WorldWideScience

Sample records for ratios ors adjusted

  1. Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations – Evaluation of Liquidity – Determination of Ratioor Necessity of Adjustment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Voss

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The change in the use of an asset results from economic conditions and requires that a company revalue the asset and adjusts its value by costs of sale or liquidation. The current value of the asset determined in that way influences the financial result of the company and enables the movement of value from non-current assets to current assets. This change has an impact on the evaluation of financial situation and financial ratios.The aim of this article is to describe principles of measurement and presentation of assets held for sale and application of financial analysis in order to assess risks by potential investors. The purpose of this work constitutes part of a wide-ranging discussion on the directions of changes in financial reporting and principles of effective investing.

  2. Adjusted Money's Worth Ratios in Life Annuities

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Casassus; Eduardo Walker

    2013-01-01

    The Money's Worth Ratio (MWR) measures an annuity's actuarial fairness. It is calculated as the discounted present value of expected future payments divided by its cost. We argue that from the perspective of annuitants, this measure may overestimate the value-for-money obtained, since it does not adjust for liquidity or risk factors. Measuring these factors is challenging, requiring detailed knowledge of assets, liabilities, and of the stochastic processes followed by them. Using a multi-fact...

  3. Normal Stress or Adjustment Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder is a type of stress-related mental illness that can affect your feelings, thoughts and behaviors. Signs and symptoms of an adjustment disorder can include: Anxiety Poor school or work performance Relationship problems Sadness ...

  4. Net Stable Funding Ratio: Impact on Funding Value Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Siadat, Medya; Hammarlid, Ola

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between Funding Value Adjustment (FVA) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR). FVA is defined in a consistent way with NSFR such that the new framework of FVA monitors the costs due to keeping NSFR at an acceptable level, as well. In addition, the problem of choosing the optimal funding strategy is formulated as a shortest path problem where the proposed FVA framework is applied in the optimization process. The solution provides us with the optimal f...

  5. Adjustment or updating of models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    25, Part 3, June 2000, pp. 235±245 ... While the model is defined in terms of these spatial parameters, ... discussed in terms of `model order' with concern focused on whether or not the ..... In other words, it is not easy to justify what the required.

  6. Approaches of aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA) for headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-olfactometry (HS-SPME-GC-O): Altering sample amount, diluting the sample or adjusting split ratio?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunzi; Cai, Yu; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Cui, Chun; Su, Guowan; Lin, Lianzhu; Zhao, Mouming

    2015-11-15

    Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) is widely used for the screening of aroma-active compounds in gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). In this study, three aroma dilution methods, (I) using different test sample volumes, (II) diluting samples, and (III) adjusting the GC injector split ratio, were compared for the analysis of volatiles by using HS-SPME-AEDA. Results showed that adjusting the GC injector split ratio (III) was the most desirable approach, based on the linearity relationships between Ln (normalised peak area) and Ln (normalised flavour dilution factors). Thereafter this dilution method was applied in the analysis of aroma-active compounds in Japanese soy sauce and 36 key odorants were found in this study. The most intense aroma-active components in Japanese soy sauce were: ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, ethyl 4-methylpentanoate, 3-(methylthio)propanal, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-methoxyphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 2-phenylethanol, and 4-hydroxy-5-ethyl-2-methyl-3(2H)-furanone. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. A review of terrorism and its reduction of the gender ratio at birth after seasonal adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor; Zammit, Dorota

    2017-12-01

    Males are born in excess of females, a ratio expressed as M/T (males:total births). The ratio exhibits seasonal variation. Furthermore, acute stressful events may result in a transient dip in male births due to excess foetal losses, reducing M/T. This study was carried out in order to identify significant M/T dips after adjusting for seasonality. Live births by gender and month were sought for acute stressful events. After seasonal correction (where appropriate), M/T dips were sought. Live births. M/T dips. This paper studied 112,226,306 live births. The following events showed dips ≤5th percentile 3-5months after these acute episodes: the Brooklyn Bridge protests, Katrina Hurricane for all 4 states and for each individual state (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi), the Battle in Seattle, the London bombings, The Madrid bombings (for Madrid and for Spain), the Breivik shooting, the Oklahoma City bombing and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. The Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University shooting the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster also showed dips albeit slightly later. Seasonal adjustments should be taken into consideration in order to avoid Type 1 or 2 error pitfalls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Standardized binomial models for risk or prevalence ratios and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Kinlaw, Alan C; MacLehose, Richard F; Cole, Stephen R

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiologists often analyse binary outcomes in cohort and cross-sectional studies using multivariable logistic regression models, yielding estimates of adjusted odds ratios. It is widely known that the odds ratio closely approximates the risk or prevalence ratio when the outcome is rare, and it does not do so when the outcome is common. Consequently, investigators may decide to directly estimate the risk or prevalence ratio using a log binomial regression model. We describe the use of a marginal structural binomial regression model to estimate standardized risk or prevalence ratios and differences. We illustrate the proposed approach using data from a cohort study of coronary heart disease status in Evans County, Georgia, USA. The approach reduces problems with model convergence typical of log binomial regression by shifting all explanatory variables except the exposures of primary interest from the linear predictor of the outcome regression model to a model for the standardization weights. The approach also facilitates evaluation of departures from additivity in the joint effects of two exposures. Epidemiologists should consider reporting standardized risk or prevalence ratios and differences in cohort and cross-sectional studies. These are readily-obtained using the SAS, Stata and R statistical software packages. The proposed approach estimates the exposure effect in the total population. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  9. Crop Condition Assessment with Adjusted NDVI Using the Uncropped Arable Land Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Crop condition assessment in the early growing stage is essential for crop monitoring and crop yield prediction. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI-based method is employed to evaluate crop condition by inter-annual comparisons of both spatial variability (using NDVI images and seasonal dynamics (based on crop condition profiles. Since this type of method will generate false information if there are changes in crop rotation, cropping area or crop phenology, information on cropped/uncropped arable land is integrated to improve the accuracy of crop condition monitoring. The study proposes a new method to retrieve adjusted NDVI for cropped arable land during the growing season of winter crops by integrating 16-day composite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS reflectance data at 250-m resolution with a cropped and uncropped arable land map derived from the multi-temporal China Environmental Satellite (Huan Jing Satellite charge-coupled device (HJ-1 CCD images at 30-m resolution. Using the land map’s data on cropped and uncropped arable land, a pixel-based uncropped arable land ratio (UALR at 250-m resolution was generated. Next, the UALR-adjusted NDVI was produced by assuming that the MODIS reflectance value for each pixel is a linear mixed signal composed of the proportional reflectance of cropped and uncropped arable land. When UALR-adjusted NDVI data are used for crop condition assessment, results are expected to be more accurate, because: (i pixels with only uncropped arable land are not included in the assessment; and (ii the adjusted NDVI corrects for interannual variation in cropping area. On the provincial level, crop growing profiles based on the two kinds of NDVI data illustrate the difference between the regular and the adjusted NDVI, with the difference depending on the total area of uncropped arable land in the region. The results suggested that the proposed method can be used to improve the assessment of

  10. HOW TO STEER THE TRANSMISSION RATIO OF PLANETARY CONTINUOUSLY ADJUSTABLE GEAR TRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Dankov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The known attempts to create a continuously-adjustable gear train with solid gears have led to development of some so-called adaptive gears. The most structurally simple version of continuously- adjustable gear train is a two-wheel planetary gear. It is an obvious fact that an active regulation of gear ratio for the gear should be based on the presence of con- trolled elements (parameters and a mechanism for their control. In respect of the mentioned gear one of the controlled elements that is a compound central toothed gear has such controlled parameter as a nominal pitch diameter. In this case it can rotate or remain motionless. Other controlled element which is a planetary carrier has its own radius as a controlled parameter and makes a rotary motion with a great speed of a leading element. The purpose of the control mechanism is to ensure radial displacement of central toothed gear and planet gear sectors in the working gear. The paper describes the mechanism modifications and considers two variants for transfer of control action from its source to an object to be controlled. The transfer is ensured by mechanical gears (two variants and hydraulics.

  11. Speech perception at positive signal-to-noise ratios using adaptive adjustment of time compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Anne; Brand, Thomas; Lemke, Ulrike; Nitzschner, Stefan; Kollmeier, Birger; Holube, Inga

    2015-11-01

    Positive signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) characterize listening situations most relevant for hearing-impaired listeners in daily life and should therefore be considered when evaluating hearing aid algorithms. For this, a speech-in-noise test was developed and evaluated, in which the background noise is presented at fixed positive SNRs and the speech rate (i.e., the time compression of the speech material) is adaptively adjusted. In total, 29 younger and 12 older normal-hearing, as well as 24 older hearing-impaired listeners took part in repeated measurements. Younger normal-hearing and older hearing-impaired listeners conducted one of two adaptive methods which differed in adaptive procedure and step size. Analysis of the measurements with regard to list length and estimation strategy for thresholds resulted in a practical method measuring the time compression for 50% recognition. This method uses time-compression adjustment and step sizes according to Versfeld and Dreschler [(2002). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 401-408], with sentence scoring, lists of 30 sentences, and a maximum likelihood method for threshold estimation. Evaluation of the procedure showed that older participants obtained higher test-retest reliability compared to younger participants. Depending on the group of listeners, one or two lists are required for training prior to data collection.

  12. No evidence for selective follicle abortion underlying primary sex ratio adjustment in pigeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goerlich, Vivian C.; Dijkstra, Cornelis; Groothuis, Antonius

    Primary sex ratio adjustment in birds has been extensively studied, yet the underlying physiological mechanisms are far from understood. Avian females are the heterogametic sex (ZW), and the future sex of the offspring is determined at chromosome segregation during meiosis I, shortly before the

  13. Corporate prediction models, ratios or regression analysis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijnen, E.J.; Wijn, M.F.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The models developed in the literature with respect to the prediction of a company s failure are based on ratios. It has been shown before that these models should be rejected on theoretical grounds. Our study of industrial companies in the Netherlands shows that the ratios which are used in

  14. Adjusted Empirical Likelihood Method in the Presence of Nuisance Parameters with Application to the Sharpe Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuejiao Fu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Sharpe ratio is a widely used risk-adjusted performance measurement in economics and finance. Most of the known statistical inferential methods devoted to the Sharpe ratio are based on the assumption that the data are normally distributed. In this article, without making any distributional assumption on the data, we develop the adjusted empirical likelihood method to obtain inference for a parameter of interest in the presence of nuisance parameters. We show that the log adjusted empirical likelihood ratio statistic is asymptotically distributed as the chi-square distribution. The proposed method is applied to obtain inference for the Sharpe ratio. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed method is comparable to Jobson and Korkie’s method (1981 and outperforms the empirical likelihood method when the data are from a symmetric distribution. In addition, when the data are from a skewed distribution, the proposed method significantly outperforms all other existing methods. A real-data example is analyzed to exemplify the application of the proposed method.

  15. Female starlings adjust primary sex ratio in response to aromatic plants in the nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Vicente; Veiga, José P; Cordero, Pedro J; Viñuela, Javier; Monaghan, Pat

    2004-09-22

    Adjustment of offspring sex ratios should be favoured by natural selection when parents are capable of facultatively altering brood sex ratios and of recognizing the circumstances that predict the probable fitness benefit of producing sons and daughters. Although experimental studies have shown that female birds may adjust offspring sex ratios in response to changes in their own condition and in the external appearance of their mate, and male attributes other than his external morphology are also thought to act as signals of male quality, it is not known whether females will respond to changes in such signals, in the absence of any change in the appearance of the male himself. Here, we experimentally manipulated a male courtship display, the green plants carried to the nest by male spotless starlings (Sturnus unicolor), without changing any physical attributes of the male himself, and examined whether this influenced female decisions on offspring sex ratio. We found that in an environment in which female starlings were producing more daughters than sons, experimental enhancement of the green nesting material caused females to significantly increase the number of male eggs produced and thereby removed the female bias. This effect was consistent in 2 years and at two localities. This demonstrates that the green material, whose function has long puzzled biologists, conveys important information to the female and that she facultatively adjusts offspring production accordingly.

  16. Basel III : how have banks adjusted to increase CET1 ratios?

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerketvedt, Oda; Arneberg-Bauer, Tonje

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 the Basel Committee finalised the global framework called Basel III, which will have a significant impact on the global banking sector. A large part of the framework focuses on capital adequacy, where the Common Equity Tier 1 (CET1) ratio is essential. Through an analysis of four banks from the United Kingdom – HSBC, Barclays, Lloyds Banking Group and Standard Chartered – this thesis aim to examine how these banks have adjusted to the new CET1 requirements. In the EU the Basel III ...

  17. Using sightability-adjusted brood-pair ratios to estimate waterfowl productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Anthony M.; Amundson, Courtney L.; Pieron, Matthew R.; Arnold, Todd W.; Kimmel, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, biologists used brood-pair ratios (BPRs) as an index to waterfowl productivity to help guide management decisions and evaluate conservation practices. However, BPRs are biased by imperfect detection probabilities, especially for broods. We conducted roadside surveys for breeding waterfowl pairs on 7–8 study sites in the springs of 2006–2008 in northeastern North Dakota, USA. Later each year, we conducted replicate counts of broods on the same wetlands and used mark–recapture methods to estimate sightability-adjusted BPRs (SA-BPRs). Traditional roadside brood surveys detected only 30–45% of the available broods, depending on species. We explored the potential for using SA-BPRs to measure hen success (i.e., the probability a female hatches ≥1 egg across all nesting attempts) for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and other upland-nesting dabbling ducks (Anas spp.). We found that SA-BPRs explained 40% of the variation in hen success over 5 species of dabbling ducks, and we were able to detect an effect of predator reduction on hen success in combined dabblers, but not in mallards alone. However, we found no relationship between SA-BPRs and mallard fledging rates (hen success × initial brood size × duckling survival). Our results suggest that SA-BPRs can provide a cost-effective alternative to traditional measures of productivity such as nesting success, but not to measures of duckling survival. Nevertheless, SA-BPRs may be useful in areas where traditional measures of waterfowl productivity are logistically or financially challenging.

  18. An Adjusted Likelihood Ratio Approach Analysing Distribution of Food Products to Assist the Investigation of Foodborne Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Madelaine; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Görlach, Franziska Sophie; Nygård, Karin; Hopp, Petter

    2015-01-01

    In order to facilitate foodborne outbreak investigations there is a need to improve the methods for identifying the food products that should be sampled for laboratory analysis. The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of a likelihood ratio approach previously developed on simulated data, to real outbreak data. We used human case and food product distribution data from the Norwegian enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli outbreak in 2006. The approach was adjusted to include time, space smoothing and to handle missing or misclassified information. The performance of the adjusted likelihood ratio approach on the data originating from the HUS outbreak and control data indicates that the adjusted approach is promising and indicates that the adjusted approach could be a useful tool to assist and facilitate the investigation of food borne outbreaks in the future if good traceability are available and implemented in the distribution chain. However, the approach needs to be further validated on other outbreak data and also including other food products than meat products in order to make a more general conclusion of the applicability of the developed approach. PMID:26237468

  19. Could changes in reported sex ratios at birth during China's 1958-1961 famine support the adaptive sex ratio adjustment hypothesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Reimondos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The adaptive sex ratio adjustment hypothesis suggests that when mothers are in poor conditions the sex ratio of their offspring will be biased towards females. Major famines provide opportunities for testing this hypothesis because they lead to the widespread deterioration of living conditions in the affected population. Objective: This study examines changes in sex ratio at birth before, during, and after China's 1958-1961 famine, to see whether they provide any support for the adaptive sex ratio adjustment hypothesis. Methods: We use descriptive statistics to analyse data collected by both China's 1982 and 1988 fertility sample surveys and examine changes in sex ratio at birth in recent history. In addition, we examine the effectiveness of using different methods to model changes in sex ratio at birth and compare their differences. Results: During China's 1958-1961 famine, reported sex ratio at birth remained notably higher than that observed in most countries in the world. The timing of the decline in sex ratio at birth did not coincide with the timing of the famine. After the famine, although living conditions were considerably improved, the sex ratio at birth was not higher but lower than that recorded during the famine. Conclusions: The analysis of the data collected by the two fertility surveys has found no evidence that changes in sex ratio at birth during China's 1958-1961 famine and the post-famine period supported the adaptive sex ratio adjustment hypothesis.

  20. Investigating the effect of adjusted DuPont ratio and its components on investor's decisions in short and long term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Khaleghi Kasbi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of adjusted DuPont ratio and its components on investors’ decisions in short and long term. The primary objective of this study is to find the effect of adjusted DuPont ratio and its components on herding behavior of investors in one and several year period. Hence, 85 corporations as the member of Tehran stock exchange over the period 2006-2011 are selected. In order to recognize the herding, by market index consideration, the herded β and in order to hypothesis validity SPSS software and multivariable linear regression have been used. As the results of this study indicate, the adjusted DuPont ratio and its components have more effect on investors’ decisions in short term but in long the period, the effect of this ratio on herding investors’ behavior are reduced. Furthermore, from the two components of adjusted DuPont ratio, profit margin has more effect on investor's decisions.

  1. Adjusting the Adjusted X[superscript 2]/df Ratio Statistic for Dichotomous Item Response Theory Analyses: Does the Model Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Louis; Drasgow, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    Two Monte Carlo simulation studies investigated the effectiveness of the mean adjusted X[superscript 2]/df statistic proposed by Drasgow and colleagues and, because of problems with the method, a new approach for assessing the goodness of fit of an item response theory model was developed. It has been previously recommended that mean adjusted…

  2. Free Energy Adjusted Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (FEA-PSNR) for Image Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Zhai, Guangtao

    2017-12-01

    Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), the de facto universal image quality metric has been widely criticized as having poor correlation with human subjective quality ratings. In this paper, it will be illustrated that the low performance of PSNR as an image quality metric is partially due to its inability of differentiating image contents. And it is revealed that the deviation between subjective score and PSNR for each type of distortions can be systematically captured by perceptual complexity of the target image. The free energy modelling technique is then introduced to simulate the human cognitive process and measure perceptual complexity of an image. Then it is shown that performance of PSNR can be effectively improved using a linear score mapping process considering image free energy and distortion type. The proposed free energy adjusted peak signal to noise ratio (FEA-PSNR) does not change computational steps the of ordinary PSNR and therefore it inherits the merits of being simple, derivable and physically meaningful. So FEA-PSNR can be easily integrated into existing PSNR based image processing systems to achieve more visually plausible results. And the proposed analysis approach can be extended to other types of image quality metrics for enhanced performance.

  3. [Psychosocial adjustment in colorectal cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Aguilar, Salvador; Guerra-Cruz, Hilda Griselda; Cupil-Rodríguez, Aura Lizbet; Calderillo-Ruiz, Germán; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial adaptation is a measurement that represents the patient's adjustment to those changes involved in their illness. We undertook this study to search for individual characteristics and clinical aspects associated with successful psychosocial adjustment in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) undergoing (CT) chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Seventy-five patients with CRC treated with CT or CRT in a cancer center were included. Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale Self-Reporting (PAIS-SR) questionnaire was used as a measurement of psychosocial adjustment. Psychosocial adaptation was successful in 18 patients (24%) and unsuccessful in 57 patients (76%). Young patients, married patients and males showed lower psychosocial adaptation to disease. This is associated with the decrease in sexual relations, economic resources and psychological symptoms. Patients complained that they were unsatisfied due to the lack of disease and treatment information offered by the heath care team. In the process of adaptation, clinical features such as tumor location and treatment scheme are considered basic, as well as age, education, marital status. Areas such as sexuality, interpersonal and family relationships, economic status and emotional state of patients affected by the disease and treatments provide a deep complexity in the study of the psychosocial adaptation process in patients with CRC.

  4. The academic adjustment scale : Measuring the adjustment of permanent resident or sojourner students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Joel R.; Guan, Yao; Koc, Yasin

    In this paper we developed and validated the Academic Adjustment Scale (AAS) - a new scale for measuring academic adjustment, which was developed with a focus on student sojourners who temporarily relocate to a new culture for the purpose of tertiary education, but also is validated for use with

  5. Persistent sex-by-environment effects on offspring fitness and sex-ratio adjustment in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, E Keith; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2015-03-01

    A major component of sex-allocation theory, the Trivers-Willard model (TWM), posits that sons and daughters are differentially affected by variation in the rearing environment. In many species, the amount of parental care received is expected to have differing effects on the fitness of males and females. When this occurs, the TWM predicts that selection should favour adjustment of the offspring sex ratio in relation to the expected fitness return from offspring. However, evidence for sex-by-environment effects is mixed, and little is known about the adaptive significance of producing either sex. Here, we test whether offspring sex ratios vary according to predictions of the TWM in the house wren (Troglodytes aedon, Vieillot). We also test the assumption of a sex-by-environment effect on offspring using two experiments, one in which we manipulated age differences among nestlings within broods, and another in which we held nestling age constant but manipulated brood size. As predicted, females with high investment ability overproduced sons relative to those with lower ability. Males were also overproduced early within breeding seasons. In our experiments, the body mass of sons was more strongly affected by the sibling-competitive environment and resource availability than that of daughters: males grew heavier than females when reared in good conditions but were lighter than females when in poor conditions. Parents rearing broods with 1:1 sex ratios were more productive than parents rearing broods biased more strongly towards sons or daughters, suggesting that selection favours the production of mixed-sex broods. However, differences in the condition of offspring as neonates persisted to adulthood, and their reproductive success as adults varied with the body mass of sons, but not daughters, prior to independence from parental care. Thus, selection should favour slight but predictable variations in the sex ratio in relation to the quality of offspring that parents are

  6. Analysis of Case-Parent Trios Using a Loglinear Model with Adjustment for Transmission Ratio Distortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lam Opal; Infante-RIvard, Claire; Labbe, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of the two parental alleles to offspring deviating from the Mendelian ratio is termed Transmission Ratio Distortion (TRD), occurs throughout gametic and embryonic development. TRD has been well-studied in animals, but remains largely unknown in humans. The Transmission Disequilibrium...

  7. Biogas Improvement by Adding Australian Zeolite During the Anaerobic Digestion of C:N Ratio Adjusted Swine Manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijesinghe, D. Thushari N.; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Maintenance of the ideal carbon: nitrogen (C:N) ratio with a minimum level of TAN is a key challenge for achieving maximum potential CH4 production through the anaerobic digestion process of agricultural waste such as swine manure. Biogas production can be enhanced by adding zeolite...... into the anaerobic digestion medium. However, the effects of zeolite addition to C:N ratio adjusted feedstock, on the digester performance is unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of Australian zeolite on anaerobic digestion of swine manure with a C:N ratio adjusted to 30...... and to determine the optimal zeolite application rate to achieve the best performance. The Australian zeolite significantly enhanced CH4 production and reduced the lag phase of anaerobic digestion in batch production. The optimal addition rate of zeolite was appeared to be around 40 g/L. The better digester...

  8. Ratio index variables or ANCOVA? Fisher's cats revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yu-Kang; Law, Graham R; Ellison, George T H; Gilthorpe, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    Over 60 years ago Ronald Fisher demonstrated a number of potential pitfalls with statistical analyses using ratio variables. Nonetheless, these pitfalls are largely overlooked in contemporary clinical and epidemiological research, which routinely uses ratio variables in statistical analyses. This article aims to demonstrate how very different findings can be generated as a result of less than perfect correlations among the data used to generate ratio variables. These imperfect correlations result from measurement error and random biological variation. While the former can often be reduced by improvements in measurement, random biological variation is difficult to estimate and eliminate in observational studies. Moreover, wherever the underlying biological relationships among epidemiological variables are unclear, and hence the choice of statistical model is also unclear, the different findings generated by different analytical strategies can lead to contradictory conclusions. Caution is therefore required when interpreting analyses of ratio variables whenever the underlying biological relationships among the variables involved are unspecified or unclear. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Backward running or absence of running from Creutz ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giedt, Joel; Weinberg, Evan

    2011-01-01

    We extract the running coupling based on Creutz ratios in SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation. Depending on how the extrapolation to zero fermion mass is performed, either backward running or an absence of running is observed at strong bare coupling. This behavior is consistent with other findings which indicate that this theory has an infrared fixed point.

  10. Child adjustment to separation or divorce of parents

    OpenAIRE

    Raposo, Hélder Silva; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Lamela, Diogo; Costa, Rui Alexandre Nunes; Castro, Maria; Prego, Joana

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O presente artigo procura relacionar e analisar evidências empíricas e teóricas sobre o impacto e os fatores associados ao impacto da separação ou divórcio dos pais no ajustamento da criança. MÉTODO: Realizou-se uma revisão agregativa da literatura, recorrendo às palavras-chave "divorce adjustment", "child divorce" e "divorce impact", nas bases de dados JSTOR, PsycInfo, SciELO e Medline e em livros da especialidade. RESULTADOS: Respostas adaptativas e desadaptativas da criança são d...

  11. Adjustment of the ratio of Ca/P in the ceramic coating on Mg alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhongping; Li Liangliang; Jiang Zhaohua

    2009-01-01

    The ceramic coatings containing Ca and P were prepared on AZ91D Mg alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation technique in NaOH system and Na 2 SiO 3 system, respectively. The phase composition, morphology and the element distribution of the coatings was studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was examined by polarizing curve methods in a 0.9% NaCl solution. In NaOH system, there were a large number of micro-holes distributing evenly on the surface of the coating, and the coating was mainly composed of Mg, Al, P and Ca. In Na 2 SiO 3 system, the micro-holes in the coatings were reduced greatly in number and the distribution of the micro-holes was uneven, and the coating was mainly composed of Mg, Al, Si, P and Ca. The ratio of Ca/P in the coating can be controlled by the adjustment of the technique parameters to a certain extent. The adjustment of the concentration of Ca 2+ in the electrolyte was an effective method to change the ratio of Ca/P in the coating in both systems; the reaction time and the working voltage for the adjustment of the ratio of Ca/P in the coating was more suitable for the NaSi 2 O 3 system than the NaOH system. The polarizing curve tests showed the coatings improved the corrosion resistance of the AZ91D Mg alloy in 0.9% NaCl solution by nearly two orders of magnitude.

  12. 38 CFR 3.556 - Adjustment on discharge or release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... veteran whose award was reduced under § 3.551(b) is placed on non-bed care status or other authorized... hospital benefits. A discharge for disciplinary reasons or because of the patient's refusal to accept, neglect of or obstruction of treatment; refusal to accept transfer, or failure to return from authorized...

  13. 24 CFR 203.379 - Adjustment for damage or neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... was not covered by fire insurance at the time of the damage, or the amount of insurance coverage was... property was covered by fire insurance in an amount at least equal to the lesser of 100 percent of the... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER...

  14. To Correct or Not to Correct: Age Adjustment for Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Glen P.; And Others

    To evaluate whether conceptional or chronologic age should be used to determine scores in developmental follow-up studies, a study was made of 236 normal and 66 neurologically abnormal infants who were similar with respect to conceptional age but different with respect to degree of prematurity. Assessments of possible differences in cognitive and…

  15. Disinflation in a DSGE Perspective: Sacrifice Ratio or Welfare Gain Ratio?

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Ascari; Tiziano Ropele

    2009-01-01

    When used to examine disinflation monetary policies, the current workhorse dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model of business cycle fluctuations is able to quantitatively account for the main stylized facts in terms of recessionary effects and sacrifice ratio. We complement the transitional analysis of the short-run costs with a rigorous welfare evaluation and show that, despite the long-lasting economic downturn, disinflation entails non-zero overall welfare gains.

  16. 24 CFR 1000.126 - May a recipient charge flat or income-adjusted rents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a recipient charge flat or income-adjusted rents? 1000.126 Section 1000.126 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... § 1000.126 May a recipient charge flat or income-adjusted rents? Yes, providing the rental or homebuyer...

  17. Sex ratio in two species of Pegoscapus wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) that develop in figs: can wasps do mathematics, or play sex ratio games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Benavides, William; Monge-Nájera, Julián; Chavarría, Juan B

    2009-09-01

    The fig pollinating wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) have obligate arrhenotoky and a breeding structure that fits local mate competition (LMC). It has been traditionally assumed that LMC organisms adjust the sex ratio by laying a greater proportion of male eggs when there is superparasitism (several foundresses in a host). We tested the assumption with two wasp species, Pegoscapus silvestrii, pollinator of Ficus pertusa and Pegoscapus tonduzi, pollinator of Ficus eximia (= F citrifolia), in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Total number of wasps and seeds were recorded in individual isolated naturally colonized syconia. There was a constant additive effect between the number of foundresses and the number of males produced in the brood of a syconium, while the number of females decreased. Both wasp species seem to have precise sex ratios and probably lay the male eggs first in the sequence, independently of superparasitism and clutch size: consequently, they have a non-random sex allocation. Each syconium of Ficus pertusa and of F. eximia colonized by one foundress had similar mean numbers of females, males, and seeds. The two species of wasps studied do not seem to adjust the sex ratio when there is superparasitism. Pollinating fig wasp behavior is better explained by those models not assuming that females do mathematical calculations according to other females' sex ratios, size, number of foundresses, genetic constitution, clutch size or environmental conditions inside the syconium. Our results are in agreement with the constant male number hypothesis, not with sex ratio games.

  18. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? 502.60 Section 502.60 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under...

  19. 7 CFR 1956.68 - Compromise or adjustment without debtor's signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Compromise or adjustment without debtor's signature... Loan Programs and Multi-Family Housing § 1956.68 Compromise or adjustment without debtor's signature... made to obtain the debtor's signature and the date(s) of such effort. (c) The specific reasons why it...

  20. Sex ratio in two species of Pegoscapus wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae that develop in figs: can wasps do mathematics, or play sex ratio games?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ramírez-Benavides

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The fig pollinating wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae have obligate arrhenotoky and a breeding structure that fits local mate competition (LMC. It has been traditionally assumed that LMC organisms adjust the sex ratio by laying a greater proportion of male eggs when there is superparasitism (several foundresses in a host. We tested the assumption with two wasp species, Pegoscapus silvestrii, pollinator of Ficus pertusa and Pegoscapus tonduzi, pollinator of Ficus eximia (= F. citrifolia, in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Total number of wasps and seeds were recorded in individual isolated naturally colonized syconia. There was a constant additive effect between the number of foundresses and the number of males produced in the brood of a syconium, while the number of females decreased. Both wasp species seem to have precise sex ratios and probably lay the male eggs first in the sequence, independently of superparasitism and clutch size: consequently, they have a non-random sex allocation. Each syconium of Ficus pertusa and of F. eximia colonized by one foundress had similar mean numbers of females, males, and seeds. The two species of wasps studied do not seem to adjust the sex ratio when there is superparasitism. Pollinating fig wasp behavior is better explained by those models not assuming that females do mathematical calculations according to other females’ sex ratios, size, number of foundresses, genetic constitution, clutch size or environmental conditions inside the syconium. Our results are in agreement with the constant male number hypothesis, not with sex ratio games. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (3: 605-621. Epub 2009 September 30.

  1. Psychological adjustment to cleft lip and/or palate: A narrative review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, N. M.; Feragen, K. B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Adjustment to cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) is multifaceted, involving several domains of psychological and social functioning. A substantial increase in research in this area has been evident in recent years, along with a preliminary shift in how adjustment to CL/P is conceptualised and measured. An updated and comprehensive review of the literature is needed in light of the rapidly expanding and changing field.\\ud \\ud Design: A narrative review of 148 quantitative and qualitativ...

  2. Carbon-related border tax adjustment: mitigating climate change or restricting international trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Christine; Weber, Rolf H

    2011-01-01

    Border tax adjustments in the form of carbon taxes on products from countries with lax environmental production standards or in the form of a required participation in an emissions allowances' trading system have become a heavily debated issue under WTO law. Such an adjustment might be permissible if energy taxes as indirect taxes are applied on inputs during the production process. Compliance with the Most Favoured Nation principle has less practical importance than the not-yet settled liken...

  3. Can statistic adjustment of OR minimize the potential confounding bias for meta-analysis of case-control study? A secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianyi; Nie, Xiaolu; Wu, Zehao; Zhang, Ying; Feng, Guoshuang; Cai, Siyu; Lv, Yaqi; Peng, Xiaoxia

    2017-12-29

    Different confounder adjustment strategies were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) in case-control study, i.e. how many confounders original studies adjusted and what the variables are. This secondary data analysis is aimed to detect whether there are potential biases caused by difference of confounding factor adjustment strategies in case-control study, and whether such bias would impact the summary effect size of meta-analysis. We included all meta-analyses that focused on the association between breast cancer and passive smoking among non-smoking women, as well as each original case-control studies included in these meta-analyses. The relative deviations (RDs) of each original study were calculated to detect how magnitude the adjustment would impact the estimation of ORs, compared with crude ORs. At the same time, a scatter diagram was sketched to describe the distribution of adjusted ORs with different number of adjusted confounders. Substantial inconsistency existed in meta-analysis of case-control studies, which would influence the precision of the summary effect size. First, mixed unadjusted and adjusted ORs were used to combine individual OR in majority of meta-analysis. Second, original studies with different adjustment strategies of confounders were combined, i.e. the number of adjusted confounders and different factors being adjusted in each original study. Third, adjustment did not make the effect size of original studies trend to constringency, which suggested that model fitting might have failed to correct the systematic error caused by confounding. The heterogeneity of confounder adjustment strategies in case-control studies may lead to further bias for summary effect size in meta-analyses, especially for weak or medium associations so that the direction of causal inference would be even reversed. Therefore, further methodological researches are needed, referring to the assessment of confounder adjustment strategies, as well as how to take this kind

  4. Gender adjustment or stratification in discerning upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Barbara; Fan, Z Joyce; Smith, Caroline K; Bao, Stephen; Howard, Ninica; Spielholz, Peregrin; Bonauto, David; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2009-03-01

    The aim was to explore whether "adjustment" for gender masks important exposure differences between men and women in a study of rotator cuff syndrome (RCS) and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and work exposures. This cross-sectional study of 733 subjects in 12 health care and manufacturing workplaces used detailed individual health and work exposure assessment methods. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to compare gender stratified and adjusted models. Prevalence of RCS and CTS among women was 7.1% and 11.3% respectively, and among men 7.8% and 6.4%. In adjusted (gender, age, body mass index) multivariate analyses of RCS and CTS, gender was not statistically significantly different. For RCS, upper arm flexion >/=45 degrees and forceful pinch increased the odds in the gender-adjusted model (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.26-5.59) but primarily among women in the stratified analysis (OR 6.68, 95% CI 1.81-24.66 versus OR 1.45, 95% CI 0.53-4.00). For CTS, wrist radial/ulnar deviation >/=4% time and lifting >/=4.5kg >3% time, the adjusted OR was higher for women (OR 4.85, 95% CI 2.12-11.11) and in the gender stratified analyses, the odds were increased for both genders (women OR 5.18, 95% CI 1.70-15.81 and men OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.08-12.18). Gender differences in response to physical work exposures may reflect gender segregation in work and potential differences in pinch and lifting capacity. Reduction in these exposures may reduce prevalence of upper extremity disorders for all workers.

  5. Is the Relationship Between Marital Adjustment and Parenting Stress Mediated or Moderated by Parenting Alliance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Camisasca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the mediating and moderating effects of parenting alliance on the relationship between marital adjustment, as represented by the dimensions dyadic consensus, dyadic satisfaction, dyadic cohesion, and affectional expression, and maternal and paternal stress. Self-report data were gathered from 236 Italian families (236 mothers: M = 40.9; SD = 4.4 and 236 fathers: M = 42.9; SD = 4.8 of children aged 6–11 years (M = 8.6; SD = 1.7. A set of regression analyses were conducted to examine whether parenting alliance mediates or moderates the relationship between marital adjustment and parenting stress. Regression analyses were consistent with a model of coparenting as a mediator but not as a moderator of the relationship between marital adjustment and parenting stress. In the case of mothers, parenting alliance mediates the relationships between two dimensions of marital adjustment (dyadic consensus and dyadic cohesion on parenting stress; in the case of fathers, parenting alliance serves as a mediator of the relationship between the marital adjustment (in terms of dyadic satisfaction and parenting stress. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.

  6. Psychological Adjustment of Siblings of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verte, Sylvie; Hebbrecht, Lies; Roeyers, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated both the quality of sibling relationships and the psychological adjustment siblings experienced across two groups: siblings of children who are deaf or hard of hearing compared to siblings of children with no disability. Twenty-four siblings of children with hearing loss and 24 siblings of children without a disability…

  7. 76 FR 590 - Adjustment or Determination of Compulsory License Rates for Making and Distributing Phonorecords

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... $150 filing fee, must be addressed to: Copyright Royalty Board, P.O. Box 70977, Washington, DC 20024... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board [Docket No. 2011-3 CRB Phonorecords II] Adjustment or Determination of Compulsory License Rates for Making and Distributing Phonorecords AGENCY: Copyright Royalty...

  8. The missing link in an international framework for carbon pricing: border adjustment with taxes or allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2017-01-01

    was created at the initiative of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Over the past five years the share of global CO2 emissions subject to carbon pricing via either taxes or allowances have tripled, from four to twelve per cent. In anticipation of a widening gap between countries the scope...... allow for such adjustment under its exemption mechanisms and when all other options have been exhausted. As a highly sensitive measure, not only the complex technical and legal questions deserve attention, but also how to make the best diplomacy of it within the arsenal of climate change mitigation...

  9. Border adjustment with taxes or allowances to level the price of carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2018-01-01

    was created at the initiative of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Over the past five years, the share of global CO2 emissions subject to carbon pricing via either taxes or allowances has tripled from four to twelve per cent. In anticipation of a widening gap between countries, the scope...... for such adjustment under its exemption mechanisms and when all other options have been exhausted. As a highly sensitive measure, not only the complex technical and legal questions deserve attention; attention must also be paid as to how to make the best diplomacy of it within the arsenal of climate change mitigation...

  10. Analysis of case-parent trios for imprinting effect using a loglinear model with adjustment for sex-of-parent-specific transmission ratio distortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lam Opal; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Labbe, Aurélie

    2017-01-01

    Transmission ratio distortion (TRD) is a phenomenon where parental transmission of disease allele to the child does not follow the Mendelian inheritance ratio. TRD occurs in a sex-of-parent-specific or non-sex-of-parent-specific manner. An offset computed from the transmission probability of the ...

  11. Social and emotional adjustment of adolescents extremely talented in verbal or mathematical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, L E; Benbow, C P

    1986-02-01

    Perceptions of self-esteem, locus of control, popularity, depression (or unhappiness), and discipline problems as indices of social and emotional adjustment were investigated in highly verbally or mathematically talented adolescents. Compared to a group of students who are much less gifted, the highly gifted students perceive themselves as less popular, but no differences were found in self-esteem, depression, or the incidence of discipline problems. The gifted students reported greater internal locus of control. Comparisons between the highly mathematically talented students and the highly verbally talented students suggested that the students in the latter group perceive themselves as less popular. Within both the gifted and comparison groups, there were also slight indications that higher verbal ability may be related to some social and emotional problems.

  12. Immediate or deferred adjustment of drug regimens in multidose drug dispensing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Bram J; Kwint, Henk-Frans; van Marum, Rob J; Bouvy, Marcel L

    2018-05-18

    Multidose drug dispensing (MDD) is used to help patients take their medicines appropriately. Little is known about drug regimen changes within these MDD systems and how they are effectuated by the community pharmacist. Manual immediate adjustments of the MDD system could introduce dispensing errors. MDD guidelines therefore recommend to effectuate drug regimen changes at the start of a new MDD system. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, type, procedure followed, immediate necessity, and time taken to make MDD adjustments. This was a cross-sectional study in eight community pharmacies in the Netherlands. All adjustments to MDD systems were systematically documented for 3 weeks by the community pharmacist. Overall, 261 MDD adjustments involving 364 drug changes were documented for 250 patients: 127 (35%) drug changes involved the addition of a new drug, 124 (34%) a change in dosage, and 95 (26%) drug discontinuation. Of the MDD adjustments, 135 (52%) were effectuated immediately: 81 (31%) by adjusting the MDD system manually, 49 (19%) by temporarily dispensing the drug separately from the MDD system, and 5 (2%) by ordering a new MDD system. Pharmacists considered that 36 (27%) of the immediate MDD adjustments could have been deferred until the next MDD system was produced. Immediate adjustment took significantly longer than deferred adjustment (p < 0.001). This study shows that in patients using MDD systems, over half of the drug regimen changes are adjusted immediately. The necessity of these immediate changes should be critically evaluated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Which is Easier, Adjusting to a Similar or to a Dissimilar Culture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2007-01-01

    for general adjustment, interaction adjustment, work adjustment and psychological adjustment.  Neither was there a difference in the time-related variable; time to proficiency. Although highly tentative, the suggestion that the degree of cultural similarity/dissimilarity may be irrelevant as to how easily......The intuitively paradoxical research proposition that it could be as difficult for business expatriates to adjust to a similar as to a dissimilar host culture is tested in this exploratory study. Based on data from a mail survey, a comparison of American business expatriates in Canada and Germany...... respectively did not reveal any difference in their extent of adjustment. Besides a significant between-group difference in cultural distance, confirming that the American expatriates perceived Canada as more culturally similar to America than Germany, no significant inter-group differences were detected...

  14. Presumed cultural similarity paradox : Expatriate adjustment and performance across the border or over the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromans, P.; van Engen, M.L.; Mol, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To introduce the presumed cultural similarity paradox as a possible explanation for the findings that adjusting to a culturally similar country is just as difficult as adjusting to a culturally dissimilar country. We provide a conceptual framework, enabling further understanding and research

  15. Presumed cultural similarity paradox: expatriate adjustment and performance across the border or over the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromans, P.; van Engen, M.; Mol, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - To introduce the presumed cultural similarity paradox as a possible explanation for the findings that adjusting to a culturally similar country is just as difficult as adjusting to a culturally dissimilar country. We provide a conceptual framework, enabling further understanding and

  16. 7 CFR 1810.2 - Adjustment of interest rates for certain loans involving use of or construction on prime or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of interest rates for certain loans... INTEREST RATES, TERMS, CONDITIONS, AND APPROVAL AUTHORITY Interest Rates, Amortization, Guarantee Fee, Annual Charge, and Fixed Period § 1810.2 Adjustment of interest rates for certain loans involving use of...

  17. E2,M1 multipole mixing ratios in even-even nuclei, 58< or =A< or =150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is presented of E2,M1 multipole mixing ratios of gamma-ray transitions in even-even nuclei in the mass range 58< or =A< or =150. Angular distribution and correlation data from the literature are analyzed in terms of a consistent choice of the phase relationship between the E2 and M1 matrix elements. A set of recommended values of the mixing ratios is included based on averages of results from various studies. The survey includes data available in the literature up to December 1976

  18. E2,M1 Multipole mixing ratios in odd-mass nuclei, 59< or =A< or =149

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is presented of the E2,M1 mxing ratios of gamma-ray transitions in odd-mass nuclei with 59< or =A< or =149. Angular distribution and correlation data from the literature are analyzed in terms of a consistent choice of the phase relationship between the E2 and M1 matrix elements. A set of recommended values of the mixing ratios is included, based on averages of results from various studies. The survey includes data available in the literature up to September 1976

  19. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of solid biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays with adjustable aspect ratio for transdermal drug delivery using acupuncture microneedles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Kyoung Je; Kim, Taewan; Park, Sung Jea; Kim, Dong Sung

    2014-01-01

    Polymer microneedle arrays (MNAs) have received much attention for their use in transdermal drug delivery and microneedle therapy systems due to the advantages they offer, such as low cost, good mechanical properties, and a versatile choice of materials. Here, we present a simple and cost-effective method for the fabrication of a biodegradable polymer MNA in which the aspect ratio of each microneedle is adjustable using commercially available acupuncture microneedles. In our process, a master template with acupuncture microneedles, whose shape will be the final MNA, was carefully prepared by fixing them onto a plastic substrate with selectively drilled holes which, in turn, determine the aspect ratios of the microneedles. A polylactic acid (PLA; a biodegradable polymer) MNA was fabricated by a micromolding process with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold containing the cavity of the microneedles, which was obtained by the PDMS replica molding against the master template. The mechanical force and degradation behavior of the replicated PLA MNA were characterized with the help of a compression test and an accelerated degradation test, respectively. Finally, the transdermal drug delivery performance of the PLA MNA was successfully simulated by two different methods of penetration and staining, using the skin of a pig cadaver. These results indicated that the proposed method can be effectively used for the fabrication of polymer MNAs which can be used in various microneedle applications. (paper)

  20. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of solid biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays with adjustable aspect ratio for transdermal drug delivery using acupuncture microneedles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kyoung Je; Kim, Taewan; Jea Park, Sung; Kim, Dong Sung

    2014-11-01

    Polymer microneedle arrays (MNAs) have received much attention for their use in transdermal drug delivery and microneedle therapy systems due to the advantages they offer, such as low cost, good mechanical properties, and a versatile choice of materials. Here, we present a simple and cost-effective method for the fabrication of a biodegradable polymer MNA in which the aspect ratio of each microneedle is adjustable using commercially available acupuncture microneedles. In our process, a master template with acupuncture microneedles, whose shape will be the final MNA, was carefully prepared by fixing them onto a plastic substrate with selectively drilled holes which, in turn, determine the aspect ratios of the microneedles. A polylactic acid (PLA; a biodegradable polymer) MNA was fabricated by a micromolding process with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold containing the cavity of the microneedles, which was obtained by the PDMS replica molding against the master template. The mechanical force and degradation behavior of the replicated PLA MNA were characterized with the help of a compression test and an accelerated degradation test, respectively. Finally, the transdermal drug delivery performance of the PLA MNA was successfully simulated by two different methods of penetration and staining, using the skin of a pig cadaver. These results indicated that the proposed method can be effectively used for the fabrication of polymer MNAs which can be used in various microneedle applications.

  1. Convexity Adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha

    2010-01-01

    A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations...

  2. Divorce or Continue Marriage for Child? An Important Question about Psychological Adjustment of Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Ongider Gregory

    Full Text Available This study focused on finding answers about an important question that parents are recently asking psychological professionals. This question has become more relevant in the last couple of decades as there are increasing divorce rates in Turkey and the rest of the world. Because of this reason, parents are asking the important question: is it better for our child to divorce or continue our marriage? Researchers come up with very different results to this question. They need to not only focus on the effects of divorce itself but also need to examine the quality of the relationship between the parents. Parents need to remember this very important point that divorce is not the only thing that effects children's psychological adjustment by itself. So, the answer of the question to divorce or stay together is answered by the amount of parental conflict and the quality of the parent's relationship. As a result, the ideal environment for children's psychological development is living with both parents in the same household and having a low-conflict parents. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(3.000: 275-289

  3. Obesity Index That Better Predict Metabolic Syndrome: Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Waist Hip Ratio, or Waist Height Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim was to compare body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist hip ratio (WHR, and waist height ratio (WHtR to identify the best predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS among Qatari adult population. Methods. A cross-sectional survey from April 2011 to December 2012. Data was collected from 1552 participants followed by blood sampling. MetS was defined according to Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII and International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis was performed. Results. Among men, WC followed by WHR and WHtR yielded the highest area under the curve (AUC (0.78; 95% CI 0.74–0.82 and 0.75; 95% CI 0.71–0.79, resp.. Among women, WC followed by WHtR yielded the highest AUC (0.81; 95% CI 0.78–0.85 & 0.79; 95% CI 0.76–0.83, resp.. Among men, WC at a cut-off 99.5 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with sensitivity 81.6% and 63.9% specificity. Among women, WC at a cut-off 91 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with the corresponding sensitivity and specificity of 86.5% and 64.7%, respectively. BMI had the lowest sensitivity and specificity in both genders. Conclusion. WC at cut-off 99.5 cm in men and 91 cm in women was the best predictor of MetS in Qatar.

  4. 38 CFR 10.2 - Evidence required of loss, destruction or mutilation of adjusted service certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an adjusted service certificate issued pursuant to the provisions of section 501 of the World War... to payment thereon and witnessed by at least two persons who shall state, under oath that they...

