having been the most widely applied. The U.S. Forest Service developed a sediment delivery ratio using the stiff diagram and a logistic curve to int...


    Enantiomeric ratios (ERs)) of chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers were quantified in radiodated sediment cores of Lake Hartwell SC, a reservoir heavily impacted by PCBS, to study spatial and temporal changes in chirality. A chiral analysis of cores showed accumulat...

  5. Unusual radionuclide ratios in sediment cores off Sumba Island, Indonesia

    Pittauerova, Daniela; Fischer, Helmut W. [University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Steinke, Stephan [University of Bremen, MARUM, Leobener Str., D-28359 Bremen (Germany)


    A study of gamma emitting radionuclides has been performed at a set of sediment cores taken from a marine site in Lombok basin off Sumba Island, Indonesia, at 1290 m water depth. The samples involved core sections from two parallel multi-cores and the top part of the associated gravity core down to 50 cm depth. The mean recent sedimentation rates were estimated based on {sup 210}Pb depth profiles (supported by artificial radionuclides) to be 0.27 ± 0.02 cm.yr{sup -1}. They were found to be comparable to the past sedimentation rates calculated from of 39 AMS{sup 14}C dates of mixed planktonic foraminifera. These ages covering the last 6000 years provided sedimentation rates between 0.11 and 0.35 cm.yr{sup -1}. Very high {sup 210}Pbxs inventory of (28.7 ± 1.2).103 Bq.m{sup -2} together with high sedimentation rates suggest existence of focusing processes at the studied site. The inventories of both radionuclides were determined to be 148 ± 13 Bq.m{sup -2} {sup 241}Am and 55.7 ± 8.5 Bq.m{sup -2} {sup 137}Cs. The expected {sup 137}Cs inventory from global nuclear test fallout (decay corrected to year 2005) would be about 200 Bq.m{sup -2} {sup 137}Cs. The ratios of {sup 241}Am/ {sup 137}Cs were surprisingly high. It is expected that {sup 241}Am is present in the studied sediments as a decay product of its parent isotope {sup 241}Pu, rather than being deposited in-situ. Further investigation of the artificial radionuclides including Pu isotopes in the sediments will be conducted by means of AMS and alpha spectrometry. The results could contribute to understanding the meanwhile unclear radionuclides' sources (global fallout vs. regional contribution from Pacific proving grounds fallout as a result of transport through the Indonesian through-flow) and the processes leading to their accumulation. (authors)

  6. Worldwide lead-isotope ratio in bivalves and sediments

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Jacobsen, Gitte; Strand, Jakob

    The lead-isotope ratio have been used to assess and identify impact of leaded gasoline, coal combustion and  mineral activities[ref 1] due to the difference in 206Pb (~52%), 207Pb (~24%) and 208Pb (~23%) isotope ratios. The source of these differences is the decaying of the parent isotopes of 238U...

  7. Worldwide lead-isotope ratio in bivalves and sediments

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Jacobsen, Gitte; Strand, Jakob

    The lead-isotope ratio have been used to assess and identify impact of leaded gasoline, coal combustion and  mineral activities[ref 1] due to the difference in 206Pb (~52%), 207Pb (~24%) and 208Pb (~23%) isotope ratios. The source of these differences is the decaying of the parent isotopes of 238U...... to 206Pb, 235U to 207Pb and 232Th to 208Pb. 204Pb is the only stable Pb isotope usually contributing 1% of the total Pb. Differences in 206Pb/207Pb ratio ranges from 1.06 to 1.10 in old Pb ores (e.g. the time of the roman empire), whereas recent mining from radiogenic (high U and Th contents) ores can.......35% with recoveries of  98.50 to 100.03%. Geographical differences and comparison with literature values for the different regions will be presented, together with a discussion on the suitability of ICP-quadropole-MS for isotope ratio determinations. ...

  8. Sterol ratios as a tool for sewage pollution assessment of river sediments in Serbia.

    Matić Bujagić, Ivana; Grujić, Svetlana; Jauković, Zorica; Laušević, Mila


    In this work, source pollution tracing of the sediments of the Danube River and its tributaries in Serbia was performed using sterol ratios. Improved liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, which enabled complete chromatographic separation of four analytes with identical fragmentation reactions (epicoprostanol, coprostanol, epicholestanol and cholestanol), was applied for the determination of steroid compounds (hormones, human/animal and plant sterols). A widespread occurrence of sterols was identified in all analyzed samples, whereas the only detected hormones were mestranol and 17α-estradiol. A human-sourced sewage marker coprostanol was detected at the highest concentration (up to 1939 ng g(-1)). The ratios between the key sterol biomarkers, as well as the percentage of coprostanol relative to the total sterol amount, were applied with the aim of selecting the most reliable for distinction between human-sourced pollution and the sterols originated from the natural sources in river sediments. The coprostanol/(cholesterol + cholestanol) and coprostanol/epicoprostanol ratios do not distinguish between human and natural sources of sterols in the river sediments in Serbia. The most reliable sterol ratios for the sewage pollution assessment of river sediments in the studied area were found to be coprostanol/(coprostanol + cholestanol), coprostanol/cholesterol and epicoprostanol/coprostanol. For the majority of sediments, human-derived pollution was determined. Two sediment samples were identified as influenced by a combination of human and natural biogenic sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced contrast ratio of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal displays by controlling the surface-anchoring strength

    Lim, Young Jin; Woo, Chang Woo; Oh, Sang Hoon; Mukherjee, Amrita; Lee, Seung Hee [Department of BIN Fusion Technology and Department of Polymer Nano-Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Ji Ho; Kim, Kyeong Jin; Yang, Myung Su, E-mail: [Panel Performance Department, LG Display Co., Ltd., Paju, Gyeonggi-do 413-811 (Korea, Republic of)


    The dark state of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal displays (LCDs) associated with the in-plane switching of a LC director depends on their molecular ordering. We propose a new approach to reduce the light leakage in the dark state of homogeneously aligned LCDs. A very small amount of reactive mesogen (RM) is mixed with the LC material and polymerized at room temperature and also at a low temperature (-20 {sup 0}C) to strengthen the surface-anchoring energy. The contrast ratio of the low-temperature cured cell is improved by about 50% over that of the pure LC cell and the room temperature cured RM-mixed LC cell due to an enhanced order parameter.

  10. Rain ratio variation in the Tropical Ocean: Tests with surface sediments in the eastern equatorial Pacific

    Mekik, Figen; Loubere, Paul; Richaud, Mathieu


    The organic carbon to calcite flux ratio (rain ratio) has a profound effect on the preservation of carbonates in the deep sea and may influence atmospheric pCO 2 over millennia. Unfortunately, the degree to which the rain ratio varies in the more productive regions of the oceans is not well determined with sediment trap data. The rain ratio in the upper ocean appears dominantly linked to diatom productivity, which is not necessarily directly linked to total production and may be regionally variable. However, ballasting and protection of organic carbon by calcareous particles in the deeps may limit ratio variability at the seafloor. Sediment trap data do not exist for the regional determination of rain ratios in key highly productive areas like the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP). To overcome this, we turn to surface sediment composition and accumulation rates as a representation of modern ratio variation. We present 230Thorium ( 230Th)-normalized carbonate, opal, organic carbon and detrital matter accumulation rates from core top samples in the EEP. We demonstrate a novel approach for estimating modern rain ratios from sedimentary proxies by (1) calculating vertical calcite flux from 230Th-normalized carbonate accumulation rates (CARs) with correction for preservation and (2) calculating organic carbon fluxes with multiple algorithms that depend in varying degrees on ballasting. We find that organic carbon flux estimates from algorithms with and without a ballasting function produce results different from one another. Sediment accumulation rates for opal reflect the likely pattern of diatom production. By contrast, the organic carbon accumulation rate does not correlate well with surface ocean productivity or any of our algorithm-based organic carbon flux estimates. Instead, it correlates with the detrital component of the sediments suggesting an allochthonous input to sedimentary organic carbon accumulation in the EEP, which reduces its value as a productivity

  11. C:N:P Molar Ratios, Sources and 14C Dating of Surficial Sediments from the NW Slope of Cuba.

    Guadalupe de la Lanza Espino

    Full Text Available The surficial sediments recovered from 12 sites located near the channel axis of the Florida Straits and the lower slope off NW Cuba were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC, nitrogen (TN, phosphorus (TP, elemental C:N:P ratios, C and N isotopic values, and 14C dating. The depth profiles of TOC, TN, and TP (0-18 cm displayed a downcore trend and a significant variation. The TOC values were low (0.15 to 0.62%; 66 to 516 µmol g(-1. Sites near the island's lower slope had lower TOC average concentrations (158-333 µmol g(-1 than those closer to the channel axis (averaging 341-516 µmol g(-1; p <0.05. The TN concentrations near the lower slope attained 0.11% (80 µmol g(-1, whereas, towards the channel axis, they decreased to 0.07% (55 µmol g(-1; p<0.05. The C:N ratios ranged from 1.9 to 10.2. The mean molar C:N ratio (5.4 indicated a marine hemipelagic deposition. The TP was lower at sites near the lower slope (38.4 to 50.0 µmol gv; 0.12% to 0.16% than those near the channel axis (50.0 to 66 µmol g(-1; 0.15 to 0.21%. C:P fluctuated from 7.7 to 14.1 in the surficial sediment layer. The bulk organic δ13Corg and δ15N values confirmed pelagic organic sources, and the 14C dating revealed that the sediments were deposited during the Holocene (1000-5000 yr BP. We suggest that the hydrodynamic conditions in the Straits influence vertical and advective fluxes of particulate organic material trapped in the mixed-layer, which reduces the particulate matter flux to the seabed.

  12. C:N:P Molar Ratios, Sources and 14C Dating of Surficial Sediments from the NW Slope of Cuba.

    de la Lanza Espino, Guadalupe; Soto, Luis A


    The surficial sediments recovered from 12 sites located near the channel axis of the Florida Straits and the lower slope off NW Cuba were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen (TN), phosphorus (TP), elemental C:N:P ratios, C and N isotopic values, and 14C dating. The depth profiles of TOC, TN, and TP (0-18 cm) displayed a downcore trend and a significant variation. The TOC values were low (0.15 to 0.62%; 66 to 516 µmol g(-1)). Sites near the island's lower slope had lower TOC average concentrations (158-333 µmol g(-1)) than those closer to the channel axis (averaging 341-516 µmol g(-1); p <0.05). The TN concentrations near the lower slope attained 0.11% (80 µmol g(-1)), whereas, towards the channel axis, they decreased to 0.07% (55 µmol g(-1); p<0.05). The C:N ratios ranged from 1.9 to 10.2. The mean molar C:N ratio (5.4) indicated a marine hemipelagic deposition. The TP was lower at sites near the lower slope (38.4 to 50.0 µmol gv; 0.12% to 0.16%) than those near the channel axis (50.0 to 66 µmol g(-1); 0.15 to 0.21%). C:P fluctuated from 7.7 to 14.1 in the surficial sediment layer. The bulk organic δ13Corg and δ15N values confirmed pelagic organic sources, and the 14C dating revealed that the sediments were deposited during the Holocene (1000-5000 yr BP). We suggest that the hydrodynamic conditions in the Straits influence vertical and advective fluxes of particulate organic material trapped in the mixed-layer, which reduces the particulate matter flux to the seabed.

  13. High virus-to-cell ratios indicate ongoing production of viruses in deep subsurface sediments.

    Engelhardt, Tim; Kallmeyer, Jens; Cypionka, Heribert; Engelen, Bert


    Marine sediments cover two-thirds of our planet and harbor huge numbers of living prokaryotes. Long-term survival of indigenous microorganisms within the deep subsurface is still enigmatic, as sources of organic carbon are vanishingly small. To better understand controlling factors of microbial life, we have analyzed viral abundance within a comprehensive set of globally distributed subsurface sediments. Phages were detected by electron microscopy in deep (320 m below seafloor), ancient (∼14 Ma old) and the most oligotrophic subsurface sediments of the world's oceans (South Pacific Gyre (SPG)). The numbers of viruses (10(4)-10(9) cm(-3), counted by epifluorescence microscopy) generally decreased with sediment depth, but always exceeded the total cell counts. The enormous numbers of viruses indicate their impact as a controlling factor for prokaryotic mortality in the marine deep biosphere. The virus-to-cell ratios increased in deeper and more oligotrophic layers, exhibiting values of up to 225 in the deep subsurface of the SPG. High numbers of phages might be due to absorption onto the sediment matrix and a diminished degradation by exoenzymes. However, even in the oldest sediments, microbial communities are capable of maintaining viral populations, indicating an ongoing viral production and thus, viruses provide an independent indicator for microbial life in the marine deep biosphere.

  14. The influence of grain size ratio upon the relative mobility in bimodal sediment mixtures

    Dudill, Ashley; Frey, Philippe


    The behaviour of grain mixtures varies from that of uniform grain, which has implications for bedload sediment transport in gravel-bed rivers. In particular, sediment mixtures act to modify the level of mobility within the bed, leading to aggradation or degradation, which has significant implications for river stability. Previous work has reported upon this change in mobility within bimodal mixtures; however we do not know how far grain size ratio influences these results. We hypothesise that there is a link between the change in levels of mobility and the grain size ratio due to varying amounts of infiltration, which controls the hiding/exposure function. This poster will present experimental results from an investigation designed to isolate the influence of grain size ratio upon the change in levels of mobility in bimodal sediment mixtures. This experimental investigation was undertaken using various sizes of spherical particles in a relatively narrow flume. Using this arrangement, we are able to observe effects at the particle scale in order to understand the individual and bulk grain behaviour.

  15. GIS-based Mine Tailings Yield Mapping using RUSLE and Sediment Delivery Ratio

    Kim, S.; Choi, Y.; Park, H.; Kwon, H.; Yoon, S.; Go, W.


    Erosion of mine tailings heaped up on the side of abandoned mine is an environmental problem because they contain harmful heavy metals. These harmful heavy metals such as copper, lead, arsenic in mine tailings cause contamination of surrounding streams and soil. To prevent and reduce the damage of surrounding streams caused by harmful heavy metals leaking from mine tailings, evaluating the pollution loading amount of mine tailings is required. However, it is difficult to assess its environmental impacts accurately because of its complex processes associated with it (Lal 1994). To estimate soil erosion and develop soil erosion management plans, there are some soil erosion estimation methods. Among these methods, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) is the most widely used method. The six factors affecting soil loss such as rainfall-runoff erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length and steepness, cover management, and support practice were extracted from the spatial data and measurement data to evaluate average annual soil loss. Applying this model to mine tailings is possible, because mine tailings are regarded as soil. All the sediment generated may not be delivered at the watershed outlet because some of it may be deposited at various locations in the watershed. RUSLE does not consider the sediment delivery ratio to estimate the mine tailings delivered to the downstream point of interest. In this study, three methods are provided to compute the spatially distributed sediment delivery ratios and the results are compared with each other. Geographical Information System (GIS)-based erosion model and sediment delivery model were used to estimate the potential sediment yield from mine tailings in this study. The results achieved in this study can be used as basis data to assist mine tailings management and tailings dam installation plan. This work was supported by the Mine Reclamation Corporation funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Republic of Korea

  16. Sediment delivery ratio in a small semi-arid watershed under conditions of low connectivity

    Julio Cesar Neves dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The semi-arid region in the northeast of Brazil is characterised by rains of high intensity and short duration, with the processes of erosion being aggravated by an inappropriate land-use model. In this region, the lack of measured data for runoff and sediment yield increases the need to apply hydro-sedimentological models in estimating erosion, requiring knowledge of the actual sediment delivery ratio for the region. The aim of this study therefore, was to map soil erosion, making use of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, in the Iguatu Experimental Watershed (IEW. The mean annual sediment delivery ratio (SDR, and the SDR for individual events, was calculated from hydro-sedimentological measurements, contributing to an understanding of the processes of sediment propagation in the Brazilian semi-arid region, allowing identification of areas susceptible to water erosion. The IEW has an area of 16.74 km2 and is equipped with sensors for the continuous measurement of rainfall, flow and sediment yield. The mean annual SDR for the IEW was 0.37%. The SDR for individual rainfall events ranged from 0.08 to 1.67%, with an average of 0.68%. Among the main variables that influence the SDR for individual events is the magnitude of rainfall depth and antecedent soil moisture that can be better represented by the total antecedent precipitation of the previous 15 days. According to maps of soil loss, only 6.27% of the watershed presented losses beyond tolerable limits.

  17. Ratio of basin lag times for runoff and sediment yield processes recorded in various environments

    Banasik, K.; Hejduk, A.


    River basin lag time (LAG), defined as the elapsed time between the occurrence of the centroids of the effective rainfall intensity hyetograph and the storm runoff hydrograph, is an important factor in determining the time to peak and the peak value of the instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH). In the procedure of predicting a sedimentgraph (suspended sediment load as a function of time), the equivalent parameter is the lag time for the sediment yield (LAGs), which is defined as the elapsed time between the occurrence of the centroids of sediment production during a storm event and the observed sedimentgraph at the gauging station. Data of over 150 events recorded in 11 small river catchments (located in Poland, Germany, UK and USA) with a drainage area of 0.02 km2 to 82 km2 have been analysed to estimate the ratio of LAGs/LAG. The ratio, in majority of cases was smaller than 1, and decreased with increase of river basin slope. Special attention is given to the data collected in a small agricultural catchment and also during snowmelt periods, which is located in central Poland.


    Agung Dhamar Syakti


    Full Text Available As maritime fulcrum nation, in Indonesia, marine environmental analytical chemistry field is still under developed. So that why, this review paper aims to provide basic understanding of the use some molecular diagnostic indices using n-alkanes indexes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs diagnostic ratios to estimate the source of apportionment of the hydrocarbons contamination and origin. The n-alkane chromatograms were then used to characterize the predominance of petrogenic or biogenic either terrestrial or aquatic. Furthermore, characterization allowed to discriminate riverine versus marine input. The occurrence of a broad unresolved complex mixture can be an evidence of biodegraded petroleum residues. For aromatic compounds, the prevalence of petrogenic, pyrolitic, and combustion-derived can be easily plotted by using isomers ratio calculation. This paper thus provides useful information on the hydrocarbon contamination origin, especially in marine sediments. Further researches should be undertaken in order to validate the use of molecular diagnostic ratio with isotopic approach.

  19. Mice lacking Alkbh1 display sex-ratio distortion and unilateral eye defects.

    Line M Nordstrand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli AlkB is a 2-oxoglutarate- and iron-dependent dioxygenase that reverses alkylated DNA damage by oxidative demethylation. Mouse AlkB homolog 1 (Alkbh1 is one of eight members of the newly discovered family of mammalian dioxygenases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the present study we show non-Mendelian inheritance of the Alkbh1 targeted allele in mice. Both Alkbh1(-/- and heterozygous Alkbh1(+/- offspring are born at a greatly reduced frequency. Additionally, the sex-ratio is considerably skewed against female offspring, with one female born for every three to four males. Most mechanisms that cause segregation distortion, act in the male gametes and affect male fertility. The skewing of the sexes appears to be of paternal origin, and might be set in the pachythene stage of meiosis during spermatogenesis, in which Alkbh1 is upregulated more than 10-fold. In testes, apoptotic spermatids were revealed in 5-10% of the tubules in Alkbh1(-/- adults. The deficiency of Alkbh1 also causes misexpression of Bmp2, 4 and 7 at E11.5 during embryonic development. This is consistent with the incompletely penetrant phenotypes observed, particularly recurrent unilateral eye defects and craniofacial malformations. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic and phenotypic assessment suggests that Alkbh1 mediates gene regulation in spermatogenesis, and that Alkbh1 is essential for normal sex-ratio distribution and embryonic development in mice.

  20. Brightness-Luminance Ratio of a Liquid Crystal Display in a Transmission Type

    Shimomura, Teruo


    A psychological experiment was executed binocularly for a bipartite or a separated field. The viewing subtence was 2° in both fields and the spatial separation in a separated field was 1°. Seven observers adjusted the luminance of a white comparison stimulus to appear equally as bright as a test stimulus of a liquid crystal cell. Red-, green-, blue-color under the tunable birefringence mode were shown as a test stimulus. The ratios of the mean observer in a bipartite field were 1.35± 0.23 for red, 1.20± 0.13 for green, 1.06± 0.13 for blue, and lower than those in a separated field.

  1. Stable carbon isotope ratios of intact GDGTs indicate heterogeneous sources to marine sediments

    Pearson, Ann; Hurley, Sarah J.; Walter, Sunita R. Shah; Kusch, Stephanie; Lichtin, Samantha; Zhang, Yi Ge


    Thaumarchaeota, the major sources of marine glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether lipids (GDGTs), are believed to fix the majority of their carbon directly from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The δ13C values of GDGTs (δ13CGDGT) may be powerful tools for reconstructing variations in the ocean carbon cycle, including paleoproductivity and water mass circulation, if they can be related to values of δ13CDIC. To date, isotope measurements primarily are made on the C40 biphytane skeletons of GDGTs, rather than on complete tetraether structures. This approach erases information revealed by the isotopic heterogeneity of GDGTs within a sample and may impart an isotopic fractionation associated with the ether cleavage. To circumvent these issues, we present δ13C values for GDGTs from twelve recent sediments representing ten continental margin locations. Samples are purified by orthogonal dimensions of HPLC, followed by measurement of δ13C values by Spooling Wire Microcombustion (SWiM)-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) with 1σ precision and accuracy of ±0.25‰. Using this approach, we confirm that GDGTs, generally around -19‰, are isotopically "heavy" compared to other marine lipids. However, measured δ13CGDGT values are inconsistent with predicted values based on the 13C content of DIC in the overlying water column and the previously-published biosynthetic isotope fractionation for a pure culture of an autotrophic marine thaumarchaeon. In some sediments, the isotopic composition of individual GDGTs differs, indicating multiple source inputs. The data appear to confirm that crenarchaeol primarily is a biomarker for Thaumarchaeota, but its δ13C values still cannot be explained solely by autotrophic carbon fixation. Overall the complexity of the results suggests that both organic carbon assimilation (ca. 25% of total carbon) and multiple source(s) of exogenous GDGTs (contributing generally <30% of input to sediments) are necessary to explain the observed

  2. Dependence of the sediment delivery ratio on scale and its fractal characteristics

    Xiaoming Zhang; Sihong Wu; Wenhong Cao; Jianchao Guan; Zhaoyan Wang


    The sediment delivery ratio (SDR) is an indicator used to determine the capacity for eroded sediment to be delivered to the outlet of a particular basin. Based on systematic reviews of SDR studies in China and abroad during the last 50 years, this study analyzes whether the SDR has scale-dependent characteristics and discusses the fractal characteristics of the SDR. In addition, the SDR in various watersheds in China and abroad showed correlations with temporal and spatial scales, which means that the SDR depends on watershed scale. Moreover, the SDR can be quantitatively expressed and scaled using fractal dimension under certain temporal and spatial scales. Within a nested watershed, a proposed SDR scale transfer model was constructed using the SDR at a typical watershed unit scale with an area of approximately 1 km2 (SDR0) and a fractal dimension of the SDR at a nested watershed scale (D). This research also points out that the study and calculation of the SDR cannot be correct without considering its scale dependence. It is a valid and useful approach to construct SDR scaling models by using fractal dimension, which could be an interesting research topic regarding SDR scaling in the future.

  3. Glacial interglacial rain ratio changes: Implications for atmospheric CO2 and ocean sediment interaction

    Munhoven, Guy


    A reduction of the carbonate-carbon to organic-carbon export rain ratio during glacial times has been advanced to explain the glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO2 variations. This hypothesis is tested and implications for the dynamics of sedimentary carbonate preservation and dissolution are explored with a multi-box model ( MBM) of the ocean carbon cycle, fully coupled to a new transient early diagenesis model (called MEDUSA). A peak reduction of the rain ratio by 40% at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was found to produce a net atmospheric pCO2 reduction of about 40 ppm. Changing shelf carbonate accumulation rates and continental weathering inputs produced a 55-60 ppm reduction. The combination of the two mechanisms generates a pCO2 change of 90-95 ppm, which compares well with the observed data. However, the resulting model sedimentary record does not conform to actual sedimentary records. The changes related to continental shelf processes and variable weathering flux depress the calcite saturation horizon (CSH) by about 1 km at the LGM; if rain ratio variations are also considered, that depression increases by another km. In addition to this large amplitude for the CSH, possibly due to the adopted box-model approach, the changing rain ratio also leads to transition zone changes in the model sedimentary record that are opposite in phase with data-based reconstructions. Realistic changes in the aragonite fraction of the carbonate rain were found to have only a minimal impact on atmospheric pCO2. Finally, chemical erosion of deep-sea sediment was shown to reduce the amplitude of variation of the sedimentary CCD by about 10-20%. It may provide a mechanism to improve the model-data agreement.

  4. Evaluation of the Pioneer PDP-502MX 4 x 3 Aspect Ratio, 50 Inch Diagonal Color Plasma Display Panel


    NIDL evaluated the thin, large screen, flat panel Pioneer 50 inch plasma display panel (PDP) to determine its usefulness to the display of images that are of interest to imagery analysts and GI specialists, As NIDL's ratings show, the Pioneer PDP-502MX is not going to be useful as the primary imagery analysis display on an IEC workstation, It fails many of the IEC requirements so we rate it "F" for IEC workstation monoscopic and stereo applications, Rather, its usefulness comes from its large, 50 inch diagonal size and its high pixel count for a PDP, up to 1280 x 768 pixels in the 16:9 and 1024 x 768 pixels in the 4:3 format, that could make it appropriate for group conference discussions, The Pioneer PDP-502MX has a relatively good gray scale capability; it can display 245 of 256 differences in input levels for a 7,94 bit depth, Its linearity surpasses that we have measured for CRT monitors, and comes about because of its precisely formed pixel structure, This pixel structure, like in LCD monitors, can have several non- operating pixels, It has a very high (exceeds 60% over the entire screen) and a very uniform 1-pixel-on/1-pixel-off contrast modulation for both the horizontal and vertical directions, The PDP can have a maximum luminance up to 40 fL for a small patch of white, and a minimum luminance of 0.2 fL For full screen white, its luminance is 18 fL, limited by internal circuitry to minimize panel heat generation and its luminance is more uniform than a CRT monitor, The reflectivity and the viewing angle are about the same as for a CRT monitor, It has a capability to do stereo imaging at 43 Hz per eye, which is on the borderline of visible flicker, and its dynamic range in stereo is good, The extinction ratio is poor, and is probably limited by the long persistence of the green phosphor, Most who have seen the Pioneer PDP-502MX would love to have one, at least for football games, The price is about 18,000.

  5. 134Cs: 137Cs and 106Ru: 137Cs ratios in intertidal sediments from the Cumbria and Lancashire coasts England

    Stanners, D. A.; Aston, S. R.


    The distributions of 134Cs, 137Cs and 106Ru in intertidal surface sediments from the coasts of Cumbria and Lancashire, north-west England, are reported. The ratios of 134Cs: 137Cs and 106Ru: 137Cs activities have been used together with the isotopic composition of the Windscale radioactive effluents to examine the contamination history of sediments. Distinct differences between the activities and time of contamination of muds, silts and sands are found, and the apparent lag times of transport of radioactive wastes to different sediment localities are estimated. The relatively high activities in fine sediments reflect recent discharges indicating a rapid response to discharge, while the sands contain low levels of older contamination. Apparent lag times of up to 6 years are estimated for the study area; the transport to the south is generally more rapid than to the north. These results have consequences for the operation and interpretation of radiological monitoring in coastal areas.

  6. Performance evaluation of nitrogen isotope ratio determination in marine and lacustrine sediments: An inter-laboratory comparison

    Bahlmann, E.; Bernasconi, S.M.; Bouillon, S.; Houtekamer, M.; Korntheuer, M.; Langenberg, F.; Mayr, C.; Metzke, M.; Middelburg, J.J.; Nagel, B.; Struck, U.; Voß, M.; Emeis, K.C.


    Nitrogen isotopes of organic matter are increasingly studied in marine biogeochemistry and geology, plant and animal ecology, and paleoceanography. Here, we present results of an inter-laboratory test on determination of nitrogen isotope ratios in marine and lacustrine sediments. Six different

  7. Performance evaluation of nitrogen isotope ratio determination in marine and lacustrine sediments: An inter-laboratory comparison

    Bahlmann, E.; Bernasconi, S.M.; Bouillon, S.; Houtekamer, M.; Korntheuer, M.; Langenberg, F.; Mayr, C.; Metzke, M.; Middelburg, J.J.; Nagel, B.; Struck, U.; Voß, M.; Emeis, K.C.


    Nitrogen isotopes of organic matter are increasingly studied in marine biogeochemistry and geology, plant and animal ecology, and paleoceanography. Here, we present results of an inter-laboratory test on determination of nitrogen isotope ratios in marine and lacustrine sediments. Six different sampl

  8. Organic carbon isotope ratios of recent sediments from coastal lagoons of the Gulf of Mexico, Mexico

    Botello, Alfonso V.; Mandelli, Enrique F.; Macko, Steve; Parker, Patrick L.


    The stable carbon isotope composition sedimentary organic carbon was determined in the sediments of seven coastal lagoons of the Gulf of Mexico, Mexico. For most of the lagoons the δ13C values for sediments ranged from -20.1 to -23.9%. Anomalously low values, -26.8 to 29.3%. were determined in sediments of two of the studied lagoons, probably due to the presence of organic carbon from anthropogenic sources, naturally absent in these environments. The δ13C values determined in the tissues of oysters collected at the same time in the different lagoons were very similar to those recorded in the sediments.

  9. Sediment delivery ratio and its uncertainties on flood event scale:Quantification for the Lower Yellow River


    Sediment delivery ratio(SDR)for fluvial rivers was formulated with sediment rating curve.The observed data of SDR on flood event scale of the Lower Yellow River(LYR)were adopted to examine the formulation and to calibrate the model parameters.A regression formula of SDR was then established and its 95%prediction interval was accordingly quantified to represent its overall uncertainties.Three types of factors including diversity of the incoming flow conditions,river self-regulation processes,and human activities were ascribed to the uncertainties.The following were shown:(1)With the incoming sediment coefficient(ISC)being a variable,it was not necessary to adopt the incoming flow discharge as the second variable in the formulation of SDR;and(2)ISC=0.003 and therefore SDR=2 might be a threshold for distinguishing the characteristics of sediment transport within the LYR.These findings would highlight sediment transport characteristics on the scale of flood event and contribute to uncertainty based analysis of water volume required for sediment transport and channel maintenance of the LYR.

  10. Riparian forest potential to retain sediment and carbon evaluated by the {sup 137}Cs fallout and carbon isotopic ratio techniques

    Pires, Luiz F. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica Aplicada a Solos e Ciencias Ambientais], e-mail:, e-mail:; Bacchi, Osny O.S.; Reichardt, Klaus; Filippe, Joseline [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica dos Solos; Correchel, Vladia [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil)


    Riparian forests can provide an important service for aquatic ecosystems by sequestering hill slope-derived sediments. However, the width of a riparian buffer zone required to filter sediments is not yet well-understood. Here are used two complementary tracers to measure sediment retention. The {sup 137}Cs technique and the soil carbon isotopic ratios ({delta} {sup 13}C) are utilized to investigate sediment deposition and erosion rates on a slope transect cultivated with sugarcane followed by a secondary riparian forest zone in Iracemapolis, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The {sup 137}Cs technique and the {delta} {sup 13}C analysis showed that the width of a riparian vegetation in accordance to a Brazilian Environmental Law (N. 4.771/65) was not sufficient in trapping sediments coming from agricultural lands, but indicated the importance of these forests as a conservation measure at the watershed scale. The complementary {delta} {sup 13}C analysis together with soil morphology aspects allowed a better interpretation of the sediment redistribution along the sugarcane and riparian forest transect. (author)

  11. The Vinylguaiacol/Indole or VGI ("Veggie") Ratio: A Novel Molecular Parameter to Evaluate the Relative Contributions of Terrestrial and Aquatic Organic Matter to Sediments

    Kruge, M. A.; Olsen, K. K.; Slusarczyk, J.; Gomez, E.


    The organic matter (OM) fraction of estuarine sediments is often distinctive and thus diagnostically useful in determinations of sedimentary provenance. Among the most fundamental distinctions to be made is that between terrestrial and aquatic OM. To supplement the parameters commonly used for this purpose (e.g., C/N and stable isotope ratios), we proposed the Vinylguaiacol/Indole or VGI ("Veggie") ratio, defined as [vinylguaiacol / (indole + vinylguaiacol)] using data produced by analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of dried, homogenized sediment samples. The ratio employs the peak areas of these two compounds on the mass chromatograms of their molecular ions (m/z 150 and 117). Major pyrolysis products of terrestrial plant lignin include a variety of methoxyphenols, notably 4-vinylguaiacol. In contrast, aquatic algae and bacteria characteristically produce distinctive organonitrogen compounds upon pyrolysis, particularly indole, derived from the amino acid tryptophan. The end member VGI ratio value of 1.00 is obtained for reference land plant matter, including the marsh plants Phragmites and Spartina, as well as maple and pine wood. The end member value of 0.00 is obtained for cultured microbes, including Escherichia coli and the cyanobacterium Anacystis. Vinylguaiacol and indole are commonly detected in Recent sediment pyrolyzates. We hypothesized that their relative quantities therein should be proportional to the relative contributions of land plant and microbial OM, respectively. Samples taken from Spartina peat marshes at the mouths of major rivers (Housatonic and Connecticut) entering Long Island Sound, wetlands behind the barrier island at Cape May (NJ), and a Phragmites-dominated tidal marsh along the Hackensack River (NJ) have high (> 0.8) VGI ratio values. Sediments collected within the Newark Bay (NJ) estuary from the lower Passaic and Hackensack Rivers and the Arthur Kill show mixed terrestrial and aquatic OM signatures (VGI from 0

  12. Plutonium and Uranium Atom Ratios and Activity Levels in Cochiti Lake Bottom Sediments Provided by Pueblo de Cochiti

    Gallaher, B.M.; Efurd, D.W.; Rokop, D.J.; Benjamin, T.M.


    Historical operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory have contaminated stream sediments with plutonium and other radionuclides. A small portion of these contaminated sediments has been carried by floods into the Rio Grande drainage system, eventually to be trapped by Cochiti Lake located on Pueblo de Cochiti lands approximately 8 km downstream of the Laboratory. In this study, lake bottom sediment samples provided by the Pueblo de Cochiti were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry to determine plutonium and uranium activity levels and isotopic atom ratios. This specialized analytical method allows us to take isotopic fingerprints of radionuclides found in the sediment and to determine how much plutonium and uranium came from the Laboratory and how much was deposited by worldwide fallout or is natural. Two distinct types of samples were processed: segments of a continuous vertical core of the entire accumulated sediment sequence and other samples from across the lake bottom at the water/sediment interface. Based on measurement of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio, Laboratory-derived plutonium is present in eight of nine samples at the core site. On a depth-weighted basis, approximately one-half of the {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu came from early operations at the Laboratory; the remaining plutonium came from fallout dispersed by above-ground nuclear tests. In contrast to the core site, the samples from the other locations showed little or no evidence of Laboratory-derived plutonium, with more than 90 percent of the plutonium attributable to fallout. The overall amount of plutonium in all the samples is of the same magnitude as other reservoirs in the region. The net increase in plutonium over upstream reservoirs unaffected by Laboratory activities is a maximum of 0.014 pCi/g or 3.5 times. All of the samples reflect natural uranium compositions. Laboratory-derived uranium is not identifiable, presumably because the sediment contains abundant

  13. Lead isotope ratios in six lake sediment cores from Japan Archipelago: Historical record of trans-boundary pollution sources

    Hosono, Takahiro, E-mail: [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Alvarez, Kelly [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kuwae, Michinobu [Senior Research Fellow Center, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)


    Sediment cores from six lakes situated from north to south on the Japanese Archipelago were collected during 2009–2010 to investigate the hypothesis that deposition of lead (Pb) was coming from East Asia (including China, South Korea and eastern part of Russia). Accumulation rates and ages of the lake sediment were estimated by the {sup 210}Pb constant rate of supply model and {sup 137}Cs inputs to reconstruct the historical trends of Pb accumulation. Cores from four lakes located in the north and central Japan, showed clear evidence of Pb pollution with a change in the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios in the recent sediment as compared to the deeper sediment. Among the six studied lakes, significant inputs of anthropogenic lead emissions were observed at Lake Mikazuki (north Hokkaido in north Japan), Lake Chokai (north of Honshu), and Lake Mikuriga (central part of Honshu). Pb isotopic comparison of collected core sediment and previously reported data for wet precipitation and aerosols from different Asian regions indicate that, before 1900, Pb accumulated in these three lakes was not affected by trans-boundary sources. Lake Mikazuki started to receive Pb emissions from Russia in early 1900s, and during the last two decades, this lake has been affected by trans-boundary Pb pollution from northern China. Lake Chokai has received Pb pollutant from northern China since early 1900s until 2009, whereas for the Lake Mikuriga the major Pb contaminant was transported from southern China during the past 100 years. The results of our study demonstrate that Japan Archipelago has received trans-boundary Pb emissions from different parts of East Asian region depending on location, and the major source region has changed historically. - Highlights: • Historical trend of Pb pollution was recorded in six Japanese Lakes. • Pb concentration and Pb isotope ratios were determined for sediment cores. • High [Pb] and less radiogenic Pb isotope ratios

  14. Freely dissolved concentrations and sediment-water activity ratios of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the open Baltic Sea.

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Wiberg, Karin; Broman, Dag; Arp, Hans Peter H; Persson, Ylva; Sundqvist, Kristina; Jonsson, Per


    Aqueous concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the open sea have heretofore been measured by filtering and extracting large amounts of water. Measurement of freely dissolved concentrations with this technique is difficult because of corrections for sorption to dissolved organic matter. In this study we use a novel, more economic technique using equilibrium passive samplers consisting of 17-microm thin polyoxymethylene (POM-17), capable of measuring freely dissolved aqueous concentrations (Cw) in pristine (i.e., background) locations. POM-17 was employed in an extensive field campaign at five stations in the open Baltic sea to obtain Cw at two depths (1 m above the seafloor and 25 m below the surface). Median Cw in the overlying water was 2.3 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ)/m3 PCDD/Fs and 15 pg/L sum 7-PCB, with generally less than a factor two variation among sites and depths. Also freely dissolved concentrations of native compounds in the surface sediment porewater (C(PW)) were determined in laboratory batch experiments. The data were used to derive sediment-water activity ratios, which indicate the diffusive flux direction. It was found that the PCDD/Fs and PCBs were in close equilibrium between the sediment porewater and the overlying water. Comparison of C(PW) with total sediment concentrations indicated that more than 90% of the compounds were sorbed to sedimentary black carbon.

  15. Modelling Sediment Thickness for Site-Effect Characterisation using H/V Spectral Ratio Analysis and Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Van Noten, Koen; Lecocq, Thomas; Watlet, Arnaud; Camelbeeck, Thierry


    The H/V Spectral Ratio (HVSR) analysis of ambient seismic noise has been widely used to estimate the fundamental site resonance frequency in the context of site-effect characterisation. In regions of unknown subsurface structure, in which there is a significant acoustic impedance contrast between sediments and the underlying bedrock, HVSR can be a very powerful tool to map bedrock morphology and sediment thickness. Calibrating the power-law relationship between the variation in fundamental frequency and sediment thickness around these unknown sites is crucial for sediment thickness mapping. This empirical relationship can be easily calculated by conducting HVSR analysis of ambient noise measurements above boreholes with known bedrock depth. Additional local H/V measurements above near-surface geophysical profiles, for instance created by Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), allow training and improving the power-law relationship for sites with a shallow bedrock depth. As the compaction of sediments influences the Vs, one has however to take into account that this empirical relationship can only be applied in relative small areas with a similar local geology. Between 2008 and 2010, a seismic swarm (MLmax = 3.2) occurred in a hilly area, 20 km SE of Brussels (Belgium). 60 of the 300 recorded events were felt/heard by the local residents and were reported in the corresponding 'Did You Feel It' internet inquiries held by Royal Observatory of Belgium. Several low-magnitude events show a distinct macroseismic intensity variation that can be explained by the geological site effect, i.e. the local sediment thickness, affecting the human perception of these earthquake-induced ground motions. In this presentation, we apply the above described methodology and discuss the results of a geophysical survey including ERT-profiling, ambient noise recording, HVSR analysis in Geopsy and DEM-modelling to characterise the local site effects. The resulting sediment thickness model

  16. Application of Binary Diagnostic Ratios of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons for Identification of Tsunami 2004 Backwash Sediments in Khao Lak, Thailand

    Siwatt Pongpiachan


    Full Text Available Identification of Tsunami deposits has long been a controversial issue among geologists. Although there are many identification criteria based on the sedimentary characteristics of unequivocal Tsunami deposits, the concept still remains ambiguous. Apart from relying on some conventional geological, sedimentological, and geoscientific records, geologists need some alternative “proxies” to identify the existence of Tsunami backwash in core sediments. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are a class of very stable organic molecules, which can usually be presented as complex mixtures of several hundred congeners; one can assume that the “Tsunami backwash deposits” possess different fingerprints of PAHs apart from those of “typical marine sediments.” In this study, three-dimensional plots of PAH binary ratios successfully identify the Tsunami backwash deposits in comparison with those of global marine sediments. The applications of binary ratios of PAHs coupled with HCA are the basis for developing site-specific Tsunami deposit identification criteria that can be applied in paleotsunami deposits investigations.

  17. Stable carbon isotope ratios of archaeal GDGTs in the marine water column and surface sediments

    Pearson, A.; Hurley, S.; Close, H. G.; Jasper, C. E.


    Archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) lipids are ubiquitous throughout the marine environment and are preserved in sediments and sedimentary rocks on million-year timescales. Variations in the number of ring-containing GDGT isomers in sediments correlate with differences in overlying sea surface temperatures, a relationship formalized in the TEX86 paleotemperature proxy. Ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota are believed to be the major sources of these GDGTs, implying that the greatest production and export of GDGTs from the water column should be associated with the maximum expression of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes and maximum number of thaumarchaeal cells, both of which occur in the subsurface NO2- maximum near a depth of ca. 80-250 m. To examine the relationship between production and export of GDGTs from the water column, we measured the concentrations and δ13C values of GDGTs in suspended particulate matter (SPM) of the western South Atlantic Ocean and compared them to values from pure thaumarchaeal cultures and from available sediment core-tops from other locations. Thaumarchaeota are believed to fix the majority of their carbon directly from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). However, both the SPM and core-top δ13C values in some cases are moderately more 13C-depleted than would be predicted based on the 13C content of local DIC and the previously-published biosynthetic isotope fractionation (ɛ). This indicates that the average metabolism of the planktonic archaeal community either is mixotrophic (≥ 25% organic carbon assimilation) or that the published ɛ value for the model organism Nitrosopumilus maritimus may not be representative of the total autotrophic community. In addition to this offset, δ13C values of GDGTs in SPM inversely mirror DIC profiles, with lowest values in the nitrite maximum and higher values in the deeper water column, similar to the overall trends for bulk SPM. Finally, while individual GDGTs in SPM samples

  18. Ratios of total suspended solids to suspended sediment concentrations by particle size

    Selbig, W.R.; Bannerman, R.T.


    Wet-sieving sand-sized particles from a whole storm-water sample before splitting the sample into laboratory-prepared containers can reduce bias and improve the precision of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC). Wet-sieving, however, may alter concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) because the analytical method used to determine TSS may not have included the sediment retained on the sieves. Measuring TSS is still commonly used by environmental managers as a regulatory metric for solids in storm water. For this reason, a new method of correlating concentrations of TSS and SSC by particle size was used to develop a series of correction factors for SSC as a means to estimate TSS. In general, differences between TSS and SSC increased with greater particle size and higher sand content. Median correction factors to SSC ranged from 0.29 for particles larger than 500m to 0.85 for particles measuring from 32 to 63m. Great variability was observed in each fraction-a result of varying amounts of organic matter in the samples. Wide variability in organic content could reduce the transferability of the correction factors. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  19. Temporal evolution of lead isotope ratios in sediments of the Central Portuguese Margin: a fingerprint of human activities.

    Mil-Homens, Mário; Caetano, Miguel; Costa, Ana M; Lebreiro, Susana; Richter, Thomas; de Stigter, Henko; Trancoso, Maria A; Brito, Pedro


    Stable Pb isotope ratios ((206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb), (210)Pb, Pb, Al, Ca, Fe, Mn and Si concentrations were measured in 7 sediment cores from the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula to assess the Pb contamination throughout the last 200 years. Independently of their locations, all cores are characterized by increasing Pb/Al rends not related to grain-size changes. Conversely, decreasing trends of (206)Pb/(207)Pb were found towards the present. This tendency suggest a change in Pb sources reflecting an increased proportion derived from anthropogenic activities. The highest anthropogenic Pb inventories for sediments younger than 1950s were found in the two shallowest cores of Cascais and Lisboa submarine canyons, reflecting the proximity of the Tagus estuary. Lead isotope signatures also help demonstrate that sediments contaminated with Pb are not constrained to estuarine-coastal areas and upper parts of submarine canyons, but are also to transferred to a lesser extent to deeper parts of the Portuguese Margin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Distribution of natural radionuclides and uranium activity ratio in Gulf of Thailand sediments as base line data

    Sahoo, S.K.; Hideki, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Kritsananuwat, R.; Fukushi, M. [Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Chanyotha, S.; Pangza, K. [Chulalongkorn University (Thailand)


    This paper reports distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides and uranium activity ratio in marine sediments from selected coast, along the Gulf of Thailand to establish baseline data. Thailand has a plan to construct nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as coal-fired thermal power plants to generate adequate and reliable electricity supply for rapid growth of industrialization. Therefore, it is important to focus not only on security and adequacy of power system but also on environmental protection and monitoring and risk assessment. To carry out environmental monitoring, baseline data plays a significant role. These data should be established and available before set up of mega projects that could impact the environment and health. Therefore, we have collected samples from five areas in the Gulf of Thailand, which are proposed as potential sites, to set up power plants by Thailand government. A total number of fifty-four marine sediment samples were collected. Gamma spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides e.g. {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ac and {sup 40}K. Activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ac and {sup 40}K vary from 2.91-67.17 Bq/kg with an average of 26.64±14.57 Bq/kg, 4.42-109.17 Bq/kg with an average of 43.79±23.92 Bq/kg and 3.36-1004.56 Bq/kg with an average of 393.56±208.04 Bq/kg, respectively. The radiation hazard parameters including absorbed dose rate (D), annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), radium equivalent activity (AGDE) and external hazard index (Hex) were calculated and compared with the international recommended values. We have noticed that sediments from two sites characterized by similar geological nature of landforms with a rocky coast have higher concentration of natural radionuclides. Concentration of uranium was determined using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and isotopic composition of {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U and {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U were determined using

  1. Quantifying sediment sources in a lowland agricultural catchment pond using {sup 137}Cs activities and radiogenic {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier [Laboratoire des Sciences et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, Domaine du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Foucher, Anthony [E.A 6293, Laboratoire GéoHydrosystèmes Continentaux (GéHCO), Université F. Rabelais de Tours, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Laceby, J. Patrick [Laboratoire des Sciences et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, Domaine du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien [E.A 6293, Laboratoire GéoHydrosystèmes Continentaux (GéHCO), Université F. Rabelais de Tours, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Thil, François; Dapoigny, Arnaud; Lefèvre, Irène [Laboratoire des Sciences et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, Domaine du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Cerdan, Olivier [Département Risques et Prévention, Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans (France); and others


    Soil erosion often supplies high sediment loads to rivers, degrading water quality and contributing to the siltation of reservoirs and lowland river channels. These impacts are exacerbated in agricultural catchments where modifications in land management and agricultural practices were shown to accelerate sediment supply. In this study, sediment sources were identified with a novel tracing approach combining cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium isotopes ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) in the Louroux pond, at the outlet of a lowland cultivated catchment (24 km{sup 2}, Loire River basin, France) representative of drained agricultural areas of Northwestern Europe. Surface soil (n = 36) and subsurface channel bank (n = 17) samples were collected to characterize potential sources. Deposited sediment (n = 41) was sampled across the entire surface of the pond to examine spatial variation in sediment deposits. In addition, a 1.10 m sediment core was sampled in the middle of the pond to reconstruct source variations throughout time. {sup 137}Cs was used to discriminate between surface and subsurface sources, whereas {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios discriminated between lithological sources. A distribution modeling approach quantified the relative contribution of these sources to the sampled sediment. Results indicate that surface sources contributed to the majority of pond (μ 82%, σ 1%) and core (μ 88%, σ 2%) sediment with elevated subsurface contributions modeled near specific sites close to the banks of the Louroux pond. Contributions of the lithological sources were well mixed in surface sediment across the pond (i.e., carbonate sediment contribution, μ 48%, σ 1% and non-carbonate sediment contribution, μ 52%, σ 3%) although there were significant variations of these source contributions modeled for the sediment core between 1955 and 2013. These fluctuations reflect both the progressive implementation of land consolidation schemes in the catchment and the eutrophication of

  2. Fe speciation and Fe/Al ratio in the sediments of southeastern Arabian Sea as an indicator of climate change

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.; Gupta, S.M.; Mir, I.A.

    Aluminium, titanium and iron are the major lithogeneous contributors to the marine sediment and their abundance varies strikingly with the intensity of monsoonal precipitation. Al and Ti concentrations in a sediment core (SK-129/GC-05) from...

  3. Short-term Fallout Radionuclide Ratios and Mass Balance Identify New Suspended Sediments of Channel Origin and Importance of Catchment Flowpath

    Karwan, Diana; Pizzuto, James; Aalto, Rolf; Marquard, Julia; Aufdenkampe, Anthony; Harpold, Adrian; Benthem, Adam; Skalak, Katherine; Levia, Delphis; Siegert, Courtney


    Fallout radionuclides and their ratios, such as beryllium-7 (7Be) and lead-210 (210Pb), are used to determine suspended sediment source and age in catchments. The ratio of beryllium-7 to lead-210 (7Be/210Pb) on suspended sediment has been used to estimate the fraction of "new" sediment in suspension. In the application of this model, "new" suspended sediment is often assumed to originate from recent landscape surface erosion that is delivered to the stream network. Fallout radionuclide deposition can vary across watersheds and on an event basis in a single watershed due to factors such as storm type, atmospheric height, and storm origin. In the White Clay Creek watershed within the mid-Atlantic USA, single-event deposition of 7Be varies from 15 - 177 Bq m-2 and 210Pb varies from 0 - 10 Bq m-2. 7Be/210Pb ratios vary from 7.9 to 17 within event precipitation and from 0.8 to 12.8 on suspended sediment. "New" sediment varies from 6 - 100% over the course of these events. 7Be mass balance during events shows that the majority of 7Be is retained within the catchment and not exported on suspended sediment. During summer thunderstorms, less than 1% of 7Be deposited on the watershed exits the stream channel. By comparing this flux with the direct channel interception of 7Be deposition in precipitation and throughfall we can determine the minimum amount of 7Be leaving the watershed that could occur in the absence of surface erosion. For example in summer thunderstorms, the entirety of the 7Be exiting the watershed on suspended sediment is less than the total activity deposited on the channel in direct precipitation. Channel-intercepted fallout radionuclides can exit the catchment by multiple mechanisms including the tagging of subaerial fluvial deposits with event precipitation; hence "new" suspended sediment originates from within the channel rather than from surface erosion. During extreme events, such as Hurricane Irene, less of the suspended sediment has been newly

  4. A study of radionuclides, metals and stable lead isotope ratios in sediments and soils in the vicinity of natural U-mineralisation areas in the Northern Territory

    Frostick, A., E-mail: [Charles Darwin University, School of Environment and Life Sciences, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); ERISS, GPO Box 461, Darwin NT 0801 (Australia); Bollhoefer, A. [ERISS, GPO Box 461, Darwin NT 0801 (Australia); Parry, D. [AIMS, PO Box 41775, Casuarina NT 0811 (Australia)


    Australian guidelines recommend that tailings materials from uranium (U) mining and milling be contained without any detrimental impact on the environment for at least 1000 years. Natural analogue sites are being investigated to determine if they can provide data on the rates of natural erosion processes which occur over these timescales, for input into predictive geomorphic computer models. This paper presents radionuclide, metal and stable lead (Pb) isotope data from sediment cores and surface soils in the vicinity of two mineralised areas in the Alligator Rivers Region. Surface scrapes from the natural Anomaly no. 2, south of the Ranger mineral lease, exhibit radiogenic {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios, and elevated U and metal concentrations typical for a near surface U anomaly. In contrast, samples taken from the Koongarra mineral lease (KML) show radionuclide activity and metal concentrations similar to natural areas elsewhere in the Alligator Rivers Region and Pb isotope ratios are closer to present day average crustal ratios (PDAC), as the orebodies at KML are covered by surficial sand. A sediment core collected from Anbangbang Billabong, downstream of KML, exhibits small variations in Pb isotope ratios that indicate that approximately 1% of the upper sediments in the sediment core may be derived from material originating from the U anomaly at Koongarra.

