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Sample records for ratios conjecture ii

  1. Quark approach to Santilli's conjecture on hadronic structure - II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animalu, A.O.E.

    1982-08-01

    In this paper, we continue an earlier investigation of an exactly soluble relativistic Bohr-type model of the internal structure of the proton (three-quark baryon system) and the pion (quark-antiquark meson system), based on a realization of Santilli's conjecture that the hadronic constituents are extended (non-pointlike) objects. The model is abstracted from an expansion of a Yukawa-type potential between the valence quarks and a massive core, in which the meson or gluon exchange term has the effect of reducing the effective Bohr radius for binding to a value less than the radius of the strong charge sphere (or Compton wavelength) of each constituent, so that appreciable overlap of charge volumes occurs, to within a typical distance of order 0.25F or 1/(800 MeV) in qqq-system, and order 1/(1200 MeV) in qq-bar-system, which are comparable to gluon masses, msub(G) approx.= 800 to 1200 MeV, required by the lattice QCD and the MIT Bag Model. Based on the assumptions that the ground state of the proton has 1s 2 2s valence quark configuration, the non-strange quark mass is msub(p)/3, and the dimensionless strong coupling constant of the Yukawa-type potential is g 2 =1, the mass of the proton core is determined self-consistently to be 2470 MeV, exactly balancing the quark binding energy so that the valence quarks appear free. The model correctly predicts the masses of the well-known resonant states of the proton with Jsup(P)=1/2 + as excited states associated with the configuration 1s2s 2 and predicts an upper bound (spectroscopic limit) for the mass of the excited states of the proton in ns 2 ms configuration, as n→infinity and m→infinity, to be 3409 MeV. Based on a generalization of the model to qq-bar-systems, an upper bound (spectroscopic limit) for the mass of qq-bar in ns 2 configuration, as n→infinity, is found to be 3096 MeV, which is the mass of the J/psi-meson. The relation of the model to violation of time-reversal invariance (T-symmetry) by non

  2. Type II1 factors satisfying the spatial isomorphism conjecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Jan; Christensen, Erik; Sinclair, Allan M.

    2012-01-01

    Det vises at hvis et par af von Neumann algebraer er tilstrækkeligt tæt på hinanden i Hausdorff-metrikken, og den ene er en II1 faktor, som er et krydset produkt af en abelsk von Neumann algebra med en gruuppvirkning af en gruppe men triviel begrænset kohomologi, så er de to algebraer unitært...

  3. Line-depth-ratio temperatures for the close binary ν Octantis: new evidence supporting the conjectured circumstellar retrograde planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, D. J.

    2015-06-01

    We explore the possibly that either star-spots or pulsations are the cause of a periodic radial velocity (RV) signal (P ˜ 400 d) from the K-giant binary ν Octantis (P ˜ 1050 d, e ˜ 0.25), alternatively conjectured to have a retrograde planet. Our study is based on temperatures derived from 22 line-depth ratios (LDRs) for ν Oct and 20 calibration stars. Empirical evidence and stability modelling provide unexpected support for the planet since other standard explanations (star-spots, pulsations and additional stellar masses) each have credibility problems. However, the proposed system presents formidable challenges to planet formation and stability theories: it has by far the smallest stellar separation of any claimed planet-harbouring binary (a_{_bin} ˜ 2.6 au) and an equally unbelievable separation ratio (a_{_pl}/a_{_bin} ˜ 0.5), hence the necessity that the circumstellar orbit be retrograde. The LDR analysis of 215 ν Oct spectra acquired between 2001 and 2007, from which the RV perturbation was first revealed, have no significant periodicity at any frequency. The LDRs recover the original 21 stellar temperatures with an average accuracy of 45 ± 25 K. The 215 ν Oct temperatures have a standard deviation of only 4.2 K. Assuming the host primary is not pulsating, the temperatures converted to magnitude differences strikingly mimic the very stable photometric Hipparcos observations 15 years previously, implying the long-term stability of the star and demonstrating a novel use of LDRs as a photometric gauge. Our results provide substantial new evidence that conventional star-spots and pulsations are unlikely causes of the RV perturbation. The controversial system deserves continued attention, including with higher resolving-power spectra for bisector and LDR analyses.

  4. Contribution of non integer integro-differential operators (NIDO) to the geometrical understanding of Riemann's conjecture-(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Mehaute, Alain; El Kaabouchi, Abdelaziz; Nivanen, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Advances in fractional analysis suggest a new way for the physics understanding of Riemann's conjecture. It asserts that, if s is a complex number, the non trivial zeros of zeta function 1/(ζ(s)) =Σ n=1 ∞ (μ(n))/(n s ) in the gap [0, 1], is characterized by s=1/2 (1+2iθ). This conjecture can be understood as a consequence of 1/2-order fractional differential characteristics of automorph dynamics upon opened punctuated torus with an angle at infinity equal to π/4. This physical interpretation suggests new opportunities for revisiting the cryptographic methodologies

  5. The approximate Loebl-Komlós-Sós Conjecture II: The rough structure of LKS graphs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladký, Jan; Komlós, J.; Piguet, Diana; Simonovits, M.; Stein, M.; Szemerédi, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2017), s. 983-1016 ISSN 0895-4801 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Institutional support: RVO:67985840 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : extremal graph theory * Loebl–Komlós–Sós conjecture * regularity lemma Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UIVT-O) OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics; Pure mathematics (UIVT-O) Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/140982854

  6. The approximate Loebl-Komlós-Sós Conjecture II: The rough structure of LKS graphs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladký, Jan; Komlós, J.; Piguet, Diana; Simonovits, M.; Stein, M.; Szemerédi, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2017), s. 983-1016 ISSN 0895-4801 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Institutional support: RVO:67985840 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : extremal graph theory * Loebl–Komlós–Sós conjecture * regularity lemma Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics ; BA - General Mathematics (UIVT-O) OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics ; Pure mathematics (UIVT-O) Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/140982854

  7. On conjectures of Minkowski and Woods for n = 9

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here we shall prove Conjecture II for n = 9, thereby proving Minkowski's Conjecture for n = 9. Woods [20 ... result that if hypothesis of Conjecture III holds, then any closed sphere in R9 of radius. √ ...... tures of Minkowski and Watson, Number Theory, Trends in Mathematics (2000) (Basel: ... Journal of the Indian Math. Soc.

  8. The Bieberbach conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    In 1919, Bieberbach posed a seemingly simple conjecture. That "simple" conjecture challenged mathematicians in complex analysis for the following 68 years! In that time, a huge number of papers discussing the conjecture and its related problems were inspired. Finally in 1984, de Branges completed the solution. In 1989, Professor Gong wrote and published a short book in Chinese, The Bieberbach Conjecture, outlining the history of the related problems and de Branges' proof. The present volume is the English translation of that Chinese edition with modifications by the author. In particular, he includes results related to several complex variables. Open problems and a large number of new mathematical results motivated by the Bieberbach conjecture are included. Completion of a standard one-year graduate complex analysis course will prepare the reader for understanding the book. It would make a nice supplementary text for a topics course at the advanced undergraduate or graduate level.

  9. On Gronwall conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Joe S.

    2011-01-01

    Gronwall conjecture states that a planar 3-web which admits more than one distinct linearization is locally equivalent to an algebraic web. We give a partial answer to the conjecture in the affirmative for the class of planar 3-webs with the web curvature that vanishes to order three at a point. The differential relation on the third order jet of web curvature provides an explicit criterion for unique linearization.

  10. On the Goldbach Conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedland, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-08

    This note confirms Goldbach’s Conjecture from 1742. This is, every even integer greater than two is the sum of two prime numbers. An analysis of the nature of multiplication as description length reduction for addition precedes a contraposition that it is impossible to subtract any prime from a given even integer without the result ever being prime.

  11. Derivation of electron density and temperature from (S II) and (O II) line intensity ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, J; Meaburn, J; Theokas, A C [Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept of Astronomy; Elliott, K H [Anglo-Australian Observatory, Epping (Australia)

    1980-12-01

    Line intensity ratios for (S II) and (O II) due to collisional de-excitation are briefly discussed. Comparison is made between various reaction rate parameters presented by separate investigators. Included are observations of ratios obtained from the Orion nebula which experimentally confirm the reaction rates of Pradhan as best representing the observed distribution of these ratios. (O II) and (S II) contour plots are also presented, which allow effective electron temperatures and densities to be estimated from pairs of line ratios.

  12. The Borel conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, F.T.

    2002-01-01

    This lecture is showing that homotopy equivalence implies homeomorphism for a large class of manifolds. It gives an introduction to high dimensional manifold topology. Splitting the surgery map under a geometric assumption is outlined. The vanishing of Wh(π 1 M) and the Borel conjecture for non-positively curved manifolds M are described and some calculations of π n (Top M), π n (Diff M) are shown

  13. Finding Conjectures Using Geometer's Sketchpad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallstrom, Scott; Walter, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Conjectures, theorems, and problems in print often appear to come out of nowhere. Scott Fallstrom and Marion Walter describe how their thinking and conjectures evolved; they try to show how collaboration helped expand their ideas. By showing the results from working together, they hope readers will encourage collaboration amongst their students.…

  14. On Erdos–Wood's conjecture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article, we prove that infinite number of integers satsify Erdős–Woods conjecture. Moreover, it follows that the number of natural numbers ≤ satisfies Erdős–Woods conjecture with = 2 is at least /(log ) for some positive constant > 2.

  15. The Lemur Conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Jitrik, Oliverio; Uhlmann, Jeffrey; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E.

    2017-05-01

    In previous research we designed an interferometric quantum seismograph that uses entangled photon states to enhance sensitivity in an optomechanic device. However, a spatially-distributed array of such sensors, with each sensor measuring only nm-vibrations, may not provide sufficient sensitivity for the prediction of major earthquakes because it fails to exploit potentially critical phase information. We conjecture that relative phase information can explain the anecdotal observations that animals such as lemurs exhibit sensitivity to impending earthquakes earlier than can be done confidently with traditional seismic technology. More specifically, we propose that lemurs use their limbs as ground motion sensors and that relative phase differences are fused in the brain in a manner similar to a phased-array or synthetic-aperture radar. In this paper we will describe a lemur-inspired quantum sensor network for early warning of earthquakes. The system uses 4 interferometric quantum seismographs (e.g., analogous to a lemurs limbs) and then conducts phase and data fusion of the seismic information. Although we discuss a quantum-based technology, the principles described can also be applied to classical sensor arrays

  16. Carbon isotope ratios in field Population II giant stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneden, C.; Pilachowski, C.A.; Vandenberg, D.A.; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ; Victoria Univ., Canada)

    1986-01-01

    Carbon isotope ratios have been derived from high-resolution spectra of the CH G-band in 15 very metal-poor Population II giant stars and two similar dwarf stars. Many of the giants possess very low C-12/C-13 ratios, some approaching the CN cycle equilibrium value. The metal-poor dwarfs do not have detectable CH-13 features; thus the low carbon isotope ratios in the giants probably are due to their internal evolutions. These results strongly support the idea that at least part of the anomalously low C/N values in Population II giants arises from very efficient mixing of their envelopes into the CN cycle burning layers. Detailed calculations of the expected CNO surface abundances in Population II giants in different evolutionary states have been performed. These computations demonstrate that the observed carbon isotope ratios cannot be produced during the first dredge-up mixing phases in low-mass, low metal abundance stars. Numerical experiments show that theoretical and observational results can be brought into agreement with artificially induced extra mixing. An agent to provoke this additional mixing has not been identified with certainty yet, although internal stellar rotation is a promising candidate. 63 references

  17. FeII/MgII Emission Line Ratio in High Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, M.; Hamann, F.; Appenzeller, I.

    2003-01-01

    the evolution of the FeII/MgII ratio over a wider range in cosmic time, we measured this ratio for composite quasar spectra which cover a redshift range of 0 4 quasars must have started already at an epoch corresponding to z_f = 6 to 9, when the age of the universe was ~0.5 Gyr (H_o = 72 km/s/Mpc, Omega_M = 0...

  18. Note on the ABC Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Carella, N. A.

    2006-01-01

    This note imparts heuristic arguments and theorectical evidences that contradict the abc conjecture over the rational numbers. In addition, the rudimentary datails for transforming this problem into the doimain of equidistribution theory are provided.

  19. Geometric Arveson–Douglas conjecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engliš, Miroslav; Eschmeier, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 274, April (2015), s. 606-630 ISSN 0001-8708 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Arveson- Douglas conjecture * generalized Toeplitz operator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001870815000328

  20. Pomeranchuk conjecture and symmetry schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, A.; Morales, A.; Ruegg, H. [Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid (Spain); European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1963-01-15

    Pomeranchuk has conjectured that the cross-sections for charge-exchange processes vanish asymptotically as the energy tends to infinity. (By ''charge'' it is meant any internal quantum number, like electric charge, hypercharge, .. . ). It has been stated by several people that this conjecture implies equalities among the total cross-sections whenever any symmetry scheme is invoked for the strong interactions. But to our knowledge no explicit general proof of this statement has been given so far. We want to give this proof for any compact Lie group. We also prove, under certain assumptions, that the equality of the total cross-sections implies that s{sup -l} times the charge-exchange forward scattering absorptive amplitudes tend to zero as s -> ∞.

  1. On the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Jason

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, our aim is the study the Vanishing of Maps of Tor Conjecture of Hochster and Huneke. We mainly focus on an equivalent characterization called the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture, due to N. Ranganathan. Our results are separated into three chapters. In Chapter 3, we prove special cases of the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture in…

  2. On the Casas-Alvero conjecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draisma, J.; Jong, de J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The Casas–Alvero conjecture says that a complex univariate polynomial having roots in common with each of its derivatives must be a power of a linear polynomial. In this expository note we review some ideas on this conjecture. In particular, we explain the rather successful algebraic attack by Graf

  3. The volume conjecture and topological strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkgraaf, R.; Fuji, H.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a relation between Jones-Witten theory of knot invariants and topological open string theory on the basis of the volume conjecture. We find a similar Hamiltonian structure for both theories, and interpret the AJ conjecture as the D-module structure for a D-brane partition

  4. Exploring Duopoly Markets with Conjectural Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Ludovic A.; Musy, Olivier; Saïdi, Aurélien W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate competitive firm behaviors in a two-firm environment assuming linear cost and demand functions. By introducing conjectural variations, they capture the different market structures as specific configurations of a more general model. Conjectural variations are based on the assumption that each firm believes…

  5. Deconstructing Arsovski's Proof of Snevily's Conjecture The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What Do We Know? Let us turn back the clock to 2002; Snevily's conjecture has just been proved for all cyclic. Keywords. Snevily's conjecture, abelian groups, cyclic groups, ... Suppose G is finite abelian of order m and m divides. |F×|. If V is the vector space of .... transversal of a matrix is a latin transversal if no two of its cells.

  6. Philosophical conjectures and their refutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, A G

    2001-06-01

    Sir Karl Popper is well known for explicating science in falsificationist terms, for which his degree of corroboration formalism, C(h,e,b), has become little more than a symbol. For example, de Queiroz and Poe in this issue argue that C(h,e,b) reduces to a single relative (conditional) probability, p(e,hb), the likelihood of evidence e, given both hypothesis h and background knowledge b, and in reaching that conclusion, without stating or expressing it, they render Popper a verificationist. The contradiction they impose is easily explained--de Queiroz and Poe fail to take account of the fact that Popper derived C(h,e,b) from absolute (logical) probability and severity of test, S(e,h,b), where critical evidence, p(e,b), is fundamental. Thus, de Queiroz and Poe's conjecture that p(e,hb) = C(h,e,b) is refuted. Falsificationism, not verificationism, remains a fair description of the parsimony method of inference used in phylogenetic systematics, not withstanding de Queiroz and Poe's mistaken understanding that "statistical" probability justifies that method. Although de Queiroz and Poe assert that maximum likelihood has the power "to explain data", they do not successfully demonstrate how causal explanation is achieved or what it is that is being explained. This is not surprising, bearing in mind that what is assumed about character evolution in the accompanying likelihood model M cannot then be explained by the results of a maximum likelihood analysis.