  5. Differences in case-mix can influence the comparison of standardised mortality ratios even with optimal risk adjustment: an analysis of data from paediatric intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manktelow, Bradley N; Evans, T Alun; Draper, Elizabeth S

    2014-09-01

    The publication of clinical outcomes for consultant surgeons in 10 specialties within the NHS has, along with national clinical audits, highlighted the importance of measuring and reporting outcomes with the aim of monitoring quality of care. Such information is vital to be able to identify good and poor practice and to inform patient choice. The need to adequately adjust outcomes for differences in case-mix has long been recognised as being necessary to provide 'like-for-like' comparisons between providers. However, directly comparing values of the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) between different healthcare providers can be misleading even when the risk-adjustment perfectly quantifies the risk of a poor outcome in the reference population. An example is shown from paediatric intensive care. Using observed case-mix differences for 33 paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in the UK and Ireland for 2009-2011, SMRs were calculated under four different scenarios where, in each scenario, all of the PICUs were performing identically for each patient type. Each scenario represented a clinically plausible difference in outcome from the reference population. Despite the fact that the outcome for any patient was the same no matter which PICU they were to be admitted to, differences between the units were seen when compared using the SMR: scenario 1, 1.07-1.21; scenario 2, 1.00-1.14; scenario 3, 1.04-1.13; scenario 4, 1.00-1.09. Even if two healthcare providers are performing equally for each type of patient, if their patient populations differ in case-mix their SMRs will not necessarily take the same value. Clinical teams and commissioners must always keep in mind this weakness of the SMR when making decisions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Large-scale synthesis of monodisperse SiC nanoparticles with adjustable size, stoichiometric ratio and properties by fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Rongzheng; Liu, Malin, E-mail: liumalin@tsinghua.edu.cn; Chang, Jiaxing [Tsinghua University, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology (China)

    2017-02-15

    A facile fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition method was proposed for the synthesis of monodisperse SiC nanoparticles by using the single precursor of hexamethyldisilane (HMDS). SiC nanoparticles with average particle size from 10 to 200 nm were obtained by controlling the temperature and the gas ratio. An experimental chemical vapor deposition phase diagram of SiC in the HMDS-Ar-H{sub 2} system was obtained and three regions of SiC-Si, SiC and SiC-C can be distinguished. The BET surface area and the photoluminescence properties of the SiC nanoparticles can be adjusted by changing the nanoparticle size. For the SiC nanospheres with free carbon, a novel hierarchical structure with 5 ~ 8 nm SiC nanoparticles embedded into the graphite matrix was obtained. The advantages of fluidized bed technology for the preparation of SiC nanoparticles were proposed based on the features of homogenous reaction zone, narrow temperature distribution, ultra-short reactant residence time and mass production.

  7. Large-scale synthesis of monodisperse SiC nanoparticles with adjustable size, stoichiometric ratio and properties by fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rongzheng; Liu, Malin; Chang, Jiaxing

    2017-01-01

    A facile fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition method was proposed for the synthesis of monodisperse SiC nanoparticles by using the single precursor of hexamethyldisilane (HMDS). SiC nanoparticles with average particle size from 10 to 200 nm were obtained by controlling the temperature and the gas ratio. An experimental chemical vapor deposition phase diagram of SiC in the HMDS-Ar-H_2 system was obtained and three regions of SiC-Si, SiC and SiC-C can be distinguished. The BET surface area and the photoluminescence properties of the SiC nanoparticles can be adjusted by changing the nanoparticle size. For the SiC nanospheres with free carbon, a novel hierarchical structure with 5 ~ 8 nm SiC nanoparticles embedded into the graphite matrix was obtained. The advantages of fluidized bed technology for the preparation of SiC nanoparticles were proposed based on the features of homogenous reaction zone, narrow temperature distribution, ultra-short reactant residence time and mass production.

  8. Adjust or invest : what is the best option to green a supply chain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouchery, Y.; Ghaffari, A.; Jemai, Z.; Dallery, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Greening a supply chain can be achieved by considering several options. However, companies lack of clear guidelines to assess and compare these options. In this paper, we propose to use multiobjective optimization to assess operational adjustment and technology investment options in terms of cost

  9. Fat or lean: adjustment of endogenous energy stores to predictable and unpredictable changes in allostatic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultner, Jannik; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Welcker, Jorg; Hatch, Scott

    2013-01-01

    1. The ability to store energy endogenously is an important ecological mechanism that allows animals to buffer predictable and unpredictable variation in allostatic load. The secretion of glucocorticoids, which reflects changes in allostatic load, is suggested to play a major role in the adjustment of endogenous stores to these varying conditions.

  10. Molecular diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis: Does adjustment for total bacterial load or human cellular content improve diagnostic performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, E L; Garland, S M; Bradshaw, C S; Law, M G; Vodstrcil, L A; Hocking, J S; Fairley, C K; Tabrizi, S N

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the utility of quantitative PCR assays for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and found that while the best model utilized bacterial copy number adjusted for total bacterial load (sensitivity=98%, specificity=93%, AUC=0.95[95%CI=0.93,0.97]), adjusting for total bacterial or human cell load did not consistently increase the diagnostic performance of the assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sex Ratio and Twinning in Women with Hyperemesis or Pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Olsen, Jørn

    2001-01-01

    We examined twinning and fetal gender in births of women with a hospital diagnosis of pre-eclampsia or hyperemesis. We also investigated sex ratio in infants whose mothers had had hyperemesis or pre-eclampsia in a different pregnancy. From all the hospitalized cases in Denmark between 1980 and 1996...... we extracted 6,227 births with hyperemesis and 24,764 with pre-eclampsia. Twins were more frequent in pregnancies with either condition. The male to female sex ratio was 1.04 (95%CI = 1.02-1.05) in the reference population, 0.87 (95% CI = 0.82-0.91) in births with hyperemesis, and 1.10 (95% CI = 1...

  12. Metabolic control by sirtuins and other enzymes that sense NAD(+), NADH, or their ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Kristin A; Madsen, Andreas S; Olsen, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    NAD(+) is a dinucleotide cofactor with the potential to accept electrons in a variety of cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions. In its reduced form, NADH is a ubiquitous cellular electron donor. NAD(+), NADH, and the NAD(+)/NADH ratio have long been known to control the activity of several...... oxidoreductase enzymes. More recently, enzymes outside those participating directly in redox control have been identified that sense these dinucleotides, including the sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacylases. In this review, we highlight examples of non-redox enzymes that are controlled by NAD......(+), NADH, or NAD(+)/NADH. In particular, we focus on the sirtuin family and assess the current evidence that the sirtuin enzymes sense these dinucleotides and discuss the biological conditions under which this might occur; we conclude that sirtuins sense NAD(+), but neither NADH nor the ratio. Finally, we...

  13. Adjustment Difficulties and Caregiving Burdens Faced by College Students with a Parent with Bipolar or Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Erin K.; Ruggero, Camilo J.; Bain, Kathleen; Kilmer, Jared

    2014-01-01

    College campuses often host students who come from families where one or more parent has been affected by a bipolar or depressive disorder. The present study sought to determine whether these students face unique challenges in college, including increased adjustment difficulties as well as greater caregiving burden associated with their…

  14. Physics characteristics of a CANDU-600 with repositional adjuster rods fuelled with MOX or natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boczar, P.G.

    1985-06-01

    Repositioning the adjuster rods in 4 axial banks in future CANDU-600 reactors would permit the flexibility of grading the inner and outer banks to achieve optimal flattening of the axial power distribution for any particular fuel. With the 4 banks identical, acceptable axial power profiles can be achieved for both MOX and natural uranium fuels. Future work is to be directed at assessing the impact of lower zone controller and shutoff rod worth in the configuration of reactivity devices considered here, and if necessary, in identifying means of increasing their worth

  15. Maintenance therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia revisited—Should drug doses be adjusted by white blood cell, neutrophil, or lymphocyte counts?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Nersting, Jacob; Nielsen, Stine Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 6-Mercaptopurine (6MP) and methotrexate (MTX) based maintenance therapy is a critical phase of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. Wide interindividual variations in drug disposition warrant frequent doses adjustments, but there is a lack of international consensus on dose...... levels of 6-thioguanine nucleotides or MTX (including its polyglutamates) to be significant relapse predictors. The parameters significantly associated with risk of relapse (N = 83) were male sex (hazard ratio [HR] 2.0 [1.3-3.1], P = 0.003), WBC at diagnosis (HR = 1.04 per 10 × 10(9) /l rise [1...

  16. The Influence of Husbands' or Male Partners' Support on Women's Psychosocial Adjustment to Having an Ostomy Resulting from Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Andrea; Ramirez, Michelle; Grant, Marcia; Wendel, Christopher; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Herrinton, Lisa; Krouse, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Some patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) require a permanent ostomy, which changes bodily function and can create psychosocial distress. However, little is known about the influence of men's support on women's psychosocial adjustment to having an ostomy as a result of CRC. Methods Participants initially completed the City of Hope-CRC Quality of Life questionnaire. We then conducted in-depth interviews with 30 female participants. Interview questions focused on body image, gender, and sexuality. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. We used qualitative methods to analyze the interview data and compared global HRQOL quartile scores to the overall ways that women discussed husbands' or partners' support regarding psychosocial adjustments to having ostomies. Results Of 30 participants, 22 were married or partnered at the time of surgery and 8 were single. The non-partnered respondents are not included in this analysis. Of the 22 married/partnered women, 17 described positive support from husbands being central to their psychosocial adjustment, 3 described a lack or withdrawal of support negatively affecting adjustment, and 2 described support as neither positive nor negative. In 17 cases, women's high or low quantitative HRQOL scores matched the positive or negative qualitative findings. There were 3 cases in which there were positive qualitative data and low HRQOL scores, but each of these cases, women reported serious current co-morbidities. Conclusions These findings suggest that the provision or withdrawal of husbands' or partners' support can have a considerable impact on the psychosocial adjustment of female CRC patients with ostomies. These findings appear to be both short- and long-term. Survivorship assessments should include appraisals of women's relationships to spouses/partners. PMID:19448512

  17. The influence of husbands' or male partners' support on women's psychosocial adjustment to having an ostomy resulting from colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Andrea; Ramirez, Michelle; Grant, Marcia; Wendel, Christopher; Hornbrook, Mark C; Herrinton, Lisa; Krouse, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    Some patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) require a permanent ostomy, which changes bodily function and can create psychosocial distress. However, little is known about the influence of men's support on women's psychosocial adjustment to having an ostomy as a result of CRC. Participants initially completed the City of Hope-CRC Quality of Life questionnaire. We then conducted in-depth interviews with 30 female participants. Interview questions focused on body image, gender, and sexuality. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. We used qualitative methods to analyze the interview data and compared global health-related quality of life (HRQOL) quartile scores to the overall ways that women discussed husbands' or partners' support regarding psychosocial adjustments to having ostomies. Of 30 participants, 22 were married or partnered at the time of surgery and 8 were single. The nonpartnered respondents are not included in this analysis. Of the 22 married/partnered women, 17 described positive support from husbands being central to their psychosocial adjustment, 3 described a lack or withdrawal of support negatively affecting adjustment, and 2 described support as neither positive nor negative. In 17 cases, women's high or low quantitative HRQOL scores matched the positive or negative qualitative findings. There were 3 cases in which there were positive qualitative data and low HRQOL scores, but in each of these cases, women reported serious current comorbidities. These findings suggest that the provision or withdrawal of husbands' or partners' support can have a considerable impact on the psychosocial adjustment of female CRC patients with ostomies. These findings appear to be both short term and long term. Survivorship assessments should include appraisals of women's relationships to their spouses/partners.

  18. Metabolic control by sirtuins and other enzymes that sense NAD+, NADH, or their ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin A; Madsen, Andreas S; Olsen, Christian A; Hirschey, Matthew D

    2017-12-01

    NAD + is a dinucleotide cofactor with the potential to accept electrons in a variety of cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions. In its reduced form, NADH is a ubiquitous cellular electron donor. NAD + , NADH, and the NAD + /NADH ratio have long been known to control the activity of several oxidoreductase enzymes. More recently, enzymes outside those participating directly in redox control have been identified that sense these dinucleotides, including the sirtuin family of NAD + -dependent protein deacylases. In this review, we highlight examples of non-redox enzymes that are controlled by NAD + , NADH, or NAD + /NADH. In particular, we focus on the sirtuin family and assess the current evidence that the sirtuin enzymes sense these dinucleotides and discuss the biological conditions under which this might occur; we conclude that sirtuins sense NAD + , but neither NADH nor the ratio. Finally, we identify future studies that might be informative to further interrogate physiological and pathophysiological changes in NAD + and NADH, as well as enzymes like sirtuins that sense and respond to redox changes in the cell. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dorsomedial striatum lesions affect adjustment to reward uncertainty, but not to reward devaluation or omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carmen; Glueck, Amanda C; Conrad, Shannon E; Morón, Ignacio; Papini, Mauricio R

    2016-09-22

    The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) has been implicated in the acquisition of reward representations, a proposal leading to the hypothesis that it should play a role in situations involving reward loss. We report the results of an experiment in which the effects of DMS excitotoxic lesions were tested in consummatory successive negative contrast (reward devaluation), autoshaping training with partial vs. continuous reinforcement (reward uncertainty), and appetitive extinction (reward omission). Animals with DMS lesions exhibited reduced lever pressing responding, but enhanced goal entries, during partial reinforcement training in autoshaping. However, they showed normal negative contrast, acquisition under continuous reinforcement (CR), appetitive extinction, and response facilitation in early extinction trials. Open-field testing also indicated normal motor behavior. Thus, DMS lesions selectively affected the behavioral adjustment to a situation involving reward uncertainty, producing a behavioral reorganization according to which goal tracking (goal entries) became predominant at the expense of sign tracking (lever pressing). This pattern of results shows that the function of the DMS in situations involving reward loss is not general, but restricted to reward uncertainty. We suggest that a nonassociative, drive-related process induced by reward uncertainty requires normal output from DMS neurons. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk and Protective Factors at Age 16: Psychological Adjustment in Children With a Cleft Lip and/or Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Stock, Nicola Marie; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2015-09-01

    Explore psychological functioning in adolescents with a cleft at age 16 from a broad perspective, including cognitive, emotional, behavioral, appearance-related, and psychosocial adjustment. High-risk groups were identified within each area of adjustment to investigate whether vulnerable adolescents were found across domains or whether risk was limited to specific areas of adjustment. Cross-sectional data based on psychological assessments at age 16 (N = 857). The effect of gender, cleft visibility, and the presence of an additional condition were investigated on all outcome variables. Results were compared with large national samples. Hopkins Symptom Checklist, Harter Self-Perception Scale for Adolescents, Child Experience Questionnaire, and Satisfaction With Appearance scale. The main factor influencing psychological adjustment across domains was gender, with girls in general reporting more psychological problems, as seen in reference groups. The presence of an additional condition also negatively affected some of the measures. No support was found for cleft visibility as a risk factor except for dissatisfaction with appearance. Correlation analyses of risk groups seem to point to an association between social and emotional risk and between social risk and dissatisfaction with appearance. Associations between other domains were found to be weak. The results point to areas of both risk and strength in adolescents born with a cleft lip and/or palate. Future research should investigate how protective factors could counteract potential risk in adolescents with a cleft.

  1. [Psychosocial adjustment in children with a cleft lip and/or palate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Ineke H C; Kraaimaat, Floris W; Admiraal, Ronald J C; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Verhaak, Christianne M

    2009-01-01

    To gain insight into the psychosocial health of children aged 9 to 12 years with a cleft lip and/or palate; to determine the relation between their health and the nature and severity of the cleft as well as other individual characteristics. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Questionnaires completed by parents, teachers and children were used to obtain information about the psychosocial health, nature and severity of the cleft lip and/or palate, and individual characteristics of 80 children. The interrelationship between these parameters was assessed using chi-square tests, single-factor analysis of variance and correlational analysis. In general, the psychosocial health of children with a cleft lip and/or palate did not differ from that of the norm groups. Parents of children with a cleft lip/and or palate reported more withdrawn or depressive behaviour in their child than parents from the norm groups. Children with a cleft lip and/or palate exhibited less rule-breaking behaviour. Teachers reported relatively more social problems. One-third of the children had learning problems. A better psychosocial health was associated with fewer speech problems but not with a more or less abnormal physical appearance. Self-image showed a negative correlation with psychosocial health problems, while learning problems showed a positive correlation. In general, the psychosocial health of children with a cleft lip and/or palate does not differ from children without this condition. However, children with a cleft lip and/or palate do exhibit more learning problems.

  2. 20 CFR 416.552 - Waiver of adjustment or recovery-without fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... physical, mental, educational, or linguistic limitations (including any lack of facility with the English..., knowledge of the occurrence of events that should have been reported, efforts to comply with the reporting...

  3. Pitfalls with the use of enhancement ratios or normalized excess mixing ratios measured in plumes to characterize pollution sources and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Yokelson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMRs, also known as enhancement ratios, are a common way to characterize plumes of pollution in atmospheric research. As single-source pollutant plumes disperse in the atmosphere, they are diluted by mixing with the adjacent background air. Changes in the composition of this background air can cause large changes to the NEMR that is subsequently measured by remote-sensing, airborne, or ground-based instruments. This scenario is common when boundary layer plumes enter the free troposphere and could also impact long-range transport or plumes near the top of the troposphere. We provide a context for these issues and an example showing that neglect of this effect could lead to serious errors in data interpretation.

  4. 20 CFR 416.554 - Waiver of adjustment or recovery-against equity and good conscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... eligible couple that is legally separated and/or living apart for that part of an overpayment not received... subsequently found that the money was improperly paid. Recovery would be considered “against equity and good conscience.” Example 3: Mr. and Mrs. Smith—members of an eligible couple—separate in July. Later in July, Mr...

  5. [Psychosocial adjustment in children with a cleft lip and/or palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, I.H.; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Admiraal, R.J.C.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Verhaak, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the psychosocial health of children aged 9 to 12 years with a cleft lip and/or palate; to determine the relation between their health and the nature and severity of the cleft as well as other individual characteristics. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study.

  6. Effects of Increasing Space Allowance by Removing a Pig or Gate Adjustment on Finishing Pig Growth Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Corey B; Holder, Cheyenne J; Wu, Fanghou; Woodworth, Jason C; DeRouchey, Joel M; Tokach, Mike D; Goodband, Robert D; Dritz, Steve S

    2018-05-03

    A total of 256 pigs (initially 55.9 ± 4.88 kg) were used in a 71-d study to determine the effects of increasing space allowance and pig removal on pig growth performance. Pens of pigs were blocked by body weight (BW) and allotted to one of four space allowance treatments, initially with 8 pigs per pen and 8 pens per treatment. First two treatments included pens with 0.91 m2 per pig or 0.63 m2 per pig for the entire study; two additional treatments initially provided 0.63 m2 per pig, but either a gate was adjusted on d 28, 45, and 62 or the heaviest pig in the pen was removed from the pen on d 28 and 45 to provide more space and keep pigs in accordance with their predicted minimum space requirement [(m2) = 0.0336 × (BW, kg)0.67]. From d 0 to 14 (56 to 69 kg), there was no effect of stocking density observed for average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain:feed (G:F). From d 14 to 28 (69 to 83 kg), pigs provided 0.91 m2 had increased (P space adjustment treatments had greater (P space adjustments intermediate. In summary, pigs with 0.91 m2 grew faster and consumed more feed than pigs restricted in space. As pigs reached the critical k value, gate adjustments and pig removals affected growth similarly. As pigs grew to the predicted space requirement and were subsequently allowed more space, performance was greater than those provided 0.63 m2 but less than those allowed 0.91 m2. It appears that the industry accepted critical k value, 0.0336, may not be adequate for optimal pig performance across multiple BW ranges.

  7. Maintenance therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia revisited-Should drug doses be adjusted by white blood cell, neutrophil, or lymphocyte counts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Nersting, Jacob; Nielsen, Stine Nygaard; Heyman, Mats; Wesenberg, Finn; Kristinsson, Jon; Vettenranta, Kim; Schrøeder, Henrik; Weinshilboum, Richard; Jensen, Katrine Lykke; Grell, Kathrine; Rosthoej, Susanne

    2016-12-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (6MP) and methotrexate (MTX) based maintenance therapy is a critical phase of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. Wide interindividual variations in drug disposition warrant frequent doses adjustments, but there is a lack of international consensus on dose adjustment guidelines. To identify relapse predictors, we collected 28,255 data sets on drug doses and blood counts (median: 47/patient) and analyzed erythrocyte (Ery) levels of cytotoxic 6MP/MTX metabolites in 9,182 blood samples (median: 14 samples/patient) from 532 children on MTX/6MP maintenance therapy targeted to a white blood cell count (WBC) of 1.5-3.5 × 10 9 /l. After a median follow-up of 13.8 years for patients in remission, stepwise Cox regression analysis did not find age, average doses of 6MP and MTX, hemoglobin, absolute lymphocyte counts, thrombocyte counts, or Ery levels of 6-thioguanine nucleotides or MTX (including its polyglutamates) to be significant relapse predictors. The parameters significantly associated with risk of relapse (N = 83) were male sex (hazard ratio [HR] 2.0 [1.3-3.1], P = 0.003), WBC at diagnosis (HR = 1.04 per 10 × 10 9 /l rise [1.00-1.09], P = 0.048), the absolute neutrophil count (ANC; HR = 1.7 per 10 9 /l rise [1.3-2.4], P = 0.0007), and Ery thiopurine methyltransferase activity (HR = 2.7 per IU/ml rise [1.1-6.7], P = 0.03). WBC was significantly related to ANC (Spearman correlation coefficient, r s  = 0.77; P best hematological target for dose adjustments of maintenance therapy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. No Dose Adjustment is Recommended for Digoxin, Warfarin, Atorvastatin or a Combination Oral Contraceptive When Coadministered with Dulaglutide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Amparo; Cui, Xuewei; Geiser, Jeanne; Loghin, Corina

    2017-11-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to delay gastric emptying (GE). The potential effect of the GLP-1 RA dulaglutide on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of four orally administered drugs and on the pharmacodynamic (PD) effect of warfarin was investigated. In four separate clinical pharmacology studies, digoxin, warfarin, atorvastatin and Ortho-Cyclen ® were orally administered to healthy subjects with and without a subcutaneous dose of dulaglutide 1.5 mg. The effect of dulaglutide coadministration was assessed based on the PK parameters of key analytes. For warfarin PD, the effect of dulaglutide on the international normalized ratio (INR) was evaluated. Areas under the concentration-time curves (AUCs) with and without dulaglutide were similar for all analytes except atorvastatin, where it was reduced by 21%. Maximum concentrations (C max ) were generally lower following coadministration with dulaglutide, with statistically significant reductions (90% confidence intervals of geometric least squares means ratios outside 0.80-1.25) for all analytes except R-warfarin. For all analytes, there was a general trend for the time to C max (t max ) to increase following coadministration with dulaglutide. For warfarin, dulaglutide coadministration had no statistically significant effect on the maximum INR (INR max ); however, a 2% increase in area under the INR curve (AUC INR ) was observed. Dulaglutide did not affect the absorption of the tested medications to a clinically relevant degree. Based on the PK and PD evaluations, no dose adjustments for digoxin, warfarin, atorvastatin and Ortho-Cyclen ® are recommended when coadministered with dulaglutide. NCT01458210, NCT01436201, NCT01432938, and NCT01250834.

  9. Odds Ratio or Prevalence Ratio? An Overview of Reported Statistical Methods and Appropriateness of Interpretations in Cross-sectional Studies with Dichotomous Outcomes in Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brayan Alexander Fonseca Martinez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most commonly observational study designs employed in veterinary is the cross-sectional study with binary outcomes. To measure an association with exposure, the use of prevalence ratios (PR or odds ratios (OR are possible. In human epidemiology, much has been discussed about the use of the OR exclusively for case–control studies and some authors reported that there is no good justification for fitting logistic regression when the prevalence of the disease is high, in which OR overestimate the PR. Nonetheless, interpretation of OR is difficult since confusing between risk and odds can lead to incorrect quantitative interpretation of data such as “the risk is X times greater,” commonly reported in studies that use OR. The aims of this study were (1 to review articles with cross-sectional designs to assess the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association and (2 to illustrate the use of alternative statistical methods that estimate PR directly. An overview of statistical methods and its interpretation using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines was conducted and included a diverse set of peer-reviewed journals among the veterinary science field using PubMed as the search engine. From each article, the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association were registered. Additionally, four alternative models for logistic regression that estimate directly PR were tested using our own dataset from a cross-sectional study on bovine viral diarrhea virus. The initial search strategy found 62 articles, in which 6 articles were excluded and therefore 56 studies were used for the overall analysis. The review showed that independent of the level of prevalence reported, 96% of articles employed logistic regression, thus estimating the OR. Results of the multivariate models

  10. Sensor for mixing ratio of gasoline and alcohol or the like

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1992-01-14

    An improved sensor is disclosed which is capable of continuously measuring a ratio of alcohol and gasoline with high precision, irrespective of the ambient temperature, in order to obtain the most appropriate timing of ignition and injection when employed, for example, in an internal combustion engine. The sensor has a cylindrical enclosure having both inlet and outlet openings to act as a passage through which the liquid fuel mixture flows. A transparent column is concentrically disposed in the enclosure, an outer surface of which is at least in partial contact with the fuel mixture. A light emitting diode is placed at one end of the column so that light from the diode enters the column to reach a boundary between the column and the fuel mixture. A photo diode at the other end of the column receives light beams totally reflected back at the boundary to produce an output, the magnitude of which depends on the mixing ratio of the fuel mixture. A temperature compensation means is also provided in the form of a temperature compensation photo diode and an amplifier, in order to maintain a uniform intensity of light beams emitted from the light emitting diode irrespective of changes in ambient temperature. 8 figs.

  11. Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: Effect of various proteins or carbohydrates, and of various protein concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of meals containing various proteins and carbohydrates, and of those containing various proportions of protein (0 percent to 20 percent of a meal, by weight) or of carbohydrate (0 percent to 75 percent), on plasma levels of certain large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in rats previously fasted for 19 hours were examined. Also the plasma tryptophan ratios (the ratio of the plasma trytophan concentration to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids) and other plasma amino acid ratios were calculated. (The plasma tryptophan ratio has been shown to determine brain tryptophan levels and, thereby, to affect the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter serotonin). A meal containing 70 percent to 75 percent of an insulin-secreting carbohydrate (dextrose or dextrin) increased plasma insulin levels and the tryptophan ratio; those containing 0 percent or 25 percent carbohydrate failed to do so. Addition of as little as 5 percent casein to a 70 percent carbohydrate meal fully blocked the increase in the plasma tryptophan ratio without affecting the secretion of insulin - probably by contributing much larger quantities of the other LNAA than of tryptophan to the blood. Dietary proteins differed in their ability to suppress the carbohydrate-induced rise in the plasma tryptophan ratio. Addition of 10 percent casein, peanut meal, or gelatin fully blocked this increase, but lactalbumin failed to do so, and egg white did so only partially. (Consumption of the 10 percent gelatin meal also produced a major reduction in the plasma tyrosine ratio, and may thereby have affected brain tyrosine levels and catecholamine synthesis.) These observations suggest that serotonin-releasing neurons in brains of fasted rats are capable of distinguishing (by their metabolic effects) between meals poor in protein but rich in carbohydrates that elicit insulin secretion, and all other meals. The changes in brain serotonin caused by carbohydrate-rich, protein

  12. REGOSARC: Regorafenib versus placebo in doxorubicin-refractory soft-tissue sarcoma-A quality-adjusted time without symptoms of progression or toxicity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Vincent; Basson, Laurent; Bogart, Emilie; Mir, Olivier; Blay, Jean-Yves; Italiano, Antoine; Bertucci, François; Chevreau, Christine; Clisant-Delaine, Stéphanie; Liegl-Antzager, Bernadette; Tresch-Bruneel, Emmanuelle; Wallet, Jennifer; Taieb, Sophie; Decoupigny, Emilie; Le Cesne, Axel; Brodowicz, Thomas; Penel, Nicolas

    2017-06-15

    In a placebo-controlled, randomized phase 2 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01900743), regorafenib improved progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with doxorubicin-pretreated advanced nonadipocytic sarcoma. A quality-adjusted time without symptoms of progression or toxicity (Q-TWiST) post hoc exploratory analysis was applied to provide an integrated measure of its clinical benefit. In the base-case analysis, each patient's overall survival (OS) was partitioned into 3 mutually exclusive health states: the time with a grade 3 or 4 adverse event (TOX), the time without symptoms of disease or grade 3 or 4 toxicity from treatment, and the time after tumor progression or relapse. The time spent in each state was weighted with a health-state utility associated with that state and was summed to calculate the Q-TWiST. The stability of the base-case analysis was explored with several sensitivity analyses. In nonadipocytic sarcoma, the PFS was (4.0 months [2.6-5.5 months] with regorafenib vs 1.0 month [0.9-1.8 months] with a placebo; hazard ratio, 0.36 [0.25-0.53]; P regorafenib and 9.0 months (6.8-12.5 months) with a placebo (hazard ratio, 0.67 [0.44-1.02]). With the classic definition of TOX (including all grade 3 and 4 clinical adverse events), the Q-TWiSTs were 8.0 months (7.0-9.0 months) with regorafenib and 5.7 months (4.9-6.4 months) with a placebo (P regorafenib significantly improved quality-adjusted survival in comparison with a placebo. Cancer 2017;123:2294-2302. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. Evaluation of boron isotope ratio as a pH proxy in the deep sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus: Evidence of physiological pH adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, E.; Huang, K.-F.; You, C.-F.; Sikes, E. L.; Sherrell, R. M.

    2012-10-01

    The boron isotope ratio (δ11B) of foraminifers and tropical corals has been proposed to record seawater pH. To test the veracity and practicality of this potential paleo-pH proxy in deep sea corals, samples of skeletal material from twelve archived modern Desmophyllum dianthus (D. dianthus) corals from a depth range of 274-1470 m in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Southern Oceans, ambient pH range 7.57-8.05, were analyzed for δ11B. The δ11B values for these corals, spanning a range from 23.56 to 27.88, are found to be related to seawater borate δ11B by the linear regression: δ11Bcoral=(0.76±0.28) δ11Bborate+(14.67±4.19) (1 standard error (SE)). The D. dianthus δ11B values are greater than those measured in tropical corals, and suggest substantial physiological modification of pH in the calcifying space by a value that is an inverse function of seawater pH. This mechanism partially compensates for the range of ocean pH and aragonite saturation at which this species grows, enhancing aragonite precipitation and suggesting an adaptation mechanism to low pH environments in intermediate and deep waters. Consistent with the findings of Trotter et al. (2011) for tropical surface corals, the data suggest an inverse correlation between the magnitude of a biologically driven pH offset recorded in the coral skeleton, and the seawater pH, described by the equation: ΔpH=pH recorded by coral-seawater pH=-(0.75±0.12) pHw+(6.88±0.93) (1 SE). Error analysis based on 95% confidence interval(CI) and the standard deviation of the regression residuals suggests that the uncertainty of seawater pH reconstructed from δ11Bcoral is ±0.07 to 0.12 pH units. This study demonstrates the applicability of δ11B in D. dianthus to record ambient seawater pH and holds promise for reconstructing oceanic pH distribution and history using fossil corals.

  14. Antenatal steroids and risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a lack of effect or a case of over-adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Luigi; Bellù, Roberto; Rusconi, Franca; Merazzi, Daniele; Mosca, Fabio

    2007-07-01

    Although antenatal steroids reduce risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants, their effect on BPD is conflicting. We hypothesised that the lack of protective effect found in some studies could derive from over-adjustment during analysis, caused by controlling for factors intermediate in the causal pathway between treatment and outcome. We prospectively studied a cohort of infants 23-32 weeks gestation steroids. In univariable analysis, steroids were not significantly protective against BPD; some intermediate factors (mechanical ventilation, greater severity of illness as measured by Clinical Risk Index for Babies score, patent ductus arteriosus) were significantly positively associated with (i.e. were risk factors for) BPD (OR = 11.0, 1.55, 4.42, respectively, all P steroids (OR = 0.58, 0.92, and 0.58, respectively, all P steroid-treated infants had a lower risk of BPD (OR 0.59 [95% CI 0.36, 0.97], P = 0.036); male sex (OR = 2.08), late-onset sepsis (OR = 4.26), and birthweight (OR = 0.63 for 100 g increase) were also associated with BPD, all P effect of steroids disappeared; ventilation (OR = 3.03), increased illness severity (OR = 1.11), and patent ductus arteriosus (OR = 1.90) were significant risk factors. This study suggests that including variables that are potential mediators in the causal chain can obscure the ability to detect a protective effect of treatment. We observed such a phenomenon in our analyses of the relationship between antenatal steroids and BPD, suggesting that steroid effect is partly mediated through a reduction in the classical risk factors.

  15. Maternal adjustment or constraint : Differential effects of food availability on maternal deposition of macro-nutrients, steroids and thyroid hormones in rock pigeon eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Darras, Veerle M.; de Vries, Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    In oviparous species like birds, eggs provide the direct environment in which embryos are developing. Mothers may adjust different egg components in different ways in reaction to environmental cues either to adjust offspring development or because of constraints. In this study, we investigated the

  16. Can Coronene and/or Benzo(a)pyrene/Coronene ratio act as unique markers for vehicle emission?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Wei, Siye; Fu, Xiaofang; Ding, Aijun; Wu, Haisuo; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Coronene is a high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with seven aromatic rings. It, more specifically a lower ratio of Benzo[a]pyrene to Coronone (BaP/COR), is suggested as a marker for vehicle emission. In the present study, emissions of Coronene were measured from residential combustions of wood, crop straw, and pellets. The detection of COR in non-vehicle emission sources, and comparable BaP/COR ratios between the solid fuel combustion and vehicle emissions indicated that the generality of COR or the BaP/COR ratio as markers for the vehicle emission would be questionable, especially for the area where solid fuel combustion dominated the PAHs emission. Highlights: • Coronene alone is not a unique marker for vehicle emission. • The specific ratio, BaP/Coronene, could be very high for gasoline emission. • The use of a specific ratio, BaP/Coronene, as a marker is debatable. -- Coronene alone is not a unique tracer for vehicle emission and the use of specific Benzo[a]pyrene to Coronene ratio needs more evaluation studies

  17. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  18. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...

  19. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  20. E2,M1 multipole mixing ratios in even--even nuclei, A greater than or equal to 152

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    A survey is presented of E2,M1 mixing ratios of gamma-ray transitions in even-even nuclei with mass numbers A greater than or equal to 152. Angular distribution and correlation data from the literature are analyzed in terms of a consistent choice of the phase relationship between the E2 and M1 matrix elements. The cutoff date for the literature was June 1975. Based on an average of the experimental results from the literature, a recommended value of the E2,M1 mixing ratio for each transition is included

  1. Adjustable collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Covic, J.; Leininger, G.

    1981-01-01

    In a rotating fan beam tomographic scanner there is included an adjustable collimator and shutter assembly. The assembly includes a fan angle collimation cylinder having a plurality of different length slots through which the beam may pass for adjusting the fan angle of the beam. It also includes a beam thickness cylinder having a plurality of slots of different widths for adjusting the thickness of the beam. Further, some of the slots have filter materials mounted therein so that the operator may select from a plurality of filters. Also disclosed is a servo motor system which allows the operator to select the desired fan angle, beam thickness and filter from a remote location. An additional feature is a failsafe shutter assembly which includes a spring biased shutter cylinder mounted in the collimation cylinders. The servo motor control circuit checks several system conditions before the shutter is rendered openable. Further, the circuit cuts off the radiation if the shutter fails to open or close properly. A still further feature is a reference radiation intensity monitor which includes a tuning-fork shaped light conducting element having a scintillation crystal mounted on each tine. The monitor is placed adjacent the collimator between it and the source with the pair of crystals to either side of the fan beam

  2. Multilayered samples reconstructed by measuring Kα/Kβ or Lα/Lβ X-ray intensity ratios by EDXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesareo, Roberto; de Assis, Joaquim T.; Roldán, Clodoaldo; Bustamante, Angel D.; Brunetti, Antonio; Schiavon, Nick

    2013-10-01

    In this paper a general method based on energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis has been tested to assess its possible use as a tool to reconstruct the structure and determine the thickness of two and/or multi-layered materials. The method utilizes the X-ray intensity ratios of Kα/Kβ or Lα/Lβ peaks (or the ratio of these peaks) for selected elements present in multi-layered objects of various materials (Au alloys, gilded Cu, gilded Ag, gilded Pb, Ag-Au Tumbaga, stone surfaces with protective treatments, Zn or Nickel plating on metals). Results show that, in the case of multi-layered samples, a correct calculation of the peak ratio (Kα /Kβ and/or Lα/Lβ) of relevant elements from energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectra, can provide important information in assessing the exact location of each layer and for calculating its thickness. The methodological approach shown may have important applications not only in materials science but also when dealing with the conservation and restoration of multi-layered cultural heritage objects where the use of a Non-Destructive techniques to determine slight chemical and thickness variations in the layered structure is often of paramount importance to achieve the best results.

  3. Monitoring the quality of cardiac surgery based on three or more surgical outcomes using a new variable life-adjusted display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Fah Fatt; Tang, Xu; Zhu, Yexin; Lim, Puay Weng

    2017-06-01

    The traditional variable life-adjusted display (VLAD) is a graphical display of the difference between expected and actual cumulative deaths. The VLAD assumes binary outcomes: death within 30 days of an operation or survival beyond 30 days. Full recovery and bedridden for life, for example, are considered the same outcome. This binary classification results in a great loss of information. Although there are many grades of survival, the binary outcomes are commonly used to classify surgical outcomes. Consequently, quality monitoring procedures are developed based on binary outcomes. With a more refined set of outcomes, the sensitivities of these procedures can be expected to improve. A likelihood ratio method is used to define a penalty-reward scoring system based on three or more surgical outcomes for the new VLAD. The likelihood ratio statistic W is based on testing the odds ratio of cumulative probabilities of recovery R. Two methods of implementing the new VLAD are proposed. We accumulate the statistic W-W¯R to estimate the performance of a surgeon where W¯R is the average of the W's of a historical data set. The accumulated sum will be zero based on the historical data set. This ensures that if a new VLAD is plotted for a future surgeon of performance similar to this average performance, the plot will exhibit a horizontal trend. For illustration of the new VLAD, we consider 3-outcome surgical results: death within 30 days, partial and full recoveries. In our first illustration, we show the effect of partial recoveries on surgical results of a surgeon. In our second and third illustrations, the surgical results of two surgeons are compared using both the traditional VLAD based on binary-outcome data and the new VLAD based on 3-outcome data. A reversal in relative performance of surgeons is observed when the new VLAD is used. In our final illustration, we display the surgical results of four surgeons using the new VLAD based completely on 3-outcome data. Full

  4. Irrational Beliefs in Employees with an Adjustment, a Depressive, or an Anxiety Disorder: a Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Verbeek, Jos H. A. M.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Blonk, Roland W. B.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    2010-01-01

    It remains unclear if patients with different types of common mental disorders, such as adjustment, anxiety and depressive disorders, have the same irrational ideas. The aim of this prospective cohort study (n = 190) is to investigate differences in level and type of irrational beliefs among these

  5. Irrational beliefs in employees with an adjustment, a depressive, or an anxiety disorder: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Verbeek, J.H.A.M.; Boer, A.G.E.M. de; Blonk, R.W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van

    2010-01-01

    It remains unclear if patients with different types of common mental disorders, such as adjustment, anxiety and depressive disorders, have the same irrational ideas. The aim of this prospective cohort study (n = 190) is to investigate differences in level and type of irrational beliefs among these

  6. Thickness measurement of multilayered samples by Kα/Kβ or Lα/Lβ X-ray ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio, E-mail: roberto.cesareo@gmail.com, E-mail: brunetti@uniss.it [Universita di Sassari (UNISS), Sassari, (Italy); Assis, Joaquim T. de, E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Objects composed of two or more layers are relatively common among industrial and electronic materials, works of art and common tools. For example plated objects (with zinc, nickel, silver, gold) are composed of two or three layers, a painting is generally composed of several layers, a decorated vase is composed of two or three layers, just as a stone, marble or bronze covered with a protective layer. In this paper a general method and some results are described to reconstruct structure and to determine thicknesses of multilayered material, when energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence is employed to analyze the material: the X-ray ratios of Kα/Kβ and Lα/Lβ for elements present in the multilayered samples are employed. (author)

  7. Thickness measurement of multilayered samples by Kα/Kβ or Lα/Lβ X-ray ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio; Assis, Joaquim T. de

    2013-01-01

    Objects composed of two or more layers are relatively common among industrial and electronic materials, works of art and common tools. For example plated objects (with zinc, nickel, silver, gold) are composed of two or three layers, a painting is generally composed of several layers, a decorated vase is composed of two or three layers, just as a stone, marble or bronze covered with a protective layer. In this paper a general method and some results are described to reconstruct structure and to determine thicknesses of multilayered material, when energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence is employed to analyze the material: the X-ray ratios of Kα/Kβ and Lα/Lβ for elements present in the multilayered samples are employed. (author)

  8. Raman ratios on the repair of grafted surgical bone defects irradiated or not with laser (λ780 nm) or LED (λ850 nm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz B; Soares, Luiz Guilherme P; Marques, Aparecida Maria C; Aciole, Jouber Mateus S; de Souza, Renato Aparecido; Silveira, Landulfo

    2014-09-05

    This work aimed to assess biochemical changes associated to mineralization and remodeling of bone defects filled with Hydroxyapatite+Beta-Beta-tricalcium phosphate irradiated or not with 2 light sources. Ratios of intensities, band position and bandwidth of selected Raman peaks of collagen and apatites were used. Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups subdivided into 2 subgroups (15th and 30th days). A standard surgical defect was created on one femur of each animal. In 3 groups the defects were filled with blood clot (Clot, Clot+Laser and Clot+LED groups) and in the remaining 3 groups the defects were filled with biomaterial (Biomaterial, Biomaterial+Laser and Biomaterial+LED groups). When indicated, the defects were irradiated with either Laser (λ780 nm, 70 mW, Φ∼0.4 cm(2)) or LED (λ850±10 nm, 150 mW, Φ∼0.5 cm(2)), 20 J/cm(2) each session, at 48 h intervals/2 weeks (140 J/cm(2) treatment). Following sacrifice, bone fragments were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Statistical analysis (ANOVA General Linear Model, pRaman ratios of selected protein matrix and phosphate and carbonate HA indicated that the use of biphasic synthetic micro-granular HA+Beta-TCP graft improved the repair of bone defects, associated or not with Laser or LED light, because of the increasing deposition of HA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Achieving Body Weight Adjustments for Feeding Status and Pregnant or Non-Pregnant Condition in Beef Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionbelli, Mateus P.; Duarte, Marcio S.; Valadares Filho, Sebastião C.; Detmann, Edenio; Chizzotti, Mario L.; Rodrigues, Felipe C.; Zanetti, Diego; Gionbelli, Tathyane R. S.; Machado, Marcelo G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Beef cows herd accounts for 70% of the total energy used in the beef production system. However, there are still limited studies regarding improvement of production efficiency in this category, mainly in developing countries and in tropical areas. One of the limiting factors is the difficulty to obtain reliable estimates of weight variation in mature cows. This occurs due to the interaction of weight of maternal tissues with specific physiological stages such as pregnancy. Moreover, variation in gastrointestinal contents due to feeding status in ruminant animals is a major source of error in body weight measurements. Objectives Develop approaches to estimate the individual proportion of weight from maternal tissues and from gestation in pregnant cows, adjusting for feeding status and stage of gestation. Methods and Findings Dataset of 49 multiparous non-lactating Nellore cows (32 pregnant and 17 non-pregnant) were used. To establish the relationships between the body weight, depending on the feeding status of pregnant and non-pregnant cows as a function of days of pregnancy, a set of general equations was tested, based on theoretical suppositions. We proposed the concept of pregnant compound (PREG), which represents the weight that is genuinely related to pregnancy. The PREG includes the gravid uterus minus the non-pregnant uterus plus the accretion in udder related to pregnancy. There was no accretion in udder weight up to 238 days of pregnancy. By subtracting the PREG from live weight of a pregnant cow, we obtained estimates of the weight of only maternal tissues in pregnant cows. Non-linear functions were adjusted to estimate the relationship between fasted, non-fasted and empty body weight, for pregnant and non-pregnant cows. Conclusions Our results allow for estimating the actual live weight of pregnant cows and their body constituents, and subsequent comparison as a function of days of gestation and feeding status. PMID:25793770

  10. Experimental manipulation of food availability leads to short-term intra-clutch adjustment in egg mass but not in yolk androgen or thyroid hormones.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Darras, V.M.; de Vries, B.; Visser, Marcel E.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2016-01-01

    In birds, mothers can affect their offspring's phenotype and thereby survival via egg composition. It is not well known to what extent and time-scales environmental variation in resource availability, either via resource constrains or adaptive adjustment to predicted rearing conditions, influences

  11. Transformation of Summary Statistics from Linear Mixed Model Association on All-or-None Traits to Odds Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Luke R; Robinson, Matthew R; Yang, Jian; Visscher, Peter M

    2018-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci that are robustly associated with complex diseases. The use of linear mixed model (LMM) methodology for GWAS is becoming more prevalent due to its ability to control for population structure and cryptic relatedness and to increase power. The odds ratio (OR) is a common measure of the association of a disease with an exposure ( e.g. , a genetic variant) and is readably available from logistic regression. However, when the LMM is applied to all-or-none traits it provides estimates of genetic effects on the observed 0-1 scale, a different scale to that in logistic regression. This limits the comparability of results across studies, for example in a meta-analysis, and makes the interpretation of the magnitude of an effect from an LMM GWAS difficult. In this study, we derived transformations from the genetic effects estimated under the LMM to the OR that only rely on summary statistics. To test the proposed transformations, we used real genotypes from two large, publicly available data sets to simulate all-or-none phenotypes for a set of scenarios that differ in underlying model, disease prevalence, and heritability. Furthermore, we applied these transformations to GWAS summary statistics for type 2 diabetes generated from 108,042 individuals in the UK Biobank. In both simulation and real-data application, we observed very high concordance between the transformed OR from the LMM and either the simulated truth or estimates from logistic regression. The transformations derived and validated in this study improve the comparability of results from prospective and already performed LMM GWAS on complex diseases by providing a reliable transformation to a common comparative scale for the genetic effects. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. The use of lactic acid-producing, malic acid-producing, or malic acid-degrading yeast strains for acidity adjustment in the wine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yun; Li, Ying-Ying; Li, Hua

    2014-03-01

    In an era of economic globalization, the competition among wine businesses is likely to get tougher. Biotechnological innovation permeates the entire world and intensifies the severity of the competition of the wine industry. Moreover, modern consumers preferred individualized, tailored, and healthy and top quality wine products. Consequently, these two facts induce large gaps between wine production and wine consumption. Market-orientated yeast strains are presently being selected or developed for enhancing the core competitiveness of wine enterprises. Reasonable biological acidity is critical to warrant a high-quality wine. Many wild-type acidity adjustment yeast strains have been selected all over the world. Moreover, mutation breeding, metabolic engineering, genetic engineering, and protoplast fusion methods are used to construct new acidity adjustment yeast strains to meet the demands of the market. In this paper, strategies and concepts for strain selection or improvement methods were discussed, and many examples based upon selected studies involving acidity adjustment yeast strains were reviewed. Furthermore, the development of acidity adjustment yeast strains with minimized resource inputs, improved fermentation, and enological capabilities for an environmentally friendly production of healthy, top quality wine is presented.

  13. Cardiometabolic Risk Assessments by Body Mass Index z-Score or Waist-to-Height Ratio in a Multiethnic Sample of Sixth-Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Henry S.; El ghormli, Laure; Jago, Russell; Foster, Gary D.; McMurray, Robert G.; Buse, John B.; Stadler, Diane D.; Treviño, Roberto P.; Baranowski, Tom; HEALTHY Study Group

    2014-01-01

    Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz) referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabolic risk. Among 5,482 sixth-grade students from 42 middle schools, we estimated explanatory variations (R 2) and standardized beta coefficients of BMIz or WHtR for cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipids, blood pressures, and glucose. For each risk outcome variable, we prepared adjusted regression models for four subpopulations stratified by sex and high versus lower fatness. For HOMA-IR, R 2 attributed to BMIz or WHtR was 19%–28% among high-fatness and 8%–13% among lower-fatness students. R 2 for lipid variables was 4%–9% among high-fatness and 2%–7% among lower-fatness students. In the lower-fatness subpopulations, the standardized coefficients for total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglycerides tended to be weaker for BMIz (0.13–0.20) than for WHtR (0.17–0.28). Among high-fatness students, BMIz and WHtR correlated with blood pressures for Hispanics and whites, but not black boys (systolic) or girls (systolic and diastolic). In 11-12 year olds, assessments by WHtR can provide cardiometabolic risk estimates similar to conventional BMIz without requiring reference to a normative growth chart. PMID:25132986

  14. Cardiometabolic Risk Assessments by Body Mass Index z-Score or Waist-to-Height Ratio in a Multiethnic Sample of Sixth-Graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry S. Kahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabolic risk. Among 5,482 sixth-grade students from 42 middle schools, we estimated explanatory variations (R2 and standardized beta coefficients of BMIz or WHtR for cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, lipids, blood pressures, and glucose. For each risk outcome variable, we prepared adjusted regression models for four subpopulations stratified by sex and high versus lower fatness. For HOMA-IR, R2 attributed to BMIz or WHtR was 19%–28% among high-fatness and 8%–13% among lower-fatness students. R2 for lipid variables was 4%–9% among high-fatness and 2%–7% among lower-fatness students. In the lower-fatness subpopulations, the standardized coefficients for total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglycerides tended to be weaker for BMIz (0.13–0.20 than for WHtR (0.17–0.28. Among high-fatness students, BMIz and WHtR correlated with blood pressures for Hispanics and whites, but not black boys (systolic or girls (systolic and diastolic. In 11-12 year olds, assessments by WHtR can provide cardiometabolic risk estimates similar to conventional BMIz without requiring reference to a normative growth chart.