  5. Biotic and abiotic pathways of phosphorus cycling in minerals and sediments: insights from oxygen isotope ratios in phosphate.

    Jaisi, Deb P; Kukkadapu, Ravi K; Stout, Lisa M; Varga, Tamas; Blake, Ruth E


    A key question to address in the development of oxygen isotope ratios in phosphate (δ(18)O(p)) as a tracer of biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus in ancient and modern environments is the nature of isotopic signatures associated with uptake and cycling of mineral-bound phosphate by microorganisms. Here, we present experimental results aimed at understanding the biotic and abiotic pathways of P cycling during biological uptake of phosphate sorbed to ferrihydrite and the selective uptake of sedimentary phosphate phases by Escherichia coli and Marinobacter aquaeolei. Results indicate that a significant fraction of ferrihydrite-bound phosphate is biologically available. The fraction of phosphate taken up by E. coli attained an equilibrium isotopic composition in a short time (isotope exchange (between O in PO(4) and O in water; that is, actual breaking and reforming of P-O bonds) (biotic pathway). The difference in isotopic composition between newly equilibrated aqueous and residual sorbed phosphate groups promoted the ion exchange (analogous to isotopic mixing) of intact phosphate ions (abiotic pathway) so that this difference gradually became negligible. In sediment containing different P phases, E. coli extracted loosely sorbed phosphate first, whereas M. aquaeolei preferred Fe-oxide-bound phosphate. The presence of bacteria always imprinted a biotic isotopic signature on the P phase that was taken up and cycled. For example, the δ(18)O(p) value of loosely sorbed phosphate shifted gradually toward equilibrium isotopic composition. The δ(18)O(p) value of Fe-oxide-bound phosphate, however, showed only slight changes initially but, when new Fe-oxides were formed, coprecipitated/occluded phosphate retained δ(18)O values of the aqueous phosphate at the time of formation of new Fe oxides. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of authigenic and detrital phosphates did not change, suggesting that these phosphate phases were not utilized by bacteria. These findings

  6. B/Si ratios in cultured and sediment diatoms: proxy of their palaeoenvironment and/or their physiology

    Mejia Ramirez, L.; Stoll, H. M.; Isensee, K.; Mendez-Vicente, A.; Shimizu, N.


    permanganate and perchloric acid. Cleaned frustules were mounted in cleanroom conditions by decanting onto ultrapure Indium, and gold coated for its analysis via secondary ion mass spectrometry on the Cameca 1280 at Woods Hole, USA. No consistent B isotope determinations are yet possible due to the high variable instrumental fractionation during frustule ablation. To ensure the robustness of the proxy in fossil diatoms, B/Si ratios of top core sediments in the Equatorial Pacific and the Southern Ocean will be measured. Measurements of T. psuedonana suggest B contents in the range of 6-10 ppm B with a direct relationship with culture pH. We will compare B content of T. psuedonana and T. weissflogii with measurements on culture growth parameters and Si quotas in these cultures to more fully resolve the controls on B incorporation in diatom opal.

  7. Perturbation in the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu global fallout ratio in local sediment following the nuclear accidents at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain)

    Mitchell, P.I.; Vintro, L.L. [University Coll., Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Physics; Dahlgaard, H. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Gasco, C.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica


    It is well established that the main source of the plutonium found in marine sediments throughout the Northern Hemisphere is global stratospheric fallout, characterized by a typical {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio of {approx}0.18. Measurements of perturbations in this ratio at various sites which had been subjected to close-in fallout, mainly from surface-based testing, has confirmed the feasibility of using this ratio to distinguish plutonium from different fallout sources. In the present study, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio has been examined in samples of sediment collected at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain), where accidents involving the release and dispersion of plutonium from fractured nuclear weapons occurred in 1968 and 1966, respectively. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio was measured by high-resolution alpha spectrometry and spectral deconvolution. The analytical results showed that at Thule the mean {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio was 0.033{+-}0.004, while at Palomares the equivalent ratio appeared to be significantly higher at 0.056{+-}0.003. Both ratios are consistent with those reported for soils samples at the Nevada site and Nagasaki, and are clearly indicative of weapons-grade plutonium. 27 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) seismic method to determine sediment thickness in the vicinity of the south well field, Franklin county, OH

    Haefner, R.J.; Sheets, R.A.; Andrews, R.E.


    The horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) seismic method involves analyzing measurements of ambient seismic noise in three dimensions to determine the fundamental site resonance frequency. Resonance is excited by the interaction of surface waves (Rayleigh and Love) and body waves (vertically incident shear) with the high-contrast acoustic impedance boundary at the bedrock-sediment interface. Measurements were made to determine the method's utility for estimating thickness of unconsolidated glacial sediments at 18 locations at the South Well Field, Franklin County, OH, and at six locations in Pickaway County where sediment thickness was already known. Measurements also were made near a high-capacity production well (with pumping on and off ) and near a highway and a limestone quarry to examine changes in resonance frequencies over a 20-hour period. Although the regression relation for resonance frequency and sediment thickness had a relatively low r 2(0.322), estimates of sediment thickness were, on average, within 14 percent of known thicknesses. Resonance frequencies for pumping on and pumping off were identical, although the amplitude of the peak was nearly double under pumping conditions. Resonance frequency for the 20-hour period did not change, but the amplitude of the peak changed considerably, with a maximum amplitude in the early afternoon and minimum in the very early morning hours. Clay layers within unconsolidated sediments may influence resonance frequency and the resulting regression equation, resulting in underestimation of sediment thickness; however, despite this and other complicating factors, hydrogeologists should consider this method when thickness data are needed for unconsolidated sediments. ?? 2011 by The Ohio Academy of Science. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Oil pollution and the carbon isotope ratio in organisms and Recent sediments of coastal lagoons in the Gulf of Mexico

    Botello, A V; Macko, Sa


    Samples of recent sediments and marine organisms from seven coastal lagoons along the Mexican coast of the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed by gas chromatography and GC-MS coupled system to determine the present levels of fossil hydrocarbons. Results show that the highest concentrations of fossil hydrocarbons are present in organisms and sediments located near petrochemical plants and oil refineries, indicating that petroleum hydrocarbons are being released into the coastal lagoons. Stable carbon...

  10. Tracing anthropogenic Hg and Pb input using stable Hg and Pb isotope ratios in sediments of the central Portuguese Margin

    Mil-Holmens, M.; Blum, J.; Canário, J.; Caetano, M.; Costa, A.M.; Lebreiro, S.M.; Trancoso, M.; Richter, T.O.; de Stigter, H.; Johnson, M.; Branco, V.; Cesário, R.; Mouro, F.; Mateus, M.; Boer, W.; Melo, Z.


    Three short marine sediment cores from the Cascais Submarine Canyon (CSC; cores 252-32 and 252-35) and the Estremadura Spur (core 252-16) on the central Portuguese Margin were analysed for Hg, Pb, Al, and Mn concentrations, and both Pb and Hg stable isotope compositions, in order to reconstruct tren

  11. Using H/V Spectral Ratio Analysis to Map Sediment Thickness and to Explain Macroseismic Intensity Variation of a Low-Magnitude Seismic Swarm in Central Belgium

    Van Noten, K.; Lecocq, T.; Camelbeeck, T.


    Between 2008 and 2010, the Royal Observatory of Belgium received numerous ';Did You Feel It'-reports related to a 2-year lasting earthquake swarm at Court-Saint-Etienne, a small town in a hilly area 20 km SE of Brussels, Belgium. These small-magnitude events (-0.7 ≤ ML ≤ 3.2, n = c. 300 events) were recorded both by the permanent seismometer network in Belgium and by a locally installed temporary seismic network deployed in the epicentral area. Relocation of the hypocenters revealed that the seismic swarm can be related to the reactivation of a NW-SE strike-slip fault at 3 to 6 km depth in the basement rocks of the Lower Palaeozoic London-Brabant Massif. This sequence caused a lot of emotion in the region because more than 60 events were felt by the local population. Given the small magnitudes of the seismic swarm, most events were more often heard than felt by the respondents, which is indicative of a local high-frequency earthquake source. At places where the bedrock is at the surface or where it is covered by thin alluvial sediments ( 30 m). In those river valleys that have a considerable alluvial sedimentary cover, macroseismic intensities are again lower. To explain this variation in macroseismic intensity we present a macroseismic analysis of all DYFI-reports related to the 2008-2010 seismic swarm and a pervasive H/V spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis of ambient noise measurements to model the thickness of sediments covering the London-Brabant Massif. The HVSR method is a very powerful tool to map the basement morphology, particularly in regions of unknown subsurface structure. By calculating the soil's fundamental frequency above boreholes, we calibrated the power-law relationship between the fundamental frequency, shear wave velocity and the thickness of sediments. This relationship is useful for places where the sediment thickness is unknown and where the fundamental frequency can be calculated by H/V spectral ratio analysis of ambient noise. In a

  12. Vertical distribution of Th-isotope ratios, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 137}Cs in sediment cores from an estuary affected by anthropogenic releases

    San Miguel, E.G.; Bolivar, J.P. [Dpto Fisica Aplicada, E.P.S. La Rabida, Ctra Palos S/N, Huelva 21819 (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Dpto Fisica Aplicada, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Avda, Reina Mercedes, 2, Sevilla 41012 (Spain)


    In an estuary system highly polluted by mining and industrial activities, the sections of sediment cores affected by anthropogenic inputs of U-series radionuclides (due to fertilizer plants releases) were determined through the vertical profiles of Th-isotopic ratio ({sup 230}Th/{sup 232}Th). Also, when possible, a modified version of the {sup 210}Pb dating method was applied in the uncontaminated sections of these cores. Using the information provided by the Th-isotopic ratio and {sup 210}Pb methods, we were able to establish confident chronologies, covering the last century, in several of the analysed sediment cores. These chronologies will be used in forthcoming research to study the time evolution of pollutant concentrations in the estuary. Additionally, and based on the established chronologies, we have found that sedimentation rates have drastically increased in some zones of the estuary since the commencement of several industrial activities in the surrounding environment and since the construction of two dikes in the area.

  13. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of the Rizhao coastal area (China) using diagnostic ratios and factor analysis with nonnegative constraints.

    Chen, Hai-yang; Teng, Yan-guo; Wang, Jin-sheng


    In this study, sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in surface sediments of the Rizhao coastal area (China) were apportioned using diagnostic ratios and factor analysis with nonnegative constraints (FA-NNC). Bivariate plots of selected diagnostic ratios showed that the sources of PAHs identified in surface sediments seemed to be mixed sources dominated by petroleum-related. Literature PAH source profiles were modified based on the first-order degradation reaction in the atmosphere and sediments, and were considered as comparison for source identification. Five significant factors were determined with the diagnostic tools including coefficient of determination, cumulative percent variance and Exner function. By visually comparing PAH patterns and from the sum of squares of differences between modeled and modified literature PAH profiles, the potential sources were apportioned with the FA-NNC. The main contribution sources of PAHs originated from diesel engine (27.22%), followed by traffic emission (25.03%), gasoline engine (18.95%), coal power plant (14.77%) and coal residential (14.03%). Energy consumption was the predominant reason for PAH pollution in that region.

  14. Quantifying sediment source contributions in coastal catchments impacted by the Fukushima nuclear accident with carbon and nitrogen elemental concentrations and stable isotope ratios

    Laceby, J. Patrick; Huon Huon, Sylvain; Onda, Yuichi; Evrard, Olivier


    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accidental release of radioactive contaminants resulted in the significant fallout of radiocesium over several coastal catchments in the Fukushima Prefecture. Radiocesium, considered to be the greatest risk to the short and long term health of the local community, is rapidly bound to fine soil particles and thus is mobilized and transported during soil erosion and runoff processes. As there has been a broad-scale decontamination of rice paddy fields and rural residential areas in the contaminated region, one important long term question is whether there is, or may be, a downstream transfer of radiocesium from forests that covered over 65% of the most contaminated region. Accordingly, carbon and nitrogen elemental concentrations and stable isotope ratios are used to determine the relative contributions of forests and rice paddies to transported sediment in three contaminated coastal catchments. Samples were taken from the three main identified sources: cultivated soils (rice paddies and fields, n=30), forest soils (n=45), and subsoils (channel bank and decontaminated soils, n = 25). Lag deposit sediment samples were obtained from five sampling campaigns that targeted the main hydrological events from October 2011 to October 2014. In total, 86 samples of deposited sediment were analyzed for particulate organic matter elemental concentrations and isotope ratios, 24 from the Mano catchment, 44 from the Niida catchment, and 18 from the Ota catchment. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to examine the source discrimination potential of this tracing suite and select the appropriate tracers for modelling. The discriminant tracers were modelled with a concentration-dependent distribution mixing model. Preliminary results indicate that cultivated sources (predominantly rice paddies) contribute disproportionately more sediment per unit area than forested regions in these contaminated catchments. Future research will examine if there are

  15. Effects of organic matter on carbonate stable isotope ratios (δ13C, δ18O values)--implications for analyses of bulk sediments.

    Oehlerich, Markus; Baumer, Marlene; Lücke, Andreas; Mayr, Christoph


    Stable isotope ratio (δ(13)C, δ(18)O values) analyses of carbonates can be biased by CO(2) release from organic impurities. This is most critical for carbonate isotope analyses from bulk sediments containing comparably high amounts of organic matter (OM). Several methods have been developed to remove OM prior to analyses, but none of them can be universally applied. Moreover, pretreatment methods cause isotopic bias in themselves and should probably best be avoided. Thus, it is essential to have indicators for reliable isotope values of untreated carbonate-OM mixtures. Artificial mixtures of organic compounds with a standard carbonate were analyzed to investigate the bias on carbonate isotope ratios caused by OM in the sample. The total-inorganic-carbon to total-organic-carbon ratio (TIC/TOC) was used as a measure for the " organic impurity" of the sample. The target was to evaluate TIC/TOC as a measure for sample quality and to define TIC/TOC thresholds for reliable isotope measurements of mixtures between calcium carbonate and organic compounds. The effect of organic impurities on carbonate stable isotope values depended on the specific OM compound and the respective TIC/TOC ratio. Different CO(2) release rates were determined for the pure OM compounds. A sample TIC/TOC ratio ≥0.3 was found to be a threshold for reliable measurements of the isotope composition of calcium carbonate. Bulk carbonate analyses from carbonate-OM mixtures are reliable only if the TIC/TOC values do not fall below certain thresholds. This has implications for carbonate isotope studies from bulk sediments for which the TIC/TOC ratios should be considered as an easy-to-determine measure for sample-quality assessment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Sediment fingerprinting by using the Ag-110m: Cs-137 ratio along the main rivers draining the Fukushima radioactive pollution plume

    Chartin, Caroline; Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie; Lepage, Hugo; Bonté, Philippe


    During the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, large quantities of radionuclides were released into the environment between 12 and 19 March 2011. Even though about 80% of these emissions were transported offshore and out over the Pacific Ocean, 20% were deposited as wet and dry deposits on soils of Fukushima Prefecture on 15-16 March. In particular, 6.4 PBq of Cs-137 were modeled to have deposited on Japanese soils over a distance of 70 km to the northwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. As most radionuclides are strongly sorbed by fine particles, and their mineralogical clay and organic matter fractions, they are likely to be redistributed within the landscape in association with soil and sediment particles transported by erosion processes and runoff. Based on a spatial analysis of the gamma-emitting radionuclides present in the environment respectively eight and thirteen months after the accident, we aim to provide a radioactive tracer to investigate the temporal evolution of the contaminant dispersion across Fukushima Prefecture. For this purpose, sediments were collected along rivers draining the main contamination plume in Fukushima Prefecture (i.e, Rivers Kutchibuto, Mano, Nitta and Ota) in November 2011 and April 2012.These campaigns directly followed the main hydro-sedimentary events that occurred in this region, i.e., the typhoon season (July and September-October) and the snowmelt (March 2012). The river sediment activities in gamma-emitting radionuclides were then compared to the initial activities measured in soils provided by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology (MEXT). The initial fallout patterns in 110mAg appeared to differ from those of the main contamination plume defined mainly by radiocaesium fallout (i.e., Cs-134+137). The Ag-110m:Cs-137 ratio was then used to trace the spatial origin of contaminated sediment collected in rivers. Sediments collected within the coastal

  17. Assessment Cu, Ni and Zn Pollution in the Surface Sediments in the Southern Peninsular Malaysia using Cluster Analysis, Ratios of Geochemical Nonresistant to Resistant Fractions, and Geochemical Indices

    Yap. C. K.


    The intertidal sediment samples collected in May 2007 from 12 sampling sites in the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia, were determined for the total concentrations of Cu, Ni and Zn and their four geochemical fractions. The total concentrations (μg/g dry weight) of Cu, Ni and Zn ranged from 9.48 to 115.82, 12.95 to 36.18 and 45.35 to 136.56, respectively. The ratios of nonresistant to resistant fractions based on geochemical analysis revealed that the Pantai Lido and Senibong had > 1.0, ind...

  18. [Relationship between white blood cell count, neutrophils ratio and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and short clinical outcomes among patients with acute ischemic stroke at hospital admission].

    Ye, Jia-kai; Zhang, Jin-tao; Kong, Yan; Xu, Tan; Zou, Ting-ting; Zhang, Yong-hong; Zhang, Shao-yan


    To investigate the relationship between white blood cell count, neutrophils ratio and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and short outcomes among patients with acute ischemic stroke at admission to the hospital. A total of 2675 acute ischemic stroke patients were included in this study. Data on demographic characteristics, life style, history of disease, white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophils ratio (NEUR), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and clinical outcomes were collected for all the participants. Poor clinical outcome was defined as neurologic deficiency (NIHSS ≥ 5) at discharge or death during hospitalization. White blood cell count, neutrophils ratio and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were higher in patients with poor outcome than in those without clinical outcome. According to the quartile range, WBC, NEUR and ESR were divided into four levels at admission. After adjustment for multivariate, compared with WBC ≤ 5.6× 10(9)/L, the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of poor outcome with ≥ 8.7×10(9)/L was 1.883 (1.306 - 2.716). When compared with NEUR ≤ 0.56, the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of poor outcome with 0.57 - 0.64 and with ≥ 0.74 were 1.572 (1.002 - 2.466) and 2.577 (1.698 - 3.910), respectively. When compared with ESR ≤ 4 mm/h, the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of poor outcome with ≥ 17 mm/h was 2.426 (1.233 - 4.776). Elevated WBC count and NEUR at admission were significantly and positively associated with poor clinical outcomes among patients with acute ischemic stroke (trend test P acute ischemic stroke (trend test P > 0.05). There appeared associations between WBC, NEUR, ESR and poor outcome among patients with acute ischemic stroke at admission to the hospital. Both elevated WBC count and NEUR showed significantly positive association with poor clinical outcomes among patients with acute ischemic stroke at admission.

  19. Elemental (C/N ratios) and Isotope (δ13CTOC, δ15NTN) Compositions of Surface Sediments from the Barrier Islands in the Nakdong River Estuary, South Korea

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Woo, Han Jun; Jeong, Kap-Sik; Kang, Jeongwon; Choi, Jae Ung; Lee, Dong-Hun


    The Nakdong River Estuary (NRE) in South Korea is a typical, artificially-manipulated estuary and blocked by two large dam. The Noksan Dam, built in 1934, blocks the flow of the West Nakdong River, and the NRE Dam was completed between 1983 and 1987 to regulate the flow of the East Nakdong River (called the Eulsuk River locally). For the past half century, several huge industrial complexes have been developed in the reclaimed land near the NRE. In the estuary, the hydraulic circulation has been markedly modified caused by the changes in the river discharge and geomorphic configuration of such as the formation of a series of barrier islands, the two large dams resulting from the artificial control of the natural river flow and upstream intrusion of saltwater by the operation of the two large dams. Consequently, the saltwater wedge that once reached approximately 40 km upstream is now blocked at the dam, considerably reducing the tidal prism. The estuary is typified by barrier-lagoon system with various subenvironments and microtidal with a 1.5 m tidal range. We investigated the elemental (C/N ratios) and isotopic (δ13CTOC, δ15NTN) compositions of organic matters in various composition in the surface sediments in the NRE. In May 2015, 90 surface sediment samples were collected on and around three islands in the NRE. The mean grain size of the barrier island system in the NRE ranged from 1.1 to 8.9 Φ (average 3.9 Φ) in mean grain size, and they were composed of various sediment types, including muddy Sand (S), sandy Mud (sM), and Mud (M). A useful application of the C/N ratios is as a proxy for assessment of organic matter source change, related to the sediment origins terrestrial or marine. The C/N ratios (average, 5.88) imply that the organic matter in the study area was of marine origins, as indicated by the lower ratios between 4 and 10. The isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter (δ13CTOC, δ15NTN) indicated the deposition of algae-derived organic

  20. Assessment of soil erosion and sediment delivery ratio using remote sensing and GIS: a case study of upstream Chaobaihe River catchment,north China

    Weifeng ZHOU; Bingfang WU


    Soil erosion in catchment areas reduces soil productivity and causes a loss of reservoir capacity.Several parametric models have been developed to predict soil erosion at drainage basins,hill slopes and field levels.The well-known Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) represents a standardized approach.Miyun reservoir,which sits on Chaobaibe River,is the main surface source of drinking water for Beijing,the capital of China.Water and soil loss are the main reasons for sediment to enter a reservoir.Sediment yield is assessed using a version of the universal soil loss equation modified by Chinese researchers.All year 2001 and 2002 data for factors in the equation are obtained from remote sensing or collected to form an analysis database.These factors are computed and mapped using Geographic Information System tools.Based on the complex database,the modified model is developed.Through pixel-based computing the sediment yield per hydrological unit is calculated.The model does not consider sediment deposition occurring on hillsiopes.Gross soil loss is often higher than the sum of those measured at catchment outlets.The sediment delivery ratio (SDR) per hydrological unit is also computed.This study analyzes the main contributions of sediment yields on sub-basins of the Chaobaihe River to the Miyun Reservoir,and discusses the possible reasons for the difference between SDRs in 2001 and 2002 at different outlets.The result shows that in the upper basin of the Miyun Reservoir,in 2001 the area of erosion that could be neglected was 8,202.76 km2,the area of low erosion 3,269.59 km2,the area of moderate erosion 3,400.97 km2,the area of high erosion 436.89 km2,the area of strong erosion 52.19 km2 and the area of severe erosion 3.13 km2.The highest soil loss was 70,353 t/km2,yr in Fengning County in 2001,followed by 64,418 t/km2,yr by Chicheng County in 2001.The SDR in 2002 was lower than that in 2001.The main reasons are the decreasing rainfall erosivity and total runoff.

  1. Drivers of foraminiferal and bulk-sedimentary 10Be/9Be ratios in a marine sediment record offshore of sub-tropical Australia

    Davies, M. H.; Abrajevitch, A.; Srncik, M.; Fifield, L. K.; De Deckker, P.; Heslop, D.; Roberts, A. P.


    Meteoric 10Be (half-life of ~1.5 My) is produced in the atmosphere via cosmic ray spallation of 16O, following which it is quickly transported to Earth's surface by precipitation. This process concentrates 10Be in the ocean, where it is thought to remain with a residence time of ~500-1000 years prior to export to the marine sedimentary record largely associated with sorption to the surface of settling clay particles. The bulk beryllium isotopic composition of marine clays hence reflects the convoluted factors of 10Be production and varying scavenging efficiency/terrigenous input. However, measurements of meteoric 10Be/9Be incorporated in the calcium carbonate tests of foraminifera (and hence presumably isolated from the dilution effects of sediment-bound terrigenous 9Be) may have the potential to provide useful chronological control for marine sediment records. Here we present 10Be/9Be results from a ~42 m-long sediment core collected off the NW coast of Australia (MD00-2361: 113°28.63‧E, 22°04.92‧S, 1805 m water depth). Measurements of δ18O on Globigerinoides ruber, supported by magnetostratigraphy, indicate that the record extends back >1.2 Ma. This independent chronology, in conjunction with excellent carbonate preservation at this site, allows preliminary evaluation of foraminiferal 10Be as a chronometer. We also evaluate the relationship between sedimentary 10Be/9Be ratios, regional surface ocean conditions as inferred from the δ18O stratigraphy and low-resolution Globigerinoides ruber Mg/Ca ratios, as well as large-scale changes in regional fluvial input as reconstructed from high-resolution XRF scanning profiles.

  2. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) and plant/soil concentration ratios (CR) for selected soils, tills and sediments at Forsmark

    Sheppard, Steve (ECOMatters Inc. (Canada)); Sohlenius, Gustav (Sveriges geologiska undersoekning (Sweden)); Omberg, Lars-Gunnar (ALS Scandinavia AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Mikael (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden)); Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden)); Norden, Sara (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden))


    Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. To indicate the uptake of radionuclides in biota concentration ratios (CR) between soil and biota are used. This report summarized K{sub d} data for regolith and marine sediments based on concentrations of 69 indigenous stable elements measured from samples collected at the Forsmark site and CR data concerning cereals growing on these soils. The samples included 50 regolith samples from agricultural land and wetlands, 8 samples of till collected at different depths, and two marine sediment samples. In addition, cereal grains, stems and roots were collected from 4 sites for calculation of CRs. The regolith samples represented the major 5 deposits, which can be used as arable land, at the site (clayey till, glacial clay, clay gyttja and peat (cultivated and undisturbed)). K{sub d} values were generally lower for peat compared to clay soils. There were also clear differences in K{sub d} resulting from differences in soil chemistry within each regolith type. Soil pH was the most important factor, and K{sub d} values for many elements were lower in acidic clay soils compared to basic clay soils. Although there were only a few samples of sandy till and marine sediment, the K{sub d} values were generally consistent with the corresponding regolith K{sub d} values. Of the different cereal parts the grain always had the lowest CR. In most cases, the root CR was significantly higher than the grain CR, whereas only for a few elements were the grain and stem CR values different

  3. Concentrations and isotope ratios of mercury in sediments from shelf and continental slope at Campos Basin near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Araujo, Beatriz Ferreira; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian; Almeida, Marcelo Gomes; Rezende, Carlos Eduardo


    Mercury (Hg) may originate from both anthropogenic and natural sources. The measurement of spatial and temporal variations of Hg isotope ratios in sediments may enable source identification and tracking of environmental processes. In this study we establish the distribution of mercury concentrations and mercury isotope ratios in surface sediments of three transects along the continental shelf and slope in Campos Basin-RJ-Brazil. The shelf showed on average lower total Hg concentrations (9.2 ± 5.3 ng g(-1)) than the slope (24.6 ± 8.8 ng g(-1)). MMHg average concentrations of shelf 0.15 ± 0.12 ng g(-1) and slope 0.13 ± 0.06 ng g(-1) were not significantly different. Distinct differences in Hg isotope ratio signatures were observed, suggesting that the two regions were impacted by different sources of Hg. The shelf showed more negative δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg values ranging from -0.59 to -2.19‰ and from -0.76 to 0.08‰, respectively. In contrast, the slope exhibited δ(202)Hg values from -0.29 to -1.82‰ and Δ(199)Hg values from -0.23 to 0.09‰. Mercury found on the shelf, especially along the "D" and "I" transects, is depleted in heavy isotopes resulting in more negative δ(202)Hg compared to the slope. Isotope ratios observed in the "D" and "I" shelf region are similar to Hg ratios commonly associated with plants and vegetation and very comparable to those detected in the estuary and adjoining mangrove forest, which suggests that Hg exported from rivers may be the dominating source of Hg in near coastal regions along the northern part of the shelf. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediment of mud areas in the East China Sea using diagnostic ratios and factor analysis.

    Deng, Wei; Li, Xian Guo; Li, Sheng Yong; Ma, Yan Yan; Zhang, Da Hai


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) have been quantified for surface sediments collected from the East China Sea (ECS). Our results showed that relatively high levels of PAHs and AHs occurred in both the inner and outer mud areas, while their concentrations at the control site were much lower. AHs for all samples were dominated by the unresolved complex mixture (UCM). Results from diagnostic ratios revealed that sedimentary PAHs were mainly originated from mixed combustion residues of biomass, coal, and petroleum. Combustion residues of petroleum and oil were responsible for the presence of high AHs concentrations. We also conducted factor analysis (FA) to further characterize the PAH and AH sources. Four factors were identified based on the loading of components and attributed to coal and wood combustion (Factor 1), traffic-related sources (Factor 2), petrogenic source (Factor 3) and natural gas combustion (Factor 4).

  5. Authigenic 10Be/9Be ratios and 10Be-fluxes (230Thxs-normalized) in central Baffin Bay sediments during the last glacial cycle: Paleoenvironmental implications

    Simon, Quentin; Thouveny, Nicolas; Bourlès, Didier L.; Nuttin, Laurence; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; St-Onge, Guillaume


    Authigenic 10Be/9Be ratios and 10Be-fluxes reconstructed using the 230Thxs normalization, proxies of the cosmogenic radionuclide 10Be production rate in the atmosphere, have been measured in a sedimentary core from Baffin Bay (North Atlantic) spanning the last 136 ka BP. The normalization applied on the exchangeable (authigenic) 10Be concentrations using the authigenic 9Be isotope and 230Thxs methods yield equivalent results strongly correlated with sedimentological parameters (grain-size and mineralogy). Lower authigenic beryllium (Be) concentrations and 10Be/9Be ratios are associated with coarse-grained carbonate-rich layers, while higher authigenic Be values are related to fine-grained felspar-rich sediments. This variability is due to: i) sediment composition control over beryllium-scavenging efficiency and, ii) glacial history that contributed to modify the 10Be concentration in Baffin Bay by input and boundary scavenging condition changes. Most paleo-denudation rates inferred from the 10Be/9Be ratio vary weakly around 220 ± 76 (0.09 ± 0.03 mm.yr-1) corresponding to relatively steady weathering fluxes over the last glacial cycle except for six brief intervals characterized by sharp increases of the denudation rate. These intervals are related to ice-surging episodes coeval with Heinrich events and the last deglaciation period. An average freshwater flux of 180.6 km3.yr-1 (0.006 Sv), consistent with recent models, has been calculated in order to sustain glacially-derived 10Be inputs into Baffin Bay. It is concluded that in such environments, the authigenic 10Be measured mainly depends on climatic effects related to the glacial dynamics, which masks the 10Be production variation modulated by geomagnetic field changes. Altogether, these results challenge the simple interpretation of 10Be-concentration variation as a proxy of Interglacial/Glacial (interstadial/stadial) cycles in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. They rather suggest the effect of

  6. Separated Response Function Ratios in Exclusive, Forward display='inline'>π± Electroproduction

    Huber, G. M.; Blok, H. P.; Butuceanu, C.; Gaskell, D.; Horn, T.; Mack, D. J.; Abbott, D.; Aniol, K.; Anklin, H.; Armstrong, C.; Arrington, J.; Assamagan, K.; Avery, S.; Baker, O. K.; Barrett, B.; Beise, E. J.; Bochna, C.; Boeglin, W.; Brash, E. J.; Breuer, H.; Chang, C. C.; Chant, N.; Christy, M. E.; Dunne, J.; Eden, T.; Ent, R.; Fenker, H.; Gibson, E. F.; Gilman, R.; Gustafsson, K.; Hinton, W.; Holt, R. J.; Jackson, H.; Jin, S.; Jones, M. K.; Keppel, C. E.; Kim, P. H.; Kim, W.; King, P. M.; Klein, A.; Koltenuk, D.; Kovaltchouk, V.; Liang, M.; Liu, J.; Lolos, G. J.; Lung, A.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Matsumura, A.; McKee, D.; Meekins, D.; Mitchell, J.; Miyoshi, T.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Mueller, B.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Okayasu, Y.; Pentchev, L.; Perdrisat, C.; Pitz, D.; Potterveld, D.; Punjabi, V.; Qin, L. M.; Reimer, P. E.; Reinhold, J.; Roche, J.; Roos, P. G.; Sarty, A.; Shin, I. K.; Smith, G. R.; Stepanyan, S.; Tang, L. G.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tvaskis, V.; van der Meer, R. L. J.; Vansyoc, K.; Van Westrum, D.; Vidakovic, S.; Volmer, J.; Vulcan, W.; Warren, G.; Wood, S. A.; Xu, C.; Yan, C.; Zhao, W. -X.; Zheng, X.; Zihlmann, B.


    The study of exclusive π{sup ±} electroproduction on the nucleon, including separation of the various structure functions, is of interest for a number of reasons. The ratio R{sub L}=σ{sup π{sup -}}{sub L}/σ{sup π{sup +}}{sub L} is sensitive to isoscalar contamination to the dominant isovector pion exchange amplitude, which is the basis for the determination of the charged pion form factor from electroproduction data. A change in the value of R{sub T}=σ{sup π{sup -}}{sub T}/σ{sup π{sup +}}{sub T} from unity at small -t, to 1/4 at large -t, would suggest a transition from coupling to a (virtual) pion to coupling to individual quarks. Furthermore, the mentioned ratios may show an earlier approach to pQCD than the individual cross sections. We have performed the first complete separation of the four unpolarized electromagnetic structure functions above the dominant resonances in forward, exclusive π± electroproduction on the deuteron at central Q{sup 2} values of 0.6, 1.0, 1.6 GeV{sup 2} at W=1.95 GeV, and Q{sup 2}=2.45 GeV{sup 2} at W=2.22 GeV. Here, we present the L and T cross sections, with emphasis on R{sub L} and R{sub T}, and compare them with theoretical calculations. Results for the separated ratio RL indicate dominance of the pion-pole diagram at low -t, while results for R{sub T} are consistent with a transition between pion knockout and quark knockout mechanisms.

  7. Assessment Cu, Ni and Zn Pollution in the Surface Sediments in the Southern Peninsular Malaysia using Cluster Analysis, Ratios of Geochemical Nonresistant to Resistant Fractions, and Geochemical Indices

    Yap. C. K.


    Full Text Available The intertidal sediment samples collected in May 2007 from 12 sampling sites in the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia, were determined for the total concentrations of Cu, Ni and Zn and their four geochemical fractions. The total concentrations (μg/g dry weight of Cu, Ni and Zn ranged from 9.48 to 115.82, 12.95 to 36.18 and 45.35 to 136.56, respectively. The ratios of nonresistant to resistant fractions based on geochemical analysis revealed that the Pantai Lido and Senibong had > 1.0, indicating > 50% of the total concentrations of Cu, Ni and Cu were contributed by anthropogenic sources. This is well complemented by the cluster analysis in which Pantai Lido and Senibong are clustered together based on the three metals clustering pattern. By using Fe as a normalizing element, Cu found at Pantai Lido and Senibong showed > 1.5 for the enrichment factor (EF, which indicated that the Cu was delivered from non-crustal materials or anthropogenic origins while all sampling sites showed Ni and Zn may be entirely from crustal materials. Based on the geoaccumulation index (Igeo (Müller, 1981, similar pattern was also found for Pantai Lido and Senibong in which again only Cu concentrations ranged from 1-2, indicating 'moderate pollution' (Igeo 1 < 2; Class 2.while other sites can be considered as 'unpolluted' (Igeo < 0; Class 0 by Cu, Ni and Zn. Ratios of NR/R exhibited better in the assessment of polluted sites while EF and Igeo should be revised according to Malaysian sedimentary characteristics. This study should prompt more biochemical and molecular studies on the intertidal molluscs from the Straits of Johore since the identified two sites are located in the Straits of Johore, especially the commercial mussel, Perna viridis.

  8. Projection displays

    Chiu, George L.; Yang, Kei H.


    Projection display in today's market is dominated by cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Further progress in this mature CRT projector technology will be slow and evolutionary. Liquid crystal based projection displays have gained rapid acceptance in the business market. New technologies are being developed on several fronts: (1) active matrix built from polysilicon or single crystal silicon; (2) electro- optic materials using ferroelectric liquid crystal, polymer dispersed liquid crystals or other liquid crystal modes, (3) micromechanical-based transducers such as digital micromirror devices, and grating light valves, (4) high resolution displays to SXGA and beyond, and (5) high brightness. This article reviews the projection displays from a transducer technology perspective along with a discussion of markets and trends.

  9. Reconstructing C3 and C4 vegetation cover using n-alkane carbon isotope ratios in recent lake sediments from Cameroon, Western Central Africa

    Garcin, Yannick; Schefuß, Enno; Schwab, Valérie F.; Garreta, Vincent; Gleixner, Gerd; Vincens, Annie; Todou, Gilbert; Séné, Olivier; Onana, Jean-Michel; Achoundong, Gaston; Sachse, Dirk


    Trees and shrubs in tropical Africa use the C3 cycle as a carbon fixation pathway during photosynthesis, while grasses and sedges mostly use the C4 cycle. Leaf-wax lipids from sedimentary archives such as the long-chain n-alkanes (e.g., n-C27 to n-C33) inherit carbon isotope ratios that are representative of the carbon fixation pathway. Therefore, n-alkane δ13C values are often used to reconstruct past C3/C4 composition of vegetation, assuming that the relative proportions of C3 and C4 leaf waxes reflect the relative proportions of C3 and C4 plants. We have compared the δ13C values of n-alkanes from modern C3 and C4 plants with previously published values from recent lake sediments and provide a framework for estimating the fractional contribution (areal-based) of C3 vegetation cover (fC3) represented by these sedimentary archives. Samples were collected in Cameroon, across a latitudinal transect that accommodates a wide range of climate zones and vegetation types, as reflected in the progressive northward replacement of C3-dominated rain forest by C4-dominated savanna. The C3 plants analysed were characterised by substantially higher abundances of n-C29 alkanes and by substantially lower abundances of n-C33 alkanes than the C4 plants. Furthermore, the sedimentary δ13C values of n-C29 and n-C31 alkanes from recent lake sediments in Cameroon (-37.4‰ to -26.5‰) were generally within the range of δ13C values for C3 plants, even when from sites where C4 plants dominated the catchment vegetation. In such cases simple linear mixing models fail to accurately reconstruct the relative proportions of C3 and C4 vegetation cover when using the δ13C values of sedimentary n-alkanes, overestimating the proportion of C3 vegetation, likely as a consequence of the differences in plant wax production, preservation, transport, and/or deposition between C3 and C4 plants. We therefore tested a set of non-linear binary mixing models using δ13C values from both C3 and C4

  10. Geochemistry of organic carbon and nitrogen in surface sediments of coastal Bohai Bay inferred from their ratios and stable isotopic signatures.

    Gao, Xuelu; Yang, Yuwei; Wang, Chuanyuan


    Total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and their δ(13)C and δ(15)N values were determined for 42 surface sediments from coastal Bohai Bay in order to determine the concentration and identify the source of organic matter. The sampling sites covered both the marine region of coastal Bohai Bay and the major rivers it connects with. More abundant TOC and TN in sediments from rivers than from the marine region reflect the situation that most of the terrestrial organic matter is deposited before it meets the sea. The spatial variation in δ(13)C and δ(15)N signatures implies that the input of organic matter from anthropogenic activities has a more significant influence on its distribution than that from natural processes. Taking the area as a whole, surface sediments in the marine region of coastal Bohai Bay are dominated by marine derived organic carbon, which on average accounts for 62±11% of TOC.

  11. Origin and geochemical behavior of uranium in marine sediments. Utilization of the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratio in marine geochemistry; Origine et comportement geochimique de l`uranium dans les sediments marins. Utilisation du rapport ({sup 234}U/{sup 238}U) en geochimie marine

    Organo, Catherine [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)


    The first part of this thesis presents the current situation of knowledge of uranium in marine environment. The second part describes the methods of analysis as well as the material support of the study, i.e., the sediments and marine deposits investigated. The third part is dedicated to the study of uranium mobility in marine sediments characterized by detrital terrigenous composition (pelagic clays). This approach allowed quantifying the entering and leaving flux of uranium after the sediment settling and, to discuss, on this basis, the consequences on the uranium oceanic balance. In the third part the origin and behavior of uranium in zones of high surface productivity is studied. The uranium enrichments observed in the hemi-pelagic sediments of the EUMELI (J.G.O.F.S.-France) programme will constitute a material of study adequate for measuring the variations in the {sup 234}U/2{sup 38U} ratio in solid phase, in response to the oxido-reducing characteristics of the sediment. Thus establishing the origin of the trapped uranium has been possible. Also, the nature of the sedimentary phases related to uranium in bio-genetic sediments in the Austral Ocean was determined. Thus a relationship between the variations in the {sup 234}U/{sup 238} and the diagenetic transformations was possible to establish. Finally in the fifth part a study of the behavior of uranium in a polymetallic shell characteristic for deposits of hydrogenized origin 146 refs., 57 figs., 23 tabs.

  12. Comprehensive analysis for major, minor and trace element contents and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope ratios in sediment reference materials, JSd-1 and MAG-1

    Nath, B.N.; Makishima, A.; Noordmann, J.; Tanaka, R.; Nakamura, E.

    In view of the requirement of a well-characterized and easily available aquatic sediment reference material, a comprehensive analysis comprising of fifty major, minor and trace elements as well as Sr–Nd–Pb–Hf isotopes were carried out...

  13. (137)Cs, (239+240)Pu concentrations and the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in a sediment core from the sub-aqueous delta of Yangtze River estuary.

    Pan, S M; Tims, S G; Liu, X Y; Fifield, L K


    A sediment core collected from the sub-aqueous delta of the Yangtze River estuary was subjected to analyses of (137)Cs and plutonium (Pu) isotopes. The (137)Cs was measured using γ-spectrometry at the laboratories at the Nanjing University and Pu isotopes were determined with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), measurements made at the Australian National University. The results show considerable structure in the depth concentration profiles of the (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu. The shape of the vertical (137)Cs distribution in the sediment core was similar to that of the Pu. The maximum (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu concentrations were 16.21 ± 0.95 mBq/g and 0.716 ± 0.030 mBq/g, respectively, and appear at same depth. The average (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio was 0.238 ± 0.007 in the sediment core, slightly higher than the average global fallout value. The changes in the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the sediment core indicate the presence of at least two different Pu sources, i.e., global fallout and another source, most likely close-in fallout from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) in the Marshall Islands, and suggest the possibility that Pu isotopes are useful as a geochronological tool for coastal sediment studies. The (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu inventories were estimated to be 7100 ± 1200 Bq/m(2) and 407 ± 27 Bq/m(2), respectively. Approximately 40% of the (239+240)Pu inventory originated from the PPG close-in fallout and about 50% has derived from land-origin global fallout transported to the estuary by the river. This study confirms that AMS is a useful tool to measure (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio and can provide valuable information on sedimentary processes in the coastal environment.

  14. Impact of discharge velocity ratio of sewage outlet on sedimentation of suspended solids and resuspension of sediments in river%排污流速比对河流水体中悬浮物沉降和底泥再悬浮的影响

    李勇; 张振廷; 花剑岚; 黄漫丽; 周超; 倪利晓; 朱亮


    Based on numerical simulations and flume experiments, the processes of sedimentation of suspended solids and resuspension of sediments in the region downstream of a sewage outlet in a river were analyzed at three velocity ratios ( R=4. 5 , 7. 2 , and 9. 9 , where R is the ratio of discharge velocity at the sewage outlet to the flow velocity in the river ) . Results show that the relative turbulence intensity and the area of the pollution zone increased with the velocity ratio;this also resulted in significant sedimentation of suspended solids and resuspension of sediments in the river. At the three velocity ratios, the sedimentation fluxes of suspended solids through the bottom horizontal plane have similar distributions: first increasing and then reaching respective stable values; and the total fluxes of suspended solids increased with the velocity ratio. At a low velocity ratio ( R=4. 5 ) , the resuspension fluxes of suspended solids increased slowly due to the existence of a critical incipient velocity ( corresponding to R=5. 8 ) , while at the medium velocity ratio ( R=7. 2 ) and high velocity ratio ( R=9. 9 ) , the resuspension fluxes increased rapidly. As a result, the discharge velocity of the sewage significantly affected the sedimentation of suspended solids and resuspension of sediments in the region downstream of the outlet.%采用数值模拟和水槽试验相结合的方法,研究河道排污口不同排污流速比( R分别为4.5、7.2和9.9)对悬浮物在排污口下游区域沉降和底泥再悬浮的影响。结果表明:随着流速比的增加,紊动越剧烈,污染云团扩散范围越大,沉降和悬浮作用也越明显。不同流速比情况下,通过底部水平面的沉降通量变化趋势基本一致,即先增加、后稳定,通量总量随着流速比增大而增加;由于临界起动流速(对应于R=5.8)的存在导致低流速比(R=4.5)情况下再悬浮通量增长缓慢,而中流速比(R=7.2)

  15. High charged red pigment nanoparticles for electrophoretic displays

    Hou, Xin-Yan; Bian, Shu-Guang; Chen, Jian-Feng; Le, Yuan


    Organic pigment permanent red F2R nanoparticles were prepared via surface modification to improve the surface charge and dispersion ability in organic medium. Their large surface chargeability is confirmed by ζ-potential value of -49.8 mV. The prepared particles exhibited average size of 105 nm and showed very narrow distribution with polydispersity index of 0.068. The sedimentation ratio of the prepared particles in tetrachloroethylene was less than 5% within 12 days. The electrophoretic inks consisting of the prepared red particles with white particles as contrast showed good electrophoretic display, its refresh time was 200 ms.

  16. A 16 ka climate record deduced from δ13C and C/N ratio in Qinghai Lake sediments, northeastern Tibetan Plateau


    On the basis of multi-proxy analysis on TOC, TN, C/N, organic δ13C and grain size, sediment record from Qinghai Lake provides evidences of stepwise-patterned climatic change since 16 ka BP.Results show that Qinghai Lake underwent six environmental stages. From 16.2 to 14.3 ka BP and from 4.0 to 2.1 ka BP, the organic δ13C value was controlled by the concentration of atmospheric CO2. Relative higher organic δ13C values occurred between 14.3 to 10.4 ka BP indicative of water hardness decrease resulted from melting ice water, corresponding to two intervals of C/N peak values to the Bo1ing and Allerod warm periods in Europe respectively. From 10.4 ka BP, Qinghai Lake entered the Holocene and the climate was warm and a little dry. The Megathermal appeared at about 6.7 ka BP when the vegetation around the lake transformed into a forest. Between 6.3 ka BP and 4.0 ka BP, the temperature decreased and δ13C value was controlled by the expansion of C3 plants and the retreat of C4 plants in river catchment.Since 4.0 ka BP, the climate gradually became cold and dry. From 2.1 ka BP, the cold-dry climate and human activity resulted in an abrupt increase in C/N with deceased δ13C value; meanwhile, many coarse grains appeared in sediments.

  17. Universal Numeric Segmented Display

    Azad, Md Abul kalam; Kamruzzaman, S M


    Segmentation display plays a vital role to display numerals. But in today's world matrix display is also used in displaying numerals. Because numerals has lots of curve edges which is better supported by matrix display. But as matrix display is costly and complex to implement and also needs more memory, segment display is generally used to display numerals. But as there is yet no proposed compact display architecture to display multiple language numerals at a time, this paper proposes uniform display architecture to display multiple language digits and general mathematical expressions with higher accuracy and simplicity by using a 18-segment display, which is an improvement over the 16 segment display.

  18. 泥石流泥沙输移比的概念与计算方法探讨%Discussion on concept and calculation method of sediment delivery ratio (SDR) of debris flows

    张金山; 崔鹏


    通过泥石流SDR,可将泥石流流域侵蚀产沙、泥沙输移及泥石流沟道和入汇处主河河床演化有机地联系起来,用于推求流域的土壤侵蚀量,泥石流沟道的冲刷与淤积状况,泥石流所输送的泥沙进入主河的数量,以及对下游河道演变、水库使用年限的影响程度等方面.但目前泥石流SDR的研究还没有开始,在分析泥石流输沙特征的基础上,将SDR引入泥石流输沙的研究中,并将泥石流SDR分解为反映泥石流沟输沙能力的沟道泥石流SDR和反映主河输移泥石流泥沙能力的汇口泥石流SDR两个环节.给出了根据定义使用实际的监测数据计算两类泥石流SDR的具体方法,并在蒋家沟中实施,计算出蒋家沟2007年的一场泥石流过程中沟道SDR为0.14,入汇主河后的悬移质汇口泥石流SDR为0.36.泥石流SDR的模型计算法方面也根据定性分析列出了可能的影响因子,在总结河流SDR的研究成果和分析泥石流输沙特性的基础上进行了模型建立方法的初步探讨.%Sediment delivery ratio ( SDR) is an important concept and parameter in watershed erosion and sediment transport studies. As one of the major forms of soil erosion and sediment transport in the watersheds, debris flows can erode and move significant amount of solid materials from the upstream to the alluvial fan and the main river channel. The concept of debris-flow SDR can link the watershed erosion-sediment generation, debris-flow channel erosion-sedimentation, alluvial fan development, and downstream river channel evolution into a general watershed erosion and sediment transport study framework. Literature survey shows that very few previous studies in this area have been previously reported. In this study, the concept of SDR was introduced to the debris flow sediment transport process, and according to its characteristics, the debris-flow SDR was divided into two consecutive SDRs: (1) The debris-flow channel SDR

  19. Oxygen isotope ratios (18O/16O) of hemicellulose-derived sugar biomarkers in plants, soils and sediments as paleoclimate proxy II: Insight from a climate transect study

    Tuthorn, Mario; Zech, Michael; Ruppenthal, Marc; Oelmann, Yvonne; Kahmen, Ansgar; Valle, Héctor Francisco del; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Glaser, Bruno


    The oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18Oprec) is well known to be a valuable (paleo-)climate proxy. Paleosols and sediments and hemicelluloses therein have the potential to serve as archives recording the isotopic composition of paleoprecipitation. In a companion paper (Zech et al., 2014) we investigated δ18Ohemicellulose values of plants grown under different climatic conditions in a climate chamber experiment. Here we present results of compound-specific δ18O analyses of arabinose, fucose and xylose extracted from modern topsoils (n = 56) along a large humid-arid climate transect in Argentina in order to answer the question whether hemicellulose biomarkers in soils reflect δ18Oprec. The results from the field replications indicate that the homogeneity of topsoils with regard to δ18Ohemicellulose is very high for most of the 20 sampling sites. Standard deviations for the field replications are 1.5‰, 2.2‰ and 1.7‰, for arabinose, fucose and xylose, respectively. Furthermore, all three hemicellulose biomarkers reveal systematic and similar trends along the climate gradient. However, the δ18Ohemicellulose values (mean of the three sugars) do not correlate positively with δ18Oprec (r = -0.54, p fucose and xylose do not simply reflect δ18Oprec but rather δ18Oleaf water. The correlation between measured δ18Ohemicellulose and modeled δ18Oleaf water is highly significant (r = 0.81, p < 0.001, n = 20). This finding can be attributed to the evaporative 18O enrichment of leaf water during transpiration. Model sensitivity tests using a Péclet-modified Craig-Gordon (PMCG) model corroborate that relative air humidity is a very rigorous climate parameter influencing δ18Oleaf water, whereas temperature is of minor importance. While oxygen exchange and degradation effects on δ18O values of hemicelluloses sugar biomarkers seem to be negligible (Zech et al., 2012), further effects that need to be considered when interpreting δ18Ohemicellulose

  20. Military display market segment: helicopters

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.


    The military display market is analyzed in terms of one of its segments: helicopter displays. Parameters requiring special consideration, to include luminance ranges, contrast ratio, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are examined. Performance requirements for rotary-wing displays relative to several premier applications are summarized. Display sizes having aggregate defense applications of 5,000 units or greater and having DoD applications across 10 or more platforms, are tabulated. The issue of size commonality is addressed where distribution of active area sizes across helicopter platforms, individually, in groups of two through nine, and ten or greater, is illustrated. Rotary-wing displays are also analyzed by technology, where total quantities of such displays are broken out into CRT, LCD, AMLCD, EM, LED, Incandescent, Plasma and TFEL percentages. Custom, versus Rugged commercial, versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted. High and low information content designs are identified. Displays for several high-profile military helicopter programs are discussed, to include both technical specifications and program history. The military display market study is summarized with breakouts for the helicopter market segment. Our defense-wide study as of March 2004 has documented 1,015,494 direct view and virtual image displays distributed across 1,181 display sizes and 503 weapon systems. Helicopter displays account for 67,472 displays (just 6.6% of DoD total) and comprise 83 sizes (7.0% of total DoD) in 76 platforms (15.1% of total DoD). Some 47.6% of these rotary-wing applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, as per fixed-wing aircraft, the predominant instantiation involves higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  1. Transport model of underground sediment in soils.

    Jichao, Sun; Guangqian, Wang


    Studies about sediment erosion were mainly concentrated on the river channel sediment, the terrestrial sediment, and the underground sediment. The transport process of underground sediment is studied in the paper. The concept of the flush potential sediment is founded. The transport equation with stable saturated seepage is set up, and the relations between the flush potential sediment and water sediment are discussed. Flushing of underground sediment begins with small particles, and large particles will be taken away later. The pore ratio of the soil increases gradually. The flow ultimately becomes direct water seepage, and the sediment concentration at the same position in the water decreases over time. The concentration of maximal flushing potential sediment decreases along the path. The underground sediment flushing model reflects the flushing mechanism of underground sediment.