  7. Computational topology and the Unique Games Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Grochow, Joshua A.; Tucker-Foltz, Jamie

    2018-01-01

    Covering spaces of graphs have long been useful for studying expanders (as "graph lifts") and unique games (as the "label-extended graph"). In this paper we advocate for the thesis that there is a much deeper relationship between computational topology and the Unique Games Conjecture. Our starting point is Linial's 2005 observation that the only known problems whose inapproximability is equivalent to the Unique Games Conjecture - Unique Games and Max-2Lin - are instances of Maximum Section of...

  8. Cosmic censorship conjecture revisited: covariantly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, Aymen I M; Goswami, Rituparno; Maharaj, Sunil D

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the dynamics of the trapped region using a frame independent semi-tetrad covariant formalism for general locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) class II spacetimes. We covariantly prove some important geometrical results for the apparent horizon, and state the necessary and sufficient conditions for a singularity to be locally naked. These conditions bring out, for the first time in a quantitative and transparent manner, the importance of the Weyl curvature in deforming and delaying the trapped region during continual gravitational collapse, making the central singularity locally visible. (paper)

  9. The dynamical Mordell-Lang conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Jason P; Tucker, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    The Dynamical Mordell-Lang Conjecture is an analogue of the classical Mordell-Lang conjecture in the context of arithmetic dynamics. It predicts the behavior of the orbit of a point x under the action of an endomorphism f of a quasiprojective complex variety X. More precisely, it claims that for any point x in X and any subvariety V of X, the set of indices n such that the n-th iterate of x under f lies in V is a finite union of arithmetic progressions. In this book the authors present all known results about the Dynamical Mordell-Lang Conjecture, focusing mainly on a p-adic approach which provides a parametrization of the orbit of a point under an endomorphism of a variety.

  10. The real Fatou conjecture (AM-144)

    CERN Document Server

    Graczyk, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    In 1920, Pierre Fatou expressed the conjecture that--except for special cases--all critical points of a rational map of the Riemann sphere tend to periodic orbits under iteration. This conjecture remains the main open problem in the dynamics of iterated maps. For the logistic family x- ax(1-x), it can be interpreted to mean that for a dense set of parameters ""a,"" an attracting periodic orbit exists. The same question appears naturally in science, where the logistic family is used to construct models in physics, ecology, and economics. In this book, Jacek Graczyk and Grzegorz Swiatek provi

  11. Analytic Hypoellipticity and the Treves Conjecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mughetti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with the problem of the analytic hypoellipticity; precisely, we focus on the real analytic regularity of the solutions of sums of squares with real analytic coefficients. Treves conjecture states that an operator of this type is analytic hypoelliptic if and only if all the strata in the Poisson-Treves stratification are symplectic. We discuss a model operator, P, (firstly appeared and studied in [3] having a single symplectic stratum and prove that it is not analytic hypoelliptic. This yields a counterexample to the sufficient part of Treves conjecture; the necessary part is still an open problem.

  12. Celebrating Cercignani's conjecture for the Boltzmann equation

    KAUST Repository

    Villani, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    Cercignani\\'s conjecture assumes a linear inequality between the entropy and entropy production functionals for Boltzmann\\'s nonlinear integral operator in rarefied gas dynamics. Related to the field of logarithmic Sobolev inequalities and spectral gap inequalities, this issue has been at the core of the renewal of the mathematical theory of convergence to thermodynamical equilibrium for rarefied gases over the past decade. In this review paper, we survey the various positive and negative results which were obtained since the conjecture was proposed in the 1980s. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  13. Celebrating Cercignani's conjecture for the Boltzmann equation

    KAUST Repository

    Villani, Cé dric; Mouhot, Clé ment; Desvillettes, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Cercignani's conjecture assumes a linear inequality between the entropy and entropy production functionals for Boltzmann's nonlinear integral operator in rarefied gas dynamics. Related to the field of logarithmic Sobolev inequalities and spectral gap inequalities, this issue has been at the core of the renewal of the mathematical theory of convergence to thermodynamical equilibrium for rarefied gases over the past decade. In this review paper, we survey the various positive and negative results which were obtained since the conjecture was proposed in the 1980s. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  14. Proof of Nishida's Conjecture on Anharmonic Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Bob

    2006-02-01

    We prove Nishida's 1971 conjecture stating that almost all low-energetic motions of the anharmonic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice with fixed endpoints are quasi-periodic. The proof is based on the formal computations of Nishida, the KAM theorem, discrete symmetry considerations and an algebraic trick that considerably simplifies earlier results.

  15. Operadic categories and duoidal Deligne's conjecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Batanin, M.; Markl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 285, 5 November (2015), s. 1630-1687 ISSN 0001-8708 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : operadic category * duoidal category * Deligne's conjecture Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001870815002467

  16. Colorimeter determination of Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, E.W.; Coleman, C.J.; Karraker, D.G.; Scott, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    A colorimetric method has been developed to determine the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio in glass containing nuclear waste. Fe(II) is stabilized with pentavalent vanadium during dissolution in sulfuric and hydrofluoric acids. The chromogen is FerroZine (Hach Chemical Company), which forms a magenta complex with Fe(II). The two-step color development consists of determining the Fe(II) by adding FerroZine, followed by determining total Fe after the Fe(III) present is reduced with ascorbic acid. The method was validated by analyzing mixtures of ferrous/ferric solutions and nonferrous glass frit, and by comparison with Moessbauer spectroscopy. The effect of gamma radiation was established. The procedure is generally applicable to nonradioactive materials such as minerals and other glasses

  17. Proof of the 1-factorization and Hamilton decomposition conjectures

    CERN Document Server

    Csaba, Béla; Lo, Allan; Osthus, Deryk; Treglown, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the authors prove the following results (via a unified approach) for all sufficiently large n: (i) [1-factorization conjecture] Suppose that n is even and D\\geq 2\\lceil n/4\\rceil -1. Then every D-regular graph G on n vertices has a decomposition into perfect matchings. Equivalently, \\chi'(G)=D. (ii) [Hamilton decomposition conjecture] Suppose that D \\ge \\lfloor n/2 \\rfloor . Then every D-regular graph G on n vertices has a decomposition into Hamilton cycles and at most one perfect matching. (iii) [Optimal packings of Hamilton cycles] Suppose that G is a graph on n vertices with minimum degree \\delta\\ge n/2. Then G contains at least {\\rm reg}_{\\rm even}(n,\\delta)/2 \\ge (n-2)/8 edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles. Here {\\rm reg}_{\\rm even}(n,\\delta) denotes the degree of the largest even-regular spanning subgraph one can guarantee in a graph on n vertices with minimum degree \\delta. (i) was first explicitly stated by Chetwynd and Hilton. (ii) and the special case \\delta= \\lceil n/2 \\rceil of (iii) answe...

  18. Probing the CORE of the Haldane conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, M.

    1997-09-01

    The Contractor Renormalization group method (CORE), originally developed for application to lattice gauge theories, is very well adapted to the study of spin systems and systems with fermions. As a warmup exercise for studying Hubbard models this method is applied to spin-1/2 and spin-1 anti-ferromagnets in one space dimension in order to see if it is able to explain the physics of the Haldane conjecture. The method not only provides support for Haldane's conjecture but provides insight int the physics of a more general class of spin-1 systems with Hamiltonians of the form H = {summation}{sub j} {rvec s}(j) {center_dot} {rvec s}(j + 1) - {beta}({rvec s}(j) {center_dot} {rvec s}(j+1)){sup 2} about which, until now, little was known.

  19. Forming conjectures within a spreadsheet environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Nigel; Brown, Tony; Hanley, Una; Darby, Susan

    2006-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the use of spreadsheets within mathematical investigational tasks. Considering the learning of both children and pre-service teaching students, it examines how mathematical phenomena can be seen as a function of the pedagogical media through which they are encountered. In particular, it shows how pedagogical apparatus influence patterns of social interaction, and how this interaction shapes the mathematical ideas that are engaged with. Notions of conjecture, along with the particular faculty of the spreadsheet setting, are considered with regard to the facilitation of mathematical thinking. Employing an interpretive perspective, a key focus is on how alternative pedagogical media and associated discursive networks influence the way that students form and test informal conjectures.

  20. Synchronous correlation matrices and Connes’ embedding conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykema, Kenneth J., E-mail: kdykema@math.tamu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3368 (United States); Paulsen, Vern, E-mail: vern@math.uh.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    In the work of Paulsen et al. [J. Funct. Anal. (in press); preprint arXiv:1407.6918], the concept of synchronous quantum correlation matrices was introduced and these were shown to correspond to traces on certain C*-algebras. In particular, synchronous correlation matrices arose in their study of various versions of quantum chromatic numbers of graphs and other quantum versions of graph theoretic parameters. In this paper, we develop these ideas further, focusing on the relations between synchronous correlation matrices and microstates. We prove that Connes’ embedding conjecture is equivalent to the equality of two families of synchronous quantum correlation matrices. We prove that if Connes’ embedding conjecture has a positive answer, then the tracial rank and projective rank are equal for every graph. We then apply these results to more general non-local games.

  1. Proof of Polyakov conjecture on supercomplex plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachkachi, M.; Kouadik, S.

    1994-10-01

    Using Neumann series, we solve iteratively SBE to arbitrary order. Then applying this, we compute the energy momentum tensor and n points functions for generic n starting from WZP action on the supercomplex plane. We solve the superconformal Ward identity and we show that the iterative solution to arbitrary order is resumed by WZP action. This proves the Polyakov conjecture on supercomplex plane. (author). 8 refs

  2. Informed Conjecturing of Solutions for Differential Equations in a Modeling Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We examine two differential equations. (i) first-order exponential growth or decay; and (ii) second order, linear, constant coefficient differential equations, and show the advantage of learning differential equations in a modeling context for informed conjectures of their solution. We follow with a discussion of the complete analysis afforded by…

  3. On the line intensity ratios of prominent Si II, Si III, and Si IV multiplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djenize, S.; Sreckovic, A.; Bukvic, S.

    2010-01-01

    Line intensities of singly, doubly and triply ionized silicon (Si II, Si III, and Si IV, respectively) belonging to the prominent higher multiplets, are of interest in laboratory and astrophysical plasma diagnostics. We measured these line intensities in the emission spectra of pulsed helium discharge. The Si II line intensity ratios in the 3s3p 22 D-3s 2 4p 2 P o , 3s 2 3d 2 D-3s 2 4f 2 F o , and 3s 2 4p 2 P o -3s 2 4d 2 D transitions, the Si III line intensity ratios in the 3s3d 3 D-3s4p 3 P o , 3s4p 3 P o -3s4d 3 D, 3s4p 3 P o -3s5s 3 S, 3s4s 3 S-3s4p 3 P o , and 3s4f 3 F o -3s5g 3 G transitions, and the Si IV line intensity ratios in the 4p 2 P o -4d 2 D and 4p 2 P o -5s 2 S transitions were obtained in a helium plasma at an electron temperature of about 17,000 ± 2000 K. Line shapes were recorded using a spectrograph and an ICCD camera as a highly-sensitive detection system. The silicon atoms were evaporated from a Pyrex discharge tube designed for the purpose. They represent impurities in the optically thin helium plasma at the silicon ionic wavelengths investigated. The line intensity ratios obtained were compared with those available in the literature, and with values calculated on the basis of available transition probabilities. The experimental data corresponded well with line intensity ratios calculated using the transition probabilities obtained from a Multi Configuration Hartree-Fock approximation for Si III and Si IV spectra. We recommend corrections of some Si II transition probabilities.

  4. On a conjecture concerning helly circle graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durán Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We say that G is an e-circle graph if there is a bijection between its vertices and straight lines on the cartesian plane such that two vertices are adjacent in G if and only if the corresponding lines intersect inside the circle of radius one. This definition suggests a method for deciding whether a given graph G is an e-circle graph, by constructing a convenient system S of equations and inequations which represents the structure of G, in such a way that G is an e-circle graph if and only if S has a solution. In fact, e-circle graphs are exactly the circle graphs (intersection graphs of chords in a circle, and thus this method provides an analytic way for recognizing circle graphs. A graph G is a Helly circle graph if G is a circle graph and there exists a model of G by chords such that every three pairwise intersecting chords intersect at the same point. A conjecture by Durán (2000 states that G is a Helly circle graph if and only if G is a circle graph and contains no induced diamonds (a diamond is a graph formed by four vertices and five edges. Many unsuccessful efforts - mainly based on combinatorial and geometrical approaches - have been done in order to validate this conjecture. In this work, we utilize the ideas behind the definition of e-circle graphs and restate this conjecture in terms of an equivalence between two systems of equations and inequations, providing a new, analytic tool to deal with it.

  5. A Reduction of the Graph Reconstruction Conjecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monikandan S.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A graph is said to be reconstructible if it is determined up to isomor- phism from the collection of all its one-vertex deleted unlabeled subgraphs. Reconstruction Conjecture (RC asserts that all graphs on at least three vertices are reconstructible. In this paper, we prove that interval-regular graphs and some new classes of graphs are reconstructible and show that RC is true if and only if all non-geodetic and non-interval-regular blocks G with diam(G = 2 or diam(Ḡ = diam(G = 3 are reconstructible

  6. Fate of the Hoop Conjecture in Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzà, Fabio; Chirco, Goffredo

    2017-12-08

    We consider a closed region R of 3D quantum space described via SU(2) spin networks. Using the concentration of measure phenomenon we prove that, whenever the ratio between the boundary ∂R and the bulk edges of the graph overcomes a finite threshold, the state of the boundary is always thermal, with an entropy proportional to its area. The emergence of a thermal state of the boundary can be traced back to a large amount of entanglement between boundary and bulk degrees of freedom. Using the dual geometric interpretation provided by loop quantum gravity, we interpret such phenomenon as a pregeometric analogue of Thorne's "hoop conjecture," at the core of the formation of a horizon in general relativity.

  7. Cores, Joins and the Fano-Flow Conjectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ligang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Fan-Raspaud Conjecture states that every bridgeless cubic graph has three 1-factors with empty intersection. A weaker one than this conjecture is that every bridgeless cubic graph has two 1-factors and one join with empty intersection. Both of these two conjectures can be related to conjectures on Fano-flows. In this paper, we show that these two conjectures are equivalent to some statements on cores and weak cores of a bridgeless cubic graph. In particular, we prove that the Fan-Raspaud Conjecture is equivalent to a conjecture proposed in [E. Steffen, 1-factor and cycle covers of cubic graphs, J. Graph Theory 78 (2015 195–206]. Furthermore, we disprove a conjecture proposed in [G. Mazzuoccolo, New conjectures on perfect matchings in cubic graphs, Electron. Notes Discrete Math. 40 (2013 235–238] and we propose a new version of it under a stronger connectivity assumption. The weak oddness of a cubic graph G is the minimum number of odd components (i.e., with an odd number of vertices in the complement of a join of G. We obtain an upper bound of weak oddness in terms of weak cores, and thus an upper bound of oddness in terms of cores as a by-product.

  8. A proof of the conjecture on the twin primes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo-ling, Zhou [Department of Lingnan college, Sun Yat-sen University GuangZhou, GuangDong, 510275 (China)

    2016-06-08

    In this short note, we have proved the conjecture on twin primes using some thoughts of the set theory. Firstly, using the original sieve method and a new notation(concept)introduced by myself, the conjecture on twin primes is summed up as an elementary successive limit, afterwards we form a subsequence of positive integers,and using it,we prove that the successive limits are commutative and complete the proof of the conjecture on twin primes We also give a more straightforward proof of the conjecture.

  9. On a conjecture of Chen-Guo-Wang

    OpenAIRE

    Ning, Bo; Zheng, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Towards confirming Sun's conjecture on the strict log-concavity of combinatorial sequence involving the n$th$ Bernoulli number, Chen, Guo and Wang proposed a conjecture about the log-concavity of the function $\\theta(x)=\\sqrt[x]{2\\zeta(x)\\Gamma(x+1)}$ for $x\\in (6,\\infty)$, where $\\zeta(x)$ is the Riemann zeta function and $\\Gamma(x)$ is the Gamma function. In this paper, we first prove this conjecture along the spirit of Zhu's previous work. Second, we extend Chen et al.'s conjecture in the ...