  15. Age-Adjusted Percentage of Adults Aged 18 Years or Older with Diagnosed Diabetes Performing Daily Self-Monitoring of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Years or Older with Diagnosed Diabetes Performing Daily Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose, United States, 1994–2010 From ... years or older with diagnosed diabetes performing daily self-monitoring of blood glucose increased by 27.9 points, ...

  16. Adjustable Gastric Band Surgery or Medical Management in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Su-Ann; Simonson, Donald C; Wewalka, Marlene; Halperin, Florencia; Foster, Kathleen; Goebel-Fabbri, Ann; Hamdy, Osama; Clancy, Kerri; Lautz, David; Vernon, Ashley; Goldfine, Allison B

    2015-07-01

    Recommendations for surgical, compared with lifestyle and pharmacologically based, approaches for type 2 diabetes (T2D) management remain controversial. The objective was to compare laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) to an intensive medical diabetes and weight management (IMWM) program for T2D. This was designed as a prospective, randomized clinical trial. The setting was two Harvard Medical School-affiliated academic institutions. INTERVENTIONS AND PARTICIPANTS: A 12-month randomized trial comparing LAGB (n = 23) vs IMWM (n = 22) in persons aged 21-65 years with body mass index of 30-45 kg/m(2), T2D diagnosed more than 1 year earlier, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) ≥ 6.5% on antihyperglycemic medication(s). The proportion meeting the prespecified primary glycemic endpoint, defined as HbA(1c) medication. After randomization, five participants did not undergo the surgical intervention. Of the 40 initiating intervention (22 males/18 females; age, 51 ± 10 y; body mass index, 36.5 ± 3.7 kg/m(2); diabetes duration, 9 ± 5 y; HbA(1c), 8.2 ± 1.2%; 40% on insulin), the proportion meeting the primary glycemic endpoint was achieved in 33% of the LAGB patients and 23% of the IMWM patients (P = .457). HbA(1c) reduction was similar between groups at both 3 and 12 months (-1.2 ± 0.3 vs -1.0 ± 0.3%; P = .496). Weight loss was similar at 3 months but greater 12 months after LAGB (-13.5 ± 1.7 vs -8.5 ± 1.6 kg; P = .027). Systolic blood pressure reduction was greater after IMWM than LAGB, whereas changes in diastolic blood pressure, lipids, fitness, and cardiovascular risk scores were similar between groups. Patient-reported health status, assessed using the Short Form-36, Impact of Weight on Quality of Life, and Problem Areas in Diabetes, all improved similarly between groups. LAGB and a multidisciplinary IMWM program have similar 1-year benefits on diabetes control, cardiometabolic risk, and patient satisfaction, which should be considered in the context of

  17. The impact of training problem-solving skills on self-esteem and behavioral adjustment in teenage girls who have irresponsible parents or no parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahgholy Ghahfarokhi, F; Moradi, N; Alborzkouh, P; Radmehr, S; Zainali, M

    2015-01-01

    Proper psychological interventions are of great importance because they help enhancing psychological and public health in adolescents with irresponsible parents or no parents. The current research aimed to examine the impact of training problem-solving experiment on self-esteem and behavioral adjustment in teenage girls with irresponsible parents or no parents. Methodology: The approach of the present research was a semi-test via a post-test-pre-test model and a check team. Hence, in Tehran, 40 girls with irresponsible parents or no parents were chosen by using the Convenience modeling, and they were classified into 2 teams: control and experiment. Both groups were pre-tested by using a demography questionnaire, Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, and a behavioral adjustment questionnaire. Afterwards, both groups were post-tested, and the obtained data were examined by using inferential and descriptive methods through SPSS 21. Findings: Findings indicated that the training problem-solving skills significantly increased the self-esteem and the behavioral adjustment in teenage girls with irresponsible parents or no parents (P < 0/ 001). Conclusion: The conclusion of this research was that training problem-solving methods greatly helps endangered people such as teenage girls with irresponsible parents or no parents, because these methods are highly efficient especially when they are performed in groups, as they are cheap and accepted by different people.

  18. 48 CFR 252.216-7000 - Economic price adjustment-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products. 252.216-7000 Section 252.216-7000 Federal... adjustment—basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products. As prescribed in 216.203-4-70(a... Mill Products (JUL 1997) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Established price means a price which...

  19. Asymmetric adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A method of adjusting a signal processing parameter for a first hearing aid and a second hearing aid forming parts of a binaural hearing aid system to be worn by a user is provided. The binaural hearing aid system comprises a user specific model representing a desired asymmetry between a first ear

  20. ADJUSTABLE CHIP HOLDER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips...

  1. Optimal sulfur amino acid to lysine ratio for post weaning piglets reared under clean or unclean sanitary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselyn Kahindi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two 14-day experiments, each with 90 (Duroc × [Yorkshire × Landrace]; 7.3 ± 0.6 kg piglets, were conducted to determine the optimum sulfur amino acid (SAA to lysine (Lys ratio (SAA:Lys for piglets when reared under clean or unclean sanitary conditions using performance and non-performance response criteria. Piglets were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments. The basal diet contained 1.18% standardized ileal digestible (SID Lys, and the SAA:Lys was 52%. In diets 2 to 5, the basal diet was supplemented with 4 graded levels of dl-Met to make SAA:Lys of 56%, 60%, 64% and 68%. In Exp. 1, piglets were housed in disinfected clean room. In Exp. 2, piglets were housed in a room previously occupied by other pigs and was not disinfected. On the last day, blood was collected to measure plasma urea nitrogen (PUN and one pig per pen was euthanized to collect jejunal tissue to measure villus height (VH, crypt depth (CD, and VH:CD. In Exp. 1, increasing SAA:Lys linearly and quadratically increased VH and VH:CD (P < 0.05. In Exp. 2, increasing SAA:Lys linearly increased (P < 0.05 VH and VH:CD and linearly and quadratically decreased PUN (P < 0.05. Estimated PUN and VH-based optimum SAA:Lys requirements for clean and unclean sanitary condition were 60%, 63% and 66%, respectively.

  2. FX knockout CHO hosts can express desired ratios of fucosylated or afucosylated antibodies with high titers and comparable product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Salina; Haley, Benjamin; Marshall, Brett; Heidersbach, Amy; Yim, Mandy; Brozynski, Martina; Tang, Danming; Lam, Cynthia; Petryniak, Bronislawa; Shaw, David; Shim, Jeongsup; Miller, Aaron; Lowe, John B; Snedecor, Brad; Misaghi, Shahram

    2017-03-01

    During antibody dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) the target cells are killed by monocytes and natural killer cells. ADCC is enhanced when the antibody heavy chain's core N-linked glycan lacks the fucose molecule(s). Several strategies have been utilized to generate fully afucosylated antibodies. A commonly used and efficient approach has been knocking out the FUT8 gene of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host cells, which results in expression of antibody molecules with fully afucosylated glycans. However, a major drawback of the FUT8-KO host is the requirement for undertaking two separate cell line development (CLD) efforts in order to obtain both primarily fucosylated and fully afucosylated antibody species for comparative studies in vitro and in vivo. Even more challenging is obtaining primarily fucosylated and FUT8-KO clones with similar enough product quality attributes to ensure that any observed ADCC advantage(s) can be strictly attributed to afucosylation. Here, we report generation and use of a FX knockout (FXKO) CHO host cell line that is capable of expressing antibody molecules with either primarily fucosylated or fully afucosylated glycan profiles with otherwise similar product quality attributes, depending on addition of fucose to the cell culture media. Hence, the FXKO host not only obviates the requirement for undertaking two separate CLD efforts, but it also averts the need for screening many colonies to identify clones with comparable product qualities. Finally, FXKO clones can express antibodies with the desired ratio of primarily fucosylated to afucosylated glycans when fucose is titrated into the production media, to allow achieving intended levels of FcγRIII-binding and ADCC for an antibody. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 632-644. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A Methodology to Assess the Benefit of Operational or Tactic Adjustments to Reduce Marine Corps Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    force threat level , and the ship-to-firing distance. Cloud cover did not change artillery effectiveness or fuel consumption , so it was not a factor...probability of neutralization • fuel consumption rates of assets • red force threat level structure • asset to target priorities • weapon to target...while consuming the same amount of fuel as the CH-53E, while also advertised to have higher cruise speed at this fuel burn rate. (Sikorsky 2015).Given

  4. Parent-Child Communication and Adjustment Among Children With Advanced and Non-Advanced Cancer in the First Year Following Diagnosis or Relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Madelaine C; Lehmann, Vicky; Shultz, Emily L; Winning, Adrien M; Rausch, Joseph R; Barrera, Maru; Gilmer, Mary Jo; Murphy, Lexa K; Vannatta, Kathryn A; Compas, Bruce E; Gerhardt, Cynthia A

    2017-09-01

    To examine parent-child communication (i.e., openness, problems) and child adjustment among youth with advanced or non-advanced cancer and comparison children. Families (n = 125) were recruited after a child's diagnosis/relapse and stratified by advanced (n = 55) or non-advanced (n = 70) disease. Comparison children (n = 60) were recruited from local schools. Children (ages 10-17) reported on communication (Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale) with both parents, while mothers reported on child adjustment (Child Behavior Checklist) at enrollment (T1) and one year (T2). Openness/problems in communication did not differ across groups at T1, but problems with fathers were higher among children with non-advanced cancer versus comparisons at T2. Openness declined for all fathers, while changes in problems varied by group for both parents. T1 communication predicted later adjustment only for children with advanced cancer. Communication plays an important role, particularly for children with advanced cancer. Additional research with families affected by life-limiting conditions is needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  6. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  7. Shaft adjuster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  8. Evolution of a Development Model for Fruit Industry against Background of an Aging Population: Intensive or Extensive Adjustment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yuan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As an important starting point for optimizing the structure of agricultural products and implementing green production methods, the direction of orchard management development is directly related to the success of “supply side” reform in the fruit industry in China. However, in the context of the progressive aging of the rural labor force, is the old labor force still capable of the high labor intensity and fine cultivation management needed, such as for pruning, or to maintain or improve the application efficiency of fertilizers? In this paper, based on the micro-production data of peach farmers in Jiangsu Province, we explore the influence of aging on the management of fruit trees and further introduce fruit tree management into the production function to analyze the effects of different orchard management methods on fertilizer efficiency. The results show that with the increase of labor force age, although the total labor investment of aged farmer households has somewhat increased, significant differences exist in the distribution of labor investment between the different production processes due to the different labor demands from the various production processes. In technical stages that demand good physical capabilities, such as pruning and flower/fruit thinning, elderly farmers have significantly reduced labor investment than younger ones, and this relative shortfall further reduces the marginal output of their chemical and organic fertilizers. Foreseeably, the aging of the rural labor force will have a negative impact on the efficiency of chemical and other fertilizers, cost-cutting, and profit-making in the fruit and nut industries, which have the same management methods for pruning and flower (fruit thinning. Therefore, this paper offers relevant policy recommendations for the optimization of production tools, expansion of operation scale, and development of socialized services for the fruit industry, etc.

  9. No Evidence for a Relationship Between Hair Testosterone Concentrations and 2D:4D Ratio or Risk Taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ronay

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a recently developed alternative assay procedure to measure hormone levels from hair samples, we examined the relationships between testosterone, cortisol, 2D:4D ratio, overconfidence and risk taking. A total of 162 (53 male participants provided a 3 cm sample of hair, a scanned image of their right and left hands from which we determined 2D:4D ratios, and completed measures of overconfidence and behavioral risk taking. While our sample size for males was less than ideal, our results revealed no evidence for a relationship between hair testosterone concentrations, 2D:4D ratios and risk taking. No relationships with overconfidence emerged. Partially consistent with the Dual Hormone Hypothesis, we did find evidence for the interacting effect of testosterone and cortisol on risk taking but only in men. Hair testosterone concentrations were positively related to risk taking when levels of hair cortisol concentrations were low, in men. Our results lend support to the suggestion that endogenous testosterone and 2D:4D ratio are unrelated and might then exert diverging activating vs. organizing effects on behavior. Comparing our results to those reported in the existing literature we speculate that behavioral correlates of testosterone such as direct effects on risk taking may be more sensitive to state-based fluctuations than baseline levels of testosterone.

  10. A Cross-sectional Study to Determine Whether Adjustment to an Ostomy Can Predict Health-related and/or Overall Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrebø, Kirsten Lerum; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Andersen, John Roger

    2016-10-01

    Ostomy-specific adjustment may or may not predict health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and/or overall quality of life (QoL). A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients recruited from the customer registers of 8 surgical suppliers and pharmacies across Norway between November 2010 and March 2011 to determine which of the 34 items of the Ostomy Adjustment Scale (OAS) are the strongest predictors for HRQoL and overall QoL and to determine the HRQoL and overall QoL of individuals with an ostomy compared to a control group representing the general population. Persons who were >18 years old; had a permanent colostomy, ileostomy, or urostomy for >3 months; and could read and write Norwegian were invited to participate. The participants received information about the study in a letter from the researcher and returned their demographic information (addressing gender, age, marital status, education, diagnosis, time since surgery, and ostomy type) and study questionnaires using prepaid envelopes. The 158 participants (mean age 64 years [range 29-91], 89 [56%] men and 69 [44%] women) completed and returned by mail a sociodemographic questionnaire, the 34-item OAS (questions scored on a scale of 1 to 6, totally disagree to totally agree, score range 34 to 204), the Short Form-36 (SF-36, including 2 main components [physical and mental issues] divided into 8 subscales, scored from 0 to 100), and the 16-item Quality of Life Scale (QOLS) instrument (each response scored 1 to 7, from very dissatisfied to very satisfied; total score ranging from 16 to 112). Statistical analysis, including ordinary least square regression analyses, assessed whether the OAS independently predicted the sum scores of the SF-36 (physical component summary [PCS] and mental component summary [MCS]) and the QOLS score after adjusting for age, gender, marital status, education, diagnosis, time since surgery, and ostomy type. The OAS significantly predicted the SF-36 (PCS and MCS) and QOLS scores

  11. The anchor-based minimal important change, based on receiver operating characteristic analysis or predictive modeling, may need to be adjusted for the proportion of improved patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terluin, Berend; Eekhout, Iris; Terwee, Caroline B

    2017-03-01

    Patients have their individual minimal important changes (iMICs) as their personal benchmarks to determine whether a perceived health-related quality of life (HRQOL) change constitutes a (minimally) important change for them. We denote the mean iMIC in a group of patients as the "genuine MIC" (gMIC). The aims of this paper are (1) to examine the relationship between the gMIC and the anchor-based minimal important change (MIC), determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis or by predictive modeling; (2) to examine the impact of the proportion of improved patients on these MICs; and (3) to explore the possibility to adjust the MIC for the influence of the proportion of improved patients. Multiple simulations of patient samples involved in anchor-based MIC studies with different characteristics of HRQOL (change) scores and distributions of iMICs. In addition, a real data set is analyzed for illustration. The receiver operating characteristic-based and predictive modeling MICs equal the gMIC when the proportion of improved patients equals 0.5. The MIC is estimated higher than the gMIC when the proportion improved is greater than 0.5, and the MIC is estimated lower than the gMIC when the proportion improved is less than 0.5. Using an equation including the predictive modeling MIC, the log-odds of improvement, the standard deviation of the HRQOL change score, and the correlation between the HRQOL change score and the anchor results in an adjusted MIC reflecting the gMIC irrespective of the proportion of improved patients. Adjusting the predictive modeling MIC for the proportion of improved patients assures that the adjusted MIC reflects the gMIC. We assumed normal distributions and global perceived change scores that were independent on the follow-up score. Additionally, floor and ceiling effects were not taken into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Co-production of acetone and ethanol with molar ratio control enables production of improved gasoline or jet fuel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Zachary C; Bormann, Sebastian; Sreekumar, Sanil; Grippo, Adam; Toste, F Dean; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S

    2016-10-01

    The fermentation of simple sugars to ethanol has been the most successful biofuel process to displace fossil fuel consumption worldwide thus far. However, the physical properties of ethanol and automotive components limit its application in most cases to 10-15 vol% blends with conventional gasoline. Fermentative co-production of ethanol and acetone coupled with a catalytic alkylation reaction could enable the production of gasoline blendstocks enriched in higher-chain oxygenates. Here we demonstrate a synthetic pathway for the production of acetone through the mevalonate precursor hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA. Expression of this pathway in various strains of Escherichia coli resulted in the co-production of acetone and ethanol. Metabolic engineering and control of the environmental conditions for microbial growth resulted in controllable acetone and ethanol production with ethanol:acetone molar ratios ranging from 0.7:1 to 10.0:1. Specifically, use of gluconic acid as a substrate increased production of acetone and balanced the redox state of the system, predictively reducing the molar ethanol:acetone ratio. Increases in ethanol production and the molar ethanol:acetone ratio were achieved by co-expression of the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE) from E. coli MG1655 and by co-expression of pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhB) from Z. mobilis. Controlling the fermentation aeration rate and pH in a bioreactor raised the acetone titer to 5.1 g L(-1) , similar to that obtained with wild-type Clostridium acetobutylicum. Optimizing the metabolic pathway, the selection of host strain, and the physiological conditions employed for host growth together improved acetone titers over 35-fold (0.14-5.1 g/L). Finally, chemical catalysis was used to upgrade the co-produced ethanol and acetone at both low and high molar ratios to higher-chain oxygenates for gasoline and jet fuel applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2079-2087. © 2016 Wiley

  13. Unified Generic Geometric-Decompositions for Consensus or Flocking Systems of Cooperative Agents and Fast Recalculations of Decomposed Subsystems Under Topology-Adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei

    2016-06-01

    This paper considers a unified geometric projection approach for: 1) decomposing a general system of cooperative agents coupled via Laplacian matrices or stochastic matrices and 2) deriving a centroid-subsystem and many shape-subsystems, where each shape-subsystem has the distinct properties (e.g., preservation of formation and stability of the original system, sufficiently simple structures and explicit formation evolution of agents, and decoupling from the centroid-subsystem) which will facilitate subsequent analyses. Particularly, this paper provides an additional merit of the approach: considering adjustments of coupling topologies of agents which frequently occur in system design (e.g., to add or remove an edge, to move an edge to a new place, and to change the weight of an edge), the corresponding new shape-subsystems can be derived by a few simple computations merely from the old shape-subsystems and without referring to the original system, which will provide further convenience for analysis and flexibility of choice. Finally, such fast recalculations of new subsystems under topology adjustments are provided with examples.

  14. Investigation of a new model accounting for rotors of finite tip-speed ratio in yaw or tilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branlard, E; Gaunaa, M; Machefaux, E

    2014-01-01

    The main results from a recently developed vortex model are implemented into a Blade Element Momentum(BEM) code. This implementation accounts for the effect of finite tip-speed ratio, an effect which was not considered in standard BEM yaw-models. The model and its implementation are presented. Data from the MEXICO experiment are used as a basis for validation. Three tools using the same 2D airfoil coefficient data are compared: a BEM code, an Actuator-Line and a vortex code. The vortex code is further used to validate the results from the newly implemented BEM yaw-model. Significant improvements are obtained for the prediction of loads and induced velocities. Further relaxation of the main assumptions of the model are briefly presented and discussed

  15. "It Doesn't All Just Stop at 18": Psychological Adjustment and Support Needs of Adults Born With Cleft Lip and/or Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Nicola Marie; Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Rumsey, Nichola

    2015-09-01

    Cleft in the lip and/or the palate (CL/P) is considered to be a lifelong condition, yet relatively little is known about the long-term outcomes for patients. Existing literature is largely outdated and conflicted, with an almost exclusive focus on medical aspects and deficits. To explore the psychological adjustment and possible support needs of a large number of adults born with CL/P from their own perspective. Fifty-two individual telephone interviews eliciting qualitative data. Qualitative analysis identified five themes. Participants reported a range of challenges in relation to discharge from the service, additional surgery as an adult, social and romantic relationships, higher education, vocational achievement, and access to psychological support. The findings imply that most adults with a cleft adjust well to these challenges and report many positive outcomes. For a minority of patients, issues attributed to the cleft may continue to cause distress in adulthood. Adults with CL/P may require psychological support, information about the heritability of cleft, signposting and referrals from nonspecialists, support regarding further treatment, and opportunities to take part in research and activities. New issues arising in adulthood, such as entering the workplace, forming long-term relationships, and starting a family, may warrant both further investigation and additional support. Further work is needed to identify the factors that contribute to psychological distress and resilience, as well as the timing of particular points of risk and opportunity for personal growth.

  16. Light energy transmission and Vickers hardness ratio of bulk-fill resin based composites at different thicknesses cured by a dual-wave or a single-wave light curing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Ario; Naaman, Reem Khalil; Aldossary, Mohammed Saeed

    2017-04-01

    To quantify light energy transmission through two bulk-fill resin-based composites and to measure the top to bottom surface Vickers hardness ratio (VHratio) of samples of various incremental thicknesses, using either a single-wave or dual-wave light curing unit (LCU). Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TECBF) and SonicFill (SF) were studied. Using MARC-RC, the irradiance delivered to the top surface of the samples 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm thick (n= 5 for each thickness) was adjusted to 800 mW/cm2 for 20 seconds (16 J/cm2) using either a single-wave, Bluephase or a dual-wave, Bluephase G2 LCUs. Light energy transmission through to the bottom surface of the specimens was measured at real time using MARC-RC. The Vickers hardness (VH) was determined using Vickers micro hardness tester and the VHratio was calculated. Data were analyzed using a general linear model in Minitab 16; α= 0.05. TECBF was more translucent than SF (Pwave Bluephase G2). SF showed significantly higher VH ratio than TECBF at all different thickness levels (P 0.05). TECBF showed significantly greater VH ratio when cured with the single-wave Bluephase than when using the dual-wave Bluephase G2 (Penergy through to the bottom surface and the VHratio are material dependent. Although TECBF is more translucent than SF, it showed lower VHratio compared to SF when cured with dual-wave Bluephase G2.

  17. Safety and Outcomes of Transradial Access in Patients with International Normalized Ratio 1.5 or above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titano, Joseph J; Biederman, Derek M; Zech, John; Korff, Ricki; Ranade, Mona; Patel, Rahul; Kim, Edward; Nowakowski, Francis; Lookstein, Robert; Fischman, Aaron M

    2018-03-01

    To examine the safety and outcomes for patients undergoing transradial noncoronary interventions with international normalized ratio (INR) ≥1.5. A retrospective review of 2,271 transradial access (TRA) cases performed from July 2012 to July 2016 was conducted. Criteria for inclusion were moderate bleeding risk cases with preprocedure INR ≥1.5. Within the study period, there were 176 moderate bleeding risk procedures (transarterial chemoembolization: 70/176 [39.8%]; Barbeau B: 121/176 [68.8%]; 5-F sheath: 157/176 [89.2%]) performed on 122 patients (age 61.6 ± 12.1 years, 68.9% male, body mass index 28.0 kg/m 2 ) with INR ≥1.5. Technical success was achieved in 98.9% of cases. Grade 1/2 hematomas developed in 10 cases (5.7%). Age ≥65 years (P = .042) and female sex (P = .046) were predictive of access site bleeding complications. Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion was administered in 11.4% of cases (n = 20). Baseline INR and creatinine were significantly different between transfused and nontransfused cases (P values .006 and .028, respectively). Minor access site bleeding occurred in 3/20 cases (15%) receiving prior FFP transfusion and 7/156 nontransfused cases (4.5%), with no significant difference between these 2 groups (P = .072). TRA in patients with elevated INR appears to be safe in our experience. Age ≥65 years and female sex were associated with increased incidence of access site bleeding. Although INR correction was not standardized in this cohort, preprocedure FFP transfusion did not decrease bleeding complications. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Adjustable Pitot Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Robbins, W. Eugene; Horsley, Lewis A.

    1991-01-01

    Probe readily positionable in core of uniform flow in hypersonic wind tunnel. Formed of pair of mating cylindrical housings: transducer housing and pitot-tube housing. Pitot tube supported by adjustable wedge fairing attached to top of pitot-tube housing with semicircular foot. Probe adjusted both radially and circumferentially. In addition, pressure-sensing transducer cooled internally by water or other cooling fluid passing through annulus of cooling system.

  19. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  20. Predictive value of glucose-insulin ratio in PCOS and profile of women who will benefit from metformin therapy: obese, lean, hyper or normoinsulinemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onalan, Gogsen; Goktolga, Umit; Ceyhan, Temel; Bagis, Tayfun; Onalan, Reside; Pabuçcu, Recai

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate sub-groups of PCOS patients who will benefit from metformin therapy and to find out any predictors of ovulation in PCOS sub-groups. In the current prospective-randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, PCOS patients (n = 116) were divided into six main groups according to glucose to insulin ratio (G-I ratio mg/10(-4) U) and body mass index (BMI kg/m2) as: Group 1: normoinsulinemic (G-I ratio > or = 4.5 mg/10(-4) U), lean (BMI or = 30) (n = 18); Group 4: hyperinsulinemic (G-I ratio lean (n = 28); Group 5: hyperinsulinemic, overweight (n = 17); Group 6: hyperinsulinemic, obese (n = 20). Patients in each group were randomized onto placebo or metformin treatments (850 mg two to three times per day according to BMI). The rate of ovulation, biochemical profile, hormonal profile and clinical symptoms of hyperandrogenism were evaluated before and after 6 months of metformin and placebo treatments. We observed a significant decrease in WHR following metformin therapy in the normoinsulinemic overweight sub-group (P lean women (P lean hyperinsulinemic and normoinsulinemic groups (P lean hyperinsulinemic women (P PCOS patients.

  1. Analyzing the Effects of Psychotherapy on Weight Loss after Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass or Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallé, F; Cirella, A; Salzano, A M; Onofrio, V Di; Belfiore, P; Liguori, G

    2017-12-01

    Personality disorders are frequently associated with eating disorders in obese patients and may negatively affect weight loss and maintenance after bariatric surgery. This non-randomized study aimed to assess the effects of different psychotherapeutic interventions on weight loss in a sample of patients with borderline personality disorder who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. A total of 153 bariatric patients meeting borderline personality disorder criteria were chosen voluntarily and consecutively to undergo an interpersonal individual treatment (n = 50), a dialectical behavioral group treatment (n = 50), or treatment as usual (n = 53) for a year after surgery. Their body mass index was measured before and at the end of each treatment. A total of 12 patients (7.8%) dropped out of the study. Significantly higher body mass index reductions were registered in both experimental groups (-14.2 and -9.4 kg/m 2 , respectively) compared with the treatment as usual group (-2.1 kg/m 2 ; p borderline personality disorder. A randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  2. Gender differences in masturbation and the relation of masturbation experience in preadolescence and/or early adolescence to sexual behavior and sexual adjustment in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitenberg, H; Detzer, M J; Srebnik, D

    1993-04-01

    A comparison of male and female masturbation practices was undertaken in a sample of university students to determine if the long-standing finding that young adult men in this country masturbate more than young adult women was still evident in the 1980s. Despite the efforts in the past quarter century to encourage women in our society to take greater responsibility for their own bodies and their own sexuality and to engage in more sexual self-exploration and self-stimulation, results show that women continue to masturbate much less than men. Twice as many men as women had ever masturbated and the men who masturbated did so three times more frequently during early adolescence and young adulthood than the women who masturbated during these same age periods. A second purpose of this study was to determine whether having masturbation experience during preadolescence and/or early adolescence was related to intercourse experience, sexual satisfaction, sexual arousal, or sexual difficulties in relationships during young adulthood. No such linkage was observed, suggesting that early masturbation experience is neither beneficial nor harmful to sexual adjustment in young adulthood.

  3. Maximization of burning and/or transmutation (B/T) capacity in coupled spectrum reactor (CSR) by fuel and core adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, F.; Kitamoto, Asashi.

    1996-01-01

    A conceptual design of burning and/or transmutation (B/T) reactor, based on a modified conventional 1150 MWe-PWR system, consisted of two core regions for thermal and fast neutrons, respectively, was proposed herein for the treatments of minor actinides (MA). In the outer region 237 Np, 241 Am, and 243 Am burned by thermal neutrons, while in the inner region 244 Cm was burned mainly by fast neutrons. The geometry of B/T fuel in the outer region was left the same with that of PWR, while in the inner region the B/T fuel was arranged in a tight-lattice geometry that allowed a higher fuel to coolant volume ratio. The maximization of B/T capacity in CSR were done by, first, increasing the radius of the inner region. Second, reducing the coolant to fuel volume ratio, and third, choosing a suitable B/T fuel type. The result of the calculations showed that the equilibrium of main isotopes in CSR can be achieved after about 5 recycle stages. This study also showed that the CSR can burn and transmute up to 808 kg of MA in a single reactor core effectively and safely. (author)

  4. Maternal fructose and/or salt intake and reproductive outcome in the rat: effects on growth, fertility, sex ratio, and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Clint; Long, Sophie; Green, Charlotte; Gardiner, Sheila M; Craigon, Jim; Gardner, David S

    2013-09-01

    Maternal diet can significantly skew the secondary sex ratio away from the expected value of 0.5 (proportion males), but the details of how diet may do this are unclear. Here, we altered dietary levels of salt (4% salt in the feed) and/or fructose (10% in the drinking water) of pregnant rats to model potential effects that consumption of a "Western diet" might have on maternofetal growth, development, and sex ratio. We demonstrate that excess fructose consumption before and during pregnancy lead to a marked skew in the secondary sex ratio (proportion of males, 0.60; P < 0.006). The effect was not mediated by selective developmental arrest of female embryos or influenced by fetal position in the uterine horn or sex-specific effects on sperm motility, suggesting a direct effect of glycolyzable monosaccharide on the maternal ovary and/or ovulated oocyte. Furthermore, combined excess maternal consumption of salt and fructose-sweetened beverage significantly reduced fertility, reflected as a 50% reduction in preimplantation and term litter size. In addition, we also noted birth order effects in the rat, with sequential implantation sites tending to be occupied by the same sex.

  5. Pb concentrations and isotope ratios of soil O and C horizons in Nord-Trøndelag, central Norway: Anthropogenic or natural sources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, C.; Fabian, K.; Flem, B.; Schilling, J.; Roberts, D.; Englmaier, P.

    2016-01-01

    Soil O and C horizon samples (N = 752) were collected at a sample density of 1 site/36 km"2 in Nord-Trøndelag and parts of Sør-Trøndelag (c. 25,000 km"2), and analysed for Pb and three of the four naturally occurring Pb isotopes ("2"0"6Pb, "2"0"7Pb and "2"0"8Pb) in a HNO_3/HCl extraction. Soil O and C horizons are decoupled in terms of both Pb concentrations and Pb isotope ratios. In the soil C horizon the Grong-Olden Culmination, a continuous exposure of the Precambrian crystalline basement across the general grain of the Caledonian orogen, is marked by a distinct "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb isotope ratio anomaly. No clear regional or even local patterns are detected when mapping the Pb isotope ratios in the soil O horizon samples. Variation in the isotope ratios declines significantly from the soil C to the O horizon. On average, Pb concentrations in the O horizon are four times higher and the "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb isotope ratio is shifted towards a median of 1.15 in comparison to 1.27 in the C horizon. It is demonstrated that natural processes like weathering in combination with plant uptake need to be taken into account in order to distinguish anthropogenic input from natural influences on Pb concentration and the "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb isotope ratio in the soil O horizon. - Highlights: • Lead concentrations are on average higher by a factor of 4 in the soil O than in the C horizon. • The "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb isotope ratio is considerably lower in the soil O than in the C horizon. • The observed shifts are in conflict with exclusive anthropogenic input of Pb. • The hypothesis of natural Pb-isotope invariance can not be hold.

  6. Medial rectus Faden operations with or without recession for partially accommodative esotropia associated with a high accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Serpil; Gokyigit, Birsen; Sayin, Nihat; Demirok, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the results of Faden operations on the medial rectus (MR) muscles with or without recession for the treatment of partially accommodative esotropia associated with a high accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC : A) ratio and to determine whether there was a decrease in the effects of posterior fixation over time. In this retrospective study, 108 of 473 patients who underwent surgery for partially accommodative esotropia with a high AC : A ratio received Faden operations on both MR muscles, and 365 received symmetric MR muscle recessions combined with a Faden operation. For the Faden operation, a satisfactory outcome of 76.9% at 1 month postoperation, decreased to 71.3% by the final follow-up visit (mean 4.8 years). A moderate positive correlation was observed between the increase in the postoperative near deviation and postoperative time. For the Faden operations combined with MR recession, a satisfactory outcome of 78.9% at 1 month post-operation, decreased to 78.4% by the final follow-up visit. A Faden operation of the MR muscles with or without recession is an effective surgical option for treating partially accommodative esotropia associated with a high AC : A ratio. For Faden operations of the MR muscles without recession, the effects of the posterior fixation decline over time.

  7. Pretreatment Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio as a Predictor in Bladder Cancer and Metastatic or Unresectable Urothelial Carcinoma Patients: a Pooled Analysis of Comparative Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuiqing; Zhao, Xiaokun; Wang, Yinhuai; Zhong, Zhaohui; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Jian; Ai, Kai; Xu, Ran

    2018-01-01

    Emerging studies have shown that the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a potential predictor in various tumors. Our study was conducted to assess the prognostic value of the pretreatment NLR in bladder cancer and metastatic or unresectable urothelial carcinoma (mUC or uUC) patients up to July 2017. The correlation between the pretreatment NLR and pathological characteristics was also evaluated in bladder cancer patients. The hazard ratio (HR) and odds ratio (OR) with the 95% confidence interval (CI) were extracted or calculated from the included studies for further pooled analysis. A total of 21 studies were included in a pooled analysis. The pooled results indicated that a high pretreatment NLR was associated with reduced overall survival (OS) (HR=1.27, 95% CI=1.12-1.43), relapse-free survival (RFS) (HR=1.41, 95% CI=1.23-1.60), progression-free survival (PFS) (HR=1.75, 95% CI=1.36-2.15), disease-specific survival (DSS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (HR=1.27, 95% CI=1.19-1.35) in the bladder cancer patients. Additionally, an elevated pretreatment NLR suggested a worse OS rate in the mUC or uUC patients (HR=1.63, 95% CI=1.34-1.91). The pooled ORs and 95% CIs showed that a high pretreatment NLR could be a risk indicator for certain pathological features, such as lymphovascular invasion, a positive margin status and advanced tumor stage. our results showed that a high pretreatment NLR predicted poor prognosis in bladder cancer, mUC and uUC patients. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. A Best Evidence Synthesis of Literacy Instruction on the Social Adjustment of Students with or At-Risk for Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J. Ron; Lane, Kathleen L.; Benner, Gregory J.; Kim, Ockjean

    2011-01-01

    The findings of a best-evidence synthesis of the collateral effect of literacy instruction on the social adjustment of students are reported. The goal of the synthesis was to extend the work of Wanzek, Vaughn, Kim, and Cavanaugh (2006) by (a) reviewing treatment-outcomes conducted using group design methodology; (b) focusing on a more defined set…

  9. The mechanisms associated with the development of hypertension after exposure to lead, mercury species or their mixtures differs with the metal and the mixture ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemann, Tanja M; Siciliano, Steven D; Weber, Lynn P

    2016-01-02

    Hypertension is considered to be the most important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Beside life-style risk factors, exposure to lead and mercury species are increasingly discussed as potential risk factors. Although there are a few previous studies, the underlying mechanism by which exposure to lead and mercury disturb blood pressure regulation is not currently understood. Potential mechanisms are oxidative stress production, kidney damage and activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), all of which can interact to cause dysregulation of blood pressure. Male rats (Wistar) were exposed to lead, inorganic mercury, methylmercury or two mixtures of all three metals for four weeks through the drinking water. The two mixture ratios were based on ratios of known reference values or environmental exposure from the literature. To investigate the potential mechanism of actions, blood pressure was measured after four weeks and compared to plasma nitrotyrosine or reduced/oxidized glutathione levels in liver as markers for oxidative stress. Plasma renin and angiotensin II levels were used as markers for RAS activation. Finally, kidney function and injury were assessed via urinary and plasma creatinine levels, creatinine clearance and urinary kidney-injury molecule (KIM-1). While exposure to lead by itself increased oxidative stress and kidney damage along with blood pressure, inorganic mercury did not affect blood pressure or any end-point examined. Conversely, methylmercury instead increased RAS activation along with blood pressure. Surprisingly, when administered as mixtures, lead no longer increased oxidative stress or altered kidney function. Moreover, the mixture based on an environmental ratio no longer had an effect on blood pressure, while the reference value ratio still retained an increase in blood pressure. Based on our results, the prominent mechanism of action associated with the development of hypertension seems to be oxidative

  10. On Adjusting the H-P Filter for the Frequency of Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.; Ravn, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper studies how the HP-Filter should be adjusted, when changing the frequency of observations. The usual choices in the literature are to adjust the smoothing parameter by multiplying it with either the square of the observation frequency ratios or simply with the observation frequency. In

  11. Numerical Simulation of Flow and Heat Transfer in Structured Packed Beds with Smooth or Dimpled Spheres at Low Channel to Particle Diameter Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyang Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Packed beds are widely used in catalytic reactors or nuclear reactors. Reducing the pressure drop and improving the heat transfer performance of a packed bed is a common research aim. The dimpled structure has a complex influence on the flow and heat transfer characteristics. In the present study, the flow and heat transfer characteristics in structured packed beds with smooth or dimpled spheres are numerically investigated, where two different low channel to particle diameter ratios (N = 1.00 and N = 1.15 are considered. The pressure drop and the Nusselt number are obtained. The results show that, for N = 1.00, compared with the structured packed bed with smooth spheres, the structured packed bed with dimpled spheres has a lower pressure drop and little higher Nusselt number at 1500 < ReH < 14,000, exhibiting an improved overall heat transfer performance. However, for N = 1.15, the structured packed bed with dimpled spheres shows a much higher pressure drop, which dominantly affects the overall heat transfer performance, causing it to be weaker. Comparing the different channel to particle diameter ratios, we find that different configurations can result in: (i completely different drag reduction effect; and (ii relatively less influence on heat transfer enhancement.

  12. Sterilization of melon flies: mating competitiveness after treatment with tepa or gamma irradiation and ratios of treated to untreated flies producing population suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.; Keiser, I.; Harris, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    Male melon flies, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett, treated with a single dose of the chemosterilant tepa (tris(l-aziridinyl) phosphine oxide), or with gamma irradiation, either single or fractionated doses, did not differ significantly in sexual competitiveness as determined by percentage hatch of eggs. Mating competitiveness of males treated by either method ranged from 53 to 66 percent of that of untreated males. In another study, melon flies (males and females) sterilized with 0.0125 percent tepa, the threshold dose for both sexes, completely suppressed a population when the ratio was 16:16:1:1 (sterile males-sterile females-untreated males-untreated females) as determined by no egg hatch

  13. VVER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (author)

  14. WWER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (Authors)

  15. Is Waist-to-Height Ratio a Better Obesity Risk-Factor Indicator for Puerto Rican Children than is BMI or Waist Circumference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Soto, Winna T; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Linnette

    2016-03-01

    Puerto Rican children could have a higher prevalence of obesity, compared to US children or even to US Hispanic children. Obese youths are more likely to have risk factors for cardiovascular conditions, such as hypertension. Although BMI provides a simple, convenient measurement of obesity, it does not measure body fat distribution, associated with mortality and morbidity. Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) have been suggested to estimate obesity health risks. This study aimed to explore the association of a single blood pressure reading with 3 different obesity indicators (WC, BMI, and WHtR). A representative sample of students (first to sixth grade) from public and private schools in Puerto Rico was selected. The sample size consisted of 249 students, representing a 63% response rate. According to the sex-specific BMIs, approximately 38.1% of the children were obese or overweight. The prevalence of obesity was slightly higher when determined using WHtR but lower when using WC as the overweight indicator. The prevalence of high blood pressure among students was 12.5%; an additional 11.3% of the students were classified as possible prehypertensive. Regardless of the weight indicator used, overweight children were shown to have a higher risk of pre-hypertension/hypertension (as defined by a single BP measure) than were non-overweight children. The odds for high blood pressure were almost 3 times higher using WHtR. Logistic regression showed a stronger relationship between WHtR and the risk of pre-hypertension/hypertension than that between the former and either BMI or WC. This study suggests the possibility of higher prevalence of high blood pressure in obese Puerto Rican children. The waist-to height ratio could be the best indicator to measure obesity and potential hypertension in Puerto Rican children.

  16. Meta-analysis of the Alpha/Beta Ratio for Prostate Cancer in the Presence of an Overall Time Factor: Bad News, Good News, or No News?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelius, Ivan R.; Bentzen, Søren M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To present a novel method for meta-analysis of the fractionation sensitivity of tumors as applied to prostate cancer in the presence of an overall time factor. Methods and Materials: A systematic search for radiation dose-fractionation trials in prostate cancer was performed using PubMed and by manual search. Published trials comparing standard fractionated external beam radiation therapy with alternative fractionation were eligible. For each trial the α/β ratio and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were extracted, and the data were synthesized with each study weighted by the inverse variance. An overall time factor was included in the analysis, and its influence on α/β was investigated. Results: Five studies involving 1965 patients were included in the meta-analysis of α/β. The synthesized α/β assuming no effect of overall treatment time was −0.07 Gy (95% CI −0.73-0.59), which was increased to 0.47 Gy (95% CI −0.55-1.50) if a single highly weighted study was excluded. In a separate analysis, 2 studies based on 10,808 patients in total allowed extraction of a synthesized estimate of a time factor of 0.31 Gy/d (95% CI 0.20-0.42). The time factor increased the α/β estimate to 0.58 Gy (95% CI −0.53-1.69)/1.93 Gy (95% CI −0.27-4.14) with/without the heavily weighted study. An analysis of the uncertainty of the α/β estimate showed a loss of information when the hypofractionated arm was underdosed compared with the normo-fractionated arm. Conclusions: The current external beam fractionation studies are consistent with a very low α/β ratio for prostate cancer, although the CIs include α/β ratios up to 4.14 Gy in the presence of a time factor. Details of the dose fractionation in the 2 trial arms have critical influence on the information that can be extracted from a study. Studies with unfortunate designs will supply little or no information about α/β regardless of the number of subjects enrolled.

  17. Meta-analysis of the alpha/beta ratio for prostate cancer in the presence of an overall time factor: bad news, good news, or no news?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelius, Ivan R; Bentzen, Søren M

    2013-01-01

    To present a novel method for meta-analysis of the fractionation sensitivity of tumors as applied to prostate cancer in the presence of an overall time factor. A systematic search for radiation dose-fractionation trials in prostate cancer was performed using PubMed and by manual search. Published trials comparing standard fractionated external beam radiation therapy with alternative fractionation were eligible. For each trial the α/β ratio and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were extracted, and the data were synthesized with each study weighted by the inverse variance. An overall time factor was included in the analysis, and its influence on α/β was investigated. Five studies involving 1965 patients were included in the meta-analysis of α/β. The synthesized α/β assuming no effect of overall treatment time was -0.07 Gy (95% CI -0.73-0.59), which was increased to 0.47 Gy (95% CI -0.55-1.50) if a single highly weighted study was excluded. In a separate analysis, 2 studies based on 10,808 patients in total allowed extraction of a synthesized estimate of a time factor of 0.31 Gy/d (95% CI 0.20-0.42). The time factor increased the α/β estimate to 0.58 Gy (95% CI -0.53-1.69)/1.93 Gy (95% CI -0.27-4.14) with/without the heavily weighted study. An analysis of the uncertainty of the α/β estimate showed a loss of information when the hypofractionated arm was underdosed compared with the normo-fractionated arm. The current external beam fractionation studies are consistent with a very low α/β ratio for prostate cancer, although the CIs include α/β ratios up to 4.14 Gy in the presence of a time factor. Details of the dose fractionation in the 2 trial arms have critical influence on the information that can be extracted from a study. Studies with unfortunate designs will supply little or no information about α/β regardless of the number of subjects enrolled. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Recent Development in the CESE Method for the Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations Using Unstructured Triangular or Tetrahedral Meshes With High Aspect Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Yen, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    In the multidimensional CESE development, triangles and tetrahedra turn out to be the most natural building blocks for 2D and 3D spatial meshes. As such the CESE method is compatible with the simplest unstructured meshes and thus can be easily applied to solve problems with complex geometries. However, because the method uses space-time staggered stencils, solution decoupling may become a real nuisance in applications involving unstructured meshes. In this paper we will describe a simple and general remedy which, according to numerical experiments, has removed any possibility of solution decoupling. Moreover, in a real-world viscous flow simulation near a solid wall, one often encounters a case where a boundary with high curvature or sharp corner is surrounded by triangular/tetrahedral meshes of extremely high aspect ratio (up to 106). For such an extreme case, the spatial projection of a space-time compounded conservation element constructed using the original CESE design may become highly concave and thus its centroid (referred to as a spatial solution point) may lie far outside of the spatial projection. It could even be embedded beyond a solid wall boundary and causes serious numerical difficulties. In this paper we will also present a new procedure for constructing conservation elements and solution elements which effectively overcomes the difficulties associated with the original design. Another difficulty issue which was addressed more recently is the wellknown fact that accuracy of gradient computations involving triangular/tetrahedral grids deteriorates rapidly as the aspect ratio of grid cells increases. The root cause of this difficulty was clearly identified and several remedies to overcome it were found through a rigorous mathematical analysis. However, because of the length of the current paper and the complexity of mathematics involved, this new work will be presented in another paper.

  19. TREE AGE AS ADJUSTMENT FACTOR TO NDVI

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Fernando Berra; Denise Cybis Fontana; Tatiana Mora Kuplich

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to increase satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) sensitivity to biophysical parameters changes with aid of a forest age-based adjustment factor. This factor is defined as a ratio between stand age and age of rotation, which value multiplied by Landsat-5/TM-derived NDVI generated the so-called adjusted index NDVI_a. Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) was also calculated. The relationship between these vegetation indices (VI) with Eucalypt...

  20. Maternal condition but not corticosterone is linked to offspring sex ratio in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J Henderson

    Full Text Available There is evidence of offspring sex ratio adjustment in a range of species, but the potential mechanisms remain largely unknown. Elevated maternal corticosterone (CORT is associated with factors that can favour brood sex ratio adjustment, such as reduced maternal condition, food availability and partner attractiveness. Therefore, the steroid hormone has been suggested to play a key role in sex ratio manipulation. However, despite correlative and causal evidence CORT is linked to sex ratio manipulation in some avian species, the timing of adjustment varies between studies. Consequently, whether CORT is consistently involved in sex-ratio adjustment, and how the hormone acts as a mechanism for this adjustment remains unclear. Here we measured maternal baseline CORT and body condition in free-living blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus over three years and related these factors to brood sex ratio and nestling quality. In addition, a non-invasive technique was employed to experimentally elevate maternal CORT during egg laying, and its effects upon sex ratio and nestling quality were measured. We found that maternal CORT was not correlated with brood sex ratio, but mothers with elevated CORT fledged lighter offspring. Also, experimental elevation of maternal CORT did not influence brood sex ratio or nestling quality. In one year, mothers in superior body condition produced male biased broods, and maternal condition was positively correlated with both nestling mass and growth rate in all years. Unlike previous studies maternal condition was not correlated with maternal CORT. This study provides evidence that maternal condition is linked to brood sex ratio manipulation in blue tits. However, maternal baseline CORT may not be the mechanistic link between the maternal condition and sex ratio adjustment. Overall, this study serves to highlight the complexity of sex ratio adjustment in birds and the difficulties associated with identifying sex biasing mechanisms.

  1. Perceived stress, external locus of control, and social support as predictors of psychological adjustment among female inmates with or without a history of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, Kia; Renk, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing number of women who are incarcerated across the United States, the current study investigated the relationships among female inmates' perceptions of their own stress, external locus of control (LOC), social support adequacy, and various aspects of psychological functioning. Generally, female inmates with a self-reported history of childhood sexual abuse did not differ from their nonabused counterparts on the variables of interest. Results suggested that female inmates' perceptions of higher stress, a higher degree of external LOC, and inadequate social support correlated with greater symptoms of depression and hopelessness as well as lower self-esteem. In regression analyses, stress and social support were significant predictors for depression and anxiety. In contrast, stress was the only significant predictor of hopelessness and self-esteem. Finally, none of the predictors examined here was significant in the prediction of traumatic stress. Overall, findings suggested the importance of stress and social support in the prediction of female inmates' adjustment, specifically their symptoms of depression and anxiety.

  2. Time-adjusted variable resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyser, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Timing mechanism was developed effecting extremely precisioned highly resistant fixed resistor. Switches shunt all or portion of resistor; effective resistance is varied over time interval by adjusting switch closure rate.