  2. Displaying gray shades in liquid crystal displays

    T N Ruckmongathan


    Quality of image in a display depends on the contrast, colour, resolution and the number of gray shades. A large number of gray shades is necessary to display images without any contour lines. These contours are due to limited number of gray shades in the display causing abrupt changes in grayness of the image, while the original image has a gradual change in brightness. Amplitude modulation has the capability to display a large number of gray shades with minimum number of time intervals [1,2]. This paper will cover the underlying principle of amplitude modulation, some variants and its extension to multi-line addressing. Other techniques for displaying gray shades in passive matrix displays are reviewed for the sake of comparison.

  3. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen


    for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  4. Influence of provenance, weathering, and sedimentary processes on the elemental ratios of the fine-grained fraction of the bedload sediments from the Vembanad Lake and the adjoining continental shelf, southwest coast of India

    Nath, B.N.; Kunzendorf, H.; Pluger, W.L.

    stream_size 14 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Sediment_Res_70_1081.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Sediment_Res_70_1081.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  5. Handbook of display technology

    Castellano, Joseph A


    This book presents a comprehensive review of technical and commercial aspects of display technology. It provides design engineers with the information needed to select proper technology for new products. The book focuses on flat, thin displays such as light-emitting diodes, plasma display panels, and liquid crystal displays, but it also includes material on cathode ray tubes. Displays include a large number of products from televisions, auto dashboards, radios, and household appliances, to gasoline pumps, heart monitors, microwave ovens, and more.For more information on display tech

  6. Investigating Deep-Marine Sediment Waves in the Northern Gulf of Mexico Using 3D Seismic Data

    Wang, Z.; Gani, M. R.


    Deep-water depositional elements have been studied for decades using outcrop, flume tank, sidescan sonar, and seismic data. Even though they have been well recognized by researchers, the improvements in the quality of 3D seismic data with increasingly larger dimension allow detailed analysis of deep-water depositional elements with new insights. This study focuses on the deep-marine sediment waves in the northern Gulf of Mexico. By interpreting a 3D seismic dataset covering 635 km2 at Mississippi Canyon and Viosca Knoll areas, large sediment waves, generated by sediment gravity flows, were mapped and analyzed with various seismic attributes. A succession of sediment waves, approximately 100 m in thickness, is observed on the marine slope that tapers out at the toe of the slope. The individual sediment wave exhibits up to 500 m in wavelength and up to 20 m in height. The wave crests oriented northeast-southwest are broadly aligned parallel to the regional slope-strike, indicating their sediment gravity flow origin. The crestlines are straight or slightly sinuous, with sinuosity increasing downslope. Their anti-dune patterns likely imply the presence of supercritical flows. The sediment waves have a retrogradational stacking pattern. Seismic amplitude maps of each sediment wave revealed that after depositing the majority of sheet-like sands on the upper slope, sediment gravity flows started to form large sediment waves on the lower slope. The steep and narrow upcurrent flanks of the sediment waves always display higher amplitudes than the gentle and wide downcurrent flanks, indicating that the sands were likely preferentially trapped along the upcurrent flanks, whereas the muds spread along the downcurrent flanks. The formation of sediment waves likely requires a moderate sand-mud ratio, as suggested by these observations: (1) absence of sediment waves on the upper slope where the sands were mainly deposited as unconfined sheets with a high sand-mud ratio; (2

  7. Measurement of Ratios of display='inline'>νμ Charged-Current Cross Sections on C, Fe, and Pb to CH at Neutrino Energies 2–20 GeV

    Tice, B. G.; Datta, M.; Mousseau, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Barrios Sazo, M. G.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Brooks, W. K.; Budd, H.; Bustamante, M. J.; Butkevich, A.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Castromonte, C. M.; Christy, M. E.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Devan, J.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Gago, A. M.; Gallagher, H.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Jerkins, M.; Kafka, T.; Kordosky, M.; Kulagin, S. A.; Le, T.; Maggi, G.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martin Mari, C.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Muhlbeier, T.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Osta, J.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Savage, D. G.; Schellman, H.; Schmitz, D. W.; Simon, C.; Snider, F. D.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Valencia, E.; Velásquez, J. P.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Ziemer, B. P.


    We present measurements of display="inline">νμ charged-current cross section ratios on carbon, iron, and lead relative to a scintillator (CH) using the fine-grained MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. The measurements utilize events of energies display="inline">2<Eν<20GeV, with display="inline">(Eν)=8GeV, which have a reconstructed display="inline">μ- scattering angle less than 17° to extract ratios of inclusive total cross sections as a function of neutrino energy display="inline">Eν and flux-integrated differential cross sections with respect to the Bjorken scaling variable display="inline">x. These results provide the first high-statistics direct measurements of nuclear effects in neutrino scattering using different targets in the same neutrino beam. Measured cross section ratios exhibit a relative

  8. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    Heide, Felix


    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  9. Lunar Sample Display Locations

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA provides a number of lunar samples for display at museums, planetariums, and scientific expositions around the world. Lunar displays are open to the public....

  10. Faecal sterols as indicators of sewage contamination in estuarine sediments of the Tay Estuary, Scotland: an extended baseline survey

    Reeves, A. D.; Patton, D.


    Sterol ratios are used to identify sources, occurrence and partitioning of faecal matter in sediments of the Tay Estuary, Scotland. The 5β/(5α+5β) ratio is used to discriminate between sewage and biogenic sterol sources by comparing the concentrations of coprostanols to cholesterol plus coprostanols. This index shows unambiguous sewage pollution in the Invergowrie Bay area (values >0.7). The coprostanol/epicoprostanol index is used to differentiate between human and non-human faecal inputs. Ratios confirmed the primary source as human-derived faecal material. The coprostanol/cholesterol ratio was calculated in order to elucidate the contribution of different biogenic sources to the sedimentary sterol budget. Ratios of >1 clearly indicate faecal sterol sources. Invergowrie Bay displayed no sterol signature other than sewage. A biogenic source of cholesterol influenced total sterol concentrations upstream of the City of Dundee. Attention is directed to the potential role of density fronts in compartmentalization of faecal material in bottom sediments.

  11. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen


    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish for an integ...... be obtained by shining light from the backside of the workpiece. When there is no light from the backside, the front surface seems totally untouched. This was achieved by laser ablation with ultra-short pulses.......Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  12. Sediment problems in reservoirs. Control of sediment deposits

    Jacobsen, Tom


    When a reservoir is formed on a river, sediment will deposit in the reservoir. Such processes are unfortunate, for instance, for the implementation of hydroelectric energy. This thesis studies the problem of reservoir sedimentation and discusses methods of removing the sediments. Various aspects of reservoir sedimentation are discussed. Anthropogenic impacts seem to greatly affect the erosion processes. Temporal distribution is uneven, mainly because of the very large flood events. A world map showing the Reservoir Capacity: Annual Sediment Inflow ratio for reservoirs with volume equal to 10% of annual inflow has been prepared. The map shows that sedimentation is severe in the western parts of North and South America, eastern, southern and northern Africa, parts of Australia and most of Asia. The development of medium-sized reservoirs is difficult, as they are too large for conventional flushing technique and too small to store the sediment that accumulates during their economic lifetime. A computer model, SSIIM, was used with good results in a case study of two flood drawdown trials in Lake Roxburg, New Zealand. Two techniques have been developed that permits controlled suction of sediment and water into a pipe: the Slotted Pipe Sediment Sluicer (SPSS) and the Saxophone Sediment Sluicer (SSS). The techniques exploit the inflow pattern in through a slot in a pipe. An equation describing this inflow pattern was derived and verified experimentally. The SPSS is fixed near the reservoir bed, and sediment that deposits on top of it is removed in the sluicing process. The SSS sluices sediment from the surface of the sediment deposits. Some technical and economic conditions affecting the economics of sediment removal from reservoirs have been identified and studied. 79 refs., 112 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Polyplanar optic display

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)


    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  14. OLED displays and lighting

    Koden, Mitsuhiro


    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs.

  15. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    Leigh, Jason


    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  16. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco


    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  17. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit

    Edmonds, Karina


    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  18. Potential improvements for dual directional view displays.

    Mather, Jonathan; Parry Jones, Lesley; Gass, Paul; Imai, Akira; Takatani, Tomoo; Yabuta, Koji


    Dual directional view (DDV) displays show different images to different viewers. For example, the driver of a car looking at a central DDV display could view navigation information, while the passenger, looking from a different angle, could be watching a movie. This technology, which has now established itself on the dashboards of high-end Jaguar, Mercedes, and Range Rover cars, is manufactured by Sharp Corporation using a well-known parallax barrier technique. Unfortunately parallax barriers are associated with an inevitable drop in brightness compared with a single view display. A parallax barrier-based DDV display typically has less than half the transmission of a single view display. Here we present a solution to these problems via the use of a combined microlens and parallax barrier system, which can not only boost the brightness by 55% from a parallax barrier-only system but increase the head freedom by 25% and reduce crosstalk also. However, the use of microlenses (which must be positioned between the polarizers of the LCD) can adversely affect the contrast ratio of the display. Careful choice of the LCD mode is therefore required in order to create a DDV display that is both high in brightness and contrast ratio. The use of a single-domain vertically aligned nematic (VAN) liquid crystal (LC) mode, together with a microlens plus parallax barrier system can achieve this with a contrast ratio of 1700∶1 measured at 30° to normal incidence.

  19. Standardizing visual display quality

    Besuijen, Ko; Spenkelink, Gerd P.J.


    The current ISO 9241–3 standard for visual display quality and the proposed user performance tests are reviewed. The standard is found to be more engineering than ergonomic and problems with system configuration, software applications, display settings, user behaviour, wear and physical environment

  20. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology


    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  1. Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Helmet-Mounted Display labis responsible for monocular HMD day display evaluations; monocular HMD night vision performance processes; binocular HMD day display...

  2. Visual merchandising window display

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.


    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  3. Defense display market assessment

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.


    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system (NVIS) compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD market for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 242,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within Service weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern display technologies being developed for civil- commercial markets.

  4. Sediment Transport

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2......, 4 and 5, respectively. It is not the intention of the book to give a broad review of the literature on this very wide topic. The book tries to pick up information which is of engineering importance. An obstacle to the study of sedimentation is the scale effect in model tests. Whenever small...

  5. Panoramic projection avionics displays

    Kalmanash, Michael H.


    Avionics projection displays are entering production in advanced tactical aircraft. Early adopters of this technology in the avionics community used projection displays to replace or upgrade earlier units incorporating direct-view CRT or AMLCD devices. Typical motivation for these upgrades were the alleviation of performance, cost and display device availability concerns. In these systems, the upgraded (projection) displays were one-for-one form / fit replacements for the earlier units. As projection technology has matured, this situation has begun to evolve. The Lockheed-Martin F-35 is the first program in which the cockpit has been specifically designed to take advantage of one of the more unique capabilities of rear projection display technology, namely the ability to replace multiple small screens with a single large conformal viewing surface in the form of a panoramic display. Other programs are expected to follow, since the panoramic formats enable increased mission effectiveness, reduced cost and greater information transfer to the pilot. Some of the advantages and technical challenges associated with panoramic projection displays for avionics applications are described below.

  6. Determination of the Ratio of display='inline'>b -Quark Fragmentation Fractions display='inline'>fs/fd in display='inline'>pp Collisions at display='inline'>s=7 TeV with the ATLAS Detector

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D’Auria, S.; D’Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. 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M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. 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I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.


    With an integrated luminosity of 2.47 fb -1 recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, the exclusive decays B $0\\atop{s}$→ J / ψ Φ and B $0\\atop{d}$ → J / ψ K * 0 of B mesons produced in p p collisions at √ s = 7 TeV are used to determine the ratio of fragmentation fractions f s / f d .

  7. Small - Display Cartography

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    This report comprises the work carried out in the work-package of small display cartography. The work-package has aimed at creating a general framework for the small-display cartography. A solid framework facilitates an increased use of spatial data in mobile devices - thus enabling, together...... with the rapidly evolving positioning techniques, a new category of position-dependent, map-based services to be introduced. The report consists of the following parts: Part I: Categorization of handheld devices, Part II: Cartographic design for small-display devices, Part III: Study on the GiMoDig Client ? Portal...... Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  8. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    Hornbæk, Kasper


    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  9. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display


    81/2X 11- 10 -9 .8 display using a large advertising alphanimeric ( TCI ) has been added to the front of the optical box used in the F-4 aircraft for over a wide range of tempera - tures, including normal room temperature. What are Liquid Crystals? Liquid crystals have been classified in three...natic fanctions and to present data needed for the semi- automatic and manual control of system functions. Existing aircraft using CRT display

  10. Military display performance parameters

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick


    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  11. Raster graphics display library

    Grimsrud, Anders; Stephenson, Michael B.


    The Raster Graphics Display Library (RGDL) is a high level subroutine package that give the advanced raster graphics display capabilities needed. The RGDL uses FORTRAN source code routines to build subroutines modular enough to use as stand-alone routines in a black box type of environment. Six examples are presented which will teach the use of RGDL in the fastest, most complete way possible. Routines within the display library that are used to produce raster graphics are presented in alphabetical order, each on a separate page. Each user-callable routine is described by function and calling parameters. All common blocks that are used in the display library are listed and the use of each variable within each common block is discussed. A reference on the include files that are necessary to compile the display library is contained. Each include file and its purpose are listed. The link map for MOVIE.BYU version 6, a general purpose computer graphics display system that uses RGDL software, is also contained.

  12. Assessment of OLED displays for vision research.

    Cooper, Emily A; Jiang, Haomiao; Vildavski, Vladimir; Farrell, Joyce E; Norcia, Anthony M


    Vision researchers rely on visual display technology for the presentation of stimuli to human and nonhuman observers. Verifying that the desired and displayed visual patterns match along dimensions such as luminance, spectrum, and spatial and temporal frequency is an essential part of developing controlled experiments. With cathode-ray tubes (CRTs) becoming virtually unavailable on the commercial market, it is useful to determine the characteristics of newly available displays based on organic light emitting diode (OLED) panels to determine how well they may serve to produce visual stimuli. This report describes a series of measurements summarizing the properties of images displayed on two commercially available OLED displays: the Sony Trimaster EL BVM-F250 and PVM-2541. The results show that the OLED displays have large contrast ratios, wide color gamuts, and precise, well-behaved temporal responses. Correct adjustment of the settings on both models produced luminance nonlinearities that were well predicted by a power function ("gamma correction"). Both displays have adjustable pixel independence and can be set to have little to no spatial pixel interactions. OLED displays appear to be a suitable, or even preferable, option for many vision research applications.

  13. Passive Matrix Organic Electroluminescent Display for 3G Cellular Phone


    The major features of the display technologies for 3G cellular phone are reviewed. The comparison between their potential candidates for 3G cellular phone is given, and a detailed discussion is made on passive matrix organic electroluminescent display technology. A novel method to improve display contrast ratio is presented. Finally several 3G phone set prototypes with OLED display panels are given as well as the market forecast

  14. Dynamic plasmonic colour display

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na


    Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications.

  15. The Ultimate Display

    Fluke, C J


    Astronomical images and datasets are increasingly high-resolution and multi-dimensional. The vast majority of astronomers perform all of their visualisation and analysis tasks on low-resolution, two-dimensional desktop monitors. If there were no technological barriers to designing the ultimate stereoscopic display for astronomy, what would it look like? What capabilities would we require of our compute hardware to drive it? And are existing technologies even close to providing a true 3D experience that is compatible with the depth resolution of human stereoscopic vision? We consider the CAVE2 (an 80 Megapixel, hybrid 2D and 3D virtual reality environment directly integrated with a 100 Tflop/s GPU-powered supercomputer) and the Oculus Rift (a low- cost, head-mounted display) as examples at opposite financial ends of the immersive display spectrum.

  16. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M


    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading.

  17. Virtual Auditory Displays


    timbre , intensity, distance, room modeling, radio communication Virtual Environments Handbook Chapter 4 Virtual Auditory Displays Russell D... musical note “A” as a pure sinusoid, there will be 440 condensations and rarefactions per second. The distance between two adjacent condensations or...and complexity are pitch, loudness, and timbre respectively. This distinction between physical and perceptual measures of sound properties is an

  18. Virtual acoustic displays

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.


    A 3D auditory display can potentially enhance information transfer by combining directional and iconic information in a quite naturalistic representation of dynamic objects in the interface. Another aspect of auditory spatial clues is that, in conjunction with other modalities, it can act as a potentiator of information in the display. For example, visual and auditory cues together can reinforce the information content of the display and provide a greater sense of presence or realism in a manner not readily achievable by either modality alone. This phenomenon will be particularly useful in telepresence applications, such as advanced teleconferencing environments, shared electronic workspaces, and monitoring telerobotic activities in remote or hazardous situations. Thus, the combination of direct spatial cues with good principles of iconic design could provide an extremely powerful and information-rich display which is also quite easy to use. An alternative approach, recently developed at ARC, generates externalized, 3D sound cues over headphones in realtime using digital signal processing. Here, the synthesis technique involves the digital generation of stimuli using Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTF's) measured in the two ear-canals of individual subjects. Other similar approaches include an analog system developed by Loomis, et. al., (1990) and digital systems which make use of transforms derived from normative mannikins and simulations of room acoustics. Such an interface also requires the careful psychophysical evaluation of listener's ability to accurately localize the virtual or synthetic sound sources. From an applied standpoint, measurement of each potential listener's HRTF's may not be possible in practice. For experienced listeners, localization performance was only slightly degraded compared to a subject's inherent ability. Alternatively, even inexperienced listeners may be able to adapt to a particular set of HRTF's as long as they provide adequate

  19. Image Descriptors for Displays


    hypothetical televison display. The viewing distance is 4 picture heights, and the bandwidth limitation has been set by the U.S. Monochrome Standards...significantly influence the power spectrum over most of the video frequency range. A large dc component and a small random component provide another scene... influences . It was Illuminated with natural light to a brightness of over 300 ft-L. The high brightness levels were chosen so as to nearly reproduce the

  20. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Fahlen, Per


    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  1. Book Display as Adult Service

    Matthew S. Moore


    Full Text Available 無Book display as an adult service is defined as choosing and positioning adult books from the collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access. The paper considers the library-as-a-whole as a display, examines the right size for an in-library display, and discusses mass displays, end-caps, on-shelf displays, and the Tiffany approach. The author proposes that an effective display depends on an imaginative, unifying theme, and that book displays are part of the joy of libraries.

  2. Handbook of Visual Display Technology

    Cranton, Wayne; Fihn, Mark


    The Handbook of Visual Display Technology is a unique work offering a comprehensive description of the science, technology, economic and human interface factors associated with the displays industry. An invaluable compilation of information, the Handbook will serve as a single reference source with expert contributions from over 150 international display professionals and academic researchers. All classes of display device are covered including LCDs, reflective displays, flexible solutions and emissive devices such as OLEDs and plasma displays, with discussion of established principles, emergent technologies, and particular areas of application. The wide-ranging content also encompasses the fundamental science of light and vision, image manipulation, core materials and processing techniques, display driving and metrology.

  3. Latest development of display technologies

    Gao, Hong-Yue; Yao, Qiu-Xiang; Liu, Pan; Zheng, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Ji-Cheng; Zheng, Hua-Dong; Zeng, Chao; Yu, Ying-Jie; Sun, Tao; Zeng, Zhen-Xiang


    In this review we will focus on recent progress in the field of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) display technologies. We present the current display materials and their applications, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), flexible OLEDs quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs), active-matrix organic light emitting diodes (AMOLEDs), electronic paper (E-paper), curved displays, stereoscopic 3D displays, volumetric 3D displays, light field 3D displays, and holographic 3D displays. Conventional 2D display devices, such as liquid crystal devices (LCDs) often result in ambiguity in high-dimensional data images because of lacking true depth information. This review thus provides a detailed description of 3D display technologies.

  4. Equilibrium sampling for a thermodynamic assessment of contaminated sediments

    of the biota relative to the sediment. Furthermore, concentrations in lipid at thermodynamic equilibrium with sediment (Clip?Sed) can be calculated via lipid/silicone partition ratios CSil × KLip:Sil, which has been done in studies with limnic, river and marine sediments. The data can then be compared to lipid...

  5. Sediment Bioaccumulation Test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of Organism Loading

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on seven sediments with a series of ratios of total organic carbon in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) that spanned the recommendation of no less than 50:1. With increasing loading of organi...

  6. Sediment bioaccumulation test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of feeding

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on seven sediments with a series of ratios of total organic carbon in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) that spanned the recommendation of no less than 50:1. With increasing loading of organi...

  7. Issues in defense training systems immersive displays

    Gaylord, Philip


    Display technology for DOD immersive projector-based flight training systems are at a crossroads as CRT technology slowly disappears from the market place. From the DOD perspective, emerging technologies arrive poorly matched to satisfy training needs. The DOD represents a minority voice in the marketplace. Current issues include: Satisfying requirements for black level, brightness and contrast ratio, Establishing standard metrics for resolution, system performance and reliability, Obtaining maintainability and self-calibration in multi-channel arrays, Reducing screen cross-reflection in wrap-around immersive display arrays. Laser, DLP, and LCOS projector systems are compared for their current acceptance and problems in defense flight training systems. General requirements of visual display systems are discussed and contrasted for flight trainers for low flyers (helicopters) high flyers (tactical aircraft) in real-time immersive, networked systems. FLIR and NVG simulation techniques are described.

  8. [Limnology of high mountain tropical lake, in Ecuador: characteristics of sediments and rate of sedimentation].

    Gunkel, Günter


    Equatorial high mountain lakes are a special type of lake occurring mainly in the South American Andes as well as in Central Africa and Asia. They occur at altitudes of a few thousand meters above sea level and are cold-water lakes (limnological study was therefore undertaken at Lake San Pablo, Ecuador, to analyze the basic limnological processes of the lake, which has a tendency for eutrophication. Sediment quality of San Pablo Lake is given under consideration of horizontal and vertical distribution using sediment cores. Significance of sediments for eutrophication process of lakes is demonstrated using phosphorus concentration of sediments as well as the phosphorus retention capacity of the sediments by ratio Fe/P. Dating of the sediments is done using 137Cs and 210Pb, but the activity of 137Cs in the sediment was very low nearly at the detection level. Sedimentation rate is determined to be 3.5 mm/year and the sediment cores represent about 110 years. P concentration of the sediments is high (approximately 5 g/kg dry substance), and P retention capacity by Fe is insufficient (Fe/P = 4). The sediment quality did not change significantly during the past decades, and the trophic state of San Pablo Lake was already less or more eutrophic 110 years ago. The contamination of the lake sediments by heavy metals is insignificant.

  9. Dilution correction equation revisited: The impact of stream slope, relief ratio and area size of basin on geochemical anomalies

    Shahrestani, Shahed; Mokhtari, Ahmad Reza


    Stream sediment sampling is a well-known technique used to discover the geochemical anomalies in regional exploration activities. In an upstream catchment basin of stream sediment sample, the geochemical signals originating from probable mineralization could be diluted due to mixing with the weathering material coming from the non-anomalous sources. Hawkes's equation (1976) was an attempt to overcome the problem in which the area size of catchment basin was used to remove dilution from geochemical anomalies. However, the metal content of a stream sediment sample could be linked to several geomorphological, sedimentological, climatic and geological factors. The area size is not itself a comprehensive representative of dilution taking place in a catchment basin. The aim of the present study was to consider a number of geomorphological factors affecting the sediment supply, transportation processes, storage and in general, the geochemistry of stream sediments and their incorporation in the dilution correction procedure. This was organized through employing the concept of sediment yield and sediment delivery ratio and linking such characteristics to the dilution phenomenon in a catchment basin. Main stream slope (MSS), relief ratio (RR) and area size (Aa) of catchment basin were selected as the important proxies (PSDRa) for sediment delivery ratio and then entered to the Hawkes's equation. Then, Hawkes's and new equations were applied on the stream sediment dataset collected from Takhte-Soleyman district, west of Iran for Au, As and Sb values. A number of large and small gold, antimony and arsenic mineral occurrences were used to evaluate the results. Anomaly maps based on the new equations displayed improvement in anomaly delineation taking the spatial distribution of mineral deposits into account and could present new catchment basins containing known mineralization as the anomaly class, especially in the case of Au and As. Four catchment basins having Au and As

  10. Sediment transport-based metrics of wetland stability

    Ganju, Neil K.; Kirwan, Matthew L.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Kroeger, Kevin D.


    Despite the importance of sediment availability on wetland stability, vulnerability assessments seldom consider spatiotemporal variability of sediment transport. Models predict that the maximum rate of sea level rise a marsh can survive is proportional to suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and accretion. In contrast, we find that SSC and accretion are higher in an unstable marsh than in an adjacent stable marsh, suggesting that these metrics cannot describe wetland vulnerability. Therefore, we propose the flood/ebb SSC differential and organic-inorganic suspended sediment ratio as better vulnerability metrics. The unstable marsh favors sediment export (18 mg L−1 higher on ebb tides), while the stable marsh imports sediment (12 mg L−1 higher on flood tides). The organic-inorganic SSC ratio is 84% higher in the unstable marsh, and stable isotopes indicate a source consistent with marsh-derived material. These simple metrics scale with sediment fluxes, integrate spatiotemporal variability, and indicate sediment sources.

  11. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan


    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research. PMID:28009000

  12. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan


    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  13. Liquid crystal displays with high brightness of visualization versus active displays

    Olifierczuk, Marek; Zieliński, Jerzy


    Nowadays Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) takes the very important place among different visualization devices. It's are used in many standard applications such as computer or video screens. In May 2006, 100" LCD TV monitor had been shown by LG. But beside of this main direction of display development, very interesting - because of insignificant electro-magnetic disturbances - is the possibility of it's applications in motorization and aviation. An example of it can be a glass cockpit of U2 , Boeing 777 or many different car dashboards. On this field beside LCD we have now many another display technologies, but interesting for us are 3 of them: FEDs (Field Emission Displays), OLEDs (Organic Light Emitting Diode), PLEDs (Polymer Light Emitting Diode). The leading position of LCD is a result of LCD unique advantages of flat form, weight, power consumption, and reliability, higher (than CRT) luminance, luminance uniformity, sunlight readability, wide dimming range, fault tolerance and a large active display area with a small border. The basis of starting our investigation was the comparison of passive LCD and the other technology, which can be theoretically used on motorization and aviation field. The following parameters are compared: contrast ratio, luminance level, temperature stability, life-time, operating temperature range, color performance, and depth, viewing cone, technology maturity, availability and cost. In our work an analysis of Liquid Crystal Displays used in specific applications is done. The possibilities of the applications such a display under high lighting level are presented. The presented results of this analysis are obtained from computer program worked by authors, which makes it possible to calculate the optical parameters of transmissive and reflective LCD working in quasi-real conditions. The base assumption of this program are shown. This program calculate the transmission and reflection coefficient of a display taking into account the

  14. Biogenic silicate accumulation in sediments, Jiaozhou Bay

    LI Xuegang; SONG Jinming; DAI Jicui; YUAN Huamao; LI Ning; LI Fengye; SUN Song


    It has been widely recognized that low silicate content in seawater is a major limiting factor to phytoplankton primary production in Jiaozhou Bay. However the reason of Si-limitation remains poorly understood. In the present study we measured the biogenic silicate content and discussed the accumulation of silicate in Jiaozhou Bay sediment. The results show that the biogenic silica content in the sediment of the Jiaozhou Bay is obviously much higher than those in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. The BSi:TN ratios and BSi:16P ratios in the sediment are > 1 and the OC:BSi ratio in sediment is lower than these of Redfield ratio (106:16), indicating that the decomposition rate of OC is much higher than that for BSi in similar conditions. Therefore, the majority of the biogenic silicate was buried and thus did not participate in silicate recycling. Silicate accumulation in sediment may explain why Si limits the phytoplankton growth in the Jiaozhou Bay. Comparing the flux of biogenic silicate from sediments with primary production rate, it can be concluded that only 15.5% of biogenic silicate is hydrolyzed during the journey from surface to bottom in seawater, thus approximate 84.5% of biogenic silicate could reach the bottom. The silicate releasing rate from the sediment to seawater is considerably lower than that of sedimentation of biogenic silicate, indicating silicate accumulation in sediment too. In a word, the silicate accumulation in sediment is the key reason of silicate limiting to phytoplankton growth in Jiaozhou Bay.

  15. Full Spectrum Analytical Channel Design with the Capacity/Supply Ratio (CSR)

    Travis R Stroth; Brian P Bledsoe; Peter A Nelson


    .... The Capacity/Supply Ratio (CSR) approach-an extension of the Copeland method of analytical channel design for sand channels-balances the sediment transport capacity of a design reach with the sediment supply of a stable upstream...

  16. Tactile display with dielectric multilayer elastomer actuatorsq

    Matysek, Marc; Lotz, Peter; Schlaak, Helmut F.


    Tactile perception is the human sensation of surface textures through the vibrations generated by stroking a finger over the surface. The skin responds to several distributed physical quantities. Perhaps the most important are high-frequency vibrations, pressure distributions (static shape) and thermal properties. The integration of tactile displays in man-machine interfaces promises a more intuitive handling. For this reason many tactile displays are developed using different technologies. We present several state-of-the-art tactile displays based on different types of dielectric elastomer actuators to clarify the advantages of our matrix display based on multilayer technology. Using this technology perpendicular and hexagonal arrays of actuator elements (tactile stimulators) can be integrated into a PDMS substrate. Element diameters down to 1 mm allow stimuli at the range of the human two-point-discrimination threshold. Driving the elements by column and row addressing enables various stimulation patterns with a reduced number of feeding lines. The transient analysis determines charging times of the capacitive actuators depending on actuator geometry and material parameters. This is very important to ensure an adequate dynamic characteristic of the actuators to stimulate the human skin by vibrations. The suitability of multilayer dielectric elastomer actuators for actuation in tactile displays has been determined. Beside the realization of a static tactile display - where multilayer DEA are integrated as drives for movable contact pins - we focus on the direct use of DEA as a vibrotactile display. Finally, we present the scenario and achieved results of a recognition threshold test. Even relative low voltages in the range of 800 V generate vibrations with 100% recognition ratio within the group of participants. Furthermore, the frequency dependent characteristic of the determined recognition threshold confirms with established literature.

  17. LHCb Event display

    Trisovic, Ana


    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  18. Colorimetry for CRT displays.

    Golz, Jürgen; MacLeod, Donald I A


    We analyze the sources of error in specifying color in CRT displays. These include errors inherent in the use of the color matching functions of the CIE 1931 standard observer when only colorimetric, not radiometric, calibrations are available. We provide transformation coefficients that prove to correct the deficiencies of this observer very well. We consider four different candidate sets of cone sensitivities. Some of these differ substantially; variation among candidate cone sensitivities exceeds the variation among phosphors. Finally, the effects of the recognized forms of observer variation on the visual responses (cone excitations or cone contrasts) generated by CRT stimuli are investigated and quantitatively specified. Cone pigment polymorphism gives rise to variation of a few per cent in relative excitation by the different phosphors--a variation larger than the errors ensuing from the adoption of the CIE standard observer, though smaller than the differences between some candidate cone sensitivities. Macular pigmentation has a larger influence, affecting mainly responses to the blue phosphor. The estimated combined effect of all sources of observer variation is comparable in magnitude with the largest differences between competing cone sensitivity estimates but is not enough to disrupt very seriously the relation between the L and M cone weights and the isoluminance settings of individual observers. It is also comparable with typical instrumental colorimetric errors, but we discuss these only briefly.

  19. Data Display in Qualitative Research

    Susana Verdinelli PsyD


    Full Text Available Visual displays help in the presentation of inferences and conclusions and represent ways of organizing, summarizing, simplifying, or transforming data. Data displays such as matrices and networks are often utilized to enhance data analysis and are more commonly seen in quantitative than in qualitative studies. This study reviewed the data displays used by three prestigious qualitative research journals within a period of three years. The findings include the types of displays used in these qualitative journals, the frequency of use, and the purposes for using visual displays as opposed to presenting data in text.

  20. Unique interactive projection display screen

    Veligdan, J.T.


    Projection systems continue to be the best method to produce large (1 meter and larger) displays. However, in order to produce a large display, considerable volume is typically required. The Polyplanar Optic Display (POD) is a novel type of projection display screen, which for the first time, makes it possible to produce a large projection system that is self-contained and only inches thick. In addition, this display screen is matte black in appearance allowing it to be used in high ambient light conditions. This screen is also interactive and can be remotely controlled via an infrared optical pointer resulting in mouse-like control of the display. Furthermore, this display need not be flat since it can be made curved to wrap around a viewer as well as being flexible.

  1. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  2. Rapid display of radiographic images

    Cox, Jerome R., Jr.; Moore, Stephen M.; Whitman, Robert A.; Blaine, G. James; Jost, R. Gilbert; Karlsson, L. M.; Monsees, Thomas L.; Hassen, Gregory L.; David, Timothy C.


    The requirements for the rapid display of radiographic images exceed the capabilities of widely available display, computer, and communications technologies. Computed radiography captures data with a resolution of about four megapixels. Large-format displays are available that can present over four megapixels. One megapixel displays are practical for use in combination with large-format displays and in areas where the viewing task does not require primary diagnosis. This paper describes an electronic radiology system that approximates the highest quality systems, but through the use of several interesting techniques allows the possibility of its widespread installation throughout hospitals. The techniques used can be grouped under three major system concepts: a local, high-speed image server, one or more physician's workstations each with one or more high-performance auxiliary displays specialized to the radiology viewing task, and dedicated, high-speed communication links between the server and the displays. This approach is enhanced by the use of a progressive transmission scheme to decrease the latency for viewing four megapixel images. The system includes an image server with storage for over 600 4-megapixel images and a high-speed link. A subsampled megapixel image is fetched from disk and transmitted to the display in about one second followed by the full resolution 4-megapixel image in about 2.5 seconds. Other system components include a megapixel display with a 6-megapixel display memory space and frame-rate update of image roam, zoom, and contrast. Plans for clinical use are presented.


    汪明元; 单治钢; 王亚军; 狄圣杰


    The strain controlled dynamic triaxial tests to measure the dynamic moduli and the damping ratios were conducted on intact marine samples from sea area at Daishan,in Zhoushan Archipelago. The experimental results show that the hysteresis curves of Zhoushan Daishan marine sediments are not completely closed loops and are strain softening. The values of dynamic modulus and damping ratio under certain strain amplitude fluctuate around constant values respectively which are designated as the representative values of the dynamic moduli and damping ratios under the corresponding strain amplitude. As such,relationships between dynamic moduli and strain amplitude and between damping ratio and strain amplitude under different confining pressures are established,which converge asymptotically. Hardin-Drnevich(H-D) model is modified to fit the experimental data. Meanwhile,the resonant column tests are conducted to measure the elastic moduli of the marine sediments under wave loading. The results from two tests show that the marine sediments from Daishan are sensitive to the confining pressure.%为探究舟山岱山海域海底岩土地质层动力学特性,借助GDS动三轴系统对应变控制循环荷载作用下舟山原状海相软土动弹性模量和阻尼比变化规律进行研究。得到舟山岱山海相软土动应力、动应变、动孔压时程曲线以及应力-应变关系曲线,讨论各围压下动弹性模量和阻尼比随动应变幅值的变化趋势。结果表明:舟山岱山海相软土的应力-应变关系曲线为不完全封闭的滞回圈;循环加载过程中土样发生应变软化;同级加载下动弹性模量和阻尼比数据点围绕某恒值作小幅波动,故可采用代表该恒值的均值来表征该级加载下的动弹性模量和阻尼比,由此所得的各围压下动弹性模量-动应变幅值、阻尼比-动应变幅值关系曲线呈收敛趋势;由修正Hardin-Drnevich (H-D)模型建立的应变控制下舟

  4. Radiolarian abundance and geochemistry of the surface-sediments from the Central Indian Basin: Inferences to Antarctic bottom water current

    Gupta, S.M.; Jauhari, P.

    The distribution trend of numbers of radiolarian shells/gram dry sediment, biogenic silica, organic carbon, and the carbon/nitrogen ratios in the surface sediments of the Central Indian Basin is similar. Ratios of two suborders of radiolaria, i...

  5. X-1 on display


    A Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1 series aircraft on display at an Open House at NACA Muroc Flight Test Unit or High-Speed Flight Research Station hangar on South Base of Edwards Air Force Base, California. (The precise date of the photo is uncertain, but it is probably before 1948.) The instrumentation that was carried aboard the aircraft to gather data is on display. The aircraft data was recorded on oscillograph film that was read, calibrated, and converted into meaningful parameters for the engineers to evaluate from each research flight. In the background of the photo are several early U.S. jets. These include several Lockheed P-80 Shooting Stars, which were used as chase planes on X-1 flights; two Bell P-59 Airacomets, the first U.S. jet pursuit aircraft (fighter in later parlance); and a prototype Republic XP-84 Thunderjet. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for eXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant

  6. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Veligdan, J.T.


    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  7. Recent sediment dynamics in hadal trenches

    Turnewitsch, Robert; Falahat, Saeed; Stehlikova, Jirina


    by evaluating ratios of measured (sediment-derived) and expected (water-column-derived) sedimentary inventories of the naturally occurring and radioactive particulate-matter tracer Pb-210(xs). The sites comprise a broad range of surface-ocean productivity and physical-oceanographic regimes. Across the five...... trench-axis settings the inventory ratio varies between 0.5 and 4.1, with four trench-axis settings having ratios > 1 (sediment focussing) and one trench-axis setting a ratio ... but significant influence on particulate-matter dynamics and food supply in hadal trenches in particular, but possibly also in the deep seas in general. A mechanism for the influence of internal tides on sediment dynamics is proposed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Miniature information displays: primary applications

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.


    Positioned to replace current liquid crystal display technology in many applications, miniature information displays have evolved to provide several truly portable platforms for the world's growing personal computing and communication needs. The technology and functionality of handheld computer and communicator systems has finally surpassed many of the standards that were originally established for desktop systems. In these new consumer electronics, performance, display size, packaging, power consumption, and cost have always been limiting factors for fabricating genuinely portable devices. The rapidly growing miniature information display manufacturing industry is making it possible to bring a wide range of highly anticipated new products to new markets.

  9. Colorimetric evaluation of display performance

    Kosmowski, Bogdan B.


    The development of information techniques, using new technologies, physical phenomena and coding schemes, enables new application areas to be benefited form the introduction of displays. The full utilization of the visual perception of a human operator, requires the color coding process to be implemented. The evolution of displays, from achromatic (B&W) and monochromatic, to multicolor and full-color, enhances the possibilities of information coding, creating however a need for the quantitative methods of display parameter assessment. Quantitative assessment of color displays, restricted to photometric measurements of their parameters, is an estimate leading to considerable errors. Therefore, the measurements of a display's color properties have to be based on spectral measurements of the display and its elements. The quantitative assessment of the display system parameters should be made using colorimetric systems like CIE1931, CIE1976 LAB or LUV. In the paper, the constraints on the measurement method selection for the color display evaluation are discussed and the relations between their qualitative assessment and the ergonomic conditions of their application are also presented. The paper presents the examples of using LUV colorimetric system and color difference (Delta) E in the optimization of color liquid crystal displays.

  10. Maintenance Procedure Display: Head Mounted Display (HMD) Evaluations

    Whitmore, Milrian; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Solem, Jody A.; Holden, Kritina L.; Hoffman, Ronald R.


    A viewgraph presentation describing maintenance procedures for head mounted displays is shown. The topics include: 1) Study Goals; 2) Near Eye Displays (HMDs); 3) Design; 4) Phase I-Evaluation Methods; 5) Phase 1 Results; 6) Improved HMD Mounting; 7) Phase 2 -Evaluation Methods; 8) Phase 2 Preliminary Results; and 9) Next Steps.

  11. Mathematical simulation of sediment and radionuclide transport in estuaries

    Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.


    The finite element model LFESCOT (Flow, Energy, Salinity, Sediment and Contaminant Transport Model) was synthesized under this study to simulate radionuclide transport in estuaries to obtain accurate radionuclide distributions which are affected by these factors: time variance, three-dimensional flow, temperature, salinity, and sediments. Because sediment transport and radionuclide adsorption/desorption depend strongly on sizes or types of sediments, FLESCOT simulates sediment and a sediment-sorbed radionuclide for the total of three sediment-size fractions (or sediment types) of both cohesive and noncohesive sediments. It also calculates changes of estuarine bed conditions, including bed elevation changes due to sediment erosion/deposition, and three-dimensional distributions of three bed sediment sizes and sediment-sorbed radionuclides within the bed. Although the model was synthesized for radionuclide transport, it is general enough to also handle other contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides, or toxic chemicals. The model was checked for its capability for flow, water surface elevation change, salinity, sediment and radionuclide transport under various simple conditions first, confirming the general validity of the model's computational schemes. These tests also revealed that FLESCOT can use large aspect ratios of computational cells, which are necessary in handling long estuarine study areas. After these simple tests, FLESCOT was applied to the Hudson River estuary between Chelsea and the mouth of the river to examine how well the model can predict radionuclide transport through simulating tidally influenced three-dimensional flow, salinity, sediment and radionuclide movements with their interactions.

  12. Latest Developments In Liquid Crystal Television Displays

    Morozumi, Shinji; Oguchi, Kouichi; Ohshima, Hiroyuki


    This paper will discuss developments in liquid crystal (LC) television displays, mainly for pocket-size TV sets. There are two types of LC television displays. One is a simple multiplexing type, and the other is an active matrix type. The former type is an easier way to fabricate large and low-cost LC panels than the latter. However, it has serious drawbacks. The contrast gets lower as the duty ratio gets higher. Therefore the TV image of this type inevitably has rather low contrast and resolution. On the other hand, the active matrix type, which consists of active elements in each pixel, has several advantages in overcoming such problems. The metal oxide semiconductor transistors and the amorphous or polycrystalline Si thin-film transistors (TFTs) have possibilities in this application. A full-color LC display, which can be realized by the combina-tion of color filters and poly Si TFT arrays on a transparent substrate, was proven to have excellent color image, close to that of conventional CRTs. Here, several examples of LC television displays, including color, are shown. Some of them are already on the market, and others will be soon.

  13. Updated defense display market assessment

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.


    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD installed base for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 313,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within future weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern, especially flat panel, display technologies being developed to replace older, especially cathode ray tube, technology for civil-commercial markets. Total DoD display needs (FPD, HMD) are some 427,000.

  14. Chaotic sedimentation of particle pairs in a vertical channel at low Reynolds number: Multiple states and routes to chaos

    Verjus, Romuald; Guillou, Sylvain; Ezersky, Alexander; Angilella, Jean-Régis


    The sedimentation of a pair of rigid circular particles in a two-dimensional vertical channel containing a Newtonian fluid is investigated numerically, for terminal particle Reynolds numbers (ReT) ranging from 1 to 10, and for a confinement ratio equal to 4. While it is widely admitted that sufficiently inertial pairs should sediment by performing a regular DKT oscillation (Drafting-Kissing-Tumbling), the present analysis shows in contrast that a chaotic regime can also exist for such particles, leading to a much slower sedimentation velocity. It consists of a nearly horizontal pair, corresponding to a maximum effective blockage ratio, and performing a quasiperiodic transition to chaos while increasing the particle weight. For less inertial regimes, the classical oblique doublet structure and its complex behavior (multiple stable states and hysteresis, period-doubling cascade and chaotic attractor) are recovered, in agreement with previous work [Aidun, C. K. and Ding, E.-J., "Dynamics of particle sedimentation in a vertical channel: Period-doubling bifurcation and chaotic state," Phys. Fluids 15, 1612 (2003)]. As a consequence of these various behaviors, the link between the terminal Reynolds number and the non-dimensional driving force is complex: it contains several branches displaying hysteresis as well as various bifurcations. For the range of Reynolds number considered here, a global bifurcation diagram is given.

  15. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Yang, Deng-Ke


    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  16. Three-dimensional display technologies.

    Geng, Jason


    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain's power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies.

  17. Investigation about data reduction and sedimentation distance of sedimentation balance method

    Fukui, K.; Yoshida, H.; Shiba, M.; Tokunaga, Y. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    The sedimentation balance type particle size analyzer is improved. The slurry supply device was automated and the height of peripheral wall of the detective tray was raised. As a result we can acquire data of the sedimentation mass change accurately. Moreover, the ratio of measured total sedimentation mass to the theoretical total sedimentation mass was kept constant ranging from 1.00 to 1.02 independent of particle size. By the above improvement, we can develop a more precious sedimentation balance. Twomey's non-linear iteration method was applied to retrieve a particle size distribution from the sedimentation curve measured with a sedimentation balance method. It is found that the non-linear iteration method can calculate size distributions accurately. Furthermore, the influence of the thickness at the base of the detective tray on the sedimentation distance was also investigated. As a result, it is clarified that the change in detected mass did not depend on thickness at the base of the tray. Therefore, it is concluded that the sedimentation distance in the sedimentation balance method should be defined as the distance between the lower surface of the base of the tray and suspension surface. (author)

  18. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail:


    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  19. Modeling Sediment Bypassing around Rocky Headlands

    George, D. A.; Largier, J. L.; Pasternack, G. B.; Erikson, L. H.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Barnard, P.


    Sediment bypassing rocky headlands remains understudied despite the importance of characterizing littoral processes and sediment budgets for erosion abatement, climate change adaptation, and beach management. This study was developed to identify controlling factors on and the mechanisms supporting sediment bypassing. Sediment flux around four idealized rocky headlands was investigated using the hydrodynamic model Delft3D and spectral wave model SWAN. The experimental design involved 120 simulations to explore the influence of headland morphology, substrate composition, sediment grain size, and oceanographic forcing. Headlands represented sizes and shapes found in natural settings, grain sizes ranged from fine to medium sand, and substrates from sandy beds to offshore bedrock reefs. The oceanography included a constructed representative tide, an alongshore background current, and four wave conditions derived from observational records in the eastern Pacific Ocean. A bypassing ratio was developed for alongshore flux between upstream and downstream cross-shore transects to determine the degree of blockage by a headland. Results showed that northwesterly oblique large waves (Hs = 7 m, Tp = 16 s) generated the most flux around headlands, whereas directly incident waves blocked flux across a headland apex. The headland shape heavily influenced the sediment fate by changing the relative angle between the shoreline and the incident waves. The bypassing ratio characterized each headland's capacity to allow alongshore flux under different wave conditions. All headlands may allow flux, although larger ones block sediment more effectively, promoting their ability to be littoral cell boundaries compared to smaller headlands. The controlling factors on sediment bypassing were determined to be wave angle, shape and size of the headland, and sediment grain size. This novel numerical modeling study advances headland modeling from the generic realm to broadly applicable classes of

  20. Tone compatibility between HDR displays

    Bist, Cambodge; Cozot, Rémi; Madec, Gérard; Ducloux, Xavier


    High Dynamic Range (HDR) is the latest trend in television technology and we expect an in ux of HDR capable consumer TVs in the market. Initial HDR consumer displays will operate on a peak brightness of about 500-1000 nits while in the coming years display peak brightness is expected to go beyond 1000 nits. However, professionally graded HDR content can range from 1000 to 4000 nits. As with Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) content, we can expect HDR content to be available in variety of lighting styles such as low key, medium key and high key video. This raises concerns over tone-compatibility between HDR displays especially when adapting to various lighting styles. It is expected that dynamic range adaptation between HDR displays uses similar techniques as found with tone mapping and tone expansion operators. In this paper, we survey simple tone mapping methods of 4000 nits color-graded HDR content for 1000 nits HDR displays. We also investigate tone expansion strategies when HDR content graded in 1000 nits is displayed on 4000 nits HDR monitors. We conclude that the best tone reproduction technique between HDR displays strongly depends on the lighting style of the content.

  1. Intelligent Luminescence for Communication Display and Identification


    the gate ofMOSFET Q2. In practice, it has been found that a high gain NPN transistor functions better than a MOSFET in the Q2 spot due to inherent...optically transparent n- and p-type wide band gap materials and transparent transistors for display applications. It was demonstrated that emiSSive and...transparent, thin-film enhancement-mode transistor was reported with ~ 90% visible transparency and an on/off ratio of 106 for integration into

  2. Ten inch Planar Optic Display

    Beiser, L. [Beiser (Leo) Inc., Flushing, NY (United States); Veligdan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    A Planar Optic Display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (I to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A Digital Micromirror Device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays - Deprecated

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset is up-to-date but newer better data can be retrieved at: Certified models...

  4. Color speckle in laser displays

    Kuroda, Kazuo


    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  5. Ultraminiature, Micropower Multipurpose Display Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High information content electronic displays remain the most difficult element of the human-machine interface to effectively miniaturize. Mobile applications need a...

  6. Digital driver for 2-inch LTPS AM-OLED displays

    YIN Sheng; CHENG Shuai; SHEN Liang; ZOU Xue-cheng


    For LTPS AM-OLED displays,the spatial variation in the electrical characteristics of polysilicon TFTs will cause non-uniform pixel brightness and poor grayscale accuracy.The technological solution for this problem will open up the larger size application of LTPS AM-OLED displays.In this paper,a digital driver employing a FPGA device is designed to serve 2-inch color LTPS AM-OLED displays with 128×(160×3) resolution.A digital method of simultaneous address-display (SAD) and the digital visual interface (DVI) are introduced in the driving scheme.100% display per.ratio can be obtained.Moving image with 16 grayscales is realized and has good image uniformity.

  7. Effective color design for displays

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.


    Visual communication is a key aspect of human-computer interaction, which contributes to the satisfaction of user and application needs. For effective design of presentations on computer displays, color should be used in conjunction with the other visual variables. The general needs of graphic user interfaces are discussed, followed by five specific tasks with differing criteria for display color specification - advertising, text, information, visualization and imaging.

  8. Performance studies of electrochromic displays

    Ionescu, Ciprian; Dobre, Robert Alexandru


    The idea of having flexible, very thin, light, low power and even low cost display devices implemented using new materials and technologies is very exciting. Nowadays we can talk about more than just concepts, such devices exist, and they are part of an emerging concept: FOLAE (Flexible Organic and Large Area Electronics). Among the advantages of electrochromic devices are the low power consumption (they are non-emissive, i.e. passive) and the aspect like ink on paper with good viewing angle. Some studies are still necessary for further development, before proper performances are met and the functional behavior can be predicted. This paper presents the results of the research activity conducted to develop electric characterization platform for the organic electronics display devices, especially electrochromic displays, to permit a thorough study. The hardware part of platform permits the measuring of different electric and optical parameters. Charging/discharging a display element presents high interest for optimal driving circuitry. In this sense, the corresponding waveforms are presented. The contrast of the display is also measured for different operation conditions as driving voltage levels and duration. The effect of temperature on electrical and optical parameters (contrast) of the display will be also presented.

  9. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  10. National Geochemical Database: Sediment

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemical analysis of sediment samples from the National Geochemical Database. Primarily inorganic elemental concentrations, most samples are of stream sediment in...

  11. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  12. National Geochemical Database: Sediment

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemical analysis of sediment samples from the National Geochemical Database. Primarily inorganic elemental concentrations, most samples are of stream sediment...

  13. Center for Contaminated Sediments

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Center for Contaminated Sediments serves as a clearinghouse for technology and expertise concerned with contaminated sediments. The...

  14. Identification of water-quality trends using sediment cores from Dillon Reservoir, Summit County, Colorado

    Greve, Adrienne I.; Spahr, Norman E.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.


    Since the construction of Dillon Reservoir, in Summit County, Colorado, in 1963, its drainage area has been the site of rapid urban development and the continued influence of historical mining. In an effort to assess changes in water quality within the drainage area, sediment cores were collected from Dillon Reservoir in 1997. The sediment cores were analyzed for pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trace elements. Pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs were used to determine the effects of urban development, and trace elements were used to identify mining contributions. Water-quality and streambed-sediment samples, collected at the mouth of three streams that drain into Dillon Reservoir, were analyzed for trace elements. Of the 14 pesticides and 3 PCBs for which the sediment samples were analyzed, only 2 pesticides were detected. Low amounts of dichloro-diphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichloro-diphenyldichloroethane (DDD), metabolites of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), were found at core depths of 5 centimeters and below 15 centimeters in a core collected near the dam. The longest core, which was collected near the dam, spanned the entire sedimentation history of the reservoir. Concentrations of total combustion PAH and the ratio of fluoranthene to pyrene in the core sample decreased with core depth and increased over time. This relation is likely due to growth in residential and tourist populations in the region. Comparisons between core samples gathered in each arm of the reservoir showed the highest PAH concentrations were found in the Tenmile Creek arm, the only arm that has an urban area on its shores, the town of Frisco. All PAH concentrations, except the pyrene concentration in one segment in the core near the dam and acenaphthylene concentrations in the tops of three cores taken in the reservoir arms, were below Canadian interim freshwater sediment-quality guidelines. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium

  15. Electrodialytic remediation of sediments

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    often hinders this usage. Hence, for both types of sediments, expensive deposition at hazardous waste landfills is required. Electrodialysis is presently being developed as an alternative method for treatment of such contaminated sediments. Heavy metals are removed by treating the sediments...