  10. The FZZ-duality conjecture. A proof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikida, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Schomerus, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    We prove that the cigar conformal field theory is dual to the Sine-Liouville model, as conjectured originally by Fateev, Zamolodchikov and Zamolodchikov. Since both models possess the same chiral algebra, our task is to show that correlations of all tachyon vertex operators agree. We accomplish this goal through an off-critical version of the geometric Langlands duality for sl(2). More explicitly, we combine the well-known self-duality of Liouville theory with an intriguing correspondence between the cigar and Liouville field theory. The latter is derived through a path integral treatment. After a very detailed discussion of genus zero amplitudes, we extend the duality to arbitrary closed surfaces. (orig.)

  11. The FZZ-duality conjecture. A proof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikida, Y.; Schomerus, V.

    2008-05-01

    We prove that the cigar conformal field theory is dual to the Sine-Liouville model, as conjectured originally by Fateev, Zamolodchikov and Zamolodchikov. Since both models possess the same chiral algebra, our task is to show that correlations of all tachyon vertex operators agree. We accomplish this goal through an off-critical version of the geometric Langlands duality for sl(2). More explicitly, we combine the well-known self-duality of Liouville theory with an intriguing correspondence between the cigar and Liouville field theory. The latter is derived through a path integral treatment. After a very detailed discussion of genus zero amplitudes, we extend the duality to arbitrary closed surfaces. (orig.)

  12. On Selberg's small eigenvalue conjecture and residual eigenvalues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Morten S.

    2011-01-01

    We show that Selberg’s eigenvalue conjecture concerning small eigenvalues of the automorphic Laplacian for congruence groups is equivalent to a conjecture about the non-existence of residual eigenvalues for a perturbed system. We prove this using a combination of methods from asymptotic perturbat...

  13. The Process of Student Cognition in Constructing Mathematical Conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astawa, I. Wayan Puja; Budayasa, I. Ketut; Juniati, Dwi

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to describe the process of student cognition in constructing mathematical conjecture. Many researchers have studied this process but without giving a detailed explanation of how students understand the information to construct a mathematical conjecture. The researchers focus their analysis on how to construct and prove the…

  14. An approximate version of the Tree Packing Conjecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böttcher, J.; Hladký, Jan; Piguet, Diana; Taraz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 211, č. 1 (2016), s. 391-446 ISSN 0021-2172 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : Ringel's conjecture * Gyarfas-Lehel conjecture * Tree packing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.796, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11856-015-1277-2

  15. Role of VI/II ratio on the growth of ZnO nanostructures using chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgessa, Z.N., E-mail: zelalem.urgessa@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Oluwafemi, O.S. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha Campus, Private Bag XI, 5117 (South Africa); Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper the growth process and morphological evolution of ZnO nanostructures were investigated in a series of experiments using chemical bath deposition. The experimental results indicate that the morphological evolution depends on the reaction conditions, particularly on OH{sup -} to Zn{sup 2+} ratio (which directly affects the pH). For low VI/II ratios, quasi-spherical nanoparticles of an average diameter 30 nm are obtained, whereas for larger VI/II ratios, nanorods with an average diameter less than 100 nm are produced, which indicates that by systematically controlling the VI/II ratio, it is possible to produce different shapes and sizes of ZnO nanostructures. A possible mechanism for the nanostructural change of the as-synthesized ZnO from particle to rod was elucidated based on the relative densities of H{sup +} and OH{sup -} in the solution.

  16. Role of VI/II ratio on the growth of ZnO nanostructures using chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urgessa, Z.N.; Oluwafemi, O.S.; Botha, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the growth process and morphological evolution of ZnO nanostructures were investigated in a series of experiments using chemical bath deposition. The experimental results indicate that the morphological evolution depends on the reaction conditions, particularly on OH − to Zn 2+ ratio (which directly affects the pH). For low VI/II ratios, quasi-spherical nanoparticles of an average diameter 30 nm are obtained, whereas for larger VI/II ratios, nanorods with an average diameter less than 100 nm are produced, which indicates that by systematically controlling the VI/II ratio, it is possible to produce different shapes and sizes of ZnO nanostructures. A possible mechanism for the nanostructural change of the as-synthesized ZnO from particle to rod was elucidated based on the relative densities of H + and OH − in the solution.

  17. Relaxion monodromy and the Weak Gravity Conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibáñez, L.E.; Montero, M.; Uranga, A.M.; Valenzuela, I.

    2016-01-01

    The recently proposed relaxion models require extremely large trans-Planckian axion excursions as well as a potential explicitly violating the axion shift symmetry. The latter property is however inconsistent with the axion periodicity, which corresponds to a gauged discrete shift symmetry. A way to make things consistent is to use monodromy, i.e. both the axion and the potential parameters transform under the discrete shift symmetry. The structure is better described in terms of a 3-form field C_μ_ν_ρ coupling to the SM Higgs through its field strength F_4. The 4-form also couples linearly to the relaxion, in the Kaloper-Sorbo fashion. The extremely small relaxion-Higgs coupling arises in a see-saw fashion as g≃F_4/f, with f being the axion decay constant. We discuss constraints on this type of constructions from membrane nucleation and the Weak Gravity Conjecture. The latter requires the existence of membranes, whose too fast nucleation could in principle drive the theory out of control, unless the cut-off scale is lowered. This allows to rule out the simplest models with the QCD axion as relaxion candidate on purely theoretical grounds. We also discuss possible avenues to embed this structure into string theory.

  18. Relaxion monodromy and the Weak Gravity Conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibáñez, L.E.; Montero, M. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Física Teórica IFT-UAM/CSIC,C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Uranga, A.M. [Instituto de Física Teórica IFT-UAM/CSIC,C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Valenzuela, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Physik,Fohringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics and Center for Extreme Matter and Emergent Phenomena,Utrecht University,Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-04-05

    The recently proposed relaxion models require extremely large trans-Planckian axion excursions as well as a potential explicitly violating the axion shift symmetry. The latter property is however inconsistent with the axion periodicity, which corresponds to a gauged discrete shift symmetry. A way to make things consistent is to use monodromy, i.e. both the axion and the potential parameters transform under the discrete shift symmetry. The structure is better described in terms of a 3-form field C{sub μνρ} coupling to the SM Higgs through its field strength F{sub 4}. The 4-form also couples linearly to the relaxion, in the Kaloper-Sorbo fashion. The extremely small relaxion-Higgs coupling arises in a see-saw fashion as g≃F{sub 4}/f, with f being the axion decay constant. We discuss constraints on this type of constructions from membrane nucleation and the Weak Gravity Conjecture. The latter requires the existence of membranes, whose too fast nucleation could in principle drive the theory out of control, unless the cut-off scale is lowered. This allows to rule out the simplest models with the QCD axion as relaxion candidate on purely theoretical grounds. We also discuss possible avenues to embed this structure into string theory.

  19. Planckian axions and the Weak Gravity Conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachlechner, Thomas C.; Long, Cody; McAllister, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Several recent works http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1475-7516/2015/09/020, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP08(2015)032, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP10(2015)023 have claimed that the Weak Gravity Conjecture (WGC) excludes super-Planckian displacements of axion fields, and hence large-field axion inflation, in the absence of monodromy. We argue that in theories with N≫1 axions, super-Planckian axion diameters D are readily allowed by the WGC. We clarify the nontrivial relationship between the kinetic matrix K — unambiguously defined by its form in a Minkowski-reduced basis — and the diameter of the axion fundamental domain, emphasizing that in general the diameter is not solely determined by the eigenvalues f_1"2≤…≤f_N"2 of K: the orientations of the eigenvectors with respect to the identifications imposed by instantons must be incorporated. In particular, even if one were to impose the condition f_N M_p_l does not immediately imply the existence of unsuppressed higher harmonic contributions to the potential. Finally, we argue that in effective axion-gravity theories, the zero-form version of the WGC can be satisfied by gravitational instantons that make negligible contributions to the potential.

  20. Low-redshift Lyman continuum leaking galaxies with high [O III]/[O II] ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Y. I.; Worseck, G.; Schaerer, D.; Guseva, N. G.; Thuan, T. X.; Fricke, K. J.; Verhamme, A.; Orlitová, I.

    2018-05-01

    We present observations with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope of five star-forming galaxies at redshifts z in the range 0.2993 - 0.4317 and with high emission-line flux ratios O32 = [O III]λ5007/[O II]λ3727 ˜ 8 - 27 aiming to detect the Lyman continuum (LyC) emission. We detect LyC emission in all galaxies with the escape fractions fesc(LyC) in a range of 2 - 72 per cent. A narrow Lyα emission line with two peaks in four galaxies and with three peaks in one object is seen in medium-resolution COS spectra with a velocity separation between the peaks Vsep varying from ˜153 km s-1 to ˜ 345 km s-1. We find a general increase of the LyC escape fraction with increasing O32 and decreasing stellar mass M⋆, but with a large scatter of fesc(LyC). A tight anti-correlation is found between fesc(LyC) and Vsep making Vsep a good parameter for the indirect determination of the LyC escape fraction. We argue that one possible source driving the escape of ionizing radiation is stellar winds and radiation from hot massive stars.

  1. A significant increase in the pepsinogen I/II ratio is a reliable biomarker for successful Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Osumi

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori eradication is usually assessed using the 13C-urea breath test (UBT, anti-H. pylori antibody and the H. pylori stool antigen test. However, a few reports have used pepsinogen (PG, in particular, the percentage change in the PG I/II ratio. Here, we evaluated the usefulness of the percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios for determining the success of eradication therapy for H. pylori.In total, 650 patients received eradication therapy from October 2008 to March 2013 in our Cancer Institute Hospital. We evaluated the relationship between H. pylori eradication and percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios before and 3 months after treatment with CLEIA® (FUJIREBIO Inc, Tokyo, Japan. The gold standard of H. pylori eradication was defined as negative by the UBT performed 3 months after completion of eradication treatment. Cut-off values for percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios were set as +40, +25 and +10% when the serum PG I/II ratio before treatment was below 3.0, above 3.0 but below 5.0 and 5.0 or above, respectively.Serum PG I and PG II levels were measured in 562 patients with H. pylori infection before and after eradication therapy. Eradication of H. pylori was achieved in 433 patients studied (77.0%. The ratios of first, second, third-line and penicillin allergy eradication treatment were 73.8% (317/429, 88.3% (99/112, 75% (12/16 and 100% (5/5, respectively. An increasing percentage in the serum levels of the PG I/II ratios after treatment compared with the values before treatment clearly distinguished success from failure of eradication (108.2±57.2 vs. 6.8±30.7, p<0.05. Using the above cut-off values, the sensitivity, specificity and validity for determination of H. pylori were 93.1, 93.8 and 93.2%, respectively.In conclusion, the percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios are useful as evaluation criteria for assessing the success of eradication therapy for H. pylori.

  2. Interpreting multiple dualities conjectured from superconformal index identities

    CERN Document Server

    Khmelnitsky, A

    2010-01-01

    We consider field theory side of new multiple Seiberg dualities conjectured within superconformal index matching approach. We study the case of SU(2) supersymmetric QCD and find that the numerous conjectured duals are different faces of handful of master theories. These different faces are inequivalent to each other in a very peculiar sense. Some master theories are fully known; we construct superpotentials for others. We confirm that all index identities correspond to theories flowing to one and the same theory in the infrared, thus supporting the conjecture of index matching for Seiberg dual theories. However, none of the index identities considered in this paper actually implies an entirely new, unknown duality.

  3. The Hodge conjecture and arithmetic quotients of complex balls

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeron, Nicolas; Millson, John; Moeglin, Colette

    2013-01-01

    Let $S$ be a closed Shimura variety uniformized by the complex $n$-ball. The Hodge conjecture predicts that every Hodge class in $H^{2k} (S, \\Q)$, $k=0, \\ldots, n$, is algebraic. We show that this holds for all degree $k$ away from the neighborhood $]n/3, 2n/3[$ of the middle degree. We also address the Tate conjecture and the generalized form of the Hodge conjecture and extend most of our results to Shimura varieties associated to unitary groups of any signature. The proofs make use of the r...

  4. A Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process for carbamazepine degradation at a very low Fe(II)/PMS ratio and neutral pH: The mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Li; Zhang, Dapeng; Fan, Chihhao; Shang, Chii

    2017-11-01

    A novel Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process for degrading a model micropollutant, carbamazepine (CBZ), at a low Fe(II)/PMS ratio and neutral pH has been proposed in this study, and the mechanisms of radical generation in the system was explored. With a UV dose of 302.4 mJ/cm 2 , an initial pH of 7, and CBZ, PMS, Fe(II) and citrate at initial concentrations of 10, 100, 12 and 26 μM, respectively, the CBZ degradation efficiency reached 71% in 20 min in the Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process, which was 4.7 times higher than that in either the citrate/UV/PMS or Fe(II)/citrate/PMS process. The enhanced CBZ degradation in the Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process was mainly attributed to the continuous activation of PMS by the UV-catalyzed regenerated Fe(II) from a Fe(III)-citrate complex, [Fe 3 O(cit) 3 H 3 ] 2- , which not only maintained Fe(III) soluble at neutral pH, but also increased 6.6 and 2.6 times of its molar absorbance and quantum yield as compared to those of ionic Fe(III), respectively. In the Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process, the SO 4 •- produced from the fast reaction between PMS and the initially-added Fe(II) contributed 11% of CBZ degradation. The PMS activation by the UV radiation and regenerated Fe(II) contributed additional 14% and 46% of CBZ removal, respectively. The low iron and citrate doses and the fast radical generation at neutral pH make the Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process suitable for degrading recalcitrant organic compounds in potable water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A nonperturbative proof of Dijkgraaf-Vafa conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terashima, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    In this note we exactly compute the gaugino condensation of an arbitrary four dimensional N=1 supersymmetric gauge theory in confining phase, using the localization technique. This result gives a nonperturbative proof of the Dijkgraaf-Vafa conjecture.

  6. Some remarks on Cîrtoaje’s conjecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Matejíčka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we give new conditions under which the Cîrtoaje’s conjecture is also valid. We also show that a certain generalization of the Cîrtoaje’s inequality fulfils an interesting property.

  7. Investigation of the conjectured nucleon deformation at low momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparveris, N.F.; Georgakopoulos, S.; Karabarbounis, A.; Papanicolas, C.N.; Stiliaris, E.; Alarcon, R.; Six, E.; Bernstein, A.M.; Bertozzi, W.; Casagrande, F.; Dow, K.; Farkondeh, M.; Gilad, S.; Kowalski, S.; Milner, R.; Nakagawa, I.; Sirca, S.; Stave, S.; Tsentalovich, G.; Tschalaer, C.

    2005-01-01

    We report new precise H(e,e ' p)π 0 measurements at the Δ(1232) resonance at Q 2 =0.127 (GeV/c) 2 obtained at the MIT-Bates out-of-plane scattering facility which are particularly sensitive to the transverse electric amplitude (E2) of the γ * N→Δ transition. The new data have been analyzed together with those of earlier measurements to yield precise quadrupole to dipole amplitude ratios: Re(E 1+ 3/2 /M 1+ 3/2 )=(-2.3±0.3 stat+syst ±0.6 model )% and Re(S 1+ 3/2 /M 1+ 3/2 )=(-6.1±0.2 stat+syst ±0.5 model )% for M 1+ 3/2 =(41.4±0.3 stat+syst ±0.4 model )(10 -3 /m π + ). The derived amplitudes give credence to the conjecture of deformation in hadrons favoring, at low Q 2 , the dominance of mesonic effects.

  8. The Combinatorial Rigidity Conjecture is False for Cubic Polynomials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian

    2003-01-01

    We show that there exist two cubic polynomials with connected Julia sets which are combinatorially equivalent but not topologically conjugate on their Julia sets. This disproves a conjecture by McMullen from 1995.......We show that there exist two cubic polynomials with connected Julia sets which are combinatorially equivalent but not topologically conjugate on their Julia sets. This disproves a conjecture by McMullen from 1995....

  9. Note: Dynamic Conjectural Variations in a Lanchester Oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Gary M. Erickson

    1997-01-01

    An approach based on dynamic conjectural variations is advanced for developing dynamic advertising strategies in a Lanchester oligopoly differential game. The approach allows competitors to anticipate rival reactions to market-share state variables, and maintains the computational advantage of open-loop Nash equilibrium strategies. In an empirical application to the ready-to-eat cereal industry, it is shown that advertising strategies based on dynamic conjectural variations can better explain...