  3. Sharpening Sharpe Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Jonathan E. Ingersoll Jr.; Matthew I. Spiegel; Ivo Welch

    2002-01-01

    It is now well known that the Sharpe ratio and other related reward-to-risk measures may be manipulated with option-like strategies. In this paper we derive the general conditions for achieving the maximum expected Sharpe ratio. We derive static rules for achieving the maximum Sharpe ratio with two or more options, as well as a continuum of derivative contracts. The optimal strategy has a truncated right tail and a fat left tail. We also derive dynamic rules for increasing the Sharpe ratio. O...

  4. Is It Better to Enter a Volume CT Dose Index Value before or after Scan Range Adjustment for Radiation Dose Optimization of Pediatric Cardiothoracic CT with Tube Current Modulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the body size-adapted volume computed tomography (CT) dose index (CTDvol) in pediatric cardiothoracic CT with tube current modulation is better to be entered before or after scan range adjustment for radiation dose optimization. Materials and Methods In 83 patients, cardiothoracic CT with tube current modulation was performed with the body size-adapted CTDIvol entered after (group 1, n = 42) or before (group 2, n = 41) scan range adjustment. Patient-related, radiation dose, and image quality parameters were compared and correlated between the two groups. Results The CTDIvol after the CT scan in group 1 was significantly higher than that in group 2 (1.7 ± 0.1 mGy vs. 1.4 ± 0.3 mGy; p Hounsfield units [HU] vs. 4.5 ± 0.7 HU) and image quality (1.5 ± 0.6 vs. 1.5 ± 0.6) showed no significant differences between the two (p > 0.05). In both groups, all patient-related parameters, except body density, showed positive correlations (r = 0.49–0.94; p 0.05) in group 2. Conclusion In pediatric cardiothoracic CT with tube current modulation, the CTDIvol entered before scan range adjustment provides a significant dose reduction (18%) with comparable image quality compared with that entered after scan range adjustment.

  5. Mechanisms of physiological adjustment of N2 fixation in Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea) during early stages of water deficit: single or multi-factor controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Sulieman, Saad; Schulze, Joachim; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2014-09-01

    Drought negatively impacts symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea), thereby limiting yield potential. Understanding how drought affects chickpea nodulation will enable the development of strategies to biotechnologically engineer chickpea varieties with enhanced SNF under drought conditions. By analyzing carbon and nitrogen metabolism, we studied the mechanisms of physiological adjustment of nitrogen fixation in chickpea plants nodulated with Mesorhizobium ciceri during both drought stress and subsequent recovery. The nitrogenase activity, levels of several key carbon (in nodules) and nitrogen (in both nodules and leaves) metabolites and antioxidant compounds, as well as the activity of related nodule enzymes were examined in M. ciceri-inoculated chickpea plants under early drought stress and subsequent recovery. Results indicated that drought reduced nitrogenase activity, and that this was associated with a reduced expression of the nifK gene. Furthermore, drought stress promoted an accumulation of amino acids, mainly asparagine in nodules (but not in leaves), and caused a cell redox imbalance in nodules. An accumulation of organic acids, especially malate, in nodules, which coincided with the decline of nodulated root respiration, was also observed under drought stress. Taken together, our findings indicate that reduced nitrogenase activity occurring at early stages of drought stress involves, at least, the inhibition of respiration, nitrogen accumulation and an imbalance in cell redox status in nodules. The results of this study demonstrate the potential that the genetic engineering-based improvement of SNF efficiency could be applied to reduce the impact of drought on the productivity of chickpea, and perhaps other legume crops. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  7. NET SALARY ADJUSTMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Finance Division

    2001-01-01

    On 15 June 2001 the Council approved the correction of the discrepancy identified in the net salary adjustment implemented on 1st January 2001 by retroactively increasing the scale of basic salaries to achieve the 2.8% average net salary adjustment approved in December 2000. We should like to inform you that the corresponding adjustment will be made to your July salary. Full details of the retroactive adjustments will consequently be shown on your pay slip.

  8. Progressive ratio (PR) schedules and the sipometer: Do they measure wanting, liking, and/or reward? A tribute to Anthony Sclafani and Karen Ackroff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissileff, H R; Herzog, M

    2018-03-01

    This paper honors the contributions made by Anthony (Tony) Sclafani and Karen Ackroff to both the Columbia University Seminar on Appetitive Behavior and to the field of ingestive behavior in general. We review their use of the progressive ratio (PR) licking paradigm, to determine whether the taste of sucrose, independent of its post-ingestive effects, is always positively reinforcing in animals. They demonstrated a monotonic increase in licking as concentration increased, and obtained results identical to those obtained with a lever-pressing paradigm, but licking was easier and more natural than lever pressing. The PR paradigm was translated to evaluate liquid food reward value in humans. An instrument (the sipometer) was devised that initially permitted a few seconds access to small amounts of a sweet beverage as the participants increased the time to obtain it in 3-5-sec increments. The device went through two refinements and currently delivers the reinforcer and measures the pressure exerted to obtain it. The sipometer is compared with other techniques for measuring motivation and reward. The use of the sipometer and the PR method are discussed in relation to the theoretical challenges inherent in measuring motivation and pleasure, from both psychological and behavioral economics perspectives, and why it is or is not important to separate these processes for both theoretical and practical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Is waist circumference a better predictor of diabetes than body mass index or waist-to-height ratio in Iranian adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Heidari, Bezad

    2015-01-01

    Several measures of adiposity have been used for predicting diabetes. The results of studies regarding superiority of waist circumference (WC) to body mass index (BMI) are inconsistent. This study designed to compare the ability of different anthropometric measures in predicting diabetes and to determine their optimal cut-off values. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,000 representative sample among adults aged 20-80 years in Babol, the Northern Iran. The demographic data were collected in a household survey, and the anthropometric measures of weight, height, waist, and hip circumference were measured with a standard method. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) ≥126 mg/dl was considered as diabetes. receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to estimate the predictive ability of different anthropometric indexes and their optimal cut-off values for high FBS. The overall prevalence rate of diabetes was 14.0% (14.4% in men vs. 13.5% in women, P = 0.65). The prevalence rate was significantly higher in older age (>60 years), low educated and obese (P = 0.001). The mean of BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were significantly higher among diabetic in both sexes (P = 0.001). Among men, WC (area under the ROC curve [AUC] =0.64) and WHtR (AUC = 0.63) have slightly higher accuracy index compared with BMI (AUC = 0.62) or WHR (AUC = 0.60). In contrast, among women, WHtR (AUC = 0.69) and WC (AUC = 0.68) yielded slightly better predictive than BMI (AUC = 0.67). The optimal cut-off values obtained for BMI and WHtR were similar between two sexes (BMI = 24.95 kg/m(2) for men and BMI = 25.2 kg/m(2) for women, WHtR = 0.51 for both sexes) whereas the optimal cut-off value for WC was higher in men than women (98.5 cm men vs. 89.5 cm women). Overall WC and WHtR exhibited a slightly better discriminate performance than BMI for diabetes in both sexes, particularly in women.

  10. Is waist circumference a better predictor of diabetes than body mass index or waist-to-height ratio in Iranian adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several measures of adiposity have been used for predicting diabetes. The results of studies regarding superiority of waist circumference (WC to body mass index (BMI are inconsistent. This study designed to compare the ability of different anthropometric measures in predicting diabetes and to determine their optimal cut-off values. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,000 representative sample among adults aged 20-80 years in Babol, the Northern Iran. The demographic data were collected in a household survey, and the anthropometric measures of weight, height, waist, and hip circumference were measured with a standard method. Fasting blood sugar (FBS ≥126 mg/dl was considered as diabetes. receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to estimate the predictive ability of different anthropometric indexes and their optimal cut-off values for high FBS. Results: The overall prevalence rate of diabetes was 14.0% (14.4% in men vs. 13.5% in women, P = 0.65. The prevalence rate was significantly higher in older age (>60 years, low educated and obese (P = 0.001. The mean of BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR were significantly higher among diabetic in both sexes (P = 0.001. Among men, WC (area under the ROC curve [AUC] =0.64 and WHtR (AUC = 0.63 have slightly higher accuracy index compared with BMI (AUC = 0.62 or WHR (AUC = 0.60. In contrast, among women, WHtR (AUC = 0.69 and WC (AUC = 0.68 yielded slightly better predictive than BMI (AUC = 0.67. The optimal cut-off values obtained for BMI and WHtR were similar between two sexes (BMI = 24.95 kg/m 2 for men and BMI = 25.2 kg/m 2 for women, WHtR = 0.51 for both sexes whereas the optimal cut-off value for WC was higher in men than women (98.5 cm men vs. 89.5 cm women. Conclusions: Overall WC and WHtR exhibited a slightly better discriminate performance than BMI for diabetes in both sexes, particularly in women.

  11. Adjustable continence balloons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Line; Fode, Mikkel; Nørgaard, Nis

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the results of the Danish experience with the ProACT urinary continence device inserted in men with stress urinary incontinence. Material and methods. The ProACT was inserted in 114 patients. Data were registered prospectively. The main endpoints...... in urinary leakage > 50% was seen in 72 patients (80%). Complications were seen in 23 patients. All of these were treated successfully by removal of the device in the outpatient setting followed by replacement of the device. Another eight patients had a third balloon inserted to improve continence further....... Fourteen patients (12%) ended up with an artificial sphincter or a urethral sling. Sixty patients (63%) experienced no discomfort and 58 (61%) reported being dry or markedly improved. Overall, 50 patients (53%) reported being very or predominantly satisfied. Conclusions. Adjustable continence balloons seem...

  12. Direct comparison of risk-adjusted and non-risk-adjusted CUSUM analyses of coronary artery bypass surgery outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Richard J; Fox, Stephanie A; Stitt, Larry W; Forbes, Thomas L; Steiner, Stefan

    2006-08-01

    We previously applied non-risk-adjusted cumulative sum methods to analyze coronary bypass outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the incremental advantage of risk-adjusted cumulative sum methods in this setting. Prospective data were collected in 793 consecutive patients who underwent coronary bypass grafting performed by a single surgeon during a period of 5 years. The composite occurrence of an "adverse outcome" included mortality or any of 10 major complications. An institutional logistic regression model for adverse outcome was developed by using 2608 contemporaneous patients undergoing coronary bypass. The predicted risk of adverse outcome in each of the surgeon's 793 patients was then calculated. A risk-adjusted cumulative sum curve was then generated after specifying control limits and odds ratio. This risk-adjusted curve was compared with the non-risk-adjusted cumulative sum curve, and the clinical significance of this difference was assessed. The surgeon's adverse outcome rate was 96 of 793 (12.1%) versus 270 of 1815 (14.9%) for all the other institution's surgeons combined (P = .06). The non-risk-adjusted curve reached below the lower control limit, signifying excellent outcomes between cases 164 and 313, 323 and 407, and 667 and 793, but transgressed the upper limit between cases 461 and 478. The risk-adjusted cumulative sum curve never transgressed the upper control limit, signifying that cases preceding and including 461 to 478 were at an increased predicted risk. Furthermore, if the risk-adjusted cumulative sum curve was reset to zero whenever a control limit was reached, it still signaled a decrease in adverse outcome at 166, 653, and 782 cases. Risk-adjusted cumulative sum techniques provide incremental advantages over non-risk-adjusted methods by not signaling a decrement in performance when preoperative patient risk is high.

  13. Urine Epidermal Growth Factor, Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 or Their Ratio as Biomarkers for Interstitial Fibrosis and Tubular Atrophy in Primary Glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanat Worawichawong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The degree of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis (IFTA is an important prognostic factor in glomerulonephritis. Imbalance between pro-inflammatory cytokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein- 1 (MCP-1 and protective cytokines such as epidermal growth factor (EGF likely determine IFTA severity. In separate studies, elevated MCP-1 and decreased EGF have been shown to be associated with IFTA severity. In this study, we aim to evaluate the predictive value of urinary EGF/MCP-1 ratio compared to each biomarker individually for moderate to severe IFTA in primary glomerulonephritis (GN. Methods: Urine samples were collected at biopsy from primary GN (IgA nephropathy, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, minimal change disease, membranous nephropathy. MCP-1 and EGF were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: EGF, MCP-1 and EGF/MCP-1 ratio from primary GN, all correlated with IFTA (n=58. By univariate analysis, glomerular filtration rate, EGF, and EGF/MCP-1 ratio were associated with IFTA. By multivariate analysis, only EGF/MCP-1 ratio was independently associated with IFTA. EGF/MCP-1 ratio had a sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 74 % for IFTA. EGF/MCP-1 had good discrimination for IFTA (AUC=0.85, but the improvement over EGF alone was not significant. Conclusion: EGF/MCP-1 ratio is independently associated IFTA severity in primary glomerulonephritis, but the ability of EGF/MCP-1 ratio to discriminate moderate to severe IFTA may not be much better than EGF alone.

  14. Co-composting of rose oil processing waste with caged layer manure and straw or sawdust: effects of carbon source and C/N ratio on decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onursal, Emrah; Ekinci, Kamil

    2015-04-01

    Rose oil is a specific essential oil that is produced mainly for the cosmetics industry in a few selected locations around the world. Rose oil production is a water distillation process from petals of Rosa damascena Mill. Since the oil content of the rose petals of this variety is between 0.3-0.4% (w/w), almost 4000 to 3000 kg of rose petals are needed to produce 1 kg of rose oil. Rose oil production is a seasonal activity and takes place during the relatively short period where the roses are blooming. As a result, large quantities of solid waste are produced over a limited time interval. This research aims: (i) to determine the possibilities of aerobic co-composting as a waste management option for rose oil processing waste with caged layer manure; (ii) to identify effects of different carbon sources - straw or sawdust on co-composting of rose oil processing waste and caged layer manure, which are both readily available in Isparta, where significant rose oil production also takes place; (iii) to determine the effects of different C/N ratios on co-composting by the means of organic matter decomposition and dry matter loss. Composting experiments were carried out by 12 identical laboratory-scale composting reactors (60 L) simultaneously. The results of the study showed that the best results were obtained with a mixture consisting of 50% rose oil processing waste, 64% caged layer manure and 15% straw wet weight in terms of organic matter loss (66%) and dry matter loss (38%). © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. D-Tagatose, a stereoisomer of D-fructose, increases hydrogen production in humans without affecting 24-hour energy expenditure or respiratory exchange ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemann, B; Toubro, S; Astrup, A

    1998-09-01

    In growth studies on rats, the ketohexose D-tagatose has been shown to contribute no net metabolizable energy, and a pronounced thermic effect of the sugar has been suggested to account for the absence of energy. In a double-blind and balanced cross-over design, we measured 24-h energy expenditure in eight normal weight humans in a respiration chamber during the consumption of 30 g D-tagatose or 30 g sucrose/d. Metabolic measurements were performed before and after a 2-wk adaptation period with a 30-g daily intake of the test sugar. Total 24-h energy expenditure and hour-by-hour profile were unaffected by the test sugar. The nonprotein respiratory exchange ratio (RERnp) was similar during consumption of D-tagatose and sucrose. However, the effect on RERnp due to CO2 produced by fermentation of D-tagatose could not be quantified in this study. A significant increase in 24-h H2 production (35%) during D-tagatose administration suggests a substantial malabsorption of the sugar. We found no effects of the 2-wk adaptation period on the measured gas exchange variables. Significantly lower fasting plasma insulin and triglyceride concentrations were observed during D-tagatose administration compared with the sucrose period. No effects of D-tagatose on body weight and composition were seen, but the perception of fullness 2.5 h after the sugar load was greater with D-tagatose. In conclusion, this study does not suggest a pronounced thermic effect of D-tagatose, and other mechanisms seem to be required to explain its lack of net energy.

  16. Photopolymerization of highly filled dimethacrylate-based composites using Type I or Type II photoinitiators and varying co-monomer ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Luc D; Steinhaus, Johannes; Möginger, Bernhard; Gallez, Bernard; Stansbury, Jeffrey; Palin, William M; Leloup, Gaëtane; Leprince, Julian G

    2016-02-01

    The use of a Type I photoinitiator (monoacylphosphine oxide, MAPO) was described as advantageous in a model formulation, as compared to the conventional Type II photoinitiator (Camphorquinone, CQ). The aim of the present work was to study the kinetics of polymerization of various composite mixtures (20-40-60-80 mol%) of bisphenol A glycidyl dimethacrylate/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (BisGMA/TegDMA) containing either CQ or MAPO, based on real-time measurements and on the characterization of various post-cure characteristics. Polymerization kinetics were monitored by Fourier-transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) and dielectric analysis (DEA). A range of postcure properties was also investigated. FT-NIRS and DEA proved complementary to follow the fast kinetics observed with both systems. Autodecceleration occurred after ≈1 s irradiation for MAPO-composites and ≈5-10 s for CQ-composites. Conversion decreased with increasing initial viscosity for both photoinitiating systems. However despite shorter light exposure (3s for MAPO vs 20s for CQ-composites), MAPO-composites yielded higher conversions for all co-monomer mixtures, except at 20 mol% BisGMA, the less viscous material. MAPO systems were associated with increased amounts of trapped free radicals, improved flexural strength and modulus, and reduced free monomer release for all co-monomer ratios, except at 20 mol% BisGMA. This work confirms the major influence of the initiation system both on the conversion and network cross-linking of highly-filled composites, and further highlights the advantages of using MAPO photoinitiating systems in highly-filled dimethacrylate-based composites provided that sufficient BisGMA content (>40 mol%) and adapted light spectrum are used. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of δ13C, δ15N, or δ34S by isotope-ratio-monitoring mass spectrometry using an elemental analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Stricker, Craig A.; Gulbransen, Cayce A.; Emmons, Matthew P.

    2018-02-14

    This report describes procedures used in the Geology, Geophysics, and Geochemistry Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey in Denver, Colorado, to determine the stable-isotope ratios 13C/12C, 15N/14N, and 34S/32S in solid materials. The procedures use elemental analyzers connected directly to gas-source isotope-ratio mass spectrometers. A different elemental–analyzer–mass-spectrometer system is used for 13C/12C and 15N/14N than is used for 34S/32S to accommodate differences in reagents, catalysts, and instrument settings.

  18. Are Polish firms risk-averting or risk-loving? : evidence on demand uncertainty and the capital-labour ratio in a transition economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Robert; Murinde, Victor; Green, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of demand uncertainty on the capital-labour ratio of non-financial firms in Poland in order to infer the firms’ risk behaviour. A generic model is used to characterise a utility maximising firm in a transition economy with demand uncertainty and imperfect

  19. Fixed combination of bimatoprost and timolol in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension with inadequate IOP adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrett Brief

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Gerrett Brief1, Tobias Lammich2, Edgar Nagel3, Sabine Pfennigsdorf4, Christoph W Spraul5, Selwyn Ho61Facharzt für Augenheilkunde, Dortmund, Germany; 2Neubrandenburg, Germany; 3Augenarztpraxis Rudolstadt, Germany; 4Polch, Germany; 5Geiselhart, Ulm, Germany; 6Allergan Europe, Marlow, UKObjective: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of bimatoprost and timolol (BTFC in a large patient sample in a clinical setting.Methods: In this multicenter, observational, noncontrolled, open-label study, patients (n = 1862 with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension were treated with BTFC. Assessments were made at baseline, six weeks, and three months.Results: Prior to starting BTFC, 92.3% of patients were taking other ocular hypotensive medications. In the overall group at three months, mean intraocular pressure was reduced from baseline (21.7 ± 4.5 mmHg and 21.8 ± 4.9 mmHg for the right and left eye, respectively to 16.1 ± 3.0 mmHg for each eye (P < 0.0001. The majority of patients (92% reported no adverse events. The most commonly reported adverse events (in >1% of patients were eye irritation, and ocular and conjunctival hyperemia. Adherence to treatment was generally better than (35.4% or the same as (57.5% with prior therapy. BTFC tolerability was rated as excellent or good by 92.3% of physicians and 85.8% of patients.Conclusions: In a large group of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, treatment with BTFC was associated with consistent reductions in IOP, improved adherence to treatment, and good tolerability.Keywords: bimatoprost, timolol, intraocular pressure, fixed combination, glaucoma

  20. Repatriation Adjustment: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Arman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Expatriation is a widely studied area of research in work and organizational psychology. After expatriates accomplish their missions in host countries, they return to their countries and this process is called repatriation. Adjustment constitutes a crucial part in repatriation research. In the present literature review, research about repatriation adjustment was reviewed with the aim of defining the whole picture in this phenomenon. Present research was classified on the basis of a theoretical model of repatriation adjustment. Basic frame consisted of antecedents, adjustment, outcomes as main variables and personal characteristics/coping strategies and organizational strategies as moderating variables.

  1. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....... hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...

  2. Job adjustment as a means to reduce sickness absence during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, K; Wergeland, E; Bjerkedal, T

    1997-10-01

    This study examined the effect of job adjustment on sickness absence during pregnancy and also determined the conditions under which such adjustments are obtained. Data were derived from a nationally representative survey on work conditions during pregnancy in Norway in 1989. For employees (N = 2713) remaining in the same job throughout pregnancy, the percentage of women on sick leave immediately before delivery was determined according to the need for job adjustment and the obtainment of job adjustment. Those obtaining job adjustment were grouped according to workplace size, labor-market sector, co-worker gender, educational level, work schedules, weekly workhours, children under 16 years of age in the household, and age. All told, 1691 women (62.3%) needed job adjustment, among whom 936 (55.4%) obtained such adjustment. The proportions of those on sick leave before delivery were 45.2% for "no need", 67.9% for "need - adjustment obtained", and 79.2% for "need - adjustment not obtained". In the last category, the difference (versus "adjustment obtained") constituted 44.5% of the weeks lost because of sickness absence in the last half of pregnancy. The odds ratio (OR) for obtaining job adjustment was larger for workplaces with more than 50 employees (OR 1.4) and smaller for jobs with work schedules other than daytime or shift work (OR 0.5) and also for women living with children under 16 years of age (OR 0.8). Job adjustment is associated with reduced sickness absence during pregnancy. Further studies should explore workplace characteristics that make it difficult to obtain such adjustments, as required by law.

  3. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new

  4. First measurements of (236)U concentrations and (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratios in a Southern Hemisphere soil far from nuclear test or reactor sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srncik, M; Tims, S G; De Cesare, M; Fifield, L K

    2014-06-01

    The variation of the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations as a function of depth has been studied in a soil profile at a site in the Southern Hemisphere well removed from nuclear weapon test sites. Total inventories of (236)U and (239)Pu as well as the (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratio were derived. For this investigation a soil core from an undisturbed forest area in the Herbert River catchment (17°30' - 19°S) which is located in north-eastern Queensland (Australia) was chosen. The chemical separation of U and Pu was carried out with a double column which has the advantage of the extraction of both elements from a relatively large soil sample (∼20 g) within a day. The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry using the 14UD pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. The highest atom concentrations of both (236)U and (239)Pu were found at a depth of 2-3 cm. The (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratio in fallout at this site, as deduced from the ratio of the (236)U and (239)Pu inventories, is 0.085 ± 0.003 which is clearly lower than the Northern Hemisphere value of ∼0.2. The (236)U inventory of (8.4 ± 0.3) × 10(11) at/m(2) was more than an order of magnitude lower than values reported for the Northern Hemisphere. The (239)Pu activity concentrations are in excellent agreement with a previous study and the (239+240)Pu inventory was (13.85 ± 0.29) Bq/m(2). The weighted mean (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratio of 0.142 ± 0.005 is slightly lower than the value for global fallout, but our results are consistent with the average ratio of 0.173 ± 0.027 for the southern equatorial region (0-30°S). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adjusting for under-identification of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births in time series produced from birth records: Using record linkage of survey data and administrative data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence David

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statistical time series derived from administrative data sets form key indicators in measuring progress in addressing disadvantage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations in Australia. However, inconsistencies in the reporting of Indigenous status can cause difficulties in producing reliable indicators. External data sources, such as survey data, provide a means of assessing the consistency of administrative data and may be used to adjust statistics based on administrative data sources. Methods We used record linkage between a large-scale survey (the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey, and two administrative data sources (the Western Australia (WA Register of Births and the WA Midwives’ Notification System to compare the degree of consistency in determining Indigenous status of children between the two sources. We then used a logistic regression model predicting probability of consistency between the two sources to estimate the probability of each record on the two administrative data sources being identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin in a survey. By summing these probabilities we produced model-adjusted time series of neonatal outcomes for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births. Results Compared to survey data, information based only on the two administrative data sources identified substantially fewer Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births. However, these births were not randomly distributed. Births of children identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin in the survey only were more likely to be living in urban areas, in less disadvantaged areas, and to have only one parent who identifies as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin, particularly the father. They were also more likely to have better health and wellbeing outcomes. Applying an adjustment model based on the linked survey data increased

  6. Speed of adjustment: Evidence from Borsa Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Arioglu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the speed of adjustment for leverage ratios of firms listed on Borsa Istanbul, in order to investigate the prediction of the trade-off theory, regarding capital structure rebalancing. For this purpose, we estimate the speed of adjustment by using Generalized Method of Moments system estimation technique. The results of this estimation suggest the speed of adjustment as approximately 29%. This significant speed of adjustment is consistent with the prediction of trade-off theory, which suggests that firms follow target capital structures and when the firms' leverage ratios deviate from these targets; they make financial decisions with the goal of closing the gap between the previous year's leverage and target leverage of the current period.

  7. Which Bow Shock Theory, Gasdynamic or Magnetohydrodynamic, Better Explains CME Stand-off Distance Ratios from LASCO-C2 Observations ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Ok; Moon, Y.-J. [School of Space Research Kyung Hee University Yongin 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-Yi [Department of Astronomy and Space Science Kyung Hee University Yongin 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, R.-S.; Cho, K.-S. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-20

    It is generally believed that fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can generate their associated shocks, which are characterized by faint structures ahead of CMEs in white-light coronagraph images. In this study, we examine whether the observational stand-off distance ratio, defined as the CME stand-off distance divided by its radius, can be explained by bow shock theories. Of 535 SOHO /LASCO CMEs (from 1996 to 2015) with speeds greater than 1000 km s{sup −1} and angular widths wider than 60°, we select 18 limb CMEs with the following conditions: (1) their Alfvénic Mach numbers are greater than one under Mann’s magnetic field and Saito’s density distributions; and (2) the shock structures ahead of the CMEs are well identified. We determine observational CME stand-off distance ratios by using brightness profiles from LASCO-C2 observations. We compare our estimates with theoretical stand-off distance ratios from gasdynamic (GD) and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theories. The main results are as follows. Under the GD theory, 39% (7/18) of the CMEs are explained in the acceptable ranges of adiabatic gamma ( γ ) and CME geometry. Under the MHD theory, all the events are well explained when we consider quasi-parallel MHD shocks with γ = 5/3. When we use polarized brightness (pB) measurements for coronal density distributions, we also find similar results: 8% (1/12) under GD theory and 100% (12/12) under MHD theory. Our results demonstrate that the bow shock relationships based on MHD theory are more suitable than those based on GD theory for analyzing CME-driven shock signatures.

  8. OPEC model : adjustment or new model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, A.

    1994-01-01

    Since the early eighties, the international oil industry went through major changes : new financial markets, reintegration, opening of the upstream, liberalization of investments, privatization. This article provides answers to two major questions : what are the reasons for these changes ? ; do these changes announce the replacement of OPEC model by a new model in which state intervention is weaker and national companies more autonomous. This would imply a profound change of political and institutional systems of oil producing countries. (Author)

  9. Curriculum in preschool. Adjustment or libetation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström professor m.so., Stig

    2012-01-01

    on this tendency and consider developing an alternative approach: Critical early childhood education. On the basis of a critical theory of society, a theory of recognition (Honneth, 1995), a Bildung oriented critical-constructive Didaktik* (Klafki, 1995, 1998) and various childhood approaches (Dahlberg, Moss......, & Pence, 2001, 2007), this article will present an outline of critical preschool education. * The German term Didaktik is not the equivalent of the English term didactics. The concept of Didaktik goes beyond both didactics and the term curriculum by focusing on both democratic aims and content...

  10. delta 13C analyses of vegetable oil fatty acid components, determined by gas chromatography--combustion--isotope ratio mass spectrometry, after saponification or regiospecific hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, S E; Evershed, R P; Rossell, J B

    1998-05-01

    The delta 13C values of the major fatty acids of several different commercially important vegetable oils were measured by gas chromatography--combustion--isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The delta 13C values obtained were found to fall into two distinct groups, representing the C3 and C4 plants classes from which the oils were derived. The delta 13C values of the oils were measured by continuous flow elemental isotope ratio mass spectrometry and were found to be similar to their fatty acids, with slight differences between individual fatty acids. Investigations were then made into the influence on the delta 13C values of fatty acids of the position occupied on the glycerol backbone. Pancreatic lipase was employed to selectively hydrolyse fatty acids from the 1- and 3-positions with the progress of the reaction being followed by high-temperature gas chromatography in order to determine the optimum incubation time. The 2-monoacylglycerols were then isolated by thin-layer chromatography and fatty acid methyl esters prepared. The delta 13C values obtained indicate that fatty acids from any position on the glycerol backbone are isotopically identical. Thus, whilst quantification of fatty acid composition at the 2-position and measurement of delta 13C values of oils and their major fatty acids are useful criteria in edible oil purity assessment, measurement of delta 13C values of fatty acids from the 2-position does not assist with oil purity assignments.

  11. Effects of feeding ratio of beet pulp to alfalfa hay or grass hay on ruminal mat characteristics and chewing activity in Holstein dry cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kenichi; Unno, Chigusa

    2010-04-01

    The influence of the feeding ratio of a non-forage fiber source and hay on ruminal mat characteristics and chewing activity was evaluated in dairy dry cows. Cows were fed four different diets: the ratios of alfalfa hay (AH) to beet pulp (BP) were 8:2 (dry matter basis, A8B2) and 2:8 (A2B8), and those of grass hay (GH) to BP were 8:2 (G8B2) and 2:8 (G2B8). Total eating time was decreased with increasing BP content (P rumination time for AH was shorter than that for GH (P content (P ruminal mat was detected by using a penetration resistance test of the rumen digesta. Penetration resistance value (PRV) of ruminal mat was highest with the G8B2 diet and PRV decreased with increasing BP content (P ruminal mat was greater for increasing BP content (P ruminal mat PRV on total rumination time resulted in a high positive correlation (r = 0.744; P ruminal mat stimulated rumination activity and a ruminal mat could be formed, although it was soft even when cows were offered a large quantity of BP.

  12. Is Tree Species Diversity or Species Identity the More Important Driver of Soil Carbon Stocks, C/N Ratio, and pH?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawud, Seid Muhie; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Domisch, Timo

    2016-01-01

    We explored tree species diversity effects on soil C stock, C/N ratio, and pH as compared with effects of tree species identity. We sampled forest floors and mineral soil (0–40 cm) in a diversity gradient of 1–5 tree species composed of conifers and broadleaves in Białowieża Forest, Poland...... mechanism for higher root carbon input and in turn a deeper distribution of C in diverse forests. Diversity and identity affected soil pH in topsoil with positive and negative impacts, respectively. More diverse forests would lead to higher soil nutrient status as reflected by higher topsoil p......H, but there was a slight negative effect on N status as indicated by higher C/N ratios in the deeper layers. We conclude that tree species diversity increases soil C stocks and nutrient status to some extent, but tree species identity is a stronger driver of the studied soil properties, particularly in the topsoil....

  13. Adjusting estimative prediction limits

    OpenAIRE

    Masao Ueki; Kaoru Fueda

    2007-01-01

    This note presents a direct adjustment of the estimative prediction limit to reduce the coverage error from a target value to third-order accuracy. The adjustment is asymptotically equivalent to those of Barndorff-Nielsen & Cox (1994, 1996) and Vidoni (1998). It has a simpler form with a plug-in estimator of the coverage probability of the estimative limit at the target value. Copyright 2007, Oxford University Press.

  14. HPGe detector shielding adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trnkova, L.; Rulik, P.

    2008-01-01

    Low-level background shielding of HPGe detectors is used mainly for environmental samples with very low content of radionuclides. National Radiation Protection Institute (SURO) in Prague is equipped with 14 HPGe detectors with relative efficiency up to 150%. The detectors are placed in a room built from materials with low content of natural radionuclides and equipped with a double isolation of the floor against radon. Detectors themselves are placed in lead or steel shielding. Steel shielding with one of these detectors with relative efficiency of 100% was chosen to be rebuilt to achieve lower minimum detectable activity (MDA). Additional lead and copper shielding was built up inside the original steel shielding to reduce the volume of the inner space and filled with nitrogen by means of evaporating liquid nitrogen. The additional lead and copper shielding, consequent reduction of the inner volume and supply of evaporated nitrogen, caused a decrease of the background count and accordingly MDA values as well. The effect of nitrogen evaporation on the net areas of peaks belonging to radon daughters is significant. The enhanced shielding adjustment has the biggest influence in low energy range, what can be seen in collected data. MDA values in energy range from 30 keV to 400 keV decreased to 0.65-0.85 of original value, in energy range from 400 keV to 2 MeV they fell to 0.70-0.97 of original value. (authors)

  15. 39 CFR 3010.25 - Limitation on unused rate adjustment authority rate adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... only be applied together with inflation-based limitation rate adjustments or when inflation-based... used in lieu of an inflation-based limitation rate adjustment. ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on unused rate adjustment authority...

  16. Convexity Adjustments for ATS Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgoci, Agatha; Gaspar, Raquel M.

    . As a result we classify convexity adjustments into forward adjustments and swaps adjustments. We, then, focus on affine term structure (ATS) models and, in this context, conjecture convexity adjustments should be related of affine functionals. In the case of forward adjustments, we show how to obtain exact...

  17. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This direc...

  18. Equity Mispricing and Leverage Adjustment Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warr, R.S.; Elliott, W.B.; Koeter-Kant, J.; Oztekin, O.

    2012-01-01

    We find that equity mispricing impacts the speed at which firms adjust to their target leverage (TL) and does so in predictable ways depending on whether the firm is over- or underlevered. For example, firms that are above their TL and should therefore issue equity (or retire debt) adjust more

  19. Mothers adjust offspring sex to match the quality of the rearing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryke, Sarah R; Rollins, Lee A

    2012-10-07

    Theory predicts that mothers should adjust offspring sex ratios when the expected fitness gains or rearing costs differ between sons and daughters. Recent empirical work has linked biased offspring sex ratios to environmental quality via changes in relative maternal condition. It is unclear, however, whether females can manipulate offspring sex ratios in response to environmental quality alone (i.e. independent of maternal condition). We used a balanced within-female experimental design (i.e. females bred on both low- and high-quality diets) to show that female parrot finches (Erythrura trichroa) manipulate primary offspring sex ratios to the quality of the rearing environment, and not to their own body condition and health. Individual females produced an unbiased sex ratio on high-quality diets, but over-produced sons in poor dietary conditions, even though they maintained similar condition between diet treatments. Despite the lack of sexual size dimorphism, such sex ratio adjustment is in line with predictions from sex allocation theory because nutritionally stressed foster sons were healthier, grew faster and were more likely to survive than daughters. These findings suggest that mothers may adaptively adjust offspring sex ratios to optimally match their offspring to the expected quality of the rearing environment.

  20. Fronto-orbital feminization technique. A surgical strategy using fronto-orbital burring with or without eggshell technique to optimize the risk/benefit ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villepelet, A; Jafari, A; Baujat, B

    2018-05-04

    The demand for facial feminization is increasing in transsexual patients. Masculine foreheads present extensive supraorbital bossing with a more acute glabellar angle, whereas female foreheads show softer features. The aim of this article is to describe our surgical technique for fronto-orbital feminization. The mask-lift technique is an upper face-lift. It provides rejuvenation by correcting collapsed features, and fronto-orbital feminization through burring of orbital rims and lateral canthopexies. Depending on the size of the frontal sinus and the thickness of its anterior wall, frontal remodeling is achieved using simple burring or by means of the eggshell technique. Orbital remodeling comprises a superolateral orbital opening, a reduction of ridges and a trough at the lateral orbital rim to support the lateral canthopexy. Frontal, corrugator and procerus myectomies, plus minimal scalp excision, complete the surgery. Our technique results in significant, natural-looking feminization. No complications were observed in our series of patients. The eggshell technique is an alternative to bone flap on over-pneumatized sinus. Fronto-orbital feminization fits into a wider surgical strategy. It can be associated to rhinoplasty, genioplasty, mandibular angle remodeling, face lift and laryngoplasty. Achieving facial feminization in 2 or 3 stages improves psychological and physiological tolerance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Requirement for specific gravity and creatinine adjustments for urinary steroids and luteinizing hormone concentrations in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet K S; Balzer, Ben W R; Desai, Reena; Jimenez, Mark; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Handelsman, David J

    2015-11-01

    Urinary hormone concentrations are often adjusted to correct for hydration status. We aimed to determine whether first morning void urine hormones in growing adolescents require adjustments and, if so, whether urinary creatinine or specific gravity are better adjustments. The study population was adolescents aged 10.1 to 14.3 years initially who provided fasting morning blood samples at 0 and 12 months (n = 343) and first morning urine every three months (n = 644). Unadjusted, creatinine and specific gravity-adjusted hormonal concentrations were compared by Deming regression and Bland-Altman analysis and grouped according to self-rated Tanner stage or chronological age. F-ratios for self-rated Tanner stages and age groups were used to compare unadjusted and adjusted hormonal changes in growing young adolescents. Correlations of paired serum and urinary hormonal concentration of unadjusted and creatinine and specific gravity-adjusted were also compared. Fasting first morning void hormone concentrations correlated well and were unbiased between unadjusted or adjusted by either creatinine or specific gravity. Urine creatinine concentration increases with Tanner stages, age and male gender whereas urine specific gravity was not influenced by Tanner stage, age or gender. Adjustment by creatinine or specific gravity of urinary luteinizing hormone, estradiol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations did not improve correlation with paired serum concentrations. Urine steroid and luteinizing hormone concentrations in first morning void samples of adolescents are not significantly influenced by hydration status and may not require adjustments; however, if desired, both creatinine and specific gravity adjustments are equally suitable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Adjustable Tooling for Bending Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Deep metal boxes and other parts easily fabricated. Adjustable tooling jig for bending brake accommodates spacing blocks and either standard male press-brake die or bar die. Holds spacer blocks, press-brake die, bar window die, or combination of three. Typical bending operations include bending of cut metal sheet into box and bending of metal strip into bracket with multiple inward 90 degree bends. By increasing free space available for bending sheet-metal parts jig makes it easier to fabricate such items as deep metal boxes or brackets with right-angle bends.

  3. A father effect explains sex-ratio bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, Aurelio F; Martinez-Pastor, Felipe; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Garde, Julián; Ballou, Jonathan D; Lacy, Robert C

    2017-08-30

    Sex ratio allocation has important fitness consequences, and theory predicts that parents should adjust offspring sex ratio in cases where the fitness returns of producing male and female offspring vary. The ability of fathers to bias offspring sex ratios has traditionally been dismissed given the expectation of an equal proportion of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm (CBS) in ejaculates due to segregation of sex chromosomes at meiosis. This expectation has been recently refuted. Here we used Peromyscus leucopus to demonstrate that sex ratio is explained by an exclusive effect of the father, and suggest a likely mechanism by which male-driven sex-ratio bias is attained. We identified a male sperm morphological marker that is associated with the mechanism leading to sex ratio bias; differences among males in the sperm nucleus area (a proxy for the sex chromosome that the sperm contains) explain 22% variation in litter sex ratio. We further show the role played by the sperm nucleus area as a mediator in the relationship between individual genetic variation and sex-ratio bias. Fathers with high levels of genetic variation had ejaculates with a higher proportion of sperm with small nuclei area. This, in turn, led to siring a higher proportion of sons (25% increase in sons per 0.1 decrease in the inbreeding coefficient). Our results reveal a plausible mechanism underlying unexplored male-driven sex-ratio biases. We also discuss why this pattern of paternal bias can be adaptive. This research puts to rest the idea that father contribution to sex ratio variation should be disregarded in vertebrates, and will stimulate research on evolutionary constraints to sex ratios-for example, whether fathers and mothers have divergent, coinciding, or neutral sex allocation interests. Finally, these results offer a potential explanation for those intriguing cases in which there are sex ratio biases, such as in humans. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Parenting Styles and Adjustment in Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarinos, Vassiliki; Solomon, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between parenting styles and the psychosocial adjustment of 48 children aged 7 to 11 years, each of whom had been identified as gifted on the basis of a score of 130 or above on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition. Parenting styles and child psychosocial adjustment were measured…

  5. The Impact of Adjustment for Socioeconomic Status on Comparisons of Cancer Incidence between Two European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, D. W.; Gavin, A.; Hegarty, A.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer incidence rates vary considerably between countries and by socioeconomic status (SES). We investigate the impact of SES upon the relative cancer risk in two neighbouring countries. Methods. Data on 229,824 cases for 16 cancers diagnosed in 1995-2007 were extracted from the cancer registries in Northern Ireland (NI) and Republic of Ireland (RoI). Cancers in the two countries were compared using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age and age plus area-based SES. Results. Adjusting for SES in addition to age had a considerable impact on NI/RoI comparisons for cancers strongly related to SES. Before SES adjustment, lung cancer incidence rates were 11% higher for males and 7% higher for females in NI, while after adjustment, the IRR was not statistically significant. Cervical cancer rates were lower in NI than in RoI after adjustment for age (IRR: 0.90 (0.84-0.97)), with this difference increasing after adjustment for SES (IRR: 0.85 (0.79-0.92)). For cancers with a weak or nonexistent relationship to SES, adjustment for SES made little difference to the IRR. Conclusion. Socioeconomic factors explain some international variations but also obscure other crucial differences; thus, adjustment for these factors should not become part of international comparisons.

  6. The Impact of Adjustment for Socioeconomic Status on Comparisons of Cancer Incidence between Two European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Donnelly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cancer incidence rates vary considerably between countries and by socioeconomic status (SES. We investigate the impact of SES upon the relative cancer risk in two neighbouring countries. Methods. Data on 229,824 cases for 16 cancers diagnosed in 1995–2007 were extracted from the cancer registries in Northern Ireland (NI and Republic of Ireland (RoI. Cancers in the two countries were compared using incidence rate ratios (IRRs adjusted for age and age plus area-based SES. Results. Adjusting for SES in addition to age had a considerable impact on NI/RoI comparisons for cancers strongly related to SES. Before SES adjustment, lung cancer incidence rates were 11% higher for males and 7% higher for females in NI, while after adjustment, the IRR was not statistically significant. Cervical cancer rates were lower in NI than in RoI after adjustment for age (IRR: 0.90 (0.84–0.97, with this difference increasing after adjustment for SES (IRR: 0.85 (0.79–0.92. For cancers with a weak or nonexistent relationship to SES, adjustment for SES made little difference to the IRR. Conclusion. Socioeconomic factors explain some international variations but also obscure other crucial differences; thus, adjustment for these factors should not become part of international comparisons.

  7. Multilayered samples reconstructed by measuring K{sub α}/K{sub β} or L{sub α}/L{sub β} X-ray intensity ratios by EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesareo, Roberto, E-mail: cesareo@uniss.it [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nano Strutturati, CNR-Montelibretti, via Salaria km. 29.5, 00015 Monterotondo (Romania); Assis, Joaquim T. de, E-mail: joaquim.iprj@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Politécnico, P.O. Box 97282, 28625-570 Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil); Roldán, Clodoaldo, E-mail: Clodoaldo.Roldan@uv.es [Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales, Universidad de Valencia, P.O. Box 22085, E46071 Valencia (Spain); Bustamante, Angel D., E-mail: angelbd1@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima (Peru); Brunetti, Antonio, E-mail: brunetti@uniss.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Politiche, Scienza della Comunicazione e Ingegneria dell’ Informazione, Università di Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Schiavon, Nick [Hercules Laboratory and Évora Geophysical Centre, University of Evora (Portugal)

    2013-10-01

    In this paper a general method based on energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis has been tested to assess its possible use as a tool to reconstruct the structure and determine the thickness of two and/or multi-layered materials. The method utilizes the X-ray intensity ratios of K{sub α}/K{sub β} or L{sub α}/L{sub β} peaks (or the ratio of these peaks) for selected elements present in multi-layered objects of various materials (Au alloys, gilded Cu, gilded Ag, gilded Pb, Ag–Au Tumbaga, stone surfaces with protective treatments, Zn or Nickel plating on metals). Results show that, in the case of multi-layered samples, a correct calculation of the peak ratio (K{sub α} /K{sub β} and/or L{sub α}/L{sub β}) of relevant elements from energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectra, can provide important information in assessing the exact location of each layer and for calculating its thickness. The methodological approach shown may have important applications not only in materials science but also when dealing with the conservation and restoration of multi-layered cultural heritage objects where the use of a Non-Destructive techniques to determine slight chemical and thickness variations in the layered structure is often of paramount importance to achieve the best results.

  8. The Student's Adjustment Inventory Manual | Tanyi | IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The term school adjustment according to this study relates directly to personality formation of a child at school. Personality also here refers to stable behaviors in the process of adjustment. Stable forms of adjustment or adaptations can be regarded as traits of personality. School adjustment therefore, is a behavioural pattern ...

  9. Downhole adjustable bent assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askew, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes downhole adjustable apparatus for creating a bend angle in order to affect the inclination of a drilled borehole. It comprises an upper tubular member having an upper portion and a lower portion; lower tubular member having an upper portion and a lower portion; one of the portions being received within the other for relative rotational movement about an axis that is inclined with respect to the the longitudinal axes of the members, whereby in a first rotational position the longitudinal axes have one geometrical relationship, and in a second rotational position the longitudinal axes have a second, different geometrical relationship

  10. Paternal effects on the human sex ratio at birth: evidence from interracial crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, M J; Erickson, J D; James, L M

    1984-01-01

    The effects of interracial crossing on the human sex ratio at birth were investigated using United States birth-certificate data for 1972-1979. The sex ratio was 1.059 for approximately 14 million singleton infants born to white couples, 1.033 for 2 million born to black couples, and 1.024 for 64,000 born to American Indian couples. Paternal and maternal race influences on the observed racial differences in sex ratio were analyzed using additional data on approximately 97,000 singleton infants born to white-black couples and 60,000 born to white-Indian couples. After adjustment for mother's race, white fathers had significantly more male offspring than did black fathers (ratio of sex ratios [RSR] = 1.027) and Indian fathers (RSR = 1.022). On the other hand, after adjustment for father's race, white mothers did not have more male offspring than did black mothers (RSR = 0.998) or Indian mothers (RSR = 1.009). The paternal-race effect persisted after adjustment for parental ages, education, birth order, and maternal marital status. The study shows that the observed racial differences in the sex ratio at birth are due to the effects of father's race and not the mother's. The study points to paternal determinants of the human sex ratio at fertilization and/or of the prenatal differential sex survival. PMID:6496474

  11. Plasma cholecystokinin in obese patients before and after jejunoileal bypass with 3:1 or 1:3 jejunoileal ratio--no role in the increased risk of gallstone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T I; Toftdahl, D B; Højgaard, L

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Jejunoileal bypass surgery for obesity increases the risk of gallstone formation, and, contrary to expectations, the incidence is greater in patients with a long as compared to a short ileum left in continuity. Impaired gallbladder motility due to reduced cholecystokinin (CCK...... bypass surgery with either a 1:3 jejunoileal ratio (n = 14) or a 3:1 ratio (n = 15), and in unoperated obese patients (n = 7). Plasma CCK levels were determined during fasting and during 150 min following ingestion of a liquid test meal. RESULTS: There were no significant changes over time following......) stimulation could be an explanation. The aim of this study was to investigate the CCK levels in such patients. SETTING: The randomized trial of bypass surgery named The Danish Obesity Project. DESIGN AND METHODS: We compared plasma levels of CCK in obese patients at three, nine or 15 months after jejunoileal...

  12. Adjustment disorder: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelviene P

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paulina Zelviene, Evaldas Kazlauskas Department of Clinical and Organizational Psychology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania Abstract: Adjustment disorder (AjD is among the most often diagnosed mental disorders in clinical practice. This paper reviews current status of AjD research and discusses scientific and clinical issues associated with AjD. AjD has been included in diagnostic classifications for over 50 years. Still, the diagnostic criteria for AjD remain vague and cause difficulties to mental health professionals. Controversies in definition resulted in the lack of reliable and valid measures of AjD. Epidemiological data on prevalence of AjD is scarce and not reliable because prevalence data are biased by the diagnostic algorithm, which is usually developed for each study, as no established diagnostic standards for AjD are available. Considerable changes in the field of AjD could follow after the release of the 11th edition of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11. A new AjD symptom profile was introduced in ICD-11 with 2 main symptoms as follows: 1 preoccupation and 2 failure to adapt. However, differences between the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and ICD-11 AjD diagnostic criteria could result in diverse research findings in the future. The best treatment approach for AjD remains unclear, and further treatment studies are needed to provide AjD treatment guidelines to clinicians. Keywords: adjustment disorder, review, diagnosis, prevalence, treatment, DSM, ICD

  13. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  14. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The ‘prospective potential support ratio’ has been proposed by researchers as a measure that accurately quantifies the burden of ageing, by identifying the fraction of a population that has passed a certain measure of longevity, for example, 17 years of life expectancy. Nevertheless......, the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models...