  16. Benthic processes in fresh water fluffy sediments undergoing resuspension

    Daniele Longhi; Marco Bartoli; Daniele Nizzoli; Pierluigi Viaroli


    In the Po river plain relict freshwater wetlands are characterised by a low free water to emergent macrophyte surface ratio, rapid infilling and fluffy sediments, undergoing frequent resuspension. Particle mixing should alter the steep gradients of dissolved gas, nutrient and organic matter quality that generally characterise sediments, with implications for benthic processes. Sediment features and solute fluxes were studied from December 2003 to February 2005 within the Busatello swamp compl...

  17. Computer Simulation of Influence of Sedimentation on Rapid Coagulation

    孙祉伟; 陈致英


    A computer simulation was performed to explore the features and effects of sedimentation on rapid coagulation.To estimate the accumulated influence of gravity on coagulation for dispersions, a sedimentation influence ratio is defined. Some factors possibly related to the influence of sedimentation were considered in the simulation and analysed by comparing the size distribution of aggregates, the change in collision number, and coagulation rates at different gravity levels (0 g, 1 g and more with g being the gravitational constant).

  18. The VLT Real Time Display

    Herlin, T.; Brighton, A.; Biereichel, P.

    The VLT Real-Time Display (RTD) software was developed in order to support image display in real-time, providing a tool for users to display video like images from a camera or detector as fast as possible on an X-Server. The RTD software is implemented as a package providing a Tcl/Tk image widget written in C++ and an independent image handling library and can be used as a building block, adding display capabilities to dedicated VLT control applications. The RTD widget provides basic image display functionality like: panning, zooming, color scaling, colormaps, intensity changes, pixel query, overlaying of line graphics. A large set of assisting widgets, e.g., colorbar, zoom window, spectrum plot are provided to enable the building of image applications. The support for real-time is provided by an RTD image event mechanism used for camera or detector subsystems to pass images to the RTD widget. Image data are passed efficiently via shared memory. This paper describes the architecture of the RTD software and summarizes the features provided by RTD.

  19. Phosphors for flat panel emissive displays

    Anderson, M.T.; Walko, R.J.; Phillips, M.L.F.


    An overview of emissive display technologies is presented. Display types briefly described include: cathode ray tubes (CRTs), field emission displays (FEDs), electroluminescent displays (ELDs), and plasma display panels (PDPs). The critical role of phosphors in further development of the latter three flat panel emissive display technologies is outlined. The need for stable, efficient red, green, and blue phosphors for RGB fall color displays is emphasized.

  20. Sediment chemoautotrophy in the coastal ocean

    Vasquez-Cardenas, Diana; Meysman, Filip J. R.; van Breugel, Peter; Boschker, Henricus T. S.


    A key process in the biogeochemistry of coastal sediments is the reoxidation of reduced intermediates formed during anaerobic mineralization which in part is performed by chemoautotrophic micro-organisms. These microbes fix inorganic carbon using the energy derived from reoxidation reactions and in doing so can fix up to 32% of the CO2 released by mineralization. However the importance and distribution of chemoautotrophy has not been systematically investigated in these environments. To address these issues we surveyed nine coastal sediments by means of bacterial biomarker analysis (phospholipid derived fatty acids) combined with stable isotope probing (13C-bicarbonate) which resulted in an almost doubling of the number of observations on coastal sedimentary chemoautotrophy. Firstly, sediment chemoautotrophy rates from this study and rates compiled from literature (0.07 to 36 mmol C m-2 d-1) showed a power-law relation with benthic oxygen uptake (3.4 to 192 mmol O2 m-2 d-1). Benthic oxygen uptake was used as a proxy for carbon mineralization to calculate the ratio of the CO2 fixed by chemoautotrophy over the total CO2 released through mineralization. This CO2 efficiency was 3% in continental shelf, 9% in nearshore and 21% in salt marsh sediments. These results suggest that chemoautotrophy plays an important role in C-cycling in reactive intertidal sediments such as salt marshes rather than in the organic-poor, permeable continental shelf sediments. Globally in the coastal ocean our empirical results show that chemoautotrophy contributes ˜0.05 Pg C y-1 which is four times less than previous estimates. Secondly, five coastal sediment regimes were linked to the depth-distribution of chemoautotrophy: 1) permeable sediments dominated by advective porewater transport, 2) bioturbated sediments, and cohesive sediments dominated by diffusive porewater transport characterized by either 3) canonical sulfur oxidation, 4) nitrate-storing Beggiatoa, or 5) electrogenic sulfur

  1. BES Monitoring & Displaying System

    MengWANG; BingyunZHANG; 等


    BES1 Monitoring & Displaying System(BESMDS)is projected to monitor and display the running status of DAQ and Slow Control systems of BES through the Web for worldwide accessing.It provides a real-time remote means of monitoring as well as an approach to study the environmental influence upon physical data taking.The system collects real-time data separately from BES online subsystems by network sockets and stores the data into a database.People can access the system through its web site.which retrieves data on request from the database and can display results in dynamically created images.Its web address in http:// besmds,

  2. Engineering antibodies by yeast display.

    Boder, Eric T; Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh, Maryam; Price, J Vincent


    Since its first application to antibody engineering 15 years ago, yeast display technology has been developed into a highly potent tool for both affinity maturing lead molecules and isolating novel antibodies and antibody-like species. Robust approaches to the creation of diversity, construction of yeast libraries, and library screening or selection have been elaborated, improving the quality of engineered molecules and certainty of success in an antibody engineering campaign and positioning yeast display as one of the premier antibody engineering technologies currently in use. Here, we summarize the history of antibody engineering by yeast surface display, approaches used in its application, and a number of examples highlighting the utility of this method for antibody engineering.


    Jens R.VALEUR; Steen LOMHOLT; Christian KNUDSEN


    A fixed link (tunnel and bridge,in total 16 km) was constructed between Sweden and Denmark during 1995-2000.As part of the work,approximately 16 million tonnes of seabed materials (limestone and clay till) were dredged,and about 0.6 million tonnes of these were spilled in the water.Modelling of the spreading and sedimentation of the spilled sediments took place as part of the environmental monitoring of the construction activities.In order to verify the results of the numerical modelling of sediment spreading and sedimentation,a new method with the purpose of distinguishing between the spilled sediments and the naturally occurring sediments was developed.Because the spilled sediments tend to accumulate at the seabed in areas with natural sediments of the same size,it is difficult to separate these based purely on the physical properties.The new method is based on the geo-chemical differences between the natural sediment in the area and the spill.The basic properties used are the higher content of calcium carbonate material in the spill as compared to the natural sediments and the higher Ca/Sr ratio in the spill compared to shell fragments dominating the natural calcium carbonate deposition in the area.The reason for these differences is that carbonate derived from recent shell debris can be discriminated from Danien limestone,which is the material in which the majority of the dredging took place,on the basis of the Ca/Sr ratio being 488 in Danien Limestone and 237 in shell debris.The geochemical recognition of the origin of the sediments proved useful in separating the spilled from the naturally occurring sediments.Without this separation,validation of the modelling of accumulation of spilled sediments would not have been possible.The method has general validity and can be used in many situations where the origin ora given sediment is sought.


    Busquets, A. M.


    The Programmable Display Pushbutton (PDP) is a pushbutton device available from Micro Switch which has a programmable 16 x 35 matrix of LEDs on the pushbutton surface. Any desired legends can be displayed on the PDPs, producing user-friendly applications which greatly reduce the need for dedicated manual controls. Because the PDP can interact with the operator, it can call for the correct response before transmitting its next message. It is both a simple manual control and a sophisticated programmable link between the operator and the host system. The Programmable Display Pushbutton Legend Editor, PDPE, is used to create the LED displays for the pushbuttons. PDPE encodes PDP control commands and legend data into message byte strings sent to a Logic Refresh and Control Unit (LRCU). The LRCU serves as the driver for a set of four PDPs. The legend editor (PDPE) transmits to the LRCU user specified commands that control what is displayed on the LED face of the individual pushbuttons. Upon receiving a command, the LRCU transmits an acknowledgement that the message was received and executed successfully. The user then observes the effect of the command on the PDP displays and decides whether or not to send the byte code of the message to a data file so that it may be called by an applications program. The PDPE program is written in FORTRAN for interactive execution. It was developed on a DEC VAX 11/780 under VMS. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 12800 bytes. It requires four Micro Switch PDPs and two RS-232 VAX 11/780 terminal ports. The PDPE program was developed in 1985.

  5. Stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir

    Koś Karolina


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir. Based on the geotechnical characteristics of the tested sediments it was stated they do not fulfill all the criteria set for soils in earth embankments. Therefore, an attempt to improve their parameters was made by using two additives – cement and lime. An unconfined compressive strength, shear strength, bearing ratio and pH reaction were determined on samples after different time of curing. Based on the carried out tests it was stated that the obtained values of unconfined compressive strength of sediments stabilized with cement were relatively low and they did not fulfill the requirements set by the Polish standard, which concerns materials in road engineering. In case of lime stabilization it was stated that the tested sediments with 6% addition of the additive can be used for the bottom layers of the improved road base.

  6. Flux saturation length of sediment transport.

    Pähtz, Thomas; Kok, Jasper F; Parteli, Eric J R; Herrmann, Hans J


    Sediment transport along the surface drives geophysical phenomena as diverse as wind erosion and dune formation. The main length scale controlling the dynamics of sediment erosion and deposition is the saturation length Ls, which characterizes the flux response to a change in transport conditions. Here we derive, for the first time, an expression predicting Ls as a function of the average sediment velocity under different physical environments. Our expression accounts for both the characteristics of sediment entrainment and the saturation of particle and fluid velocities, and has only two physical parameters which can be estimated directly from independent experiments. We show that our expression is consistent with measurements of Ls in both aeolian and subaqueous transport regimes over at least 5 orders of magnitude in the ratio of fluid and particle density, including on Mars.

  7. The effect of clay minerals on diasterane/sterane ratios

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kaam-Peters, H.M.E. van; Koster, J.; Gaast, S. J. van der; Dekker, M.H.A.; Leeuw, J.W. de


    To examine the effect of clay minerals on diasterane/sterane ratios, the mineral compositions of three sample sets of sedimentary rocks displaying a wide range of diasterane/sterane ratios were analysed quantitatively. Diasterane/sterane ratios do not to correlate with clay content but depend on the

  8. Computational multi-projection display.

    Moon, Seokil; Park, Soon-Gi; Lee, Chang-Kun; Cho, Jaebum; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho


    A computational multi-projection display is proposed by employing a multi-projection system combining with compressive light field displays. By modulating the intensity of light rays from a spatial light modulator inside a single projector, the proposed system can offer several compact views to observer. Since light rays are spread to all directions, the system can provide flexible positioning of viewpoints without stacking projectors in vertical direction. Also, if the system is constructed properly, it is possible to generate view images with inter-pupillary gap and satisfy the super multi-view condition. We explain the principle of the proposed system and verify its feasibility with simulations and experimental results.

  9. Spatial Modelling of Sediment Transport over the Upper Citarum Catchment



    Full Text Available This paper discusses set up of a spatial model applied in Geographic Information System (GIS environment for predicting annual erosion rate and sediment yield of a watershed. The study area is situated in the Upper Citarum Catchment of West Java. Annual sediment yield is considered as product of erosion rate and sediment delivery ratio to be modelled under similar modeling tool. Sediment delivery ratio is estimated on the basis of sediment resident time. The modeling concept is based on the calculation of water flow velocity through sub-catchment surface, which is controlled by topography, rainfall, soil characteristics and various types of land use. Relating velocity to known distance across digital elevation model, sediment resident time can be estimated. Data from relevance authorities are used. Bearing in mind limited knowledge of some governing factors due to lack of observation, the result has shown the potential of GIS for spatially modeling regional sediment transport. Validation of model result is carried out by evaluating measured and computed total sediment yield at the main outlet. Computed total sediment yields for 1994 and 2001 are found to be 1.96×106 and 2.10×106tons/year. They deviate roughly 54 and 8% with respect to those measured in the field. Model response due to land use change observed in 2001 and 1994 is also recognised. Under presumably constant rainfall depth, an increase of overall average annual erosion rate of 11% resulted in an increase of overall average sediment yield of 7%.

  10. Large ancient organic matter contributions to Arctic marine sediments (Svalbard)

    Kim, J.-H.; Peterse, F.; Willmott, V.; Klitgaard Kristensen, D.; Baas, M.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.


    Soils, fine-grained ice-rafted detritus (IRD), coals, and marine surface sediments in the Arctic realm (Svalbard) were collected in 2007 and 2008 to characterize organic matter (OM) sources in Arctic marine sediments. Bulk geochemical (C : N ratio and stable carbon isotopic composition) parameters s

  11. Large ancient organic matter contributions to Arctic marine sediments (Svalbard)

    Kim, J.-H.; Peterse, F.; Willmott, V.; Klitgaard Kristensen, D.; Baas, M.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.


    Soils, fine-grained ice-rafted detritus (IRD), coals, and marine surface sediments in the Arctic realm (Svalbard)were collected in 2007 and 2008 to characterize organic matter (OM) sources in Arctic marine sediments. Bulkgeochemical (C : N ratio and stable carbon isotopic composition) parameters sug

  12. Display standards for commercial flight decks

    Lamberth, Larry S.; Penn, Cecil W.


    SAE display standards are used as guidelines for certifying commercial airborne electronic displays. The SAE document generation structure and approval process is described. The SAE committees that generate display standards are described. Three SAE documents covering flat panel displays (AS-8034, ARP-4256, and ARP-4260) are discussed with their current status. Head-Up Display documents are also in work.

  13. Display Apple M7649Zm


    It was Designed for the Power Mac G4. This Apple studio display gives you edge-to-edge distortion-free images. With more than 16.7 million colors and 1,280 x 1,024 dpi resolution, you view brilliant and bright images on this Apple 17-inch monitor.

  14. Book Display as Adult Service.

    Moore, Matthew S.


    Defines book display as an adult service as choosing and positioning adult books from the library collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access, including contrasting missions, genre grouping, weeding, problems, and dimensions. (Author/LRW)

  15. Real Time Sonic Boom Display

    Haering, Ed


    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.

  16. Graphics Display of Foreign Scripts.

    Abercrombie, John R.


    Describes Graphics Project for Foreign Language Learning at the University of Pennsylvania, which has developed ways of displaying foreign scripts on microcomputers. Character design on computer screens is explained; software for graphics, printing, and language instruction is discussed; and a text editor is described that corrects optically…

  17. Verbal Modification via Visual Display

    Richmond, Edmun B.; Wallace-Childers, La Donna


    The inability of foreign language students to produce acceptable approximations of new vowel sounds initiated a study to devise a real-time visual display system whereby the students could match vowel production to a visual pedagogical model. The system used amateur radio equipment and a standard oscilloscope. (CHK)

  18. Colour displays for categorical images

    Glasbey, C.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Toh, V.F.K.; Gray, A.J.


    We propose a method for identifying a set of colours for displaying 2D and 3D categorical images when the categories are unordered labels. The principle is to find maximally distinct sets of colours. We either generate colours sequentially, to maximize the dissimilarity or distance between a new col

  19. Autostereoscopic display with eye tracking

    Tomono, Takao; Hoon, Kyung; Ha, Yong Soo; Kim, Sung-Sik; Son, Jung-Young


    Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking having wide viewing zone and bright image was fabricated. The image of display is projected to retinal through several optical components. We calculated optical system for wider viewing zone by using Inverse-Ray Trace Method. The viewing zone of first model is 155mm (theoretical value: 161mm). We could widen viewing zone by controlling paraxial radius of curvature of spherical mirror, the distance between lenses and so on. The viewing zone of second model is 208mm. We used two spherical mirrors to obtain twice brightness. We applied eye-tracking system to the display system. Eye recognition is based on neural network card based on ZICS technology. We fabricated Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking. We measured viewing zone based on illumination area. The viewing zone was 206mm, which was close to theoretical value. We could get twice brightness also. We could see 3D image according to position without headgear.

  20. Crystal ball single event display

    Grosnick, D.; Gibson, A. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Allgower, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.; Alyea, J. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.


    The Single Event Display (SED) is a routine that is designed to provide information graphically about a triggered event within the Crystal Ball. The SED is written entirely in FORTRAN and uses the CERN-based HICZ graphing package. The primary display shows the amount of energy deposited in each of the NaI crystals on a Mercator-like projection of the crystals. Ten different shades and colors correspond to varying amounts of energy deposited within a crystal. Information about energy clusters is displayed on the crystal map by outlining in red the thirteen (or twelve) crystals contained within a cluster and assigning each cluster a number. Additional information about energy clusters is provided in a series of boxes containing useful data about the energy distribution among the crystals within the cluster. Other information shown on the event display include the event trigger type and data about {pi}{sup o}`s and {eta}`s formed from pairs of clusters as found by the analyzer. A description of the major features is given, along with some information on how to install the SED into the analyzer.

  1. GridOrbit public display

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob


    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...

  2. Information retrieval and display system

    Groover, J. L.; King, W. L.


    Versatile command-driven data management system offers users, through simplified command language, a means of storing and searching data files, sorting data files into specified orders, performing simple or complex computations, effecting file updates, and printing or displaying output data. Commands are simple to use and flexible enough to meet most data management requirements.

  3. Evaluation of an organic light-emitting diode display for precise visual stimulation.

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Masaki; Sunaga, Shoji


    A new type of visual display for presentation of a visual stimulus with high quality was assessed. The characteristics of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display (Sony PVM-2541, 24.5 in.; Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) were measured in detail from the viewpoint of its applicability to visual psychophysics. We found the new display to be superior to other display types in terms of spatial uniformity, color gamut, and contrast ratio. Changes in the intensity of luminance were sharper on the OLED display than those on a liquid crystal display. Therefore, such OLED displays could replace conventional cathode ray tube displays in vision research for high quality stimulus presentation. Benefits of using OLED displays in vision research were especially apparent in the fields of low-level vision, where precise control and description of the stimulus are needed, e.g., in mesopic or scotopic vision, color vision, and motion perception.

  4. Activities and geochronology of (137)Cs in lake sediments resulting from sediment resuspension.

    Matisoff, Gerald


    In lakes with a large surface area to watershed ratio (137)Cs delivery is primarily by direct atmospheric fallout to the lake surface, where its activity in the sediments has been used to estimate the exposure to organisms and sediment mass deposition rates. Comparison of (137)Cs in the historical atmospheric fallout record with (137)Cs activity profiles in sediment cores reveals that although the general features of a maxima in the fallout deposition can be matched to activity peaks in the core, the general shape of the (137)Cs profile is not an exact replica of the fallout history. Instead, the sediment reflects post-depositional processes such as resuspension, bioturbation, partitioning of (137)Cs between the sediment solids and the pore fluids, and molecular diffusion of (137)Cs through the pore fluids. Presented here is a model that couples these processes to a system time averaging (STA) model that accounts for the time history of (137)Cs fallout and the particle residence time in the water column or in the 'active' surface sediment subject to resuspension. Sediment profiles are examined by comparing reasonable ranges of each of the coefficients of each of these major processes and by applying the model to cores collected from two large, shallow lakes, Lake Erie (USA/Canada) and Lake Winnipeg (Canada). The results indicate that the STA model with molecular diffusion and sediment resuspension best describes the data from these large, shallow lakes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Brown, Michael A.


    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  6. Climatic control of sediment transport from the Himalayas to the proximal NE Bengal Fan during the last glacial-interglacial cycle

    Joussain, Ronan; Colin, Christophe; Liu, Zhifei; Meynadier, Laure; Fournier, Léa; Fauquembergue, Kelly; Zaragosi, Sébastien; Schmidt, Frédéric; Rojas, Virginia; Bassinot, Franck


    Clay mineralogy, siliciclastic grain-size, major elements, 87Sr/86Sr, and εNd analyses of deep-sea sediments cored in the north-eastern Bay of Bengal are used to reconstruct evolution of detrital sources and sediment transport to the proximal part of the Bengal deep-sea fan during the last climatic cycle. εNd values (-13.3 to -9.7) and 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.721-0.733) indicate a mixture of sediments originating from the Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers and the Indo-Burman ranges. Interglacial Marine Isotopic Stages (MIS) 5 and 1 are associated with a higher contribution of sediments from the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system than is the case for glacial MIS 6, 4, 3, and 2. Siliciclasitic grain-size combined with Si/Al and Si/Fe ratios indicate coarser glacial sediments with numerous turbidite layers. Glacial turbidite layers display similar clay mineralogical compositions to hemipelagic sediments. Only few of turbidite layers (MIS 6, 4, and 2) are slightly unradiogenic (εNd -13.3), suggesting a higher contribution of Ganges-Brahmaputra river sediments. Independently of changes in the sedimentary sources, the smectite/(illite + chlorite) ratio of cores located on the NE Bengal Fan indicates higher inputs of primary minerals (illite and chlorite) from the highlands of the river basins (relief) during glacial MIS 6, 4, 3, and 2 and an increased contribution of pedogenic minerals (smectite and kaolinite) during interglacial MIS 5 and 1. Maximum smectite/(illite + chlorite) ratios during the warm sub-stages of MIS 5 suggest an intensification of summer monsoon rainfall associated with higher rates of physical erosion of the Indo-Gangetic flood-plain and/or dominant summer hydrological conditions transporting a higher proportion of sediments deriving from the Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers to the NE Bengal Fan. In addition, a higher production of smectite in soils of the Indo-Gangetic flood-plain during periods of intensification of monsoon rainfall cannot be excluded.

  7. Analysis of Savannah Survey Sediment Collections of 30 Sep 04

    Wimer, N; Hutcheon, I; Esser, B; Ramon, E


    This report summarizes laboratory radiochemical analyses of sediment samples collected by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency during the DoD Savannah Survey operations of Sep 04. The analytic goal was to determine if Wassaw Sound sediment collections of 30 Sep 04 display evidence for local anthropogenic uranium, as distinct from the recognized regional background stemming from the Savannah River Site (SRS). Radiochemical methods were selected to maximize detection sensitivity for such anthropogenic uranium. Within the suite of twelve collections, there would be evidence for a localized source if individual collections were to differ from the population as a whole. If in fact non-natural uranium were observed, definitive determination of whether the source was SRS effluent or a localized release would likely involve additional field sampling. These collections were logged by the LLNL Forensics Science Center, photographed, and laboratory chain-of-custody was begun. The inventory received at LLNL is reported in Table 1. The separate collections were not assigned any relative priority among them. LLNL has separately reviewed detailed records of the item in question, and determined what materials are involved and what radiochemical assays are of value. Attempting quantitative estimates of source-item material release, transport, and collection levels would be quite uncertain. Rather, present assays examine for departure from natural background isotopic compositions. To summarize the findings, analyses for all collections displayed natural uranium isotopic composition--considering the {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U and {sup 236}U/{sup 235}U ratios--within measurement uncertainties, which were quite low. No one collection or set of collections stood apart from the others in its uranium isotopes. These {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U data uncertainty levels also determined with 99.5% confidence (a three-standard-deviation determination) that no more than 0.46% of the total uranium present

  8. Displays for future intermediate UAV

    Desjardins, Daniel; Metzler, James; Blakesley, David; Rister, Courtney; Nuhu, Abdul-Razak


    The Dedicated Autonomous Extended Duration Airborne Long-range Utility System (DAEDALUS) is a prototype Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that won the 2007 AFRL Commander's Challenge. The purpose of the Commander's Challenge was to find an innovative solution to urgent warfighter needs by designing a UAV with increased persistence for tactical employment of sensors and communication systems. DAEDALUS was chosen as a winning prototype by AFRL, AFMC and SECAF. Follow-on units are intended to fill an intermediate role between currently fielded Tier I and Tier II UAV's. The UAV design discussed in this paper, including sensors and displays, will enter Phase II for Rapid Prototype Development with the intent of developing the design for eventual production. This paper will discuss the DAEDALUS UAV prototype system, with particular focus on its communications, to include the infrared sensor and electro-optical camera, but also displays, specifically man-portable.

  9. Characterization of the rotating display.

    Keyes, J W; Fahey, F H; Harkness, B A; Eggli, D F; Balseiro, J; Ziessman, H A


    The rotating display is a useful method for reviewing single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. This study evaluated the requirements for a subjectively pleasing and useful implementation of this technique. Twelve SPECT data sets were modified and viewed by several observers who recorded the minimum framing rates for apparent smooth rotation, 3D effect, effects of image size, and other parameters. The results showed that a minimum of 16 frames was needed for a useful display. Smaller image sizes and more frames were preferred. The recommended minimal framing rate for a 64-frame study is 16-17 frames per second and for a 32-frame study, 12-13 frames per second. Other enhancements also were useful.

  10. Interactive display of polygonal data

    Wood, P.M.


    Interactive computer graphics is an excellent approach to many types of applications. It is an exciting method of doing geographic analysis when desiring to rapidly examine existing geographically related data or to display specially prepared data and base maps for publication. One such program is the interactive thematic mapping system called CARTE, which combines polygonal base maps with statistical data to produce shaded maps using a variety of shading symbolisms on a variety of output devices. A polygonal base map is one where geographic entities are described by points, lines, or polygons. It is combined with geocoded data to produce special subject or thematic maps. Shading symbolisms include texture shading for areas, varying widths for lines, and scaled symbols for points. Output devices include refresh and storage CRTs and auxiliary Calcomp or COM hardcopy. The system is designed to aid in the quick display of spatial data and in detailed map design.

  11. Game engines and immersive displays

    Chang, Benjamin; Destefano, Marc


    While virtual reality and digital games share many core technologies, the programming environments, toolkits, and workflows for developing games and VR environments are often distinct. VR toolkits designed for applications in visualization and simulation often have a different feature set or design philosophy than game engines, while popular game engines often lack support for VR hardware. Extending a game engine to support systems such as the CAVE gives developers a unified development environment and the ability to easily port projects, but involves challenges beyond just adding stereo 3D visuals. In this paper we outline the issues involved in adapting a game engine for use with an immersive display system including stereoscopy, tracking, and clustering, and present example implementation details using Unity3D. We discuss application development and workflow approaches including camera management, rendering synchronization, GUI design, and issues specific to Unity3D, and present examples of projects created for a multi-wall, clustered, stereoscopic display.

  12. Organic matter compositions and loadings in soils and sediments along the Fly River, Papua New Guinea

    Goñi, Miguel A.; Moore, Eric; Kurtz, Andrew; Portier, Evan; Alleau, Yvan; Merrell, David


    The compositions and loadings of organic matter in soils and sediments from a diverse range of environments along the Fly River system were determined to investigate carbon transport and sequestration in this region. Soil horizons from highland sites representative of upland sources have organic carbon contents (%OC) that range from 0.3 to 25 wt%, carbon:nitrogen ratios (OC/N) that range from 7 to 25 mol/mol, highly negative stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13Corg -25‰) and non-woody vegetation biomarkers (cinnamyl phenols and cutin acids) more abundant relative to upper floodplain sites. Soils developed on relict Pleistocene floodplain terraces, which are typically not flooded and receive little sediment from the river, were characterized by low %OC contents (-21‰) and low LP concentrations (∼3 mg/100 mg OC). These relict floodplain soils contain modern carbon that reflects primarily local (C3 or C4) vegetation sources. Total suspended solids collected along the river varied widely in overall concentrations (1 < TSS < 9000 mg/L), %OC contents (0.1-60 wt%), OC/N ratios (7-17 mol/mol) and δ13Corg signatures (-26 to -32‰). These compositions reflect a mixture of C3 vascular plants and freshwater algae. However, little of this algal production appears to be preserved in floodplain soils. A comparison of organic carbon loadings of active floodplain soils (0.2 and 0.5 mg C/m2) with previous studies of actively depositing sediments in the adjacent delta-clinoform system (0.4-0.7 mg C/m2) indicates that Fly River floodplain sediments are less effective at sequestering organic carbon than deltaic sediments. Furthermore, relict Pleistocene floodplain sites with low or negligible modern sediment accumulation rates display significantly lower loadings (0.1-0.2 mg C/m2). This deficit in organic carbon likely reflects mineralization of sedimentary organic carbon during long term oxidative weathering, further reducing floodplain carbon storage.

  13. Proof nets for display logic

    Moot, Richard


    This paper explores several extensions of proof nets for the Lambek calculus in order to handle the different connectives of display logic in a natural way. The new proof net calculus handles some recent additions to the Lambek vocabulary such as Galois connections and Grishin interactions. It concludes with an exploration of the generative capacity of the Lambek-Grishin calculus, presenting an embedding of lexicalized tree adjoining grammars into the Lambek-Grishin calculus.

  14. Modern Display Technologies and Applications


    conventional tubes, LSI circuitry offers the possibility of correcting some of the deficiencies in electron-optic perform- ance and may lead to acceptable...certain ceramic materials such as PLZT (lead lanthanum zirconate titanate) can be utilized for display applications. PLZT is transparent in the visible...consuming power (3.8.12). State of development, Magnetic particles have been made of polyethylene with powdered Strontium ferrite as a filler

  15. Striations in Plasma Display Panel

    OUYANG Ji-Ting; CAO Jing; MIAO Jin-Song


    @@ The phenomenon of striation has been investigated experimentally in a macroscopic ac-plasma display panel (PDP). The relationship between the characteristics of striation and the operation conditions including voltage, frequency, rib, and electrode configuration, etc is obtained experimentally. The origin of the striations is considered to be the ionization waves in the transient positive column near the dielectric surface in the anode area during the discharge, and the perturbation is caused by resonance kinetic effects in inert gas.

  16. Multiview synthesis for autostereoscopic displays

    Dane, Gökçe.; Bhaskaran, Vasudev


    Autostereoscopic (AS) displays spatially multiplex multiple views, providing a more immersive experience by enabling users to view the content from different angles without the need of 3D glasses. Multiple views could be captured from multiple cameras at different orientations, however this could be expensive, time consuming and not applicable to some applications. The goal of multiview synthesis in this paper is to generate multiple views from a stereo image pair and disparity map by using various video processing techniques including depth/disparity map processing, initial view interpolation, inpainting and post-processing. We specifically emphasize the need for disparity processing when there is no depth information is available that is associated with the 2D data and we propose a segmentation based disparity processing algorithm to improve disparity map. Furthermore we extend the texture based 2D inpainting algorithm to 3D and further improve the hole-filling performance of view synthesis. The benefit of each step of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated with comparison to state of the art algorithms in terms of visual quality and PSNR metric. Our system is evaluated in an end-to-end multi view synthesis framework where only stereo image pair is provided as input to the system and 8 views are outputted and displayed in 8-view Alioscopy AS display.

  17. Trend and dynamic cause of sediment particle size on the adjacent continental shelf of the Yangtze Estuary

    Yang, Yun-ping; Zhang, Ming-jin; Li, Yi-tian; Fan, Yong-yang


    Based on the measured data in recent 20 years, the variation trends of the median grain size of the surface sediment, the sand-silt boundary and the mud area on the adjacent continental shelf of the Yangtze Estuary were analyzed in depth, and the effects of natural mechanism and human activities were discussed. The results show that: (1) In recent years (2006-2013), the median grain size of sediment and the distribution pattern of grouped sediments in the adjacent continental shelf area to the Yangtze Estuary have presented no obvious change compared with those before 2006; (2) The median diameter of the surface sediment in the continental shelf area displayed a coarsening trend with the decrease of sediment discharge from the basin and the drop in suspended sediment concentration in the shore area; (3) In 2004-2007, the sand-silt boundary in the north part (31°30'N) of the continental shelf area presented no significant changes, while that in the south part (31°30'S) moved inwards; In 2008-2013, both the sand-silt boundaries in the north and south parts of the continental shelf area moved inwards, mainly due to the fact that in the dry season, a relatively enhanced hydrodynamic force of the tides was generated in the Yangtze River, as well as a decreased suspended sediment concentration and a flow along the banks in North Jiangsu; (4) The mud area where the maximum deposition rate is found in the Yangtze Estuary, tends to shrink due to the drop in sediment discharge from the basin, and the decrease in suspended sediment concentration in the shore area and erosion in the delta. Moreover, it tended to shift to the south at the same time because the implement of the training works on the deep-water channel of the North Passage changed the split ratio between the North and South Passages with an increase in the power of the discharged runoff in the South Passage.

  18. Sediment Core Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation and expertise for physical and geoacoustic characterization of marine sediments. DESCRIPTION: The multisensor core logger measures...

  19. Sediment Core Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation and expertise for physical and geoacoustic characterization of marine sediments.DESCRIPTION: The multisensor core logger measures...

  20. Dynamics of Cohesive Sediments

    Johansen, Claus

    the nature of the cohesive sediment with respect to the transport processes is presented. In addition, the flocculation process and the rheological behaviour of cohesive sediments is outlined. The second part contains the laboratory experiments. The laboratory experiments were conducted with respect......The present thesis considers the transport processes of cohesive sediments. The cohesive sediment used in the laboratory experiments was kaolinite, a clay mineral, in order to be able to reproduce the individual experiments. In the first part of the thesis, the theoretical considerations regarding...

  1. Distribution of detrital minerals and sediment color in western Arctic Ocean and northern Bering Sea sediments: Changes in the provenance of western Arctic Ocean sediments since the last glacial period

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Irino, Tomohisa; Nam, Seung-Il; Park, Yu-Hyeon; Harada, Naomi; Nagashima, Kana; Chikita, Kazuhisa; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi


    This paper describes the distribution of detrital minerals and sediment color in the surface sediments of the western Arctic Ocean and the northern Bering Sea and investigates the relationship between mineral composition and sediment provenance. This relationship was used to determine the provenance of western Arctic Ocean sediments deposited during the last glacial period. Sediment color is governed by water depth, diagenesis, and mineral composition. An a*-b* diagram was used to trace color change during diagenesis in the Arctic Ocean sediments. The mineral composition of surface sediments is governed by grain size and provenance. The feldspar/quartz ratio of the sediments studied was higher on the Siberian side than on the North American side of the western Arctic Ocean. The (chlorite + kaolinite)/illite and chlorite/illite ratios were high in the Bering Sea but decrease northwards in the Chukchi Sea. Thus, these ratios are useful for provenance studies in the Chukchi Sea area as indices of the Beaufort Gyre circulation and the Bering Strait inflow. The sediments deposited during the last glacial period have a lower feldspar/quartz ratio and a higher dolomite intensity than Holocene sediments on the Chukchi Plateau, suggesting a greater contribution of North American grains during the last glacial period.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from lake Lille Lungegårdsvannet in Bergen, western Norway; appraising pollution sources from the urban history.

    Andersson, Malin; Klug, Martin; Eggen, Ola Anfin; Ottesen, Rolf Tore


    This study aims to determine the temporal character and concentration variability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) during the last 5,400 years in urban lake sediments through a combination of dating and chemo-stratigraphical correlation. We investigate the chemical history of the city of Bergen and determine the effect of specific point sources, as well as diffuse sources, and also help assess the risk of remediation plans. By using several organic compounds, metals and cyanide, we demonstrate the more accurate timing of sedimentation. The PAH results display very low concentrations in pre-industrial times, followed by a general increase that is punctuated by a few significant concentration increases. These most probably correspond to urban fires, domestic heating, gaswork activity and most recently due to traffic pollution. At the same depth as a significant rise in concentration from background levels occurred, the high relative occurrence of low-molecular-weight PAH-compounds, such as naphthalene, were replaced by heavier compounds, thus indicating a permanent change in source. The general observation, using ratios, is that the sources have shifted from pre-industrial pure wood and coal combustion towards mixed and petrogenic sources in more recent times. The (14)C dating provides evidence that the sedimentation rate stayed more-or-less constant for 4,500 years (from 7200 to 2700 calibrated years before present (calyr BP)), before isostatic uplift isolated the water body and the sedimentation rate decreased or sediments were eroded. The sediment input increased again when habitation and industrial activities encroached on the lake. The (14)C dating does not provide consistent data in that period, possibly due to the fact that the lake has been used as a waste site throughout the history of Bergen city. Therefore, results from (14)C dating from anthropogenically influenced sediments should be used with caution.

  3. Deep Sediment-Sourced Methane Contribution to Shallow Sediment Organic Carbon: Atwater Valley, Texas-Louisiana Shelf, Gulf of Mexico

    Richard B. Coffin


    Full Text Available Coastal methane hydrate deposits are globally abundant. There is a need to understand the deep sediment sourced methane energy contribution to shallow sediment carbon relative to terrestrial sources and phytoplankton. Shallow sediment and porewater samples were collected from Atwater Valley, Texas-Louisiana Shelf, Gulf of Mexico near a seafloor mound feature identified in geophysical surveys as an elevated bottom seismic reflection. Geochemical data revealed off-mound methane diffusion and active fluid advection on-mound. Gas composition (average methane/ethane ratio ~11,000 and isotope ratios of methane on the mound (average δ13CCH4(g = −71.2‰; D14CCH4(g = −961‰ indicate a deep sediment, microbial source. Depleted sediment organic carbon values on mound (δ13CSOC = −25.8‰; D14CSOC = −930‰ relative to off-mound (δ13CSOC = −22.5‰; D14CSOC = −629‰ suggest deep sourced ancient carbon is incorporated into shallow sediment organic matter. Porewater and sediment data indicate inorganic carbon fixed during anaerobic oxidation of methane is a dominant contributor to on-mound shallow sediment organic carbon cycling. A simple stable carbon isotope mass balance suggests carbon fixation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC associated with anaerobic oxidation of hydrate-sourced CH4 contributes up to 85% of shallow sediment organic carbon.

  4. The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment ...

    The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment transport of the Pra River. ... Sediment source studies involving a simple mixing model was undertaken in the ... For bank erosion, river channel bank materials were sampled.

  5. Gestures to Intuitively Control Large Displays

    Fikkert, F.W.; Vet, van der P.E.; Rauwerda, H.; Breit, T.; Nijholt, A.; Sales Dias, M.; Gibet, S.; Wanderley, M.W.; Bastos, R.


    Large displays are highly suited to support discussions in empirical science. Such displays can display project results on a large digital surface to feed the discussion. This paper describes our approach to closely involve multidisciplinary omics scientists in the design of an intuitive display con

  6. 27 CFR 6.55 - Display service.


    ... Distribution Service § 6.55 Display service. Industry member reimbursements to retailers for setting up product or other displays constitutes paying the retailer for rendering a display service within the meaning... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Display service. 6.55...

  7. Effect of sediment size on bioleaching of heavy metals from contaminated sediments of Izmir Inner Bay

    Duyusen E.Guven; Gorkem Akinci


    The effect of sediment size on metals bioleaching from bay sediments was investigated by using fine (< 45 μm),medium (45-300 μm),and coarse (300-2000μm) size fractions of a sediment sample contaminated with Cr,Cu,Pb,and Zn.Chemical speciation of the metals in bulk and size fractions of sediment were studied before and after bioleaching.Microbial activity was provided with mixed cultures of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Acidithiobacillusferrooxidans.The bioleaching process was carried out in flask experiments for 48 days,by using 5% (W/V) of solid concentration in suspension.Bioleaching was found to be efficient for the removal of selected heavy metals from every size fraction of sediments,where the experiments with the smaller particles resulted in the highest solubilization ratios.At the end of the experimental period,Cr,Cu,Pb and Zn were solubilized to the ratios of 68%,88%,72%,and 91% from the fine sediment,respectively.Higher removal efficiencies can be explained by the larger surface area provided by the smaller particles.The changes in the chemical forms of metals were determined and most of the metal releases were observed from the reducible and organic fractions independent from grain size.Higher concentrations were monitored in the residual fraction after bioleaching period,suggesting they are trapped in this fraction,and cannot be solubilized under natural conditions.

  8. Interstitial brines in playa sediments

    Jones, B.F.; Van Denburgh, A.S.; Truesdell, A.H.; Rettig, S.L.


    Study of several closed drainages in the Great Basin has shown that the interstitial solutions of shallow, fine-grained playa deposits store a large quantity of dissolved solids and are often more concentrated than associated lakes and ponds, except in peripheral zones of stream or ground-water inflow. These interstitial fluids, when compared with local runoff, impoundments, or spring waters, commonly have a distinctive ionic composition which sometimes cannot be explained by either simple mixing of surface and subsurface inflow or by evaporative concentration. At Abert Lake, Oregon, the interstitial solute concentrations increased with depth to values as much as five times greater than the lake, except where springs indicate significant ground-water input. Where Na+, Cl, and CO2 species constitute more than 90% of the solutes, Na+ Cl- ratios in the lake water are lower than in interstitial solutions of bottom cores and higher than in playa fluids. At the same time, Na+ K+ ratios are highest in the fluids of lake bottom muds and lowest in playa interstitials. In deeper playa profiles, interstitial Na+ Cl- tended to decrease with depth (5 ft. maximum). In the Abert Lake area, as in other parts of the western Great Basin, Na+ Cl- ratios are indicative of total CO2 in solution and the effects of organic decay in surficial sediments. These ratios, coupled with data on silica and bulk density, show that higher PCO2 accompanying decay promotes silicate dissolution and hydrogen ion exchange, stripping alkalis from sediment which had preferentially adsorbed K+ when entering the lake. On subsequent loss of pore fluid in the playa regime, silica initially released to solution in the lake environment is readsorbed on dissolution products. ?? 1969.

  9. An Evaluation of Bera Lake (Malaysia Sediment Contamination Using Sediment Quality Guidelines

    Mohammadreza Gharibreza


    Full Text Available Bera Lake is known as the first RAMSAR site and is the largest natural lake in Malaysia. Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs and Geoaccumulation index were used to evaluate Bera Lake sediment contamination. Five undisturbed cores were collected from Bera Lake sediment. Major and trace levels of elements were determined for 132 subsamples using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The results marked two major groups of metallic elements bonded to the terrestrial and organic-rich sediments. Terrestrial sediments were strongly associated with accumulation of Li, Al, Pb, Cu, Cr, Na, Mg, Sr, and K during main fluxes of metals. However, a strong positive correlation was obtained between Fe, Mn, As, Zn, Cu, Ni, Ca, and Cd elements and TOC and TN. The Mn/Fe ratio revealed a long-term redox and acidic condition at Bera Lake. Geoaccumulation index for all individual metals has classified Bera Lake sediment as low to moderately polluted. However, elemental values when compared with thresholds limits of SQG indicated that Bera Lake sediments were contaminated by arsenic and iron. Results prove that deforestation during the five phases of land developments since 1972 has significantly contributed to the existence of metals fluxes into the area.

  10. Review of Defense Display Research Programs


    Programs Flat Panel Autostereoscopic N-perspective 3D High Definition DMD Digital Projector Light Piping & Quantum Cavity Displays Solid State Laser...Megapixel Displays • Size Commonality • 67 % Weight Reduction • > 200 sq. in. per Display 20-20 Vision Simulators True 3D , sparse symbols Foldable Display...megapixel 2D and True 3D Display Technology 25M & T3D FY02-FY06 New service thrusts

  11. Recent Trend in Development of Olfactory Displays

    Yanagida, Yasuyuki

    An olfactory display is a device that generates scented air with desired concentration of aroma, and delivers it to the user's olfactory organ. In this article, the nature of olfaction is briefly described from the view point of how to configure olfactory displays. Next, component technologies to compose olfactory displays, i.e., making scents and delivering scents, are categorized. Several existing olfactory display systems are introduced to show the current status of research and development of olfactory displays.

  12. Financial Key Ratios

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor


    Full Text Available This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  13. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    Collins, Mimi


    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  14. Compression Ratio Adjuster

    Akkerman, J. W.


    New mechanism alters compression ratio of internal-combustion engine according to load so that engine operates at top fuel efficiency. Ordinary gasoline, diesel and gas engines with their fixed compression ratios are inefficient at partial load and at low-speed full load. Mechanism ensures engines operate as efficiently under these conditions as they do at highload and high speed.

  15. Sediment supply to beaches

    Aagaard, Troels


    and this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales. Data...

  16. Specialized ratio analysis.

    Wyer, J C; Salzinger, F H


    Many common management techniques have little use in managing a medical group practice. Ratio analysis, however, can easily be adapted to the group practice setting. Acting as broad-gauge indicators, financial ratios provide an early warning of potential problems and can be very useful in planning for future operations. The author has gathered a collection of financial ratios which were developed by participants at an education seminar presented for the Virginia Medical Group Management Association. Classified according to the human element, system component, and financial factor, the ratios provide a good sampling of measurements relevant to medical group practices and can serve as an example for custom-tailoring a ratio analysis system for your medical group.

  17. Do rapidly retreating valley glaciers increase catchment sediment export rates?

    Lane, Stuart; Bakker, Maarten; Gabbud, Chrystelle; Micheletti, Natan; Saugy, Jean-Noël


    In the face of rapid climate warming, rapid glacier recession should lead to a marked increase in the spatial extent of paraglacial processes operating in glaciated drainage basins. The paraglacial phase has been well established to be transient but there are very few studies of this transient response and what it means for sediment export. There is good reason to expect that glacier recession could increase basin-scale sediment connectivity as: sediment becomes less dependent on glacier surface transport; proglacial streams are more able to migrate laterally than subglacial streams and so access sediment for transport; and glacier debuttressing may aid the development of gullies that can dissect moraines and so aid hillslope to proglacial zone connectivity. By using records of the flushing of hydroelectric power installations we were able to develop a record of coarse sediment (sand and gravel) export from a basin with a rapidly retreating valley glacier, the Haut Glacier d'Arolla, from 1977 to 2014. Modelling suggested that these data could only be partially controlled by transport capacity implying an important role for sediment supply and potentially for the influence of changing sediment connectivity. Indeed, there was evidence of the effects of glacial debuttressing upon gullying processes and hence a possible increase in the ease of connection of upstream basins to the proglacial area. More recently, it was possible to show possible temperature control on sediment export, which may only have become apparent because of the progressive development of better sediment connectivity. However, whilst rapid glacier recession should result in theory in a progressive increase in connectivity of sediment sources to the basin outlet, the supply to capacity ratio does not increase continually with glacier recession until maximum capacity is reached. We identify two examples of why. First, gullying was also accompanied by the sediment accumulation at the base of moraines

  18. Command and control displays for space vehicle operations

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Zetocha, Paul; Aleva, Denise


    This paper shall examine several command and control facility display architectures supporting space vehicle operations, to include TacSat 2, TacSat 3, STPSat 2, and Communications Navigation Outage Forecasting System (CNOFS), located within the Research Development Test & Evaluation Support Complex (RSC) Satellite Operations Center 97 (SOC-97) at Kirtland Air Force Base. A principal focus is to provide an understanding for the general design class of displays currently supporting space vehicle command and control, e.g., custom, commercial-off-the-shelf, or ruggedized commercial-off-the-shelf, and more specifically, what manner of display performance capabilities, e.g., active area, resolution, luminance, contrast ratio, frame/refresh rate, temperature range, shock/vibration, etc., are needed for particular aspects of space vehicle command and control. Another focus shall be to address the types of command and control functions performed for each of these systems, to include how operators interact with the displays, e.g., joystick, trackball, keyboard/mouse, as well as the kinds of information needed or displayed for each function. [Comparison with other known command and control facilities, such as Cheyenne Mountain and NORAD Operations Center, shall be made.] Future, anticipated display systems shall be discussed.

  19. Lead isotopes in sediments of the Loire River (France): natural versus anthropogenic origin

    Negrel, Ph.; Petelet-Giraud, E.


    Sediments along the Loire River (central France) were investigated by means of lead isotopes determined on the labile sediment fraction, or acid-extractable matter (AEM). The combination of trace elements and lead isotopes allows deciphering the origin of the elements (i.e. natural or anthropogenic) and their history, both in the sediment and soil from two small watersheds (one draining basalt, the other one granite-gneiss gneiss in the upper part of the catchment), in present-day suspended matter in Loire River water, and in sediment from the Loire estuary. Fe-Mn oxides act as the main carrier phase of the elements in the AEM extracted by cold HBr, Th and Pb concentrations were determined by ICP-MS and lead isotopes by ICP-MS-MC Neptune. Thorium displays mostly insoluble behaviour in hydrosystems, but the small amount of dissolved Th shows a strong tendency to be adsorbed onto oxyhydroxides. Therefore, Mn and Th (as well as other trace elements) correlate well in AEM, the correlations of Mn, and Pb with Th as a typical indicator of crustal weathering points to their derivation from the silicate basement of the upstream part of the catchment. Crustal weathering, as confirmed by the Pb-isotope ratios for most sample points, is the main natural source of lead in the upstream part of the Loire River, as well as that transported in the middle part of the basin and up to the estuary. Among anthropogenic sources, the use of Pb-isotopic compositions shows an influence of agricultural lead-derived inputs and a large input from lead as a gasoline additive, particularly in the estuary due to harbour activities and for one downstream tributary river that is strongly marked by this type of lead input.

  20. Optical display for radar sensing

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Willey, Jefferson; Landa, Joseph; Hsieh, Minder; Larsen, Louis V.; Krzywicki, Alan T.; Tran, Binh Q.; Hoekstra, Philip; Dillard, John T.; Krapels, Keith A.; Wardlaw, Michael; Chu, Kai-Dee


    Boltzmann headstone S = kB Log W turns out to be the Rosette stone for Greek physics translation optical display of the microwave sensing hieroglyphics. The LHS is the molecular entropy S measuring the degree of uniformity scattering off the sensing cross sections. The RHS is the inverse relationship (equation) predicting the Planck radiation spectral distribution parameterized by the Kelvin temperature T. Use is made of the conservation energy law of the heat capacity of Reservoir (RV) change T Δ S = -ΔE equals to the internal energy change of black box (bb) subsystem. Moreover, an irreversible thermodynamics Δ S > 0 for collision mixing toward totally larger uniformity of heat death, asserted by Boltzmann, that derived the so-called Maxwell-Boltzmann canonical probability. Given the zero boundary condition black box, Planck solved a discrete standing wave eigenstates (equation). Together with the canonical partition function (equation) an average ensemble average of all possible internal energy yielded the celebrated Planck radiation spectral (equation) where the density of states (equation). In summary, given the multispectral sensing data (equation), we applied Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) to solve the Blind Sources Separation (BSS) for a set of equivalent bb target temperatures. From the measurements of specific value, slopes and shapes we can fit a set of Kelvin temperatures T's for each bb targets. As a result, we could apply the analytical continuation for each entropy sources along the temperature-unique Planck spectral curves always toward the RGB color temperature display for any sensing probing frequency.

  1. Simulated monitor display for CCTV

    Steele, B.J.


    Two computer programs have been developed which generate a two-dimensional graphic perspective of the video output produced by a Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) camera. Both programs were primarily written to produce a graphic display simulating the field-of-view (FOV) of a perimeter assessment system as seen on a CCTV monitor. The original program was developed for use on a Tektronix 4054 desktop computer; however, the usefulness of this graphic display program led to the development of a similar program for a Hewlett-Packard 9845B desktop computer. After entry of various input parameters, such as, camera lens and orientation, the programs automatically calculate and graphically plot the locations of various items, e.g., fences, an assessment zone, running men, and intrusion detection sensors. Numerous special effects can be generated to simulate such things as roads, interior walls, or sides of buildings. Other objects can be digitized and entered into permanent memory similar to the running men. With this type of simulated monitor perspective, proposed camera locations with respect to fences and a particular assessment zone can be rapidly evaluated without the costly time delays and expenditures associated with field evaluation.

  2. Tracers discrimination of sediment provenience in rural catchment through EDXRF

    Melquiades, Fabio L. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Thomaz, Edivaldo L. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geografia


    Full text: Sediment dynamics understanding in a drainage system is fundamental for soil and water conservation at hydro graphic basins. This work aim was to discriminate sediment provenance tracers in rural basin. Sediment samples from different points in the headwater (road, forest, riverbank, river sediment deposit) were collected. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was the analytical technique applied, which was efficient to detect the chemical composition of the sediments. The samples were dried for 48h at 50 deg C, ground and sieved for granulometry 1mm. In natura samples (3 g) were placed in cells covered with mylar film for irradiation. Titanium, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Y and Zr were identified. It was concluded that the elements, when analyzed individually or paired, do not allow a clear environment distinction except for yttrium (Y) that indicates distinct characteristics between the riverbank materials related to the other environments. However, the cluster analysis provided discrimination between the different sources of sediment. Also, it was verified that the recent deposited sediment in the river channel displays greater similarity with the materials of the road than with the riverbank. It is probable that the roads has been the mainly sediment source in the studied headwater. The methodology is innovative for tracer determination in soil and erosion quantification. (author)

  3. Arthrobacter enclensis sp. nov., isolated from sediment sample

    Dastager, S.G.; Qin, L.; Tang, S.K.; Krishnamurthi, S.; Lee, J.C.; Li, W.J.

    A novel bacterial strain designated as NIO-1008(T) was isolated from marine sediments sample in Chorao Island India. Cells of the strains were gram positive and non-motile, displayed a rod-coccus life cycle and formed cream to light grey colonies...

  4. Secular trends in newborn sex ratios.

    Grech, Victor


    A wide variety of factors have been shown to influence the male to female ratio at birth, which invariably displays a male excess. This paper will review and amplify recent work by the author, with specific references to individual countries, regions and entire continents in order to provide a global overview of this subject. It will be shown that stress, including stress related to political events, influences this ratio. Man-made radiation is also shown to have played a significant role in relation to the Windscale fire (1957) and Chernobyl (1986). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An Evaluation of Performance Characteristics of Primary Display Devices.