  10. The Lithium isotope ratio in Population II halo dwarfs: A proposed test of the late decaying massive particle nucleosynthesis scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Schramm, D.N.

    1988-02-01

    It is shown that observations of the Lithium isotope ratio in high surface temperature Population II stars may be critical to cosmological nucleosynthesis models. In particular, decaying particle scenarios as derived in some supersymmetric models may stand or fall with such observations. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. 49 CFR Appendix II to Subpart A of... - Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier _____)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier... to Subpart A of Part 1139—Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier _____) [Complete appendix... shareholders' equity less intangibles L. 7+L. 18 $ $ $ 20 Operating ratio (2 decimals) L. 11÷L. 9 % % % 21...

  12. Estimated SAGE II ozone mixing ratios in early 1993 and comparisons with Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamic Expedition measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, G. K.; Veiga, R. E.; Poole, L. R.; Zawodny, J. M.; Proffitt, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    An empirical time-series model for estimating ozone mixing ratios based on Stratospheric Aerosols and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) monthly mean ozone data for the period October 1984 through June 1991 has been developed. The modeling results for ozone mixing ratios in the 10- to 30- km region in early months of 1993 are presented. In situ ozone profiles obtained by a dual-beam UV-absorption ozone photometer during the Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamics Expedition (SPADE) campaign, May 1-14, 1993, are compared with the model results. With the exception of two profiles at altitudes below 16 km, ozone mixing ratios derived by the model and measured by the ozone photometer are in relatively good agreement within their individual uncertainties. The identified discrepancies in the two profiles are discussed.

  13. TYPE Ia SNe ALONG REDSHIFT: THE R(Si II) RATIO AND THE EXPANSION VELOCITIES IN INTERMEDIATE-z SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altavilla, G.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Balastegui, A.; Mendez, J.; Espana-Bonet, C.; Irwin, M.; Ellis, R. S.; McMahon, R. M.; Walton, N. A.; Folatelli, G.; Goobar, A.; Nobili, S.; Stanishev, V.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of intermediate-z Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using empirical physical diagrams which permit the investigation of those SNe explosions. This information can be very useful to reduce systematic uncertainties of the Hubble diagram of SNe Ia up to high z. The study of the expansion velocities and the measurement of the ratio R(Si II) allow subtyping of SNe Ia as done in nearby samples. The evolution of this ratio as seen in the diagram R(Si II)-(t) together with R(Si II) max versus (B - V) 0 indicates consistency of the properties at intermediate-z compared with the nearby SNe Ia. At intermediate-z, expansion velocities of Ca II and Si II are found similar to those of the nearby sample. This is found in a sample of six SNe Ia in the range 0.033 ≤z≤ 0.329 discovered within the International Time Programme of SNe Ia for Cosmology and Physics in the spring run of 2002. 7 The program run under Omega and Lambda from Supernovae and the Physics of Supernova Explosions within the International Time Programme at the telescopes of the European Northern Observatory (ENO) at La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain). Two SNe Ia at intermediate-z were of the cool FAINT type, one being an SN1986G-like object highly reddened. The R(Si II) ratio as well as subclassification of the SNe Ia beyond templates help to place SNe Ia in their sequence of brightness and to distinguish between reddened and intrinsically red supernovae. This test can be done with very high z SNe Ia and it will help to reduce systematic uncertainties due to extinction by dust. It should allow to map the high-z sample into the nearby one.

  14. Can we observationally test the weak cosmic censorship conjecture?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Lingyao; Malafarina, Daniele; Bambi, Cosimo

    2014-01-01

    In general relativity, gravitational collapse of matter fields ends with the formation of a spacetime singularity, where the matter density becomes infinite and standard physics breaks down. According to the weak cosmic censorship conjecture, singularities produced in the gravitational collapse cannot be seen by distant observers and must be hidden within black holes. The validity of this conjecture is still controversial and at present we cannot exclude that naked singularities can be created in our Universe from regular initial data. In this paper, we study the radiation emitted by a collapsing cloud of dust and check whether it is possible to distinguish the birth of a black hole from the one of a naked singularity. In our simple dust model, we find that the properties of the radiation emitted in the two scenarios is qualitatively similar. That suggests that observational tests of the cosmic censorship conjecture may be very difficult, even in principle. (orig.)

  15. Can we observationally test the weak cosmic censorship conjecture?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Lingyao; Malafarina, Daniele; Bambi, Cosimo [Fudan University, Department of Physics, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Shanghai (China)

    2014-08-15

    In general relativity, gravitational collapse of matter fields ends with the formation of a spacetime singularity, where the matter density becomes infinite and standard physics breaks down. According to the weak cosmic censorship conjecture, singularities produced in the gravitational collapse cannot be seen by distant observers and must be hidden within black holes. The validity of this conjecture is still controversial and at present we cannot exclude that naked singularities can be created in our Universe from regular initial data. In this paper, we study the radiation emitted by a collapsing cloud of dust and check whether it is possible to distinguish the birth of a black hole from the one of a naked singularity. In our simple dust model, we find that the properties of the radiation emitted in the two scenarios is qualitatively similar. That suggests that observational tests of the cosmic censorship conjecture may be very difficult, even in principle. (orig.)

  16. A Proof of the Hilbert-Smith Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    McAuley, Louis F.

    2001-01-01

    The Hilbert-Smith Conjecture states that if G is a locally compact group which acts effectively on a connected manifold as a topological transformation group, then G is a Lie group. A rather straightforward proof of this conjecture is given. The motivation is work of Cernavskii (``Finite-to-one mappings of manifolds'', Trans. of Math. Sk. 65 (107), 1964.) His work is generalized to the orbit map of an effective action of a p-adic group on compact connected n-manifolds with the aid of some new...

  17. The cosmic censorship hypothesis and the positive energy conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, P.S.; Wald, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The position so far is summarized. Penrose derived an inequality; if a data set was found to violate this then the assumptions deriving the inequality must be false. In this case it could show a counter example to the cosmic censorship hypothesis. The authors have shown elsewhere that a positive energy argument of Geroch can be modified to rule out a violation of Penrose's inequality with any time-symmetric initial data set whose apparent horizon consists of a single component. This increases confidence in the hypothesis and also indicates there may be a close relationship between this conjecture and the positive energy conjecture. (UK)

  18. Breakdown of maximality conjecture in continuous phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukamel, D.; Jaric, M.V.

    1983-04-01

    A Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson model associated with a single irreducible representation which exhibits an ordered phase whose symmetry group is not a maximal isotropy subgroup of the symmetry group of the disordered phase is constructed. This example disproves the maximality conjecture suggested in numerous previous studies. Below the (continuous) transition, the order parameter points along a direction which varies with the temperature and with the other parameters which define the model. An extension of the maximality conjecture to reducible representations was postulated in the context of Higgs symmetry breaking mechanism. Our model can also be extended to provide a counter example in these cases. (author)

  19. Enhancements to the CALIOP Aerosol Subtyping and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithms for Level II Version 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, A. H.; Tackett, J. L.; Vaughan, M. A.; Kar, J.; Trepte, C. R.; Winker, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    This presentation describes several enhancements planned for the version 4 aerosol subtyping and lidar ratio selection algorithms of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument. The CALIOP subtyping algorithm determines the most likely aerosol type from CALIOP measurements (attenuated backscatter, estimated particulate depolarization ratios δe, layer altitude), and surface type. The aerosol type, so determined, is associated with a lidar ratio (LR) from a discrete set of values. Some of these lidar ratios have been updated in the version 4 algorithms. In particular, the dust and polluted dust will be adjusted to reflect the latest measurements and model studies of these types. Version 4 eliminates the confusion between smoke and clean marine aerosols seen in version 3 by modifications to the elevated layer flag definitions used to identify smoke aerosols over the ocean. In the subtyping algorithms pure dust is determined by high estimated particulate depolarization ratios [δe > 0.20]. Mixtures of dust and other aerosol types are determined by intermediate values of the estimated depolarization ratio [0.075limited to mixtures of dust and smoke, the so called polluted dust aerosol type. To differentiate between mixtures of dust and smoke, and dust and marine aerosols, a new aerosol type will be added in the version 4 data products. In the revised classification algorithms, polluted dust will still defined as dust + smoke/pollution but in the marine boundary layer instances of moderate depolarization will be typed as dusty marine aerosols with a lower lidar ratio than polluted dust. The dusty marine type introduced in version 4 is modeled as a mixture of dust + marine aerosol. To account for fringes, the version 4 Level 2 algorithms implement Subtype Coalescence Algorithm for AeRosol Fringes (SCAARF) routine to detect and classify fringe of aerosol plumes that are detected at 20 km or 80 km horizontal resolution at the plume base. These

  20. Quantum golden field theory - Ten theorems and various conjectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Ten theorems and few conjectures related to quantum field theory as applied to high energy physics are presented. The work connects classical quantum field theory with the golden mean renormalization groups of non-linear dynamics and E-Infinity theory

  1. Coupled skinny baker's maps and the Kaplan-Yorke conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Maik; Hunt, Brian R.

    2013-09-01

    The Kaplan-Yorke conjecture states that for ‘typical’ dynamical systems with a physical measure, the information dimension and the Lyapunov dimension coincide. We explore this conjecture in a neighborhood of a system for which the two dimensions do not coincide because the system consists of two uncoupled subsystems. We are interested in whether coupling ‘typically’ restores the equality of the dimensions. The particular subsystems we consider are skinny baker's maps, and we consider uni-directional coupling. For coupling in one of the possible directions, we prove that the dimensions coincide for a prevalent set of coupling functions, but for coupling in the other direction we show that the dimensions remain unequal for all coupling functions. We conjecture that the dimensions prevalently coincide for bi-directional coupling. On the other hand, we conjecture that the phenomenon we observe for a particular class of systems with uni-directional coupling, where the information and Lyapunov dimensions differ robustly, occurs more generally for many classes of uni-directionally coupled systems (also called skew-product systems) in higher dimensions.

  2. Coupled skinny baker's maps and the Kaplan–Yorke conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gröger, Maik; Hunt, Brian R

    2013-01-01

    The Kaplan–Yorke conjecture states that for ‘typical’ dynamical systems with a physical measure, the information dimension and the Lyapunov dimension coincide. We explore this conjecture in a neighborhood of a system for which the two dimensions do not coincide because the system consists of two uncoupled subsystems. We are interested in whether coupling ‘typically’ restores the equality of the dimensions. The particular subsystems we consider are skinny baker's maps, and we consider uni-directional coupling. For coupling in one of the possible directions, we prove that the dimensions coincide for a prevalent set of coupling functions, but for coupling in the other direction we show that the dimensions remain unequal for all coupling functions. We conjecture that the dimensions prevalently coincide for bi-directional coupling. On the other hand, we conjecture that the phenomenon we observe for a particular class of systems with uni-directional coupling, where the information and Lyapunov dimensions differ robustly, occurs more generally for many classes of uni-directionally coupled systems (also called skew-product systems) in higher dimensions. (paper)

  3. Topological Hochschild homology and the Bass trace conjecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berrick, A. J.; Hesselholt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We use the methods of topological Hochschild homology to shed new light on groups satisfying the Bass trace conjecture. Factorization of the Hattori–Stallings rank map through the Bökstedt–Hsiang–Madsen cyclotomic trace map leads to Linnell's restriction on such groups. As a new consequence...

  4. Counterexamples to the B-spline Conjecture for Gabor Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob; Nielsen, Kamilla Haahr

    2016-01-01

    The frame set conjecture for B-splines Bn, n≥2, states that the frame set is the maximal set that avoids the known obstructions. We show that any hyperbola of the form ab=r, where r is a rational number smaller than one and a and b denote the sampling and modulation rates, respectively, has infin...

  5. Sharpening the weak gravity conjecture with dimensional reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, Ben; Reece, Matthew; Rudelius, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of the Weak Gravity Conjecture (WGC) under toroidal compactification and RG flows, finding evidence that WGC bounds for single photons become weaker in the infrared. By contrast, we find that a photon satisfying the WGC will not necessarily satisfy it after toroidal compactification when black holes charged under the Kaluza-Klein photons are considered. Doing so either requires an infinite number of states of different charges to satisfy the WGC in the original theory or a restriction on allowed compactification radii. These subtleties suggest that if the Weak Gravity Conjecture is true, we must seek a stronger form of the conjecture that is robust under compactification. We propose a “Lattice Weak Gravity Conjecture” that meets this requirement: a superextremal particle should exist for every charge in the charge lattice. The perturbative heterotic string satisfies this conjecture. We also use compactification to explore the extent to which the WGC applies to axions. We argue that gravitational instanton solutions in theories of axions coupled to dilaton-like fields are analogous to extremal black holes, motivating a WGC for axions. This is further supported by a match between the instanton action and that of wrapped black branes in a higher-dimensional UV completion.

  6. Proof of a conjecture of Colliot-Th\\'el\\`ene

    OpenAIRE

    Denef, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We prove a conjecture of Colliot-Th\\'el\\`ene that implies the Ax-Kochen Theorem on p-adic forms. We obtain it as an easy consequence of a diophantine excision theorem whose proof forms the body of the present paper.

  7. Contributions to a conjecture of Mueller and Schmidt on Thue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Saradha

    MS received 11 April 2016; revised 2 September 2016; published online 3 August 2017. Abstract. ... It was conjectured in [11] that it may be possible to replace the factor s2 in (4) by s. ...... 42 (2001) 199–209. [6] Gy˝ory K, On the number of ...

  8. Proof of a conjecture on the supports of Wigner distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.E.M.

    1998-01-01

    In this note we prove that the Wigner distribution of an f ¿ L2(Rn) cannot be supported by a set of finite measure in R2n unless f = 0. We prove a corresponding statement for cross-ambiguity functions. As a strengthening of the conjecture we show that for an f ¿ L2(Rn) its Wigner distribution has a

  9. Fermat's last theorem and Catalan's conjecture in weak exponential arithmetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Glivický, Petr; Kala, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 63, 3-4 (2017), s. 162-174 ISSN 0942-5616 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Fermat's last theorem * Catalan's conjecture Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.250, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/malq.201500069/full

  10. Nonglobal proof of the thin--sandwich conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    A gravitational thin--sandwich conjecture was first proposed by Wheeler and coworkers during the period 1962--4. The present paper contains a proof of the nonglobal form of this gravitational thin--sandwich conjecture. The proof (a) applies for arbitrary choices of the spatial metric and its time derivative; and (b) demonstrates the existence on a spacelike three-surface of solutions which satisfy conditions of continuity known to be sufficient to obtain existence and uniqueness of solutions to Einstein's equations off the three-surface and existence and uniqueness of geodesics. Riquier's existence theorem plays an important role in the proof. The relationship of the present results to previous work is discussed. Some global questions associated with the thin--sandwich conjecture are clarified. Some aspects of the relationship of the thin--sandwich conjecture to the problem of the quantization of the gravitational field are noted. Both the vacuum case and the case of a nonviscous fluid are included. The discussion allows for an arbitrary equation of state p = p

  11. Gravitational entropy and the cosmological no-hair conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2018-04-01

    The gravitational entropy and no-hair conjectures seem to predict contradictory future states of our Universe. The growth of the gravitational entropy is associated with the growth of inhomogeneity, while the no-hair conjecture argues that a universe dominated by dark energy should asymptotically approach a homogeneous and isotropic de Sitter state. The aim of this paper is to study these two conjectures. The investigation is based on the Simsilun simulation, which simulates the universe using the approximation of the Silent Universe. The Silent Universe is a solution to the Einstein equations that assumes irrotational, nonviscous, and insulated dust, with vanishing magnetic part of the Weyl curvature. The initial conditions for the Simsilun simulation are sourced from the Millennium simulation, which results with a realistically appearing but relativistic at origin simulation of a universe. The Simsilun simulation is evolved from the early universe (t =25 Myr ) until far future (t =1000 Gyr ). The results of this investigation show that both conjectures are correct. On global scales, a universe with a positive cosmological constant and nonpositive spatial curvature does indeed approach the de Sitter state. At the same time it keeps generating the gravitational entropy.