  15. Adjustment Criterion and Algorithm in Adjustment Model with Uncertain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Yingchun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty often exists in the process of obtaining measurement data, which affects the reliability of parameter estimation. This paper establishes a new adjustment model in which uncertainty is incorporated into the function model as a parameter. A new adjustment criterion and its iterative algorithm are given based on uncertainty propagation law in the residual error, in which the maximum possible uncertainty is minimized. This paper also analyzes, with examples, the different adjustment criteria and features of optimal solutions about the least-squares adjustment, the uncertainty adjustment and total least-squares adjustment. Existing error theory is extended with new observational data processing method about uncertainty.

  16. Reduced insulin-like growth factor-I serum levels in formerly obese women subjected to laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or diet-induced long-term caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterberger, Maria C; Mattesich, Monika; Klaver, Elise; Piza-Katzer, Hildegunde; Zwerschke, Werner

    2011-11-01

    Life-span extension in laboratory rodents induced by long-term caloric restriction correlates with decreased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. Reduced activity of the growth hormone/IGF-I signaling system slows aging and increases longevity in mutant mouse models. In the present study, we show that long-term caloric restriction achieved by two different interventions for 4 years, either laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or reducing diet, leads to reduced IGF-I serum levels in formerly obese women relative to normal-weight women eating ad libitum. Moreover, we present evidence that the long-term caloric restriction interventions reduce fasting growth hormone serum levels. The present study indicates that the activity of the growth hormone/IGF-I axis is reduced in long-term calorically restricted formerly obese humans. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the duration and severity of the caloric restriction intervention are important for the outcome on the growth hormone/IGF-I axis in humans.

  17. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Basic Methodology for Determining the Federal Rate for Capital-Related Costs § 412.322 Indirect medical education adjustment factor. (a) Basic data. CMS.... The indirect teaching adjustment factor equals [e (raised to the power of .2822×the ratio of residents...

  18. IC layout adjustment method and tool for improving dielectric reliability at interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahng, Andrew B.; Chan, Tuck Boon

    2018-03-20

    Method for adjusting a layout used in making an integrated circuit includes one or more interconnects in the layout that are susceptible to dielectric breakdown are selected. One or more selected interconnects are adjusted to increase via to wire spacing with respect to at least one via and one wire of the one or more selected interconnects. Preferably, the selecting analyzes signal patterns of interconnects, and estimates the stress ratio based on state probability of routed signal nets in the layout. An annotated layout is provided that describes distances by which one or more via or wire segment edges are to be shifted. Adjustments can include thinning and shifting of wire segments, and rotation of vias.

  19. Metric adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    ) that vanishes for observables commuting with the state. We show that the skew information is a convex function on the manifold of states. It also satisfies other requirements, proposed by Wigner and Yanase, for an effective measure-of-information content of a state relative to a conserved observable. We...... establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state...

  20. Severity-Adjusted Mortality in Trauma Patients Transported by Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, Roger A.; Salhi, Rama A.; Holena, Daniel N.; Powell, Elizabeth; Branas, Charles C.; Carr, Brendan G.

    2018-01-01

    Study objective Two decades ago, Philadelphia began allowing police transport of patients with penetrating trauma. We conduct a large, multiyear, citywide analysis of this policy. We examine the association between mode of out-of-hospital transport (police department versus emergency medical services [EMS]) and mortality among patients with penetrating trauma in Philadelphia. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of trauma registry data. Patients who sustained any proximal penetrating trauma and presented to any Level I or II trauma center in Philadelphia between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, were included. Analyses were conducted with logistic regression models and were adjusted for injury severity with the Trauma and Injury Severity Score and for case mix with a modified Charlson index. Results Four thousand one hundred twenty-two subjects were identified. Overall mortality was 27.4%. In unadjusted analyses, patients transported by police were more likely to die than patients transported by ambulance (29.8% versus 26.5%; OR 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00 to 1.39). In adjusted models, no significant difference was observed in overall mortality between the police department and EMS groups (odds ratio [OR] 0.78; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.01). In subgroup analysis, patients with severe injury (Injury Severity Score >15) (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.59 to 0.90), patients with gunshot wounds (OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.94), and patients with stab wounds (OR 0.19; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.45) were more likely to survive if transported by police. Conclusion We found no significant overall difference in adjusted mortality between patients transported by the police department compared with EMS but found increased adjusted survival among 3 key subgroups of patients transported by police. This practice may augment traditional care. PMID:24387925

  1. Asking for work adjustments or initiating behavioural changes - what makes a 'problematic co-worker' score Brownie points? An experimental study on the reactions towards colleagues with a personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Fay, Doris; Seemann, Anne

    2016-10-01

    People with mental disorders, especially personality disorders, often face low acceptance at work. This is particularly problematic when returning to work after sick leave, because it impedes reintegration into the former workplace. This study explores colleagues' reactions towards a problematic worker dependent on the returning person's reintegration strategy: The returning person undertaking changes in their behaviour is compared with the person requesting adjustments of the workplace. In an experimental study, 188 employed persons read one of four vignettes that described a return-to-work-situation of a problematic co-worker. Across all vignettes, the co-worker was depicted as having previously caused problems in the work team. In the first vignette, the co-worker did not change anything (control condition) when she returned to work; in the second, she asked for workplace adjustments; in the third vignette she initiated efforts to change her own behaviour; and the fourth vignette combined both workplace adjustments and behavioural change. Study participants were asked for their reactions towards the problematic co-worker. Vignettes that included a behavioural change evoked more positive reactions towards the co-worker than vignettes without any behavioural change. Asking for workplace adjustments alone did not yield more positive reactions compared to not initiating any change. When preparing employees with interactional problems for their return to work, it is not effective to only instruct them on their statutory entitlement for workplace adjustments. Instead, it is advisable to encourage them to proactively strive for behaviour changes.

  2. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument

  3. Empirical Evidence of Target Leverage, Adjustment Costs and Adjustment Speed of Non-Financial Firms in Selected African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Oyebola Fatima Etudaiye-Muhtar; Oyebola Fatima Etudaiye-Muhtar; Rubi Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The issue of target leverage for corporate firms in developing countries has received little attention in extant literature, especially countries in Africa. Given the imperfection that exists in African financial markets that may limit firms access to external capital, this study investigates dynamic adjustment towards a target debt ratio. In addition, the study used a dynamic panel data estimation technique to determine adjustment costs and speed of adjustment in non-financial firms in selec...

  4. Annual adjustments to 2015 financial benefits

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2014, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2015.

  5. Annual adjustments to 2016 financial benefits

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by the Council in December 2015, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2016.  

  6. Annual adjustments to 2014 financial benefits

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2013, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2014. HR Department

  7. Annual adjustments to 2013 financial benefits

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2012, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2013. HR Department

  8. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  9. Risk-adjusted morbidity in teaching hospitals correlates with reported levels of communication and collaboration on surgical teams but not with scale measures of teamwork climate, safety climate, or working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Daniel L; Henderson, William G; Mosca, Cecilia L; Khuri, Shukri F; Mentzer, Robert M

    2007-12-01

    Since the Institute of Medicine patient safety reports, a number of survey-based measures of organizational climate safety factors (OCSFs) have been developed. The goal of this study was to measure the impact of OCSFs on risk-adjusted surgical morbidity and mortality. Surveys were administered to staff on general/vascular surgery services during a year. Surveys included multiitem scales measuring OCSFs. Additionally, perceived levels of communication and collaboration with coworkers were assessed. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was used to assess risk-adjusted morbidity and mortality. Correlations between outcomes and OCSFs were calculated and between outcomes and communication/collaboration with attending and resident doctors, nurses, and other providers. Fifty-two sites participated in the survey: 44 Veterans Affairs and 8 academic medical centers. A total of 6,083 surveys were returned, for a response rate of 52%. The OCSF measures of teamwork climate, safety climate, working conditions, recognition of stress effects, job satisfaction, and burnout demonstrated internal validity but did not correlate with risk-adjusted outcomes. Reported levels of communication/collaboration with attending and resident doctors correlated with risk-adjusted morbidity. Survey-based teamwork, safety climate, and working conditions scales are not confirmed to measure organizational factors that influence risk-adjusted surgical outcomes. Reported communication/collaboration with attending and resident doctors on surgical services influenced patient morbidity. This suggests the importance of doctors' coordination and decision-making roles on surgical teams in providing high-quality and safe care. We propose risk-adjusted morbidity as an effective measure of surgical patient safety.

  10. Elevated phenylacetic acid levels do not correlate with adverse events in patients with urea cycle disorders or hepatic encephalopathy and can be predicted based on the plasma PAA to PAGN ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarani, M; Diaz, G A; Rhead, W; Berry, S A; Lichter-Konecki, U; Feigenbaum, A; Schulze, A; Longo, N; Bartley, J; Berquist, W; Gallagher, R; Smith, W; McCandless, S E; Harding, C; Rockey, D C; Vierling, J M; Mantry, P; Ghabril, M; Brown, R S; Dickinson, K; Moors, T; Norris, C; Coakley, D; Milikien, D A; Nagamani, S C; Lemons, C; Lee, B; Scharschmidt, B F

    2013-12-01

    Phenylacetic acid (PAA) is the active moiety in sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) and glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB, HPN-100). Both are approved for treatment of urea cycle disorders (UCDs) - rare genetic disorders characterized by hyperammonemia. PAA is conjugated with glutamine in the liver to form phenylacetyleglutamine (PAGN), which is excreted in urine. PAA plasma levels ≥ 500 μg/dL have been reported to be associated with reversible neurological adverse events (AEs) in cancer patients receiving PAA intravenously. Therefore, we have investigated the relationship between PAA levels and neurological AEs in patients treated with these PAA pro-drugs as well as approaches to identifying patients most likely to experience high PAA levels. The relationship between nervous system AEs, PAA levels and the ratio of plasma PAA to PAGN were examined in 4683 blood samples taken serially from: [1] healthy adults [2], UCD patients of ≥ 2 months of age, and [3] patients with cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The plasma ratio of PAA to PAGN was analyzed with respect to its utility in identifying patients at risk of high PAA values. Only 0.2% (11) of 4683 samples exceeded 500 μg/ml. There was no relationship between neurological AEs and PAA levels in UCD or HE patients, but transient AEs including headache and nausea that correlated with PAA levels were observed in healthy adults. Irrespective of population, a curvilinear relationship was observed between PAA levels and the plasma PAA:PAGN ratio, and a ratio>2.5 (both in μg/mL) in a random blood draw identified patients at risk for PAA levels>500 μg/ml. The presence of a relationship between PAA levels and reversible AEs in healthy adults but not in UCD or HE patients may reflect intrinsic differences among the populations and/or metabolic adaptation with continued dosing. The plasma PAA:PAGN ratio is a functional measure of the rate of PAA metabolism and represents a useful dosing biomarker. © 2013.

  11. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  12. Ratio of a strange quark mass ms to up or down quark mass mu,d predicted by a quark propagator in the framework of the chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jinsong; Meng Chengju; Pan Jihuan; Yuan Tongquan; Zhou Lijuan; Ma Weixing

    2013-01-01

    Based on the fully dressed quark propagator and chiral perturbation theory, we study the ratio of the strange quark mass m s to up or down quark mass m u,d . The ratio is related to the determination of quark masses which are fundamental input parameters of QCD Lagrangian in the Standard Model of particle physics and can not be directly measured since the quark is confined within a hadron. An accurate determination of these QCD free parameters is extremely important for both phenomenological and theoretical applications. We begin with a brief introduction to the non-perturbation QCD theory, and then study the mass ratio in the framework of the chiral perturbation theory (χPT) with a parameterized fully dressed quark propagator which describes confining fully dressed quark propagation and is analytic everywhere in the finite complex p 2 -plane and has no Lehmann representation so there are no quark production thresholds in any theoretical calculations of observable data. Our prediction for the ratio m s /m u,d is consistent with other model predictions such as Lattice QCD, instanton model, QCD sum rules and the empirical values used widely in the literature. As a by-product of this study, our theoretical results, together with other predictions of physical quantities that used this quark propagator in our previous publications, clearly show that the parameterized form of the fully dressed quark propagator is an applicable and reliable approximation to the solution of the Dyson-Schwinger Equation of quark propagator in the QCD. (authors)

  13. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2007-01-01

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio

  14. “It must be me” or “It could be them?” : The impact of the social network position of bullies and victims on victims' adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitsing, Gijs; Veenstra, René; Sainio, Miia; Salmivalli, Christina

    2012-01-01

    It was examined in this study whether the association between victimization and psychological adjustment (depression and self-esteem) is moderated by the classroom network position of bullies and victims. Multivariate multilevel regression analysis was used on a large sample representative of grades

  15. Role of Osmotic Adjustment in Plant Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebre, G.M.

    2001-01-11

    Successful implementation of short rotation woody crops requires that the selected species and clones be productive, drought tolerant, and pest resistant. Since water is one of the major limiting factors in poplar (Populus sp.) growth, there is little debate for the need of drought tolerant clones, except on the wettest of sites (e.g., lower Columbia River delta). Whether drought tolerance is compatible with productivity remains a debatable issue. Among the many mechanisms of drought tolerance, dehydration postponement involves the maintenance of high leaf water potential due to, for example, an adequate root system. This trait is compatible with productivity, but requires available soil moisture. When the plant leaf water potential and soil water content decline, the plant must be able to survive drought through dehydration tolerance mechanisms, such as low osmotic potential or osmotic adjustment. Osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potential are considered compatible with growth and yield because they aid in the maintenance of leaf turgor. However, it has been shown that turgor alone does not regulate cell expansion or stomatal conductance and, therefore, the role of osmotic adjustment is debated. Despite this finding, osmotic adjustment has been correlated with grain yield in agronomic crop species, and gene markers responsible for osmotic adjustment are being investigated to improve drought tolerance in productive progenies. Although osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potentials have been investigated in several forest tree species, few studies have investigated the relationship between osmotic adjustment and growth. Most of these studies have been limited to greenhouse or container-grown plants. Osmotic adjustment and rapid growth have been specifically associated in Populus and black spruce (Picea mariuna (Mill.) B.S.P.) progenies. We tested whether these relationships held under field conditions using several poplar clones. In a study of two hybrid poplar

  16. Adjustment and mental health problem in prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhinta Sinha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : "Crime" is increasing day by day in our society not only in India but also all over the world. In turn, the number of prisoners is also increasing at the same rate. They remain imprisoned for a long duration or in some cases for the whole life. Living in a prison for long time becomes difficult for all inmates. So they often face adjustment and mental health problems. Recent findings suggest that mental illness rate in prison is three times higher than in the general population. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the adjustment and the mental health problem and its relation in the prisoners. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 37 male prisoners of district jail of Dhanbad District of Jharkhand were selected on purposive sampling basis. Each prisoner was given specially designed Performa - Personal Data Sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Results: The results obtained showed poor adjustment in social and emotional areas on the adjustment scale. The study also revealed a significant association between adjustment and mental health problem in the prisoners. Conclusion: The prisoners were found to have poor social and emotional adjustment which has strong association with their mental health.

  17. 19 CFR 351.413 - Disregarding insignificant adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351..., constructed export price, or normal value, as the case may be. Groups of adjustments are adjustments for...

  18. Perceived parenting and adolescents’ adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Jaureguizar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adolescence is an important developmental period that is characterised by heightened problems of adjustment. The aim of this study is to analyse adolescents’ adjustment, and to explore the typologies and dimensions of parenting, and thus to determine the relationships between these factors. The sample comprised 1285 adolescent students aged 12 to 16 from the Basque Country (Spain. The students filled out the self-report of the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC and the Parental Acceptance-Rejection/Control Questionnaire, (PARQ/Control. Differences by age were found in the adolescents’ school maladjustment and parenting style perception. Moreover, perceptions of little parental warmth were related to higher levels of clinical and school maladjustment, and the lower the parental control, the greater the clinical maladjustment. Finally, the results obtained revealed that the interaction between the mothers’ and fathers’ parenting styles was significant only for clinical maladjustment; those students with neglectful mothers and authoritative fathers presented the highest level of clinical maladjustment, followed by other combinations of neglectful mothers. Furthermore, the students from neglectful and authoritarian families presented the highest levels of school maladjustment, without differences between neglectful and authoritarian or between indulgent and authoritative families.

  19. Colloid normalizes resuscitation ratio in pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraklas, Iris; Lam, Uyen; Cochran, Amalia; Stoddard, Gregory; Saffle, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burned children is challenging because of their small size and intolerance to over- or underresuscitation. Our American Burn Association-verified regional burn center has used colloid "rescue" as part of our pediatric resuscitation protocol. With Institutional Review Board approval, the authors reviewed children with ≥15% TBSA burns admitted from January 1, 2004, to May 1, 2009. Resuscitation was based on the Parkland formula, which was adjusted to maintain urine output. Patients requiring progressive increases in crystalloid were placed on a colloid protocol. Results were expressed as an hourly resuscitation ratio (I/O ratio) of fluid infusion (ml/kg/%TBSA/hr) to urine output (ml/kg/hr). We reviewed 53 patients; 29 completed resuscitation using crystalloid alone (lactated Ringer's solution [LR]), and 24 received colloid supplementation albumin (ALB). Groups were comparable in age, gender, weight, and time from injury to admission. ALB patients had more inhalation injuries and larger total and full-thickness burns. LR patients maintained a median I/O of 0.17 (range, 0.08-0.31), whereas ALB patients demonstrated escalating ratios until the institution of albumin produced a precipitous return of I/O comparable with that of the LR group. Hospital stay was lower for LR patients than ALB patients (0.59 vs 1.06 days/%TBSA, P = .033). Twelve patients required extremity or torso escharotomy, but this did not differ between groups. There were no decompressive laparotomies. The median resuscitation volume for ALB group was greater than LR group (9.7 vs 6.2 ml/kg/%TBSA, P = .004). Measuring hourly I/O is a helpful means of evaluating fluid demands during burn shock resuscitation. The addition of colloid restores normal I/O in pediatric patients.

  20. Financial ratios in diagnostic radiology practices: variability and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Christopher; Sunshine, Jonathan H

    2004-03-01

    To evaluate variation in financial ratios for radiology practices nationwide and trends in these ratios and in payments. In 1999, the American College of Radiology surveyed radiology practices by mail. The final response rate was 66%. Weighting was used to make responses representative of all radiology practices in the United States. Self-reported financial ratios (payments, charges, accounts receivable turnover) were analyzed; 449 responses had usable data on these ratios. Comparison with results of a similar 1992 survey and combined analysis with Medicare data on billed charges provided information on trends. All measures of payment collections declined sharply from 1992 to 1999, with the gross collections rate (revenues as percentage of billed charges) decreasing from 71% to 55%. Average payment for a typical radiology service decreased approximately 4% in dollar terms or approximately 19% in inflation-adjusted terms. In 1999, nonmetropolitan practices appeared to fare better than others. Among insurers, Medicaid stood out as a low and slow payer, but neither managed care nor Medicare had a consistent effect on financial ratios. The gross collections rate varied substantially across geographic areas, as did, in an inverse pattern, the level of billed charges. One-quarter of practices had accounts receivable equal to 90 or more days of billings. The opposing geographic pattern of billed charges and gross collection rate suggests that geographic variation in the latter is driven more by variation in billed charges than by variation in payment levels. Radiologists saw a substantial decrease in the real (inflation-adjusted) value of payment per service during the 1990s. The large fraction of practices with accounts receivable of 90 or more days of billings-a level considered potentially imprudent by financial management advisors-suggests that many practices should improve financial management and that state prompt-payment laws have not had a substantial positive

  1. Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

  2. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  3. Adjustment model of thermoluminescence experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno y Moreno, A.; Moreno B, A.

    2002-01-01

    This model adjusts the experimental results for thermoluminescence according to the equation: I (T) = I (a i * exp (-1/b i * (T-C i )) where: a i , b i , c i are the i-Th peak adjusted to a gaussian curve. The adjustments of the curve can be operated manual or analytically using the macro function and the solver.xla complement installed previously in the computational system. In this work it is shown: 1. The information of experimental data from a LiF curve obtained from the Physics Institute of UNAM which the data adjustment model is operated in the macro type. 2. A LiF curve of four peaks obtained from Harshaw information simulated in Microsoft Excel, discussed in previous works, as a reference not in macro. (Author)

  4. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  6. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers

  7. RATIO_TOOL - SOFTWARE FOR COMPUTING IMAGE RATIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, G. L.

    1994-01-01

    Geological studies analyze spectral data in order to gain information on surface materials. RATIO_TOOL is an interactive program for viewing and analyzing large multispectral image data sets that have been created by an imaging spectrometer. While the standard approach to classification of multispectral data is to match the spectrum for each input pixel against a library of known mineral spectra, RATIO_TOOL uses ratios of spectral bands in order to spot significant areas of interest within a multispectral image. Each image band can be viewed iteratively, or a selected image band of the data set can be requested and displayed. When the image ratios are computed, the result is displayed as a gray scale image. At this point a histogram option helps in viewing the distribution of values. A thresholding option can then be used to segment the ratio image result into two to four classes. The segmented image is then color coded to indicate threshold classes and displayed alongside the gray scale image. RATIO_TOOL is written in C language for Sun series computers running SunOS 4.0 and later. It requires the XView toolkit and the OpenWindows window manager (version 2.0 or 3.0). The XView toolkit is distributed with Open Windows. A color monitor is also required. The standard distribution medium for RATIO_TOOL is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. An electronic copy of the documentation is included on the program media. RATIO_TOOL was developed in 1992 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Sun, SunOS, and OpenWindows are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories.

  8. Adjustments for drink size and ethanol content: new results from a self-report diary and transdermal sensor validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Jason C; Greenfield, Thomas K; Patterson, Deidre; Kerr, William C

    2014-12-01

    Prior studies adjusting self-reported measures of alcohol intake for drink size and ethanol (EtOH) content have relied on single-point assessments. A prospective 28-day diary study investigated magnitudes of drink-EtOH adjustments and factors associated with these adjustments. Transdermal alcohol sensor (TAS) readings and prediction of alcohol-related problems by number of drinks versus EtOH-adjusted intake were used to validate drink-EtOH adjustments. Self-completed event diaries listed up to 4 beverage types and 4 drinking events/d. Eligible volunteers had ≥ weekly drinking and ≥3+ drinks per occasion with ≥26 reported days and pre- and postsummary measures (n = 220). Event reports included drink types, sizes, brands or spirits contents, venues, drinks consumed, and drinking duration. Wine drinks averaged 1.19, beer 1.09, and spirits 1.54 U.S. standard drinks (14 g EtOH). Mean-adjusted alcohol intake was 22% larger using drink size and strength (brand/EtOH concentration) data. Adjusted drink levels were larger than "raw" drinks in all quantity ranges. Individual-level drink-EtOH adjustment ratios (EtOH adjusted/unadjusted amounts) averaged across all days drinking ranged from 0.73 to 3.33 (mean 1.22). Adjustment ratio was only marginally (and not significantly) positively related to usual quantity, frequency, and heavy drinking (all ps alcohol dependence symptoms (p Alcoholism.

  9. Metric-adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    on a bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 ...We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states...... of (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information....

  10. Romanticism and Marital Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, Graham B.

    1972-01-01

    It is concluded that romanticism does not appear to be harmful to marriage relationships in particular or the family system in general, and is therefore not generally dysfunctional in our society. (Author)

  11. Global Carbon Reservoir Oxidative Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration move carbon and oxygen between the atmosphere and the biosphere at a ratio that is characteristic of the biogeochemical processes involved. This ratio is called the oxidative ratio (OR) of photosynthesis and respiration, and is defined as the ratio of moles of O2 per moles of CO2. This O2/CO2 ratio is a characteristic of biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes, much like the 13C signature of CO2 transferred between the biosphere and the atmosphere has a characteristic signature. OR values vary on a scale of 0 (CO2) to 2 (CH4), with most ecosystem values clustered between 0.9 and 1.2. Just as 13C can be measured for both carbon fluxes and carbon pools, OR can also be measured for fluxes and pools and can provide information about the processes involved in carbon and oxygen cycling. OR values also provide information about reservoir organic geochemistry because pool OR values are proportional to the oxidation state of carbon (Cox) in the reservoir. OR may prove to be a particularly valuable biogeochemical tracer because of its ability to couple information about ecosystem gas fluxes with ecosystem organic geochemistry. We have developed 3 methods to measure the OR of ecosystem carbon reservoirs and intercalibrated them to assure that they yield accurate, intercomparable data. Using these tools we have built a large enough database of biomass and soil OR values that it is now possible to consider the implications of global patterns in ecosystem OR values. Here we present a map of the natural range in ecosystem OR values and begin to consider its implications. One striking pattern is an apparent offset between soil and biospheric OR values: soil OR values are frequently higher than that of their source biomass. We discuss this trend in the context of soil organic geochemistry and gas fluxes.

  12. Influence of accommodative lag upon the far-gradient measurement of accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio in strabismic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Manabu; Hasebe, Satoshi; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    To determine the influence of the lag of accommodation (LOA) on the accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio measured by the far-gradient method in strabismic patients. The AC/A ratio was measured with a distance target viewed with and without -3.00 diopter (D) addition lenses in 63 patients with different types of strabismus (age range, 7-34 years; range of strabismic angle, -60 to +40 prism diopters; refractive error range, -7.33 to +6.63 D). The LOA for the same lens was measured with an open-view-type autorefractometer. The stimulus AC/A ratio and the AC/A ratio adjusted by the individually measured LOA (adjusted AC/A ratio) were compared. The mean +/- SD of the LOA to the -3.00 D lenses was 1.06 +/- 0.43 D. The mean adjusted AC/A ratio was 41% greater than the stimulus AC/A ratio. The LOA differed widely among patients (0.13 to 2.14 D), and a large LOA tended to appear in myopic or young patients. The AC/A ratio obtained using the conventional far-gradient method is significantly biased by the LOA, and thus does not always represent the actual relationship between accommodation and vergence control systems. Copyright Japanese Ophthalmological Society 2006.

  13. 5 CFR 847.705 - Cost-of-living adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost-of-living adjustments. 847.705... FUND INSTRUMENTALITIES Computation of Benefits Under the Retroactive Provisions § 847.705 Cost-of-living adjustments. Cost-of-living adjustments are applied to the rate payable to the retiree or survivor...

  14. Should adjustment disorder be conceptualized as transitional disorder? In pursuit of adjustment disorders definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelashvili, Moshe

    2012-12-01

    The DSM classification of an adjustment disorder is frequently criticized for not being well differentiated from other disorders. A possible reason for this is the vague definition of the term adjustment in social science literature. Hence, the current paper discusses the definition of adjustment and its implications for understanding maladjustment. Differential definitions of the terms adjustment, adaptation, socialization and coping are outlined, leading to the proposition that each one of them represents a different type of demand that is imposed on an individual who encounters a transitional event. Moreover, the four types of demands might be the possible sources of maladjustment. Helping people in transition requires an identification of the source, or combination of sources, that have led to the adjustment problem first, followed by the implementation of an adequate helping approach.

  15. A complete generalized adjustment criterion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perković, Emilija; Textor, Johannes; Kalisch, Markus; Maathuis, Marloes H.

    2015-01-01

    Covariate adjustment is a widely used approach to estimate total causal effects from observational data. Several graphical criteria have been developed in recent years to identify valid covariates for adjustment from graphical causal models. These criteria can handle multiple causes, latent

  16. Examining the validity of numerical ratios in loudness fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmer, Karin

    2005-01-01

    was to adjust the loudness of a 1-kHz tone so that it reached a certain prespecified fraction of the loudness of a reference tone. The results of the first experiment suggest that the listeners were indeed able to make adjustments on a ratio scale level. It was not possible, however, to interpret the nominal...

  17. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce. © 2009 Association for Psychological Science.

  18. 24 CFR 882.410 - Rent adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAM) SECTION 8 MODERATE REHABILITATION PROGRAMS Special Procedures for Moderate Rehabilitation-Basic... Annual Adjustment Factor by the base rents. However, if the amounts borrowed to finance the rehabilitation costs or to finance purchase of the property are subject to a variable rate or are otherwise...

  19. Control of Adjustable Compliant Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berno J.E. Misgeld

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Adjustable compliance or variable stiffness actuators comprise an additional element to elastically decouple the actuator from the load and are increasingly applied to human-centered robotic systems. The advantages of such actuators are of paramount importance in rehabilitation robotics, where requirements demand safe interaction between the therapy system and the patient. Compliant actuator systems enable the minimization of large contact forces arising, for example, from muscular spasticity and have the ability to periodically store and release energy in cyclic movements. In order to overcome the loss of bandwidth introduced by the elastic element and to guarantee a higher range in force/torque generation, new actuator designs consider variable or nonlinear stiffness elements, respectively. These components cannot only be adapted to the walking speed or the patient condition, but also entail additional challenges for feedback control. This paper introduces a novel design method for an impedance-based controller that fulfills the control objectives and compares the performance and robustness to a classical cascaded control approach. The new procedure is developed using a non-standard positive-real Η2 controller design and is applied to a loop-shaping approach. Robust norm optimal controllers are designed with regard to the passivity of the actuator load-impedance transfer function and the servo control problem. Classical cascaded and positive-real Η2 controller designs are validated and compared in simulations and in a test bench using a passive elastic element of varying stiffness.

  20. Mother's prior intrauterine position affects the sex ratio of her offspring in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbergh, J G; Huggett, C L

    1994-11-08

    Sex ratio alterations related to environmental factors occur in several mammals, but no mechanism has been identified to explain the adjustment. Intrauterine position (IUP) may provide the context in which such alterations occur. Previous studies on house mice and gerbils reveal that the position of a fetus in the uterus in relation to the sex of its neighbors influences its later anatomy, physiology, and behavior. The anogenital distance (AGD) of females located between two males (2M) is longer than that of females not between two males (OM). We have found that the IUP, as determined by cesarean section and by an index of the AGD, correlates with the sex ratio of the litters produced by female mice. The sex ratio of the first litter born to 2M females was 58% males, for 1M females was 51% males and for OM females was 42% males. The effect on sex ratio continues into the second litter. The number of pups produced by mothers of different IUPs in her first two litters did not differ, suggesting that the sex ratio adjustment occurs prior to parturition. These results provide a basis for the natural variability observed in sex ratios of litter-bearing mammals and suggest that one or more intrauterine mechanisms may be responsible for environmentally related sex ratio alterations.

  1. Energy Profit Ratio Compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

  2. 42 CFR 419.43 - Adjustments to national program payment and beneficiary copayment amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... departments within the hospital. (5) Cost-to-charge ratios for calculating charges adjusted to cost. For... to calculate an overall ancillary cost-to-charge ratio are not available to the Medicare contractor... calculating copayment amounts. (6) Outliers. The payment adjustment in paragraph (g)(2) of this section is...

  3. Fathers of children with cancer: involvement, coping, and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett Murphy, Laura M; Flowers, Stacy; McNamara, Kelly A; Young-Saleme, Tammi

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of fathers caring for children with cancer. Psychological adjustment, coping, and work patterns of mothers and fathers were described. Twenty fathers of children with cancer were compared with 20 mothers of children with cancer and 20 control fathers of healthy children. Questionnaire data were collected regarding coping, parental adjustment, child adjustment, and family involvement. Fathers did not differ from mothers or control fathers in terms of psychological adjustment or coping. However, fathers of children with cancer spent more hours at work and more hours caring for children than did control fathers. Paternal adjustment was significantly related to child adjustment only when the child had cancer. Coping was related to work outside the home for fathers and adjustment for mothers. Models of family adaptation may be different for fathers and mothers. Treatment teams must attend to the unique needs of fathers.

  4. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  5. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...... tighter bounding volume hierarchies and therefore fewer intersection checks. Computational results indicate that the efficiency of the adjustable chain trees is significantly improved compared to the traditional chain trees....

  6. Electronic gaming and psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K

    2014-09-01

    The rise of electronic games has driven both concerns and hopes regarding their potential to influence young people. Existing research identifies a series of isolated positive and negative effects, yet no research to date has examined the balance of these potential effects in a representative sample of children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to explore how time spent playing electronic games accounts for significant variation in positive and negative psychosocial adjustment using a representative cohort of children aged 10 to 15 years. A large sample of children and adolescents aged 10 to 15 years completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment and reported typical daily hours spent playing electronic games. Relations between different levels of engagement and indicators of positive and negative psychosocial adjustment were examined, controlling for participant age and gender and weighted for population representativeness. Low levels (3 hours daily) of game engagement was linked to key indicators of psychosocial adjustment. Low engagement was associated with higher life satisfaction and prosocial behavior and lower externalizing and internalizing problems, whereas the opposite was found for high levels of play. No effects were observed for moderate play levels when compared with non-players. The links between different levels of electronic game engagement and psychosocial adjustment were small (Games consistently but not robustly associated with children's adjustment in both positive and negative ways, findings that inform policy-making as well as future avenues for research in the area. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. An adjustable linear Halbach array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilton, J.E., E-mail: James.Hilton@csiro.au [CSIRO Mathematics, Informatics and Statistics, Clayton South, VIC 3169 (Australia); McMurry, S.M. [School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)

    2012-07-15

    The linear Halbach array is a well-known planar magnetic structure capable, in the idealized case, of generating a one-sided magnetic field. We show that such a field can be created from an array of uniformly magnetized rods, and rotating these rods in an alternating fashion can smoothly transfer the resultant magnetic field through the plane of the device. We examine an idealized model composed of infinite line dipoles and carry out computational simulations on a realizable device using a magnetic boundary element method. Such an arrangement can be used for an efficient latching device, or to produce a highly tunable field in the space above the device. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model an adjustable 'one-sided' flux sheet made up of a series of dipolar magnetic field sources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that magnetic field can be switched from one side of sheet to other by a swap rotation of each of magnetic sources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigations show that such an arrangement is practical and can easily be fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The design has a wide range of potential applications.

  8. An adjustable linear Halbach array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, J.E.; McMurry, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    The linear Halbach array is a well-known planar magnetic structure capable, in the idealized case, of generating a one-sided magnetic field. We show that such a field can be created from an array of uniformly magnetized rods, and rotating these rods in an alternating fashion can smoothly transfer the resultant magnetic field through the plane of the device. We examine an idealized model composed of infinite line dipoles and carry out computational simulations on a realizable device using a magnetic boundary element method. Such an arrangement can be used for an efficient latching device, or to produce a highly tunable field in the space above the device. - Highlights: ► We model an adjustable ‘one-sided’ flux sheet made up of a series of dipolar magnetic field sources. ► We show that magnetic field can be switched from one side of sheet to other by a swap rotation of each of magnetic sources. ► Investigations show that such an arrangement is practical and can easily be fabricated. ► The design has a wide range of potential applications.

  9. Adjustments to financial and social benefits

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee in November 2009 and decisions taken by the Council in December 2009, certain financial benefits have been adjusted with effect from 1 January 2010. An increase of 1.6% has been applied to the scale of basic salaries and to stipends paid to Fellows (Annexes R A 5 and R A 6 of the Staff Rules and Regulations, respectively). The adjusted amounts are available from the HR Department intranet site or from departmental secretariats. As a result of the evolution of the Geneva consumer price index, no adjustments have been made to the subsistence allowances of Paid Associates and Students (Annex R A 7 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). The following social benefits also remain unchanged: Family, child and infant allowances (Annex R A 3 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). Payment ceilings of education fees (Annex R A 4 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). Tel. 70674 (Classification and Remuneration Service)

  10. Output filters for AC adjustable speed drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Hanigovszki, Norbert; Landkildehus, Jorn, Jorn

    2007-01-01

    The standard industrial solution for adjustable speed drives (ASD) is the use of induction motors (IM) fed by voltage-source inverters (VSI). The inverter generates a pulsewidth modulated (PWM) voltage, with dv/dt values of about 6 kV/¿s or even more. In three-leg inverters for three-phase appli...

  11. 22 CFR 142.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... services and actions. Recipients need not provide attendants, individually prescribed devices, readers for... adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such... applicant or student. Academic requirements that the recipient can demonstrate are essential to the...

  12. 45 CFR 605.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... impairments, and other similar services and actions. Recipients need not provide attendents, individually... Postsecondary Education § 605.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this..., against a qualified handicapped applicant or student. Academic requirements that the recipient can...

  13. 15 CFR 8b.22 - Academic adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... actions. Recipients need not provide attendants, individually prescribed devices, readers for personal use... Secondary Education § 8b.22 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this..., against a qualified handicapped applicant or student. Academic requirements that the recipient can...

  14. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt... of coverage, or a change in coverage, under a Federal benefits program requiring periodic deductions...

  15. 40 CFR 91.112 - Requirement of certification-adjustable parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... adjustment in the physically available range. (b) An operating parameter is not considered adjustable if it... adjustable range during certification, production line testing, selective enforcement auditing or any in-use...

  16. [Adjustment disorder and DSM-5: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appart, A; Lange, A-K; Sievert, I; Bihain, F; Tordeurs, D

    2017-02-01

    This paper exposes the complexity and discrete characteristic of the adjustment disorder with reference to its clinical and scientific diagnosis. Even though the disorder occurs in frequent clinical circumstances after important life events, such as mobbing, burn-out, unemployment, divorce or separation, pregnancy denial, surgical operation or cancer, the adjustment disorder is often not considered in the diagnosis since better known disorders with similar symptoms prevail, such as major depression and anxiety disorder. Ten years ago, Bottéro had already noticed that the adjustment disorder diagnosis remained rather uncommon with reference to patients he was working with while Langlois assimilated this disorder with an invisible diagnosis. In order to maximize the data collection, we used the article review below and challenged their surveys and results: National Center for Biotechnology Information (NBCI - Pubmed) for international articles and Cairn.info for French literature. Moreover, we targeted the following keywords on the search engine and used articles, which had been published from 1 February 1975 to 31 January 2015: "adjustment", "adjustment disorder" and the French translation "trouble de l'adaptation". One hundred and ninety-one articles matched our search criteria. However, after a closer analysis, solely 105 articles were selected as being of interest. Many articles were excluded since they were related to non-psychiatric fields induced by the term "adaptation". Indeed, the number of corresponding articles found for the adjustment disorder literally pointed-out the lack of existing literature on that topic in comparison to more known disorders such as anxiety disorder (2661 articles) or major depression (5481 articles). This represents up to 50 times more articles in comparison to the number of articles we found on adjustment disorder and up to 20 times more articles for the eating disorder (1994), although the prevalence is not significantly

  17. A Low Peripheral Blood CD4/CD8 Ratio Is Associated with Pulmonary Emphysema in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplette, Matthew; Attia, Engi F; Akgün, Kathleen M; Soo Hoo, Guy W; Freiberg, Matthew S; Butt, Adeel A; Wongtrakool, Cherry; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Brown, Sheldon T; Graber, Christopher J; Huang, Laurence; Crothers, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of emphysema is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals compared to HIV-uninfected persons. While greater tobacco use contributes, HIV-related effects on immunity likely confer additional risk. Low peripheral blood CD4+ to CD8+ T-lymphocyte (CD4/CD8) ratio may reflect chronic inflammation in HIV and may be a marker of chronic lung disease in this population. Therefore, we sought to determine whether the CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly the emphysema subtype, in a cohort of HIV+ subjects. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 190 HIV+ subjects enrolled in the Examinations of HIV Associated Lung Emphysema (EXHALE) study. Subjects underwent baseline laboratory assessments, pulmonary function testing and chest computed tomography (CT) analyzed for emphysema severity and distribution. We determined the association between CD4/CD8 ratio and emphysema, and the association between CD4/CD8 ratio and pulmonary function markers of COPD. Mild or greater emphysema (>10% lung involvement) was present in 31% of subjects. Low CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with >10% emphysema in multivariable models, adjusting for risk factors including smoking, current and nadir CD4 count and HIV RNA level. Those with CD4/CD8 ratio 10% emphysema compared to those with a ratio >1.0 in fully adjusted models. A low CD4/CD8 ratio was also associated with reduced diffusion capacity (DLCO). A low CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with emphysema and low DLCO in HIV+ subjects, independent of other risk factors and clinical markers of HIV. The CD4/CD8 ratio may be a useful, clinically available, marker for risk of emphysema in HIV+ subjects in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era.

  18. Serum Uric Acid Levels and Uric Acid/Creatinine Ratios in Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients: Are These Parameters Efficient Predictors of Patients at Risk for Exacerbation and/or Severity of Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmus Kocak, Nagihan; Sasak, Gulsah; Aka Akturk, Ulku; Akgun, Metin; Boga, Sibel; Sengul, Aysun; Gungor, Sinem; Arinc, Sibel

    2016-11-03

    BACKGROUND Serum uric acid (sUA) levels were previously found to be correlated with hypoxic states. We aimed to determine the levels of sUA and sUA/creatinine ratios in stable COPD patients and to evaluate whether sUA level and sUA/creatinine ratio can be used as predictors of exacerbation risk and disease severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS This cross-sectional study included stable COPD patients and healthy controls. The sUA levels and sUA/creatinine ratios in each group were evaluated and their correlations with the study parameters were investigated. ROC analyses for exacerbation risk and disease severity were reported. RESULTS The study included 110 stable COPD patients and 52 healthy controls. The mean sUA levels and sUA/creatinine ratios were significantly higher in patients with COPD compared to healthy controls. The most common comorbidities in COPD patients were hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. While sUA levels were significantly higher in patients with hypertension (p=0.002) and malignancy (p=0.033), sUA/creatinine ratios was higher in patients with malignancy (p=0.004). The ROC analyses indicated that sUA/creatinine ratios can be more useful than sUA levels in predicting exacerbation risk (AUC, 0.586 vs. 0.426) and disease severity (AUC, 0.560 vs. 0.475) especially at higher cut-off values, but with low specificity. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggested that sUA levels and sUA/creatinine ratios increased in patients with stable COPD, especially among patients with certain comorbidities compared to healthy controls. At higher cut-off values, sUA levels and especially sUA/creatinine ratios, might be useful in predicting COPD exacerbation risk and disease severity. Also, their association with comorbidities, especially with malignancy and hypertension, may benefit from further investigation.

  19. Transformer ratio enhancement experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.; Power, J. G.; Kanareykin, A.; Neasheva, E.; Altmark, A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a multibunch scheme for efficient acceleration based on dielectric wakefield accelerator technology was outlined in J.G. Power, W. Gai, A. Kanareykin, X. Sun. PAC 2001 Proceedings, pp. 114-116, 2002. In this paper we present an experimental program for the design, development and demonstration of an Enhanced Transformer Ratio Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (ETR-DWA). The principal goal is to increase the transformer ratio R, the parameter that characterizes the energy transfer efficiency from the accelerating structure to the accelerated electron beam. We present here an experimental design of a 13.625 GHz dielectric loaded accelerating structure, a laser multisplitter producing a ramped bunch train, and simulations of the bunch train parameters required. Experimental results of the accelerating structure bench testing and ramped pulsed train generation with the laser multisplitter are shown as well. Using beam dynamic simulations, we also obtain the focusing FODO lattice parameters

  20. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  1. Kinematic synthesis of adjustable robotic mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuenchom, Thatchai

    1993-01-01

    Conventional hard automation, such as a linkage-based or a cam-driven system, provides high speed capability and repeatability but not the flexibility required in many industrial applications. The conventional mechanisms, that are typically single-degree-of-freedom systems, are being increasingly replaced by multi-degree-of-freedom multi-actuators driven by logic controllers. Although this new trend in sophistication provides greatly enhanced flexibility, there are many instances where the flexibility needs are exaggerated and the associated complexity is unnecessary. Traditional mechanism-based hard automation, on the other hand, neither can fulfill multi-task requirements nor are cost-effective mainly due to lack of methods and tools to design-in flexibility. This dissertation attempts to bridge this technological gap by developing Adjustable Robotic Mechanisms (ARM's) or 'programmable mechanisms' as a middle ground between high speed hard automation and expensive serial jointed-arm robots. This research introduces the concept of adjustable robotic mechanisms towards cost-effective manufacturing automation. A generalized analytical synthesis technique has been developed to support the computational design of ARM's that lays the theoretical foundation for synthesis of adjustable mechanisms. The synthesis method developed in this dissertation, called generalized adjustable dyad and triad synthesis, advances the well-known Burmester theory in kinematics to a new level. While this method provides planar solutions, a novel patented scheme is utilized for converting prescribed three-dimensional motion specifications into sets of planar projections. This provides an analytical and a computational tool for designing adjustable mechanisms that satisfy multiple sets of three-dimensional motion specifications. Several design issues were addressed, including adjustable parameter identification, branching defect, and mechanical errors. An efficient mathematical scheme for

  2. 75 FR 51978 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by phone: (202) 720-0638 or (202) 690- 0633: or by e-mail at: [email protected] ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site...

  3. 75 FR 42375 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA, by phone: (202) 720-0638, or (202) 690-0633; or by e-mail: [email protected] ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site...

  4. 50 CFR 648.77 - Framework adjustments to management measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.77 Framework adjustments to... add or adjust management measures within the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog FMP if it finds that... stratification, reports, and/or industry-funded observers or observer set-aside programs). (2) Council...

  5. Adjustments for drink size and ethanol content: New results from a self-report diary and trans-dermal sensor validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, J. C.; Greenfield, T. K.; Patterson, D.; Kerr, W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies adjusting self-reported measures of alcohol intake for drink size and ethanol content have relied on single-point assessments. Methods A prospective 28-day diary study investigated magnitudes of drink ethanol adjustments and factors associated with these adjustments. Transdermal alcohol sensor (TAS) readings and prediction of alcohol-related problems by number of drinks versus ethanol-adjusted intake were used to validate drink ethanol adjustments. Self-completed event diaries listed up to 4 beverage types and 4 drinking events/day. Eligible volunteers had ≥ weekly drinking and ≥ 3+ drinks per occasion with ≥ 26 reported days and pre- and post-summary measures (n = 220). Event reports included drink types, sizes, brands or spirits contents, venues, drinks consumed and drinking duration. Results Wine drinks averaged 1.19, beer, 1.09 and spirits 1.54 US standard drinks (14g ethanol). Mean adjusted alcohol intake was 22% larger using drink size and strength (brand/ethanol concentration) data. Adjusted drink levels were larger than “raw” drinks in all quantity ranges. Individual-level drink ethanol adjustment ratios (ethanol adjusted/unadjusted amounts) averaged across all days drinking ranged from 0.73-3.33 (mean 1.22). Adjustment ratio was only marginally (and not significantly) positively related to usual quantity, frequency and heavy drinking (all psalcohol dependence symptoms (p<.01) and number of consequences (p<.05). In 30 respondents with sufficiently high quality TAS readings, higher correlations (p=.04) were found between the adjusted vs. the raw drinks/event and TAS areas under the curve. Conclusions Absent drink size and strength data, intake assessments are downward biased by at least 20%. Between-subject variation in typical drink content and pour sizes should be addressed in treatment and epidemiological research. PMID:25581661

  6. Speed of adjustment and market structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between changes in costs and prices in the gasoline market in the Federal Republic of Germany for the period 1980-90. We shall use an econometric model, and distinguish two stages in the transmission of cost changes to prices. The first is the adjustment of gasoline prices ex-refinery to changes in the price of crude oil, and the second is the adjustment of gasoline price (net of taxes) at the pump to ex-refinery prices. The study of price adjustments to cost changes involves the analysis of two inter-related but different phenomena. The first is the speed of adjustment, defined here as the mean of the length of the time periods required for the transmission of the full effect of an exogenous shock from the independent to the dependent variable of the econometric model used in the analysis. The second relates to possible asymmetries in the response of prices to increases and decreases in costs. Both phenomena are closely related to the structure of the market. The common assumption is that the first is negatively correlated to the degree of competition, and that the second is an indication of the prevailing market structure. The main findings of this paper are as follows: (a) at the refinery level there is only weak evidence of asymmetrical reaction; the average lag in case of crude price increases or decreases is about three months; (b) at the consumers' level, the speed of adjustment was lower when the ex-refinery price was declining than when it was rising; the adjustment lag was about 6.07 months when ex-refinery prices were declining and 5.37 months when they were rising. (author)

  7. Fiscal Adjustment in IMF-Supported Adjustment Programmes: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiscal adjustment is an essential element of macro-economic stability and economic growth. Given that economic growth is the most powerful weapon in the fight for higher living standards, poor growth performance in African countries, has been a challenge to economists, policy makers and international development ...