    Ekpo, Ernest U; McEntee, Mark F


    The aim of this study was to complete a full evaluation of the new EIZO RX850 liquid crystal display and compare it to two currently used medical displays in Australia (EIZO GS510 and Barco MDCG 5121). The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 18 Quality Control test pattern was used to assess the performance of three high-resolution primary medical displays: EIZO RX850, EIZO GS510, and Barco MDCG 5121. A Konica Minolta spectroradiometer (CS-2000) was used to assess luminance response, non-uniformity, veiling glare, and color uniformity. Qualitative evaluation of noise was also performed. Seven breast lesions were displayed on each monitor and photographed with a calibrated 5.5-MP Olympus E-1 digital SLR camera. ImageJ software was used to sample pixel information from each lesion and surrounding background to calculate their conspicuity index on each of the displays. All monitor fulfilled all AAPM acceptance criteria. The performance characteristics for EIZO RX850, Barco MDCG 5121, and EIZO GS510 respectively were as follows: maximum luminance (490, 500.5, and 413 cd/m(2)), minimum luminance (0.724, 1.170, and 0.92 cd/m(2)), contrast ratio (675:1, 428:1, 449:1), just-noticeable difference index (635, 622, 609), non-uniformity (20, 5.92, and 8.5 %), veiling glare (GR = 2465.6, 720.4, 1249.8), and color uniformity (Δu'v' = +0.003, +0.002, +0.002). All monitors demonstrated low noise levels. The conspicuity index (χ) of the lesions was slightly higher in the EIZO RX850 display. All medical displays fulfilled AAPM performance criteria, and performance characteristics of EIZO RX850 are equal to or better than those of the Barco MDCG 5121 and EIZO GS510 displays.

  6. Equilibrium bed-concentration of nonuniform sediment


    Knowledge of the equilibrium bed-concentration is vital to mathematical modeling of the river-bed deformation associated with suspended load but previous investigations only dealt with the reference concentration of uniform sediment because of difficulties in observation of the bed-concentration. This work is a first attempt to develop a theoretical formula for the equilibrium bed-concentration of any fraction of nonuniform sediment defined at the bed-surface. The formula is based on a stochastic-mechanistic model for the exchange of nonuniform sediment near the bed, and described as a function of incipient motion probability, non-ceasing probability, pick-up probability, and the ratio of the average single-step continuous motion time to static time. Comparison of bed-concentration calculated from the proposed formula with the measured data showed satisfactory agreement, indicating the present formula can be used for solving the differential equation governing the motion of suspended load.

  7. REE geochemistry of surface sediments in the Chukchi Sea

    陈志华; 高爱国; 刘焱光; 孙海清; 石学法; 杨作升


    Analyses of rare earth elements (REEs) in 26 surface sediment samples obtained from the Chukchi Sea were conducted using ICP-MS. In general, REEs are relatively rich in fine-grained sediments and deplete in coarse-grained sediments in the Chukchi Sea although REEs have large concentration spans in different types of sediments. Except that a few samples have weak enrichments of light or heavy REEs,most samples exhibit flat shale-normalized REE pattern, indicating that surface sediments in the Chukchi Sea are composed dominantly of terrigenous components experiencing weak chemical weathering. In terms of REE concentrations and other characteristic parameters, we inferred that sediments on the eastern and western sides of the Chukchi Sea are derived from landmasses of Alaska and Siberia, respectively; the midsouth sediments are possibly related to northward dispersion of the Yukon River materials. The Herald Shoal in the center of the study area is covered with relict sediment, which has large ratios of light-to-heavy REEs (∑Ce/∑Y ratio) and lacks evident negative Ce anomaly; cerium enrichment is possibly related to manganese transfer under oxidizing conditions in early diagenesis.

  8. Difference and ratio plots

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter


    hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...... and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....

  9. GridOrbit public display

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob


    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...... the research taking place in the biology laboratory. This should promote contribu-tions to the grid, and thereby mediate the appropriation of the grid technology. GridOrbit visualizes the activity in the grid, shows information about the different active projects, and supports a messaging functionality where...... people comment on projects. Our work explores the usage of interactive technologies as enablers for the appropriation of an otherwise invisible infrastructure....

  10. Simplified Night Sky Display System

    Castellano, Timothy P.


    A document describes a simple night sky display system that is portable, lightweight, and includes, at most, four components in its simplest configuration. The total volume of this system is no more than 10(sup 6) cm(sup 3) in a disassembled state, and weighs no more than 20 kilograms. The four basic components are a computer, a projector, a spherical light-reflecting first surface and mount, and a spherical second surface for display. The computer has temporary or permanent memory that contains at least one signal representing one or more images of a portion of the sky when viewed from an arbitrary position, and at a selected time. The first surface reflector is spherical and receives and reflects the image from the projector onto the second surface, which is shaped like a hemisphere. This system may be used to simulate selected portions of the night sky, preserving the appearance and kinesthetic sense of the celestial sphere surrounding the Earth or any other point in space. These points will then show motions of planets, stars, galaxies, nebulae, and comets that are visible from that position. The images may be motionless, or move with the passage of time. The array of images presented, and vantage points in space, are limited only by the computer software that is available, or can be developed. An optional approach is to have the screen (second surface) self-inflate by means of gas within the enclosed volume, and then self-regulate that gas in order to support itself without any other mechanical support.

  11. Geochemical evidence for cryptic sulfur cycling in salt marsh sediments

    Mills, Jennifer V.; Antler, Gilad; Turchyn, Alexandra V.


    investigate sulfur cycling in salt marsh sediments from Norfolk, England where we observe high ferrous iron concentrations with no depletion of sulfate or change in the sulfur isotope ratio of that sulfate, but a 5‰ increase in the oxygen isotope ratio in sulfate, indicating that sulfate has been through...

  12. Sterols of a contemporary lacustrine sediment. [in English postglacial lake

    Gaskell, S. J.; Eglinton, G.


    Results are reported for detailed sterol analyses of several depths (corresponding to between zero and about 150 yr in age) in a contemporary lacustrine sediment from a freshwater lake of postglacial origin in England. Delta 5-, delta 22-, and delta 5,22-sterols are identified along with 5 alpha- and 5 beta-stanols as well as a C26 stanol with a C7 side chain. Solvent extraction yields carbon number distributions for the 5 alpha- and 5 beta-stanol sediment constituents that parallel the corresponding delta 5-sterol distributions. The amounts of 5 alpha-stanols are found to exceed those of 5 beta-stanols in the sediment, and variations in the ratio of 5 alpha- to 5 beta-stanol between sediment samples from similar depths are shown to suggest an inhomogeneity of the sediment. It is found that the sterol composition of sediment cores varies markedly with depth, reflecting both the effects of a sterol hydrogenation process and a changing input to the sediment. It is concluded that C29 sterols, of probable higher-plant origin, predominate at lower sediment depths while C27 sterols, possibly derived from autochthonous sources, are more abundant in the surface sediment.

  13. Spatial Decision Assistance of Watershed Sedimentation (SDAS: Development and Application



    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development and application of a spatial tool for erosion modeling named Spatial Decision Assistance of Watershed Sedimentation (SDAS. SDAS computes export (yield of sediment from watershed as product of erosion rate and sediment delivery ratio (SDR. The erosion rate is calculated for each raster grid according to a digital elevation model, soil, rain fall depth, and land cover data using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. SDR calculation is carried out for each spatial unit. A spatial unit is the smallest sub-watershed considered in the model and generated according to the TauDEM algorithm. The size of one spatial unit is assigned by the user as the minimum number of raster grids. SDR is inversely proportional to sediment resident time and controlled by rainfall, slope, soil, and land cover. Application of SDAS is demonstrated in this paper by simulating the spatial distribution of the annual sediment yield across the Citarum watershed in the northwest of Java, Indonesia. SDAS calibration was carried out based on sediment discharge observations from the upper catchment. We considered factors for hillslope flow depth and for actual and effective rainfall duration to fit the computed sediment yield to the observed sediment discharge. The computed sediment yield agreed with the observation data with a 7% mean relative accuracy.

  14. Sterols of a contemporary lacustrine sediment. [in English postglacial lake

    Gaskell, S. J.; Eglinton, G.


    Results are reported for detailed sterol analyses of several depths (corresponding to between zero and about 150 yr in age) in a contemporary lacustrine sediment from a freshwater lake of postglacial origin in England. Delta 5-, delta 22-, and delta 5,22-sterols are identified along with 5 alpha- and 5 beta-stanols as well as a C26 stanol with a C7 side chain. Solvent extraction yields carbon number distributions for the 5 alpha- and 5 beta-stanol sediment constituents that parallel the corresponding delta 5-sterol distributions. The amounts of 5 alpha-stanols are found to exceed those of 5 beta-stanols in the sediment, and variations in the ratio of 5 alpha- to 5 beta-stanol between sediment samples from similar depths are shown to suggest an inhomogeneity of the sediment. It is found that the sterol composition of sediment cores varies markedly with depth, reflecting both the effects of a sterol hydrogenation process and a changing input to the sediment. It is concluded that C29 sterols, of probable higher-plant origin, predominate at lower sediment depths while C27 sterols, possibly derived from autochthonous sources, are more abundant in the surface sediment.

  15. Performance evaluation of soft copy display systems according to AAPM TG18 protocol.

    Olgar, T; Kamberli, E


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the display performance of the liquid crystal display monitors according to the American association of physicists in medicine task group 18 (AAPM TG18) protocol at prior and after new calibration. We measured minimum and maximum luminance, luminance ratio, luminance and contrast response, luminance angular and spatial dependency, resolution, veiling glare and chromaticity quantitatively for 33 medical displays. Display noise was evaluated only visually. The mean maximum luminance and luminance ratio were 386 and 273 cd m(-2), respectively. The mean deviation of measured luminance and contrast response from expected response associated with the digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) grayscale standard display function (GSDF) were 9.76 and 2.35 % at prior calibration and 1.23 and 0.26 % after recalibration, respectively. In luminance uniformity test the mean maximum luminance deviation was 16 %. Luminance method was used in the spatial resolution test and the mean percent luminance difference was 12 % at the center. The mean glare ratio was 1 154. The average color uniformity parameter across the display area of each display device was 0.0093. Majority of the test results were in good agreement with the criteria recommended by AAPM TG18 report. Considerable improvement was observed in display luminance and contrast response with respect to expected response of DICOM GSDF after new calibration for some displays.

  16. ProPath Display Process Overview

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This API displays an overview of the process including the description, goals, associated roles (linked to their detailed information). It also displays all of the...

  17. Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for lightweight, space suit-mounted displays, Luminit proposes a novel Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display. Our proposed Holographic...

  18. Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for an EVA information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display...

  19. OZ: An Innovative Primary Flight Display Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR project will develop OZ, an innovative primary flight display for aircraft. The OZ display, designed from "first principles" of vision science,...

  20. Evaluation of metal enrichment and trophic status on the basis of biogeochemical analysis of shelf sediments of the southeastern Arabian Sea, India

    Cheriyan, Eldhose; Sreekanth, Athira; Mrudulrag, S. K.; Sujatha, C. H.


    The present study investigated the distribution of environmentally relevant metals and organic matter in the shelf sediments of the southeastern Arabian Sea using biogeochemical proxies for the assessment of environmental quality and trophic status. The distribution of metals in the study site followed the order: Fe>Mg>Pb>Ni>Mn>Co>Cu>Zn>Cd. High biological productivity associated with upwelling leads to significant accumulation of Cd higher than crustal abundance in the shelf region. The enrichment factor (EF) of metals demonstrate enrichment of Pb and Co which suggests the anthropogenic influence and not redox conditions. The sediment quality guidelines (SQG) in comparison with metal concentration revealed adverse effects, possibly occurring in marine benthic species. The spatial trend of metal enrichment along transects is appreciably controlled by the adsorption to fine grained sediments. The multivariate statistical analyses, such as correlations and principal component analysis (PCA) clearly indicated the control of texture, association of clay minerals in the degree of trace metal (Cd, Pb, Ni and Co) contamination from anthropogenic as well as natural sources. Low levels of Zn, preferably display scavenging by Fe/Mn metal oxides. Biochemical descriptors in sediments indicated meso-oligotrophic conditions prevailing in the summer monsoon. The ratios among various biogeochemical parameters such as total organic carbon/total nitrogen (TOC/TNcontamination from a potential fishery zone of Indian exclusive economic zone.

  1. Sediment residence time and connectivity in non-equilibrium and transient geomorphic systems

    Hoffmann, Thomas; Hillebrand, Gudrun


    Growing empirical evidence shows that sediment delivery in many geomorphic systems is in transient state or out of equilibrium with respect to the external driving forces. The transient state is often related to the (dis)connectivity of the many constituent parts of geomorphic systems as a result of sediment storage along the sediment flow path from its source to the final sink. The response time of geomorphic systems to external changes is thus dependent on the residence time of sediment in various storage compartments. Here, a mathematical concept based on reservoir theory to model residence time of sediment in various depositional environments is presented. The concept allows to reinterpret millennial scale sediment budges, but can be also applied to decal sediment storage in reservoirs and aids sediment management practices in river systems. The framework sheds light on the limitation of the sediment delivery ratio, which is often used as a measure of sediment connectivity in geomorphic systems, and provides analytical information on process type, pace of sediment flux and connectivity of storage compartments along the sediment cascade. Examples will be given using Postglacial sediment budgets from the Canadian Rocky mountains on the one hand and short-term (~15 yrs.) sediment dynamics in the Iffezheim barrage in the Upper Rhine (Germany).

  2. Ratios of Normal Variables

    George Marsaglia


    Full Text Available This article extends and amplifies on results from a paper of over forty years ago. It provides software for evaluating the density and distribution functions of the ratio z/w for any two jointly normal variates z,w, and provides details on methods for transforming a general ratio z/w into a standard form, (a+x/(b+y , with x and y independent standard normal and a, b non-negative constants. It discusses handling general ratios when, in theory, none of the moments exist yet practical considerations suggest there should be approximations whose adequacy can be verified by means of the included software. These approximations show that many of the ratios of normal variates encountered in practice can themselves be taken as normally distributed. A practical rule is developed: If a < 2.256 and 4 < b then the ratio (a+x/(b+y is itself approximately normally distributed with mean μ = a/(1.01b − .2713 and variance 2 = (a2 + 1/(b2 + .108b − 3.795 − μ2.

  3. Ratios of Normal Variables

    George Marsaglia


    Full Text Available This article extends and amplifies on results from a paper of over forty years ago. It provides software for evaluating the density and distribution functions of the ratio z/w for any two jointly normal variates z,w, and provides details on methods for transforming a general ratio z/w into a standard form, (a+x/(b+y , with x and y independent standard normal and a, b non-negative constants. It discusses handling general ratios when, in theory, none of the moments exist yet practical considerations suggest there should be approximations whose adequacy can be verified by means of the included software. These approximations show that many of the ratios of normal variates encountered in practice can themselves be taken as normally distributed. A practical rule is developed: If a < 2.256 and 4 < b then the ratio (a+x/(b+y is itself approximately normally distributed with mean μ = a/(1.01b - .2713 and variance σ2 = (a2 + 1/(b2 + .108b - 3.795 μ2.

  4. Radiochronology of lake sediments

    Erten, H.N. [Bilkent Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry


    Sediment cores from Lakes Zurich, Constance, from the Sea of Marmara and from southern Turkey, northern Cyprus and eastern Spain were dated using natural {sup 210}Pb, fallout {sup 137}Cs and cosmic-ray produced {sup 7}Be radionuclides. Constant activity regions in the uppermost sections of sediments from Lake Zurich and the Sea of Marmara were attributed to post-depositional mobility of {sup 210}Pb in the former case and to bioturbation in the latter. A serious discrepancy exists between the {sup 210}Pb dating of Sea of Marmara sediments and those obtained by organic carbon based methods. The elements Zn, Cu, P and Pb were enriched in the upper sections of the sediment cores corresponding to the last 200 years. The increased metallurgical activities as a result of reforms in the Ottoman Army during the 18th century could be the most likely cause. (Author).

  5. Sediment Resuspension Data

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The full report on sediment resuspension in drinking water storage tanks and a link to an animation of results. This dataset is associated with the following...

  6. Rapid Sediment Characterization Tools


    Organic (PAHs), inorganic (metals) Mobile field Lab or lab * Biomarkers (P450RGS dioxin screening assay) Dioxins , PAHs Lab Biological *cDNA...7 Immunoassays for PCBs, PAHs, Pesticides, and Dioxins ...9 P450RGS Dioxin Screening Assay for Sediment

  7. Offshore Surficial Sediment

    California Department of Resources — This data layer (PAC_EXT.txt and PAC_PRS.txt) represents two of five point coverages of known sediment samples, inspections, and probes from the usSEABED data...

  8. Distribution, Microfabric, and Geochemical Characteristics of Siliceous Rocks in Central Orogenic Belt, China: Implications for a Hydrothermal Sedimentation Model

    Hongzhong Li


    Full Text Available Marine siliceous rocks are widely distributed in the central orogenic belt (COB of China and have a close connection to the geological evolution and metallogenesis. They display periodic distributions from Mesoproterozoic to Jurassic with positive peaks in the Mesoproterozoic, Cambrian—Ordovician, and Carboniferous—Permian and their deposition is enhanced by the tensional geological settings. The compressional regimes during the Jinning, Caledonian, Hercynian, Indosinian, and Yanshanian orogenies resulted in sudden descent in their distribution. The siliceous rocks of the Bafangshan-Erlihe ore deposit include authigenic quartz, syn-depositional metal sulphides, and scattered carbonate minerals. Their SiO2 content (71.08–95.30%, Ba (42.45–503.0 ppm, and ΣREE (3.28–19.75 ppm suggest a hydrothermal sedimentation origin. As evidenced by the Al/(Al + Fe + Mn, Sc/Th, (La/YbN, and (La/CeN ratios and δCe values, the studied siliceous rocks were deposited in a marginal sea basin of a limited ocean. We suggest that the Bafangshan-Erlihe area experienced high- and low-temperature stages of hydrothermal activities. The hydrothermal sediments of the former stage include metal sulphides and silica, while the latter was mainly composed of silica. Despite the hydrothermal sedimentation of the siliceous rocks, minor terrigenous input, magmatism, and biological activity partly contributed to geochemical features deviating from the typical hydrothermal characteristics.

  9. Emerging Large-Screen Display Technology


    1255, Santa Clara, CA. 25. Williams, R. D., and F. Garcia, 1988, "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System," Society for Information...K. Miyaji, 1989, " 3D Display using Laser and Moving Screen, Japan Display 1989, Paper P3-5. 27. Sterling, R. D., R. D. TeKolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C

  10. Liquid crystal displays for aircraft engineering

    Kovalenko L. F.


    Full Text Available Operating conditions for liquid-crystal displays of aircraft instruments have been examined. Requirements to engineering of a liquid-crystal display for operation in severe environment have been formulated. The implementation options for liquid-crystal matrix illumination have been analyzed in order to ensure the sufficient brightness depending on external illumination of a display screen.

  11. Microfluidics for electronic paper-like displays

    Shui, Lingling; Hayes, Robert A.; Jin, Mingliang; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Xiao; Bai, Pengfei; van den Berg, Albert; Zhou, Guofu


    Displays are ubiquitous in modern life, and there is a growing need to develop active, full color, video-rate reflective displays that perform well in high-light conditions. The core of display technology is to generate or manipulate light in the visible wavelength. Colored fluids or fluids with

  12. Data Display Markup Language (DDML) Handbook


    Moreover, the tendency of T&E is towards a plug-and-play-like data acquisition system that requires standard languages and modules for data displays...Telemetry Group DOCUMENT 127-17 DATA DISPLAY MARKUP LANGUAGE (DDML) HANDBOOK DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR...DOCUMENT 127-17 DATA DISPLAY MARKUP LANGUAGE (DDML) HANDBOOK January 2017 Prepared by Telemetry Group

  13. Reconfigurable Full-Page Braille Displays

    Garner, H. Douglas


    Electrically actuated braille display cells of proposed type arrayed together to form full-page braille displays. Like other braille display cells, these provide changeable patterns of bumps driven by digitally recorded text stored on magnetic tapes or in solid-state electronic memories. Proposed cells contain electrorheological fluid. Viscosity of such fluid increases in strong electrostatic field.

  14. 27 CFR 6.83 - Product displays.


    ... industry member of giving or selling product displays to a retailer does not constitute a means to induce... costs are excluded. (2) All product displays must bear conspicuous and substantial advertising matter on... address of the retailer may appear on the product displays. (3) The giving or selling of such...

  15. Cell aggregation and sedimentation.

    Davis, R H


    The aggregation of cells into clumps or flocs has been exploited for decades in such applications as biological wastewater treatment, beer brewing, antibiotic fermentation, and enhanced sedimentation to aid in cell recovery or retention. More recent research has included the use of cell aggregation and sedimentation to selectively separate subpopulations of cells. Potential biotechnological applications include overcoming contamination, maintaining plasmid-bearing cells in continuous fermentors, and selectively removing nonviable hybridoma cells from perfusion cultures.

  16. Potential support ratios

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir


    , the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models......, historical data, and forecasted data. Cohort life expectancy takes future mortality improvements into account, unlike period life expectancy, leading to a higher prospective potential support ratio. Our results indicate that using cohort instead of period life expectancy returns around 0.5 extra younger...

  17. Anthropogenically derived mercury in sediments of Pialassa Baiona, Ravenna, Italy

    Fabbri, D.; Gemelli, S.; Vassura, I. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Lab. di Chimica Ambientale; Langone, L.; Miserocchi, S. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Geologia Marina, Bologna (Italy); Trombini, C. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica G. Ciamician


    Pialassa Baiona, a coastal wetland near the city of Ravenna, has been impacted for two decades (1958-1978) by industrial discharges containing mercury and floating agglomerates of residues of polymerization processes. Although the industrial use of mercury completely ceased in the early 90's, surface sediments are still highly contaminated, mercury concentrations decreasing from the southern sub-basin, close to the discharge point, to the farthest northern border. Concentrations of total mercury, synthetic polymers (determined by pyrolysis-GC/MS), total organic carbon, C/N ratio, total sulfur and {sup 210}Pb dating, were determined in sediment cores collected in the southern and northern sub-basins. Mercury and polymers exhibited parallel profiles with a peak corresponding to the historic emission record in the southern core, while in northern cores peaks of maximum concentration display a delay reflecting the time required for the pollutants to migrate. A recently developed mercury sequential extraction procedure was applied to the most polluted layers to study inorganic mercury speciation. Results indicate differences between the southern and northern areas, suggesting a more efficient binding of mercury to sediments in the southern sub-basin. [Italian] La Pialassa Baiona, una laguna costiera in prossimita' della citta' di Ravenna, per due decadi (1958-1978) e' stata sottoposta all'impatto di scarichi industriali contenenti, fra l'altro, mercurio ed agglomerati gallegianti di residui di processi di polimerizzazione. Sebbene l'uso industriale di mercurio sia completamente cessato all'inizio degli anni 90, i sedimenti superficiali sono tuttora fortemente contaminati, con concentrazioni che decrescono muovendosi dal bacino meridionale che riceveva gli scarichi, in direzione del confine settentrionale. In carote di sedimento campionate nei sotto-bacini meridionale e settentrionale sono state determinate le concentrazioni di

  18. Effects of lead-contaminated sediment on Rana sphenocephala tadpoles

    Sparling, D.W.; Krest, S.K.; Ortiz-Santaliestra, M.


    We exposed larval southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to lead-contaminated sediments to determine the lethal and sublethal effects of this metal. Tadpoles were laboratory-raised from early free-swimming stage through metamorphosis at lead concentrations of 45, 75, 180, 540, 2360, 3940, 5520, and 7580 mg/kg dry weight in sediment. Corresponding pore water lead concentrations were 123, 227, 589, 1833, 8121, 13,579, 19,038, and 24,427 ug/L. Tadpoles exposed to lead concentrations in sediment of 3940 mg/kg or higher died within 2 to 5 days of exposure. At lower concentrations, mortality through metamorphosis ranged from 3.5% at 45 mg/kg lead to 37% at 2360 mg/kg lead in sediment. The LC50 value for lead in sediment was 3728 mg/kg (95% CI=1315 to 72,847 mg/kg), which corresponded to 12,539 ug/L lead in pore water (95% CI= 4000 to 35,200 ug/L). Early growth and development were depressed at 2,360 mg/kg lead in sediment (8100 ug/L in pore water) but differences were not evident by the time of metamorphosis. The most obvious effect of lead was its pronounced influence on skeletal development. Whereas tadpoles at 45 mg/kg lead in sediment did not display permanent abnormalities, skeletal malformations increased in frequency and severity at all higher lead concentrations. By 2360 mg/kg, 100% of surviving metamorphs displayed severe spinal problems, reduced femur and humerus lengths, deformed digits, and other bone malformations. Lead concentrations in tissues correlated positively with sediment and pore water concentrations.

  19. CERN students display their work

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    The first poster session by students working on the LHC experiments, organised by the LPCC, was a great success. Showcasing the talents of over a hundred young physicists from all over the world, it was an opportunity for everyone at CERN to check out the wide range of research work being done by the new generation of physicists at CERN.   At 5.30 p.m. on Wednesday 23 March, the first poster session by CERN students took place in Restaurant No.1, where no fewer than 87 posters went on public display. The students were split into 8 groups according to their research field* and all were on hand to answer the questions of an inquisitive audience. TH Department's Michelangelo Mangano, who is head of the LHC Physics Centre at CERN (LPCC) and is responsible for the initiative, confirms that nothing was left to chance, even the choice of date: "We wanted to make the most of the general enthusiasm around the winter conferences and the meeting of the LHC Experiments Committee to present the stud...

  20. Citizenship displayed by disabled people

    Eliana Prado Carlino


    Full Text Available By investigating the processes by which successful teachers become activate citizens and by listening to the diversity and richness of their life and formation stories, this work became possible. Its aim is to display some of the utterances of two Down Syndrome individuals and their active-citizenship activities. Their stories were told in the reports of two teachers when describing their personal and professional history, and were considered to be an integral part of it. Thus, some of the utterances and perceptions with which these two individuals elaborate their references, their worldview and their active-citizenship activity are evidenced in this paper. This article is based on the language conceptions of Vygotsky and Bakhtin who defend the idea that the group and the social mentality are ingrain in the individual. Hence, the history of one person reveals that of many others, since there is a deep link between the individual and the social in the formation of a subjective worldview. As a result, it can be easily seen that the utterances expressed by the participants in this research cannot be considered strictly individual because enunciation is social in nature. Despite the fact that the utterances are those of individuals, they manifest a collective reality. This demonstrates the real advantages and possibilities that deficient people get from their participation and intervention in society.

  1. A Method to Compensate for Display System Contrast Ratio Differences in Distributed Simulation


    video . Atmospheric effects can also be done this way, when used in conjunction with a rendered image representing depth (or slant range). In a...Step 2 is accomplished with the IDirect3DDevice::StretchRect method. This method moves the image rendered as an anti- aliased frame buffer to a video ...r0, c1.x ; r1 = r+g+b max r1, r1, c2.x ; clamp to a minimum value rcp r1.y, r1.x ; 1/TCU mul r0.rgb, r0, r1.y ; r,g

  2. 230Th, 226Ra and 222Rn in abyssal sediments

    Kadko, David


    A model that predicts the flux of 222Rn out of deep-sea sediment is presented. The radon is ultimately generated by 230Th which is stripped from the overlying water into the sediment. Data from many authors are compared with the model predictions. It is shown that the continental contribution of ionium is not significant, and that at low sedimentation rates, biological mixing and erosional processes strongly affect the surface concentration of the ionium. Two cores from areas of slow sediment accumulation, one from a manganese nodule region of the central Pacific and one from the Rio Grande Rise in the Atlantic were analyzed at closely spaced intervals for 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb. The Pacific core displayed evidence of biological mixing down to 12 cm and had a sedimentation rate of only 0.04 cm/kyr. The Atlantic core seemed to be mixed to 8 cm and had a sedimentation rate of 0.07 cm/kyr. Both cores had less total excess 230Th than predicted. Radium sediment profiles are generated from the 230Th model. Adsorbed, dissolved, and solid-phase radium is considered. According to the model, diffusional losses of radium are especially important at low sedimentation rates. Any particulate, or excess radium input is ignored in this model. The model fits the two analyzed cores if the fraction of total radium available for adsorption-desorption is about 0.5-0.7, and if K, the distribution coefficient, is about 1000. Finally, the flux of radon out of the sediments is derived from the model-generated radium profiles. It is shown that the resulting standing crop of 222Rn in the overlying water may be considered as an added constraint in budgeting 230Th and 226Ra in deep-sea sediments.

  3. Sediment Yield Modeling in a Large Scale Drainage Basin

    Ali, K.; de Boer, D. H.


    This paper presents the findings of spatially distributed sediment yield modeling in the upper Indus River basin. Spatial erosion rates calculated by using the Thornes model at 1-kilometre spatial resolution and monthly time scale indicate that 87 % of the annual gross erosion takes place in the three summer months. The model predicts a total annual erosion rate of 868 million tons, which is approximately 4.5 times the long- term observed annual sediment yield of the basin. Sediment delivery ratios (SDR) are hypothesized to be a function of the travel time of surface runoff from catchment cells to the nearest downstream channel. Model results indicate that higher delivery ratios (SDR > 0.6) are found in 18 % of the basin area, mostly located in the high-relief sub-basins and in the areas around the Nanga Parbat Massif. The sediment delivery ratio is lower than 0.2 in 70 % of the basin area, predominantly in the low-relief sub-basins like the Shyok on the Tibetan Plateau. The predicted annual basin sediment yield is 244 million tons which compares reasonably to the measured value of 192.5 million tons. The average annual specific sediment yield in the basin is predicted as 1110 tons per square kilometre. Model evaluation based on accuracy statistics shows very good to satisfactory performance ratings for predicted monthly basin sediment yields and for mean annual sediment yields of 17 sub-basins. This modeling framework mainly requires global datasets, and hence can be used to predict erosion and sediment yield in other ungauged drainage basins.

  4. Gender Ratio in Dyslexia.

    Miles, T. R.; Haslum, M. N.; Wheeler, T. J.


    A study involving 11,804 British children (age 10) found that when specified criteria for dyslexia were used, 269 children qualified as dyslexic. These included 223 boys and 46 girls, for a ratio of 4.51 to 1. Difficulties in interpreting these data are discussed and a defense of the criteria is provided. (Author/CR)

  5. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    PO de Wet


    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  6. Laser-based displays: a review.

    Chellappan, Kishore V; Erden, Erdem; Urey, Hakan


    After the invention of lasers, in the past 50 years progress made in laser-based display technology has been very promising, with commercial products awaiting release to the mass market. Compact laser systems, such as edge-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and optically pumped semiconductor lasers, are suitable candidates for laser-based displays. Laser speckle is an important concern, as it degrades image quality. Typically, one or multiple speckle reduction techniques are employed in laser displays to reduce speckle contrast. Likewise, laser safety issues need to be carefully evaluated in designing laser displays under different usage scenarios. Laser beam shaping using refractive and diffractive components is an integral part of laser displays, and the requirements depend on the source specifications, modulation technique, and the scanning method being employed in the display. A variety of laser-based displays have been reported, and many products such as pico projectors and laser televisions are commercially available already.

  7. Ratio between autoflocculating and target microalgae affects the energy-efficient harvesting by bio-flocculation

    Salim, S.; Vermuë, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.


    The effect of ratio between autoflocculating and target microalgae in bio-flocculation was studied with emphasis on the recovery, sedimentation rate and energy demand for harvesting the target microalgae. When the autoflocculating microalgae Ettlia texensis, Ankistrodesmus falcatus and Scenedesmus

  8. Modelling the landslide area and sediment discharge in landslide-dominated region, Taiwan

    Teng, Tse-Yang; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Chen, Yi-Chin; Jan, Ming-Young; Liu, Cheng-Chien


    Many studies have indicated the magnified increase of rainfall intensification, landsliding and subsequent sediment discharge due to the global warming effect. However, a few works synthesized the "chain reaction" from rainfall, landsliding to sediment discharge at the same time because of the limited observations of landslide area and sediment discharge during episodes. Besides, the sediment transport strongly depends on the sediment supply and stream power which interact conditionally. In this study, our goal is to build a model that can simulate time-series landslide area and subsequent sediment discharge. The synthesized model would be applied onto Tsengwen Reservoir watershed in southern Taiwan, where lots of landslides occur every year. Unlike other studies, our landslide model considers not only rainfall effect but also previous landslide status, which may be applied to landslide-dominated regions and explains the irrelevant relationship between typhoon rainfall and landslide area. Furthermore, our sediment transport model considers the sediment budget which couples transport- and supply-limited of sediment. The result shows that the simulated time-series landslide area and the sediment transport agree with the observation and the R2 are 0.88 and 0.56, respectively. Reactivated ratio of previous landslide area is 72.7% which indicates the high reoccurrence of historical landslide in landslide-dominated regions. We divided nine historical typhoons into three periods to demonstrate the effect of sediment supply/supply-limited condition upon sediment transport. For instance, the rainfall is smaller in period 3 than in period 1 but the sediment transport is higher in period 3 due to the catastrophic landslide (typhoon Morakot) during period 2. We argue that quantifying sediment transport should couple not only with water discharge but sediment budget, which is rarely considered in calculating sediment transport. Moreover, the parameterization of the controlling

  9. Microspheres in Plasma Display Panels


    Filling small bubbles of molten glass with gases is just as difficult as it sounds, but the technical staff at NASA is not known to shy away from a difficult task. When Microsphere Systems, Inc. (MSI), of Ypsilanti, Michigan, and Imaging Systems Technology, Inc. (IST), of Toledo, Ohio, were trying to push the limits of plasma displays but were having difficulty with the designs, NASA s Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) assembled key personnel at Glenn Research Center and Ohio State University for a brainstorming session to come up with a solution for the companies. They needed a system that could produce hollow, glass micro-sized spheres (microspheres) that could be filled with a variety of gasses. But the extremely high temperature required to force the micro-sized glass bubbles to form at the tip of a metal nozzle resulted in severe discoloration of the microspheres. After countless experiments on various glass-metal combinations, they had turned to the GMCI for help. NASA experts in advanced metals, ceramics, and glass concluded that a new design approach was necessary. The team determined that what was needed was a phosphate glass composition that would remain transparent, and they went to work on a solution. Six weeks later, using the design tips from the NASA team, Tim Henderson, president of MSI, had designed a new system in which all surfaces in contact with the molten glass would be ceramic instead of metal. Meanwhile, IST was able to complete a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and supply a potential customer with samples of the microspheres for evaluation as filler materials for high-performance insulations.

  10. Military display market segment: wearable and portable

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.


    The military display market (MDM) is analyzed in terms of one of its segments, wearable and portable displays. Wearable and portable displays are those embedded in gear worn or carried by warfighters. Categories include hand-mobile (direct-view and monocular/binocular), palm-held, head/helmet-mounted, body-strapped, knee-attached, lap-born, neck-lanyard, and pocket/backpack-stowed. Some 62 fielded and developmental display sizes are identified in this wearable/portable MDM segment. Parameters requiring special consideration, such as weight, luminance ranges, light emission, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are summarized and compared. Ruggedized commercial versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted; and a number of custom displays are also found in this MDM category. Display sizes having aggregate quantities of 5,000 units or greater or having 2 or more program applications are identified. Wearable and portable displays are also analyzed by technology (LCD, LED, CRT, OLED and plasma). The technical specifications and program history of several high-profile military programs are discussed to provide a systems context for some representative displays and their function. As of August 2002 our defense-wide military display market study has documented 438,882 total display units distributed across 1,163 display sizes and 438 weapon systems. Wearable and portable displays account for 202,593 displays (46% of total DoD) yet comprise just 62 sizes (5% of total DoD) in 120 weapons systems (27% of total DoD). Some 66% of these wearable and portable applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, there is an accelerating trend towards higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  11. Hydrodynamics of sediment threshold

    Ali, Sk Zeeshan; Dey, Subhasish


    A novel hydrodynamic model for the threshold of cohesionless sediment particle motion under a steady unidirectional streamflow is presented. The hydrodynamic forces (drag and lift) acting on a solitary sediment particle resting over a closely packed bed formed by the identical sediment particles are the primary motivating forces. The drag force comprises of the form drag and form induced drag. The lift force includes the Saffman lift, Magnus lift, centrifugal lift, and turbulent lift. The points of action of the force system are appropriately obtained, for the first time, from the basics of micro-mechanics. The sediment threshold is envisioned as the rolling mode, which is the plausible mode to initiate a particle motion on the bed. The moment balance of the force system on the solitary particle about the pivoting point of rolling yields the governing equation. The conditions of sediment threshold under the hydraulically smooth, transitional, and rough flow regimes are examined. The effects of velocity fluctuations are addressed by applying the statistical theory of turbulence. This study shows that for a hindrance coefficient of 0.3, the threshold curve (threshold Shields parameter versus shear Reynolds number) has an excellent agreement with the experimental data of uniform sediments. However, most of the experimental data are bounded by the upper and lower limiting threshold curves, corresponding to the hindrance coefficients of 0.2 and 0.4, respectively. The threshold curve of this study is compared with those of previous researchers. The present model also agrees satisfactorily with the experimental data of nonuniform sediments.

  12. Vertical distribution of (241)Pu in the southern Baltic Sea sediments.

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I


    The vertical distribution of plutonium (241)Pu in marine sediments can assist in determining the deposition history and sedimentation process of analyzed regions. In addition, (241)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratio could be used as a sensitive fingerprint for radioactive source identification. The present preliminary studies on vertical distribution of (241)Pu in sediments from four regions of the southern Baltic Sea are presented. The distribution of (241)Pu was not uniform and depended on sediment geomorphology and depth as well as location. The highest concentrations of plutonium were found in the surface layers of all analyzed sediments and originated from the Chernobyl accident.

  13. Ability of salt marsh plants for TBT remediation in sediments.

    Carvalho, Pedro N; Basto, M Clara P; Silva, Manuela F G M; Machado, Ana; Bordalo, A A; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D


    The capability of Halimione portulacoides, Spartina maritima, and Sarcocornia fruticosa (halophytes very commonly found in salt marshes from Mediterranean areas) for enhancing remediation of tributyltin (TBT) from estuarine sediments was investigated, using different experimental conditions. The influence of H. portulacoides on degradation of the butyltin compounds was assessed in two different ways: (1) a 9-month ex situ study carried out in a site of Sado River estuary, center of Portugal, which used polluted sediments collected at other nonvegetated site from the same estuary; and (2) a 12-month laboratorial study, using both plant and sediment collected at a relatively clean site of Cávado River estuary, north of Portugal, the sediment being doped with TBT, DBT, and MBT at the beginning of the experiment. The role of both S. fruticosa and S. maritima on TBT remediation in sediments was evaluated in situ, in salt marshes from Marim channel of Ria Formosa lagoon, south of Portugal, which has large areas colonized by each one of these two plants. For estimation of microbial abundance, total cell counts of sediment samples were enumerated by the DAPI direct count method. Butyltin analyses in sediment were performed using a method previously validated, which consisted of headspace solid-phase micro-extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after in situ ethylation (with tetraethylborate). Sediments colonized both ex situ and at lab by H. portulacoides displayed TBT levels about 30% lower than those for nonvegetated sediments with identical initial composition, after 9-12 months of plant exposure. In addition, H. portulacoides showed to be able of stimulating bacterial growth in the plant rhizosphere, which probably included degraders of TBT. In the in situ study, which compared the levels of TBT, DBT, and MBT in nonvegetated sediment and in sediments colonized by either S. maritima or S. fruticosa from the same area, TBT and DBT were only

  14. PAH related effects on fish in sedimentation ponds for road runoff and potential transfer of PAHs from sediment to biota.

    Grung, Merete; Petersen, Karina; Fjeld, Eirik; Allan, Ian; Christensen, Jan H; Malmqvist, Linus M V; Meland, Sondre; Ranneklev, Sissel


    Road runoff is an important source of pollution to the aquatic environment, and sedimentation ponds have been installed to mitigate effects on the aquatic environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate if a) fish from sedimentation ponds were affected by road pollution and; b) the transfer of PAHs from road runoff material to aquatic organisms was substantial. Minnow from a sedimentation pond (Skullerud) near Oslo (Norway) had higher levels of CYP1A enzyme and DNA stand breaks than minnow from the nearby river, but high concentrations of PAH-metabolites in bile revealed that both populations were highly exposed. Principal component analysis revealed that CYP1A and age of fish were correlated, while levels of PAH-metabolites were not correlated to CYP1A or DNA damage. Minnow from a lake un-affected by traffic had much lower levels of PAH-metabolites than the exposed fish, and also an improved condition. The latter results indicate that fish health was affected by road runoff. A closer investigation of PAH levels of the ecosystems of two sedimentation ponds (Skullerud and Vassum) and nearby environments were conducted. The concentration of the 16 EPA PAHs in sediments of the sedimentation ponds were high (1900-4200ngg(-1)), and even higher levels were observed in plants. Principal component analysis of selected ion chromatograms of PAHs showed a clear separation of plants vs. sediments. The plants preferentially accumulated the high molecular PAHs, both from sedimentation ponds with a petrogenic PAH isomer ratio in sediments; and from a lake with pyrogenic PAH isomer ratio in sediments.

  15. Ra-226 and Pb-210/Ra-226 Activity Ratio in the Northern South China Sea

    Chi-Ju, L.; Yu-Chia, C.; Tsung-En, W.


    The surface water distributions and vertical profiles of Ra-226 in the northern South China Sea (SCS) have been measured. Surface water Ra-226 varies between 10 and 16 dpm/100 kg with higher values at stations adjacent to the landmass. Each Ra-226 profile shows an increase from the surface toward the bottom. Above 1000m depth Ra-226 is systematically about 5 dpm/100kg higher in the northern South China Sea than in the western North Pacific. This difference may be attributed to a strong Ra-226 source from the shelf and slope area of the SCS. Below this depth Ra-226 displays large variation within some of the profiles with lower limits being comparable to the activities of the western North Pacific but higher limits being systematically about 5 dpm/100kg higher. These high Ra-226 activities may reflect effects of the longer isolation time for the deep water in the SCS basin and strong Ra input from the underlying sediments. The Pb-210/Ra-226 activity ratio ranges between 1.4 and 2.7 in the surface water with higher activity ratio at the station closer to the Luzon Strait. The Pb-210 in excess over Ra-226 in the surface water due to atmospheric input may penetrate to a depth of about 200 to 500m. Below this depth, Pb-210/Ra-226 activity ratio ranges between 0.5 and 0.7 because Pb-210 is scavenged by settling particulates. Box model calculations within a mixed layer of 50m in the area yield a mean residence time of about 1 yr for Pb-210 if an atmospheric Pb-210 flux of 1 dpm/cm2/y is adopted. The activity ratio of about 0.5 to 0.7 in the deep water corresponds to a Pb-210 mean residence time of about 30 to 70 yrs with respect to particulate scavenging.

  16. Sedimentation of Knotted Polymers

    Piili, Joonas; Kaski, Kimmo; Linna, Riku


    We investigate the sedimentation of knotted polymers by means of the stochastic rotation dynamics, a molecular dynamics algorithm which takes hydrodynamics fully into account. We show that the sedimentation coefficient s, related to the terminal velocity of the knotted polymers, increases linearly with the average crossing number n_c of the corresponding ideal knot. To the best of our knowledge, this provides the first direct computational confirmation of this relation, postulated on the basis of experiments in "The effect of ionic conditions on the conformations of supercoiled DNA. I. sedimentation analysis" by Rybenkov et al., for the case of sedimentation. Such a relation was previously shown to hold with simulations for knot electrophoresis. We also show that there is an accurate linear dependence of s on the inverse of the radius of gyration R_g^-1, more specifically with the inverse of the R_g component that is perpendicular to the direction along which the polymer sediments. Intriguingly, the linear de...

  17. Digital interface for high-resolution displays

    Hermann, David J.; Gorenflo, Ronald L.


    Commercial display interfaces are currently transitioning from analog to digital. Although this transition is in the very early stages, the military needs to begin planning their own transition to digital. There are many problems with the analog interface in high-resolution display systems that are solved by changing to a digital interface. Also, display system cost can be lower with a digital interface to a high resolution display. Battelle is under contract with DARPA to develop an advanced Display Interface (ADI) to replace the analog RGB interfaces currently used in high definition workstation displays. The goal is to create a standard digital display interface for military applications that is based on emerging commercial standards. Support for military application- specific functionality is addressed, including display test and control. The main challenges to implementing a digital display interface are described, along with approaches to address the problems. Conceptual ADI architectures are described and contrasted. The current and emerging commercial standards for digital display interfaces are reviewed in detail. Finally, the tasks required to complete the ADI effort are outlined and described.

  18. Factors governing sediment quality (PAH) in rivers

    Schwientek, Marc; Rügner, Hermann; Scherer, Ulrike; Rode, Michael; Grathwohl, Peter


    The contamination of riverine sediments and suspended matter with hydrophobic pollutants is typically associated with urban land use. It is, however, rarely related to the sediment supply of the watershed. We show for a suite of catchments in two regions of Germany with contrasting land use and geology, that the contamination of suspended particles with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) may be predicted based on the ratio of inhabitants residing within the catchment and the catchment's sediment yield. The applicability of this concept is demonstrated for catchments ranging in size from 100 to >3000 km2. This implies that the loading of particles with PAH is more or less time invariant which is also indicated by long term measurements from sub catchments of the upper Neckar River in Southwest Germany. Data on sediment yields are rare and the installation of appropriate measurement stations is expensive, the establishment of data series time-consuming. Therefore, modeling of sediment yields based on the universal soil loss equation is proposed. Although this method lacks a physical basis, it is feasible at larger scales and is shown to lead to reasonable results at low costs. The importance of catchment properties in terms of sediment supply and the implications of the presented concept for water resources management are discussed. For instance, it may easily be used to estimate the vulnerability of river systems to particle-associated urban pollutants with similar input pathways as the PAH or to indicate if contaminant point sources such as sites of legacy pollution exist in a river catchment.

  19. Natural thorium isotopes in marine sediment core off Labuan port

    Hafidz, B. Y.; Asnor, A. S.; Terence, R. C.; Mohamed, C. A. R. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)


    Sediment core was collected from Labuan port and analyzed to determine the radioactivity of thorium (Th) isotopes. The objectives of this study are to determine the possible sources of Th isotopes at Labuan port and estimates the sedimentation rate based on {sup 228}Th/{sup 232}Th model. The results suggest the {sup 230}Th and {sup 232}Th might be originated from terrestrial sedimentary rock while {sup 228}Th originated by authigenic origin. High ratio value of {sup 230}Th/{sup 232}Th detected at the top surface sediment indicates the increasing of {sup 230}Th at the recent years which might be contributed from the anthropogenic sources. The sedimentation rate of core sediment from Labuan Port was successfully estimated by using {sup 228}Th/{sup 232}Th model. The result show high sedimentation rate with 4.67 cm/year indicates rapid deposition occurred at this study area due to the high physical activity at the Labuan port. By assume the constant sedimentation rate at this area; we estimated the age of 142 cm core sediment obtained from Labuan port is 32 years started from 1981 to 2012. This chronology will be used in forthcoming research to investigate the historical profile of anthropogenic activities affecting the Labuan port.

  20. Natural thorium isotopes in marine sediment core off Labuan port

    Hafidz, B. Y.; Asnor, A. S.; Terence, R. C.; Mohamed, C. A. R.


    Sediment core was collected from Labuan port and analyzed to determine the radioactivity of thorium (Th) isotopes. The objectives of this study are to determine the possible sources of Th isotopes at Labuan port and estimates the sedimentation rate based on 228Th/232Th model. The results suggest the 230Th and 232Th might be originated from terrestrial sedimentary rock while 228Th originated by authigenic origin. High ratio value of 230Th/232Th detected at the top surface sediment indicates the increasing of 230Th at the recent years which might be contributed from the anthropogenic sources. The sedimentation rate of core sediment from Labuan Port was successfully estimated by using 228Th/232Th model. The result show high sedimentation rate with 4.67 cm/year indicates rapid deposition occurred at this study area due to the high physical activity at the Labuan port. By assume the constant sedimentation rate at this area; we estimated the age of 142 cm core sediment obtained from Labuan port is 32 years started from 1981 to 2012. This chronology will be used in forthcoming research to investigate the historical profile of anthropogenic activities affecting the Labuan port.

  1. Salt wedge dynamics lead to enhanced sediment trapping within side embayments in high-energy estuaries

    Yellen, Brian; Woodruff, Jonathan D.; Ralston, David K.; MacDonald, D. G.; Jones, D. S.


    Off-river coves and embayments provide accommodation space for sediment accumulation, particularly for sandy estuaries where high energy in the main channel prevents significant long-term storage of fine-grained material. Seasonal sediment inputs to Hamburg Cove in the Connecticut River estuary (USA) were monitored to understand the timing and mechanisms for sediment storage there. Unlike in freshwater tidal coves, sediment was primarily trapped here during periods of low discharge, when the salinity intrusion extended upriver to the cove entrance. During periods of low discharge and high sediment accumulation, deposited sediment displayed geochemical signatures consistent with a marine source. Numerical simulations reveal that low discharge conditions provide several important characteristics that maximize sediment trapping. First, these conditions allow the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) to be located in the vicinity of the cove entrance, which increases sediment concentrations during flood tide. Second, the saltier water in the main channel can enter the cove as a density current, enhancing near-bed velocities and resuspending sediment, providing an efficient delivery mechanism. Finally, higher salinity water accumulates in the deep basin of the cove, creating a stratified region that becomes decoupled from ebb currents, promoting retention of sediment in the cove. This process of estuarine-enhanced sediment accumulation in off-river coves will likely extend upriver during future sea level rise.

  2. Pertubation in the 240Pu/239Pu global fallout ratio in local sediments following the nuclear accidents at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain)

    Mitchell, P.I.; León Vintró, L.; Dahlgaard, H.


    been subjected to close-in fallout, mainly from surface-based testing (e.g. Bikini Atoll, Nevada test site, Mururoa Atoll), has confirmed the feasibility of using this ratio to distinguish plutonium from different fallout sources. In the present study, the Pu-240/Pu-239 ratio has been examined...

  3. Application of Sediment Trend Analysis in the Examination of Sediment Transport Dynamics of Missisquoi Bay

    Kraft, M. P.; Manley, P.; Singer, J.; Manley, T.; McLaren, P.


    Missisquoi Bay is located between Vermont and Quebec in the northeast sector of the Restricted Arm of Lake Champlain. The average depth of the Bay is slightly less than 3 meters with a surface area covering 77.5 km2. The Bay receives water from eastern and western catchment basins, most notably via the Missisquoi, Rock, and Pike Rivers. Circulation within Missisquoi Bay has been altered by the construction of railroad causeways in the late 19th century and highway construction in the early 20th century. Over the past several decades there have also been changes in land-use practices, including the intensification of agriculture, increased animal husbandry, and urbanization. As a consequence of construction and changing land use, loadings of nitrogen and phosphorus to the Bay have increased seasonal oxygen depletion causing eutrophication. Since monitoring began in 1992, Missisquoi Bay has displayed the highest mean total phosphorus concentrations and chlorophyll a concentrations in Lake Champlain. Various efforts have taken place to reduce nutrient loading to Missisquoi Bay, but persistent release of phosphorus from bottom sediments will continue to delay for decades the recovery from nutrient diversion. To better understand the causes and timing of eutrophication in Missisquoi Bay, one component of a 5-year integrated VT EPSCoR - RACC program included an examination of N and P loadings and their distribution throughout the Bay. Internal circulation patterns are also being studied. To determine the pattern of net sediment transport and determine sediment behavior (erosion and accretion), a Sediment Trend Analysis (STA) was performed using 369 grab samples collected in the Bay. Grain size distributions for the surface sediment samples were determined using a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 particle size analyzer. Sediment maps showing the proportion of gravel, sand, and mud show that near major river distributaries sand-sized sediment was dominant with muds becoming more

  4. Temporal and Spatial Characterization of Macondo 252 Signatures in Gulf of Mexico Shelf and Slope Sediments: Evidence for Weathering, Biodegradation, and Transport

    Woodruff, O. P.; Yeager, K. M.; Wade, T.; Louchouarn, P.; Bonner, S.; Rutledge, M. H.