  12. A modified atmospheric non-hydrostatic model on low aspect ratio grids: part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yih Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sun et al. (2012 proposed a modified non-hydrostatic model (MNH, in which the left-hand side of the continuity equation is multiplied by a parameter δ (4≤δ≤16 in the article to suppress high-frequency acoustic waves. They showed that the MNH allows a longer time step than the original non-hydrostatic model (NH. The MNH is also more accurate and efficient than the horizontal explicit and vertical implicit scheme (HE–VI when the aspect ratio (Δx/Δz is small. In addition to multiplying a parameter δ, here we propose to add a smoothing on the right-hand side of the continuity equation in the MNH to damp shortest sound waves. Linear stability analysis and non-linear model simulations show that the MNH with smoothing (henceforth abbreviated as MNHS can use twice the time interval of the MNH while maintaining the same accuracy. The MNHS is also more accurate and efficient than HE–VI when the aspect ratio is small.

  13. THE STELLAR HALOS OF MASSIVE ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES. II. DETAILED ABUNDANCE RATIOS AT LARGE RADIUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Graves, Genevieve J.; Gunn, James E.; Raskutti, Sudhir [Department of Astrophysics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Comerford, Julia M.; Gebhardt, Karl [Department of Astronomy, UT Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 71712 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    We study the radial dependence in stellar populations of 33 nearby early-type galaxies with central stellar velocity dispersions σ{sub *} ∼> 150 km s{sup –1}. We measure stellar population properties in composite spectra, and use ratios of these composites to highlight the largest spectral changes as a function of radius. Based on stellar population modeling, the typical star at 2R{sub e} is old (∼10 Gyr), relatively metal-poor ([Fe/H] ≈ –0.5), and α-enhanced ([Mg/Fe] ≈ 0.3). The stars were made rapidly at z ≈ 1.5-2 in shallow potential wells. Declining radial gradients in [C/Fe], which follow [Fe/H], also arise from rapid star formation timescales due to declining carbon yields from low-metallicity massive stars. In contrast, [N/Fe] remains high at large radius. Stars at large radius have different abundance ratio patterns from stars in the center of any present-day galaxy, but are similar to average Milky Way thick disk stars. Our observations are thus consistent with a picture in which the stellar outskirts are built up through minor mergers with disky galaxies whose star formation is truncated early (z ≈ 1.5-2)

  14. A high ratio of insulin-like growth factor II/insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 messenger RNA as a marker for anaplasia in meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordqvist, A C; Peyrard, M; Pettersson, H; Mathiesen, T; Collins, V P; Dumanski, J P; Schalling, M

    1997-07-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) I and II have been implicated as autocrine or paracrine growth promoters. These growth factors bind to specific receptors, and the response is modulated by interaction with IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). We observed a strong correlation between anaplastic/atypical histopathology and a high IGF-II/IGFBP-2 mRNA ratio in a set of 68 sporadic meningiomas. A strong correlation was also found between clinical outcome and IGF-II/IGFBP-2 ratio, whereas previously used histochemical markers were less correlated to outcome. We suggest that a high IGF-II/IGFBP-2 mRNA ratio may be a sign of biologically aggressive behavior in meningiomas that can influence treatment strategies. We propose that low IGFBP-2 levels in combination with increased levels of IGF-II would result in more free IGF-II and consequently greater stimulation of proliferation.

  15. Introduction to sofic and hyperlinear groups and Connes' embedding conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Capraro, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents some cornerstone results in the study of sofic and hyperlinear groups and the closely related Connes' embedding conjecture. These notions, as well as the proofs of many results, are presented in the framework of model theory for metric structures. This point of view, rarely explicitly adopted in the literature, clarifies the ideas therein, and provides additional tools to attack open problems. Sofic and hyperlinear groups are countable discrete groups that can be suitably approximated by finite symmetric groups and groups of unitary matrices. These deep and fruitful notions, introduced by Gromov and Radulescu, respectively, in the late 1990s, stimulated an impressive amount of research in the last 15 years, touching several seemingly distant areas of mathematics including geometric group theory, operator algebras, dynamical systems, graph theory, and quantum information theory. Several long-standing conjectures, still open for arbitrary groups, are now settled for sofic or hyperlinear ...

  16. Complex analysis conformal inequalities and the Bieberbach conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Kythe, Prem K

    2015-01-01

    Complex Analysis: Conformal Inequalities and the Bieberbach Conjecture discusses the mathematical analysis created around the Bieberbach conjecture, which is responsible for the development of many beautiful aspects of complex analysis, especially in the geometric-function theory of univalent functions. Assuming basic knowledge of complex analysis and differential equations, the book is suitable for graduate students engaged in analytical research on the topics and researchers working on related areas of complex analysis in one or more complex variables. The author first reviews the theory of analytic functions, univalent functions, and conformal mapping before covering various theorems related to the area principle and discussing Löwner theory. He then presents Schiffer’s variation method, the bounds for the fourth and higher-order coefficients, various subclasses of univalent functions, generalized convexity and the class of a-convex functions, and numerical estimates of the coefficient problem. The boo...

  17. Three conjectures about school effectiveness: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roelande H. Hofman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we address three broad conjectures about what really matters with respect to school effectiveness. Our review of previous evidence prompted us to look at three sets of factors connected with classroom teachers, school policies and processes, and matters of governance. All three have featured prominently in the public arena. In particular, we look for the relative contributions of teacher-, school-, and governance indicators for educational effectiveness (measured by Math achievement. About 100 Dutch primary schools form the database together with findings of international school effectiveness research (studies, reviews, and meta-analyses. School-level variables are the most substantial in explaining educational effectiveness. The sector effect (public/private explains 16% of the between school variance, other school-level variables explain 51%, and the teacher- or classroom-level variables explain 32%. Some of the underlying variables are identified and we address three broad conjectures about what really matters with respect to school effectiveness.

  18. Conjecture on the physical implications of the scale anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Christopher T.; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Murray Gell-Mann, after co-inventing QCD, recognized the interplay of the scale anomaly, the renormalization group, and the origin of the strong scale, Λ QCD . I tell a story, then elaborate this concept, and for the sake of discussion, propose a conjecture that the physical world is scale invariant in the classical, ℎ → 0, limit. This principle has implications for the dimensionality of space-time, the cosmological constant, the weak scale, and Planck scale

  19. Zassenhaus conjecture for A6 A6 A6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (ZC1) For a finite group G, every torsion unit in its integral group ring ZG is conjugate to an element of ±G in the units of the rational group algebra QG. ... version of the Luthar–Passi method were shown in [2]. ... Of course, we ..... [2] Bovdi V, Höfert C and Kimmerle W, On the first Zassenhaus conjecture for integral group rings ...

  20. Proof of a multipole conjecture due to Geroch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beig, R.; Simon, W.

    1980-01-01

    A result, first conjectured by Geroch, is proved to the extent, that the multipole moments of a static space-time characterize this space-time uniquely. As an offshoot of the proof one obtains an essentially coordinate-free algorithm for explicitly writing down a geometry in terms of it's moments in a purely algebraic manner. This algorithm seems suited for symbolic manipulation on a computer. (orig.)

  1. Graph theory favorite conjectures and open problems 1

    CERN Document Server

    Hedetniemi, Stephen; Larson, Craig

    2016-01-01

    This is the first in a series of volumes, which provide an extensive overview of conjectures and open problems in graph theory. The readership of each volume is geared toward graduate students who may be searching for research ideas. However, the well-established mathematician will find the overall exposition engaging and enlightening. Each chapter, presented in a story-telling style, includes more than a simple collection of results on a particular topic. Each contribution conveys the history, evolution, and techniques used to solve the authors’ favorite conjectures and open problems, enhancing the reader’s overall comprehension and enthusiasm. The editors were inspired to create these volumes by the popular and well attended special sessions, entitled “My Favorite Graph Theory Conjectures," which were held at the winter AMS/MAA Joint Meeting in Boston (January, 2012), the SIAM Conference on Discrete Mathematics in Halifax (June,2012) and the winter AMS/MAA Joint meeting in Baltimore(January, 2014). In...

  2. What is the magnetic Weak Gravity Conjecture for axions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebecker, Arthur; Henkenjohann, Philipp [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Witkowski, Lukas T. [APC, Universite Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France)

    2017-03-15

    The electric Weak Gravity Conjecture demands that axions with large decay constant f couple to light instantons. The resulting large instantonic corrections pose problems for natural inflation. We explore an alternative argument based on the magnetic Weak Gravity Conjecture for axions, which we try to make more precise. Roughly speaking, it demands that the minimally charged string coupled to the dual 2-form-field exists in the effective theory. Most naively, such large-f strings curve space too much to exist as static solutions, thus ruling out large-f axions. More conservatively, one might allow non-static string solutions to play the role of the required charged objects. In this case, topological inflation would save the superplanckian axion. Furthermore, a large-f axion may appear in the low-energy effective theory based on two subplanckian axions in the UV. The resulting effective string is a composite object built from several elementary strings and domain walls. It may or may not satisfy the magnetic Weak Gravity Conjecture depending on how strictly the latter is interpreted and on the cosmological dynamics of this composite object, which remain to be fully understood. Finally, we recall that large-field brane inflation is naively possible in the codimension-one case. We show how string-theoretic back-reaction closes this apparent loophole of large-f (non-periodic) pseudo-axions. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. The mixed Ax-Lindemann theorem and its applications to the Zilber-Pink conjecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Ziyang

    2014-01-01

    The Zilber-Pink conjecture is a common generalization of the Andre-Oort and the Mordell-Lang conjectures. In this dissertation, we study its sub-conjectures: Andre-Oort, which predicts that a subvariety of a mixed Shimura variety having dense intersection with the set of special points is special;

  4. On axionic field ranges, loopholes and the weak gravity conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Jon; Cottrell, William; Shiu, Gary; Soler, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    In this short note we clarify some aspects of the impact that the Weak Gravity Conjecture has on models of (generalized) natural inflation. We address in particular certain technical and conceptual concerns recently raised regarding the stringent constraints and conclusions found in our previous work http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP10(2015)023. We also point out the difficulties faced by attempts to evade these constraints. These new considerations improve the understanding of the quantum gravity constraints we found and further support the conclusion that it remains challenging for axions to drive natural inflation.

  5. Fact Versus Conjecture in the History of Industrial Waste Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Meisner Rosen

    2012-01-01

    This piece is a response to Pierre Desrochers’s criticism of an article by me. This response challenges Desrochers’s argument that market forces compelled nineteenth- and early twentieth-century manufacturers to recycle, voluntarily, the vast majority of their wastes. I argue that Desrochers provides no counter-evidence that disproves my findings and that he bases some of his criticism on conjecture that is factually inaccurate and/or overly simplistic. I conclude that to do justice to this i...

  6. Quantum hoop conjecture: Black hole formation by particle collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadio, Roberto, E-mail: casadio@bo.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Micu, Octavian, E-mail: octavian.micu@spacescience.ro [Institute of Space Science, Bucharest, P.O. Box MG-23, RO-077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Scardigli, Fabio, E-mail: fabio@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    We address the issue of (quantum) black hole formation by particle collision in quantum physics. We start by constructing the horizon wave-function for quantum mechanical states representing two highly boosted non-interacting particles that collide in flat one-dimensional space. From this wave-function, we then derive a probability that the system becomes a black hole as a function of the initial momenta and spatial separation between the particles. This probability allows us to extend the hoop conjecture to quantum mechanics and estimate corrections to its classical counterpart.

  7. Reverse engineering Turing Machines and insights into the Collatz conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    John Nixon

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I have extended my earlier work \\cite{jn} on small Turing Machines (TMs) by developing a method for obtaining recursive definitions of the irreducible regular rules (IRR) for a TM when explicit formulae for them cannot be obtained. This has been illustrated by two examples. The first example was randomly chosen and the second example was designed to simulate the Collatz conjecture. Analysis of this TM based on the its IRR suggested new approaches that might be the basis for a pr...

  8. A conjecture for the effective condition of Jimbo's method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongqi

    1992-01-01

    The method for constructing the spectrum-dependent solutions to the Yang-Baxter equation, according to Jimbo's theorem, is based on the existence of the representation matrix of e 0 , corresponding to the lowest negative root, in an irreducible representation of a quantum enveloping algebra. In this paper a conjecture for the existent condition of the representation matrix of e 0 is made. As an example, the adjoint representation of U q C 2 is discussed where the representation matrix e 0 does not exist because the existent condition is violated

  9. Conjecture and hypothesis: The importance of reality checks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Deamer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In origins of life research, it is important to understand the difference between conjecture and hypothesis. This commentary explores the difference and recommends alternative hypotheses as a way to advance our understanding of how life can begin on the Earth and other habitable planets. As an example of how this approach can be used, two conditions have been proposed for sites conducive to the origin of life: hydrothermal vents in salty seawater, and fresh water hydrothermal fields associated with volcanic landmasses. These are considered as alternative hypotheses and the accumulating weight of evidence for each site is described and analyzed.

  10. Analytic evidence for the Gubser-Mitra conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Umpei

    2008-01-01

    A simple master equation for the static perturbation of charged black strings is derived with employing the gauge proposed by Kol. The sign changes of the potential in the master equation and specific heat of the background exactly coincide. That is, for the black strings with positive specific heat, the potential becomes positive definite to forbid the bound state implying the onset of Gregory-Laflamme instability. It can safely be said that this is the first analytic and explicit evidence for the Gubser-Mitra conjecture, correlating the classical and thermodynamic instabilities of black branes. Possible generalizations of the analysis are also discussed

  11. The Quantum Focussing Conjecture and Quantum Null Energy Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeller, Jason

    Evidence has been gathering over the decades that spacetime and gravity are best understood as emergent phenomenon, especially in the context of a unified description of quantum mechanics and gravity. The Quantum Focussing Conjecture (QFC) and Quantum Null Energy Condition (QNEC) are two recently-proposed relationships between entropy and geometry, and energy and entropy, respectively, which further strengthen this idea. In this thesis, we study the QFC and the QNEC. We prove the QNEC in a variety of contexts, including free field theories on Killing horizons, holographic theories on Killing horizons, and in more general curved spacetimes. We also consider the implications of the QFC and QNEC in asymptotically flat space, where they constrain the information content of gravitational radiation arriving at null infinity, and in AdS/CFT, where they are related to other semiclassical inequalities and properties of boundary-anchored extremal area surfaces. It is shown that the assumption of validity and vacuum-state saturation of the QNEC for regions of flat space defined by smooth cuts of null planes implies a local formula for the modular Hamiltonian of these regions. We also demonstrate that the QFC as originally conjectured can be violated in generic theories in d ≥ 5, which led the way to an improved formulation subsequently suggested by Stefan Leichenauer.

  12. On the Anderson localization conjecture in Dusty Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Constanze; Busse, Kyle; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    In 1958, Anderson suggested that sufficiently large impurities in a semi-conductor could lead to spatial localization of electrons. This idea unfolded into the field of Anderson Localization, one of the most fascinating phenomena in solid-state physics as it plays a major role in the conductive properties of imperfectly ordered materials. The Anderson Localization Conjecture claims that random disorder of any strength causes localization of electrons in the medium. The problem has proven to be highly non-trivial. Over the years the community has argued whether spatial localization occurs in 2D for small impurities. From a mathematical standpoint, the conjecture is still considered an open question. In 2013, Liaw challenged the commonly held assumption that localization holds in 2D by introducing a new mathematically more rigorous method to test for extended states, and applying it to the discrete random Schrödinger operator. One of the advantages of the underlying method is its versatility. It can be applied to any ordered system such as colloids, crystals, and atomic lattices. In a cross-disciplinary effort we merge this method with a numerical code used to simulate 2D physics systems, in preparation for experimentally testing the theory against complex plasma crystals.

  13. Reverse engineering Turing Machines and insights into the Collatz conjecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Nixon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I have extended my earlier work \\cite{jn} on small Turing Machines (TMs by developing a method for obtaining recursive definitions of the irreducible regular rules (IRR for a TM when explicit formulae for them cannot be obtained. This has been illustrated by two examples. The first example was randomly chosen and the second example was designed to simulate the Collatz conjecture. Analysis of this TM based on the its IRR suggested new approaches that might be the basis for a proof of this conjecture. The method involves running the TM backwards from a configuration set (CS. This in general produces a tree of CSs at each step. The aim is to find CS's $\\mathtt{y}$ that are reachable from a CS $x$ that simply specifies the symbol about to be read and the machine state. This means that following the computation forward from $x$ by adding some symbols when needed at the pointer, the CS $y$ can be reached. These CS's form the basis of the LHS's of the IRR.