  8. Acculturation, personality, and psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Stephan A; Puente-Díaz, Rogelio

    2011-12-01

    Two studies investigated relationships between traditional indicators of acculturation, cultural distance, acculturation strategies, and basic dimensions of personality as they pertain to psychological adjustment among Hispanic students. Although personality characteristics have been shown to be important determinants of psychological well-being, acculturation research has put less emphasis on the role of personality in the well-being of immigrants. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that basic dimensions of personality such as extraversion and neuroticism were strongly related to psychological adjustment. Acculturation strategies did not mediate the effect of personality variables, but cultural resistance made a small, independent contribution to the explanation of some aspects of negative psychological adjustment. The implications of the results were discussed.

  9. GPU Parallel Bundle Block Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Maoteng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To deal with massive data in photogrammetry, we introduce the GPU parallel computing technology. The preconditioned conjugate gradient and inexact Newton method are also applied to decrease the iteration times while solving the normal equation. A brand new workflow of bundle adjustment is developed to utilize GPU parallel computing technology. Our method can avoid the storage and inversion of the big normal matrix, and compute the normal matrix in real time. The proposed method can not only largely decrease the memory requirement of normal matrix, but also largely improve the efficiency of bundle adjustment. It also achieves the same accuracy as the conventional method. Preliminary experiment results show that the bundle adjustment of a dataset with about 4500 images and 9 million image points can be done in only 1.5 minutes while achieving sub-pixel accuracy.

  10. [Relationship between family variables and conjugal adjustment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Picón, Nerea; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín-Salvador; Lima-Serrano, Marta

    2018-04-01

    To determine whether family variables, such as type of relationship, years of marriage, existence of offspring, number of members of family, stage of family life cycle, transition between stages, perceived social support, and/or stressful life events are related to conjugal adjustment. A cross-sectional and correlational study using questionnaires. Primary care and hospital units of selected centres in the province of Seville, Spain. Consecutive stratified sampling by quotas of 369 heterosexual couples over 18years of age, who maintained a relationship, with or without children, living in Seville. A self-report questionnaire for the sociodemographic variables, and the abbreviated version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Questionnaire MOS Perceived Social Support, and Social Readjustment Rating Scale, were used. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed with correlation analysis and multivariate regression. Statistically significant associations were found between conjugal adjustment and marriage years (r=-10: Pfamily life cycle (F=2.65; Pfamily life cycle stage (mature-aged stage) on conjugal adjustment (R2=.21; F=9.9; df=356; Prelationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Frequency adjustable MEMS vibration energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, P.; Constantinou, P.; Amann, A.; Roy, S.

    2016-10-01

    Ambient mechanical vibrations offer an attractive solution for powering the wireless sensor nodes of the emerging “Internet-of-Things”. However, the wide-ranging variability of the ambient vibration frequencies pose a significant challenge to the efficient transduction of vibration into usable electrical energy. This work reports the development of a MEMS electromagnetic vibration energy harvester where the resonance frequency of the oscillator can be adjusted or tuned to adapt to the ambient vibrational frequency. Micro-fabricated silicon spring and double layer planar micro-coils along with sintered NdFeB micro-magnets are used to construct the electromagnetic transduction mechanism. Furthermore, another NdFeB magnet is adjustably assembled to induce variable magnetic interaction with the transducing magnet, leading to significant change in the spring stiffness and resonance frequency. Finite element analysis and numerical simulations exhibit substantial frequency tuning range (25% of natural resonance frequency) by appropriate adjustment of the repulsive magnetic interaction between the tuning and transducing magnet pair. This demonstrated method of frequency adjustment or tuning have potential applications in other MEMS vibration energy harvesters and micromechanical oscillators.

  12. Frequency adjustable MEMS vibration energy harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podder, P; Constantinou, P; Roy, S; Amann, A

    2016-01-01

    Ambient mechanical vibrations offer an attractive solution for powering the wireless sensor nodes of the emerging “Internet-of-Things”. However, the wide-ranging variability of the ambient vibration frequencies pose a significant challenge to the efficient transduction of vibration into usable electrical energy. This work reports the development of a MEMS electromagnetic vibration energy harvester where the resonance frequency of the oscillator can be adjusted or tuned to adapt to the ambient vibrational frequency. Micro-fabricated silicon spring and double layer planar micro-coils along with sintered NdFeB micro-magnets are used to construct the electromagnetic transduction mechanism. Furthermore, another NdFeB magnet is adjustably assembled to induce variable magnetic interaction with the transducing magnet, leading to significant change in the spring stiffness and resonance frequency. Finite element analysis and numerical simulations exhibit substantial frequency tuning range (25% of natural resonance frequency) by appropriate adjustment of the repulsive magnetic interaction between the tuning and transducing magnet pair. This demonstrated method of frequency adjustment or tuning have potential applications in other MEMS vibration energy harvesters and micromechanical oscillators. (paper)

  13. Waist and hip circumferences and all-cause mortality: usefulness of the waist-to-hip ratio?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, J.; Frederiksen, K.; Tjønneland, A.

    2004-01-01

    inverse for both men and women, but only after adjustment for waist circumference, or BMI, or both. The mortality rate ratios of mutually adjusted waist and hip circumferences were 0.63 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.71), and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.79) times higher per 10% larger hip circumference in men and women......, respectively, and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.34, 1.57) and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.31) times higher per 10% larger waist circumference. The adequacy of the waist-to-hip ratio as a substitute for separate measurements of waist and hip circumferences depended on which other variables the analysis was adjusted for, indicating...... that the waist-to-hip ratio should be used with precaution. CONCLUSION: When mutually adjusted, waist and hip circumferences show opposite associations with all-cause mortality, probably due to different effects of adipose tissue in the abdominal and gluteofemoral regions. The waist-to-hip ratio cannot always...

  14. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  15. Latino risk-adjusted mortality in the men screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Avis J; Eberly, Lynn E; Neaton, James D; Smith, George Davey

    2005-09-15

    Latinos are now the largest minority in the United States, but their distinctive health needs and mortality patterns remain poorly understood. Proportional hazards regressions were used to compare Latino versus White risk- and income-adjusted mortality over 25 years' follow-up from 5,846 Latino and 300,647 White men screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Men were aged 35-57 years and residing in 14 states when screened in 1973-1975. Data on coronary heart disease risk factors, self-reported race/ethnicity, and home addresses were obtained at baseline; income was estimated by linking addresses to census data. Mortality follow-up through 1999 was obtained using the National Death Index. The fully adjusted Latino/White hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 0.87), based on 1,085 Latino and 73,807 White deaths; this pattern prevailed over time and across states (thus, likely across Latino subgroups). Hazard ratios were significantly greater than one for stroke (hazard ratio = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.68), liver cancer (hazard ratio = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.37), and infection (hazard ratio = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.32). A substudy found only minor racial/ethnic differences in the quality of Social Security numbers, birth dates, soundex-adjusted names, and National Death Index searches. Results were not likely an artifact of return migration or incomplete mortality data.

  16. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Andrew A.

    1984-01-01

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine.

  17. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as a marker of systemic endothelial dysfunction in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Urbistondo, Diego; Beltrán, Almudena; Beloqui, Oscar; Huerta, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio has demonstrated to be a prognostic inflammatory marker in cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and pathologic urinary albumin/creatinine ratio as an early marker of cardiovascular risk and systemic endothelial dysfunction, associated with microvascular disease, in asymptomatic subjects. A unicenter cross-sectional study was conducted, including 1816 asymptomatic subjects. Patients with previous cardiovascular disease, those who were treated with ACE inhibitors and/or angiotensin II receptor blockers and patients with albumin/creatinine ratio over 300mg/g were excluded. The outcome of the study was the presence of a pathologic urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly associated with altered urinary albumin/creatinine ratio in the univariate analysis and after adjustment for other known endothelial and cardiovascular risk factors (age, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes or altered glomerular filtration rate). Based on the sensitivity and specificity of different neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio thresholds, 3 risk groups were created for altered urinary albumin/creatinine ratio: low risk in those with neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio 3. These groups were found to have a statistically significant and independent prognostic power for altered urinary albumin/creatinine ratio in asymptomatic patients. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio appears to be a cost-efficient, non-invasive and independent potential marker of systemic endothelial dysfunction in asymptomatic subjects. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Poisson sampling - The adjusted and unadjusted estimator revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Williams; Hans T. Schreuder; Gerardo H. Terrazas

    1998-01-01

    The prevailing assumption, that for Poisson sampling the adjusted estimator "Y-hat a" is always substantially more efficient than the unadjusted estimator "Y-hat u" , is shown to be incorrect. Some well known theoretical results are applicable since "Y-hat a" is a ratio-of-means estimator and "Y-hat u" a simple unbiased estimator...

  19. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  20. A Study on the Effects of Compression Ratio, Engine Speed and Equivalence Ratio on HCCI Combustion of DME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr; Schramm, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study has been carried out on the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion of Dimethyl Ether (DME). The study was performed as a parameter variation of engine speed and compression ratio on excess air ratios of approximately 2.5, 3 and 4. The compression ratio...... was adjusted in steps to find suitable regions of operation, and the effect of engine speed was studied at 1000, 2000 and 3000 RPM. It was found that leaner excess air ratios require higher compression ratios to achieve satisfactory combustion. Engine speed also affects operation significantly....

  1. Optimization of E-DCH channel power ratios to maximize link level efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarco, Carlos Ruben Delgado; Malone, Jaime Tito; Wigard, Jeroen

    2006-01-01

    For the WCDMA/HSUPA concept, a key to ensuring high spectral efficiency is to correctly adjust the transmission power ratios among the data and control channels. This paper provides optimal values for the power ratio between the Enhanced-Dedicated Physical Data Channel (E-DPDCH) and the Dedicated...... rate (typical values ranging from 8.1 to 9.9 dB) and the RSN target (maintaining or decreasing their value as the target increases). These results show that it is more link efficient to increase the DPCCH transmission power with the bit rate (and the E-DPDCH's by applying the power ratio) than...... to maintain a constant DPCCH transmission power and just increase the EDPDCH to DPCCH power ratio....

  2. Kinematic adjustments to seismic recordings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, A.N.; Levii, N.V.; Volovik, U.M.

    1981-01-01

    The introduction of kinematic adjustments by adding the displaced blocks is studied theoretically and in test seismograms. The advantage to this method resulting from the weight variation in the trace is demonstrated together with its kinematic drawback. A variation on the displaced block addition method that does not involve realignment of the travel time curves and that has improved amplitude characteristics is proposed.

  3. 75 FR 59683 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office... for Farmers Program Staff, Office of Trade Programs, FAS, USDA; or by phone at (202) 720-0638, or (202...

  4. Enhancing the wettability of high aspect-ratio through-silicon vias lined with LPCVD silicon nitride or PE-ALD titanium nitride for void-free bottom-up copper electroplating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saadaoui, M.; Zeijl, H. van; Wien, W.H.A.; Pham, H.T.M.; Kwakernaak, C.; Knoops, H.C.M.; Erwin Kessels, W.M.M.; Sanden, R.M.C.M. van de; Voogt, F.C.; Roozeboom, F.; Sarro, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the critical steps toward producing void-free and uniform bottom-up copper electroplating in high aspect-ratio (AR) through-silicon vias (TSVs) is the ability of the copper electrolyte to spontaneously flow through the entire depth of the via. This can be accomplished by reducing the

  5. Enhancing the Wettability of High Aspect-Ratio Through-Silicon Vias Lined with LPCVD Silicon Nitride or PE-ALD Titanium Nitride for Void-Free Bottom-Up Copper Electroplating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saadaoui, M.; van Zeijl, H.; Wien, W. H. A.; Pham, H. T. M.; Kwakernaak, C.; Knoops, H. C. M.; Kessels, W. M. M.; R. van de Sanden,; Voogt, F. C.; Roozeboom, F.; Sarro, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the critical steps toward producing void-free and uniform bottom-up copper electroplating in high aspect-ratio (AR) through-silicon vias (TSVs) is the ability of the copper electrolyte to spontaneously flow through the entire depth of the via. This can be accomplished by reducing the

  6. Professional Fee Ratios for US Hospital Discharge Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cora; Xu, Likang; Florence, Curtis; Grosse, Scott D; Annest, Joseph L

    2015-10-01

    US hospital discharge datasets typically report facility charges (ie, room and board), excluding professional fees (ie, attending physicians' charges). We aimed to estimate professional fee ratios (PFR) by year and clinical diagnosis for use in cost analyses based on hospital discharge data. The subjects consisted of a retrospective cohort of Truven Health MarketScan 2004-2012 inpatient admissions (n=23,594,605) and treat-and-release emergency department (ED) visits (n=70,771,576). PFR per visit was assessed as total payments divided by facility-only payments. Using ordinary least squares regression models controlling for selected characteristics (ie, patient age, comorbidities, etc.), we calculated adjusted mean PFR for admissions by health insurance type (commercial or Medicaid) per year overall and by Major Diagnostic Category (MDC), Diagnostic Related Group, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Clinical Classification Software, and primary International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis, and for ED visits per year overall and by MDC and primary ICD-9-CM diagnosis. Adjusted mean PFR for 2012 admissions, including preceding ED visits, was 1.264 (95% CI, 1.264, 1.265) for commercially insured admissions (n=2,614,326) and 1.177 (1.176, 1.177) for Medicaid admissions (n=816,503), indicating professional payments increased total per-admission payments by an average 26.4% and 17.7%, respectively, above facility-only payments. Adjusted mean PFR for 2012 ED visits was 1.286 (1.286, 1.286) for commercially insured visits (n=8,808,734) and 1.440 (1.439, 1.440) for Medicaid visits (n=2,994,696). Supplemental tables report 2004-2012 annual PFR estimates by clinical classifications. Adjustments for professional fees are recommended when hospital facility-only financial data from US hospital discharge datasets are used to estimate health care costs.

  7. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  8. Reduced brain/serum glucose ratios predict cerebral metabolic distress and mortality after severe brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Pedro; Claassen, Jan; Schmidt, J Michael; Helbok, Raimund; Hanafy, Khalid A; Presciutti, Mary; Lantigua, Hector; Connolly, E Sander; Lee, Kiwon; Badjatia, Neeraj; Mayer, Stephan A

    2013-12-01

    The brain is dependent on glucose to meet its energy demands. We sought to evaluate the potential importance of impaired glucose transport by assessing the relationship between brain/serum glucose ratios, cerebral metabolic distress, and mortality after severe brain injury. We studied 46 consecutive comatose patients with subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, or cardiac arrest who underwent cerebral microdialysis and intracranial pressure monitoring. Continuous insulin infusion was used to maintain target serum glucose levels of 80-120 mg/dL (4.4-6.7 mmol/L). General linear models of logistic function utilizing generalized estimating equations were used to relate predictors of cerebral metabolic distress (defined as a lactate/pyruvate ratio [LPR] ≥ 40) and mortality. A total of 5,187 neuromonitoring hours over 300 days were analyzed. Mean serum glucose was 133 mg/dL (7.4 mmol/L). The median brain/serum glucose ratio, calculated hourly, was substantially lower (0.12) than the expected normal ratio of 0.40 (brain 2.0 and serum 5.0 mmol/L). In addition to low cerebral perfusion pressure (P = 0.05) and baseline Glasgow Coma Scale score (P brain/serum glucose ratios below the median of 0.12 were independently associated with an increased risk of metabolic distress (adjusted OR = 1.4 [1.2-1.7], P brain/serum glucose ratios were also independently associated with in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR = 6.7 [1.2-38.9], P brain/serum glucose ratios, consistent with impaired glucose transport across the blood brain barrier, are associated with cerebral metabolic distress and increased mortality after severe brain injury.

  9. Birth-Order Complementarity and Marital Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Cornelia J. Vanderkooy; Hayden, Delbert J.

    1985-01-01

    Tested the influence of birth-order complementarity on marital adjustment among 327 married women using the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (1976). Birth-order complementarity was found to be unassociated with marital adjustment. (Author/BL)

  10. Sequential boundaries approach in clinical trials with unequal allocation ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayatollahi Seyyed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical trials, both unequal randomization design and sequential analyses have ethical and economic advantages. In the single-stage-design (SSD, however, if the sample size is not adjusted based on unequal randomization, the power of the trial will decrease, whereas with sequential analysis the power will always remain constant. Our aim was to compare sequential boundaries approach with the SSD when the allocation ratio (R was not equal. Methods We evaluated the influence of R, the ratio of the patients in experimental group to the standard group, on the statistical properties of two-sided tests, including the two-sided single triangular test (TT, double triangular test (DTT and SSD by multiple simulations. The average sample size numbers (ASNs and power (1-β were evaluated for all tests. Results Our simulation study showed that choosing R = 2 instead of R = 1 increases the sample size of SSD by 12% and the ASN of the TT and DTT by the same proportion. Moreover, when R = 2, compared to the adjusted SSD, using the TT or DTT allows to retrieve the well known reductions of ASN observed when R = 1, compared to SSD. In addition, when R = 2, compared to SSD, using the TT and DTT allows to obtain smaller reductions of ASN than when R = 1, but maintains the power of the test to its planned value. Conclusion This study indicates that when the allocation ratio is not equal among the treatment groups, sequential analysis could indeed serve as a compromise between ethicists, economists and statisticians.

  11. The Liquidity Coverage Ratio: the need for further complementary ratios?

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers components of the Liquidity Coverage Ratio – as well as certain prevailing gaps which may necessitate the introduction of a complementary liquidity ratio. The definitions and objectives accorded to the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) highlight the focus which is accorded to time horizons for funding bank operations. A ratio which would focus on the rate of liquidity transformations and which could also serve as a complementary metric gi...

  12. FINANCIAL RATIOS – REVEAL HOW A BUSINESS IS DOING?

    OpenAIRE

    MIRELA MONEA

    2009-01-01

    The paper aims to present the main financial ratios which provide a picture about company’s profitability, its financial position, use of its assets efficiency, its long-term debt financing. Discussion is focused on: profitability ratios, short-term financial ratios, activity ratios, long-term debt ratios or dividend policy ratios. Also, will try to answer at the following main questions: What financial ratios analysis tells us? What the users of these needs to know?

  13. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Meghan A.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers’ and fathers’ parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perf...

  14. Risk adjustment for case mix and the effect of surgeon volume on morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Matthew B; Jaff, Michael R; Rordorf, Guy A

    2013-06-01

    Retrospective studies of large administrative databases have shown higher mortality for procedures performed by low-volume surgeons, but the adequacy of risk adjustment in those studies is in doubt. To determine whether the relationship between surgeon volume and outcomes is an artifact of case mix using a prospective sample of carotid endarterectomy cases. Observational cohort study from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2010, with preoperative, immediate postoperative, and 30-day postoperative assessments acquired by independent monitors. Urban, tertiary academic medical center. All 841 patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy performed by a vascular surgeon or cerebrovascular neurosurgeon at the institution. Carotid endarterectomy without another concurrent surgery. Stroke, death, and other surgical complications occurring within 30 days of surgery along with other case data. A low-volume surgeon performed 40 or fewer cases per year. Variables used in a comparison administrative database study, as well as variables identified by our univariate analysis, were used for adjusted analyses to assess for an association between low-volume surgeons and the rate of stroke and death as well as other complications. RESULTS The rate of stroke and death was 6.9% for low-volume surgeons and 2.0% for high-volume surgeons (P = .001). Complications were similarly higher (13.4% vs 7.2%, P = .008). Low-volume surgeons performed more nonelective cases. Low-volume surgeons were significantly associated with stroke and death in the unadjusted analysis as well as after adjustment with variables used in the administrative database study (odds ratio, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.70-7.67, and odds ratio, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.72-7.89, respectively). However, adjusting for the significant disparity of American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status classification in case mix eliminated the effect of surgeon volume on the rate of stroke and death (odds ratio, 1.65; 95% CI, 0.59-4.64) and other

  15. The Mediating Role of Psychological Adjustment between Peer Victimization and Social Adjustment in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romera, Eva M; Gómez-Ortiz, Olga; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive scientific evidence of the serious psychological and social effects that peer victimization may have on students, among them internalizing problems such as anxiety or negative self-esteem, difficulties related to low self-efficacy and lower levels of social adjustment. Although a direct relationship has been observed between victimization and these effects, it has not yet been analyzed whether there is a relationship of interdependence between all these measures of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between victimization and difficulties related to social adjustment among high school students. To do so, various explanatory models were tested to determine whether psychological adjustment (negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy) could play a mediating role in this relationship, as suggested by other studies on academic adjustment. The sample comprised 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age = 14.34). The instruments used were the scale of victimization from European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire , the negative scale from Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a general item about social self-efficacy, all of them self-reports. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results confirmed the partial mediating role of negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy between peer victimization and social adjustment and highlight the importance of empowering victimized students to improve their self-esteem and self-efficacy and prevent social anxiety. Such problems lead to the avoidance of social interactions and social reinforcement, thus making it difficult for these students to achieve adequate social adjustment.

  16. The Mediating Role of Psychological Adjustment between Peer Victimization and Social Adjustment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M. Romera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is extensive scientific evidence of the serious psychological and social effects that peer victimization may have on students, among them internalizing problems such as anxiety or negative self-esteem, difficulties related to low self-efficacy and lower levels of social adjustment. Although a direct relationship has been observed between victimization and these effects, it has not yet been analyzed whether there is a relationship of interdependence between all these measures of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between victimization and difficulties related to social adjustment among high school students. To do so, various explanatory models were tested to determine whether psychological adjustment (negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy could play a mediating role in this relationship, as suggested by other studies on academic adjustment. The sample comprised 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age = 14.34. The instruments used were the scale of victimization from European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire, the negative scale from Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a general item about social self-efficacy, all of them self-reports. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results confirmed the partial mediating role of negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy between peer victimization and social adjustment and highlight the importance of empowering victimized students to improve their self-esteem and self-efficacy and prevent social anxiety. Such problems lead to the avoidance of social interactions and social reinforcement, thus making it difficult for these students to achieve adequate social adjustment.

  17. Primary sex ratio adjustment by ant queens in response to local mate competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Menten, Ludivine; Cremer, Sylvia; Heinze, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    In the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, wingless males compete with nestmate males for access to female mating partners, leading to local mate competition (LMC). Queen number varies between colonies, resulting in variation in the strength of LMC. Cremer & Heinze (2002, Proceedings of the Royal Society...

  18. Testing Measurement Invariance Using MIMIC: Likelihood Ratio Test with a Critical Value Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sook; Yoon, Myeongsun; Lee, Taehun

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-indicators multiple-causes (MIMIC) modeling is often used to test a latent group mean difference while assuming the equivalence of factor loadings and intercepts over groups. However, this study demonstrated that MIMIC was insensitive to the presence of factor loading noninvariance, which implies that factor loading invariance should be…

  19. Comparison of skeletal muscle mass to fat-free mass ratios among different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, T; Bemben, M G; Kondo, M; Kawakami, Y; Fukunaga, T

    2012-01-01

    Asians seem to have less skeletal muscle mass (SMM) than other ethnic groups, but it is not clear whether relative SMM, i.e., SMM / height square or SMM to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio, differs among different ethnic groups at the same level of body mass index (BMI). To compare the SMM to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio as well as anthropometric variables and body composition among 3 ethnic groups. Three hundred thirty-nine Japanese, 343 Brazilian, and 183 German men and women were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Muscle thickness (MTH) and subcutaneous fat thickness (FTH) were measured by ultrasound at nine sites on the anterior and posterior aspects of the body. FTH was used to estimate the body density, from which fat mass and fat-free mass (FFM) was calculated by using Brozek equation. Total SMM was estimated from ultrasound-derived prediction equations. Percentage body fat was similar among the ethnic groups in men, while Brazilians were higher than Japanese in women. In German men and women, absolute SMM and FFM were higher than in their Japanese and Brazilians counterparts. SMM index and SMM:FFM ratios were similar among the ethnic groups in women, excluding SMM:FFM ratio in Brazilian. In men, however, these relative values (SMM index and SMM:FFM ratio) were still higher in Germans. After adjusting for age and BMI, the SMM index and SMM:FFM ratios were lower in Brazilian men and women compared with the other two ethnic groups, while the SMM index and SMM:FFM ratios were similar in Japanese and German men and women, excluding SMM:FFM ratio in women. Our results suggest that relative SMM is not lower in Asian populations compared with European populations after adjusted by age and BMI.

  20. Trade Adjustments to Exchange Rate Changes by Japanese Manufacturing MNEs: Intra-firm and arm's length transactions

    OpenAIRE

    ANDO Mitsuyo; KIMURA Fukunari

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how Japanese manufacturing multinational enterprises (MNEs) adjust to exchange rate changes. Using the micro-data of Japanese manufacturing MNEs from 1994 to 2010, we find that exports tend to respond to exchange rate changes, in particular when wholly or majority-owned affiliates are dominant among their foreign affiliates and when intra-firm trade ratios are higher. Moreover, the responsiveness to exchange rate changes is higher for intra-firm exports than for total expo...

  1. The Relationship between the Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Young-Kwang; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Jung, Yo-Han; Kang, Hee-Cheol

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with cardiovascular diseases and is characterized by insulin resistance. Recent studies suggest that the triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDLC) ratio predicts insulin resistance better than individual lipid levels, including TG, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), or HDLC. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between the TG/HDLC ratio and metabolic syndrome in the general Korean population. We evaluated the data of adults ≥20 years old who were enrolled in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2013 and 2014. Subjects with angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, stroke, or cancer were excluded. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the harmonized definition. We examined the odds ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome according to TG/HDLC ratio quartiles using logistic regression analysis (SAS ver. 9.4; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Weighted complex sample analysis was also conducted. We found a significant association between the TG/HDLC ratio and metabolic syndrome. The cutoff value of the TG/HDLC ratio for the fourth quartile was ≥3.52. After adjustment, the OR for metabolic syndrome in the fourth quartile compared with that of the first quartile was 29.65 in men and 20.60 in women (Pmetabolic syndrome.

  2. Social and Emotional Adjustment of Siblings of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilowsky, Tammy; Yirmiya, Nurit; Doppelt, Osnat; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Shalev, Ruth S.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Social and emotional adjustment of siblings of children with autism was examined, to explore their risk or resilience to effects of genetic liability and environmental factors involved in having a sibling with autism. Method: Social-emotional adjustment, behavior problems, socialization skills, and siblings' relationships were compared…

  3. Psychological Adjustment in Bullies and Victims of School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Estefania; Murgui, Sergio; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined psychosocial adjustment in the following four groups of students: victims, bullies, bully/victims and a control group of adolescents not involved in bullying or victimization problems. Psychosocial adjustment was measured considering as indicators: level of self-esteem, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress,…

  4. 75 FR 48931 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... assistance and cash benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers....usda.gov ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: July 30, 2010...

  5. 75 FR 49458 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... and cash benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program....gov ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: August 3, 2010...

  6. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate adjustments. 4287.112 Section 4287.112... Loans § 4287.112 Interest rate adjustments. (a) Reductions. The borrower, lender, and holder (if any) may collectively initiate a permanent or temporary reduction in the interest rate of the guaranteed...

  7. 37 CFR 381.10 - Cost of living adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost of living adjustment... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.10 Cost of living adjustment. (a) On or before December 1, 2007, the Copyright Royalty Judges shall publish in the Federal Register a notice of the change in the cost of living as...

  8. Impact of Race/Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status on Risk-Adjusted Hospital Readmission Rates Following Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martsolf, Grant R; Barrett, Marguerite L; Weiss, Audrey J; Kandrack, Ryan; Washington, Raynard; Steiner, Claudia A; Mehrotra, Ateev; SooHoo, Nelson F; Coffey, Rosanna

    2016-08-17

    Readmission rates following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are increasingly used to measure hospital performance. Readmission rates that are not adjusted for race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, patient risk factors beyond a hospital's control, may not accurately reflect a hospital's performance. In this study, we examined the extent to which risk-adjusting for race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status affected hospital performance in terms of readmission rates following THA and TKA. We calculated 2 sets of risk-adjusted readmission rates by (1) using the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services standard risk-adjustment algorithm that incorporates patient age, sex, comorbidities, and hospital effects and (2) adding race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status to the model. Using data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, 2011 State Inpatient Databases, we compared the relative performances of 1,194 hospitals across the 2 methods. Addition of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status to the risk-adjustment algorithm resulted in (1) little or no change in the risk-adjusted readmission rates at nearly all hospitals; (2) no change in the designation of the readmission rate as better, worse, or not different from the population mean at >99% of the hospitals; and (3) no change in the excess readmission ratio at >97% of the hospitals. Inclusion of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status in the risk-adjustment algorithm led to a relative-performance change in readmission rates following THA and TKA at socioeconomic status in risk-adjusted THA and TKA readmission rates used for hospital accountability, payment, and public reporting. Prognostic Level III. See instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  9. Impact of Inflation Accounting Application on Key Financial Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın KARAPINAR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of inflation accounting on key financal ratios. To this end, the financial statements of 132 companies listed in the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE are studied. An analyis of paired samples t test has been conducted on the financial ratios of the companies. The results show that a significant difference between adjusted cost based financial ratios and historical cost based financial ratios occurs only for current, ratios, equity ratios and noncurrent turnover ratios. The study does not cover companies operating in the financial sector. The companies reporting in accordance with IFRS for the studied periods that spans 2001-2004 are not included in the study either. The study offers valuable information as to analysing companies operating in hiper inflation economies.

  10. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b) The...

  11. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio or the ratio of boys over girls at birth have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews, Johnson and Neil (2008) studied the direct evidence of individual pregnancies and

  12. The Golden Ratio--A Contrary Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Clement

    2005-01-01

    Many assertions about the occurrence of the golden ratio phi in art, architecture, and nature have been shown to be false, unsupported, or misleading. For instance, we show that the spirals found in sea shells, in particular the "Nautilus pompilius," are not in the shape of the golden ratio, as is often claimed. Some of the most interesting…

  13. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio, or the ratio of boys to girls at birth, have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews et al. ["You are what your mother eats: Evidence for maternal preconception diet

  14. Genetic value of herd life adjusted for milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, F R; Gibson, J P

    1992-05-01

    Cow herd life adjusted for lactational milk production was investigated as a genetic trait in the breeding objective. Under a simple model, the relative economic weight of milk to adjusted herd life on a per genetic standard deviation basis was equal to CVY/dCVL where CVY and CVL are the genetic coefficients of variation of milk production and adjusted herd life, respectively, and d is the depreciation per year per cow divided by the total fixed costs per year per cow. The relative economic value of milk to adjusted herd life at the prices and parameters for North America was about 3.2. An increase of 100-kg milk was equivalent to 2.2 mo of adjusted herd life. Three to 7% lower economic gain is expected when only improved milk production is sought compared with a breeding objective that included both production and adjusted herd life for relative value changed +/- 20%. A favorable economic gain to cost ratio probably exists for herd life used as a genetic trait to supplement milk in the breeding objective. Cow survival records are inexpensive, and herd life evaluations from such records may not extend the generation interval when such an evaluation is used in bull sire selection.

  15. Drugs prescribed by general practitioners according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multimorbidity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoog, Jessica; Midlöv, Patrik; Beckman, Anders

    2014-01-01

    of prescription drugs among patients, issued in primary health care, according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multimorbidity level.MethodData were collected on all individuals above 20 years of age in Östergötland county with about 400 000 inhabitants in year 2006. The John Hopkins...... ACG Case-mix was used as a proxy for multimorbidity level. Odds ratio (OR) of having prescription drugs issued in primary health care in the population and rates of prescription drug use among patients in primary health care, stated as incidence rate ratio (IRR), according to age, gender......BackgroundAge, gender and socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with the use of prescription drugs, even after adjustment for multimorbidity. General practitioners have a holistic and patient-centred perspective and our hypothesis is that this may reflect on the prescription...

  16. Player Modeling for Intelligent Difficulty Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missura, Olana; Gärtner, Thomas

    In this paper we aim at automatically adjusting the difficulty of computer games by clustering players into different types and supervised prediction of the type from short traces of gameplay. An important ingredient of video games is to challenge players by providing them with tasks of appropriate and increasing difficulty. How this difficulty should be chosen and increase over time strongly depends on the ability, experience, perception and learning curve of each individual player. It is a subjective parameter that is very difficult to set. Wrong choices can easily lead to players stopping to play the game as they get bored (if underburdened) or frustrated (if overburdened). An ideal game should be able to adjust its difficulty dynamically governed by the player’s performance. Modern video games utilise a game-testing process to investigate among other factors the perceived difficulty for a multitude of players. In this paper, we investigate how machine learning techniques can be used for automatic difficulty adjustment. Our experiments confirm the potential of machine learning in this application.

  17. The application of the Ten Group classification system (TGCS in caesarean delivery case mix adjustment. A multicenter prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpaolo Maso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caesarean delivery (CD rates are commonly used as an indicator of quality in obstetric care and risk adjustment evaluation is recommended to assess inter-institutional variations. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the Ten Group classification system (TGCS can be used in case-mix adjustment. METHODS: Standardized data on 15,255 deliveries from 11 different regional centers were prospectively collected. Crude Risk Ratios of CDs were calculated for each center. Two multiple logistic regression models were herein considered by using: Model 1- maternal (age, Body Mass Index, obstetric variables (gestational age, fetal presentation, single or multiple, previous scar, parity, neonatal birth weight and presence of risk factors; Model 2- TGCS either with or without maternal characteristics and presence of risk factors. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves of the multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of each model. The null hypothesis that Areas under ROC Curve (AUC were not different from each other was verified with a Chi Square test and post hoc pairwise comparisons by using a Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: Crude evaluation of CD rates showed all centers had significantly higher Risk Ratios than the referent. Both multiple logistic regression models reduced these variations. However the two methods ranked institutions differently: model 1 and model 2 (adjusted for TGCS identified respectively nine and eight centers with significantly higher CD rates than the referent with slightly different AUCs (0.8758 and 0.8929 respectively. In the adjusted model for TGCS and maternal characteristics/presence of risk factors, three centers had CD rates similar to the referent with the best AUC (0.9024. CONCLUSIONS: The TGCS might be considered as a reliable variable to adjust CD rates. The addition of maternal characteristics and risk factors to TGCS substantially increase the

  18. Structural Adjustment and Peacebuilding Road to Conflict or Peace?

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    mguimond

    effective conflict prevention through international intervention. It argued that .... unemployment, increase income inequality and poverty, especially in the short term. In the face of ..... New social policies were also adopted, including gender-.

  19. Army General Fund Adjustments Not Adequately Documented or Supported

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    For financial statements to be accepted into CARS, the amounts must match. In theory , the amount submitted by the various accounting systems and...DEFENSE (COMPTROLLER)/ CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER DIRECTOR, DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE AUDITOR GENERAL, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUBJECT... financial management system requirements, applicable Federal accounting standards, and the U.S. Government Standard General Ledger at the

  20. 15 CFR 700.80 - Adjustments or exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS... exceptions. (a) A person may submit a request to the Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security, U... interim relief is granted in writing by the Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security. (d) A...

  1. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios Arvanitis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  2. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  3. Assessment of leaf/stem ratio in wheat straw feedstock and impact on enzymatic conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho

    2014-01-01

    . By preparing samples of various leaf-to-stem (L/S) ratios, we found shifting conversion behavior as processing parameters were modified. Increasing the enzyme dosage, pretreatment temperature and pretreatment time all significantly improved conversion rates in samples with more than 50% leaf content, whereas...... less impact was observed on samples with less than 50% leaf content. Enzyme affinity, desorption and readsorption with leaf and stem fractions may affect the sugar yield in wheat straw saccharification. The data suggest that the L/S ratio is an important parameter when adjusting or optimizing...... conversion processes and additionally in feedstock breeding. Furthermore, this highlights the need for rapid techniques for determining L/S ratio in wheat straw harvests. The CoMPP data on specific carbohydrates and leaf pectin highlight carbohydrate epitopes that may be useful as markers in the development...

  4. Simulation Analysis of Computer-Controlled pressurization for Mixture Ratio Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Leslie A.; Bishop-Behel, Karen; Benfield, Michael P. J.; Kelley, Anthony; Woodcock, Gordon R.

    2005-01-01

    A procedural code (C++) simulation was developed to investigate potentials for mixture ratio control of pressure-fed spacecraft rocket propulsion systems by measuring propellant flows, tank liquid quantities, or both, and using feedback from these measurements to adjust propellant tank pressures to set the correct operating mixture ratio for minimum propellant residuals. The pressurization system eliminated mechanical regulators in favor of a computer-controlled, servo- driven throttling valve. We found that a quasi-steady state simulation (pressure and flow transients in the pressurization systems resulting from changes in flow control valve position are ignored) is adequate for this purpose. Monte-Carlo methods are used to obtain simulated statistics on propellant depletion. Mixture ratio control algorithms based on proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller methods were developed. These algorithms actually set target tank pressures; the tank pressures are controlled by another PID controller. Simulation indicates this approach can provide reductions in residual propellants.

  5. Secondary sex ratio in relation to exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene and methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Choi, Anna L.; Petersen, Maria Skaalum

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the potential impact of maternal exposures to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) and methylmercury on the secondary sex ratios (the ratio of male to female live births) over a span of 23 years. The study includes prospective...... data from three Faroese birth cohorts, with a total of 2,152 healthy mother-child dyads recruited between 1986 and 2009. The Faroe Islands is a subarctic fishing community, where pilot whale meat and blubber are part of the traditional marine diet. Exposures were measured in maternal hair, serum...... or umbilical cord blood. Confounder adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between maternal exposures and the secondary sex ratio. A doubling in ΣPCB, p,p'-DDE and mercury concentrations were associated with increased odds by 8% (95% CI = 0-16%), 7% (95% CI = 0-14%) and 9% (95...

  6. Culture, emotion regulation, and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Yoo, Seung Hee; Nakagawa, Sanae

    2008-06-01

    This article reports differences across 23 countries on 2 processes of emotion regulation--reappraisal and suppression. Cultural dimensions were correlated with country means on both and the relationship between them. Cultures that emphasized the maintenance of social order--that is, those that were long-term oriented and valued embeddedness and hierarchy--tended to have higher scores on suppression, and reappraisal and suppression tended to be positively correlated. In contrast, cultures that minimized the maintenance of social order and valued individual Affective Autonomy and Egalitarianism tended to have lower scores on Suppression, and Reappraisal and Suppression tended to be negatively correlated. Moreover, country-level emotion regulation was significantly correlated with country-level indices of both positive and negative adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Covariate-adjusted measures of discrimination for survival data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Ian R; Rapsomaniki, Eleni; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    by the study design (e.g. age and sex) influence discrimination and can make it difficult to compare model discrimination between studies. Although covariate adjustment is a standard procedure for quantifying disease-risk factor associations, there are no covariate adjustment methods for discrimination...... statistics in censored survival data. OBJECTIVE: To develop extensions of the C-index and D-index that describe the prognostic ability of a model adjusted for one or more covariate(s). METHOD: We define a covariate-adjusted C-index and D-index for censored survival data, propose several estimators......, and investigate their performance in simulation studies and in data from a large individual participant data meta-analysis, the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. RESULTS: The proposed methods perform well in simulations. In the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration data, the age-adjusted C-index and D-index were...

  8. BASACF, Integral Neutron Spectra Adjustment and Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichy, Milos

    1996-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Adjustment of a neutron spectrum based on integral detector measurements and calculation of an integral dosimetric quantity (integral flux, d.p.a., dose equivalent) and its variance. The program requires measured data (activities and their covariance matrix) and a priori information (spectrum, dosimetry cross sections, integral quantity conversion factor and their covariance matrices). All a priori covariance matrices can be read in from a file prepared by some other code or can be generated by means of three different methods (by subroutines included in the program). A subroutine which can normalize the a priori flux to measured data is also included. The program provides also adjusted dosimetry cross sections (with covariance matrix) so that it can be used for an adjustment of cross sections (or response functions of e.g. Bonner balls) by measurements in well-known neutron spectra. 2 - Method of solution: Bayesian theorem on conditional probability applied to linearized relation between activities, dosimetry cross sections and flux. All probability distributions are supposed to be normal and this supposition leads to minimizing of the same functional as least squares method (STAY'SL). This task is solved by a covariance filter method which avoids any matrix inversion and is numerically robust and stable. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: This version can use 45 energy groups and 5 detectors and occupies 310 kB of main memory. This restriction can be modified according to available memory. The covariance matrix of activities is supposed diagonal. A solution is produced for any set of input data but in the case of non-consistent data, when measured activities do not match the a priori flux, the solution is not very meaningful

  9. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... between preoperatively measured neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) – as an inflammation ... analgesic (tenoxicam – as the first drug of choice, paracetamol, tramadol, or pethidine) usage ... fracture fixation). Age, sex, type of ...

  10. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it used? The urine albumin test or albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) is used to screen people with chronic conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure ( hypertension ) that put them at an ...

  11. Study to use graded cobalt adjuster in 540 MWe PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Manish; Fernando, M.P.S.; Pradhan, A.S.; Kumar, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: There are 17 adjusters in 540 MWe PHWR, which are essentially provided for xenon override function. They also provide flux flattening being in the central region of the reactor core. The present design of adjusters consists of stainless steel tube. The adjuster rods are grouped into 8 banks for movement. Since adjusters are normally fully inserted during reactor operation, they are best suited for production of cobalt 60. The nickel-plated cobalt in the form of either slugs or pellet are used for the design of cobalt pencils. The number of pencils can be varied to optimize the reactivity load and cobalt 60 production requirement. The worth and activity of cobalt adjusters have been worked out considering different pin configuration for the adjuster assembly. To start with we have assumed all adjusters throughout its length are of the same configuration. The flux depression factors within the cobalt pencils have been considered in the estimations of the specific and total cobalt 60 activities. The option of using graded cobalt adjusters, where different pin configuration along the length is considered for better flux flattening

  12. Permanent multipole magnets with adjustable strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1983-01-01

    Preceded by a short discussion of the motives for using permanent magnets in accelerators, a new type of permanent magnet for use in accelerators is presented. The basic design and most important properties of a quadrople will be described that uses both steel and permanent magnet material. The field gradient produced by this magnet can be adjusted without changing any other aspect of the field produced by this quadrupole. The generalization of this concept to produce other multipole fields, or combination of multipole fields, will also be presented

  13. Tuning permanent magnets with adjustable field clamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, R.I.

    1987-01-01

    The effective length of a permanent-magnet assembly can be varied by adjusting the geometrical parameters of a field clamp. This paper presents measurements on a representative dipole and quadrupole as the field clamp is withdrawn axially or radially. The detailed behavior depends upon the magnet multipolarity and geometry. As a rule-of-thumb, a 3-mm-thick iron plate placed at one end plane of the magnet will shorten the length by one-third of the magnet bore radius

  14. Permanent multipole magnets with adjustable strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1983-03-01

    Preceded by a short discussion of the motives for using permanent magnets in accelerators, a new type of permanent magnet for use in accelerators is presented. The basic design and most important properties of a quadrupole will be described that uses both steel and permanent magnet material. The field gradient produced by this magnet can be adjusted without changing any other aspect of the field produced by this quadrupole. The generalization of this concept to produce other multipole fields, or combination of multipole fields, will also be presented

  15. The Role of Migrant Associations in Adjustment, Integration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-02

    Oct 2, 2011 ... such social networks bind Nigerian migrants together in their new ... in Adjustment, Integration and Development' was presented at ... of intra-regional or intra-African migration dominance in the general African migration,.

  16. 10 CFR 766.104 - Reconciliation, adjustments and appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... The filing of a notice for an adjustment shall not stay the obligation to pay. (b) DOE may request... TESS data for any discrepancies or further transactions raised during the reconciliation process. (d...

  17. Cost Indexing and Unit Price Adjustments for Construction Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    This project was focused on the assimilation of information regarding unit price adjustment clauses, or PACs, : that are offered for construction materials at the state Departments of Transportation (DOTs). It is intended to : provide the South Carol...

  18. Is the distinction between adjustment disorder with depressed mood and adjustment disorder with mixed anxious and depressed mood valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer H; Dalrymple, Kristy; Martinez, Jennifer H; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane

    2013-11-01

    In the DSM-IV, adjustment disorder is subtyped according to the predominant presenting feature. The different diagnostic code numbers assigned to each subtype suggest their significance in DSM-IV. However, little research has examined the validity of these subtypes. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we compared the demographic and clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with adjustment disorder subtypes to determine whether there was enough empirical evidence supporting the retention of multiple adjustment disorder subtypes in future versions of the DSM. A total of 3,400 psychiatric patients presenting to the Rhode Island Hospital outpatient practice were evaluated with semistructured diagnostic interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders and measures of psychosocial morbidity. Approximately 7% (224 of 3,400) of patients were diagnosed with current adjustment disorder. Adjustment disorder with depressed mood and with mixed anxious and depressed mood were the most common subtypes, accounting for 80% of the patients diagnosed with adjustment disorder. There was no significant difference between these 2 groups with regard to demographic variables, current comorbid Axis I or Axis II disorders, lifetime history of major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders, psychosocial morbidity, or family history of psychiatric disorders. The only difference between the groups was lifetime history of drug use, which was significantly higher in the patients diagnosed with adjustment disorder with depressed mood. There is no evidence supporting the retention of both of these adjustment disorder subtypes, and DSM-IV previously set a precedent for eliminating adjustment disorder subtypes in the absence of any data. Therefore, in the spirit of nosologic parsimony, consideration should be given to collapsing the 2 disorders into 1: adjustment disorder with depressed mood.

  19. Number of evaluated lymph nodes and positive lymph nodes, lymph node ratio, and log odds evaluation in early-stage pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: numerology or valid indicators of patient outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahat, G; Lubezky, N; Gerstenhaber, F; Nizri, E; Gysi, M; Rozenek, M; Goichman, Y; Nachmany, I; Nakache, R; Wolf, I; Klausner, J M

    2016-09-29

    We evaluated the prognostic significance and universal validity of the total number of evaluated lymph nodes (ELN), number of positive lymph nodes (PLN), lymph node ratio (LNR), and log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) in a relatively large and homogenous cohort of surgically treated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. Prospectively accrued data were retrospectively analyzed for 282 PDAC patients who had pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) at our institution. Long-term survival was analyzed according to the ELN, PLN, LNR, and LODDS. Of these patients, 168 patients (59.5 %) had LN metastasis (N1). Mean ELN and PLN were 13.5 and 1.6, respectively. LN positivity correlated with a greater number of evaluated lymph nodes; positive lymph nodes were identified in 61.4 % of the patients with ELN ≥ 13 compared with 44.9 % of the patients with ELN < 13 (p = 0.014). Median overall survival (OS) and 5-year OS rate were higher in N0 than in N1 patients, 22.4 vs. 18.7 months and 35 vs. 11 %, respectively (p = 0.008). Mean LNR was 0.12; 91 patients (54.1 %) had LNR < 0.3. Among the N1 patients, median OS was comparable in those with LNR ≥ 0.3 vs. LNR < 0.3 (16.7 vs. 14.1 months, p = 0.950). Neither LODDS nor various ELN and PLN cutoff values provided more discriminative information within the group of N1 patients. Our data confirms that lymph node positivity strongly reflects PDAC biology and thus patient outcome. While a higher number of evaluated lymph nodes may provide a more accurate nodal staging, it does not have any prognostic value among N1 patients. Similarly, PLN, LNR, and LODDS had limited prognostic relevance.