    The long-term fate of hydrocarbons in the Gulf of Mexico (GOMx) following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill has yet to be fully characterized. Elemental (% C and % N), stable isotopes (δ13Corganic), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecular signatures were investigated in shelf and slope sediments collected in October 2010 and 2011 to gain insight into processes affecting the distribution and fate of spilled Macondo oil. Particulate organic carbon (POC) ranged between 1.55 and 2.22 wt. % in 2010, and between 0.55 and 2.06 % in 2011, while the corresponding δ13Corganic ranges were from -23.37 to -20.77 ‰ (vs. PDB (Pee Dee Belemnite)) in 2010, and -22.68 to -20.75 ‰ (vs. PDB) in 2011. Ranges of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (TPAH) concentrations were from 72.57 to 7,543.53 ng/g in 2010 and 25.55 to 16,582.77 ng/g in 2011.The significant findings of this study are: a) sediments in 2010 and 2011 both display a deviation from the background signature of GOMx seafloor sediments through elevated POC concentrations, elevated OC:N ratios, depleted δ13Corganic, elevated TPAH concentrations, and a PAH signature dominated by petrogenic source materials, b) sediments collected 19 months after the Deepwater Horizon event display evidence of biodegraded and weathered oil, through decreased POC concentrations and OC:N, enriched δ13Corganic values, decreased TPAH concentrations, and alkyl homologue distributions characteristic of a biodegraded or weathered petrogenic source of PAHs, and c) physical processes that have distributed Macondo oil as indicated by the strong relationship of δ13Corganic (in 2010 and 2011) with longitude, in accordance with previous investigations that have characterized a west, southwest trending subsurface hydrocarbon plume that extended west from the Macondo well.

  5. Laser-driven polyplanar optic display

    Veligdan, J.T.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)


    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte-black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 200 milliwatt green solid-state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the DLP chip, the optomechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  6. Evaluating Ambient Displays in the Wild

    Messeter, Jörn; Molenaar, Daryn

    A prominent issue for evaluating ambient displays has been the conflict between the relative intrusiveness of evaluation methods and the intention to keep the display at the periphery of the user’s attention. There is a general lack of research discussing the difficulties of evaluating ambient...... displays in the wild, and in particular social aspects of use has received little attention. This paper presents a case study of an ambient light display designed for a public setting. Based on results from a non-intrusive in situ evaluation, we argue that viewing ambient displays as features of a broader...... social setting may aid our understanding of issues regarding the evaluation of ambient displays in the wild....

  7. Parallel large data visualization with display walls

    Scheidegger, Luiz; Vo, Huy T.; Krüger, Jens; Silva, Cláudio T.; Comba, João L. D.


    While there exist popular software tools that leverage the power of arrays of tiled high resolution displays, they usually require either the use of a particular API or significant programming effort to be properly configured. We present PVW (Parallel Visualization using display Walls), a framework that uses display walls for scientific visualization, requiring minimum labor in setup, programming and configuration. PVW works as a plug-in to pipeline-based visualization software, and allows users to migrate existing visualizations designed for a single-workstation, single-display setup to a large tiled display running on a distributed machine. Our framework is also extensible, allowing different APIs and algorithms to be made display wall-aware with minimum effort.

  8. Conceptual Design of Industrial Process Displays

    Pedersen, C.R.; Lind, Morten


    by a simple example from a plant with batch processes. Later the method is applied to develop a supervisory display for a condenser system in a nuclear power plant. The differences between the continuous plant domain of power production and the batch processes from the example are analysed and broad...... categories of display types are proposed. The problems involved in specification and invention of a supervisory display are analysed and conclusions from these problems are made. It is concluded that the design method proposed provides a framework for the progress of the display design and is useful in pin......-pointing the actual problems. The method was useful in reducing the number of existing displays that could fulfil the requirements of the supervision task. The method provided at the same time a framework for dealing with the problems involved in inventing new displays based on structured analysis. However...

  9. Three-dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display

    Javidi, Bahram; Son, Jung-Young


    Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display describes recent developments, as well as the prospects and challenges facing 3D imaging, visualization, and display systems and devices. With the rapid advances in electronics, hardware, and software, 3D imaging techniques can now be implemented with commercially available components and can be used for many applications. This volume discusses the state-of-the-art in 3D display and visualization technologies, including binocular, multi-view, holographic, and image reproduction and capture techniques. It also covers 3D optical systems, 3D display instruments, 3D imaging applications, and details several attractive methods for producing 3D moving pictures. This book integrates the background material with new advances and applications in the field, and the available online supplement will include full color videos of 3D display systems. Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display is suitable for electrical engineers, computer scientists, optical e...

  10. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System


    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  11. Matrix-addressable electrochromic display cell

    Beni, G.; Schiavone, L. M.


    We report an electrochromic display cell with intrinsic matrix addressability. The cell, based on a sputtered iridium oxide film (SIROF) and a tantalum-oxide hysteretic counterelectrode, has electrochromic parameters (i.e., response times, operating voltages, and contrast) similar to those of other SIROF display devices, but in addition, has short-circuit memory and voltage threshold. Memory and threshold are sufficiently large to allow, in principle, multiplexing of electrochromic display panels of large-screen TV pixel size.

  12. Helmet-Mounted Display Design Guide


    on openStack create menu "CSHMD" set the menuitems of "CSHMD" to "(Main Menu; References;-; Definitions;Display Criteria;Display Formats;Display Modes...34Macintosh" then put ":" into dirSep else put "V’ into dirSep put stackPathO&"Resource"&dirSep into gResPath put 0 into gXRef end openStack on

  13. Future Directions for Astronomical Image Display

    Mandel, Eric


    In the "Future Directions for Astronomical Image Displav" project, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) evolved our existing image display program into fully extensible. cross-platform image display software. We also devised messaging software to support integration of image display into astronomical analysis systems. Finally, we migrated our software from reliance on Unix and the X Window System to a platform-independent architecture that utilizes the cross-platform Tcl/Tk technology.

  14. Petrophysics of Palaeogene sediments

    Awadalkarim, Ahmed

    the geomechanical behaviour of shale. Biot’s coefficient (β) for elastic deformation is an important parameter involves in the estimation of effective stress. However, engineers usually assume β equal to one when estimating in-situ vertical effective stress on buried sediments, but, this assumption is not always...... related to borehole stability. This Ph.D. study stressed on the importance of using correct β value in estimation of vertical effective stress especially on deep-sea sediments. To assess the geomechanical stability and the stiffness of the three studied lithologies, their β was found and used to calculate...

  15. Compact Holographic Projection Display Using Liquid-Crystal-on-Silicon Spatial Light Modulator

    Wei-Feng Hsu


    Full Text Available This paper presents a holographic projection display in which a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM performs three functions: beam shaping, image display, and speckle reduction. The functions of beam shaping and image display are performed by dividing the SLM window into four sub-windows loaded with different diffractive phase elements (DPEs. The DPEs are calculated using a modified iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA. The function of speckle reduction is performed using temporal integration of display images containing speckles. The speckle contrast ratio of the display image is 0.39 due to the integration of eight speckled images. The system can be extended to display full-color images also by using temporal addition of elementary color images. Because the system configuration needs only an SLM, a Fourier transform lens, and two mirrors, the system volume is very small, becoming a potential candidate for micro projectors.

  16. Refreshable Braille Displays Using EAP Actuators

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph


    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators..

  17. Refreshable Braille displays using EAP actuators

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph


    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators.


    Ina Melati


    Full Text Available Most of ritel outlet recently using product display as a one of their best marketing strategy, the reason is quiet easy to be understood, since consumers are too easy to be teased by those kind of beautiful product display that is being displayed by the retail outlet. The good retail outlets are trying their best to design and make the very good product display, so they can attract more consumers and make them not thinking twice to visit their store and purchase lots of thing. Clearly seeing that an attractive product design is able to influence a consumer to make a buying decision. 

  19. New ultraportable display technology and applications

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.


    MicroDisplay devices are based on a combination of technologies rooted in the extreme integration capability of conventionally fabricated CMOS active-matrix liquid crystal display substrates. Customized diffraction grating and optical distortion correction technology for lens-system compensation allow the elimination of many lenses and systems-level components. The MicroDisplay Corporation's miniature integrated information display technology is rapidly leading to many new defense and commercial applications. There are no moving parts in MicroDisplay substrates, and the fabrication of the color generating gratings, already part of the CMOS circuit fabrication process, is effectively cost and manufacturing process-free. The entire suite of the MicroDisplay Corporation's technologies was devised to create a line of application- specific integrated circuit single-chip display systems with integrated computing, memory, and communication circuitry. Next-generation portable communication, computer, and consumer electronic devices such as truly portable monitor and TV projectors, eyeglass and head mounted displays, pagers and Personal Communication Services hand-sets, and wristwatch-mounted video phones are among the may target commercial markets for MicroDisplay technology. Defense applications range from Maintenance and Repair support, to night-vision systems, to portable projectors for mobile command and control centers.

  20. Testing Instrument for Flight-Simulator Displays

    Haines, Richard F.


    Displays for flight-training simulators rapidly aligned with aid of integrated optical instrument. Calibrations and tests such as aligning boresight of display with respect to user's eyes, checking and adjusting display horizon, checking image sharpness, measuring illuminance of displayed scenes, and measuring distance of optical focus of scene performed with single unit. New instrument combines all measurement devices in single, compact, integrated unit. Requires just one initial setup. Employs laser and produces narrow, collimated beam for greater measurement accuracy. Uses only one moving part, double right prism, to position laser beam.

  1. Microencapsulated Electrophoretic Films for Electronic Paper Displays

    Amundson, Karl


    Despite the dominance of liquid crystal displays, they do not perform some functions very well. While backlit liquid crystal displays can offer excellent color performance, they wash out in bright lighting and suffer from high power consumption. Reflective liquid crystal displays have limited brightness, making these devices challenging to read for long periods of time. Flexible liquid crystal displays are difficult to manufacture and keep stable. All of these attributes (long battery lifetime, bright reflective appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates) are traits that would be found in an ideal electronic paper display - an updateable substitute for paper that could be employed in electronic books, newspapers, and other applications. I will discuss technologies that are being developed for electronic-paper-like displays, and especially on particle-based technologies. A microencapsulated electrophoretic display technology is being developed at the E Ink corporation. This display film offers offer high brightness and an ink-on-paper appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates, and image stability that can lead to very low power consumption. I will present some of the physical and chemical challenges associated with making display films with high performance.

  2. Framework for effective use of multiple displays

    Liu, Qiong; Kimber, Don; Zhao, Frank; Huang, Jeffrey


    Meeting environments, such as conference rooms, executive briefing centers, and exhibition spaces, are now commonly equipped with multiple displays, and will become increasingly display-rich in the future. Existing authoring/presentation tools such as PowerPoint, however, provide little support for effective utilization of multiple displays. Even using advanced multi-display enabled multimedia presentation tools, the task of assigning material to displays is tedious and distracts presenters from focusing on content. This paper describes a framework for automatically assigning presentation material to displays, based on a model of the quality of views of audience members. The framework is based on a model of visual fidelity which takes into account presentation content, audience members' locations, the limited resolution of human eyes, and display location, orientation, size, resolution, and frame rate. The model can be used to determine presentation material placement based on average or worst case audience member view quality, and to warn about material that would be illegible. By integrating this framework with a previous system for multi-display presentation [PreAuthor, others], we created a tool that accepts PowerPoint and/or other media input files, and automatically generates a layout of material onto displays for each state of the presentation. The tool also provides an interface allowing the presenter to modify the automatically generated layout before or during the actual presentation. This paper discusses the framework, possible application scenarios, examples of the system behavior, and our experience with system use.

  3. Pengaruh Display Produk pada Keputusan Pembelian Konsumen

    Ina Melati


    Full Text Available Most of ritel outlet recently using product display as a one of their best marketing strategy, the reason is quiet easy to be understood, since consumers are too easy to be teased by those kind of beautiful product display that is being displayed by the retail outlet. The good retail outlets are trying their best to design and make the very good product display, so they can attract more consumers and make them not thinking twice to visit their store and purchase lots of thing. Clearly seeing that an attractive product design is able to influence a consumer to make a buying decision.

  4. Display of nuclear medicine imaging studies

    Singh, B; Samuel, A M


    Nuclear medicine imaging studies involve evaluation of a large amount of image data. Digital signal processing techniques have introduced processing algorithms that increase the information content of the display. Nuclear medicine imaging studies require interactive selection of suitable form of display and pre-display processing. Static imaging study requires pre-display processing to detect focal defects. Point operations (histogram modification) along with zoom and capability to display more than one image in one screen is essential. This album mode of display is also applicable to dynamic, MUGA and SPECT data. Isometric display or 3-D graph of the image data is helpful in some cases e.g. point spread function, flood field data. Cine display is used on a sequence of images e.g. dynamic, MUGA and SPECT imaging studies -to assess the spatial movement of tracer with time. Following methods are used at the investigator's discretion for inspection of the 3-D object. 1) Display of orthogonal projections, 2) Disp...

  5. Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems

    Blundell, Barry G.; Schwarz, Adam J.


    A comprehensive study of approaches to three-dimensional visualization by volumetric display systems This groundbreaking volume provides an unbiased and in-depth discussion on a broad range of volumetric three-dimensional display systems. It examines the history, development, design, and future of these displays, and considers their potential for application to key areas in which visualization plays a major role. Drawing substantially on material that was previously unpublished or available only in patent form, the authors establish the first comprehensive technical and mathematical formalization of the field, and examine a number of different volumetric architectures. System level design strategies are presented, from which proposals for the next generation of high-definition predictable volumetric systems are developed. To ensure that researchers will benefit from work already completed, they provide: * Descriptions of several recent volumetric display systems prepared from material supplied by the teams that created them * An abstract volumetric display system design paradigm * An historical summary of 90 years of development in volumetric display system technology * An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of many of the systems proposed to date * A unified presentation of the underlying principles of volumetric display systems * A comprehensive bibliography Beautifully supplemented with 17 color plates that illustrate volumetric images and prototype displays, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems is an indispensable resource for professionals in imaging systems development, scientific visualization, medical imaging, computer graphics, aerospace, military planning, and CAD/CAE.

  6. Toxicity of contaminated sediments in dilution series with control sediments

    Nelson, M.K.; Landrum, P.F.; Burton, G.A.; Klaine, S.J.; Crecelius, E.A.; Byl, T.D.; Gossiaux, Duane C.; Tsymbal, V.N.; Cleveland, L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Sasson-Brickson, G.


    The use of dilutions has been the foundation of our approach for assessing contaminated water, and accordingly, it may be important to establish similar or parallel approaches for sediment dilutions. Test organism responses to dilution gradients can identify the degree of necessary sediment alteration to reduce the toxicity. Using whole sediment dilutions to represent the complex interactions of in situ sediments can identify the toxicity, but the selection of the appropriate diluent for the contaminated sediment may affect the results and conclusions drawn. Contaminated whole sediments were examined to evaluate the toxicity of dilutions of sediments with a diversity of test organisms. Dilutions of the contaminated sediments were prepared with differing diluents that varied in organic carbon content, particle size distribution, and volatile solids. Studies were conducted using four macroinvertebrates and a vascular, rooted plant. Responses by some test organisms followed a sigmoidal dose-response curve, but others followed a U-shaped curve. Initial dilutions reduced toxicity as expected, but further dilution resulted in an increase in toxicity. The type of diluent used was an important factor in assessing the sediment toxicity, because the control soil reduced toxicity more effectively than sand as a diluent of the same sediment. Using sediment chemical and physical characteristics as an indicator of sediment dilution may not be as useful as chemical analysis of contaminants, but warrants further investigation.

  7. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G


    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  8. Relationship between erosion and sediment yield in drainage basins of loess gully-hilly areas


    From a long-term point of view, the balance between erosion and sediment yield in a drainage system can basically realize, i.e., the delivery ratio can be close to 1. However, substantial variations among individual rainfall events or between annual delivery ratio exist, causing frequent sediment retaining or re-erosion and re-delivery of the retained sediments in a short period of time. Thus the delivery ratio will be 1. The sediment delivery ratio is closely related to the spatial distribution of rainfall and magnitude of rise and fall of peak flood and that of runoff depth in the drainage system. Delivery ratio of single event in a drainage system and changes of delivery capacity of silt-laden runoff in various classes of gullies can be expressed by transformation mechanism of shear force of a single rainstorm event with flood resulting from increase and decrease of peak flood per unit area.

  9. Testing modelled hillslope sediment production using a low cost sediment trap

    Borombovits, Daniel; Brooks, Andrew; Spencer, John; Pietsch, Tim; Olley, Jon


    This presentation seeks to describe the design and evaluation of a simple, low cost Hillslope Sediment Trap (HST) suitable for deployment in remote arid and semi-arid environments as detailed in a paired submission by Brooks et al. (currently under review, Catena S-13-00775 and S-13-00776). The HSTs consist of a robust, fenced enclosure from which a geofabric barrier is hung and attached to the ground, forming a wall and apron section, which is extended upslope in a U or V shape, depending on slope angle. Key considerations of the HST design include cost, ease of field transportation and construction, and low maintenance during deployment, as well as hydraulic considerations such as conductivity, effective filtration threshold for single and consecutive events, and overall sediment retention within the traps. The sediment trapping efficiency of the HSTs was tested through a series of laboratory flume experiments which showed that the traps will accurately sample the full particle size distribution of sediment mobilised on a given hillslope, with a suspended sediment (streams which drain into the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. Using the empirical sediment yield data collected by the HSTs allowed the development of a locally calibrated hillslope erosion model, providing far more realistic predictions of erosion than have previously been employed. Total sediment yield was measured in 11 plots ranging in size from 0.1 to 1.9 ha across four main geologies in the Normanby catchment, with results ranging between 0.03 - 256 kg/ha/yr across two distinctly different wet seasons. When compared to the RUSLE modelled sediment yields determined for the same sites, plot scale metrics together provided values ranging from 1550 - 331730 kg/ha/yr. Depending on which modelled data is used, this represents an average ratio of over prediction by the RUSLE model (cf the measured rates for the same period) of between 12 to 13333 times. Reasons for the over-prediction are discussed in Brooks

  10. Sediments of a retting yard

    Remani, K.N.; Venugopal, P.; Devi, K.S.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Sediments of a coconut husk retting yard and a reference station in Cochin backwaters, Kerala, India were studied for 1 yr. Effects of monsoon were found significant Organic carbon and organic matter showed enrichment in the retting ground sediments...



    The analysis of the sediment problems in irrigation engineeringwas carried out, and the layout, the method as well as the effect of sediment control for irrigation intake structures in China were briefly introduced.

  12. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus B.; Dittmer, Anders Lindequist; Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Trojan, Daniela; Schreiber, Lars; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter


    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the fre...

  13. Sources of fine-grained sediment to streams using fallout radionuclides in the Midwestern United States

    Gellis, A.; Fuller, C. C.; Van Metre, P. C.


    Fluvial sediment is a major factor in aquatic habitat degradation. Understanding the sources of this sediment is a necessary component of management plans and policies aimed at reducing sediment inputs. Because of the time intensive framework of most sediment-source studies, spatial interpretations are often limited to the study watershed. To address sediment sources on a larger scale, the U.S. Geological Survey- National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program as part of the Midwest Stream Quality Assessment, used fallout radioisotopes (excess lead-210, cesium-137, and beryllium-7) to determine the source ((upland (surface runoff) or channel derived)) of fine-grained (states in the Midwestern United States covering 648,239 km2 of the United States. Sampling occurred in July and August of 2013, in conjunction with water chemistry, aquatic-habitat and ecological community assessments. Ninety-nine watersheds were sampled, the majority of which were predominately agricultural, with contributing areas ranging between 6.7 to 5,893 km2. Using the ratio of beryllium-7 to excess lead-210, the percent of upland to channel-derived sediment was estimated. Results indicate that sediment sources vary among the 99 watersheds. Channel sediment is an important source presumably from bank erosion. Upland sediment was not the dominant source of sediment in many of these agricultural watersheds. Suspended-sediment samples collected over an 8-week period for 3 watersheds also show that the percent of upland versus channel sediment varies spatially and temporally.

  14. Display Developer for Firing Room Applications

    Bowman, Elizabeth A.


    The firing room at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is responsible for all NASA human spaceflight launch operations, therefore it is vital that all displays within the firing room be properly tested, up-to-date, and user-friendly during a launch. The Ground Main Propulsion System (GMPS) requires a number of remote displays for Vehicle Integration and Launch (VIL) Operations at KSC. My project is to develop remote displays for the GMPS using the Display Services and Framework (DSF) editor. These remote displays will be based on model images provided by GMPS through PowerPoint. Using the DSF editor, the PowerPoint images can be recreated with active buttons associated with the correct Compact Unique Identifiers (CUIs). These displays will be documented in the Software Requirements and Design Specifications (SRDS) at the 90% GMPS Design Review. In the future, these remote displays will be available for other developers to improve, edit, or add on to so that the display may be incorporated into the firing room to be used for launches.

  15. Interruption and Pausing of Public Display Games

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Walter, Robert; Müller, Jörg


    We present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of interruptions of interaction with a public display game, and explore the use of a manual pause mode in this scenario. In previous public display installations we observed users frequently interrupting their interaction. To explore ways of supp...

  16. Additive and subtractive transparent depth displays

    Kooi, F.L.; Toet, A.


    Image fusion is the generally preferred method to combine two or more images for visual display on a single screen. We demonstrate that perceptual image separation may be preferable over perceptual image fusion for the combined display of enhanced and synthetic imagery. In this context image separat

  17. Teacher Portfolios: Displaying the Art of Teaching

    Reese, Susan


    A portfolio can convey a teacher's beliefs, knowledge and skills. An artist uses a portfolio to display artistic talent, and a teacher can use his or her portfolio to display teaching talent and teaching style. A teacher's portfolio may be used to obtain new employment, to document teaching accomplishments in order to receive a promotion or tenure…

  18. Methods for Selecting Phage Display Antibody Libraries.

    Jara-Acevedo, Ricardo; Diez, Paula; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Maria; Degano, Rosa Maria; Ibarrola, Nieves; Gongora, Rafael; Orfao, Alberto; Fuentes, Manuel


    The selection process aims sequential enrichment of phage antibody display library in clones that recognize the target of interest or antigen as the library undergoes successive rounds of selection. In this review, selection methods most commonly used for phage display antibody libraries have been comprehensively described.

  19. Preparation of Panel and Charged Particles for Electrophoretic Display

    Choi, Hyung Suk; Park, Jin Woo; Park, Lee Soon; Lee, Jung Kyung; Han, Yoon Soo; Kwon, Younghwan

    Studies on the formulation of photosensitive paste for transparent soft mold press (TSMP) method have been performed. With the optimum formulation of the photosensitive paste the box-type barrier rib with good flexibility and high solvent resistance was fabricated, suitable for the panel material of the electrophoretic display. Cationically-charged white particles were prepared by using TiO2 nanoparticles, silane coupling agent with amino groups, dispersant and acetic acid. The cationically charged TiO2 particles exhibited 74.09 mV of zeta potential and 3.11 × 10-5 cm2/Vs of mobility. Electrophoretic display fabricated with the charged TiO2 particles exhibited 10 V of low driving voltage and maximum contrast ratio (5.3/1) at 30 V.

  20. Deep-water sediment bypass

    Stevenson, Christopher J.; Jackson, Christopher A L; Hodgson, David M.; Hubbard, Stephen M.; Eggenhuisen, Joris T.


    Submarine gravity flows are a key process for transporting large volumes of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. The location, volume, and character of the sediment bypassed by these flows dictates the areal extent and thickness of the associated deposits. Despite its importance, sediment b

  1. Evaluation of an Empirical Reservoir Shape Function to Define Sediment Distributions in Small Reservoirs

    Bogusław Michalec


    Understanding and defining the spatial distribution of sediment deposited in reservoirs is essential not only at the design stage but also during the operation. The majority of research concerns the distribution of sediment deposition in medium and large water reservoirs. Most empirical methods do not provide satisfactory results when applied to the determination of sediment deposition in small reservoirs. Small reservoir’s volumes do not exceed 5 × 106 m3 and their capacity-inflow ratio is l...

  2. Interruption and Pausing of Public Display Games

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Walter, Robert; Müller, Jörg

    We present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of interruptions of interaction with a public display game, and explore the use of a manual pause mode in this scenario. In previous public display installations we observed users frequently interrupting their interaction. To explore ways...... of supporting such behavior, we implemented a gesture controlled multiuser game with four pausing techniques. We evaluated them in a field study analyzing 704 users and found that our pausing techniques were eagerly explored, but rarely used with the intention to pause the game. Our study shows...... that interactions with public displays are considerably intermissive, and that users mostly interrupt interaction to socialize and mainly approach public displays in groups. We conclude that, as a typical characteristic of public display interaction, interruptions deserve consideration. However, manual pause modes...

  3. Three-dimensional hologram display system

    Mintz, Frederick (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Bryant, Nevin (Inventor); Tsou, Peter (Inventor)


    The present invention relates to a three-dimensional (3D) hologram display system. The 3D hologram display system includes a projector device for projecting an image upon a display medium to form a 3D hologram. The 3D hologram is formed such that a viewer can view the holographic image from multiple angles up to 360 degrees. Multiple display media are described, namely a spinning diffusive screen, a circular diffuser screen, and an aerogel. The spinning diffusive screen utilizes spatial light modulators to control the image such that the 3D image is displayed on the rotating screen in a time-multiplexing manner. The circular diffuser screen includes multiple, simultaneously-operated projectors to project the image onto the circular diffuser screen from a plurality of locations, thereby forming the 3D image. The aerogel can use the projection device described as applicable to either the spinning diffusive screen or the circular diffuser screen.

  4. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui


    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  5. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    Holland, George E. (Ames, IA); Struve, Walter S. (Ames, IA); Homer, John F. (Ames, IA)


    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user.

  6. Extraction and Analysis of Display Data

    Land, Chris; Moye, Kathryn


    The Display Audit Suite is an integrated package of software tools that partly automates the detection of Portable Computer System (PCS) Display errors. [PCS is a lap top computer used onboard the International Space Station (ISS).] The need for automation stems from the large quantity of PCS displays (6,000+, with 1,000,000+ lines of command and telemetry data). The Display Audit Suite includes data-extraction tools, automatic error detection tools, and database tools for generating analysis spread sheets. These spread sheets allow engineers to more easily identify many different kinds of possible errors. The Suite supports over 40 independent analyses, 16 NASA Tech Briefs, November 2008 and complements formal testing by being comprehensive (all displays can be checked) and by revealing errors that are difficult to detect via test. In addition, the Suite can be run early in the development cycle to find and correct errors in advance of testing.

  7. 2D/3D switchable displays

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.


    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  8. Urbanization increased metal levels in lake surface sediment and catchment topsoil of waterscape parks

    Li, Hong-Bo [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Shen, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Li, Gui-Lin [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu, Yi; Yu, Guang-Bin [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Deng, Hong [Department of Environmental Sciences, Tiantong National Station of Forest Ecosystem, Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wu, Sheng-Chun [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Biology and Chemistry Department, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming-Hung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)


    Lake surface sediment is mainly derived from topsoil in its catchment. We hypothesized that distribution of anthropogenic metals would be homogenous in lake surface sediment and the lake's catchment topsoil. Anthropogenic metal distributions (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) in fourteen waterscape parks were investigated in surface sediments and catchment topsoils and possible source homogeneity was tested using stable Pb isotopic ratio analysis. The parks were located along an urbanization gradient consisting of suburban (SU), developing urban (DIU), developed urban (DDU), and central urban core (CUC) areas in Shanghai, China. Results indicated that surface lake sediments and catchment topsoils in the CUC parks were highly contaminated by the investigated anthropogenic metals. Total metal contents in surface sediment and topsoil gradually increased along the urbanization gradient from the SU to CUC areas. Generally, the surface sediments had greater total metal contents than their catchment topsoils. These results suggest that urbanization drives the anthropogenic metal enrichment in both surface sediment and its catchment topsoil in the waterscape parks. Soil fine particles (< 63 {mu}m) and surface sediments had similar enrichment ratios of metals, suggesting that surface runoff might act as a carrier for metals transporting from catchment to lake. Stable Pb isotope ratio analysis revealed that the major anthropogenic Pb source in surface sediment was coal combustion as in the catchment topsoil. Urbanization also correlated with chemical fractionation of metals in both surface sediment and catchment topsoil. From the SU to the CUC parks, amounts of labile metal fractions increased while the residual fraction of those metals remained rather constant. In short, urbanization in Shanghai drives anthropogenic metal distribution in environmental matrices and the sources were homogenous. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Obvious

  9. Structural practices for controlling sediment transport from erosion

    Gabriels, Donald; Verbist, Koen; Van de Linden, Bruno


    Erosion on agricultural fields in the hilly regions of Flanders, Belgium has been recognized as an important economical and ecological problem that requires effective control measures. This has led to the implementation of on-site and off-site measures such as reduced tillage and the installation of grass buffers trips, and dams made of vegetative materials. Dams made out of coir (coconut) and wood chips were evaluated on three different levels of complexity. Under laboratory conditions, one meter long dams were submitted to two different discharges and three sediment concentrations under two different slopes, to assess the sediment delivery ratios under variable conditions. At the field scale, discharge and sediment concentrations were monitored under natural rainfall conditions on six 3 m wide plots, of which three were equipped with coir dams, while the other three served as control plots. The same plots were also used for rainfall simulations, which allowed controlling sediment delivery boundary conditions more precisely. Results show a clear advantage of these dams to reduce discharge by minimum 49% under both field and laboratory conditions. Sediment delivery ratios (SDR) were very small under laboratory and field rainfall simulations (4-9% and 2% respectively), while larger SDRs were observed under natural conditions (43%), probably due to the small sediment concentrations (1-5 g l-1) observed and as such a larger influence of boundary effects. Also a clear enrichment of larger sand particles (+167%) could be observed behind the dams, showing a significant selective filtering effect.

  10. The Effects of Algal Turf Sediments and Organic Loads on Feeding by Coral Reef Surgeonfishes

    Goatley, Christopher H. R.; Bellwood, David R.


    Herbivorous and detritivorous fishes interact closely with the epilithic algal matrix (EAM) on coral reefs. While sediment and organic detrital loads within the EAM might influence this interaction, the responses of functionally distinct fishes to changing sediment and organic loads have not been investigated. Aquarium based feeding trials were performed to assess how different sediment and organic loads affected feeding by the highly abundant surgeonfishes, Ctenochaetus striatus, a detritivore, and Acanthurus nigrofuscus, a herbivore. C. striatus were highly sensitive to even small increases in sediment loads (of just 75 g m-2), displaying a significant decline in feeding rates as sediment loads increased. Although C. striatus is a specialised detritivore, changing organic loads had no effect and suggests that selection of feeding surfaces is primarily mediated by total sediment loads rather than organic loads. By contrast, A. nigrofuscus displayed no changes to its feeding behaviour regardless of sediment or organic load. These findings highlight the complex, species-specific way that sediments may mediate key ecological processes on coral reefs. PMID:28046102

  11. Effects of clay minerals and organic matter in formulated sediments on the bioavailability of sediment-associated uranium to the freshwater midge, Chironomus dilutus

    Crawford, Sarah E., E-mail: [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); Liber, Karsten, E-mail: [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); School of Environment and Sustainability, 117 Science Place, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5C8 (Canada); Institute of Loess Plateau, 92 Wucheng Road, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China)


    It is well established that bioavailability influences metal toxicity in aquatic ecosystems. However, the factors and mechanisms that influence uranium (U) bioavailability and toxicity in sediment have not been thoroughly evaluated, despite evidence that suggests different sediment components can influence the sorption and interaction of some metals. Given that dissolved U is generally accepted as being the primary bioavailable fraction of U, it is hypothesized that adsorption and interaction of U with different sediment components will influence the bioavailability of U in sediment. We investigated the effects of key sediment physicochemical properties on the bioavailability of U to a model freshwater benthic invertebrate, Chironomus dilutus. Several 10-day spiked sediment bioaccumulation experiments were performed, exposing C. dilutus larvae to a variety of formulated sediments spiked with different concentrations of U (5, 50 and/or 200 mg U/kg d.w.). Mean accumulation of U in C. dilutus larvae decreased significantly from 1195 to 10 mg U/kg d.w. as kaolin clay content increased from 0% to 60% in sediment spiked with 50 mg U/kg d.w. Similarly, higher organic matter content also resulted in a significant reduction of U bioaccumulation in C. dilutus larvae, indicating a reduction in U bioavailability. Concentrations of U in both the overlying water and sediment pore water displayed a strong positive relationship to U bioaccumulation in C. dilutus larvae (r{sup 2} = 0.77, p < 0.001 and r{sup 2} = 0.57, p < 0.001, respectively) for all experiments, while total U concentrations in the sediment had a poor relationship to U bioaccumulation (r{sup 2} = 0.10, p = 0.028). Results from this research confirm that sediment clay and organic matter content play a significant role in altering U bioavailability, which is important in informing risk assessments of U contaminated sites and in the development of site-specific sediment quality guidelines for U. - Highlights: • We

  12. Time-multiplexed three-dimensional displays based on directional backlights with fast-switching liquid-crystal displays.

    Chien, Ko-Wei; Shieh, Han-Ping D


    An autostereoscopic display using a directional backlight with a fast-switching liquid-crystal (LC) display was designed and fabricated to obtain a better perception of 3D images by enhanced resolution and brightness. A grooved light guide in combination with an asymmetric focusing foil was utilized to redirect the emitting cones of light to the left and right eyes, respectively. By designing the groove structures of the focusing foil with rotation from -1.5 degrees to 1.5 degrees in the gradient and having the pitch ratio of the grooved light guide to the focusing foil of less than 3, the boundary angle then shifts from normal viewing and the moiré phenomenon can be suppressed. Cross talk of less than 6% and a LC response time of faster than 7.1 ms further improve the stereoscopic image perception. Additionally, 2D-3D compatibility is provided.

  13. Evaluation of display technologies for Internet of Things (IoT)

    Sabo, Julia; Fegert, Tobias; Cisowski, Matthäus Stephanus; Marsal, Anatolij; Eichberger, Domenik; Blankenbach, Karlheinz


    Internet of Things (IoT) is a booming industry. We investigated several (semi-) professional IoT devices in combination with displays (focus on reflective technologies) and LEDs. First, these displays were compared for reflectance and ambient light performance. Two measurement set-ups with diffuse conditions were used for simulating typical indoor lighting conditions of IoT displays. E-paper displays were evaluated best as they combine a relative high reflectance with large contrast ratio. Reflective monochrome LCDs show a lower reflectance but are widely available. Second we studied IoT microprocessors interfaces to displays. A µP can drive single LEDs and one or two Seg 8 LED digits directly by GPIOs. Other display technologies require display controllers with a parallel or serial interface to the microprocessor as they need dedicated waveforms for driving the pixels. Most suitable are display modules with built-in display RAM as only pixel data have to be transferred which changes. A HDMI output (e.g. Raspberry Pi) results in high cost for the displays, therefore AMLCDs are not suitable for low to medium cost IoT systems. We compared and evaluated furthermore status indicators, icons, text and graphics IoT display systems regarding human machine interface (HMI) characteristics and effectiveness as well as power consumption. We found out that low resolution graphics bistable e-paper displays are the most appropriate display technology for IoT systems as they show as well information after a power failure or power switch off during maintenance or e.g. QR codes for installation. LED indicators are the most cost effective approach which has however very limited HMI capabilities.

  14. Sourcing sediment using multiple tracers in the catchment of Lake Argyle, Northwestern Australia.

    Wasson, R J; Caitcheon, Gary; Murray, Andrew S; McCulloch, Malcolm; Quade, Jay


    Control of sedimentation in large reservoirs requires soil conservation at the catchment scale. In large, heterogeneous catchments, soil conservation planning needs to be based on sound information, and set within the framework of a sediment budget to ensure that all of the potentially significant sources and sinks are considered. The major sources of sediment reaching the reservoir, Lake Argyle, in tropical northwestern Australia, have been determined by combining measured sediment fluxes in rivers with spatial tracer-based estimates of proportional contributions from tributaries of the main stream entering the lake, the Ord River. The spatial tracers used are mineral particle magnetics, the strontium isotopic ratio, and the neodymium isotopic ratio. Fallout of 137Cs has been used to estimate the proportion of the sediment in Lake Argyle eroded from surface soils by sheet and rill erosion, and, by difference, the proportion eroded from subsurface soils by gully and channel erosion. About 96% of the sediment in the reservoir has come from less than 10% of the catchment, in the area of highly erodible soils formed on Cambrian-age sedimentary rocks. About 80% of the sediment in the reservoir has come from gully and channel erosion. A major catchment revegetation program, designed to slow sedimentation in the reservoir, appears to have had little effect because it did not target gullies, the major source of sediment. Had knowledge of the sediment budget been available before the revegetation program was designed, an entirely different approach would have been taken.

  15. Mineral-leaching chemical transport with runoff and sediment from severely eroded rare-earth tailings in southern China

    Lu, Huizhong; Cao, Longxi; Liang, Yin; Yuan, Jiuqin; Zhu, Yayun; Wang, Yi; Gu, Yalan; Zhao, Qiguo


    Rare-earth mining has led to severe soil erosion in southern China. Furthermore, the presence of the mineral-leaching chemical ammonium sulfate in runoff and sediment poses a serious environmental threat to downstream water bodies. In this paper, the characteristics of mineral-leaching chemicals in surface soil samples collected in the field were studied. In addition, NH4+ and SO42- transport via soil erosion was monitored using runoff and sediment samples collected during natural rainfall processes. The results demonstrated that the NH4+ contents in the surface sediment deposits increased from the top of the heap (6.56 mg kg-1) to the gully (8.23 mg kg-1) and outside the tailing heap (13.03 mg kg-1). The contents of SO42- in the different locations of the tailing heaps ranged from 27.71 to 40.33 mg kg-1. During typical rainfall events, the absorbed NH4+ concentrations (2.05, 1.26 mg L-1) in runoff were significantly higher than the dissolved concentrations (0.93, 1.04 mg L-1), while the absorbed SO42- concentrations (2.87, 1.92 mg L-1) were significantly lower than the dissolved concentrations (6.55, 7.51 mg L-1). The dissolved NH4+ and SO42- concentrations in runoff displayed an exponentially decreasing tendency with increasing transport distance (Y = 1. 02 ṡ exp( - 0. 00312X); Y = 3. 34 ṡ exp( - 0. 0185X)). No clear trend with increasing distance was observed for the absorbed NH4+ and SO42- contents in transported sediment. The NH4+ and SO42- contents had positive correlations with the silt and clay ratio in transported sediment but negative correlations with the sand ratio. These results provide a better understanding of the transport processes and can be used to develop equations to predict the transport of mineral-leaching chemicals in rare-earth tailings, which can provide a scientific foundation for erosion control and soil management in rare-earth tailing regions in southern China.

  16. Ergonomic concerns with lightbar guidance displays.

    Ima, C S; Mann, D D


    This article reviews some ergonomic factors associated with agricultural guidance displays. Any technology or management decision that improves the efficiency of an agricultural operation can be considered an aspect of precision farming. Agricultural guidance displays are one such tool because they help to reduce guidance error (i.e., skipping and overlapping of implements within the field), which result in improper application of crop inputs at increased cost. Although each of the guidance displays currently available functions using a different principle, their key objective is to communicate useful guidance information to the operator of the agricultural machine. The case with which the operator obtains the required information depends on a number of ergonomic factors, such as color perceptibility, flash rate, attentional demand, display size, viewing distance, and height of placement of the display in the cab. Ergonomics can be defined as the application of knowledge to create a safe, comfortable, and effective work environment. Consequently, it is critical to consider ergonomics when designing guidance displays or when locating a display in the tractor cab. Without considering ergonomics, it is unlikely that the efficiency of the human-machine system can be optimized.

  17. Crosstalk in stereoscopic displays: a review

    Woods, Andrew J.


    Crosstalk, also known as ghosting or leakage, is a primary factor in determining the image quality of stereoscopic three dimensional (3D) displays. In a stereoscopic display, a separate perspective view is presented to each of the observer's two eyes in order to experience a 3D image with depth sensation. When crosstalk is present in a stereoscopic display, each eye will see a combination of the image intended for that eye, and some of the image intended for the other eye-making the image look doubled or ghosted. High levels of crosstalk can make stereoscopic images hard to fuse and lack fidelity, so it is important to achieve low levels of crosstalk in the development of high-quality stereoscopic displays. Descriptive and mathematical definitions of these terms are formalized and summarized. The mechanisms by which crosstalk occurs in different stereoscopic display technologies are also reviewed, including micropol 3D liquid crystal displays (LCDs), autostereoscopic (lenticular and parallax barrier), polarized projection, anaglyph, and time-sequential 3D on LCDs, plasma display panels and cathode ray tubes. Crosstalk reduction and crosstalk cancellation are also discussed along with methods of measuring and simulating crosstalk.

  18. Touch sensitive electrorheological fluid based tactile display

    Liu, Yanju; Davidson, Rob; Taylor, Paul


    A tactile display is programmable device whose controlled surface is intended to be investigated by human touch. It has a great number of potential applications in the field of virtual reality and elsewhere. In this research, a 5 × 5 tactile display array including electrorheological (ER) fluid has been developed and investigated. Force responses of the tactile display array have been measured while a probe was moved across the upper surface. The purpose of this was to simulate the action of touch performed by human finger. Experimental results show that the sensed surface information could be controlled effectively by adjusting the voltage activation pattern imposed on the tactels. The performance of the tactile display is durable and repeatable. The touch sensitivity of this ER fluid based tactile display array has also been investigated in this research. The results show that it is possible to sense the touching force normal to the display's surface by monitoring the change of current passing through the ER fluid. These encouraging results are helpful for constructing a new type of tactile display based on ER fluid which can act as both sensor and actuator at the same time.

  19. Military market for flat panel displays

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.


    This paper addresses the number, function and size of primary military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, color capability and night vision imaging system capability. A select grouping of funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted cockpit kits, and form-fit-function upgrades are taken into account. It is the intent of this paper to provide an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a timely reference to insure meeting DoD requirements for flat-panel displays on schedule and in a cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD market for direct view displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 157,000. Helmet/head mounted displays will add substantially to this total. The vanishing vendor syndrome for older display technologies is becoming a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently just leverage the more modern display technologies being developed for civil-commercial markets.

  20. [Odor sensing system and olfactory display].

    Nakamoto, Takamichi


    In this review, an odor sensing system and an olfactory display are introduced into people in pharmacy. An odor sensing system consists of an array of sensors with partially overlapping specificities and pattern recognition technique. One of examples of odor sensing systems is a halitosis sensor which quantifies the mixture composition of three volatile sulfide compounds. A halitosis sensor was realized using a preconcentrator to raise sensitivity and an electrochemical sensor array to suppress the influence of humidity. Partial least squares (PLS) method was used to quantify the mixture composition. The experiment reveals that the sufficient accuracy was obtained. Moreover, the olfactory display, which present scents to human noses, is explained. A multi-component olfactory display enables the presentation of a variety of smells. The two types of multi-component olfactory display are described. The first one uses many solenoid valves with high speed switching. The valve ON frequency determines the concentration of the corresponding odor component. The latter one consists of miniaturized liquid pumps and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer. It enables the wearable olfactory display without smell persistence. Finally, the application of the olfactory display is demonstrated. Virtual ice cream shop with scents was made as a content of interactive art. People can enjoy harmony among vision, audition and olfaction. In conclusion, both odor sensing system and olfactory display can contribute to the field of human health care.

  1. High-Ratio Gear Train

    Lefever, A. E.


    Proposed arrangement of two connected planetary differentials results in gear ratio many times that obtainable in conventional series gear assembly of comparable size. Ratios of several thousand would present no special problems. Selection of many different ratios is available with substantially similar gear diameters. Very high gear ratios would be obtained from small mechanism.

  2. Forestry best management practices and sediment control at skidder stream crossings

    Laura R. Wear; W. Michael Aust; M. Chad Bolding; Brian D. Strahm; Andrew C. Dolloff


    Stream crossings for skid trails have high sediment delivery ratios. Forestry Best Management Practices (BMPs) have proven to be effective for erosion control, but few studies have quantified the impact of various levels of BMPs on sedimentation. In this study, three skid-trail stream-crossing BMP treatments were installed on nine operational stream crossings (three...

  3. Regional Variations of REE Patterns in Sediments from Active Plate Boundaries

    Kunzendorf, H.; Stoffers, P.; Gwozdz, R.


    About 150 sediment samples from mid-ocean ridges (East Pacific Rise, Central Indian Ocean Ridge, Carlsberg Ridge and the Red Sea) and from a back-arc spreading environment (Lau Basin) were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation. A ratio method for rare-earth elements involving a plot...... into the field for normal deep-sea sediments....

  4. Effects of clay minerals and organic matter in formulated sediments on the bioavailability of sediment-associated uranium to the freshwater midge, Chironomus dilutus.

    Crawford, Sarah E; Liber, Karsten


    It is well established that bioavailability influences metal toxicity in aquatic ecosystems. However, the factors and mechanisms that influence uranium (U) bioavailability and toxicity in sediment have not been thoroughly evaluated, despite evidence that suggests different sediment components can influence the sorption and interaction of some metals. Given that dissolved U is generally accepted as being the primary bioavailable fraction of U, it is hypothesized that adsorption and interaction of U with different sediment components will influence the bioavailability of U in sediment. We investigated the effects of key sediment physicochemical properties on the bioavailability of U to a model freshwater benthic invertebrate, Chironomus dilutus. Several 10-day spiked sediment bioaccumulation experiments were performed, exposing C. dilutus larvae to a variety of formulated sediments spiked with different concentrations of U (5, 50 and/or 200 mg U/kg d.w.). Mean accumulation of U in C. dilutus larvae decreased significantly from 1195 to 10 mg U/kg d.w. as kaolin clay content increased from 0% to 60% in sediment spiked with 50 mg U/kg d.w. Similarly, higher organic matter content also resulted in a significant reduction of U bioaccumulation in C. dilutus larvae, indicating a reduction in U bioavailability. Concentrations of U in both the overlying water and sediment pore water displayed a strong positive relationship to U bioaccumulation in C. dilutus larvae (r(2) = 0.77, p<0.001 and r(2) = 0.57, p < 0.001, respectively) for all experiments, while total U concentrations in the sediment had a poor relationship to U bioaccumulation (r(2) = 0.10, p = 0.028). Results from this research confirm that sediment clay and organic matter content play a significant role in altering U bioavailability, which is important in informing risk assessments of U contaminated sites and in the development of site-specific sediment quality guidelines for U.

  5. Transparent 3D display for augmented reality

    Lee, Byoungho; Hong, Jisoo


    Two types of transparent three-dimensional display systems applicable for the augmented reality are demonstrated. One of them is a head-mounted-display-type implementation which utilizes the principle of the system adopting the concave floating lens to the virtual mode integral imaging. Such configuration has an advantage in that the threedimensional image can be displayed at sufficiently far distance resolving the accommodation conflict with the real world scene. Incorporating the convex half mirror, which shows a partial transparency, instead of the concave floating lens, makes it possible to implement the transparent three-dimensional display system. The other type is the projection-type implementation, which is more appropriate for the general use than the head-mounted-display-type implementation. Its imaging principle is based on the well-known reflection-type integral imaging. We realize the feature of transparent display by imposing the partial transparency to the array of concave mirror which is used for the screen of reflection-type integral imaging. Two types of configurations, relying on incoherent and coherent light sources, are both possible. For the incoherent configuration, we introduce the concave half mirror array, whereas the coherent one adopts the holographic optical element which replicates the functionality of the lenslet array. Though the projection-type implementation is beneficial than the head-mounted-display in principle, the present status of the technical advance of the spatial light modulator still does not provide the satisfactory visual quality of the displayed three-dimensional image. Hence we expect that the head-mounted-display-type and projection-type implementations will come up in the market in sequence.

  6. PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), nitro-PAHs, and hopane and sterane biomarkers in sediments of southern Lake Michigan, USA.

    Huang, Lei; Chernyak, Sergei M; Batterman, Stuart A


    PAHs in the Great Lakes basin are of concern due to their toxicity and persistence in bottom sediments. Their nitro derivatives, nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), which can have stronger carcinogenic and mutagenic activity than parent PAHs, may follow similar transport routes and also are accumulated in sediments. Limited information exists regarding the current distribution, trends and loadings of these compounds, especially NPAHs, in Lake Michigan sediments. This study characterizes PAHs, NPAHs, and biomarkers steranes and hopanes in surface sediments collected at 24 offshore sites in southern Lake Michigan. The ΣPAH14 (sum of 14 compounds) ranged from 213 to 1,291 ng/g dry weight (dw) across the sites, levels that are 2 to 10 times lower than those reported 20 to 30 years earlier. Compared to consensus-based sediment quality guidelines, PAH concentrations suggest very low risk to benthic organisms. The ΣNPAH5 concentration ranged from 2.9 to 18.6 ng/g dw, and included carcinogenic compounds 1-nitropyrene and 6-nitrochrysene. ΣSterane6 and ΣHopane5 concentrations ranged from 6.2 to 36 and 98 to 355 ng/g dw, respectively. Based on these concentrations, Lake Michigan is approximately receiving 11, 0.16, 0.25 and 3.6 metrictons per year (t/yr) of ΣPAH14, ΣNPAH5, ΣSterane6 and ΣHopane5, respectively. Maps of OC-adjusted concentrations display that concentrations decline with increasing off-shore distance. The major sources of PAHs and NPAHs are pyrogenic in nature, based on diagnostic ratios. Using chemical mass balance models, sources were apportioned to emissions from diesel engines (56 ± 18%), coal power plants (27 ± 14%), coal-tar pavement sealants (16 ± 11%), and coke ovens (7 ± 12%). The biomarkers identify a combination of petrogenic and biogenic sources, with the southern end of the lake more impacted by petroleum. This first report of NPAH levels in sediments of Lake Michigan reveals several carcinogenic compounds at modest concentrations, and a need for

  7. PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons), Nitro-PAHs, Hopanes and Steranes Biomarkers in Sediments of Southern Lake Michigan, USA

    Huang, Lei; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.


    PAHs in the Great Lakes basin are of concern due to their toxicity and persistence in bottom sediments. Their nitro derivatives, nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), which can have stronger carcinogenic and mutagenic activity than parent PAHs, may follow similar transport routes and also are accumulated in sediments. Limited information exists regarding the current distribution, trends and loadings of these compounds, especially NPAHs, in Lake Michigan sediments. This study characterizes PAHs, NPAHs, and biomarkers steranes and hopanes in surface sediments collected at 24 offshore sites in southern Lake Michigan. The ΣPAH14 (sum of 14 compounds) ranged from 213 to 1291 ng/g dry weight (dw) across the sites, levels that are 2 to 10 times lower than those reported 20 to 30 years earlier. Compared to consensus-based sediment quality guidelines, PAH concentrations suggest very low risk to benthic organisms. The ΣNPAH5 concentration ranged from 2.9 to 18.6 ng/g dw, and included carcinogenic compounds 1-nitropyrene and 6-nitrochrysene. ΣSterane6 and ΣHopane5 concentrations ranged from 6.2 to 36 and 98 to 355 ng/g dw, respectively. Based on these concentrations, Lake Michigan is approximately receiving 11, 0.16, 0.25 and 3.6 metric tons per year (t/yr) of ΣPAH14, ΣNPAH5, ΣSterane6 and ΣHopane5, respectively. Maps of OC-adjusted concentrations display that concentrations decline with increasing off-shore distance. The major sources of PAHs and NPAHs are pyrogenic in nature, based on diagnostic ratios. Using chemical mass balance models, sources were apportioned to emissions from diesel engines (56±18%), coal power plants (27±14%), coal-tar pavement sealants (16±11%), and coke ovens (7±12%). The biomarkers identify a combination of petrogenic and biogenic sources, with the southern end of the lake more impacted by petroleum. This first report of NPAHs levels in sediments of Lake Michigan reveals several carcinogenic compounds at modest concentrations, and a need for further work

  8. Memory effect in ac plasma displays

    Szlenk, K.; Obuchowicz, E.


    The bistable or `memory' mode of operation of an ac plasma display panel is presented. The difference between dc and ac plasma panel operation from the point of view of memory function is discussed. The graphic ac plasma display with thin film Cr-Cu-Cr electrodes was developed in OBREP and its basic parameters are described. It consists of 36 X 59 picture elements, its outer dimensions are: 76 X 52 mm2 and the screen size is: 49 X 30 mm2. The different dielectric glass materials were applied as dielectric layers and the influence of the properties of these materials on display parameters and memory function was investigated.

  9. Embedded systems for controlling LED matrix displays

    Marghescu, Cristina; Drumea, Andrei


    LED matrix displays are a common presence in everyday life - they can be found in trains, buses, tramways, office information tables or outdoor media. The structure of the display unit is similar for all these devices, a matrix of light emitting diodes coupled between row and column lines, but there are many options for the display controller that switches these lines. Present paper analyzes different types of embedded systems that can control the LED matrix, based on single board computers, on microcontrollers with different peripheral devices or with programmable logic devices like field programmable gate arrays with implemented soft processor cores. Scalability, easiness of implementation and costs are analyzed for all proposed solutions.

  10. Seismic velocities for hydrate-bearing sediments using weighted equation

    Lee, M.W.; Hutchinson, D.R.; Collett, T.S.; Dillon, William P.