  14. Challenging the weak cosmic censorship conjecture with charged quantum particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richartz, Mauricio; Saa, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the recent attempts to violate the weak cosmic censorship conjecture for near-extreme black holes, we consider the possibility of overcharging a near-extreme Reissner-Nordstroem black hole by the quantum tunneling of charged particles. We consider the scattering of spin-0 and spin-(1/2) particles by the black hole in a unified framework and obtain analytically, for the first time, the pertinent reflection and transmission coefficients without any small charge approximation. Based on these results, we propose some gedanken experiments that could lead to the violation of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture due to the (classically forbidden) absorption of small energy charged particles by the black hole. As for the case of scattering in Kerr spacetimes, our results demonstrate explicitly that scalar fields are subject to (electrical) superradiance phenomenon, while spin-(1/2) fields are not. Superradiance impose some limitations on the gedanken experiments involving spin-0 fields, favoring, in this way, the mechanisms for creation of a naked singularity by the quantum tunneling of spin-(1/2) charged fermions. We also discuss the implications that vacuum polarization effects and quantum statistics might have on these gedanken experiments. In particular, we show that they are not enough to prevent the absorption of incident small energy particles and, consequently, the formation of a naked singularity.

  15. Cosmic censorship conjecture in Kerr-Sen black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Bogeun

    2017-06-01

    The validity of the cosmic censorship conjecture for the Kerr-Sen black hole, which is a solution to the low-energy effective field theory for four-dimensional heterotic string theory, is investigated using charged particle absorption. When the black hole absorbs the particle, the charge on it changes owing to the conserved quantities of the particle. Changes in the black hole are constrained to the equation for the motion of the particle and are consistent with the laws of thermodynamics. Particle absorption increases the mass of the Kerr-Sen black hole to more than that of the absorbed charges such as angular momentum and electric charge; hence, the black hole cannot be overcharged. In the near-extremal black hole, we observe a violation of the cosmic censorship conjecture for the angular momentum in the first order of expansion and the electric charge in the second order. However, considering an adiabatic process carrying the conserved quantities as those of the black hole, we prove the stability of the black hole horizon. Thus, we resolve the violation. This is consistent with the third law of thermodynamics.

  16. Enhancement of CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratios and star formation efficiencies in supergiant H II regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Rie E.; Espada, Daniel; Komugi, Shinya; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Sawada, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Kosuke; Kawabe, Ryohei [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kohno, Kotaro [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Tosaki, Tomoka [Joetsu University of Education, Yamayashiki-machi, Joetsu, Niigata 943-8512 (Japan); Hirota, Akihiko; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1805 (Japan); Okumura, Sachiko K. [Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Japan Woman' s University, Mejirodai 2-8-1, Bunkyo, Tokyo 112-8681 (Japan); Kuno, Nario [Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Onodera, Sachiko [Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kaneko, Hiroyuki, E-mail: rie.miura@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Meisei University, Hino, Tokyo 191-8506 (Japan)

    2014-06-20

    We present evidence that super giant H II regions (GHRs) and other disk regions of the nearby spiral galaxy, M33, occupy distinct locations in the correlation between molecular gas, Σ{sub H{sub 2}}, and the star formation rate surface density, Σ{sub SFR}. This result is based on wide-field and high-sensitivity CO(3-2) observations at 100 pc resolution. Star formation efficiencies (SFEs), defined as Σ{sub SFR}/Σ{sub H{sub 2}}, in GHRs are found to be ∼1 dex higher than in other disk regions. The CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) integrated intensity ratio, R {sub 3-2/1-0}, is also higher than the average over the disk. Such high SFEs and R {sub 3-2/1-0} can reach the values found in starburst galaxies, which suggests that GHRs may be the elements building up a larger-scale starburst region. Three possible contributions to high SFEs in GHRs are investigated: (1) the I {sub CO}-N(H{sub 2}) conversion factor, (2) the dense gas fraction traced by R {sub 3-2/1-0}, and (3) the initial mass function (IMF). We conclude that these starburst-like properties in GHRs can be interpreted by a combination of both a top-heavy IMF and a high dense gas fraction, but not by changes in the I {sub CO}-N(H{sub 2}) conversion factor.

  17. [Effect of core: dentin thickness ratio on the flexure strength of IPS Empress II heat-pressed all-ceramic restorative material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-hong; Feng, Hai-lan; Bao, Yi-wang; Qiu, Yan

    2007-02-18

    To evaluate the effect of core:dentin thickness ratio on the flexure strength, fracture mode and origin of bilayered IPS Empress II ceramic composite specimens. IPS Empress II core ceramic, dentin porcelain and bilayered composite specimens with core:dentin thickness ratio of 2:1 and 1:1 were tested in three-point flexure strength. Mean strengths and standard deviations were determined. The optical microscopy was employed for identification of the fracture mode and origin. The flexure strength of dentin porcelain was the smallest(62.7 MPa), and the strength of bilayered composite specimens was smaller than single-layered core ceramic(190.2 MPa). The core: dentin ratio did not influence the strength of bilayered composite specimens. The frequency of occurrence of bilayered specimen delaminations was higher in the group of core: dentin thickness ratio of 1:1 than in the group of 2:1. IPS Empress II core ceramic was significantly stronger than veneering dentin porcelain. Core:dentin thickness ratio could significantly influence the fracture mode and origin, and bilayered IPS Empress II ceramic composite specimens showed little influence in the fracture strength.

  18. On the standard conjecture for complex 4-dimensional elliptic varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tankeev, Sergei G

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the Grothendieck standard conjecture B(X) of Lefschetz type on the algebraicity of operators * and Λ of Hodge theory holds for every smooth complex projective model X of the fibre product X 1 × C X 2 , where X 1 →C is an elliptic surface over a smooth projective curve C and X 2 →C is a morphism of a smooth projective threefold onto C such that one of the following conditions holds: a generic geometric fibre X 2s is an Enriques surface; all fibres of the morphism X 2 →C are smooth K3-surfaces and the Hodge group Hg(X 2s ) of the generic geometric fibre X 2s has no geometric simple factors of type A 1 (the assumption on the Hodge group holds automatically if the number 22-rankNS(X 2s ) is not divisible by 4).

  19. Cognition and Language: From Apprehension to Judgment -- Quantum Conjectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arecchi, F. T.

    2014-12-01

    We critically discuss the two moments of human cognition, namely, apprehension (A), whereby a coherent perception emerges from the recruitment of neuronal groups, and judgment (B), that entails the comparison of two apprehensions acquired at different times, coded in a suitable language and recalled by memory. (B) requires selfconsciousness, in so far as the agent who expresses the judgment must be aware that the two apprehensions are submitted to his/her own scrutiny and that it is his/her duty to extract a mutual relation. Since (B) lasts around 3 seconds, the semantic value of the pieces under comparison must be decided within this time. This implies a fast search of the memory contents. As a fact, exploring human subjects with sequences of simple words, we find evidence of a limited time window, corresponding to the memory retrieval of a linguistic item in order to match it with the next one in a text flow (be it literary, or musical,or figurative). Classifying the information content of spike trains, an uncertainty relation emerges between the bit size of a word and its duration. This uncertainty is ruled by a constant that can be given a numerical value and that has nothing to do with Planck's constant. A "quantum conjecture" in the above sense might explain the onset and decay of the memory window connecting successive pieces of a linguistic text. The conjecture here formulated is applicable to other reported evidences of quantum effects in human cognitive processes, so far lacking a plausible framework since no efforts to assign a quantum constant have been associated.

  20. Special Lagrangian torus fibrations of complete intersection Calabi–Yau manifolds: A geometric conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, David R., E-mail: drm@physics.ucsb.edu [Departments of Mathematics and Physics, U.C. Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Ronen Plesser, M. [Center for Geometry and Theoretical Physics, Duke University, Durham NC 27708 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    For complete intersection Calabi–Yau manifolds in toric varieties, Gross and Haase–Zharkov have given a conjectural combinatorial description of the special Lagrangian torus fibrations whose existence was predicted by Strominger, Yau and Zaslow. We present a geometric version of this construction, generalizing an earlier conjecture of the first author.

  1. Constraining the interacting dark energy models from weak gravity conjecture and recent observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ximing; Wang Bin; Pan Nana; Gong Yungui

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effectiveness of the weak gravity conjecture in constraining the dark energy by comparing with observations. For general dark energy models with plausible phenomenological interactions between dark sectors, we find that although the weak gravity conjecture can constrain the dark energy, the constraint is looser than that from the observations.

  2. Modelling of and Conjecturing on a Soccer Ball in a Korean Eighth Grade Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Hwa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the task design and implementation of cultural artefacts in a mathematics lesson based on the integration of modelling and conjecturing perspectives. The conceived process of integrating a soccer ball into mathematics lessons via modelling- and conjecturing-based instruction was first detailed. Next, the…

  3. On a conjecture of Alley and Alder for fluids and Lorentz models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, M.H.; Beijeren, H. van

    1981-01-01

    We discuss a conjecture of Alley and Alder predicting a relation between the four-point and the two-point velocity autocorrelation functions for fluids and Lorentz models at sufficiently long times. If the conjecture is correct a modified Burnett coefficient can be defined, which has a finite value,

  4. Notes from the Underground: A Propos of Givental's Conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yun S.

    2001-04-11

    These brief notes record our puzzles and findings surrounding Givental's recent conjecture which expresses higher genus Gromov-Witten invariants in terms of the genus-0 data. We limit our considerations to the case of a projective line, whose Gromov-Witten invariants are well-known and easy to compute. We make some simple checks supporting his conjecture.

  5. Averages of ratios of the Riemann zeta-function and correlations of divisor sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrey, Brian; Keating, Jonathan P.

    2017-10-01

    Nonlinearity has published articles containing a significant number-theoretic component since the journal was first established. We examine one thread, concerning the statistics of the zeros of the Riemann zeta function. We extend this by establishing a connection between the ratios conjecture for the Riemann zeta-function and a conjecture concerning correlations of convolutions of Möbius and divisor functions. Specifically, we prove that the ratios conjecture and an arithmetic correlations conjecture imply the same result. This provides new support for the ratios conjecture, which previously had been motivated by analogy with formulae in random matrix theory and by a heuristic recipe. Our main theorem generalises a recent calculation pertaining to the special case of two-over-two ratios.

  6. Existence and uniqueness of consistent conjectural variation equilibrium in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Youfei; Cai, Bin; Ni, Y.X.; Wu, Felix F.

    2007-01-01

    The game-theory based methods are widely applied to analyze the market equilibrium and to study the strategic behavior in the oligopolistic electricity markets. Recently, the conjecture variation approach, one of well-studied methods in game theory, is reported to model the strategic behavior in deregulated electricity markets. Unfortunately, the conjecture variation models have been criticized for the drawback of logical inconsistence and possibility of abundant equilibria. Aiming for this, this paper investigates the existence and uniqueness of consistent conjectural variation equilibrium in electricity markets. With several good characteristics of the electricity market and with an infinite horizon optimization model, it is shown that the consistent conjecture variation will satisfy a set of coupled nonlinear equations and there will be only one equilibrium. This result can provide the fundamentals for further applications of the conjecture variation approach. (author)

  7. Effect of pH and Fe/U ratio on the U(VI) removal rate by the synergistic effect of Fe(II) and O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yukui; Luo, Yingfeng; Fang, Qi; Xie, Yanpei; Wang, Zhihong; Zhu, Xiangyu

    2018-02-01

    As for the decommissioned uranium deposits of acid in-situ leaching, both of the concentrations of U(VI) and Fe(II) are relatively high in groundwater. In the presence of O2, the oxidation of Fe(II) into Fe(III) that forms Fe-hydroxides could effectively remove U(VI) in the forms of sorption or co-precipitation. In this process, pH condition and Fe content will have a significant effect on the U(VI) removal rate by the synergistic effect of Fe(II) and O2. In the present work, a series of batch experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of pH values and Fe/U mass ratio on the U(VI) removal rate by the synergistic effect of Fe(II) and O2. Experiment results show that the removal rate of U(VI) is mainly controlled by pH and secondly by Fe/U mass ratio. In the neutral conditions with pH at 7 and 8, the removal rate of U(VI) reaches up to 90% for all solutions with different initial Fe(II) concentrations. The optimal pH for the removal rate of U(VI) is above 7. In the acidic conditions with pH below 6, the effect of Fe/U mass ratio on the removal rate of U(VI) becomes more obvious and the optimal Fe/U mass ratio for U(VI) removal is 1:2.

  8. Anatase/rutile TiO2 composites: Influence of the mixing ratio on the photocatalytic degradation of Malachite Green and Orange II in slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojinova, A.; Kralchevska, R.; Poulios, I.; Dushkin, C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study is directed to clarify the influence of the ratio of anatase to rutile phase, containing in the TiO 2 samples, on their activity as photocatalysts in slurry. A series of samples corresponding to different percentages of anatase is prepared from commercial anatase and rutile TiO 2 brands (KRONOS). The crystalline phase composition of the samples is characterized by X-ray diffraction. The photocatalytic action of the mixtures is tested in photodegradation of the commercial organic dyes Malachite Green Hydrochloride and Orange II in aqueous solutions under UV irradiation. Comparative tests with Degussa P-25 are performed. The apparent rate constants of the process are determined from the kinetic curves using appropriate models. They generally increase with the anatase ratio, being always larger for Malachite Green than for Orange II

  9. Influence of group II metals on Radium-226 concentration ratios in the native green plum (Buchanania obovata) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, Peter; Bollhöfer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, uptake of Ra from soil, and the influence of group II metals on Ra uptake, into the stones and edible flesh of the fruit of the wild green plum, Buchanania obovata, was investigated. Selective extraction of the exchangeable fraction of the soil samples was undertaken but was not shown to more reliably predict Ra uptake than total soil Ra activity concentration. Comparison of the group II metal to Ca ratios (i.e. Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Ra/Ca) in the flesh with exchangeable Ca shows that Ca outcompetes group II metals for root uptake and that the uptake pathway discriminated against group II metals relative to ionic radius, with uptake of Ca > Sr > Ba >> Ra. Flesh and stone analysis showed that movement of group II metals to these components of the plant, after root uptake, was strongly related. This supports the hypothesis that Sr, Ba and Ra are being taken up as analogue elements, and follow the same uptake and translocation pathways, with Ca. Comparison with previously reported data from a native passion fruit supports the use of total soil CRs on natural, undisturbed sites. As exchangeable CRs for Ra reach a saturation value it may be possible to make more precise predictions using selective extraction techniques for contaminated or disturbed sites. - Highlights: • We studied uptake of Ra-226 from soil into Buchanania obovata. • The influence of group II metals (Sr, Ba and Ca) on Ra uptake was investigated. • The exchangeable Ra fraction of the soil was not a more reliable predictor of Ra uptake than total soil Ra. • Ca outcompetes group II metals Sr, Ba and Ra for root uptake. • Uptake discriminated against group II metals relative to ionic radius, with uptake of Ca > Sr > Ba >> Ra.

  10. Tropospheric mixing ratios of NO and NOy obtained during TROPOZ II in the latitude region 67 deg N-56 deg S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, F.; Bruening, D.; Ehhalt, D.H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    Tropospheric mixing ratios of NO and NOy were measured along the flight track of the TROPOZ II aircraft campaign. These measurements cover regions along the east coast of North America, the Pacific and Atlantic coast of South America and the Atlantic coast of North Africa and Europe. The meteorological conditions are close to the climatological mean: westerly winds at high and mid latitudes, variable and weak winds at low latitudes. (author) 2 refs.

  11. Improving the Ar I and II branching ratio calibration method: Monte Carlo simulations of effects from photon scattering/reflecting in hollow cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    The Ar I and II branching ratio calibration method is discussed with the goal of improving the technique. This method of establishing a relative radiometric calibration is important in ongoing research to improve atomic transition probabilities for quantitative spectroscopy in astrophysics and other fields. Specific suggestions are presented along with Monte Carlo simulations of wavelength dependent effects from scattering/reflecting of photons in a hollow cathode.