  20. Constraints to growth of annual nettle (Urtica urens) in an elevated CO{sub 2} atmosphere: Decreased leaf area ratio and tissue N cannot be explained by ontogenetic drift or mineral N supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, D.J. [Univ. of Wales, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Gwynedd (United Kingdom); Stirling, C.M. [Univ. of Wales, School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, Gwynedd (United Kingdom); Farrar, J. [Univ. of Wales, School of Biological Science, Gwynedd (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The current literature indicates that the stimulation of relative growth rate (RGR) by an elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is transient. Urtica urens L. was exposed to an elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration for 26 days to better understand the factors involved in this constraint to growth. Plants were grown hydroponically without nutrient limitation in controlled-environment cabinets. Consistent with studies of other C{sub 3} species, the initial CO{sub 2} stimulation of RGR of U. urens was not sustained and declined in the early stages of exposure. Whilst the decline in RGR was most strongly linked to a reduction in the CO{sub 2} stimulation of net assimilation rate (NAR), its initial increase was constrained by an early and persistent reduction in leaf area ratio (LAR) due to a decreased specific leaf area (SLA). The decline in NAR could not be linked to any down-regulation of photosynthetic capacity of individual leaves, despite an accumulation of soluble sugars in them. The reductions in LAR and SLA reflected an accumulation of structural weight in addition to an accumulation of total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC). To account for the impact of ontogenetic drift on the partitioning of weight and leaf area, this study extends the usual allometric approach to include an analysis of effects on the vertical placement of regression lines (i.e their elevations). Using this approach, we argue that CO{sub 2}-induced reductions in LAR and SLA cannot be explained by ontogenetic drift. By monitoring the tissue N concentration, external N supply was shown unambiguously to be non-limiting for growth at any plant size. Nevertheless, tissue N was consistently lower in elevated CO{sub 2}, independent of both ontogeny and TNC accumulation, raising the possibility that the reductions in NAR, LAR and SLA are related to some internal constraint on N utilization. (au)

  1. The effect of ethnicity on the performance of protein-creatinine ratio in the prediction of significant proteinuria in pregnancies at risk of or with established hypertension: an implementation audit and cost implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Sadia; Cordina, Mark; Penna, Leonie; Sherwood, Roy; Dew, Tracy; Kametas, Nikos A

    2018-05-01

    The replacement of 24-h urine collection by protein-creatinine ratio (PCR) for the diagnosis of preeclampsia has been recently recommended. However, the literature is conflicting and there are concerns about the impact of demographic characteristics on the performance of PCR. This was an implementation audit of the introduction of PCR in a London Tertiary obstetric unit. The performance of PCR in the prediction of proteinuria ≥300 mg/day was assessed in 476 women with suspected preeclampsia who completed a 24-h urine collection and an untimed urine sample for PCR calculation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the independent predictors of significant proteinuria. In a pregnant population, ethnicity and PCR are the main predictors of ≥300 mg proteinuria in a 24-h urine collection. A PCR cut-off of 30 mg/mmol would have incorrectly classified as non-proteinuric, 41.4% and 22.9% of black and non-black women, respectively. Sensitivity of 100% is achieved at cut-offs of 8.67 and 20.56 mg/mmol for black and non-black women, respectively. Applying these levels as a screening tool to inform the need to perform a 24-h urine collection in 1000 women, would lead to a financial saving of €2911 in non-black women and to an additional cost of €3269 in black women. Our data suggest that a move from screening for proteinuria with a 24-h urine collection to screening with urine PCR is not appropriate for black populations. However, the move may lead to cost-saving if used in the white population with a PCR cut-off of 20.5. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Theory of Work Adjustment Personality Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Loralie

    1993-01-01

    To measure Theory of Work Adjustment personality and adjustment style dimensions, content-based scales were analyzed for homogeneity and successively reanalyzed for reliability improvement. Three sound scales were developed: inflexibility, activeness, and reactiveness. (SK)

  3. Association between serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and sarcopenia in elderly Korean males: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae-Ha; Kwon, Yu-Jin; Shim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the association between the triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) ratio and sarcopenia in elderly Korean males. We examined the relationship between the TG/HDL ratio and sarcopenia in 879 elderly males ≥60years who participated in the 2010-2011 KNHANES. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) divided by the weight (%), which is >1 SD below the mean for young adults. The odds ratios (ORs) for sarcopenia were calculated using multiple logistic regression across the TG/HDL ratio quartiles (Q1: ≤1.4, Q2: 1.5-2.4, Q3: 2.5-3.8 and Q4: ≥3.9) after adjusting for confounding variables. The prevalence of sarcopenia significantly increased in accordance with TG/HDL ratio quartiles. Compared with the lowest quartile of the TG/HDL ratio, the corresponding OR (95% CI) of the highest quartile of the TG/HDL ratio for sarcopenia was 2.10 (1.12-3.91) after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity. TG/HDL ratio was positively related with a higher risk of sarcopenia in elderly Korean males. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. O sexo masculino vulnerável: razão de masculinidade entre os óbitos fetais brasileiros The vulnerable male, or the sex ratio among fetal deaths in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Dias Porto Chiavegatto Filho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Alguns estudos apontam para a existência de vulnerabilidades biológicas inatas masculinas, especialmente no período perinatal. Foi realizada uma análise transversal da mortalidade fetal brasileira segundo sexo, entre 2000 e 2009 (inclusive, conforme características maternas (idade, escolaridade e duração da gestação, utilizando-se dados disponibilizados pelos sistema DATASUS do Ministério da Saúde. Todos os óbitos fetais do período foram incluídos na análise, excetuando-se os casos em que o sexo do feto não foi declarado. A razão de masculinidade (RM encontrada para os óbitos fetais foi de 1,188. As categorias mais relacionadas com maior risco (idade entre 10 e 14 anos, nenhuma escolaridade e gestação com menos de 22 semanas apresentaram maior RM, sendo esses valores, em todos os casos, estatisticamente maiores do que os observados nas outras categorias analisadas (p Some studies indicate the existence of innate male vulnerabilities, especially during the perinatal period. The current study is a cross-sectional analysis of fetal mortality in Brazil according to sex from 2000 to 2009, stratified by maternal characteristics (age, schooling, and gestational age, using Ministry of Health data (DATASUS. The analysis included all fetal deaths from 2000 to 2009, except when the sex of the fetus was not recorded. The male/female sex ratio (SR for all fetal deaths was 1.188. Analysis of maternal characteristics showed that the SR was statistically higher (p < 0.01 in mothers that were younger (10-14 years, had no formal schooling, and with gestational age < 22 weeks. The study showed a statistically higher-than-expected SR (p < 0.01 for 13 underlying causes of death and a lower SR for two others. The results suggest a potential innate male vulnerability.

  5. 12 CFR 313.55 - Salary adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salary adjustments. 313.55 Section 313.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.55 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising...

  6. Do fair value adjustments influence dividend policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharov, I.; van Triest, S.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of positive fair value adjustments on dividend policy. If fair value adjustments are transitory in nature and managers are able to assess their implications for future earnings, fair value adjustments in net income is expected to have no distribution consequences. However,

  7. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income (as...

  8. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within OFHEO's...

  9. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from another...

  10. Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1980-06-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated the potential for producing a viable longburn tokamak reactor by enhancing the volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer through the use of high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were assessed in the context of extended burn operation. Using a one-dimensional transport code plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the startup and shutdown portions of the tokamak cycle. A representative large aspect ratio tokamak with an aspect ratio of 8 was found to achieve a burn time of 3.5 h at capital cost only approx. 25% greater than that of a moderate aspect ratio design tokamak

  11. Adjustable electronic load-alarm relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, C.H.; Sitton, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    An improved electronic alarm relay for monitoring the current drawn by an ac motor or other electrical load is described. The circuit is designed to measure the load with high accuracy and to have excellent alarm repeatability. Chattering and arcing of the relay contacts are minimal. The operator can adjust the set point easily and can re-set both the high and the low alarm points by means of one simple adjustment. The relay includes means for generating a signal voltage proportional to the motor current. In a preferred form of the invention a first operational amplifier is provided to generate a first constant reference voltage which is higher than a preselected value of the signal voltage. A second operational amplifier is provided to generate a second constant reference voltage which is lower than the aforementioned preselected value of the signal voltage. A circuit comprising a first resistor serially connected to a second resistor is connected across the outputs of the first and second amplifiers, and the junction of the two resistors is connected to the inverting terminal of the second amplifier. Means are provided to compare the aforementioned signal voltage with both the first and second reference voltages and to actuate an alarm if the signal voltage is higher than the first reference voltage or lower than the second reference voltage

  12. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  13. Comparing computing formulas for estimating concentration ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.

    1984-03-01

    This paper provides guidance on the choice of computing formulas (estimators) for estimating concentration ratios and other ratio-type measures of radionuclides and other environmental contaminant transfers between ecosystem components. Mathematical expressions for the expected value of three commonly used estimators (arithmetic mean of ratios, geometric mean of ratios, and the ratio of means) are obtained when the multivariate lognormal distribution is assumed. These expressions are used to explain why these estimators will not in general give the same estimate of the average concentration ratio. They illustrate that the magnitude of the discrepancies depends on the magnitude of measurement biases, and on the variances and correlations associated with spatial heterogeneity and measurement errors. This paper also reports on a computer simulation study that compares the accuracy of eight computing formulas for estimating a ratio relationship that is constant over time and/or space. Statistical models appropriate for both controlled spiking experiments and observational field studies for either normal or lognormal distributions are considered. 24 references, 15 figures, 7 tables

  14. The Mediating Role of Psychological Adjustment between Peer Victimization and Social Adjustment in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Eva M. Romera; Olga Gómez-Ortiz; Rosario Ortega-Ruiz; Rosario Ortega-Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive scientific evidence of the serious psychological and social effects that peer victimization may have on students, among them internalizing problems such as anxiety or negative self-esteem, difficulties related to low self-efficacy and lower levels of social adjustment. Although a direct relationship has been observed between victimization and these effects, it has not yet been analyzed whether there is a relationship of interdependence between all these measures of psychoso...

  15. Hydraulic adjustments underlying drought resistance of Pinus halepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tamir; Cohen, Shabtai; Yakir, Dan

    2011-06-01

    Drought-induced tree mortality has increased over the last decades in forests around the globe. Our objective was to investigate under controlled conditions the hydraulic adjustments underlying the observed ability of Pinus halepensis to survive seasonal drought under semi-arid conditions. One hundred 18-month saplings were exposed in the greenhouse to 10 different drought treatments, simulating combinations of intensities (fraction of water supply relative to control) and durations (period with no water supply) for 30 weeks. Stomata closed at a leaf water potential (Ψ(l)) of -2.8 MPa, suggesting isohydric stomatal regulation. In trees under extreme drought treatments, stomatal closure reduced CO(2) uptake to -1 µmol m(-2) s(-1), indicating the development of carbon starvation. A narrow hydraulic safety margin of 0.3 MPa (from stomatal closure to 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity) was observed, indicating a strategy of maximization of CO2 uptake in trees otherwise adapted to water stress. A differential effect of drought intensity and duration was observed, and was explained by a strong dependence of the water stress effect on the ratio of transpiration to evapotranspiration T/ET and the larger partitioning to transpiration associated with larger irrigation doses. Under intense or prolonged drought, the root system became the main target for biomass accumulation, taking up to 100% of the added biomass, while the stem tissue biomass decreased, associated with up to 60% reduction in xylem volume.

  16. Adjustable wideband reflective converter based on cut-wire metasurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Linbo; Zhou, Peiheng; Chen, Haiyan; Lu, Haipeng; Xie, Jianliang; Deng, Longjiang

    2015-01-01

    We present the design, analysis, and measurement of a broadband reflective converter using a cut-wire (CW) metasurface. Based on the characteristics of LC resonances, the proposed reflective converter can rotate a linearly polarized (LP) wave into its cross-polarized wave at three resonance frequencies, or convert the LP wave to a circularly polarized (CP) wave at two other resonance frequencies. Furthermore, the broad-band properties of the polarization conversion can be sustained when the incident wave is a CP wave. The polarization states can be adjusted easily by changing the length and width of the CW. The measured results show that a polarization conversion ratio (PCR) over 85% can be achieved from 6.16 GHz to 16.56 GHz for both LP and CP incident waves. The origin of the polarization conversion is interpreted by the theory of microwave antennas, with equivalent impedance and electromagnetic (EM) field distributions. With its simple geometry and multiple broad frequency bands, the proposed converter has potential applications in the area of selective polarization control. (paper)

  17. MODULAR BUNDLE ADJUSTMENT FOR PHOTOGRAMMETRIC COMPUTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Börlin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate how the residuals in bundle adjustment can be split into a composition of simple functions. According to the chain rule, the Jacobian (linearisation of the residual can be formed as a product of the Jacobians of the individual steps. When implemented, this enables a modularisation of the computation of the bundle adjustment residuals and Jacobians where each component has limited responsibility. This enables simple replacement of components to e.g. implement different projection or rotation models by exchanging a module. The technique has previously been used to implement bundle adjustment in the open-source package DBAT (Börlin and Grussenmeyer, 2013 based on the Photogrammetric and Computer Vision interpretations of Brown (1971 lens distortion model. In this paper, we applied the technique to investigate how affine distortions can be used to model the projection of a tilt-shift lens. Two extended distortion models were implemented to test the hypothesis that the ordering of the affine and lens distortion steps can be changed to reduce the size of the residuals of a tilt-shift lens calibration. Results on synthetic data confirm that the ordering of the affine and lens distortion steps matter and is detectable by DBAT. However, when applied to a real camera calibration data set of a tilt-shift lens, no difference between the extended models was seen. This suggests that the tested hypothesis is false and that other effects need to be modelled to better explain the projection. The relatively low implementation effort that was needed to generate the models suggest that the technique can be used to investigate other novel projection models in photogrammetry, including modelling changes in the 3D geometry to better understand the tilt-shift lens.

  18. Modular Bundle Adjustment for Photogrammetric Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börlin, N.; Murtiyoso, A.; Grussenmeyer, P.; Menna, F.; Nocerino, E.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we investigate how the residuals in bundle adjustment can be split into a composition of simple functions. According to the chain rule, the Jacobian (linearisation) of the residual can be formed as a product of the Jacobians of the individual steps. When implemented, this enables a modularisation of the computation of the bundle adjustment residuals and Jacobians where each component has limited responsibility. This enables simple replacement of components to e.g. implement different projection or rotation models by exchanging a module. The technique has previously been used to implement bundle adjustment in the open-source package DBAT (Börlin and Grussenmeyer, 2013) based on the Photogrammetric and Computer Vision interpretations of Brown (1971) lens distortion model. In this paper, we applied the technique to investigate how affine distortions can be used to model the projection of a tilt-shift lens. Two extended distortion models were implemented to test the hypothesis that the ordering of the affine and lens distortion steps can be changed to reduce the size of the residuals of a tilt-shift lens calibration. Results on synthetic data confirm that the ordering of the affine and lens distortion steps matter and is detectable by DBAT. However, when applied to a real camera calibration data set of a tilt-shift lens, no difference between the extended models was seen. This suggests that the tested hypothesis is false and that other effects need to be modelled to better explain the projection. The relatively low implementation effort that was needed to generate the models suggest that the technique can be used to investigate other novel projection models in photogrammetry, including modelling changes in the 3D geometry to better understand the tilt-shift lens.

  19. Introducing optional reserve ratios in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Lóránt Varga

    2010-01-01

    As of the reserve maintenance period commencing in November 2010, Hungarian credit institutions will be free to decide whether to apply the previously valid 2% reserve ratio, or to apply a higher mandatory reserve ratio. Credit institutions required to hold reserves may select from reserve ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5%, and may change their decision on a semi-annual basis. In line with the international best practice, the purpose of the MNB’s reserve requirement system is to support credit institu...

  20. De-Escalation Strategies in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2)-Positive Early Breast Cancer (BC): Final Analysis of the West German Study Group Adjuvant Dynamic Marker-Adjusted Personalized Therapy Trial Optimizing Risk Assessment and Therapy Response Prediction in Early BC HER2- and Hormone Receptor-Positive Phase II Randomized Trial-Efficacy, Safety, and Predictive Markers for 12 Weeks of Neoadjuvant Trastuzumab Emtansine With or Without Endocrine Therapy (ET) Versus Trastuzumab Plus ET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbeck, Nadia; Gluz, Oleg; Christgen, Matthias; Kates, Ronald Ernest; Braun, Michael; Küemmel, Sherko; Schumacher, Claudia; Potenberg, Jochem; Kraemer, Stefan; Kleine-Tebbe, Anke; Augustin, Doris; Aktas, Bahriye; Forstbauer, Helmut; Tio, Joke; von Schumann, Raquel; Liedtke, Cornelia; Grischke, Eva-Maria; Schumacher, Johannes; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Kreipe, Hans Heinrich; Nitz, Ulrike Anneliese

    2017-09-10

    Purpose Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive/hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer is a distinct subgroup associated with lower chemotherapy sensitivity and slightly better outcome than HER2-positive/HR-negative disease. Little is known about the efficacy of the combination of endocrine therapy (ET) with trastuzumab or with the potent antibody-cytotoxic, anti-HER2 compound trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) with or without ET for this subgroup. The West German Study Group trial, ADAPT (Adjuvant Dynamic Marker-Adjusted Personalized Therapy Trial Optimizing Risk Assessment and Therapy Response Prediction in Early Breast Cancer) compares pathologic complete response (pCR) rates of T-DM1 versus trastuzumab with ET in early HER2-positive/HR-positive breast cancer. Patients and Methods In this prospective, neoadjuvant, phase II trial, 375 patients with early breast cancer with HER2-positive and HR-positive status (n = 463 screened) were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of T-DM1 with or without ET or to trastuzumab with ET. The primary end point was pCR (ypT0/is/ypN0). Early response was assessed in 3-week post-therapeutic core biopsies (proliferation decrease ≥ 30% Ki-67 or cellularity response). Secondary end points included safety and predictive impact of early response on pCR. Adjuvant therapy followed national standards. Results Baseline characteristics were well balanced among the arms. More than 90% of patients completed the therapy per protocol. pCR was observed in 41.0% of patients treated with T-DM1, 41.5% of patients treated with T-DM1 and ET, and 15.1% with trastuzumab and ET ( P < .001). Early responders (67% of patients with assessable response) achieved pCR in 35.7% compared with 19.8% in nonresponders (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.24 to 4.19). T-DM1 was associated with a significantly higher prevalence of grade 1 to 2 toxicities, especially thrombocytopenia, nausea, and elevation of liver enzymes. Overall toxicity was low; seventeen

  1. Energy ratios in Finnish agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. MIKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess energy ratios and net energy in plant production and energy ratios in animal production in Finland. Energy ratios and net energy were determined on the basis of plant- and animal-specific energy analyses. In plant production, energy ratios and net energy were assessed as a function of nitrogen fertilization, because indirect energy input in the form of agrochemicals was 54—73% from the total energy input and nitrogen was responsible for the major part of this. The highest energy ratio was 18.6 for reed canary grass. As a whole reed canary grass was superior to the other crops, which were barley, spring wheat, spring turnip rape, ley for silage, potato and sugar beet. Reed canary grass and sugar beet gained the highest net energy yields of 111–115 GJ ha-1. The optimum energy ratio was gained in general with less nitrogen fertilization intensity than farmers use. The energy ratios in pork production varied between 0.14–1.28 depending on what was included or excluded in the analysis and for milk production between 0.15–1.85. Ratios of 1.28 in pork production and 1.85 in milk production are unrealistic as they do not give any shelter to the animals, although they can be approached in very low-input production systems. If the ratio is calculated with feed energy content then the ratio is low, 0.14–0.22 for pork and 0.15 for milk. This shows that animals can convert 14–22 percent of the input energy to usable products. In pork production, the largest portion of the energy input was the ventilation of the building. In milk production milking and cooling consumes a lot of energy and for this reason the electricity consumption is high.;

  2. Depletion calculations of adjuster rods in Darlington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, B.; Tsang, K., E-mail: benoit.arsenault@amecfw.com, E-mail: kwok.tsang@amecfw.com [AMEC Foster Wheeler, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the simulation methodology and reactivity worth calculated for aged adjuster rods in the Darlington core. ORIGEN-S IST was applied to simulate the isotope transmutation process of the stainless steel and titanium adjusters. The compositions were used in DRAGON-IST to calculate the change in incremental properties of aged adjusters. Pre-simulations of the reactivity worth of the stainless steel and titanium adjusters in Darlington were performed using RFSP-IST and the results showed that the titanium adjuster rods exhibit faster reactivity-worth drop than that of stainless steel rods. (author)

  3. Artificial muscles with adjustable stiffness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutlu, Rahim; Alici, Gursel

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a stiffness enhancement methodology based on using a suitably designed contact surface with which cantilevered-type conducting polymer bending actuators are in contact during operation. The contact surface constrains the bending behaviour of the actuators. Depending on the topology of the contact surface, the resistance of the polymer actuators to deformation, i.e. stiffness, is varied. As opposed to their predecessors, these polymer actuators operate in air. Finite element analysis and modelling are used to quantify the effect of the contact surface on the effective stiffness of a trilayer cantilevered beam, which represents a one-end-free, the-other-end-fixed polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer actuator under a uniformly distributed load. After demonstrating the feasibility of the adjustable stiffness concept, experiments were conducted to determine the stiffness of bending-type conducting polymer actuators in contact with a range (20–40 mm in radius) of circular contact surfaces. The numerical and experimental results presented demonstrate that the stiffness of the actuators can be varied using a suitably profiled contact surface. The larger the radius of the contact surface is, the higher is the stiffness of the polymer actuators. The outcomes of this study suggest that, although the stiffness of the artificial muscles considered in this study is constant for a given geometric size, and electrical and chemical operation conditions, it can be changed in a nonlinear fashion to suit the stiffness requirement of a considered application. The stiffness enhancement methodology can be extended to other ionic-type conducting polymer actuators

  4. The Laplace Likelihood Ratio Test for Heteroscedasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martin van Zyl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the likelihood ratio test for heteroscedasticity, assuming the Laplace distribution, gives good results for Gaussian and fat-tailed data. The likelihood ratio test, assuming normality, is very sensitive to any deviation from normality, especially when the observations are from a distribution with fat tails. Such a likelihood test can also be used as a robust test for a constant variance in residuals or a time series if the data is partitioned into groups.

  5. Hospital Standardized Mortality Ratios: Sensitivity Analyses on the Impact of Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottle, Alex; Jarman, Brian; Aylin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Hospital standardized mortality ratios (HSMRs) are derived from administrative databases and cover 80 percent of in-hospital deaths with adjustment for available case mix variables. They have been criticized for being sensitive to issues such as clinical coding but on the basis of limited quantitative evidence. Methods In a set of sensitivity analyses, we compared regular HSMRs with HSMRs resulting from a variety of changes, such as a patient-based measure, not adjusting for comorbidity, not adjusting for palliative care, excluding unplanned zero-day stays ending in live discharge, and using more or fewer diagnoses. Results Overall, regular and variant HSMRs were highly correlated (ρ > 0.8), but differences of up to 10 points were common. Two hospitals were particularly affected when palliative care was excluded from the risk models. Excluding unplanned stays ending in same-day live discharge had the least impact despite their high frequency. The largest impacts were seen when capturing postdischarge deaths and using just five high-mortality diagnosis groups. Conclusions HSMRs in most hospitals changed by only small amounts from the various adjustment methods tried here, though small-to-medium changes were not uncommon. However, the position relative to funnel plot control limits could move in a significant minority even with modest changes in the HSMR. PMID:21790587

  6. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  7. Deriving aerosol scattering ratio using range-resolved lidar ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... ratio (LDR) are used to suggest the type of aerosols. The altitude-dependent ... to the station and the experimentally measured lidar data. The 'model ... The integrated aerosol extinction profile with altitude-dependent S and k.

  8. Adjusting Expected Mortality Rates Using Information From a Control Population: An Example Using Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Hannah; Andersson, Therese M-L; Crowther, Michael J; Dickman, Paul W; Lambe, Mats; Lambert, Paul C

    2018-04-01

    Expected or reference mortality rates are commonly used in the calculation of measures such as relative survival in population-based cancer survival studies and standardized mortality ratios. These expected rates are usually presented according to age, sex, and calendar year. In certain situations, stratification of expected rates by other factors is required to avoid potential bias if interest lies in quantifying measures according to such factors as, for example, socioeconomic status. If data are not available on a population level, information from a control population could be used to adjust expected rates. We have presented two approaches for adjusting expected mortality rates using information from a control population: a Poisson generalized linear model and a flexible parametric survival model. We used a control group from BCBaSe-a register-based, matched breast cancer cohort in Sweden with diagnoses between 1992 and 2012-to illustrate the two methods using socioeconomic status as a risk factor of interest. Results showed that Poisson and flexible parametric survival approaches estimate similar adjusted mortality rates according to socioeconomic status. Additional uncertainty involved in the methods to estimate stratified, expected mortality rates described in this study can be accounted for using a parametric bootstrap, but this might make little difference if using a large control population.

  9. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G

    2016-06-14

    Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  10. Experimental study on the effect of fill ratio on an R744 two-phase thermosyphon loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Zhen; Liu, Xiao-Hua; Li, Zhen; Jiang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of R744 two-phase thermosyphon loop is experimentally analyzed. • There are usually some fluids that circulate in the loop without changing phase. • Maximum heat transfer ability is achieved at the fill ratio around 100%. • Lowest driving temperature difference is achieved at the fill ratio around 62%. • Thermosyphon loop with a lower fill ratio is more likely to fluctuate at small heat loads. - Abstract: As a natural, environmentally friendly fluid with excellent thermodynamic and transport properties, carbon dioxide is an effective alternative refrigerant. This paper describes an experiment conducted on an R744-based two-phase thermosyphon loop (TPTL). With different fill ratios of 45~151%, the effect of fill ratio on the working performance of the R744 TPTL is investigated. To maintain the conservation of momentum, part of the fluid circulates in the loop without changing phase; this part of the fluid may be liquid, vapor, or both liquid and vapor depending on the fill ratio. This is how the R744 TPTL self-adjusts among different heat loads. The experimental results show that the working state of the R744 TPTL has a lot to do with the fill ratio. With a low fill ratio, the TPTL is more likely to fluctuate under small heat loads. When the fill ratio is around 100%, the TPTL reaches its maximum heat transfer ability, and when the fill ratio is around 62%, the lowest driving temperature difference is achieved. Considering that the fill ratio's effect on the driving temperature difference is not very significant and that pursuing maximum heat transfer ability is more meaningful, a fill ratio of around 100% is recommended.

  11. Case mix adjusted variation in cesarean section rate in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesterton, Johan; Ladfors, Lars; Ekenberg Abreu, Anna; Lindgren, Peter; Saltvedt, Sissel; Weichselbraun, Marianne; Amer-Wåhlin, Isis

    2017-05-01

    Cesarean section (CS) rate is a well-established indicator of performance in maternity care and is also related to resource use. Case mix adjustment of CS rates when performing comparisons between hospitals is important. The objective of this study was to estimate case mix adjusted variation in CS rate between hospitals in Sweden. In total, 139 756 deliveries in 2011 and 2012 were identified in administrative systems in seven regions covering 67% of all deliveries in Sweden. Data were linked to the Medical birth register and population data. Twenty-three different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were used for adjustment. Analyses were performed for the entire study population as well as for two subgroups. Logistic regression was used to analyze differences between hospitals. The overall CS rate was 16.9% (hospital minimum-maximum 12.1-22.6%). Significant variations in CS rate between hospitals were observed after case mix adjustment: hospital odds ratios for CS varied from 0.62 (95% CI 0.53-0.73) to 1.45 (95% CI 1.37-1.52). In nulliparous, cephalic, full-term, singletons the overall CS rate was 14.3% (hospital minimum-maximum: 9.0-19.0%), whereas it was 4.7% for multiparous, cephalic, full-term, singletons with no previous CS (hospital minimum-maximum: 3.2-6.7%). In both subgroups significant variations were observed in case mix adjusted CS rates. Significant differences in CS rate between Swedish hospitals were found after adjusting for differences in case mix. This indicates a potential for fewer interventions and lower resource use in Swedish childbirth care. Best practice sharing and continuous monitoring are important tools for improving childbirth care. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Recent development in isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platzner, I.

    1992-01-01

    Within the limited of this review the following topics will be briefly discussed: a) Accuracy, precision, internal relative standard deviation (RISD) and external relative standard deviation (RESD) of isotope ratio measurements. With advanced instrumentation and use of standard reference materials, high accuracy and RESD = 0.002% (or better) may be achieved; b) The advantages of modern automatic isotope ratio mass spectrometer are briefly described. Computer controlled operation and data acquisition, and multiple ion collection are the recent important improvement; c) The isotopic fractionation during the course of isotope ratio measurement is considered as a major source of errors in thermal ionization of metallic elements. The phenomenon in strontium, neodymium, uranium, lead and calcium and methods to correct the measured data are discussed; d) Applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in atomic weight determinations, the isotope dilution technique, isotope geology, and isotope effects in biological systems are described together with specific applications in various research and technology area. (author)

  13. Isotopic ratios in the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This colloquium is aimed at presentation of isotope ratio measurements in different objects of solar system and surrounding interstellar space and evaluation of what information on composition and structure of primitive solar nebula and on chemical evolution of interstellar space in this part of the galaxy can be deduced from it. Isotope ratio in solar system got from laboratory study of extraterrestrial materials is a subject of this colloquium. Then isotope ratio measured in solar wind, planets and comets. Measurements either are made in-situ by mass spectrometry of ions in solar wind or planetery atmosphere gases either are remote measurements of spectra emitted by giant planets and comets. At last, planetology and astrophysics implications are presented and reviewed. Consraints for solar system formation model can be deduced from isotope ratio measurement. Particularly, isotope anomalies are marks of the processes, which have influenced the primitive solar nebula contraction [fr

  14. Output factors and scatter ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, P N; Summers, R E; Samulski, T V; Baird, L C [Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA); Ahuja, A S; Dubuque, G L; Hendee, W R; Chhabra, A S

    1979-07-01

    Reference is made to a previous publication on output factors and scatter ratios for radiotherapy units in which it was suggested that the output factor should be included in the definitions of scatter-air ratio and tissue-maximum ratio. In the present correspondence from other authors and from the authors of the previous publication, the original definitions and the proposed changes are discussed. Radiation scatter from source and collimator degradation of beam energy and calculation of dose in tissue are considered in relation to the objective of accurate dosimetry.

  15. Gender identity: a multidimensional analysis with implications for psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, S K; Perry, D G

    2001-07-01

    This study examined the relations between components of gender identity and psychosocial adjustment. The aspects of gender identity assessed were (a) feelings of psychological compatibility with one's gender (i.e.. feeling one is a typical member of one's sex and feeling content with one's biological sex), (b) feelings of pressure from parents, peers, and self for conformity to gender stereotypes. and (c) the sentiment that one's own sex is superior to the other (intergroup bias). Adjustment was assessed in terms of self-esteem and peer acceptance. Participants were 182 children in Grades 4 through 8. Felt gender compatibility (when operationalized as either self-perceived gender typicality or feelings of contentment with one's biological sex) was positively related to adjustment, whereas felt pressure and intergroup bias were negatively associated with adjustment. The results provide new insights into the role of gender identity in children's well-being, help identify sources of confusion in previous work, and suggest directions for future inquiry.

  16. 12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... anticipating or experiencing significant growth and have well-diversified risks, including no undue interest rate risk exposure, excellent asset quality, high liquidity, and good earnings. (b) For all savings... capital ratios may be required if warranted by the particular circumstances or risk profiles of an...

  17. Refractive accuracy with light-adjustable intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Eloy A; Alcon, Encarna; Rubio, Elena; Marín, José M; Artal, Pablo

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate efficacy, predictability, and stability of refractive treatments using light-adjustable intraocular lenses (IOLs). University Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca, Murcia, Spain. Prospective nonrandomized clinical trial. Eyes with a light-adjustable IOL (LAL) were treated with spatial intensity profiles to correct refractive errors. The effective changes in refraction in the light-adjustable IOL after every treatment were estimated by subtracting those in the whole eye and the cornea, which were measured with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and a corneal topographer, respectively. The refractive changes in the whole eye and light-adjustable IOL, manifest refraction, and visual acuity were obtained after every light treatment and at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. The study enrolled 53 eyes (49 patients). Each tested light spatial pattern (5 spherical; 3 astigmatic) produced a different refractive change (Plight adjustments induced a maximum change in spherical power of the light-adjustable IOL of between -1.98 diopters (D) and +2.30 D and in astigmatism of up to -2.68 D with axis errors below 9 degrees. Intersubject variability (standard deviation) ranged between 0.10 D and 0.40 D. The 2 required lock-in procedures induced a small myopic shift (range +0.01 to +0.57 D) that depended on previous adjustments. Light-adjustable IOL implantation achieved accurate refractive outcomes (around emmetropia) with good uncorrected distance visual acuity, which remained stable over time. Further refinements in nomograms and in the treatment's protocol would improve the predictability of refractive and visual outcomes with these IOLs. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 75 FR 45092 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by phone: (202) 720-0638 or (202) 690- 0633; or by e-mail at: [email protected] ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated...

  19. 75 FR 43140 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA, by phone: (202) 720-0638, or (202) 690-0633; or by e-mail: [email protected] ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated...

  20. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettendorf, L. [Tinbergen Instituut, Amsterdam/Rotterdam (Netherlands); Van der Geest, S. [Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kuper, G. [University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2005-04-15

    This paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the volatility process is asymmetrical: an unexpected increase in the producer price has a larger effect on the variance of the producer price than an unexpected decrease. We do not find strong evidence for amount asymmetry. However, there is a faster reaction to upward changes in spot prices than to downward changes in spot prices. This implies timing or pattern asymmetry. This asymmetry starts three days after the change in the spot price and lasts for four days.

  1. Adjustable speed drive study, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A.

    1989-08-01

    Advances in speed control for motors in recent years, notably those in power electronics, have widened the range of application for several adjustable speed drive (ASD) types to include the smaller horsepower sizes. The dc motor drive, formerly in almost universal use for speed control, is being challenged by the high efficiency induction motor/pulse width modulation (PWM) drive; and for special small horsepower size applications, by the permanent magnet motor/PWM inverter drive or by the switched reluctance motor drive. The main characteristics of the several ASD types suitable for small horsepower size applications are discussed, as well as their unwanted side effects: poor power factor, harmonic distortion of the supply, acoustic noise, and electromagnetic interference. A procedure is recommended for determining which, if any, ASD to use.

  2. Neutron spectrum adjustment. The role of covariances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remec, I.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron spectrum adjustment method is shortly reviewed. Practical example dealing with power reactor pressure vessel exposure rates determination is analysed. Adjusted exposure rates are found only slightly affected by the covariances of measured reaction rates and activation cross sections, while the multigroup spectra covariances were found important. Approximate spectra covariance matrices, as suggested in Astm E944-89, were found useful but care is advised if they are applied in adjustments of spectra at locations without dosimetry. (author) [sl

  3. Large aspect ratio tokamak study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Sardella, C.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) investigated the potential for producing a viable long burn tokamak reactor through enhanced volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer by employing high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were accessed in the context of extended burn operation. Plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed using a one-dimensional transport code. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the field in the ohmic heating coil and the wave shape of the ohmic heating discharge. A high aspect ratio reference reactor was chosen and configured

  4. Can structural adjustment work for women farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, R

    1991-12-01

    This article discusses the impact of structural adjustment programs (SAPs) on women farmers in developing countries. SAPs aim to improve economic efficiency and promote more rapid economic growth. SAPs are introduced in two phases. The first phase involves short-term loans with the condition that the country adopt monetary restraints and currency devaluation measures. In the second phase, long-term loans are given with the provision that the country deregulate their economy and open up markets. The agricultural sector is affected by SAPs because of their importance in employment, income generation, and export earnings. SAPs result in lower farm commodity prices due to currency devaluations and in removal of subsidies, which results in market-sensitive pricing or higher food prices. The impact of SAPs on agriculture vary between countries. In Morocco and Algeria, agriculture expanded under SAPs. In Indonesia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, the agriculture stagnated or declined. Agricultural growth was slowest in Africa. SAPs were somewhat successful in increasing agricultural exports. Food production grew slowly in many adjusting countries. Blame for failures of SAPs has been placed on government failure to implement reforms properly and overly optimistic assumptions about the timing of productive gains. Little attention has focused on the constraints facing women farmers, who are a large proportion of farmers, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This article focuses on the issues of limited access to resources, credit, agricultural extension and information, land ownership, education, and time as constraints to women farmers. Women also must ensure household food security. For SAPs to work effectively, complementary policies must be implemented that reallocate available productive resources and new technologies to women and that deal with women's constraints.

  5. A Simple Measure of Price Adjustment Coefficients.

    OpenAIRE

    Damodaran, Aswath

    1993-01-01

    One measure of market efficiency is the speed with which prices adjust to new information. The author develops a simple approach to estimating these price adjustment coefficients by using the information in return processes. This approach is used to estimate t he price adjustment coefficients for firms listed on the NYSE and the A MEX as well as for over-the-counter stocks. The author finds evidence of a lagged adjustment to new information in shorter return intervals for firms in all market ...

  6. Arcjet nozzle area ratio effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  7. Arcjet Nozzle Area Ratio Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  8. 10 CFR 436.21 - Savings-to-investment ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... is the ratio of the present value savings to the present value costs of an energy or water conservation measure. The numerator of the ratio is the present value of net savings in energy or water and non... conservation measure. The denominator of the ratio is the present value of the net increase in investment and...

  9. Triglyceride-to-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio is an index of heart disease mortality and of incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Gloria Lena; Barlow, Carolyn E; Grundy, Scott M; Leonard, David; DeFina, Laura F

    2014-02-01

    High triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) impart risk for heart disease. This study examines the relationships of TG/HDL-C ratio to mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease (CHD), or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Survival analysis was done in 39,447 men grouped by TG/HDL-C ratio cut point of 3.5 and for metabolic syndrome. National Death Index International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9 and ICD-10) codes were used for CVD and CHD deaths occurring from 1970 to 2008. Incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) according to ratio was estimated in 22,215 men. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio and cross-product of TG and fasting blood glucose (TyG index) were used in analysis. Men were followed up for 581,194 person-years. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio predicted CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality after adjustment for established risk factors and non-HDL-C. Mortality rates were higher in individuals with a high ratio than in those with a low ratio. Fifty-five percent of men had metabolic syndrome that was also predictive of CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality. Annual incidence of DM was 2 times higher in men with high TG/HDL-C ratio than in those with a low ratio. Individuals with high TG/HDL-C ratio had a higher incidence of DM than those with a low ratio. The TyG index was not equally predictive of causes of mortality to TG/HDL-C, but both were equally predictive of diabetes incidence. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio predicts CHD and CVD mortality as well as or better than do metabolic syndrome in men. Also, a high ratio predisposes to DM. The TyG index does not predict CHD, CVD, or all-cause mortality equally well, but like TG/HDL-C ratio, it predicts DM incidence.

  10. Evaluation of trauma care using TRISS method: the role of adjusted misclassification rate and adjusted w-statistic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bytyçi Cen I

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major trauma is a leading cause of death worldwide. Evaluation of trauma care using Trauma Injury and Injury Severity Score (TRISS method is focused in trauma outcome (deaths and survivors. For testing TRISS method TRISS misclassification rate is used. Calculating w-statistic, as a difference between observed and TRISS expected survivors, we compare our trauma care results with the TRISS standard. Aim The aim of this study is to analyze interaction between misclassification rate and w-statistic and to adjust these parameters to be closer to the truth. Materials and methods Analysis of components of TRISS misclassification rate and w-statistic and actual trauma outcome. Results The component of false negative (FN (by TRISS method unexpected deaths has two parts: preventable (Pd and non-preventable (nonPd trauma deaths. Pd represents inappropriate trauma care of an institution; otherwise nonpreventable trauma deaths represents errors in TRISS method. Removing patients with preventable trauma deaths we get an Adjusted misclassification rate: (FP + FN - Pd/N or (b+c-Pd/N. Substracting nonPd from FN value in w-statistic formula we get an Adjusted w-statistic: [FP-(FN - nonPd]/N, respectively (FP-Pd/N, or (b-Pd/N. Conclusion Because adjusted formulas clean method from inappropriate trauma care, and clean trauma care from the methods error, TRISS adjusted misclassification rate and adjusted w-statistic gives more realistic results and may be used in researches of trauma outcome.

  11. Evaluation of trauma care using TRISS method: the role of adjusted misclassification rate and adjusted w-statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llullaku, Sadik S; Hyseni, Nexhmi Sh; Bytyçi, Cen I; Rexhepi, Sylejman K

    2009-01-15

    Major trauma is a leading cause of death worldwide. Evaluation of trauma care using Trauma Injury and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) method is focused in trauma outcome (deaths and survivors). For testing TRISS method TRISS misclassification rate is used. Calculating w-statistic, as a difference between observed and TRISS expected survivors, we compare our trauma care results with the TRISS standard. The aim of this study is to analyze interaction between misclassification rate and w-statistic and to adjust these parameters to be closer to the truth. Analysis of components of TRISS misclassification rate and w-statistic and actual trauma outcome. The component of false negative (FN) (by TRISS method unexpected deaths) has two parts: preventable (Pd) and non-preventable (nonPd) trauma deaths. Pd represents inappropriate trauma care of an institution; otherwise nonpreventable trauma deaths represents errors in TRISS method. Removing patients with preventable trauma deaths we get an Adjusted misclassification rate: (FP + FN - Pd)/N or (b+c-Pd)/N. Substracting nonPd from FN value in w-statistic formula we get an Adjusted w-statistic: [FP-(FN - nonPd)]/N, respectively (FP-Pd)/N, or (b-Pd)/N). Because adjusted formulas clean method from inappropriate trauma care, and clean trauma care from the methods error, TRISS adjusted misclassification rate and adjusted w-statistic gives more realistic results and may be used in researches of trauma outcome.

  12. 5 CFR 838.622 - Cost-of-living and salary adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost-of-living and salary adjustments....622 Cost-of-living and salary adjustments. (a)(1) A court order that awards adjustments to a former... such as “salary adjustments” or “pay adjustments” occurring after the date of the decree provides...

  13. 78 FR 24336 - Rules of Practice and Procedure; Adjusting Civil Money Penalties for Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... civil monetary penalty was last set or adjusted pursuant to law.'' Furthermore, the increase for each...; Adjusting Civil Money Penalties for Inflation AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This regulation implements inflation adjustments to civil money penalties (CMPs) that the Farm...

  14. 78 FR 56911 - Notice of Certain Operating Cost Adjustment Factors for 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... Cost Adjustment Factors for 2014 AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice establishes operating cost adjustment factors (OCAFs... date on or after February 11, 2014. OCAFs are annual factors used to adjust Section 8 rents renewed...

  15. Adiposity to muscle ratio predicts incident physical limitation in a cohort of 3,153 older adults--an alternative measurement of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auyeung, Tung Wai; Lee, Jenny Shun Wah; Leung, Jason; Kwok, Timothy; Woo, Jean

    2013-08-01

    Conventionally, sarcopenia is defined by muscle mass and physical performance. We hypothesized that the disability caused by sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity was related to the amount of adiposity or body weight bearing on a unit of muscle mass, or the adiposity to muscle ratio. We therefore examined whether this ratio could predict physical limitation by secondary analysis of the data in our previous study. We recruited 3,153 community-dwelling adults aged >65 years and their body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Assessment of physical limitation was undertaken 4 years later. The relationship between baseline adiposity to muscle ratio and incident physical limitation was examined by logistic regression. In men, the adiposity to muscle ratios, namely total body fat to lower-limb muscle mass, total body fat to fat-free mass (FFM), and body weight to FFM, were predictive of physical limitation before and after adjustment for the covariates: age, Mini-mental Status Examination score, Geriatric Depression Scale score >8, and the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, and stroke (all p values physical limitation 4 years later both before and after adjustment for the same set of covariates (all p values physical limitation in older women across the entire range of the total body fat to lower-limb muscle mass ratio; and in older men when this ratio was equal to or greater than 0.75.

  16. 77 FR 40387 - Price Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... letters, flats, and cards (presort and automation) that include, in or on the mailpiece, a mobile barcode... to a mobile-optimized Web site that allows them to purchase an advertised product on the mobile... Postal Service claims that the Mobile Shopping Promotion encourages increased mail volume (factor 7) and...

  17. Validation and Adjustment of the Leipzig-Halifax Acute Aortic Dissection Type A Scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejàre-Berggren, Hanna; Olsson, Christian

    2017-11-01

    The novel Leipzig-Halifax (LH) scorecard for acute aortic dissection type A (AADA) stratifies risk of in-hospital death based on age, malperfusion syndromes, critical preoperative state, and coronary disease. The study aim was to externally validate the LH scorecard performance and, if adequate, propose adjustments. All consecutive AADA patients operated on from 1996 to 2016 (n = 509) were included to generate an external validation cohort. Variables related to in-hospital death were analyzed using univariable and multivariable analysis. The LH scorecard was applied to the validation cohort, compared with the original study, and variable selection was adjusted using validation measures for discrimination and calibration. In-hospital mortality rate was 17.7% (LH cohort 18.7%). Critical preoperative state and Penn class non-Aa were independent predictors (odds ratio [OR] 2.42 and 2.45, respectively) of in-hospital death. The LH scorecard was adjusted to include Penn class non-Aa, critical preoperative state, and coronary disease. Assessing discrimination, area under receiver operator characteristic curve for the LH scorecard was 0.61 versus 0.66 for the new scorecard (p = 0.086). In-hospital mortality rates in low-, medium-, and high-risk groups were 14%, 15%, and 48%, respectively (LH scorecard) versus 11%, 23%, and 43%, respectively (new scorecard), and goodness-of-fit p value was 0.01 versus 0.86, indicating better calibration by the new scorecard. A lower Akaike information criterion value, 464 versus 448, favored the new scorecard. Through adjustment of the LH scorecard after external validation, prognostic performance improved. Further validated, the LH scorecard could be a valuable risk prediction tool. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlational indicators of psychosocial adjustment among senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a significant joint contribution of the independent variables (sense of coherence, optimism and self-efficacy) to the prediction of psychosocial adjustment. This suggested that the three independent variables combined accounted for 30.4% (Adj.R2= .304) variation in the prediction of psychosocial adjustment.

  19. 14 CFR Appendix - Example of SIFL Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Example of SIFL Adjustment Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS... taxes for rate purposes. Pt. 399, Subpt. C, Example Example of SIFL Adjustment [Methodology for...

  20. relationship between parenting styles and marital adjustment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    positive and significant joint relationship between the parenting styles and marital adjustment of married ... correlate significantly with marital adjustment of married teachers in secondary ... In other words, it refers to the management of ... dealing with each other so as to reduce ill-feeling. ..... Behavior exchange in happy.

  1. Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding from two groups of blind people in Ilorin, Nigeria. ... Background: Blindness can cause psychosocial distress leading to maladjustment if not mitigated. Maladjustment is a secondary burden that further reduces quality of life of the blind. Adjustment is often ...

  2. 28 CFR 11.7 - Salary adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary adjustments. 11.7 Section 11.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.7 Salary adjustments. The following debts shall not be subject to the salary offset procedures of § 11.8...

  3. Sickness presence, sick leave and adjustment latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Gerich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Previous research on the association between adjustment latitude (defined as the opportunity to adjust work efforts in case of illness and sickness absence and sickness presence has produced inconsistent results. In particular, low adjustment latitude has been identified as both a risk factor and a deterrent of sick leave. The present study uses an alternative analytical strategy with the aim of joining these results together. Material and Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, a random sample of employees covered by the Upper Austrian Sickness Fund (N = 930 was analyzed. Logistic and ordinary least square (OLS regression models were used to examine the association between adjustment latitude and days of sickness absence, sickness presence, and an estimator for the individual sickness absence and sickness presence propensity. Results: A high level of adjustment latitude was found to be associated with a reduced number of days of sickness absence and sickness presence, but an elevated propensity for sickness absence. Conclusions: Employees with high adjustment latitude experience fewer days of health complaints associated with lower rates of sick leave and sickness presence compared to those with low adjustment latitude. In case of illness, however, high adjustment latitude is associated with a higher pro­bability of taking sick leave rather than sickness presence.

  4. 7 CFR 718.110 - Adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING QUOTAS, ACREAGE ALLOTMENTS, AND PRODUCTION ADJUSTMENT PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO MULTIPLE PROGRAMS... in order to avoid a marketing quota penalty if such person: (1) Notifies the county committee of such... committee; and (2) Pays the cost of a farm inspection to determine the adjusted acreage prior to the date...

  5. Does Fall History Influence Residential Adjustments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Natalie; Porell, Frank; Murphy, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To determine whether reported falls at baseline are associated with an older adult's decision to make a residential adjustment (RA) and the type of adjustment made in the subsequent 2 years. Design and Methods: Observations (n = 25,036) were from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of…

  6. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment...

  7. relationship between parenting styles and marital adjustment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    The relationship between permissive parenting style and marital adjustment was also very low, positive and insignificant. There was a low, positive and significant joint relationship between the parenting styles and marital adjustment of married teachers in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers ...

  8. Consanguineous Marriage and Marital Adjustment in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiloglu, Hurol

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between consanguineous marriage and marital adjustment in Turkey. The results of the study show that the consanguineous marriage group had significantly lower marital adjustment and had more conflict with extended family than the nonconsanguineous marriage group. The finding is discussed in the context of research and…

  9. Religiousity, Spirituality and Adolescents' Self-Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japar, Muhammad; Purwati

    2014-01-01

    Religiuosity, spirituality, and adolescents' self-adjustment. The objective of this study is to test the correlation among religiosity, spirituality and adolescents' self-adjustment. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. Data were collected from 476 junior high schools students of 13 State Junior High Schools and one Junior High…

  10. Adjustment Following Disability: Representative Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Shontz, Franklin C.

    1984-01-01

    Examined adjustment following physical disability using the representative case method with two persons with quadriplegia. Results highlighted the importance of previously established coping styles as well as the role of the environment in adjustment. Willingness to mourn aided in later growth. (JAC)

  11. Adjustment of the Internal Tax Scale

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In application of Article R V 2.03 of the Staff Regulations, the internal tax scale has been adjusted with effect on 1 January 2012. The new scale may be consulted via the CERN Admin e-guide.  The notification of internal annual tax certificate for the financial year 2012 takes into account this adjustment. HR Department (Tel. 73907)

  12. Adjustable Speed Drives - Future Challenges and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Thoegersen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The main trends within Adjustable Drives in industrial and appliance applications for the next decade are discussed based on the newest developments seen on the market and a few historical trends. Different drive configurations are presented and the general demands to adjustable speed drives...