    A weighted equation based on the three-phase time-average and Wood equations is applied to derive a relationship between the compressional wave (P wave) velocity and the amount of hydrates filling the pore space. The proposed theory predicts accurate P wave velocities of marine sediments in the porosity range of 40-80% and provides a practical means of estimating the amount of in situ hydrate using seismic velocity. The shear (S) wave velocity is derived under the assumption that the P to S wave velocity ratio of the hydrated sediments is proportional to the weighted average of the P to S wave velocity ratios of the constituent components of the sediment. In the case that all constituent components are known, a weighted equation using multiphase time-average and Wood equations is possible. However, this study showed that a three-phase equation with modified matrix velocity, compensated for the clay content, is sufficient to accurately predict the compressional wave velocities for the marine sediments. This theory was applied to the laboratory measurements of the P and S wave velocities in permafrost samples to infer the amount of ice in the unconsolidated sediment. The results are comparable to the results obtained by repeatedly applying the two-phase wave scattering theory. The theory predicts that the Poisson's ratio of the hydrated sediments decreases as the hydrate concentration increases and the porosity decreases. In consequence, the amplitude versus offset (AVO) data for the bottom-simulating reflections may reveal positive, negative, or no AVO anomalies depending on the concentration of hydrates in the sediments.

  11. Microbiological research on the enzymologic potential of Arieş river (Romania sediments

    Andreea Bodoczi-Florea


    Full Text Available Ten sediment samples from Arieș river were collected and these samples have beenanalyzed qualitatively enzymologically. In the sediment samples, the following enzymatic activitieshave been qualitatively determined: four oligase activities: maltase, saccharase, lactase and cellobiaseand three polyase activities: amylase, dextranase and inulinase. The studied activities weredetermined in each samples and displayed variations in the intensities of the processes depending onthe sampling place. Generally, the highest intensity of qualitative enzimatic activities were registeredin case of the oligases.

  12. Community Sediment Transport Model


    are used to determine that model results are consistent across compilers, platforms, and computer architectures , and to ensure that changes in code do...Mississippi State University: Bhate During the early months of this project, the focus was on understanding ROMS-CSTM model, architecture , and...Marchesiello, J.C. McWilliams, & K.D. Stolzenbach, 2007: Sediment transport modeling on Southern Californian shelves: A ROMS case study. Continental

  13. Seasonal sediment dynamics on the Barcelona inner shelf (NW Mediterranean): A small Mediterranean river- and wave-dominated system

    López, L.; Guillén, J.; Palanques, A.; Grifoll, M.


    The seasonal pattern of sediment dynamics on an inner shelf characterized by the presence of sediment delivered by a small, mountainous river (with a ;flash-flood; regime) was investigated. Near-bottom suspended sediment fluxes across the shelf (i.e. 20, 30 and 40 m water depth) were estimated using observations from three benthic tripods deployed from September 2007 to June 2008. Near-bottom sediment resuspension was controlled by wave-induced currents and river-born sediment availability, whereas the shelf currents played a secondary role. Fourteen sediment transport events were identified (eight in autumn, two in winter and four in spring), with transport rates according to storm intensity and sediment availability. These few energetic events induced a large percentage of the cumulative sediment transport near the bottom. However, the lack of proportionality between suspended sediment transport rates and the combined wave-current bottom shear stress in some events highlights the importance of the sequence of events in sediment dynamics. Since wave activity, hydrography and river discharges display a strong seasonal pattern in the NW Mediterranean, the resulting sediment dynamics across the shelf also correspond to a seasonal cycle. This seasonal variability leads to a temporal evolution of the bottom grain size (coarser in winter) and the near-bottom sediment transport rates (higher in spring and autumn) which is consistent with the seasonal pattern of the hydrodynamic events and the river discharge load.

  14. Abiotic racemization kinetics of amino acids in marine sediments.

    Steen, Andrew D; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Lomstein, Bente Aa


    The ratios of d- versus l-amino acids can be used to infer the sources and composition of sedimentary organic matter. Such inferences, however, rely on knowing the rates at which amino acids in sedimentary organic matter racemize abiotically between the d- and the l-forms. Based on a heating experiment, we report kinetic parameters for racemization of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and alanine in bulk sediment from Aarhus Bay, Denmark, taken from the surface, 30 cm, and 340 cm depth below seafloor. Extrapolation to a typical cold deep sea sediment temperature of 3°C suggests racemization rate constants of 0.50×10(-5)-11×10(-5) yr(-1). These results can be used in conjunction with measurements of sediment age to predict the ratio of d:l amino acids due solely to abiotic racemization of the source material, deviations from which can indicate the abundance and turnover of active microbial populations.

  15. Magnetism of quaternary sediments

    Heller, Friedrich

    Magnetism of Quaternary sediments was the topic of a well-attended symposium held during the 13th INQUA (International Union of Quaternary Research) congress in Beijing, China, August 2-9. More than 40 papers were delivered by scientists from Belgium, England, France, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United States, the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and other countries. The host country contributed to a productive session that was part of the first large scientific meeting to take place in Beijing after the June 4, 1989, upheaval.Nearly half of the studies focused on paleomagnetic and rock magnetic properties of loess in Alaska, Central Asia, China, and New Zealand. Magnetostratigraphic polarity dating was done at some sections in the western (Shaw et al.) and central Chinese loess plateau (Bai and Hus; Wang and Evans; Yue). The interpretation of the polarity pattern found in the western loess plateau still is not unambiguous. In the central part, certain polarity boundaries, such as the Brunhes/Matuyama (B/M) boundary, are found in slightly different stratigraphic positions (Hus et al.; Yue). In deep-sea sediments the lock-in depth of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) at the B/M boundary seems to be a linear function of sedimentation rate (de Menocal et al.). Although the magnetization process in the Chinese loess is not well understood, detailed records of polarity transitions have been reported for the B/M and the Jaramillo R→N transition (Ma et al.; Rolph).


    Chih Ted YANG


    @@ The river systems observed today is the cumulative result of surface, rill, and gully erosion, and sediment transport, scour, and deposition. The divisions of approach between these two related areas are man-made, and are not based on sound science. Most of the erosion studies are done by geologists and agricultural engineers who are concerned of the surface, rill, and gully erosion and the loss of agricultural land productivity. Hydraulic engineers are more interested in the study of sediment transport, scour, and deposition, and their impacts on river engineering and hydraulic structures in rivers and reservoirs. Erosion studies are often based on empirical relationships or field data to determinate the annual sediment yield from a watershed. On the other hand, hydraulic engineers focus their attention on solving equations based on assumed initial and boundary conditions with a time scale of days, hours, or seconds. Both approaches have their complementary strengths and weaknesses. It is important to provide a forum for specialists in both areas to communicate, exchange ideas, and learn from each other.


    Ou-yang ZHANG; Xiufu FENG; Jiong-xin XU


    The method of multiple regression is used to analyze the influences of flood events from the coarse sediment producing areas on the channel siltation and fluvial process of the lower Yellow River based on the flood events from 1950 to 1985. The results showed that the flood events from the coarse sediment producing areas carry larger amounts of sediment load and coarser particle sizes than from other source areas, which increases deposition in the lower river channel. And there exist good correlations between channel siltation of the lower reaches of the Yellow River and the coming water and sediment of flood events from the coarse sediment producing areas. Through these correlations, the amounts of sediment deposition in the lower river channel could be roughly estimated based on the runoff and sediment load of flood events from the coarse sediment producing areas. The sediment deposition caused the fluvial process. There exists a complex response of channel form change to the coming water and sediment load of flood events from the coarse sediment producing areas. When the sediment concentration is smaller than 200kg/m3, the ratio between wide-depth ratio after flood and wide-depth ratio before flood((B/h)a / (B/h)b) will increase with the increase of the maximum sediment concentration; when the sediment concentration is near 200kg/m3, (B/h)a / (B/h)b reaches the maximum value; and when the sediment concentration reaches the limits of hyperconcentrated flow, (B/h)a / (B/h)b will decrease with the increase of the maximum sediment concentration. Generally, flood events from the coarse sediment producing areas made channel form of the lower Yellow River deeper and narrower, but a large amount of sediment deposition simultaneously occurs. So, the impacts of flood events from the coarse sediment producing areas on the channel of the lower Yellow River are lessened.

  18. Display depth analyses with the wave aberration for the auto-stereoscopic 3D display

    Gao, Xin; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Xunbo; Chen, Duo; Chen, Zhidong; Zhang, Wanlu; Yan, Binbin; Yuan, Jinhui; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan


    Because the aberration severely affects the display performances of the auto-stereoscopic 3D display, the diffraction theory is used to analyze the diffraction field distribution and the display depth through aberration analysis. Based on the proposed method, the display depth of central and marginal reconstructed images is discussed. The experimental results agree with the theoretical analyses. Increasing the viewing distance or decreasing the lens aperture can improve the display depth. Different viewing distances and the LCD with two lens-arrays are used to verify the conclusion.

  19. Distribution and sources of organic matter in surface sediments of the eastern continental margin of India

    Krishna, M.S.; Naidu, S.A.; Subbaiah, Ch.V.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Reddy, N.P.C.

    The sources and distribution of organic matter (OM) in surface sediments of the eastern continental margin of India, including the region influenced by river discharge, were investigated using content, molar C:N ratios and stable isotopes of carbon...

  20. Compressive multi-mode superresolution display

    Heide, Felix


    Compressive displays are an emerging technology exploring the co-design of new optical device configurations and compressive computation. Previously, research has shown how to improve the dynamic range of displays and facilitate high-quality light field or glasses-free 3D image synthesis. In this paper, we introduce a new multi-mode compressive display architecture that supports switching between 3D and high dynamic range (HDR) modes as well as a new super-resolution mode. The proposed hardware consists of readily-available components and is driven by a novel splitting algorithm that computes the pixel states from a target high-resolution image. In effect, the display pixels present a compressed representation of the target image that is perceived as a single, high resolution image. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

  1. High Resolution Autostereoscopic Cockpit Display Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase II program Dimension Technologies Inc. (DTI) proposes to design and build an autostereoscopic (glasses-free 3D) LCD based aircraft cockpit display...

  2. Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for an extravehicular activity (EVA) information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to advance development of a new...

  3. Night Vision Device and Cockpit Displays

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Night Vision Device and Cockpit Display labevaluates night vision devices and certifies them for use in the fleet. Lab functions supported include: Analysis of...

  4. Precarious manhood and displays of physical aggression.

    Bosson, Jennifer K; Vandello, Joseph A; Burnaford, Rochelle M; Weaver, Jonathan R; Arzu Wasti, S


    The results of three experiments demonstrate that physically aggressive displays are part of men's cultural script for restoring threatened gender status. In Studies 1 and 2, challenges to men's gender status elicited heightened physically aggressive displays, including punching a pad with greater force and selecting an aggressive boxing activity over a nonaggressive puzzle activity. Study 3 established that a public display of aggressive readiness reduced men's anxiety-related cognitions in the wake of a gender threat. This suggests that aggressive displays may function to downregulate negative affect when manhood has been threatened. The discussion considers past research on gender and physical aggression in light of the authors' thesis that manhood, relative to womanhood, is culturally defined as a precarious status that must be actively, even aggressively, defended.

  5. Emerging Technologies of Liquid Crystal Displays

    Sin-Doo Lee; Chang-Jae Yu; Jae-Hong Park; Min-Sik Jung


    The general features and the emerging technologies of liquid crystal displays are described from the viewpoints of wide viewing and fast response technologies. The device applications of liquid crystals for optical communications are also described.

  6. Fluorescent protein integrated white LEDs for displays

    Press, Daniel Aaron; Melikov, Rustamzhon; Conkar, Deniz; Nur Firat-Karalar, Elif; Nizamoglu, Sedat


    The usage time of displays (e.g., TVs, mobile phones, etc) is in general shorter than their functional life time, which worsens the electronic waste (e-waste) problem around the world. The integration of biomaterials into electronics can help to reduce the e-waste problem. In this study, we demonstrate fluorescent protein integrated white LEDs to use as a backlight source for liquid crystal (LC) displays for the first time. We express and purify enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and monomeric Cherry protein (mCherry), and afterward we integrate these proteins as a wavelength-converter on a blue LED chip. The protein-integrated backlight exhibits a high luminous efficacy of 248 lm/Wopt and the area of the gamut covers 80% of the NTSC color gamut. The resultant colors and objects in the image on the display can be well observed and distinguished. Therefore, fluorescent proteins show promise for display applications.

  7. White constancy method for mobile displays

    Yum, Ji Young; Park, Hyun Hee; Jang, Seul Ki; Lee, Jae Hyang; Kim, Jong Ho; Yi, Ji Young; Lee, Min Woo


    In these days, consumer's needs for image quality of mobile devices are increasing as smartphone is widely used. For example, colors may be perceived differently when displayed contents under different illuminants. Displayed white in incandescent lamp is perceived as bluish, while same content in LED light is perceived as yellowish. When changed in perceived white under illuminant environment, image quality would be degraded. Objective of the proposed white constancy method is restricted to maintain consistent output colors regardless of the illuminants utilized. Human visual experiments are performed to analyze viewers'perceptual constancy. Participants are asked to choose the displayed white in a variety of illuminants. Relationship between the illuminants and the selected colors with white are modeled by mapping function based on the results of human visual experiments. White constancy values for image control are determined on the predesigned functions. Experimental results indicate that propsed method yields better image quality by keeping the display white.

  8. Bioadsorption strategies with yeast molecular display technology.

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi


    Molecular display techniques using microbial cell surfaces have been widely developed in the past twenty years, and are useful tools as whole cell catalysts for various applications such as bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensing, and the screening system of protein libraries. Furthermore, different types of microbial cells among eukaryotic and prokaryotic strains have been investigated for their use in surface display technologies. Recently, several kinds of protein-displaying yeasts have been utilized as bioadsorbents in this platform technology. In particular, these trials have successfully expanded the possibility of applications to metal binding, affinity purification, and receptor-ligand interaction by using the yeast cell surface. In this mini review, we describe the general principles of molecular display technology using yeast cells and its applications, with a particular focus on bioadsorption.

  9. Are tiled display walls needed for astronomy?

    Meade, Bernard F; Manos, Steven; Sinnott, Richard O


    Clustering commodity displays into a Tiled Display Wall (TDW) provides a cost-effective way to create an extremely high resolution display, capable of approaching the image sizes now gen- erated by modern astronomical instruments. Astronomers face the challenge of inspecting single large images, many similar images simultaneously, and heterogeneous but related content. Many research institutions have constructed TDWs on the basis that they will improve the scientific outcomes of astronomical imagery. We test this concept by presenting sample images to astronomers and non- astronomers using a standard desktop display (SDD) and a TDW. These samples include standard English words, wide field galaxy surveys and nebulae mosaics from the Hubble telescope. These experiments show that TDWs provide a better environment for searching for small targets in large images than SDDs. It also shows that astronomers tend to be better at searching images for targets than non-astronomers, both groups are generally better when em...

  10. [Review of visual display system in flight simulator].

    Xie, Guang-hui; Wei, Shao-ning


    Visual display system is the key part and plays a very important role in flight simulators and flight training devices. The developing history of visual display system is recalled and the principle and characters of some visual display systems including collimated display systems and back-projected collimated display systems are described. The future directions of visual display systems are analyzed.

  11. Sediment accumulation in prairie wetlands under a changing climate: The relative roles of landscape and precipitation

    Skagen, Susan; Burris, Lucy E.; Granfors, D.A.


    Sediment accumulation threatens the viability and hydrologic functioning of many naturally formed depressional wetlands across the interior regions of North America. These wetlands provide many ecosystem services and vital habitats for diverse plant and animal communities. Climate change may further impact sediment accumulation rates in the context of current land use patterns. We estimated sediment accretion in wetlands within a region renowned for its large populations of breeding waterfowl and migrant shorebirds and examined the relative roles of precipitation and land use context in the sedimentation process. We modeled rates of sediment accumulation from 1971 through 2100 using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) with a sediment delivery ratio and the Unit Stream Power Erosion Deposition model (USPED). These models predicted that by 2100, 21–33 % of wetlands filled completely with sediment and 27–46 % filled by half with sediments; estimates are consistent with measured sediment accumulation rates in the region reported by empirical studies. Sediment accumulation rates were strongly influenced by size of the catchment, greater coverage of tilled landscape within the catchment, and steeper slopes. Conservation efforts that incorporate the relative risk of infilling of wetlands with sediments, thus emphasizing areas of high topographic relief and large watersheds, may benefit wetland-dependent biota.

  12. Characterization of Oily and Non-Oily Natural Sediments in Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Reem A. Alrawi


    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the many vegetable oils widely consumed around the world. The production of palm oil requires voluminous amount of water with the concurrent generation of large amount of wastewater known as palm oil mill effluent (POME. POME is a mixture of water, oil, and natural sediments (solid particles and fibres.There is a dearth of information on the physical properties of these POME sediments. This study intends to distinguish the physical properties of oily and non-oily POME sediments which include sediment size, particle size distribution (PSD, sediment shape, sediment surface morphology, and sediment density. These characterizations are important for future researches because these properties have significant effects on the settling process that occurs either under natural gravity or by coagulations. It was found that the oily and non-oily POME sediments have different sizes with nonspherical irregular shapes, and because of that, the aspect ratio (AR and circularity shape factors were adopted to describe the shapes of these sediments. The results also indicate that the density of oily POME sediment decreases as the sediment size increases.

  13. Factors controlling sediment and phosphorus export from two Belgian agricultural catchments.

    Steegen, A; Govers, G; Takken, I; Nachtergaele, J; Poesen, J; Merckx, R


    Sediment and total phosphorus (TP) export vary through space and time. This study was conducted to determine the factors controlling sediment and TP export in two agricultural catchments situated in the Belgian Loess Belt. At the outlet of these catchments runoff discharge was continuously measured and suspended sediment samples were taken during rainfall events. Within the catchments vegetation type and cover, soil surface parameters, erosion features, sediment pathways, and rainfall characteristics were monitored. Total P content and sediment characteristics such as clay, organic carbon, and suspended sediment concentration were correlated. Total sediment and TP export differ significantly between the monitored catchments. Much of the difference is due to the occurrence of an extreme event in one catchment and the morphology and spatial organization of land use in the catchments. In one catchment, the direct connection between erosive areas and the catchment outlet by means of a road system contributed to a high sediment delivery ratio (SDR) at the outlet. In the other catchment, the presence of a wide valley in the center of the catchment caused sediment deposition. Vegetation also had an effect on sediment production and deposition. Thus, many factors control sediment and TP export from small agricultural catchments; some of these factors are related to the physical catchment characteristics such as morphology and landscape structure and are (semi)permanent, while others, such as vegetation cover and land use, are time dependent.

  14. The effect of clay minerals on diasterane/sterane ratios

    van Kaam-Peters, Heidy M. E.; Köster, Jürgen; van der Gaast, Sjierk J.; Dekker, Marlèn; de Leeuw, Jan W.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.


    To examine the effect of clay minerals on diasterane/sterane ratios, the mineral compositions of three sample sets of sedimentary rocks displaying a wide range of diasterane/sterane ratios were analysed quantitatively. Diasterane/sterane ratios do not to correlate with clay content but depend on the amount of clay relative to the amount of organic matter (clay/TOC ratios). This correlation may explain the high diasterane/sterane ratios in crude oils and extracts derived from certain carbonate source rocks. Based on the concentrations of regular and rearranged steroids in the sample sets, it is proposed that diasterenes are partly reduced to diasteranes and partly degraded during diagenesis in a ratio largely determined by the availability of clay minerals. It is suggested that the hydrogen atoms required for reduction of the diasterenes originate from the water in the interlayers of clay minerals.

  15. Tiled large-screen three-dimensional display consisting of frameless multi-view display modules.

    Takaki, Yasuhiro; Tokoro, Masayuki; Hirabayashi, Kenji


    To realize large-screen three-dimensional (3D) displays, frameless multi-view display modules are arranged two-dimensionally. This paper proposes a multi-view display module in which a multi-view flat-panel display is projected onto a screen of the module to provide a frameless screen. The display module consists of a multi-view flat-panel display, an imaging lens, an aperture, a screen lens, and a vertical diffuser. Prototype display modules were constructed having a screen size of 27.3 in., a 3D resolution of 320 × 200, and 144 viewpoints. Four modules were tiled vertically to provide a screen size of 62.4 in. Distortions in the screen imaging and viewpoint generation were corrected.

  16. Beryllium Desorption from Sediments

    Boschi, V.; Willenbring, J. K.


    Beryllium isotopes have provided a useful tool in the field of geochronology and geomorphology over the last 25 years. The amount of cosmogenic meteoric 10Be and native 9Be absorbed to soils often scales with the residence time and chemical weathering of sediments in a landscape, respectively. Thus, the concentrations in river sediment may be used to quantify the denudation of specific watersheds. When deposited in ocean sediment, these concentrations are thought to record the history of denudation on Earth over the last ~10 Ma. The use of both isotopes often relies on the premise of beryllium retention to sediment surfaces in order to preserve a landscape's erosion and weathering signature. Changes in setting, en route from the soil to fluvial system to the ocean, can cause beryllium desorption and may preclude some applications of the 10Be/9Be system. Four mechanisms were tested to determine the desorption potential of beryllium including a reduction in pH, an increase in ionic strength and complexation with soluble organic and inorganic species. These processes have the potential to mobilize beryllium into solution. For example, by both reducing the pH and increasing the ionic strength, competition for adsorption sites increases, potentially liberating beryllium from the sediment surface. In addition, organic and inorganic ligands can complex beryllium causing it to become mobilized. To determine which of these alterations influence beryllium desorption and to quantify the effect, we prepared separate solutions of beryllium bound to minerals and organic compounds and measured beryllium concentrations in solution before and after adjusting the pH, ionic strength, and changing inorganic and organic ligand concentrations. We conclude from our observations that overall, beryllium sorbed to organic compounds was more resistant to desorption relative to mineral-associated beryllium. Among the methods tested, a reduction in pH resulted in the greatest amount of

  17. Near-to-eye displays with embedded eye-tracking by bi-directional OLED microdisplay

    Vogel, Uwe; Wartenberg, Philipp; Richter, Bernd; Brenner, Stephan; Baumgarten, Judith; Thomschke, Michael; Fehse, Karsten; Hild, Olaf


    Near-to-eye (NTE) projection is the major approach to "Smart Glasses", which have gained lot of traction during the last few years. Micro-displays based on organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) achieve high optical performance with excellent contrast ratio and large dynamic range at low power consumption, making them suitable for such application. In state-of-the-art applications the micro-display typically acts as a purely unidirectional output device. With the integration of an additional image sensor, the functionality of the micro-display can be extended to a bidirectional optical input/output device, aiming for implementation of eye-tracking capabilities in see-through (ST-)NTE applications to achieve gaze-based human-display-interaction. This paper describes a new bi-directional OLED microdisplay featuring SVGA resolution for both image display and acquisition, and its implementation with see-through NTE optics.

  18. Patch-scale controls on denitrification in stream bed sediments

    Voytek, M. A.; Harvey, J. W.; Smith, L. K.; Smith, R. L.; Bohlke, J. K.


    Denitrification is usually considered one of the most important processes controlling nitrogen loads in streams and rivers because it has the capability of permanently removing fixed nitrogen. Denitrification requires an electron donor, i.e. DOC and nitrate which is often abundant in agriculturally impacted systems. However, it is inhibited by oxygen and therefore occurs primarily in sediments where the supply and delivery of these substrates might be more limited. The goal of this study was to assess the interaction of chemical, biological and physical controls on in-stream denitrification. The influence of stream velocities, sediment grain size, carbon content and reactivity, hyporheic exchange, benthic algal coverage and microbial community distribution and activity were evaluated on sediments collected from two small streams located in the Upper Illinois River watershed, where elevated loads of nitrogen species are commonly observed. In general, sediment microbial community structure and activity reflected the observed differences in channel characteristics. Denitrifiers tended to be more abundant and active in sediment with coarser grain size distributions and greater periphyton coverage. Coarser grain size distributions were associated with deeper penetration of surface water nitrate into the sediments and periphyton coverage appeared to be correlated with higher sediment carbon concentrations and a higher C/N ratios, indicating a greater availability of labile carbon. Conversely, finer grained sediment with little or no periphyton exhibited poorly developed and less active denitrifying communities at depth. This study suggests that in-situ denitrification rates are controlled by a balance of physical mechanisms of substrate delivery and biologically controlled processes that alter porewater concentrations of essential and inhibitory substrates, which are controlled in turn by both physical and biological properties of the sediment.

  19. Routing and advanced display technologies within STOMPM

    Mittu, Ranjeev; Uhlmann, Jeffrey K.; McCune, Justin


    This paper will discuss research conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory in the area of automated routing, advanced 3D displays and novel interface techniques for interacting with those displays. This research has culminated in the development of the strike optimized mission planing module (STOMPM). The STOMPM testbed incorporates new technologies/results in the aforementioned areas to address the deficiencies in current systems and advance the state of the art in military planing systems.

  20. Beacon data acquisition and display system

    Skogmo, David G.; Black, Billy D.


    A system for transmitting aircraft beacon information received by a secondary surveillance radar through telephone lines to a remote display includes a digitizer connected to the radar for preparing a serial file of data records containing position and identification information of the beacons detected by each sweep of the radar. This information is transmitted through the telephone lines to a remote computer where it is displayed.

  1. Microbiological studies on the sediments of Andaman sea

    Matondkar, S.G.P.

    Total bacterial population in the sediments widely fluctuated from 2.1x 10 3 to 3.7 x 10 6. There was no significant correlation between organic carbon values and heterotrophic activity. Ratio of gram positive to gram negative bacteria was 1...

  2. Assessment of metal leachability and toxicity from sediment ...


    Oct 5, 2015 ... Washing out was conducted at a sediment dry mass to water mass ratio of 1:10. The method relies on ... composition, are considered either as material fit for reuse in the environment ..... organic or residual fractions. The redox ...

  3. Large-scale autostereoscopic outdoor display

    Reitterer, Jörg; Fidler, Franz; Saint Julien-Wallsee, Ferdinand; Schmid, Gerhard; Gartner, Wolfgang; Leeb, Walter; Schmid, Ulrich


    State-of-the-art autostereoscopic displays are often limited in size, effective brightness, number of 3D viewing zones, and maximum 3D viewing distances, all of which are mandatory requirements for large-scale outdoor displays. Conventional autostereoscopic indoor concepts like lenticular lenses or parallax barriers cannot simply be adapted for these screens due to the inherent loss of effective resolution and brightness, which would reduce both image quality and sunlight readability. We have developed a modular autostereoscopic multi-view laser display concept with sunlight readable effective brightness, theoretically up to several thousand 3D viewing zones, and maximum 3D viewing distances of up to 60 meters. For proof-of-concept purposes a prototype display with two pixels was realized. Due to various manufacturing tolerances each individual pixel has slightly different optical properties, and hence the 3D image quality of the display has to be calculated stochastically. In this paper we present the corresponding stochastic model, we evaluate the simulation and measurement results of the prototype display, and we calculate the achievable autostereoscopic image quality to be expected for our concept.

  4. A new type of multiview display

    Jurk, Silvio; Kuhlmey, Mathias; de la Barré, René


    The common architecture of multi-view autostereoscopic displays assigns a nominal viewing distance. The design affects the convergence of the visible rays at a nominal viewing distance where diamond shaped viewing zones are created. In contrast to this approach, the authors present a new design strategy departing from the geometric relations of common 3D display designs. They show that a beam emitted from a sub-pixel should be rendered with an individual camera direction determined by an algorithm. This algorithm also uses, besides the parameters of the display design, the desired viewing distance and the allowed increments of the camera angle. This enables very flexible designs of autostereoscopic displays. The main difference from the common multiview display is that its design approach enables a continued viewing zone without the usually diamond shaped sweet spots. The algorithm for controlling the rendering and the multiplexing is generic, as well as for integral and multiview design approaches using an image splitter raster. The paper introduces it for autostereoscopic displays with horizontal parallax.

  5. Methodologies for the evaluation of CRT displays

    Blackman, H.S.


    This paper presents the results of a series of experiments that have been conducted by the Human Factors Research Branch for the purpose of developing objective methods that will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of cathode ray tube (CRT) generated displays in improving reactor operator performance. The results of this work can provide a basis for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to objectively evaluate specific licensee-developed display designs. The following methods have been developed: (1) Psychophysics - short exposure of static display types were presented to subjects who were tasked to report status of a given parameter; (2) Multidimensional Rating Scale - paper and pencil instrument employed by subjects to rate the features of a display type across a variety of psychological dimensions; (3) Checklist Evaluation - a paper and pencil instrument employed by subjects to assess particular display types according to a set of human engineering criteria; (4) Noninteractive Evaluation - a formal experiment where the subjects were requested to identify dynamic simulated transients using various display types; and (5) Interactive Evaluation - similar to the noninteractive, but the subjects interacted with the simulator using a touch screen to mitigate transient events.

  6. Dual redundant display in bubble canopy applications

    Mahdi, Ken; Niemczyk, James


    Today's cockpit integrator, whether for state of the art military fast jet, or piston powered general aviation, is striving to utilize all available panel space for AMLCD based displays to enhance situational awareness and increase safety. The benefits of a glass cockpit have been well studied and documented. The technology used to create these glass cockpits, however, is driven by commercial AMLCD demand which far outstrips the combined worldwide avionics requirements. In order to satisfy the wide variety of human factors and environmental requirements, large area displays have been developed to maximize the usable display area while also providing necessary redundancy in case of failure. The AMLCD has been optimized for extremely wide viewing angles driven by the flat panel TV market. In some cockpit applications, wide viewing cones are desired. In bubble canopy cockpits, however, narrow viewing cones are desired to reduce canopy reflections. American Panel Corporation has developed AMLCD displays that maximize viewing area, provide redundancy, while also providing a very narrow viewing cone even though commercial AMLCD technology is employed suitable for high performance AMLCD Displays. This paper investigates both the large area display architecture with several available options to solve redundancy as well as beam steering techniques to also limit canopy reflections.

  7. Oil defect detection of electrowetting display

    Chiang, Hou-Chi; Tsai, Yu-Hsiang; Yan, Yung-Jhe; Huang, Ting-Wei; Mang, Ou-Yang


    In recent years, transparent display is an emerging topic in display technologies. Apply in many fields just like mobile device, shopping or advertising window, and etc. Electrowetting Display (EWD) is one kind of potential transparent display technology advantages of high transmittance, fast response time, high contrast and rich color with pigment based oil system. In mass production process of Electrowetting Display, oil defects should be found by Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) detection system. It is useful in determination of panel defects for quality control. According to the research of our group, we proposed a mechanism of AOI detection system detecting the different kinds of oil defects. This mechanism can detect different kinds of oil defect caused by oil overflow or material deteriorated after oil coating or driving. We had experiment our mechanism with a 6-inch Electrowetting Display panel from ITRI, using an Epson V750 scanner with 1200 dpi resolution. Two AOI algorithms were developed, which were high speed method and high precision method. In high precision method, oil jumping or non-recovered can be detected successfully. This mechanism of AOI detection system can be used to evaluate the oil uniformity in EWD panel process. In the future, our AOI detection system can be used in quality control of panel manufacturing for mass production.

  8. [Peptide phage display in biotechnology and biomedicine].

    Kuzmicheva, G A; Belyavskaya, V A


    To date peptide phage display is one of the most common combinatorial methods used for identifying specific peptide ligands. Phage display peptide libraries containing billions different clones successfully used for selection of ligands with high affinity and selectivity toward wide range of targets including individual proteins, bacteria, viruses, spores, different kind of cancer cells and variety of nonorganic targets (metals, alloys, semiconductors etc.) Success of using filamentous phage in phage display technologies relays on the robustness of phage particles and a possibility to genetically modify its DNA to construct new phage variants with novel properties. In this review we are discussing characteristics of the most known non-commercial peptide phage display libraries of different formats (landscape libraries in particular) and their successful applications in several fields of biotechnology and biomedicine: discovery of peptides with diagnostic values against different pathogens, discovery and using of peptides recognizing cancer cells, trends in using of phage display technologies in human interactome studies, application of phage display technologies in construction of novel nano materials.

  9. A Polarizer-free Liquid Crystal Display Using Dye-doped Liquid Crystal Gels

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Yang, Jhih-Ming; Lin, Hung-Chun; Wu, Jing-Nuo


    In conclusion, we have introduced and demonstrated polarizer-free LCDs using dye-doped LC gels. These polarizer-free dye-doped LC gels exhibit high reflectance, high contrast ratio, wide viewing angle, and fast response time. Especially the low temperature process is favorable for flexible displays. The gel-like materials assist stabilizing the flexible display under trimming. Our dye-doped LC gels provide a stable LC mode and open a new window in paper-like flexible displays. A polarizer-fre...

  10. Cyclic Sediment Trading Between Channel and River Bed Sediments

    Haddadchi, A.


    Much of the previous work on sediment tracing has focused on determining either the initial sources of the sediment (soils derive from a particular rock type) or the erosion processes generating the sediment. However, alluvial stores can be both a source and sink for sediment transported by streams. Here geochemical and fallout radionuclide tracing of river-bed and alluvial sediments are used to determine the role of secondary sources, sediment stores, as potential sources of sediment leaving Emu Creek catchment, southeastern Queensland, Australia. Activity concentrations of 137Cs on the river sediments are consistent with channel erosion being the dominant source at all sites sampled along the river. To characterise the deposition and remobilisation cycles in the catchment, a novel geochemical tracing approach was used. Successive pockets of alluvium were treated as discrete sink terms within geochemical mixing models and their source contributions compared with those of river bed sediments collected adjacent to each alluvial pocket. Three different size fractions were examined; silts and clays (soil/rock type sources to river bed and alluvial sediments at each sampling site was identical for all three different size fractions, but varied along the stream. Combining these findings it is concluded that proximal alluvial stores dominated the supply of sediment to the river at each location, with this being particularly evident at the catchment outlet. Identical contribution of rock type sources to both river bed and alluvial pockets together with the dominant erosion being from channel banks indicates a high degree of 'trading' between the fluvial space and the alluvial space. Hence, management works aimed at primarily reducing the supply of sediments to the outlet of Emu Creek should focus on rehabilitation of channel banks in the lower catchment.

  11. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in surface sediments of Beiluohe Basins, China.

    Shi, Helin; Zhang, Li; Yue, Leping; Zheng, Guozhang


    Twenty-two surface sediment samples were collected from Beiluohe River, China, in 2005. Saturated hydrocarbons analysis was carried out on different river sediments in order to detect possible contaminations by petroleum development. Total concentrations of hydrocarbons in the sediments ranged from 6.4-147.3 microg g(-1) (dry wt) with an average of 76.8 microg g(-1), revealing relatively low to medium contamination in studied areas in spite of oil development for many years. The THC levels in the mainstream of Beiluohe River were relatively low. Sediment samples with higher total hydrocarbon concentrations were from the sites related to the petroleum activities or urban discharges. Gas chromatographic distribution patterns of n-alkanes are characteristic of petroleum in most samples. They show a strong unresolved complex mixture (UCM) with a small predominance of odd on even numbered n-alkanes. On the other hand, pentacyclic triterpanes and steranes occurred in all analyzed sediments and displayed similar signatures that are characteristic of mature organic matter contribution from oil contaminations. Hydrocarbons of terrestrial origin were also detected in the samples. However, contribution from plantwax hydrocarbons is overshadowed in samples by hydrocarbons of petroleum origin. This is obvious by the presence of the high relative abundance of UCM, and the identification of mature hopane and sterane in samples.

  12. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediments: metal influence.

    Almeida, Raquel; Mucha, Ana P; Teixeira, Catarina; Bordalo, Adriano A; Almeida, C Marisa R


    In this work, the potential effect of metals, such as Cd, Cu and Pb, on the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediments was investigated under laboratory conditions. Sandy and muddy non-vegetated sediments were collected in the Lima River estuary (NW Portugal) and spiked with crude oil and each of the metals. Spiked sediments were left in the dark under constant shaking for 15 days, after which crude oil biodegradation was evaluated. To estimate microbial abundance, total cell counts were obtained by DAPI staining and microbial community structure was characterized by ARISA. Culturable hydrocarbon degraders were determined using a modified most probable number protocol. Total petroleum hydrocarbons concentrations were analysed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy after their extraction by sonication, and metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained showed that microbial communities had the potential to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons, with a maximum of 32 % degradation obtained for sandy sediments. Both crude oil and metals changed the microbial community structure, being the higher effect observed for Cu. Also, among the studied metals, only Cu displayed measurable deleterious effect on the hydrocarbons degradation process, as shown by a decrease in the hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms abundance and in the hydrocarbon degradation rates. Both degradation potential and metal influence varied with sediment characteristics probably due to differences in contaminant bioavailability, a feature that should be taken into account in developing bioremediation strategies for co-contaminated estuarine sites.

  13. An Adaptive Algorithm of Local dimming for Liquid Crystal Displays

    Huaxia Wu


    Full Text Available The local dimming backlight technique enables liquid crystal display to present images with high contrast ratio and low power consumption. Considering that it is more important to make sure a high quality of the displayed image when reducing the power consumption, therefore, in this paper the new algorithm chooses RPSNR (the peak signal-to-noise ratio =30 as the lowest standard to guarantee the quality of image. RPSNR =30 could provide a value that the maximum distortion of the image can be accepted, then, we substitute the maximum gray level of each region into the formula to judge whether satisfy the flow chart. If the value do not meet the condition, we decrease it one by one until find the right value. Finally, we take the luminance of the right value as backlight luminance.   Meanwhile, a method is also proposed in this paper to simplify the calculation time. Successive searches will be made on the basis of the n (ranging from 0.1 to 1 times of the maximum luminance, and stop when RPSNR>=30. However, in order to guarantee the quality of the image, the 0.7 times of the maximum luminance is used as the minimum backlight luminance. In the end, we only choose 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 times of the maximum luminance as backlight luminance.

  14. A novel method for the preparation of electrophoretic display microcapsules

    Liu, Xiao-Meng; He, Jing; Liu, Sheng-Yun [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen, Jian-Feng [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Le, Yuan, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)


    Highlights: • The electrophoretic display microcapsules were prepared by coaxial jet method aided by gas spray. • The positions of inner tube, liquid and gas flow rate of the process were investigated. • The size and shell thickness of the prepared microcapsules were controllable. • The prepared microcapsules had high coating ratio and exhibit reversible response to DC field. - Abstract: The narrow distributed electrophoretic display microcapsules containing electrophoretic ink were prepared using coaxial jet method aided by gas spray. Experimental results showed the size and shell thickness of the microcapsules could be controlled by adjusting flow rates of core and shell fluids as well as gas. The as-prepared white and red microcapsules, with average size of 100 and 200 μm respectively, had high coating ratio (above 90%) and exhibited reversible response to DC electric field. Compared with the approach of other microencapsulation methods, the new technique not only has a simple procedure but also provides a more effective way of size control. This novel method is expected to prepare microcapsules with potential application in the fields of electronic paper and other material science.

  15. Monocular display unit for 3D display with correct depth perception

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Hosomi, Takashi


    A study of virtual-reality system has been popular and its technology has been applied to medical engineering, educational engineering, a CAD/CAM system and so on. The 3D imaging display system has two types in the presentation method; one is a 3-D display system using a special glasses and the other is the monitor system requiring no special glasses. A liquid crystal display (LCD) recently comes into common use. It is possible for this display unit to provide the same size of displaying area as the image screen on the panel. A display system requiring no special glasses is useful for a 3D TV monitor, but this system has demerit such that the size of a monitor restricts the visual field for displaying images. Thus the conventional display can show only one screen, but it is impossible to enlarge the size of a screen, for example twice. To enlarge the display area, the authors have developed an enlarging method of display area using a mirror. Our extension method enables the observers to show the virtual image plane and to enlarge a screen area twice. In the developed display unit, we made use of an image separating technique using polarized glasses, a parallax barrier or a lenticular lens screen for 3D imaging. The mirror can generate the virtual image plane and it enlarges a screen area twice. Meanwhile the 3D display system using special glasses can also display virtual images over a wide area. In this paper, we present a monocular 3D vision system with accommodation mechanism, which is useful function for perceiving depth.

  16. Acoustic measuring techniques for suspended sediment

    Gruber, P.; Felix, D.; Storti, G.; Lattuada, M.; Fleckenstein, P.; Deschwanden, F.


    Acoustic signals can be used in various ways for suspended sediment monitoring. One possibility which lends itself particularly well in the context of hydropower plants (HPPs), is to use installations for acoustic discharge measurement (ADM). Such installations already exist at waterways of many HPPs. Similar to certain turbidimeters, the attenuation of the forward scattered signal travelling through the water-sediment mixture is correlated with suspended sediment concentration (SSC). This correlation can be based on reference SSCs, e.g. from gravimetric analyses of bottle samples. Without the need of additional sensors and practically maintenance-free, this method is used successfully in the HPP Fieschertal to warn the HPP operator of high SSC to prevent excessive turbine abrasion. Acoustic methods and systems that allow for estimating both SSC and particle size distribution (PSD) are under development. The simultaneous determination of SSC and PSD is not possible using a single frequency. Therefore, multi-frequency approaches are investigated for generally scattered signals. When backscattered signals are used, a stronger frequency dependency can be exploited. However, the reliable simultaneous determination of particle size (and distribution) and concentration is still a major challenge due to a low signal-to-noise ratio and an ill- posed problem of estimating concentration and size from recorded signals. The optimal setup configuration (angles, frequencies) for such a system is not unique and further investigations are recommended.

  17. Equilibrium bed—concentration of nonuniform sediment

    孙志林; 孙志锋; DONAHUEJohn


    Knowledge of the equilibrium bed-concentration is vital to mathematical modeling of the river-bed deformation associated with suspended load but previous investigations only daelt with the reference concentra-tion of uniform sediment because of difficulties in observation of the bed-concentration.This work is a first at-tempe to develop a theoretical formula for the equilibrium bed-concentration of any fraction of nonumiform sedi-ment defined at the bed-surface.The formula is based on a stochastic-mechanistic model for the exchange of nonumiform sediment near the bed,and described as a function of incipient motion probability,non-ceasing probability,pick-up probability,and the ratio of the average single-step continuous motion time to static time.Comparison of bed-concentration calculated from the proposed formula with the measured data showed satisfac-tory agreement,indicating the present formula can be used for solving the differential equation governing the notion of suspended load.

  18. Respiration in ocean margin sediments

    Andersson, J.H.


    The aim of this thesis was the study of respiration in ocean margin sediments and the assessments of tools needed for this purpose. The first study was on the biological pump and global respiration patterns in the deep ocean using an empirical model based on sediment oxygen consumption data. In this thesis the depth dependence of respiration patterns was modelled using a compiled data set of sediment oxygen consumption rates. We showed that the depth relationship can best be described by a do...

  19. Sediment yields of Wisconsin streams

    Hindall, S.M.; Flint, R.F.


    Sediment in Wisconsin streams causes economic and engineering problems in water management and reduces the value of water for nearly all uses. Sediment produces problems such as reduced reservoir capacity, navigation hazards, increased cost of water treatment, property damage, temporary loss of farmland, destruction of feeding and nesting grounds of fish, and destruction of wildlife habitat. Sediment in water also reduces the aesthetic value of surface waters and is detrimental to the State's tourist and recreation industry.

  20. Discrimination of sediment provenance in the Yellow Sea: Secondary grain-size effect and REE proxy

    Jung, Hoi-Soo; Lim, Dhongil; Jeong, Do-Hyun; Xu, Zhaokai; Li, Tiegang


    This study analyzed grain size and elemental concentrations (Al, Mg, Fe, and rare earth elements (REEs)) in 91 surface sediments to elucidate sediment provenance in the Yellow Sea. Elemental concentrations were normalized by Al concentration (Celement/CAl) to minimize the sediment grain-size effect (GSE). However, noticeable linear relationships between Al concentration (or mean grain size) and the ratio (e.g., Mg/Al or Fe/Al) appeared unexpectedly in pair diagrams. The spatial distribution patterns of Fe/Al and Mg/Al ratios were also similar to the pattern of mean grain size. This implies that the GSE was not removed completely, even after the normalization process. Thus, great care must be taken when applying the ratios of Celement/CAl as a proxy of sediment provenance. To improve provenance discrimination of the sediments in the Yellow Sea, the difference between the REE distribution patterns of Chinese and Korean river sediments, expressed as δ (δ = REE∗(La) - REE∗(Lu)), was calculated, and the spatial distribution patterns of the δ values were mapped. The δ values gradually increased from the western to the eastern part of the Yellow Sea, except for low δ values in the southeastern part of the Yellow Sea. This result indicates that the majority of Chinese and Korean river sediments are accumulating near to their respective coasts, except for a deposit along the southwestern coast of Korea in which a considerable amount of sediment from Chinese rivers has been accumulating.

  1. Geographic information system-coupling sediment delivery distributed modeling based on observed data.

    Lee, S E; Kang, S H


    Spatially distributed sediment delivery (SEDD) models are of great interest in estimating the expected effect of changes on soil erosion and sediment yield. However, they can only be applied if the model can be calibrated using observed data. This paper presents a geographic information system (GIS)-based method to calculate the sediment discharge from basins to coastal areas. For this, an SEDD model, with a sediment rating curve method based on observed data, is proposed and validated. The model proposed here has been developed using the combined application of the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and a spatially distributed sediment delivery ratio, within Model Builder of ArcGIS's software. The model focuses on spatial variability and is useful for estimating the spatial patterns of soil loss and sediment discharge. The model consists of two modules, a soil erosion prediction component and a sediment delivery model. The integrated approach allows for relatively practical and cost-effective estimation of spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery, for gauged or ungauged basins. This paper provides the first attempt at estimating sediment delivery ratio based on observed data in the monsoon region of Korea.

  2. {sup 10}Be/{sup 230}Th ratios as proxy for particle flux in the equatorial Pacific ocean

    Anderson, R.F.; Fleisher, M.Q. [LDEO of Columbia Univ. (United States); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)


    Particulate {sup 10}Be/{sup 230}Th ratios collected by sediment traps in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean exhibit a positive correlation with particle flux, but little or no correlation with particle composition. (author) 1 fig., 4 refs.

  3. Sediment Geo-Probe System

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides wideband in situ measurement capability of compressional wave speed and attenuation and their spatial variability in marine sediments.DESCRIPTION:...


    Chih Ted YANG; Caian HUANG


    The paper provides a comprehensive testing of the applicability of 13 sediment transport formulas under different flow and sediment conditions. The dimensionless parameters used for testing the reliability and sensitivity of formulas are dimensionless particle diameter, relative depth, Froude number, relative shear velocity, dimensionless unit stream power, and sediment concentration. A total of 3,391 sets of laboratory and river data are used in the tests. Engineers may find the test results useful to their selection of formulas under different flow and sediment conditions.

  5. Rare Earth elements as sediment tracers in Mangrove ecosystems

    Ramanathan, A. L.; Swathi, S.


    Rare earth elements have been widely used as geochemical source fingerprints of rocks and sediments to study processes involving cosmo-chemistry, igneous petrology, tectonic setting and for investigations of water-rock interactions and weathering processes including transport of weathering products to the oceans.Many studies have addressed the use of REEs in investigating the environmental impact of human activity and demonstrated that the REE natural distribution in sediment from densely industrialised and populated regions can be altered by anthropogenic influences.The coastal wetlands like Mangroves are ultimate sinks for all the material derived from the terrestrial and marine environment.The high productivity and low ratio of sediment respiration to net primary production gives mangrove sediments the potential for long-term sequestration of these pollutants/metals before reaching the coastal ocean. Geochemical study of REE in these sedimentary systems is useful for determining the nature of the biogeochemical processes. In particular, REE show a great sensitivity to pH changes, redox conditions and adsorption/ desorption reactions. So, they may be used as markers of discharge provenance, weathering processes, changes in environmental conditions in the water and sediments of Mangrove/wetland systems. Our study aims to establish the abundance, distribution and enrichment of REEs to track the sediment sources and biogeochemical processes occurring in the mangrove environment.Core sediments were collected from the different environmental settings within the Pichavaram mangrove area.Higher REE concentration in Pichavaram sediments indicated greater input from sources like terrestrial weathering and anthropogenic activities which in turn are affected by saline mixing and dynamic physico-chemical processes occurring in the mangrove environment. REE enrichment order was attributed to the alkaline pH (7-8.5) and reducing conditions prevailing in the mangrove

  6. Geochemical signatures of sediments documenting Arctic sea-ice and water mass export through Fram Strait since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Maccali, Jenny; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Carignan, Jean; Reisberg, Laurie C.


    Elemental (Ca, Zr, Th, etc.) and radiogenic isotope (Pb, Nd, Sr) measurements in leachates and residues from deep-sea sediments of core MC16 (WarmPast Program) in central Fram Strait were used to document the geochemical signatures of outflowing Arctic water masses and ice rafted debris (IRD) since the Last Glacial Maximum. In addition, the elemental distribution among the three main sedimentary fractions (terrigenous, biogenic and authigenic) was quantified. Elements dominated by the terrigenous fraction display a change at ˜13 ka assigned to an early Younger Dryas (YD) event. In the authigenic fraction, migration of the redox front, perhaps spurred by discontinuous delivery of organic matter to the sediment, has led to the mobility of elements such as Mn. Fe contents display lesser variability within the sediment suggesting that Fe experienced only minor redox-related redistribution. Authigenic Pb and Nd, thought to be hosted primarily by Fe-oxyhydroxides, also show little evidence of mobility, suggesting that their isotopic compositions should reliably record the isotopic compositions of past bottom water. We have broadly identified the isotopic signatures of the three major source areas of IRD, the Russian, Canadian and Greenland margins. The elemental and isotopic residue records from core MC16 display distinct trends prior to and after the YD. The pre-YD interval, with ɛNd values between -10.1 and -13.2, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.715 to 0721, reflects a mixture of IRD from the Russian and Canadian margins. The YD episode stands out with sediments originating mostly from the Canadian end-member, displaying the lowest ɛNd values and highest 87Sr/86Sr ratios. This suggests enhanced sea-ice production and/or drifting along the Beaufort Gyre at that time. The post-YD interval, i.e. the Holocene, is characterized by a less variable mixture of IRD material, with ɛNd values and 87Sr/86Sr ratios centred at -12.2 and 0.718 respectively. This material was derived

  7. Transport of fine sediment over a coarse, immobile riverbed

    Grams, Paul E.; Wilcock, Peter R.


    Sediment transport in cobble-boulder rivers consists mostly of fine sediment moving over a coarse, immobile bed. Transport rate depends on several interrelated factors: boundary shear stress, the grain size and volume of fine sediment, and the configuration of fine sediment into interstitial deposits and bed forms. Existing models do not incorporate all of these factors. Approaches that partition stress face a daunting challenge because most of the boundary shear is exerted on immobile grains. We present an alternative approach that divides the bed into sand patches and interstitial deposits and is well constrained by two clear end-member cases: full sand cover and absence of sand. Entrainment from sand patches is a function of their aerial coverage. Entrainment from interstices among immobile grains is a function of sand elevation relative to the size of the immobile grains. The bed-sand coverage function is used to predict the ratio of the rate of entrainment from a partially covered bed to the rate of entrainment from a completely sand-covered bed, which is determined using a standard sand transport model. We implement the bed-sand coverage function in a morphodynamic routing model and test it against observations of sand bed elevation and suspended sand concentration for conditions of nonuniform fine sediment transport in a large flume with steady uniform flow over immobile hemispheres. The results suggest that this approach may provide a simple and robust method for predicting the transport and migration of fine sediment through rivers with coarse, immobile beds.

  8. Evaluating gully erosion using {sup 137}Cs and {sup 210}Pb/{sup 137}Cs ratio in a reservoir catchment

    Li, Y. [Institute of Agricultural Environment and Sustainable Development, CAAS, Beijing (China) and Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, CAAS, Beijing (China)]. E-mail: and; Poesen, J. [Laboratory for Experimental Geomorphology, Catholic University Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Yang, J.C.; Zhang, J.H. [Institute of Agricultural Environment and Sustainable Development, CAAS, Beijing (China); Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, CAAS, Beijing (China); Fu, B. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)


    Water erosion in the hilly areas of west China is the main process contributing to the overall sediment of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. The impact of gully erosion in total sediment output has been mostly neglected. Our objective was to assess the sediment production and sediment sources at both the hillslope and catchment scales in the Yangjuangou reservoir catchment of the Chinese Loess Plateau, northwest China. Distribution patterns in sediment production caused by water erosion on hills and gully slopes under different land use types were assessed using the fallout {sup 137}Cs technique. The total sediment production from the catchment was estimated by using the sediment record in a reservoir. Sediment sources and dominant water erosion processes were determined by comparing {sup 137}Cs activities and {sup 210}Pb/{sup 137}Cs ratios in surface soils and sub-surface soils with those of sediment deposits from the reservoir at the outlet of the catchment. Results indicated that landscape location had the most significant impact on sediment production for cultivated hillslopes, followed by the terraced hillslope, and the least for the vegetated hillslope. Sediment production increased in the following order: top>upper>lower>middle for the cultivated hillslope, and top>lower>upper>middle for the terraced hillslope. The mean value of sediment production declined by 49% for the terraced hillslope and by 80% for the vegetated hillslope compared with the cultivated hillslope. Vegetated gully slope reduced the sediment production by 38% compared with the cultivated gully slope. These data demonstrate the effectiveness of terracing and perennial vegetation cover in controlling sediment delivery at a hillslope scale. Averaged {sup 137}Cs activities and {sup 210}Pb/{sup 137}Cs ratios in the 0-5 cm surface soil (2.22-4.70 Bq kg{sup -1} and 20.70-22.07, respectively) and in the 5-30 cm subsoil (2.60 Bq kg{sup -1} and 28.57, respectively) on the cultivated hills and

  9. Silicone passive equilibrium samplers as ‘chemometers’ in eels and sediments of a Swedish lake

    Jahnke, Annika; Mayer, Philipp; McLachlan, Michael S.