  12. Tropospheric mixing ratios of NO and NOy obtained during TROPOZ II in the latitude region 67 deg N-56 deg S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, F; Bruening, D; Ehhalt, D H [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    Tropospheric mixing ratios of NO and NOy were measured along the flight track of the TROPOZ II aircraft campaign. These measurements cover regions along the east coast of North America, the Pacific and Atlantic coast of South America and the Atlantic coast of North Africa and Europe. The meteorological conditions are close to the climatological mean: westerly winds at high and mid latitudes, variable and weak winds at low latitudes. (author) 2 refs.

  13. Prolyl oligopeptidase and dipeptidyl peptidase II/dipeptidyl peptidase IV ratio in the cerebrospinal fluid in Parkinson's disease: historical overview and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatsu, Toshiharu

    2017-06-01

    Prolyl oligopeptidase (also named prolyl endopeptidase; PREP) hydrolyzes the Pro-Xaa bonds of biologically active oligopeptides on their carboxyl side. In 1987, we detected PREP activity in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using highly sensitive liquid chromatography-fluorometry with succinyl-Gly-Pro-4-methyl-coumarin amide as a new synthetic substrate, and found a marked decrease in its activity in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) as compared with its level in control patients without neurological diseases. In 2013, Hannula et al. found co-localization of PREP with α-synuclein in the postmortem PD brain. Several recent studies also suggest that the level of PREP in the brain of PD patients may be related to dopamine (DA) cell death via promotion of α-synuclein oligomerization and that inhibitors of PREP may play a neuroprotective role in PD. Although the relationship between another family of prolyl oligopeptidase enzymes, dipeptidyl peptidase II (DPP II) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), and α-synuclein in the PD brain is not yet clear, we found that the DPP II activity/DPP IV activity ratio in the CSF was significantly increased in PD patients. This review discusses the possibility of PREP as well as the DPP II/DPP IV ratio in the CSF as potential biomarkers of PD.

  14. Conjecture of twin primes (Still unsolved problem in Number Theory. An expository essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Rezgui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to gather as much results of advances, recent and previous works as possible concerning the oldest outstanding still unsolved problem in Number Theory (and the most elusive open problem in prime numbers called "Twin primes conjecture" (8th problem of David Hilbert, stated in 1900 which has eluded many gifted mathematicians. This conjecture has been circulating for decades, even with the progress of contemporary technology that puts the whole world within our reach. So, simple to state, yet so hard to prove. Basic Concepts, many and varied topics regarding the Twin prime conjecture will be cover.

  15. Analytical study of the conjecture rule for the combination of multipole effects in LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Guignard, Gilbert

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the analytical investigation done on the conjecture law found by tracking for the effect on the dynamic aperture of the combination of two multipoles of various order. A one-dimensional model leading to an integrable system has been used to find closed formulae for the dynamic aperture associated with a fully distributed multipole. The combination has then been studied and the resulting expression compared with the assumed conjecture law. For integrated multipoles small with respect to the focusing strength, the conjecture appears to hold, though with an exponent different from the one expected by crude reasoning.

  16. Note on a reformulation of the strong cosmic censor conjecture based on computability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etesi, Gabor

    2002-12-12

    In this Letter we provide a reformulation of the strong cosmic censor conjecture taking into account recent results on Malament-Hogarth space-times. We claim that the strong version of the cosmic censor conjecture can be formulated by postulating that a physically reasonable space-time is either globally hyperbolic or possesses the Malament-Hogarth property. But it is known that a Malament-Hogarth space-time in principle is capable for performing non-Turing computations such as checking consistency of ZFC set theory. In this way we get an intimate conjectured link between the cosmic censorship scenario and computability theory.

  17. Schiffer's Conjecture, Interior Transmission Eigenvalues and Invisibility Cloaking: Singular Problem vs. Nonsingular Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    In this note, we present some interesting observations on the Schiffer's conjecture, interior transmission eigenvalue problem and their connections to singular and nonsingular invisibility cloaking problems of acoustic waves.

  18. Conjectures on the normal covering number of finite symmetric and alternating groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bubboloni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Let gamma(Sn be the minimum number of proper subgroups Hi, i = 1,...,ell, of the symmetric group Sn such that each element in Sn lies in some conjugate of one of the Hi. In this paper we conjecture that gamma(Sn =(n/2(1-1/p_1 (1-1/p_2 + 2, where p1, p2 are the two smallest primes in the factorization of n and n is neither a prime power nor a product of two primes. Support for the conjecture is given by a previous result for the case where n has at most two distinct prime divisors. We give further evidence by confirming the conjecture for certain integers of the form n = 15q, for an infinite set of primes q, and by reporting on a Magma computation. We make a similar conjecture for gamma(An, when n is even, and provide a similar amount of evidence.

  19. On the fourth moment of Hecke Maass forms and the Random Wave Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Buttcane, Jack; Khan, Rizwanur

    2016-01-01

    Conditionally on the Generalized Lindel\\"of Hypothesis, we obtain an asymptotic for the fourth moment of Hecke Maass cusp forms of large Laplacian eigenvalue for the full modular group. This lends support to the Random Wave Conjecture.

  20. Cosmic censorship and Weak Gravity Conjecture in the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ten-Yeh; Wen, Wen-Yu

    2018-06-01

    We explore the cosmic censorship in the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory following Wald's thought experiment to destroy a black hole by throwing in a test particle. We discover that at probe limit the extremal charged dilaton black hole could be destroyed by a test particle with specific energy. Nevertheless the censorship is well protected if backreaction or self-force is included. At the end, we discuss an interesting connection between Hoop Conjecture and Weak Gravity Conjecture.

  1. On Montgomery's pair correlation conjecture to the zeros of Riedmann zeta function

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Pei

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we are interested in Montgomery's pair correlation conjecture which is about the distribution of.the spacings between consecutive zeros of the Riemann Zeta function. Our goal is to explain and study Montgomery's pair correlation conjecture and discuss its connection with the random matrix theory. In Chapter One, we will explain how to define the Ftiemann Zeta function by using the analytic continuation. After this, several classical properties of the Ftiemann Zeta function wil...

  2. Violating the Weak Cosmic Censorship Conjecture in Four-Dimensional Anti-de Sitter Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisford, Toby; Santos, Jorge E.

    2017-05-01

    We consider time-dependent solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations using anti-de Sitter (AdS) boundary conditions, and provide the first counterexample to the weak cosmic censorship conjecture in four spacetime dimensions. Our counterexample is entirely formulated in the Poincaré patch of AdS. We claim that our results have important consequences for quantum gravity, most notably to the weak gravity conjecture.

  3. Does the cosmic no-hair conjecture in brane scenarios follow from general relativity?

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, S

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we examine the cosmic no-hair conjecture (CNHC) in braneworld scenarios. For the validity of this conjecture, in addition to the strong- and weak-energy conditions for the matter field, a similar type of assumption is made on the quadratic correction term and there is a restriction on the non-local term. It is shown using examples with realistic fluid models that strong- and weak-energy conditions are sufficient for the CNHC in braneworld scenarios.

  4. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during biscuit baking. Part II: Effect of the ratio of reducing sugars and asparagine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; van Boekel, M A J S

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation during biscuit baking. Four types of wheat flour with different molar ratios of total fructose and glucose to asparagine were investigated. Nevertheless, the molar ratio in all four biscuit doughs exceeded one after proofing due to enzyme action. Data obtained after baking were used to develop a mechanistic model, based on the asparagine-related pathway, for acrylamide and HMF formation in the four baked biscuit types. Asparagine reacted with fructose to form a Schiff base before decarboxylation to produce acrylamide without Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Fructose contributed considerably to acrylamide formation and to HMF formation via caramelization in all four biscuit types. No clear correlation was found between acrylamide and HMF in baked biscuits, nor between asparagine and the sum of glucose and fructose concentrations in the wheat flour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A systematic review on soft-to-hard tissue ratios in orthognathic surgery part II: Chin procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel Moragas, Joan; Oth, Olivier; Büttner, Michael; Mommaerts, Maurice Y

    2015-10-01

    Precise soft-to-hard tissue ratios in orthofacial chin procedures are not well established. The aim of this study was to determine useful soft-to-hard tissue ratios for planning the magnitude of sliding genioplasty (chin osteotomy), osseous chin recontouring and alloplastic chin augmentation. A systematic review of English and non-English articles using PubMed central, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Science Citation Index, Elsevier Science Direct Complete, Highwire Press, Springer Standard Collection, SAGE premier 2011, DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals, Sweetswise, Free E-Journals, Ovid Lippincott Williams & Wilkins total Access Collection, Wiley Online Library Journals, and Cochrane Plus databases from their onset until July 2014. Additional studies were identified by searching the references. Search terms included soft tissue, ratios, genioplasty, mentoplasty, chin, genial AND advancement, augmentation, setback, retrusion, impaction, reduction, vertical deficit, widening, narrowing, and expansion. Study selection criteria were as follows: only academic publications; human patients; no reviews; systematic reviews or meta-analyses; no cadavers; no syndromic patients; no pathology at the chin or mandible region; only articles of level of evidence from I to IV; number of patients must be cited in the articles; hard-to-soft tissue ratios must be cited in the articles or at least are able to be calculated with the quantitative data available in the article; if all patients of one article have had bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) performed along with chin osteotomy, there should be an independent group evaluation of the data concerning to the chin; and no restriction regarding the size of the group. Independent extraction of articles by two authors using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators (level of evidence). The search identified 22 articles. Eleven additional articles were found in their reference sections. Of these, two were

  6. Assessment of the excitation temperatures and Mg II:I line ratios of the direct current (DC) arc source for the analysis of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manard, B.T.; Matonic, John; Montoya, Dennis; Jump, Robert; Castro, Alonso; Ning Xu

    2017-01-01

    The direct current (DC) arc plasma has been assessed with an emphasis on excitation temperature (T_e_x_e) and ionization/excitation efficiency by monitoring magnesium ionic:atomic ratios (Mg II:I). The primary goal is to improve the analytical performance of the DC arc instrumentation such that more sensitive and reproducible measurements can be achieved when analyzing trace impurities in nuclear materials. Due to the variety of sample types requiring DC arc analysis, an understanding of the plasma's characteristics will significantly benefit the experimental design when moving forward with LANL's capabilities for trace metal analysis of plutonium metals. (author)

  7. Carbon deposition thresholds on nickel-based solid oxide fuel cell anodes II. Steam:carbon ratio and current density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, J.; Kesler, O.

    2015-03-01

    For the second part of a two part publication, coking thresholds with respect to molar steam:carbon ratio (SC) and current density in nickel-based solid oxide fuel cells were determined. Anode-supported button cell samples were exposed to 2-component and 5-component gas mixtures with 1 ≤ SC ≤ 2 and zero fuel utilization for 10 h, followed by measurement of the resulting carbon mass. The effect of current density was explored by measuring carbon mass under conditions known to be prone to coking while increasing the current density until the cell was carbon-free. The SC coking thresholds were measured to be ∼1.04 and ∼1.18 at 600 and 700 °C, respectively. Current density experiments validated the thresholds measured with respect to fuel utilization and steam:carbon ratio. Coking thresholds at 600 °C could be predicted with thermodynamic equilibrium calculations when the Gibbs free energy of carbon was appropriately modified. Here, the Gibbs free energy of carbon on nickel-based anode support cermets was measured to be -6.91 ± 0.08 kJ mol-1. The results of this two part publication show that thermodynamic equilibrium calculations with appropriate modification to the Gibbs free energy of solid-phase carbon can be used to predict coking thresholds on nickel-based anodes at 600-700 °C.

  8. Formation of Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries. II. Common Envelope Evolution of Primordial Binaries with Extreme Mass Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogera, Vassiliki; Webbink, Ronald F.

    1998-01-01

    We study the formation of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) through helium star supernovae in binary systems that have each emerged from a common envelope phase. LMXB progenitors must satisfy a large number of evolutionary and structural constraints, including survival through common envelope evolution, through the post-common envelope phase, where the precursor of the neutron star becomes a Wolf-Rayet star, and survival through the supernova event. Furthermore, the binaries that survive the explosion must reach interaction within a Hubble time and must satisfy stability criteria for mass transfer. These constraints, imposed under the assumption of a symmetric supernova explosion, prohibit the formation of short-period LMXBs transferring mass at sub-Eddington rates through any channel in which the intermediate progenitor of the neutron star is not completely degenerate. Barring accretion-induced collapse, the existence of such systems therefore requires that natal kicks be imparted to neutron stars. We use an analytical method to synthesize the distribution of nascent LMXBs over donor masses and orbital periods and evaluate their birthrate and systemic velocity dispersion. Within the limitations imposed by observational incompleteness and selection effects, and our neglect of secular evolution in the LMXB state, we compare our results with observations. However, our principal objective is to evaluate how basic model parameters (common envelope ejection efficiency, rms kick velocity, primordial mass ratio distribution) influence these results. We conclude that the characteristics of newborn LMXBs are primarily determined by age and stability constraints and the efficiency of magnetic braking and are largely independent of the primordial binary population and the evolutionary history of LMXB progenitors (except for extreme values of the average kick magnitude or of the common envelope ejection efficiency). Theoretical estimates of total LMXB birthrates are not credible

  9. Measurement of Conjectural Variations Elasticity in an Oligopoly Structure (Using Iwata Approach for Iranians Food and Beverage Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nabishahyakitash

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate Conjectural Variations elasticity in Iranians Food and Beverage industry using Iwata approach, The conjectural variation function is extracted from demand and supply information also optimization process on producers’ behavior. The experimental estimates of conjectural variation elasticities were obtained based on price elasticity of demand, cost elasticity and marginal cost elasticity for the selected industries. In this research demand function AIDS was used to obtain the price elasticity. The AIDS function was estimated using SUR and the demand price elasticity is calculated by calfent. The results show that "Vegetable oils and animal" industry with 19.37 have the most conjectural variation elasticity among the selected industries (The more divergent the conjectural variation elasticity is from zero the more likely the monopoly exists. In addition, dairy, sugar and malt industries have the most conjectural variation elasticity with 18.01, 17.18, and 10.51 respectively.

  10. Conjectural variation based learning model of strategic bidding in spot market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiqun Song; Yixin Ni; Fushuan Wen; Wu, F.F.

    2004-01-01

    In actual electricity market, which operates repeatedly on the basis of one hour or half hour, each firm might learn or estimate other competitors' strategic behaviors from available historical market operation data, and rationally aims at its maximum profit in the repeated biddings. A conjectural variation based learning method is proposed in this paper for generation firm to improve its strategic bidding performance. In the method, each firm learns and dynamically regulates its conjecture upon the reactions of its rivals to its bidding according to available information published in the electricity market, and then makes its optimal generation decision based on the updated conjectural variation of its rivals. Through such learning process, the equilibrium reached in the market is proven a Nash equilibrium. Motivation of generation firm to learn in the changing market environment and consequence of learning behavior in the market are also discussed through computer tests. (author)

  11. Numerical Tests of the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture via Event-Horizon Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okounkova, Maria; Ott, Christian; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela

    2015-04-01

    We present the current state of our research on the possibility of naked singularity formation in gravitational collapse, numerically testing both the cosmic censorship conjecture and the hoop conjecture. The former of these posits that all singularities lie behind an event horizon, while the later conjectures that this is true if collapse occurs from an initial configuration with all circumferences C <= 4 πM . We reconsider the classical Shapiro & Teukolsky (1991) prolate spheroid naked singularity scenario. Using the exponentially error-convergent Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) we simulate the collapse of collisionless matter and probe for apparent horizons. We propose a new method to probe for the existence of an event horizon by following characteristic from regions near the singularity, using methods commonly employed in Cauchy characteristic extraction. This research was partially supported by NSF under Award No. PHY-1404569.

  12. On the validity of cosmic no-hair conjecture in an anisotropic inationary model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tuan Q.

    2018-05-01

    We will present main results of our recent investigations on the validity of cosmic no-hair conjecture proposed by Hawking and his colleagues long time ago in the framework of an anisotropic inflationary model proposed by Kanno, Soda, and Watanabe. As a result, we will show that the cosmic no-hair conjecture seems to be generally violated in the Kanno-Soda- Watanabe model for both canonical and non-canonical scalar fields due to the existence of a non-trivial coupling term between scalar and electromagnetic fields. However, we will also show that the validity of the cosmic no-hair conjecture will be ensured once a unusual scalar field called the phantom field, whose kinetic energy term is negative definite, is introduced into the Kanno-Soda-Watanabe model.