  13. Golden ratio beauty as scientific function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Olsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Normally when one is considering the golden ratio in the history of ideas, one is often looking at it as an aesthetic principle – usually associated with Greek art, sculpture and mathematics. However, in recent years the prevalence of the golden ratio within a broad range of scientific disciplines has brought its role in the perfection of science to the forefront. I would like to collapse these two areas by proposing a somewhat novel way of looking at the aesthetics of the golden ratio: its pervasive expression in scientific form and function is the basis of the aesthetics in the world. Therefore, science contains the same mathematical beauty as found in artistic expression. The golden ratio guides the Chaos Border of Kolmogorov, Arnold, and Moser (KAM theorem and it can be found hidden in all elementary particles, and even in the proportions of dark matter and energy relative to visible matter and energy. It is evident in the structure and growth functions of plants and animals and it can be found in the physiological functions of humans. It now appears that without the golden ratio, we would not have the form or function of the proton, cell, athlete, horse, species, planet, solar system or galaxy.

  14. Cultural Distance Asymmetry in Expatriate Adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Chiu, Randy K.; Shenkar, Oded

    2007-01-01

    of the assignment. Design/methodology/approach - Using a two-flow sample of US expatriates in Germany and German expatriates in the USA, we examine and compare the psychological and socio-cultural adjustment of each group of executives. Findings - Controlling for the length of assignment, we find that German...... expatriates in the USA were better adjusted, both socio-culturally and psychologically, than American expatriates in Germany. These results support the asymmetry hypothesis and call into question previous findings attesting to the relationship between CD and expatriate adjustment. Originality......Purpose - The current literature implicitly assumes a symmetric impact of cultural distance (CD) on expatriate adjustment. By using distance as a predictor of adjustment, the literature has rendered the direction of the flow irrelevant: a US expatriate in Germany is presumed to face the same hurdle...

  15. Premorbid adjustment and neuropsychological performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Marshall L; Mavrolefteros, George; Close, David

    2002-01-01

    To examine the relationship between premorbid adjustment and neuropsychological deficit in schizophrenia, this report examined retrospective ratings of social and school adjustment during three age epochs (childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence) as predictors of neurocognitive performance in 61 clinically and pharmacologically stabilized schizophrenia outpatients. Results indicated greater cognitive deficits when premorbid adjustment was unfavorable, particularly for measures of attention and executive functions. Premorbid number and quality of peer relationships and psychosocial adaptation to the school environment were more closely related to neuropsychological performance during adulthood than were premorbid withdrawal and premorbid academic performance. Early onset of poor premorbid adjustment rather than deterioration from childhood to adolescence was associated with greater neuropsychological disturbance in adulthood. It is suggested that childhood onset of premorbid deficits in selective areas of social and academic adjustment appears to influence the cognitive performance seen in adult schizophrenia. This study is consistent with findings from other related reports; it extends these findings to a larger and clinically stabilized sample.

  16. 48 CFR 252.243-7002 - Requests for equitable adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clause does not apply to— (1) Requests for routine contract payments; for example, requests for payment for accepted supplies and services, routine vouchers under a cost-reimbursement type contract, or progress payment invoices; or (2) Final adjustment under an incentive provision of the contract. (End of...

  17. A system and method for adjusting and presenting stereoscopic content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    on the basis of one or more vision specific parameters (0M, ThetaMuAlphaChi, ThetaMuIotaNu, DeltaTheta) indicating abnormal vision for the user. In this way, presenting stereoscopic content is enabled that is adjusted specifically to the given person. This may e.g. be used for training purposes or for improved...

  18. Method for adjusting warp measurements to a different board dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Simpson; John R. Shelly

    2000-01-01

    Warp in lumber is a common problem that occurs while lumber is being dried. In research or other testing programs, it is sometimes necessary to compare warp of different species or warp caused by different process variables. If lumber dimensions are not the same, then direct comparisons are not possible, and adjusting warp to a common dimension would be desirable so...

  19. Psychosocial Adjustment of College Students with Tattoos and Piercings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, Jonathan W.; Storch, Eric A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between body modification practices and psychosocial adjustment. Participants were 198 undergraduate college students, 129 of whom had I or more piercings (other than in earlobe) or tattoos. Findings showed that individuals with body modifications reported more symptoms of depression and…

  20. Low CD4/CD8 Ratio Is Associated with Non AIDS-Defining Cancers in Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy: ANRS CO8 (Aproco/Copilote Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Noelie Hema

    Full Text Available To study the association between CD4/CD8 ratio and morbidity in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART.The APROCO/COPILOTE cohort enrolled patients initiating a protease inhibitor-containing ART in 1997-1999. The association between occurrence of first non AIDS-defining severe events (NADE and time-dependent measures of immune restoration was assessed by 4 Cox models with different definitions of restoration, CD4+ cell counts (CD4, CD4/CD8 ratio, both CD4 and CD4/CD8 ratio, or a composite variable (CD4 500/mm3 and CD4/CD8 ratio 500/mm3 and CD4/CD8 ratio > 1. Models adjusted on baseline characteristics and time-dependent viral load were compared using Akaike Information Criterion.We included 1227 patients. Median duration of follow-up was 9.2 years (IQR: 4.2-11.4. Median CD4 was 530/mm3 at 9 years. Median CD4/CD8 ratio was 0.3 (IQR: 0.2-0.5 at baseline and 0.6 (IQR: 0.4-0.9 after 9 years. Incidence of first NADE was 7.4/100 person-years, the most common being bacterial infections (21%, cardiovascular events (14% and cancers (10%. For both bacterial infections and cardiovascular events, the CD4/CD8 ratio did not add predictive information to the CD4 cell count. However, low CD4/CD8 ratio was the best predictor of non-AIDS cancers (adjusted HR = 2.13 for CD4/CD8 < 0.5; 95% CI = 1.32-3.44.CD4/CD8 ratio remains < 1 in most HIV-infected patients despite long-term CD4+ cell counts restoration on ART. A CD4/CD8 ratio < 0.5 could identify patients who require a more intensive strategy of cancer prevention or screening.

  1. Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang

    2012-01-01

    In a Fisher market, a market maker sells m items to n potential buyers. The buyers submit their utility functions and money endowments to the market maker, who, upon receiving submitted information, derives market equilibrium prices and allocations of its items. While agents may benefit...... by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....

  2. Maternal Eating Disorders Influence Sex Ratio at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Bulik, Cynthia M; Von Holle, Ann; Gendall, Kelly; Kveim Lie, Kari; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Mo, Xiaofei; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2008-01-01

    We explored sex ratio at birth, defined as the proportion of male live births, in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorders not otherwise specified-purging type (EDNOS-P) relative to a referent group in a large population based sample of 38,340 pregnant women in Norway. Poisson regressions were adjusted for mother’s age, pre-pregnancy BMI, lifetime smoking status, maternal education, income, marital status, gestational age, and parity. Lower pro...

  3. [Interpersonal motivation in a First Year Experience class influences freshmen's university adjustment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Rumiko; Nakanishi, Yoshifumi; Nagahama, Fumiyo; Nakajima, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    The present study examined the influence of interpersonal motivation on university adjustment in freshman students enrolled in a First Year Experience (FYE) class. An interpersonal motivation scale and a university adjustment (interpersonal adjustment and academic adjustment) scale were administered twice to 116 FYE students; data from the 88 students who completed both surveys were analyzed. Results from structural equation modeling indicated a causal relationship between interpersonal, motivation and university adjustment: interpersonal adjustment served as a mediator between academic adjustment and interpersonal motivation, the latter of which was assessed using the internalized motivation subscale of the Interpersonal Motivation Scale as well as the Relative Autonomy Index, which measures the autonomy in students' interpersonal attitudes. Thus, revising the FYE class curriculum to include approaches to lowering students' feelings of obligation and/or anxiety in their interpersonal interactions might improve their adjustment to university.

  4. Comparison between clinical significance of height-adjusted and weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furushima, Taishi; Miyachi, Motohiko; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Murakami, Haruka; Kawano, Hiroshi; Gando, Yuko; Kawakami, Ryoko; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2017-02-13

    This study aimed to compare relationships between height- or weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM/Ht 2 or ASM/Wt) and risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases or osteoporosis in Japanese men and women. Subjects were healthy Japanese men (n = 583) and women (n = 1218). The study population included a young group (310 men and 357 women; age, 18-40 years) and a middle-aged and elderly group (273 men and 861 women; age, ≥41 years). ASM was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The reference values for class 1 and 2 sarcopenia in each sex were defined as values one and two standard deviations below the sex-specific means of the young group, respectively. The reference values for class 1 and 2 sarcopenia defined by ASM/Ht 2 were 7.77 and 6.89 kg/m 2 in men and 6.06 and 5.31 kg/m 2 in women, respectively. The reference values for ASM/Wt were 35.0 and 32.0% in men and 29.6 and 26.4% in women, respectively. In both men and women, ASM/Wt was negatively correlated with higher triglycerides (TG) and positively correlated with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), but these associations were not found in height-adjusted ASM. In women, TG, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure in sarcopenia defined by ASM/Wt were significantly higher than those in normal subjects, but these associations were not found in sarcopenia defined by ASM/Ht 2 . Whole-body and regional bone mineral density in sarcopenia defined by ASM/Ht 2 were significantly lower than those in normal subjects, but these associations were not found in sarcopenia defined by ASM/Wt. Weight-adjusted definition was able to identify cardiometabolic risk factors such as TG and HDL-C while height-adjusted definition could identify factors for osteoporosis.

  5. An adjustable Brownian heat engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfaw, Mesfin; Bekele, Mulugeta

    2002-09-01

    A microscopic heat engine is modeled as a Brownian particle in a sawtooth potential (with load) moving through a highly viscous medium driven by the thermal kick it gets from alternately placed hot and cold heat reservoirs. We found a closed form expression for the current as a function of the parameters characterizing the model. Depending on the values these model parameters take, the engine is also found to function as a refrigerator. Expressions for the efficiency as well as for the refrigerator performance are also reported. Study of how these quantities depend on the model parameters enabled us in identifying the points in the parameter space where the engine performs either with maximum power or with optimized efficiency. The corresponding efficiencies of the engine are then compared with those of the endoreversible and Carnot engines. (author)

  6. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...

  7. Automatic adjustment of bias current for direct current superconducting quantum interference device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makie-Fukuda, K.; Hotta, M.; Okajima, K.; Kado, H.

    1993-01-01

    A new method of adjusting the bias current of dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is described. It is shown that the signal-to-noise ratio of a SQUID magnetometer connected in a flux-locked loop configuration is proportional to the second harmonic of the output signal from the SQUID. A circuit configuration that can automatically optimize a SQUID's bias current by measuring this second harmonic and adjusting the bias current accordingly is proposed

  8. D/H ratio for Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.; Schempp, W.V.; Baines, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of Jupiter's spectrum near the R5(0) HD line at 6063.88 A are reported. A feature with an equivalent width of 0.065 + or - 0.021 mA is coincident with the expected line. This feature is compared with HD profiles computed for inhomogeneous scattering models for Jupiter to yield a range for the Jovian D/H ratio of 1.0-2.9 x 10 to the -5th. This D/H ratio is in the lower range of previously reported D/H values for Jupiter and corresponds to an essentially solar D/H ratio for Jupiter. The detection of HD features in the presence of probable blends with spectral features of minor atmospheric hydrocarbon molecules is discussed. Such blends may make unambiguous identification of HD features difficult. 26 references

  9. Transport in a small aspect ratio torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gates, D.A.; Mynick, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    Transport theory in toroidal devices often assumes large aspect ratio and also assumes the poloidal field is small compared to the toroidal field. These assumptions result in transport which in the low collision rate limit is dominated by banana orbits, giving the largest collisionless excursion of a particle from an initial flux surface. However in a small aspect ratio device the gyro radius may be larger than the banana excursion, resulting in significant deviations from the standard neoclassical predictions. In this paper we report numerical simulation of diffusion in low and high beta low aspect ratio equilibria. We also sketch an analytic theory. The diffusion, which we refer to as omniclassical, is a combination of neoclassical and properly averaged classical effects, and can be two or three times the neoclassical value. Good agreement of the analytic theory with numerical simulations is obtained. (author)

  10. Epidemiology of perforated peptic ulcer: Age- and gender-adjusted analysis of incidence and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Kenneth; Søreide, Jon Arne; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Glomsaker, Tom; Søreide, Kjetil

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the epidemiological trends in incidence and mortality of perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) in a well-defined Norwegian population. METHODS: A retrospective, population-based, single-center, consecutive cohort study of all patients diagnosed with benign perforated peptic ulcer. Included were both gastric and duodenal ulcer patients admitted to Stavanger University Hospital between January 2001 and December 2010. Ulcers with a malignant neoplasia diagnosis, verified by histology after biopsy or resection, were excluded. Patients were identified from the hospitals administrative electronic database using pertinent ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes (K25.1, K25.2, K25.5, K25.6, K26.1, K26.2, K26.5, K26.6). Additional searches using appropriate codes for relevant laparoscopic and open surgical procedures (e.g., JDA 60, JDA 61, JDH 70 and JDH 71) were performed to enable a complete identification of all patients. Patient demographics, presentation patterns and clinical data were retrieved from hospital records and surgical notes. Crude and adjusted incidence and mortality rates were estimated by using national population demographics data. RESULTS: In the study period, a total of 172 patients with PPU were identified. The adjusted incidence rate for the overall 10-year period was 6.5 per 100 000 per year (95%CI: 5.6-7.6) and the adjusted mortality rate for the overall 10-year period was 1.1 per 100 000 per year (95%CI: 0.7-1.6). A non-significant decline in adjusted incidence rate from 9.7 to 5.6 occurred during the decade. The standardized mortality ratio for the whole study period was 5.7 (95%CI: 3.9-8.2), while the total 30-d mortality was 16.3%. No difference in incidence or mortality was found between genders. However, for patients ≥ 60 years, the incidence increased over 10-fold, and mortality more than 50-fold, compared to younger ages. The admission rates outside office hours were high with almost two out of three (63%) admissions seen at evening

  11. Evaluation of HIV protease inhibitor use and the risk of sudden death or nonhemorrhagic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, S W; Kamara, D A; Reiss, P

    2012-01-01

    Concerns have arisen about possible effects of protease inhibitors (PIs) on cardiac conductivity. We found no significant association between current or recent PI exposure and sudden death or nonhemorrhagic stroke (adjusted rate ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, .95-1.57), whereas cumulative...

  12. Suicidal Tendency Among Adolescents With Adjustment Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Laia; Kirchner, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with adjustment disorder (AD) are at risk of presenting suicidal symptoms. Certain personality traits are linked to suicidal tendencies. There is a lack of information about the link between suicide and personality patterns in adolescents with AD. To identify the personality characteristics that predispose to or prevent the development of suicidal ideation and behavior among adolescents with AD. We recruited 108 adolescents with AD at a public mental health center near Barcelona (Spain). They were administered the Inventario de Riesgo Suicida para Adolescentes (IRIS) to assess suicidal symptoms, as well as the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) and the 16PF Adolescent Personality Questionnaire (16PF-APQ) to appraise personality features. Doleful personality emerged as the principal risk for suicidal symptoms. The conforming personality pattern exerted a protective effect, and emotional stability was associated with low levels of suicidal tendencies. Among the Big Five factors, anxiety had the highest explanatory power for suicidal tendencies. Certain personality characteristics are associated with heightened or reduced risk of suicidal tendencies in adolescents with AD. Their identification is important for clinicians designing treatment programs for these patients.

  13. Intraocular lens calculation adjustment after laser refractive surgery using Scheimpflug imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Alexander K; Schanzlin, David J; Thomas, Karin E; Heichel, Christopher W; Purcell, Tracy L; Barker, Patrick D

    2016-02-01

    To test a new method of intraocular lens (IOL) calculation after corneal refractive surgery using Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam HR) and partial coherence interferometry (PCI) (IOLMaster) that does not require historical data; that is, the Schuster/Schanzlin-Thomas-Purcell (SToP) IOL calculator. Shiley Eye Center, San Diego, California, and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Retrospective data analysis and validation study. Data were retrospectively collected from patient charts including data from Scheimpflug imaging and refractive history. Target refraction was calculated using PCI and the Holladay 1 and SRK/T formulas. Regression analysis was performed to explain the deviation of the target refraction, taking into account the following influencing factors: ratio of posterior-to-anterior corneal radius, axial length (AL), and anterior corneal radius. The regression analysis study included 61 eyes (39 patients) that had laser in situ keratomileusis (57 eyes) or photorefractive keratectomy (4 eyes) and subsequent cataract. Two factors were found that explained the deviation of the target refraction using the Holladay 1 formula; that is, the ratio of the corneal radii and the AL and the ratio of corneal radii for the SRK/T formula. A new IOL adjustment calculator was derived and validated at a second center using 14 eyes (10 patients). The error in IOL calculation for normal eyes after laser refractive treatment was related to the ratio of posterior-to-anterior corneal radius. A formula requiring Scheimpflug data and suggested IOL power only yielded an improved postoperative result for patients with previous corneal laser refractive surgery having cataract surgery. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. All rights reserved.

  14. An unstable social environment affects sex ratio in guinea pigs : an adaptive maternal effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemme, Kristina; Kaiser, Sylvia; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Wewers, Dirk; Groothuis, Ton; Sachser, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary theory suggests that offspring sex should be adjusted to environmental conditions in order to maximize future reproductive success. In several animal taxa environmental factors indeed affect the secondary sex ratio. In humans, changes in the sex ratio at birth have been associated with

  15. The Persian Version of Fertility Adjustment Scale: Psychometric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Tiyuri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Infertility is a common clinical problem. Psychological adjustment to infertility refers to changing the viewpoint and attitude of an infertile person toward infertility problems, treatments and possible outcomes. The present study aims to prepare a valid and reliable scale for assessing the psychological adjustment to infertility, by determining the cultural adaptation, validity and reliability of the Persian version of the Fertility Adjustment Scale. Materials and Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed to localize and validate the Fertility Adjustment Scale, in which 40 infertile women and 40 healthy subjects (fertile or having children were detected by a gynecolo- gist and the subjects who completed the Fertility Adjustment Scale (FAS questionnaire were recruited. This study had four steps: in the first step, the literature was reviewed, in the second step, the scale was translated, in the third step, the content and construct validity indicators were calculated, and in the fourth step, reliability of the scale was validated. Results The mean (± SE and range of fertility adjustment total scores in the infertile group and the control group were 43.2 (1.2 and 27-57 and 42.3 (1.5 and 18-57, respectively (P=0.623. The content validity was good according to Con- tent Validity Index score (0.7-0.8. A two-component structure was extracted from factor analysis which approximately justifies 52.0% of the cumulative variations. A Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.68 showed moderate reliability. Conclusion The results of this study revealed that the infertility adjustment scale is a useful tool for the analysis of psy- chological reactions towards infertility problems and evaluation of the consequences of treating this social-clinical problem.

  16. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  17. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  18. Using Approximate Bayesian Computation to infer sex ratios from acoustic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnen, Lisa; Schorcht, Wigbert; Karst, Inken; Biedermann, Martin; Kerth, Gerald; Puechmaille, Sebastien J

    2018-01-01

    Population sex ratios are of high ecological relevance, but are challenging to determine in species lacking conspicuous external cues indicating their sex. Acoustic sexing is an option if vocalizations differ between sexes, but is precluded by overlapping distributions of the values of male and female vocalizations in many species. A method allowing the inference of sex ratios despite such an overlap will therefore greatly increase the information extractable from acoustic data. To meet this demand, we developed a novel approach using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) to infer the sex ratio of populations from acoustic data. Additionally, parameters characterizing the male and female distribution of acoustic values (mean and standard deviation) are inferred. This information is then used to probabilistically assign a sex to a single acoustic signal. We furthermore develop a simpler means of sex ratio estimation based on the exclusion of calls from the overlap zone. Applying our methods to simulated data demonstrates that sex ratio and acoustic parameter characteristics of males and females are reliably inferred by the ABC approach. Applying both the ABC and the exclusion method to empirical datasets (echolocation calls recorded in colonies of lesser horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus hipposideros) provides similar sex ratios as molecular sexing. Our methods aim to facilitate evidence-based conservation, and to benefit scientists investigating ecological or conservation questions related to sex- or group specific behaviour across a wide range of organisms emitting acoustic signals. The developed methodology is non-invasive, low-cost and time-efficient, thus allowing the study of many sites and individuals. We provide an R-script for the easy application of the method and discuss potential future extensions and fields of applications. The script can be easily adapted to account for numerous biological systems by adjusting the type and number of groups to be

  19. Adjustment to Cancer: Anxiety and Distress (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with adjustment disorders. Individual (one-to-one) and group counseling have been shown to help cancer patients with ... to-one) counseling. Couple and family counseling. Crisis counseling. Group therapy. Self-help groups. Other treatments used to ...

  20. Adjusting water resources management to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riebsame, W E

    1988-01-01

    The nature of climate impacts and adjustment in water supply and flood management is discussed, and a case study of water manager response to climate fluctuation in California's Sacramento Basin is presented. The case illuminates the effect on climate impact and response of traditional management approaches, the dynamic qualities of maturing water systems, socially imposed constraints, and climate extremes. A dual pattern of crisis-response and gradual adjustment emerges, and specific mechanisms for effecting adjustment of water management systems are identified. The case study, and broader trends in US water development, suggest that oversized structural capacity, the traditional adjustment to climate variability in water resources, may prove less feasible in the future as projects become smaller and new facilities are delayed by economic and environmental concerns.

  1. Theatre Practice and Social Adjustment in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Media Sociology Lecturer ... adjustments in favour of local processes to drive social and economic .... needs the need to meet the requirements of all motivated efficiency, a certain degree of .... Centre for Production of Tourism, Arts and Culture.

  2. Marital Adjustment and Psychological Distress in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries. PMID:28082761

  3. Determinants of intercultural adjustment among expatriate spouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Anees; Van der Zee, K.I.; Sanders, G

    The adaptation of expatriate families to a host country seems crucial to successful fulfilment of international business assignments. The present study focused on personality, family characteristics and characteristics of expatriates' work life as determinants of the intercultural adjustment of

  4. Case-mix adjustment for diabetes indicators: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsbeek, Hiske; Markhorst, Joekle G M; Voerman, Gerlienke E; Braspenning, Jozé C C

    2016-02-01

    Case-mix adjustment is generally considered indispensable for fair comparison of healthcare performance. Inaccurate results are also unfair to patients as they are ineffective for improving quality. However, little is known about what factors should be adjusted for. We reviewed case-mix factors included in adjustment models for key diabetes indicators, the rationale for their inclusion, and their impact on performance. Systematic review. This systematic review included studies published up to June 2013 addressing case-mix factors for 6 key diabetes indicators: 2 outcomes and 2 process indicators for glycated hemoglobin (A1C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood pressure. Factors were categorized as demographic, diabetes-related, comorbidity, generic health, geographic, or care-seeking, and were evaluated on the rationale for inclusion in the adjustment models, as well as their impact on indicator scores and ranking. Thirteen studies were included, mainly addressing A1C value and measurement. Twenty-three different case-mix factors, mostly demographic and diabetes-related, were identified, and varied from 1 to 14 per adjustment model. Six studies provided selection motives for the inclusion of case-mix factors. Marital status and body mass index showed a significant impact on A1C value. For the other factors, either no or conflicting associations were reported, or too few studies (n ≤ 2) investigated this association. Scientific knowledge about the relative importance of case-mix factors for diabetes indicators is emerging, especially for demographic and diabetes-related factors and indicators on A1C, but is still limited. Because arbitrary adjustment potentially results in inaccurate quality information, meaningful stratification that demonstrates inequity in care might be a better guide, as it can be a driver for quality improvement.

  5. An in-depth assessment of a diagnosis-based risk adjustment model based on national health insurance claims: the application of the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Group case-mix system in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner Jonathan P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis-based risk adjustment is becoming an important issue globally as a result of its implications for payment, high-risk predictive modelling and provider performance assessment. The Taiwanese National Health Insurance (NHI programme provides universal coverage and maintains a single national computerized claims database, which enables the application of diagnosis-based risk adjustment. However, research regarding risk adjustment is limited. This study aims to examine the performance of the Adjusted Clinical Group (ACG case-mix system using claims-based diagnosis information from the Taiwanese NHI programme. Methods A random sample of NHI enrollees was selected. Those continuously enrolled in 2002 were included for concurrent analyses (n = 173,234, while those in both 2002 and 2003 were included for prospective analyses (n = 164,562. Health status measures derived from 2002 diagnoses were used to explain the 2002 and 2003 health expenditure. A multivariate linear regression model was adopted after comparing the performance of seven different statistical models. Split-validation was performed in order to avoid overfitting. The performance measures were adjusted R2 and mean absolute prediction error of five types of expenditure at individual level, and predictive ratio of total expenditure at group level. Results The more comprehensive models performed better when used for explaining resource utilization. Adjusted R2 of total expenditure in concurrent/prospective analyses were 4.2%/4.4% in the demographic model, 15%/10% in the ACGs or ADGs (Aggregated Diagnosis Group model, and 40%/22% in the models containing EDCs (Expanded Diagnosis Cluster. When predicting expenditure for groups based on expenditure quintiles, all models underpredicted the highest expenditure group and overpredicted the four other groups. For groups based on morbidity burden, the ACGs model had the best performance overall. Conclusions Given the

  6. An in-depth assessment of a diagnosis-based risk adjustment model based on national health insurance claims: the application of the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Group case-mix system in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsien-Yen; Weiner, Jonathan P

    2010-01-18

    Diagnosis-based risk adjustment is becoming an important issue globally as a result of its implications for payment, high-risk predictive modelling and provider performance assessment. The Taiwanese National Health Insurance (NHI) programme provides universal coverage and maintains a single national computerized claims database, which enables the application of diagnosis-based risk adjustment. However, research regarding risk adjustment is limited. This study aims to examine the performance of the Adjusted Clinical Group (ACG) case-mix system using claims-based diagnosis information from the Taiwanese NHI programme. A random sample of NHI enrollees was selected. Those continuously enrolled in 2002 were included for concurrent analyses (n = 173,234), while those in both 2002 and 2003 were included for prospective analyses (n = 164,562). Health status measures derived from 2002 diagnoses were used to explain the 2002 and 2003 health expenditure. A multivariate linear regression model was adopted after comparing the performance of seven different statistical models. Split-validation was performed in order to avoid overfitting. The performance measures were adjusted R2 and mean absolute prediction error of five types of expenditure at individual level, and predictive ratio of total expenditure at group level. The more comprehensive models performed better when used for explaining resource utilization. Adjusted R2 of total expenditure in concurrent/prospective analyses were 4.2%/4.4% in the demographic model, 15%/10% in the ACGs or ADGs (Aggregated Diagnosis Group) model, and 40%/22% in the models containing EDCs (Expanded Diagnosis Cluster). When predicting expenditure for groups based on expenditure quintiles, all models underpredicted the highest expenditure group and overpredicted the four other groups. For groups based on morbidity burden, the ACGs model had the best performance overall. Given the widespread availability of claims data and the superior explanatory

  7. GUT Scale Fermion Mass Ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We present a series of recent works related to group theoretical factors from GUT symmetry breaking which lead to predictions for the ratios of quark and lepton Yukawa couplings at the unification scale. New predictions for the GUT scale ratios y μ /y s , y τ /y b and y t /y b in particular are shown and compared to experimental data. For this comparison it is important to include possibly large supersymmetric threshold corrections. Due to this reason the structure of the fermion masses at the GUT scale depends on TeV scale physics and makes GUT scale physics testable at the LHC. We also discuss how this new predictions might lead to predictions for mixing angles by discussing the example of the recently measured last missing leptonic mixing angle θ 13 making this new class of GUT models also testable in neutrino experiments

  8. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... is a general tendency to focus on numerators and pay insufficient attention to denominators in ratios. Using a population-based survey experiment, I demonstrate how differently framed but logically equivalent representations of the exact same numerical value can have large effects on citizens’ preferences...... regarding salient political issues such as education and taxes. Furthermore, the effects of numerical framing are found across most groups of the population, largely regardless of their political predisposition and their general ability to understand and use numerical information. These findings have...

  9. Price Changes, Resource Adjustments and Rational Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    This study investigates the relationship between the accuracy of managerial demand expectations, resource adjustment decisions and selling price changes. In line with rational expectation theory, it is argued that managers adjust resources and selling prices differently in response to expected...... that cost elasticity is higher when a demand decrease is expected among companies with similar exposure to demand uncertainty. Overall, this implies that managerial competences in predicting future demand significantly determines firms’ profitability; especially when demand uncertainty is high...

  10. High aspect ratio spheromak experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, S.; Schmid, P.

    1987-05-01

    The Reversatron RFP (R/a = 50cm/8cm) has been operated as an ohmically heated spheromak of high aspect ratio. We find that the dynamo can drive the toroidal field upward at rates as high as 10 6 G/sec. Discharges can be initiated and ramped upward from seed fields as low as 50 G. Small toroidal bias fields of either polarity (-0.2 < F < 0.2) do not significantly affect operation. 5 refs., 3 figs

  11. Covariate Imbalance and Adjustment for Logistic Regression Analysis of Clinical Trial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolino, Jody D.; Martin, Reneé H.; Zhao, Wenle; Jauch, Edward C.; Hill, Michael D.; Palesch, Yuko Y.

    2014-01-01

    In logistic regression analysis for binary clinical trial data, adjusted treatment effect estimates are often not equivalent to unadjusted estimates in the presence of influential covariates. This paper uses simulation to quantify the benefit of covariate adjustment in logistic regression. However, International Conference on Harmonization guidelines suggest that covariate adjustment be pre-specified. Unplanned adjusted analyses should be considered secondary. Results suggest that that if adjustment is not possible or unplanned in a logistic setting, balance in continuous covariates can alleviate some (but never all) of the shortcomings of unadjusted analyses. The case of log binomial regression is also explored. PMID:24138438

  12. Identifying Malignant Pleural Effusion by A Cancer Ratio (Serum LDH: Pleural Fluid ADA Ratio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Akash; Abisheganaden, John; Light, R W

    2016-02-01

    We studied the diagnostic potential of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in malignant pleural effusion. Retrospective analysis of patients hospitalized with exudative pleural effusion in 2013. Serum LDH and serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio was significantly higher in cancer patients presenting with exudative pleural effusion. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, pleural fluid ADA was negatively correlated 0.62 (0.45-0.85, p = 0.003) with malignancy, whereas serum LDH 1.02 (1.0-1.03, p = 0.004) and serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio 0.94 (0.99-1.0, p = 0.04) was correlated positively with malignant pleural effusion. For serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio, a cut-off level of >20 showed sensitivity, specificity of 0.98 (95 % CI 0.92-0.99) and 0.94 (95 % CI 0.83-0.98), respectively. The positive likelihood ratio was 32.6 (95 % CI 10.7-99.6), while the negative likelihood ratio at this cut-off was 0.03 (95 % CI 0.01-0.15). Higher serum LDH and serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio in patients presenting with exudative pleural effusion can distinguish between malignant and non-malignant effusion on the first day of hospitalization. The cut-off level for serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio of >20 is highly predictive of malignancy in patients with exudative pleural effusion (whether lymphocytic or neutrophilic) with high sensitivity and specificity.

  13. Postural adjustments are modulated by manual task complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Augusto Teixeira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Daily life activities of humans are characterized by dual tasks, in which a manual task is performed concomitantly with a postural task. Based on the assumption that both manual and postural tasks require attentional resources, no consensus exists as to how the central nervous system modulates postural adjustments in dual tasks. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a manual task requiring attentional resources on shoulder and ankle adjustments as a function of the direction and predictability of postural perturbation. The participants (n=6 were evaluated during the performance of a simple and a complex manual task, while the base of support was moved backward or forward. Latency of activation of the tibialis anterior and gastroc-nemius muscles and angular acceleration of the shoulder were analyzed. The results showed that execution of the complex manual task delayed postural adjustment. Moreover, this delay occurred differently depending on the direction of postural perturbation. The delay in postural adjustment occurred proximally in the case of anterior displacement of the platform, and distally in the case of posterior displacement. Postural adjustments were more affected by the attentional task than by the predictability of platform displacement. These results are consistent with the concept of an integrated control between manual actions and the maintenance of static posture.

  14. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Volodymyr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the

  15. Applications of sensitivity function to dosimetric data adjustments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Masaharu

    1984-01-01

    Sensitivity functions are applied to the dosimetric field in the spectrum unfolding technique, also called as the data adjustment technique which are statistical estimation procedures of the neutron spectrum or relating dosimetric quantities basing on the reaction-rate data measurements. Using the practical formulae and numerical examples of the sensitivity functions in the dosimetric data adjustments, two comments are made that (1) present sensitivity values are highly depending on the initial spectrum inputs and (2) more attention should be paid to the dependency of the sensitivity on the very uncertain covariance data inputs of the initial neutron spectrum. (author)

  16. Interharmonic analysis and mitigation in adjustable speed drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Hamid; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical background and studies on the supply side current interharmonics in a double-stage Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD), when they are initiated by motor current imbalance. Some useful approaches are then proposed to compensate for these interharmonic currents in parti......This paper presents the theoretical background and studies on the supply side current interharmonics in a double-stage Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD), when they are initiated by motor current imbalance. Some useful approaches are then proposed to compensate for these interharmonic currents...... in partially and/or fully controlled ASD, resulting in undistorted grid currents. The simulation studies verify the effectiveness of the proposed schemes....

  17. The instability of the adjusted and unadjusted environmental Kuznets curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auci, Sabrina; Becchetti, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    We test the stability of the unadjusted and adjusted environmental Kuznets curves (EKCs). Our results provide evidence in favour of a theoretically funded 'adjusted EKC hypothesis' in which the impact of per capita GDP on CO 2 emissions is evaluated conditionally to the effects of the industry mix and of the energy-supply infrastructure. In this specification, the shape of the GDP-CO 2 relationship appears quite sensitive to changes in the estimation period. In the final part of the paper, signs and dynamics of fixed effects of individual countries in different specifications are interpreted as measures of virtuous or vicious of environmental behaviour. (author)

  18. Highly Adjustable Systems: An Architecture for Future Space Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenberg, Jonathan; Conti, Alberto; Redding, David; Lawrence, Charles R.; Hachkowski, Roman; Laskin, Robert; Steeves, John

    2017-06-01

    Mission costs for ground breaking space astronomical observatories are increasing to the point of unsustainability. We are investigating the use of adjustable or correctable systems as a means to reduce development and therefore mission costs. The poster introduces the promise and possibility of realizing a “net zero CTE” system for the general problem of observatory design and introduces the basic systems architecture we are considering. This poster concludes with an overview of our planned study and demonstrations for proving the value and worth of highly adjustable telescopes and systems ahead of the upcoming decadal survey.

  19. Inclusion of Highest Glasgow Coma Scale Motor Component Score in Mortality Risk Adjustment for Benchmarking of Trauma Center Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, David; Byrne, James P; Alali, Aziz S; Xiong, Wei; Hoeft, Chris; Neal, Melanie; Subacius, Harris; Nathens, Avery B

    2017-12-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most widely used measure of traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity. Currently, the arrival GCS motor component (mGCS) score is used in risk-adjustment models for external benchmarking of mortality. However, there is evidence that the highest mGCS score in the first 24 hours after injury might be a better predictor of death. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of including the highest mGCS score on the performance of risk-adjustment models and subsequent external benchmarking results. Data were derived from the Trauma Quality Improvement Program analytic dataset (January 2014 through March 2015) and were limited to the severe TBI cohort (16 years or older, isolated head injury, GCS ≤8). Risk-adjustment models were created that varied in the mGCS covariates only (initial score, highest score, or both initial and highest mGCS scores). Model performance and fit, as well as external benchmarking results, were compared. There were 6,553 patients with severe TBI across 231 trauma centers included. Initial and highest mGCS scores were different in 47% of patients (n = 3,097). Model performance and fit improved when both initial and highest mGCS scores were included, as evidenced by improved C-statistic, Akaike Information Criterion, and adjusted R-squared values. Three-quarters of centers changed their adjusted odds ratio decile, 2.6% of centers changed outlier status, and 45% of centers exhibited a ≥0.5-SD change in the odds ratio of death after including highest mGCS score in the model. This study supports the concept that additional clinical information has the potential to not only improve the performance of current risk-adjustment models, but can also have a meaningful impact on external benchmarking strategies. Highest mGCS score is a good potential candidate for inclusion in additional models. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Accelerated adjustment in the German hardcoal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semrau, G.

    1994-01-01

    The worsening overall economic situation and the steel crisis necessitate an accelerated adjustment of the production capacity and the output. In 1993 hardcoal production was reduced by almost 8 Mtce or 12% to some 59 Mtce. The coke production of the colliery-owned coke oven plants was even reduced by 27%. Following the strong decline of deliveries in 1992 (-6 Mt), the sale of hardcoal and coke fell by another 4 Mt to about 60 Mtce in 1993. The high sales losses resulted in a further increase in stock. At the end of 1993 23 Mt coal had been stockpiled and burdened the results and liquidity of the hardcoal mining companies. The loss of jobs is aggravating. At the end of 1993 the hardcoal industry employed a workforce of 113500, of those 106300 own employees and 7300 workers form contractors. In the course of the year 10600 jobs were lost totaling up to about 55000 since the 1987 coal round. With an underground OMS of 5267 kg the hardcoal industry has reached the highest productivity level so far. In 1994 the hardcoal industry will continue to contract. The hardcoal output is to be reduced to less than 53 Mtce to achieve a reduction of stock in the mining companies. (orig.)

  1. Severe neurological complication following adjustable gastric banding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martines, G; Musa, N; Aquilino, F; Capuano, P

    2018-01-01

    In the last years with the increase of bariatric surgery, first of all as a result of new indications, a rise in the incidence of nutrient-related complications has been observed. Currently little is known about the impact of post-bariatric malnutrition and neurological complications. Wernicke's encephalopathy is a severe neurological syndrome which occurs as a result of thiamine deficiency. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome must be considered a serious neurological complication of bariatric surgery with significant morbidity and mortality, with rapidly progressing neurological symptoms, and must be treated immediately. We report the case of a 35 years-old male patient, affected by morbid obesity, anxious-depressive syndrome and alcohol use disorder, who after adjustable gastric banding implanted in another hospital developed a severe malnutrition and neurological syndrome. The patient showed poor adherence to the follow-up and to the dietary indications and after all, we needed to place a PEG for enteral nutrition in order to resolve the malnutrition condition and the neurological syndrome. Our experience emphasizes that preoperative selection and assessment of a patient's nutritional status according to guidelines, is required to identify potential problems, and that bariatric surgeons or physicians caring for patient who have undergone bariatric surgery should be familiar with the constellation of nutritional and neurological disorder that may occur after surgery. We want to remark the importance of preoperative selection of the patients, the follow-up and the cooperation between patient and physician in order to obtain the best result and avoid severe complications.

  2. Industry adjusts 1992 E and P budgets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a midyear update of Salomon Bros. survey of the petroleum industry's 1992 exploration and production budgets pinpoints the ways operators are adjusting outlays to match the times. The New York financial firm's latest tally shows: Operators have made deep cuts in their 1992 US and Canadian E and P budgets since yearend 1991. Moderate increases budgeted earlier for E and P outside North America are intact. Many companies substantially underspent their budgets in first half 1992. In Salomon Bros. Largest survey---247 companies responded---operators the they were budgeting a 3.2% year to year decline in their 1992 worldwide E and P spending, compared with a 1.3% increase planned for 1992 in December 1991. The decline in spending falls entirely in North America. Preliminary indications suggest that 1993 E and P spending will be relatively flat in the US and flat to moderately increased in Canada. Elsewhere, spending should continue to rise steadily in 1993, Salomon Bros. The. Budgets exclude producing property purchases and merger or acquisition of other companies when possible

  3. Bidirectional associations between emotions and school adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Maciel M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Spinrad, Tracy L; Berger, Rebecca H; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Silva, Kassondra M; Diaz, Anjolii; Thompson, Marilyn S; Gal, Diana E; Southworth, Jody

    2017-11-24

    We examined the relations of children's (N = 301) observed expression of negative and positive emotion in classes or nonclassroom school contexts (i.e., lunch and recess) to school adjustment from kindergarten to first grade. Naturalistic observations of children's emotional expressivity were collected, as were teachers' reports of children's school engagement and relationship quality with teachers and peers. In longitudinal panel models, greater teacher-student conflict and lower student engagement in kindergarten predicted greater negative expressivity in both school contexts. School engagement and peer acceptance in kindergarten positively predicted first grade positive emotion in the classroom. Suggestive of possible bidirectional relations, there was also small unique prediction (near significant) from negative expressivity at lunch and recess to higher teacher-student conflict, from negative expressivity in the classroom to low peer acceptance, and from positive expressivity in the classroom to higher peer acceptance. The pattern of findings suggests that the quality of experience at school uniquely predicts children's emotional expressivity at school more consistently than vice versa-a finding that highlights the important role of school context in young children's emotionality at school. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Adjusting ability and sensibility for an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozental, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Adjusting ability (technical competence) and sensibility (consciousness) are the two most important priorities any staff member of any organization should bear in mind while acting during a nuclear or radiological emergency. The discussion is aimed at the national authorities of states which do not have a major nuclear power reactor programme, and especially at the IAEA and WHO: although a decade has gone by, the lessons from the radiological accident in Goiania have not been fully learned. The events which unravelled in the fall of 1987 took the population of the city of Goiania completely by surprise: they did not comprehend what had happened and failed to grasp what measures needed to be taken, a situation which precipitated a very complex psychological reaction, coupled with discrimination. To ensure the safety of radiation sources and nuclear installations, national and international organizations should direct their efforts towards educating and training staff in developing countries who work with ionizing radiation and promoting organizational capacity. This should be done first, by improving safety qualitatively so as to better control the uses of radioactive materials in medicine, agriculture, industry and research, and secondly, by assisting countries without a major nuclear power reactor programme to develop an objective and realistic emergency response training programme. (author)

  5. Personality, emotional adjustment, and cardiovascular risk: marriage as a mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W; Baron, Carolynne E; Grove, Jeremy L

    2014-12-01

    A variety of aspects of personality and emotional adjustment predict the development and course of coronary heart disease (CHD), as do indications of marital quality (e.g., satisfaction, conflict, strain, disruption). Importantly, the personality traits and aspects of emotional adjustment that predict CHD are also related to marital quality. In such instances of correlated risk factors, traditional epidemiological and clinical research typically either ignores the potentially overlapping effects or examines independent associations through statistical controls, approaches that can misrepresent the key components and mechanisms of psychosocial effects on CHD. The interpersonal perspective in personality and clinical psychology provides an alternative and integrative approach, through its structural and process models of interpersonal behavior. We present this perspective on psychosocial risk and review research on its application to the integration of personality, emotional adjustment, and marital processes as closely interrelated influences on health and disease. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Psychosocial adjustment and adherence to dialysis treatment regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownbridge, G; Fielding, D M

    1994-12-01

    Sixty children and adolescents in end-stage renal failure who were undergoing either haemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis at one of five United Kingdom dialysis centres were assessed on psychosocial adjustment and adherence to their fluid intake, diet and medication regimes. Parental adjustment was also measured and data on sociodemographic and treatment history variables collected. A structured family interview and standardised questionnaire measures of anxiety, depression and behavioural disturbance were used. Multiple measures of treatment adherence were obtained, utilising children's and parents' self-reports, weight gain between dialysis, blood pressure, serum potassium level, blood urea level, dietitians' surveys and consultants' ratings. Correlational analyses showed that low treatment adherence was associated with poor adjustment to diagnosis and dialysis by children and parents (P adherence than younger children, P dialysis (P treatment of this group of children. Future research should develop and evaluate psychosocial interventions aimed at improving treatment adherence.

  7. The dyadic adjustment of female-to-male transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, M; MacGowan, B; Costos, D

    1985-02-01

    Dyadic adjustment, sexual activities, and marital stability in the relationships of female-to-male transsexuals and their spouses were examined. Participants were 22 female-to-male transsexuals who had undergone some form of surgery to alter their anatomical sex, their spouses, and a control group of married or cohabitating nontranssexual men and women. Participants were administered the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and additional items to assess quantitatively their marital relationships. The transsexuals and their spouses were also asked open-ended interview questions concerning marital and life adjustments. Generally, the transsexuals and their spouses reported good and mutually satisfying interpersonal relationships that are in many ways comparable to those of the matched control group. These findings lend support to the previous clinical interview studies that have reported that female-to-male transsexuals form stable and enduring intimate relationships.

  8. Orthogonally Evolved AI to Improve Difficulty Adjustment in Video Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hintze, Arend; Olson, Randal; Lehman, Joel Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Computer games are most engaging when their difficulty is well matched to the player's ability, thereby providing an experience in which the player is neither overwhelmed nor bored. In games where the player interacts with computer-controlled opponents, the difficulty of the game can be adjusted...... not only by changing the distribution of opponents or game resources, but also through modifying the skill of the opponents. Applying evolutionary algorithms to evolve the artificial intelligence that controls opponent agents is one established method for adjusting opponent difficulty. Less-evolved agents...... (i.e. agents subject to fewer generations of evolution) make for easier opponents, while highly-evolved agents are more challenging to overcome. In this publication we test a new approach for difficulty adjustment in games: orthogonally evolved AI, where the player receives support from collaborating...

  9. Demonization of Divorce: Prevalence Rates and Links to Postdivorce Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J.; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2011-01-01

    The meaning-making process can be crucial to individuals as they adjust to their divorce. Demonization is a negative coping response (also known as spiritual struggle) that involves appraising someone or something as related to demonic forces. Individuals may cognitively frame a divorce as the work of Satan in order to understand suffering while…

  10. African Voices on Structural Adjustment: A Companion to Our ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Each study appraises the performance of structural adjustment policies (SAPs) with respect to a particular sector or issue. ... It will appeal to students, professors, academics, and researchers in development, economics, and ... of CODESRIA, the Council for the Development of Social Research in Africa in Dakar, Senegal.

  11. 18 CFR 154.403 - Periodic rate adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... recovered or returned in a future surcharge. Include a step-by-step explanation of the methodology used to... terms and conditions of its tariff, the methodology and timing of any adjustments. The following must be... D of this part, the methodology must be consistent with the methodology used in the proceeding under...

  12. 75 FR 59684 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Service (FAS) has denied a petition (No. 2011017) for trade adjustment assistance for apples filed under..., using data for the most recent, full marketing year or full official marketing season, a greater than 15... marketing period, contributed importantly to the decrease in one of the above factors for the agricultural...

  13. 75 FR 41431 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Service (FAS) has denied a petition (No. 2010009) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for apples that was filed by the Michigan Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Association and accepted for review by... most recent, full marketing year or full official marketing season, a greater than 15- percent decline...

  14. 75 FR 81817 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Order 13561 of December 22, 2010 Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay By the authority vested in me as..., it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Statutory Pay Systems. Pursuant to the Continuing... ``Continuing Appropriations Act''), the rates of basic pay or salaries of the statutory pay systems (as defined...

  15. 78 FR 80451 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... of Pay By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Statutory Pay Systems. The rates of basic pay or salaries of the statutory pay systems (as defined in 5 U.S.C. 5302(1)), as adjusted under 5 U.S...

  16. Preschoolers' Emotion Expression and Regulation: Relations with School Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Kristina J.; Bailey, Craig S.; Shewark, Elizabeth A.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

    2013-01-01

    Children's expression and regulation of emotions are building blocks of their experiences in classrooms. Thus, the authors' primary goal was to investigate whether preschoolers' expression or ability to regulate emotions were associated with teachers' ratings of school adjustment. A secondary goal was to investigate how boys and girls differed…

  17. A self-adjusting expandable GPS collar for male elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian L. Dick; Scott L. Findholt; Bruce K. Johnson

    2013-01-01

    It is a challenge to use collars on male cervids because their neck size can increase substantially during the rut and also because of growth as the animal matures. We describe how to build a self-adjusting expandable collar for yearling or adult male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) to which very high frequency transmitters and global...

  18. Development and Adjustment of Adopted Adolescents : Longitudinal and Concurrent Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaffari-Bimmel, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    The first study of this thesis (Chapter 2) showed that the majority of the internationally adopted children are well adjusted, although a relatively large minority of adopted children had behavior problems of clinical significance or were referred to mental health services compared with non-adopted

  19. Cross-Informant Evaluations of Preschoolers' Adjustment in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelashvili, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    An accurate and agreed upon evaluation of preschoolers' behavior is crucial for young children's positive development. This study explores possible cultural differences in cross-informants' evaluations. The premise is that informants who are from different cultures tend to give different evaluations of preschoolers' adjustment and/or that the…

  20. 48 CFR 652.216-71 - Price Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The contract price may be increased or decreased in actual costs of direct service labor which result...] Government. Direct service labor costs include only the costs of wages and direct benefits (such as social... number] of this contract. Price adjustments will include only changes in direct service labor costs...