    Passive equilibrium samplers deployed in two or more media of a system and allowed to come to equilibrium can be viewed as ‘chemometers’ that reflect the difference in chemical activities of contaminants between the media. We applied silicone-based equilibrium samplers to measure relative chemical...... activities of seven ‘indicator’ polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene in eels and sediments from a Swedish lake. Chemical concentrations in eels and sediments were also measured using exhaustive extraction methods. Lipid-normalized concentrations in eels were higher than organic carbon...... ratios is consistent with the sorptive capacity of lipids exceeding that of sediment organic carbon from this ecosystem by up to 50-fold. Factors that may contribute to the elevated activity in sediments are discussed, including slower response of sediments than water to reduced emissions, sediment...

  10. Identifying Suitable Projection Parameters and Display Configurations for Mobile True-3D Displays

    Serrano, Marcos; Hildebrandt, Dale; Subramanian, Sriram; Irani, Pourang


    International audience; We present a two-part exploration on mobile true-3D displays, i.e. displaying volumetric 3D content in mid-air. We first identify and study the parameters of a mobile true-3D projection, in terms of the projection's distance to the phone, angle to the phone, display volume and position within the display. We identify suitable parameters and constraints, which we propose as requirements for developing mobile true-3D systems. We build on the first outcomes to explore met...

  11. Polarity effect in electrovibration for tactile display.

    Kaczmarek, Kurt A; Nammi, Krishnakant; Agarwal, Abhishek K; Tyler, Mitchell E; Haase, Steven J; Beebe, David J


    Electrovibration is the tactile sensation of an alternating potential between the human body and a smooth conducing surface when the skin slides over the surface and where the current is too small to stimulate sensory nerves directly. It has been proposed as a high-density tactile display method, for example to display pictographic information to persons who are blind. Previous models for the electrovibration transduction mechanism are based on a parallel-plate capacitor in which the electrostatic force is insensitive to polarity. We present experimental data showing that electrovibratory perceptual sensitivity to positive pulses is less than that for negative or biphasic pulses and propose that this disparity may be due to the asymmetric electrical properties of human skin. We furthermore propose using negative pulses for insulated tactile displays based on electrovibration because their sensory thresholds were found to be more stable than for waveforms incorporating positive pulses.

  12. The design of electronic map displays

    Aretz, Anthony J.


    This paper presents a cognitive analysis of a pilot's navigation task and describes an experiment comparing a new map display that employs the principle of visual momentum with the two traditional approaches, track-up and north-up. The data show that the advantage of a track-up alignment is its congruence with the egocentered forward view; however, the inconsistency of the rotating display hinders development of a cognitive map. The stability of a north-up alignment aids the acquisition of a cognitive map, but there is a cost associated with the mental rotation of the display to a track-up alignment for tasks involving the ego-centered forward view. The data also show that the visual momentum design captures the benefits and reduces the costs associated with the two traditional approaches.

  13. Optical scanning holography for stereoscopic display

    Liu, Jung-Ping; Wen, Hsuan-Hsuan


    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a scanning-type digital holographic recording technique. One of OSH's most important properties is that the OSH can record an incoherent hologram, which is free of speckle and thus is suitable for the applications of holographic display. The recording time of a scanning hologram is proportional to the sampling resolution. Hence the viewing angle as well as the resolution of a scanning hologram is limited for avoid too long recording. As a result, the viewing angle is not large enough for optical display. To solve this problem, we recorded two scanning holograms at different viewing angles. The two holograms are synthesized to a single stereoscopic hologram with two main viewing angles. In displaying, two views at the two main viewing angles are reconstructed. Because both views contain full-depth-resolved 3D scenes, the problem of accommodation conflict in conventional stereogram is avoided.

  14. High performance visual display for HENP detectors

    McGuigan, M; Spiletic, J; Fine, V; Nevski, P


    A high end visual display for High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) detectors is necessary because of the sheer size and complexity of the detector. For BNL this display will be of special interest because of STAR and ATLAS. To load, rotate, query, and debug simulation code with a modern detector simply takes too long even on a powerful work station. To visualize the HENP detectors with maximal performance we have developed software with the following characteristics. We develop a visual display of HENP detectors on BNL multiprocessor visualization server at multiple level of detail. We work with general and generic detector framework consistent with ROOT, GAUDI etc, to avoid conflicting with the many graphic development groups associated with specific detectors like STAR and ATLAS. We develop advanced OpenGL features such as transparency and polarized stereoscopy. We enable collaborative viewing of detector and events by directly running the analysis in BNL stereoscopic theatre. We construct enhanced interactiv...

  15. Characterising laser beams with liquid crystal displays

    Dudley, Angela; Naidoo, Darryl; Forbes, Andrew


    We show how one can determine the various properties of light, from the modal content of laser beams to decoding the information stored in optical fields carrying orbital angular momentum, by performing a modal decomposition. Although the modal decomposition of light has been known for a long time, applied mostly to pattern recognition, we illustrate how this technique can be implemented with the use of liquid-crystal displays. We show experimentally how liquid crystal displays can be used to infer the intensity, phase, wavefront, Poynting vector, and orbital angular momentum density of unknown optical fields. This measurement technique makes use of a single spatial light modulator (liquid crystal display), a Fourier transforming lens and detector (CCD or photo-diode). Such a diagnostic tool is extremely relevant to the real-time analysis of solid-state and fibre laser systems as well as mode division multiplexing as an emerging technology in optical communication.

  16. Interacting on and around Large Displays

    Markussen, Anders

    of content that reside outside the display boundaries, taking advantage of users’ perceived location of off-screen content. Off-Limits was found to provide significant benefits over touch-based interaction. The results show that an extension of interactions beyond the boundaries of the display can increase......), a previously successfully text entry method for touch- and pen-based input, to work as a technique for mid-air text entry. With a text entry rate of 20.6 WPM after 10 sessions of text entry, the mid-air WGK provided faster text entry rates than previously evaluated methods for mid-air text entry. An improved....... To improve understanding of the differences between input modalities for large displays, the mid-air WGK was compared to a touch-based functionally equivalent WGK. The touch-based keyboard was found to be significantly faster than the mid-air WGK, indicating that touch based interaction may be preferable...

  17. Pilot Preferences on Displayed Aircraft Control Variables

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.


    The experiments described here explored how pilots want available maneuver authority information transmitted and how this information affects pilots before and after an aircraft failure. The aircraft dynamic variables relative to flight performance were narrowed to energy management variables. A survey was conducted to determine what these variables should be. Survey results indicated that bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were the preferred variables. Based on this, two displays were designed to inform the pilot of available maneuver envelope expressed as bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed. These displays were used in an experiment involving control surface failures. Results indicate the displayed limitations in bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were helpful to the pilots during aircraft surface failures. However, the additional information did lead to a slight increase in workload, a small decrease in perceived aircraft flying qualities, and no effect on aircraft situation awareness.

  18. Optical sedimentation recorder

    Bishop, James K.B.


    A robotic optical sedimentation recorder is described for the recordation of carbon flux in the oceans wherein both POC and PIC particles are captured at the open end of a submersible sampling platform, the captured particles allowed to drift down onto a collection plate where they can be imaged over time. The particles are imaged using three separate light sources, activated in sequence, one source being a back light, a second source being a side light to provide dark field illumination, and a third source comprising a cross polarized light source to illuminate birefringent particles. The recorder in one embodiment is attached to a buoyancy unit which is capable upon command for bringing the sedimentation recorder to a programmed depth below the ocean surface during recordation mode, and on command returning the unit to the ocean surface for transmission of recorded data and receipt of new instructions. The combined unit is provided with its own power source and is designed to operate autonomously in the ocean for extended periods of time.

  19. Detecting Magnetosomes in Freshwater Lakes and Lake Sediments

    Kodama, K. P.; Kim, B.; Kopp, B.; Chen, A. P.


    We will present a summary of the work done to date on detecting magnetosomes in the lake sediments and water column of Lake Ely, a small post-glacial lake in northeastern Pennsylvania. To establish that magnetosomes dominate the magnetic mineralogy of the Lake Ely sediments we sampled the water column every meter down to its maximum depth of 23 m and measured the dissolved oxygen, sulfide, and iron, as well as the ARM of the material filtered from the water. We examined the water samples for magnetotactic bacteria. These results established an increase in the ARM of the filtered material at the oxic-anoxic transition. They also showed that the ARM was carried by magnetosomes produced by magnetotactic bacteria living in the water column at depths from 15-19 m. TEM of magnetic separates collected from the lake sediments show that magnetosomes are transferred to the sediments from the water column and are a significant fraction of the magnetic minerals in the sediments. We used a variety of mineral magnetic techniques to magnetically characterize the magnetosomes in the lake sediments. The delta-delta ratio test of low temperature behavior at the Verwey transition (Moskowitz et al., 1993) gave values of 1.2 to 1.5, lower than the theoretically predicted level of 2 for magnetosomes, but a numeric unmixing technique could resolve higher delta-delta ratios in the dark organic-rich layers in the sediments where magnetosomes were more prevalent. ARM/SIRM ratios of 0.15 to 0.35 with Raf values (the crossover of an IRM acquisition curve versus its alternating field demagnetization curve) of 0.45 to 0.5 are consistent with the presence of magnetosomes in the sediments, the water column, and in a sediment trap located at the bottom of the lake. IRM and ARM acquisition modeling of samples collected from a 160 cm piston core revealed two components of magnetization with coercivities of about 25 mT and 65 mT that are identified as Egli's (2004) biogenic soft (BS) and biogenic

  20. A Displayer of Stellar Hydrodynamics Processes

    Vigo, José Antonio Escartín; Senz, Domingo García

    The graphics display tool that we present here was originally developed to meet the needs of the Astronomy and Astrophysics group at the UPC (GAA). At present, it is used to display the plots obtained from hydrodynamic simulations using the SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) method. It is, however, a generic program that can be used for other multidimensional hydrodynamic methods. The application combines the most widely used features of other programs (most of them commercial) such as GnuPlot, Surfer, Grapher, IDL, Voxler, etc.

  1. Interpretation and display of research results

    Dilip Kumar Kulkarni


    Full Text Available It important to properly collect, code, clean and edit the data before interpreting and displaying the research results. Computers play a major role in different phases of research starting from conceptual, design and planning, data collection, data analysis and research publication phases. The main objective of data display is to summarize the characteristics of a data and to make the data more comprehensible and meaningful. Usually data is presented depending upon the type of data in different tables and graphs. This will enable not only to understand the data behaviour, but also useful in choosing the different statistical tests to be applied.

  2. Variable parallax barrier spacing in autostereoscopic displays

    Yoon, Seon Kyu; Khym, Sungwon; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Sung-Kyu


    In general, multi-view autostereoscopic displays can only provide autostereoscopic images with little crosstalk at the optimum viewing distance (OVD) in the depth direction, limiting the mobility of viewers. Therefore, this paper proposes a method of increasing viewer mobility in the depth direction by varying the distance separating the parallax barrier and the display. Computer simulations and experiments were conducted to verify changes in the OVD resulting from the application of the proposed method. The results showed that the proposed method is effective at changing the OVD with respect to changes in the viewing distance. Therefore this method minimizes changes in the 3D image quality due to the viewer's depth location.

  3. Perceptual transparency in neon color spreading displays.

    Ekroll, Vebjørn; Faul, Franz


    In neon color spreading displays, both a color illusion and perceptual transparency can be seen. In this study, we investigated the color conditions for the perception of transparency in such displays. It was found that the data are very well accounted for by a generalization of Metelli's (1970) episcotister model of balanced perceptual transparency to tristimulus values. This additive model correctly predicted which combinations of colors would lead to optimal impressions of transparency. Color combinations deviating slightly from the additive model also looked transparent, but less convincingly so.

  4. Bright color reflective displays with interlayer reflectors

    Kitson, Stephen; Geisow, Adrian; Rudin, John; Taphouse, Tim


    A good solution to the reflective display of color has been a major challenge for the display industry, with very limited color gamuts demonstrated to date. Conventional side-by-side red, green and blue color filters waste two-thirds of incident light. The alternative of stacking cyan, magenta and yellow layers is also challenging -- a 10% loss per layer compounds to nearly 50% overall. Here we demonstrate an architecture that interleaves absorbing-to-clear shutters with matched wavelength selective reflectors. This increases color gamut by reducing losses and more cleanly separating the color channels, and gives much wider choice of electro-optic colorants.

  5. Displaying of Details in Subvoxel Accuracy

    蔡文立; 陈天洲; 等


    Under the volume segmentation in voxel space,a lot of details,some fine and thin objects,are ignored.In order to accurately display these details,this paper has developed a methodology for volume segmentation in subvoxel space.In the subvoxel space,most of the “bridges”between adjacent layers are broken down.Based on the subvoxel space,an automatic segmentation algorithm reserving details is discussed.After segmentation,volume data in subvoxel space are reduced to original voxel space.Thus,the details with width of only one or several voxels are extracted and displayed.

  6. Variations of common riverine contaminants in reservoir sediments.

    Micić, V; Kruge, M A; Hofmann, T


    Organic molecules in reservoir sediments can be used as tracers of contaminant inputs into rivers. Vertical variations in the molecular records can be ascribed to pre-depositional alteration within the water column, or in situ post-depositional alteration. We report the molecular stratigraphy of four common riverine contaminant groups in sediment of the largest reservoir on the Danube River, the Iron Gate I Reservoir. Sediments were rapidly deposited, with little variation in texture and, as revealed by analytical pyrolysis, in the concentration and composition of natural sedimentary organic matter. However, a detailed molecular inspection did reveal differences in distribution and organic carbon (OC)-normalized concentrations of contaminants. The OC-normalized concentrations of nonylphenol increased by one order of magnitude with depth down the 70 cm sediment core. There is a strong correlation between sediment depth and the ratio of nonylphenol to its precursor (nonylphenol monoethoxylate). This indicated that nonylphenol was produced in situ. While the relative proportions of C10-C14 linear alkylbenzenes remained constant with increasing depth, they exhibited variations in isomer distribution. These variations, which are due to different degrees of degradation, appear to have occurred within the water column prior to sedimentation of suspended solids. The distribution of 40 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons revealed origins from both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. The differences in their compositions were not depth-related, but rather were associated with variations in the sorption capacities of texturally different sediments. Perylene showed slightly higher concentrations at greater depths, while the OC-normalized concentration of retene systematically increased with sediment depth. This is consistent with formation of retene and perylene via very early diagenetic transformation. The presence of petroleum biomarkers indicated minor contamination by fossil

  7. Modeling sediment mobilization using a distributed hydrological model coupled with a bank stability model

    Stryker, J.; Wemple, B.; Bomblies, A.


    In addition to surface erosion, stream bank erosion and failure contributes significant sediment and sediment-bound nutrients to receiving waters during high flow events. However, distributed and mechanistic simulation of stream bank sediment contribution to sediment loads in a watershed has not been achieved. Here we present a full coupling of existing distributed watershed and bank stability models and apply the resulting model to the Mad River in central Vermont. We fully coupled the Bank Stability and Toe Erosion Model (BSTEM) with the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) to allow the simulation of stream bank erosion and potential failure in a spatially explicit environment. We demonstrate the model's ability to simulate the impacts of unstable streams on sediment mobilization and transport within a watershed and discuss the model's capability to simulate watershed sediment loading under climate change. The calibrated model simulates total suspended sediment loads and reproduces variability in suspended sediment concentrations at watershed and subbasin outlets. In addition, characteristics such as land use and road-to-stream ratio of subbasins are shown to impact the relative proportions of sediment mobilized by overland erosion, erosion of roads, and stream bank erosion and failure in the subbasins and watershed. This coupled model will advance mechanistic simulation of suspended sediment mobilization and transport from watersheds, which will be particularly valuable for investigating the potential impacts of climate and land use changes, as well as extreme events.

  8. Origin of the scaling laws of sediment transport

    Ali, Sk Zeeshan; Dey, Subhasish


    In this paper, we discover the origin of the scaling laws of sediment transport under turbulent flow over a sediment bed, for the first time, from the perspective of the phenomenological theory of turbulence. The results reveal that for the incipient motion of sediment particles, the densimetric Froude number obeys the `(1 + σ)/4' scaling law with the relative roughness (ratio of particle diameter to approach flow depth), where σ is the spectral exponent of turbulent energy spectrum. However, for the bedforms, the densimetric Froude number obeys a `(1 + σ)/6' scaling law with the relative roughness in the enstrophy inertial range and the energy inertial range. For the bedload flux, the bedload transport intensity obeys the `3/2' and `(1 + σ)/4' scaling laws with the transport stage parameter and the relative roughness, respectively. For the suspended load flux, the non-dimensional suspended sediment concentration obeys the `-Z ' scaling law with the non-dimensional vertical distance within the wall shear layer, where Z is the Rouse number. For the scour in contracted streams, the non-dimensional scour depth obeys the `4/(3 - σ)', `-4/(3 - σ)' and `-(1 + σ)/(3 - σ)' scaling laws with the densimetric Froude number, the channel contraction ratio (ratio of contracted channel width to approach channel width) and the relative roughness, respectively.

  9. Modeling microalgal flocculation and sedimentation

    Salim, S.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Rinzema, A.; Vermuë, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.


    In this study, a combined flocculation and sedimentation model is developed. The model predicts the time needed to reach a desired concentration of microalgal suspension in a sedimentation tank. The concentration of the particles as function of the time and the position in the tank is described. The

  10. Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey

    Sloff, C.J.


    A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on mathematic

  11. Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey

    Sloff, C.J.


    A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on mathematic

  12. Luminescence dating of Netherland's sediments

    Wallinga, J.; Davids, F.; Dijkmans, J.W.A.


    Over the last decades luminescence dating techniques have been developed that allow earth scientists to determine the time of deposition of sediments. In this contribution we revity: 1) the development of the methodology, 2) tests of the reliability of luminescence dating on Netherlands' sediments;

  13. Intensive landfarming of contaminated sediments

    Wieggers, H.J.J.; Bezemer, H.W.


    The biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and mineral oil was investigated in heavily and normally polluted sediments. The aims of the research were: to improve the knowledge of dewatering and ripening of sediments in an open land-farm, to quantify the biodegradation in two sedime

  14. Respiration in ocean margin sediments

    Andersson, J.H.


    The aim of this thesis was the study of respiration in ocean margin sediments and the assessments of tools needed for this purpose. The first study was on the biological pump and global respiration patterns in the deep ocean using an empirical model based on sediment oxygen consumption data. In this

  15. Respiration in ocean margin sediments

    Andersson, J.H.


    The aim of this thesis was the study of respiration in ocean margin sediments and the assessments of tools needed for this purpose. The first study was on the biological pump and global respiration patterns in the deep ocean using an empirical model based on sediment oxygen consumption data.

  16. Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey

    Sloff, C.J.


    A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on

  17. Stream-sediment geochemistry in mining-impacted streams : sediment mobilized by floods in the Coeur d'Alene-Spokane River system, Idaho and Washington

    Box, Stephen E.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Ikramuddin, Mohammed


    below the confluence of the North and South Forks, and then increase again downstream of the gradient flattening below Cataldo. Metal contents of suspended sediment in the Spokane River below Coeur d'Alene Lake were comparable to those of suspended sediment in the main stem of the Coeur d'Alene River above the lake during the 1997 spring runoff, but with somewhat higher Zn contents. Daily suspended-sediment loads were about 100 times larger in the 1996 flood (50-100-year recurrence interval) than in the smaller 1997 floods (2-5-year recurrence intervals). Significant differences in metal ratios and contents are also apparent between the two flood types. The predominant source of suspended sediment in the larger 1996 flood was previously deposited, metal-enriched flood-plain sediment, identified by its Zn/Pb ratio less than 1. Suspended sediment in the smaller 1997 floods had metal ratios distinct from those of the flood-plain deposits and was primarily derived from metal-enriched sediment stored within the stream channel, identified by a Zn/Pb ratio greater than 1. Sediment deposited during overbank flooding on the immediate streambank or natural levee of the river typically consists of sandy material with metal ratios and contents similar to those of the sandy streambed sediment in the adjacent river reach. Samples of overbank deposits in backlevee marshes collected after the 1996 flood have metal ratios similar to those of peak-flow suspended sediment in the same river reach, but generally lower metal contents.

  18. Modelling of Suspended Sediment Discharge for Masinga ...

    Sedimentation models however, require suspended load as the basic input data. ... at the two mouths of the reservoir, at the confluence, and near the dam wall. ... Dredging out fine sediments, construction of sedimentation basins at the two ...

  19. Study on the Reutilization of River Sediment

    LIU Gui-yun; JIANG Pei-hua; XI Dan-li


    Main components and properties of river sediment are introduced. Secondary pollution of river sediments to the water quality of the river is clarified. The methods of the reutilization of river sediment are elucidated.

  20. Geochemistry of Sediments from the PLUTO Database

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemical data for unconsolidated sediments (stream sediments, lake sediments, etc.) collected in the US and analyzed by the USGS. These data were originally...

  1. Large-screen display industry: market and technology trends for direct view and projection displays

    Castellano, Joseph A.; Mentley, David E.


    Large screen information displays are defined as dynamic electronic displays that can be viewed by more than one person and are at least 2-feet wide. These large area displays for public viewing provide convenience, entertainment, security, and efficiency to the viewers. There are numerous uses for large screen information displays including those in advertising, transportation, traffic control, conference room presentations, computer aided design, banking, and military command/control. A noticeable characteristic of the large screen display market is the interchangeability of display types. For any given application, the user can usually choose from at least three alternative technologies, and sometimes from many more. Some display types have features that make them suitable for specific applications due to temperature, brightness, power consumption, or other such characteristic. The overall worldwide unit consumption of large screen information displays of all types and for all applications (excluding consumer TV) will increase from 401,109 units in 1995 to 655,797 units in 2002. On a unit consumption basis, applications in business and education represent the largest share of unit consumption over this time period; in 1995, this application represented 69.7% of the total. The market (value of shipments) will grow from DOL3.1 billion in 1995 to DOL3.9 billion in 2002. The market will be dominated by front LCD projectors and LCD overhead projector plates.

  2. Head Mounted Displays for Virtual Reality


    image generating capabilities. 2.2.4 Color Since people are used to viewing the world in color, a full-color display would add to the realism of the...Crescent Street, Waltham, MA, undated. Lipton, L., Foundations of the Stereoscopic Cinema , New York: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Company, 1982. Martin, S. W

  3. Exploring Community Building with an Awareness Display

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Anton; Eliëns, Anton; Poelman, Wim; Makedon, Fillia


    In this paper, we present a field trial of a pervasive system called Panorama that is aimed at supporting social awareness in work environments. Panorama is an intelligent situated display in the staff room of an academic department. It artistically represents non-critical user generated content suc

  4. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus


    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. In B. Chang, T. Hirashima, & H. Ogata (Eds.), Joint Proceedings of the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium for the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education (pp.

  5. Perception of Depth with Stereoscopic Combat Displays.


    phorias and aniseikonia contributed to visual fatigue in * observers of stereo displays though this proposition has never been put to test. In future...experiments, individuals with slight, but measurable, eye muscle imbalances or aniseikonia -should be compared with normals across various viewing sy

  6. Perception of Spatial Features with Stereoscopic Displays.


    aniseikonia (differences in retinal image size in the two eyes) are of little significance because only monocular perception of the display is required for...perception as a result of such factors as aniseikonia , uncor- rected refractive errors, or phorias results in reduced stereopsis. However, because

  7. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus


    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010, 29 November-3 December). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. Poster presented at the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education, Putrajaya, Malaysia: Asia-Pa

  8. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus


    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. In B. Chang, T. Hirashima, & H. Ogata (Eds.), Joint Proceedings of the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium for the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education (pp.

  9. Liquid Crystal Microlenses for Autostereoscopic Displays

    José Francisco Algorri


    Full Text Available Three-dimensional vision has acquired great importance in the audiovisual industry in the past ten years. Despite this, the first generation of autostereoscopic displays failed to generate enough consumer excitement. Some reasons are little 3D content and performance issues. For this reason, an exponential increase in three-dimensional vision research has occurred in the last few years. In this review, a study of the historical impact of the most important technologies has been performed. This study is carried out in terms of research manuscripts per year. The results reveal that research on spatial multiplexing technique is increasing considerably and today is the most studied. For this reason, the state of the art of this technique is presented. The use of microlenses seems to be the most successful method to obtain autostereoscopic vision. When they are fabricated with liquid crystal materials, extended capabilities are produced. Among the numerous techniques for manufacturing liquid crystal microlenses, this review covers the most viable designs for its use in autostereoscopic displays. For this reason, some of the most important topologies and their relation with autostereoscopic displays are presented. Finally, the challenges in some recent applications, such as portable devices, and the future of three-dimensional displays based on liquid crystal microlenses are outlined.

  10. Recommended Colours for Use on Airborne Displays.


    generation of military aircraft will also utilise such devices. There are a number of types of colour CRTs but the penetron and shadow mask devices are...towards 610 nm also typifies penetron displays. When these boundaries are superimposed on repre- sentative source (Fig 21) and surface (Fig 22) plots it

  11. Presenting directions with a vibrotactile torso display

    Erp, J.B.F. van


    Vibrotactile displays covering the torso present spatial information in an intuitive way since the stimuli are directly mapped to the body coordinates; left is left, front is front, etc. The present study investigated the direction in the horizontal plane to which a specific torso location is mapped

  12. Supramolecular liquid crystal displays : construction and applications

    Hoogboom, Joannes Theodorus Valentinus


    This thesis describes chemical methodologies, which can be ued to construct alignment layers for liquid crystal display purposes in a non-clean room environment, by making use of supramolecular chemistry. These techniques are subsequently used to attain control over LCD-properties, both pre- and pos

  13. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus


    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010, 29 November-3 December). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. Poster presented at the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education, Putrajaya, Malaysia:

  14. Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns

    Kelle, Sebastian; Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus


    Kelle, S., Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010). Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns. In M. Wolpers, P. A. Kirschner, M. Scheffel, S. Lindstädt, & V. Dimitrova (Eds.), Sustaining TEL: From Innovation to Learning and Practice, Proceedings of EC-TEL 2010 (pp. 512-517). LNCS 6383. Berlin, He

  15. Slew Timer For Symbol Display Generator

    Fisher, Paul A.


    Slew-length timer generates delay and, at end of delay, signal indicating end of one of slews of electron beam in cathode-ray-tube display driven by symbol generator. End-of-slew signal constitutes "permission" for symbol generator to begin drawing next symbol segment.

  16. Baculovirus display of functional antibody Fab fragments.

    Takada, Shinya; Ogawa, Takafumi; Matsui, Kazusa; Suzuki, Tasuku; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki


    The generation of a recombinant baculovirus that displays antibody Fab fragments on the surface was investigated. A recombinant baculovirus was engineered so that the heavy chain (Hc; Fd fragment) of a mouse Fab fragment was expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of baculovirus gp64, while the light chain of the Fab fragment was simultaneously expressed as a secretory protein. Following infection of Sf9 insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus, the culture supernatant was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antigen-coated microplates and either an anti-mouse IgG or an anti-gp64 antibody. A relatively strong signal was obtained in each case, showing antigen-binding activity in the culture supernatant. In western blot analysis of the culture supernatant using the anti-gp64 antibody, specific protein bands were detected at an electrophoretic mobility that coincided with the molecular weight of the Hc-gp64 fusion protein as well as that of gp64. Flow cytometry using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody specific to mouse IgG successfully detected the Fab fragments on the surface of the Sf9 cells. These results suggest that immunologically functional antibody Fab fragments can be displayed on the surface of baculovirus particles, and that a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with a fluorescence-labeled antigen can isolate baculoviruses displaying specific Fab fragments. This successful baculovirus display of antibody Fab fragments may offer a novel approach for the efficient selection of specific antibodies.

  17. Tactile display device using an electrorheological fluid

    Garner, H. Douglas


    A tactile display device utilizes an electrorheological fluid to activate a plurality of tactile dots. A voltage is selectively produced uniformly across an electrorheological fluid flowing between a common ground electrode and a plurality of conductive dot electrodes, thereby producing an increase in the fluid's viscosity to the extent that fluid flow between the two electrodes is restricted. The flow restriction produces a build-up of electrorheological fluid in a corresponding dot actuator chamber. The resulting pressure increase in the chamber displaces an elastic diaphragm fixed to a display surface to form a lump which can be perceived by the reader as one dot in a Braille character cell. A flow regulation system provides a continually pressurized flow system and provides for free flow of the electrorheological fluid through the plurality of dot actuator chambers when they are not activated. The device is adaptable to printed circuit techniques and can simultaneously display tactile dots representative of a full page of Braille characters stored on a medium such as a tape cassette or to display tactile dots representative of non-Braille data appearing on a computer monitor or contained on another data storage medium. In an alternate embodiment, the elastic diaphragm drives a plurality of spring-loaded pins provided with positive stops to maintain consistent displacements of the pins in both their actuated and nonactuated positions.

  18. Visualising the Battlefield with Panoramic Displays


    such colour capability, sufficient viewing angle, capabilities: who has the authority to interact colourcablity sufficintrvie igag with and change...conferencing, briefings, etc. can also be displayed (see Figure 2). * LSDs must conform to population stereotypes (i.e. user expectations about

  19. Converting a Display Screen into a Touchscreen

    Qun Wang; Jun Cheng; San-Ming Shen; Yi-Jiang Shen; Jian-Xin Pang


    A method is presented to convert any display screen into a touchscreen by using a pair of cameras. Most state of art touchscreens make use of special touch-sensitive hardware or depend on infrared sensors in various configurations. We describe a novel computer-vision-based method that can robustly identify fingertips and detect touch with a precision of a few millimeters above the screen. In our system, the two cameras capture the display screen image simultaneously. Users can interact with a computer by the fingertip on the display screen. We have two important contributions:first, we develop a simple and robust hand detection method based on predicted images. Second, we determine whether a physical touch takes places by the homography of the two cameras. In this system, the appearance of the display screen in camera images is inherently predictable from the computer output images. Therefore, we can compute the predicted images and extract human hand precisely by simply subtracting the predicted images from captured images.

  20. Recognition of epoxy with phage displayed peptides.

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Cui, Yue


    The development of a general approach for non-destructive chemical and biological functionalization of epoxy could expand opportunities for both fundamental studies and creating various device platforms. Epoxy shows unique electrical, mechanical, chemical and biological compatibility and has been widely used for fabricating a variety of devices. Phage display has emerged as a powerful method for selecting peptides that possess enhanced selectivity and binding affinity toward a variety of targets. In this letter, we demonstrate for the first time a powerful yet benign approach for identifying binding motifs to epoxy via comprehensively screened phage displayed peptides. Our results show that the epoxy can be selectively recognized with peptide-displaying phages. Further, along with the development of epoxy-based microstructures; recognition of the epoxy with phage displayed peptides can be specifically localized in these microstructures. We anticipate that these results could open up exciting opportunities in the use of peptide-recognized epoxy in fundamental biochemical recognition studies, as well as in applications ranging from analytical devices, hybrid materials, surface and interface, to cell biology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Electronic Chart Display and Information System


    This paper introduces the most advanced form of electronic chart display and information systems (ECDIS) which complies with the Performance Standards for ECDIS established by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO).It also describes the key features and the important functions of ECDIS.Then the future development of ECDIS in marine is discussed.

  2. Advanced manufacturing technologies on color plasma displays

    Betsui, Keiichi


    The mass production of the color plasma display started from 1996. However, since the price of the panel is still expensive, PDPs are not in widespread use at home. It is necessary to develop the new and low-cost manufacturing technologies to reduce the price of the panel. This paper describes some of the features of new fabrication technologies of PDPs.

  3. Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns

    Kelle, Sebastian; Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus


    Kelle, S., Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010). Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns. In M. Wolpers, P. A. Kirschner, M. Scheffel, S. Lindstädt, & V. Dimitrova (Eds.), Sustaining TEL: From Innovation to Learning and Practice, Proceedings of EC-TEL 2010 (pp. 512-517). LNCS 6383. Berlin,

  4. Evaluation of phytotoxicity of seaport sediments aged artificially by rotary leaching in the framework of a quarry deposit scenario.

    Bedell, J-P; Ferro, Y; Bazin, C; Perrodin, Y


    In the framework of an ecological risk assessment of seaport sediments for terrestrial ecosystems when deposited in quarries, we simulated the "ageing" of sediments exposed to rain. This experiment highlighted an inflection point at the solid/liquid ratio 1/25, after which the extraction of pollutants increases moderately. The raw sediments studied inhibited the germination of Lolium perenne and Armeria maritima (a halophytic species) seeds. Furthermore, they affected the early development of L.perenne. The same sediments, leached at a ratio of 1/25, presented a reduction of acute (germination) and chronic (growth) phytotoxicity. The bioconcentration factors of the metals studied decreased with the leached sediment, except for Cu which was still clearly identified in root parts. Thus rotary leaching tests and phytotoxicity bioassays can be used to provide an initial assessment of the ability of plants, particularly halophytes, to colonize deposits of dredged seaport sediments.

  5. VLSI design of 3D display processing chip for binocular stereo displays

    Ge Chenyang; Zheng Nanning


    In order to develop the core chip supporting binocular stereo displays for head mounted display(HMD)and glasses-TV,a very large scale integrated(VLSI)design scheme is proposed by using a pipeline architecture for 3D display processing chip(HMD100).Some key techniques including stereo display processing and high precision video scaling based bicubic interpolation,and their hardware implementations which improve the image quality are presented.The proposed HMD100 chip is verified by the field-programmable gate array(FPGA).As one of innovative and high integration SoC chips,HMD100 is designed by a digital and analog mixed circuit.It can support binocular stereo display,has better scaling effect and integration.Hence it is applicable in virtual reality(VR),3D games and other microdisplay domains.

  6. A cell extraction method for oily sediments

    Lappé, M.; Kallmeyer, J.


    Hydrocarbons can be found in many different habitats and represent an important carbon source for microbes. As fossil fuels, they are an important economical resource and, through natural seepage or accidental release, they can be major pollutants. Oil sands from Alberta, Canada, and samples from the seafloor of the Gulf of Mexico represent typical examples of either natural or anthropogenically affected oily sediments. DNA-specific stains and molecular probes bind to hydrocarbons, causing massive background fluorescence and thereby massively hampering cell enumeration. The cell extraction procedure of Kallmeyer et al. (2008) separates the cells from the sediment matrix, producing a sediment free cell extract that can then be used for subsequent staining and cell enumeration under a fluorescence microscope. In principle, this technique can also be used to separate cells from oily sediments, but it was not originally optimized for this application and does not provide satisfactory results. Here we present a modified extraction method in which the hydrocarbons are removed prior to cell extraction by a solvent treatment. Due to the reduced background fluorescence the microscopic image becomes clearer, making cell identification and enumeration much easier. Consequently, the resulting cell counts from oily samples treated according to our new protocol were significantly higher than those treated according to Kallmeyer et al. (2008). We tested different amounts of a variety of solvents for their ability to remove hydrocarbons and found that n-hexane and - in samples containing more biodegraded oils - methanol, delivered the best results. Because solvents also tend to lyse cells, it was important to find the optimum solvent to sample ratio, at which the positive effect of hydrocarbon extraction overcomes the negative effect of cell lysis. A volumetric ratio of 1:2 to 1:5 between a formalin-fixed sediment slurry and solvent delivered highest cell counts. Extraction

  7. Spatial constraints of stereopsis in video displays

    Schor, Clifton


    Recent development in video technology, such as the liquid crystal displays and shutters, have made it feasible to incorporate stereoscopic depth into the 3-D representations on 2-D displays. However, depth has already been vividly portrayed in video displays without stereopsis using the classical artists' depth cues described by Helmholtz (1866) and the dynamic depth cues described in detail by Ittleson (1952). Successful static depth cues include overlap, size, linear perspective, texture gradients, and shading. Effective dynamic cues include looming (Regan and Beverly, 1979) and motion parallax (Rogers and Graham, 1982). Stereoscopic depth is superior to the monocular distance cues under certain circumstances. It is most useful at portraying depth intervals as small as 5 to 10 arc secs. For this reason it is extremely useful in user-video interactions such as telepresence. Objects can be manipulated in 3-D space, for example, while a person who controls the operations views a virtual image of the manipulated object on a remote 2-D video display. Stereopsis also provides structure and form information in camouflaged surfaces such as tree foliage. Motion parallax also reveals form; however, without other monocular cues such as overlap, motion parallax can yield an ambiguous perception. For example, a turning sphere, portrayed as solid by parallax can appear to rotate either leftward or rightward. However, only one direction of rotation is perceived when stereo-depth is included. If the scene is static, then stereopsis is the principal cue for revealing the camouflaged surface structure. Finally, dynamic stereopsis provides information about the direction of motion in depth (Regan and Beverly, 1979). Clearly there are many spatial constraints, including spatial frequency content, retinal eccentricity, exposure duration, target spacing, and disparity gradient, which - when properly adjusted - can greatly enhance stereodepth in video displays.

  8. Dynamic exit pupil trackers for autostereoscopic displays.

    Akşit, Kaan; Baghsiahi, Hadi; Surman, Phil; Ölçer, Selim; Willman, Eero; Selviah, David R; Day, Sally; Urey, Hakan


    This paper describes the first demonstrations of two dynamic exit pupil (DEP) tracker techniques for autostereoscopic displays. The first DEP tracker forms an exit pupil pair for a single viewer in a defined space with low intraocular crosstalk using a pair of moving shutter glasses located within the optical system. A display prototype using the first DEP tracker is constructed from a pair of laser projectors, pupil-forming optics, moving shutter glasses at an intermediate pupil plane, an image relay lens, and a Gabor superlens based viewing screen. The left and right eye images are presented time-sequentially to a single viewer and seen as a 3D image without wearing glasses and allows the viewer to move within a region of 40 cm × 20 cm in the lateral plane, and 30 cm along the axial axis. The second DEP optics can move the exit pupil location dynamically in a much larger 3D space by using a custom spatial light modulator (SLM) forming an array of shutters. Simultaneous control of multiple exit pupils in both lateral and axial axes is demonstrated for the first time and provides a viewing volume with an axial extent of 0.6-3 m from the screen and within a lateral viewing angle of ± 20° for multiple viewers. This system has acceptable crosstalk (< 5%) between the stereo image pairs. In this novel version of the display the optical system is used as an advanced dynamic backlight for a liquid crystal display (LCD). This has advantages in terms of overall display size as there is no requirement for an intermediate image, and in image quality. This system has acceptable crosstalk (< 5%) between the stereo image pairs.

  9. Writing next-generation display photomasks

    Sandstrom, Tor; Wahlsten, Mikael; Park, Youngjin


    Recent years have seen a fast technical development within the display area. Displays get ever higher pixel density and the pixels get smaller. Current displays have over 800 PPI and market forces will eventually drive for densities of 2000 PPI or higher. The transistor backplanes also get more complex. OLED displays require 4-7 transistors per pixel instead of the typical 1-2 transistors used for LCDs, and they are significantly more sensitive to errors. New large-area maskwriters have been developed for masks used in high volume production of screens for state-of-theart smartphones. Redesigned laser optics with higher NA and lower aberrations improve resolution and CD uniformity and reduce mura effects. The number of beams has been increased to maintain the throughput despite the higher writing resolution. OLED displays are highly sensitive to placement errors and registration in the writers has been improved. To verify the registration of produced masks a separate metrology system has been developed. The metrology system is self-calibrated to high accuracy. The calibration is repeatable across machines and sites using Z-correction. The repeatability of the coordinate system makes it possible to standardize the coordinate system across an entire supply chain or indeed across the entire industry. In-house metrology is a commercial necessity for high-end mask shop, but also the users of the masks, the panel makers, would benefit from having in-house metrology. It would act as the reference for their mask suppliers, give better predictive and post mortem diagnostic power for the panel process, and the metrology could be used to characterize and improve the entire production loop from data to panel.

  10. Phage display: concept, innovations, applications and future.

    Pande, Jyoti; Szewczyk, Magdalena M; Grover, Ashok K


    Phage display is the technology that allows expression of exogenous (poly)peptides on the surface of phage particles. The concept is simple in principle: a library of phage particles expressing a wide diversity of peptides is used to select those that bind the desired target. The filamentous phage M13 is the most commonly used vector to create random peptide display libraries. Several methods including recombinant techniques have been developed to increase the diversity of the library. On the other extreme, libraries with various biases can be created for specific purposes. For instance, when the sequence of the peptide that binds the target is known, its affinity and selectivity can be increased by screening libraries created with limited mutagenesis of the peptide. Phage libraries are screened for binding to synthetic or native targets. The initial screening of library by basic biopanning has been extended to column chromatography including negative screening and competition between selected phage clones to identify high affinity ligands with greater target specificity. The rapid isolation of specific ligands by phage display is advantageous in many applications including selection of inhibitors for the active and allosteric sites of the enzymes, receptor agonists and antagonists, and G-protein binding modulatory peptides. Phage display has been used in epitope mapping and analysis of protein-protein interactions. The specific ligands isolated from phage libraries can be used in therapeutic target validation, drug design and vaccine development. Phage display can also be used in conjunction with other methods. The past innovations and those to come promise a bright future for this field.

  11. Targeting sediment management strategies using sediment quantification and fingerprinting methods

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Phil; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.


    Cost-effective sediment management is required to reduce excessive delivery of fine sediment due to intensive land uses such as agriculture, resulting in the degradation of aquatic ecosystems. Prioritising measures to mitigate dominant sediment sources is, however, challenging, as sediment loss risk is spatially and temporally variable between and within catchments. Fluctuations in sediment supply from potential sources result from variations in land uses resulting in increased erodibility where ground cover is low (e.g., cultivated, poached and compacted soils), and physical catchment characteristics controlling hydrological connectivity and transport pathways (surface and/or sub-surface). Sediment fingerprinting is an evidence-based management tool to identify sources of in-stream sediments at the catchment scale. Potential sediment sources are related to a river sediment sample, comprising a mixture of source sediments, using natural physico-chemical characteristics (or 'tracers'), and contributions are statistically un-mixed. Suspended sediment data were collected over two years at the outlet of three intensive agricultural catchments (approximately 10 km2) in Ireland. Dominant catchment characteristics were grassland on poorly-drained soils, arable on well-drained soils and arable on moderately-drained soils. High-resolution (10-min) calibrated turbidity-based suspended sediment and discharge data were combined to quantify yield. In-stream sediment samples (for fingerprinting analysis) were collected at six to twelve week intervals, using time-integrated sediment samplers. Potential sources, including stream channel banks, ditches, arable and grassland field topsoils, damaged road verges and tracks were sampled, oven-dried (account for particle size and organic matter selectivity processes. Contributions from potential sources type groups (channel - ditches and stream banks, roads - road verges and tracks, fields - grassland and arable topsoils) were

  12. Dating of sediments and determination of sedimentation rate. Proceedings

    Illus, E. [ed.


    The Second NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research)/EKO-1 Seminar was held at the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) on April 2-3, 1997. The work of the NKS is based on 4-year programmes; the current programme having been planned for the years 1994-1997. The programme comprises 3 major fields, one of them being environmental effects (EKO). Under this umbrella there are 4 main projects. The EKO-1 project deals with marine radioecology, in particular bottom sediments and sediment processes. The programme of the second seminar consisted of 8 invited lecturers and 6 other scientific presentations. Dating of sediments and determination of sedimentation rate are important in all types of sedimentological study and model calculations of fluxes of substances in the aquatic environment. In many cases these tasks have been closely related to radioecological studies undertaken in marine and fresh water environments, because they are often based on measured depth profiles of certain natural or artificial radionuclides present in the sediments. During recent decades Pb-210 has proved to be very useful in dating of sediments, but some other radionuclides have also been successfully used, e.g. Pu-239,240, Am-241 and Cs-137. The difficulties existing and problems involved in dating of sediments, as well as solutions for resolving these problems are discussed in the presentations

  13. Evaluating chemical extraction techniques for the determination of uranium oxidation state in reduced aquifer sediments

    Stoliker, Deborah L.; Campbell, Kate M.; Fox, Patricia M.; Singer, David M.; Kaviani, Nazila; Carey, Minna; Peck, Nicole E.; Barger, John R.; Kent, Douglas B.; Davis, James A.


    Extraction techniques utilizing high pH and (bi)carbonate concentrations were evaluated for their efficacy in determining the oxidation state of uranium (U) in reduced sediments collected from Rifle, CO. Differences in dissolved concentrations between oxic and anoxic extractions have been proposed as a means to quantify the U(VI) and U(IV) content of sediments. An additional step was added to anoxic extractions using a strong anion exchange resin to separate dissolved U(IV) and U(VI). X-ray spectroscopy showed that U(IV) in the sediments was present as polymerized precipitates similar to uraninite and/or less ordered U(IV), referred to as non-uraninite U(IV) species associated with biomass (NUSAB). Extractions of sediment containing both uraninite and NUSAB displayed higher dissolved uranium concentrations under oxic than anoxic conditions while extractions of sediment dominated by NUSAB resulted in identical dissolved U concentrations. Dissolved U(IV) was rapidly oxidized under anoxic conditions in all experiments. Uraninite reacted minimally under anoxic conditions but thermodynamic calculations show that its propensity to oxidize is sensitive to solution chemistry and sediment mineralogy. A universal method for quantification of U(IV) and U(VI) in sediments has not yet been developed but the chemical extractions, when combined with solid-phase characterization, have a narrow range of applicability for sediments without U(VI).

  14. Geochronology of anthropogenic radionuclides in Ribeira Bay sediments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Carvalho Gomes, Franciane de [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68.509, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Godoy, Jose Marcus, E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Caixa Postal 37750, Barra da Tijuca, 22642-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rua Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Godoy, Maria Luiza D.P.; Carvalho, Zenildo Lara de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Caixa Postal 37750, Barra da Tijuca, 22642-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tadeu Lopes, Ricardo [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68.509, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Osvath, Iolanda [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Premier, MC98000 Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Drude de Lacerda, Luiz [Laboratorio de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)


    Ribeira Bay is located approximately 130 km south of the city of Rio de Janeiro and receives discharges of liquid effluent from the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plant (NPP) site, where two pressurized water reactors are located. To test whether the presence of anthropogenic radionuclides in sediments in Ribeira Bay could be correlated to the NPP operations, we sampled seven sediment cores and determined accumulation rates and chronologies. Only one sediment core did not exhibit a superficial mixing layer; this sample was used for dating purposes. Cesium-137 and {sup 207}Bi were observed in this sediment profile, but their presence was associated with atmospheric fall-out rather than the nearby NPP. The exponential decay of {sup 210}Pb concentration with sediment layer depth was verified below a superficial mixing layer for all other sediment cores. Calculated accumulation rates ranged from 1.2 mm y{sup -1} in the inner bay to 6.2 mm y{sup -1} close to its entrance. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > We have dated seven sediment cores on the region close to the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plant site. > Cs-137 and Bi-207 were detected and were used as a tool to validate the Pb-210 dating results. > The spatial variation of the Pb-210 flux indicates two main sources of sediments: the channel between Ilha Grande (Grande Island), and the continental and soil runoff from the adjacent hills.

  15. Temporal variability and memory in sediment transport in an experimental step-pool channel

    Saletti, Matteo; Molnar, Peter; Zimmermann, André; Hassan, Marwan A.; Church, Michael


    Temporal dynamics of sediment transport in steep channels using two experiments performed in a steep flume (8%) with natural sediment composed of 12 grain sizes are studied. High-resolution (1 s) time series of sediment transport were measured for individual grain-size classes at the outlet of the flume for different combinations of sediment input rates and flow discharges. Our aim in this paper is to quantify (a) the relation of discharge and sediment transport and (b) the nature and strength of memory in grain-size-dependent transport. None of the simple statistical descriptors of sediment transport (mean, extreme values, and quantiles) display a clear relation with water discharge, in fact a large variability between discharge and sediment transport is observed. Instantaneous transport rates have probability density functions with heavy tails. Bed load bursts have a coarser grain-size distribution than that of the entire experiment. We quantify the strength and nature of memory in sediment transport rates by estimating the Hurst exponent and the autocorrelation coefficient of the time series for different grain sizes. Our results show the presence of the Hurst phenomenon in transport rates, indicating long-term memory which is grain-size dependent. The short-term memory in coarse grain transport increases with temporal aggregation and this reveals the importance of the sampling duration of bed load transport rates in natural streams, especially for large fractions.

  16. Evaluating chemical extraction techniques for the determination of uranium oxidation state in reduced aquifer sediments.

    Stoliker, Deborah L; Campbell, Kate M; Fox, Patricia M; Singer, David M; Kaviani, Nazila; Carey, Minna; Peck, Nicole E; Bargar, John R; Kent, Douglas B; Davis, James A


    Extraction techniques utilizing high pH and (bi)carbonate concentrations were evaluated for their efficacy in determining the oxidation state of uranium (U) in reduced sediments collected from Rifle, CO. Differences in dissolved concentrations between oxic and anoxic extractions have been proposed as a means to quantify the U(VI) and U(IV) content of sediments. An additional step was added to anoxic extractions using a strong anion exchange resin to separate dissolved U(IV) and U(VI). X-ray spectroscopy showed that U(IV) in the sediments was present as polymerized precipitates similar to uraninite and/or less ordered U(IV), referred to as non-uraninite U(IV) species associated with biomass (NUSAB). Extractions of sediment containing both uraninite and NUSAB displayed higher dissolved uranium concentrations under oxic than anoxic conditions while extractions of sediment dominated by NUSAB resulted in identical dissolved U concentrations. Dissolved U(IV) was rapidly oxidized under anoxic conditions in all experiments. Uraninite reacted minimally under anoxic conditions but thermodynamic calculations show that its propensity to oxidize is sensitive to solution chemistry and sediment mineralogy. A universal method for quantification of U(IV) and U(VI) in sediments has not yet been developed but the chemical extractions, when combined with solid-phase characterization, have a narrow range of applicability for sediments without U(VI).

  17. Wearable and augmented reality displays using MEMS and SLMs

    Ürey, Hakan; Ulusoy, Erdem; Akşit, Kaan; Hossein, Amir; Niaki, Ghanbari


    In this talk, we present the various types of 3D displays, head-mounted projection displays and wearable displays developed in our group using MEMS scanners, compact RGB laser light sources, and spatial light modulators.

  18. Wearable and augmented reality displays using MEMS and SLMs

    Urey, Hakan; Ulusoy, Erdem; Kazempourradi, Seyedmahdi M. K.; Mengu, Deniz; Olcer, Selim; Holmstrom, Sven T.


    In this talk, we present the various types of 3D displays, head-mounted projection displays and wearable displays developed in our group using MEMS scanners, compact RGB laser light sources, and spatial light modulators.

  19. Controllable liquid crystal gratings for an adaptive 2D/3D auto-stereoscopic display

    Zhang, Y. A.; Jin, T.; He, L. C.; Chu, Z. H.; Guo, T. L.; Zhou, X. T.; Lin, Z. X.


    2D/3D switchable, viewpoint controllable and 2D/3D localizable auto-stereoscopic displays based on controllable liquid crystal gratings are proposed in this work. Using the dual-layer staggered structure on the top substrate and bottom substrate as driven electrodes within a liquid crystal cell, the ratio between transmitting region and shielding region can be selectively controlled by the corresponding driving circuit, which indicates that 2D/3D switch and 3D video sources with different disparity images can reveal in the same auto-stereoscopic display system. Furthermore, the controlled region in the liquid crystal gratings presents 3D model while other regions maintain 2D model in the same auto-stereoscopic display by the corresponding driving circuit. This work demonstrates that the controllable liquid crystal gratings have potential applications in the field of auto-stereoscopic display.

  20. Carbon Nanotube Driver Circuit for 6 × 6 Organic Light Emitting Diode Display

    Zou, Jianping


    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is expected to be a very promising material for flexible and transparent driver circuits for active matrix organic light emitting diode (AM OLED) displays due to its high field-effect mobility, excellent current carrying capacity, optical transparency and mechanical flexibility. Although there have been several publications about SWNT driver circuits, none of them have shown static and dynamic images with the AM OLED displays. Here we report on the first successful chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown SWNT network thin film transistor (TFT) driver circuits for static and dynamic AM OLED displays with 6 × 6 pixels. The high device mobility of ~45 cm2V−1s−1 and the high channel current on/off ratio of ~105 of the SWNT-TFTs fully guarantee the control capability to the OLED pixels. Our results suggest that SWNT-TFTs are promising backplane building blocks for future OLED displays.