  13. Toda molecule and Tomimatsu-Sato solution-towards the complete proof of Nakamura's conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, Takeshi; Koizumi, Kozo

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the Nakamura's conjecture stating that the Tomimatsu-Sato black hole solution with an integer deformation parameter n is composed of the special solutions of the Toda molecule equation at the nth lattice site. From the previous work, in which the conjecture was partly analytically proved, we go further towards the final full proof by rearranging the rotation parameter. The proof is explicitly performed for the highest and lowest orders. Though the proof for all orders still remains unsolved, the prospect to the full proof becomes transparent and workable by our method. (paper)

  14. Conjecturing via Analogical Reasoning in Developing Scientific Approach in Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supratman; Ryane, S.; Rustina, R.

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to explore the extent to which the use of analogy reasoning when students conduct conjecture in developing the scientific approach, so that the knowledge of the students can be used to build new knowledge. Analysis was conducted on student learning outcomes in Ciamis district. Based on these results, it was found the teacher not give an opportunity to the students to make conjecture on the students in problem solving as well as the construction of new knowledge. Moreover, teachers do not take advantage of analogical reasoning and scientific approach in constructing new knowledge.

  15. Schottky’s conjecture, field emitters, and the point charge model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin L. Jensen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A Point Charge Model of conical field emitters, in which the emitter is defined by an equipotential surface of judiciously placed charges over a planar conductor, is used to confirm Schottky’s conjecture that field enhancement factors are multiplicative for a small protrusion placed on top of a larger base structure. Importantly, it is shown that Schottky’s conjecture for conical / ellipsoidal field emitters remains unexpectedly valid even when the dimensions of the protrusion begin to approach the dimensions of the base structure. The model is analytic and therefore the methodology is extensible to other configurations.

  16. Evolution of the mirror approach to fusion: some conjectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Some possible directions for the future evolution of the mirror approach to fusion are outlined, in the context of economically-motivated criteria. Speculations are given as to the potential advantages, economic and otherwise, of the use of axially-symmetric systems, operated in semi-collisional regimes of lower Q (fusion power balance ratio) than that projected for present-day tandem mirror designs. These regims include barely tandem modes, and ion-heated modes, in association with higher efficiency direct conversion. Another possible economically advantageous approach mentioned is the use of a tandem mirror plasma to stabilize a FRM (field-reversed mirror) plasma, with potential synergistic advantages

  17. The AJ-conjecture for the Teichmüller TQFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Malusà, Alessandro

    We formulate the AJ-conjecture for the Teichm\\"{u}ller TQFT and we prove it in the case of the figure-eight knot complement and the $5_2$-knot complement. This states that the level-$N$ Andersen-Kashaev invariant, $J^{(\\mathrm{b},N)}_{M,K}$, is annihilated by the non-homogeneous $\\widehat...

  18. Proof of an entropy conjecture for Bloch coherent spin states and its generalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    H. Lieb, Elliott; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2014-01-01

    Wehrl used Glauber coherent states to define a map from quantum density matrices to classical phase space densities and conjectured that for Glauber coherent states the mininimum classical entropy would occur for density matrices equal to projectors onto coherent states. This was proved by Lieb...

  19. Tax evasion in transition: Outcome of an institutional clash? - Testing Feige's conjecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gërxhani, K.

    2003-01-01

    A field survey of households was conducted in Tirana, Albania in 2000. A response rate of 89.3% yielded 1.340 valid questionnaires, allowing us to test Feige’s (1997) conjecture that more tax evasion will be observed, when formal and informal institutions clash. Respondents’ attitudes towards formal

  20. Reducing CO2 flux by decreasing tillage in Ohio: overcoming conjecture with data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil could become an important sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) as global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions continue to grow, but data to support this conjecture are few. Sequestering soil carbon (C) depends upon many factors including soil type, climate, crop, tillage, nitrogen fertili...

  1. The elementary theory of groups a guide through the proofs of the Tarski conjectures

    CERN Document Server

    Fine, Benjamin; Myasnikov, Alexei; Rosenberger, Gerhard; Spellman, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    After being an open question for sixty years the Tarski conjecture was answered in the affirmative by Olga Kharlampovich and Alexei Myasnikov and independently by Zlil Sela. This book is an examination of the material on the general elementary theory of groups that is necessary to begin to understand the proofs.

  2. A note on "The Cartan-Hadamard conjecture and the Little Prince"

    OpenAIRE

    Michalakis, Spyridon

    2017-01-01

    We provide elementary proofs of Lemmas 7.1 and 7.4 appearing in "The Cartan-Hadamard conjecture and the Little Prince", by B. Kloeckner and G. Kuperberg. The Lemmas play an important role in the derivation of novel isoperimetric inequalities. The original proofs relied on Sage, a symbolic algebra package, to factor certain algebraic varieties into irreducible components.

  3. Grothendieck’s conjecture for the Risch equation y’ = ay + b

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, Marius van der

    2001-01-01

    A simple formulation of the Grothendieck’s conjecture, some information on p-curvatures, recent history and elementary proofs for the equations y’ = ay and y’ = b are given in the first two sections. For an inhomogeneous equation y’ = ay + b we propose an extension of the problem. One has to

  4. A short proof of a conjecture on the Tr-choice number of even cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitters, R. A.

    In this note we prove that the Tr-choice number of the cycle C2n is equal to the Tr-choice number of the path (tree) on 4n - 1 vertices, i.e. Tr-ch(C2n) = [((4n - 2)/(4n - 1))(2r + 2)] + 1. This solves a recent conjecture of Alon and Zaks.

  5. Reviving the shear-free perfect fluid conjecture in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikhonde, Muzikayise E.; Dunsby, Peter K. S.

    2017-12-01

    Employing a Mathematica symbolic computer algebra package called xTensor, we present (1+3) -covariant special case proofs of the shear-free perfect fluid conjecture in general relativity. We first present the case where the pressure is constant, and where the acceleration is parallel to the vorticity vector. These cases were first presented in their covariant form by Senovilla et al. We then provide a covariant proof for the case where the acceleration and vorticity vectors are orthogonal, which leads to the existence of a Killing vector along the vorticity. This Killing vector satisfies the new constraint equations resulting from the vanishing of the shear. Furthermore, it is shown that in order for the conjecture to be true, this Killing vector must have a vanishing spatially projected directional covariant derivative along the velocity vector field. This in turn implies the existence of another basic vector field along the direction of the vorticity for the conjecture to hold. Finally, we show that in general, there exists a basic vector field parallel to the acceleration for which the conjecture is true.

  6. A Raikov-Type Theorem for Radial Poisson Distributions: A Proof of Kingman's Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Van Nguyen, Thu

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we prove the following conjecture in Kingman, J.F.C., Random walks with spherical symmetry, Acta Math.,109, (1963), 11-53. concerning a famous Raikov's theorem of decomposition of Poisson random variables: "If a radial sum of two independent random variables X and Y is radial Poisson, then each of them must be radial Poisson."

  7. The Carroll and Chang conjecture of equal Indscal components when Candecomp/Parafac gives perfect fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Berge, J.M.F.; Stegeman, A.; Bennani-Dosse, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Candecomp/Parafac algorithm approximates a set of matrices X(1),...,X(I), by products of the form AC(i)B', with C(i) diagonal, i = 1,...,I. Carroll and Chang have conjectured that, when the matrices are symmetric, the resulting A and B will be column wise proportional. For cases of perfect fit,

  8. Bianchi IX dynamics in bouncing cosmologies: homoclinic chaos and the BKL conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Rodrigo; Damião Soares, Ivano; Valentino Tonini, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    We examine the dynamics of a Bianchi IX model with three scale factors on a 4-dim Lorentzian brane embedded in a 5-dim conformally flat empty bulk with a timelike extra dimension. The matter content is a pressureless perfect fluid restricted to the brane, with the embedding consistently satisfying the Gauss-Codazzi equations. The 4-dim Einstein equations on the brane reduce to a 6-dim Hamiltonian dynamical system with additional terms (due to the bulk-brane interaction) that avoid the singularity and implement nonsingular bounces in the model. We examine the complex Bianchi IX dynamics in its approach to the neighborhood of the bounce which replaces the cosmological singularity of general relativity. The phase space of the model presents (i) two critical points (a saddle-center-center and a center-center-center) in a finite region of phase space, (ii) two asymptotic de Sitter critical points at infinity, one acting as an attractor to late-time acceleration and (iii) a 2-dim invariant plane, which together organize the dynamics of the phase space. The saddle-center-center engenders in the phase space the topology of stable and unstable 4-dim cylinders R × S 3, where R is a saddle direction and S 3 is the center manifold of unstable periodic orbits, the latter being the nonlinear extension of the center-center sector. By a proper canonical transformation the degrees of freedom of the dynamics are separated into one degree connected with the expansion/contraction of the scales of the model, and two rotational degrees of freedom associated with the center manifold S 3. The typical dynamical flow is thus an oscillatory mode about the orbits of the invariant plane. The stable and unstable cylinders are spanned by oscillatory orbits about the separatrix towards the bounce, leading to the homoclinic transversal intersection of the cylinders, as shown numerically in two distinct simulations. The homoclinic intersection manifold has the topology of R × S 2 consisting of

  9. Two-dimensional imaging of edge plasma electron density and temperature by the passive helium emission ratio technique in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Cal, E; Guasp, J

    2011-01-01

    An intensified visible camera looks tangentially at a poloidal limiter where helium recycles, acting as a wide neutral source, and the atomic line emission due to plasma excitation becomes strongly localized there. It includes a bifurcated coherent bundle, each end with a different interference filter to select helium atomic lines, so that two simultaneous filtered images are captured in one single frame. The object of the proposed technique is to apply the well-known helium-beam line-ratio technique to obtain from selected filtered images the two-dimensional (2D) edge plasma n e and T e . The code EIRENE was used to demonstrate that the helium emission from recycling neutrals dominates the emission for the lines of view passing close above the limiter. Since these chords are nearly parallel to magnetic field lines in the emission region, the images can be approximated to poloidal cuts of the plasma emission within the tolerances discussed in the paper. The absolute radial profiles of T e and n e obtained with the method presented here were checked in the TJ-II stellarator to be in relatively good agreement with other diagnostics within a wide range of plasma parameters for both ECRH and NBI plasmas. The method is finally used to get 2D images of edge plasma T e and n e .

  10. Stability Improvement of High-Pressure-Ratio Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor by Asymmetrical Flow Control-Part II: Nonaxisymmetrical Self-Recirculation Casing Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinqian; Zhang, Yangjun; Yang, Mingyang; Bamba, Takahiro; Tamaki, Hideaki

    2013-03-01

    This is part II of a two-part paper involving the development of an asymmetrical flow control method to widen the operating range of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor with high-pressure ratio. A nonaxisymmetrical self-recirculation casing treatment (SRCT) as an instance of asymmetrical flow control method is presented. Experimental and numerical methods were used to investigate the impact of nonaxisymmetrical SRCT on the surge point of the centrifugal compressor. First, the influence of the geometry of a symmetric SRCT on the compressor performance was studied by means of numerical simulation. The key parameter of the SRCT was found to be the distance from the main blade leading edge to the rear groove (S r ). Next, several arrangements of a nonaxisymmetrical SRCT were designed, based on flow analysis presented in part I. Then, a series of experiments were carried out to analyze the influence of nonaxisymmetrical SRCT on the compressor performance. Results show that the nonaxisymmetrical SRCT has a certain influence on the performance and has a larger potential for stability improvement than the traditional symmetric SRCT. For the investigated SRCT, the surge flow rate of the compressor with the nonaxisymmetrical SRCTs is about 10% lower than that of the compressor with symmetric SRCT. The largest surge margin (smallest surge flow rate) can be obtained when the phase of the largest S r is coincident with the phase of the minimum static pressure in the vicinity of the leading edge of the splitter blades.

  11. Foundations for relativistic quantum theory. I. Feynman's operator calculus and the Dyson conjectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, Tepper L.; Zachary, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a representation theory for the Feynman operator calculus. This allows us to solve the general initial-value problem and construct the Dyson series. We show that the series is asymptotic, thus proving Dyson's second conjecture for quantum electrodynamics. In addition, we show that the expansion may be considered exact to any finite order by producing the remainder term. This implies that every nonperturbative solution has a perturbative expansion. Using a physical analysis of information from experiment versus that implied by our models, we reformulate our theory as a sum over paths. This allows us to relate our theory to Feynman's path integral, and to prove Dyson's first conjecture that the divergences are in part due to a violation of Heisenberg's uncertainly relations

  12. Conjecturing via analogical reasoning constructs ordinary students into like gifted student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supratman; Ratnaningsih, N.; Ryane, S.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the development of knowledge of ordinary students to be like gifted students in the classroom based on Piaget's theory. In exposing it, students are given an open problem of classical analogy. Researchers explore students who conjecture via analogical reasoning in problem solving. Of the 32 students, through the method of think out loud and the interview was completed: 25 students conjecture via analogical reasoning. Of the 25 students, all of them have almost the same character in problem solving/knowledge construction. For that, a student is taken to analyze the thinking process while solving the problem/construction of knowledge based on Piaget's theory. Based on Piaget's theory in the development of the same knowledge, gifted students and ordinary students have similar structures in final equilibrium. They begin processing: assimilation and accommodation of problem, strategies, and relationships.

  13. Maximal Repetitions in Written Texts: Finite Energy Hypothesis vs. Strong Hilberg Conjecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Dębowski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses two mutually-incompatible hypotheses about the stochastic mechanism of the generation of texts in natural language, which could be related to entropy. The first hypothesis, the finite energy hypothesis, assumes that texts are generated by a process with exponentially-decaying probabilities. This hypothesis implies a logarithmic upper bound for maximal repetition, as a function of the text length. The second hypothesis, the strong Hilberg conjecture, assumes that the topological entropy grows as a power law. This hypothesis leads to a hyperlogarithmic lower bound for maximal repetition. By a study of 35 written texts in German, English and French, it is found that the hyperlogarithmic growth of maximal repetition holds for natural language. In this way, the finite energy hypothesis is rejected, and the strong Hilberg conjecture is partly corroborated.

  14. Black objects and hoop conjecture in five-dimensional space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yuta; Shinkai, Hisa-aki, E-mail: m1m08a26@info.oit.ac.j, E-mail: shinkai@is.oit.ac.j [Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Osaka Institute of Technology, 1-79-1 Kitayama, Hirakata, Osaka 573-0196 (Japan)

    2010-02-21

    We numerically investigated the sequences of initial data of a thin spindle and a thin ring in five-dimensional space-time in the context of the cosmic censorship conjecture. We modeled the matter in non-rotating homogeneous spheroidal or toroidal configurations under the momentarily static assumption, solved the Hamiltonian constraint equation and searched the apparent horizons. We discussed when S{sup 3} (black-hole) or S{sup 1} x S{sup 2} (black-ring) horizons ('black objects') are formed. By monitoring the location of the maximum Kretchmann invariant, an appearance of 'naked singularity' or 'naked ring' under special situations is suggested. We also discuss the validity of the hyper-hoop conjecture using a minimum area around the object, and show that the appearance of the ring horizon does not match with this hoop.

  15. The approximate Loebl-Komlós--Sós conjecture and embedding trees in sparse graphs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladký, Jan; Piguet, Diana; Simonovits, M.; Stein, M.; Szemerédi, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, April (2015), s. 1-11 ISSN 1935-9179 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : extremal graph theory * Loebl-Komlós-Sós conjecture * regularity lemma Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2015 http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticlesnew.jsp?paperID=11110

  16. Static spacetimes with prescribed multipole moments: a proof of a conjecture by Geroch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herberthson, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we give sufficient conditions on a sequence of multipole moments for a static spacetime to exist with precisely these moments. The proof is constructive in the sense that a metric having prescribed multipole moments up to a given order can be calculated. Since these sufficient conditions agree with already known necessary conditions, this completes the proof of a long standing conjecture due to Geroch.

  17. Some Properties of the Distance Function and a Conjecture of De Giorgi

    OpenAIRE

    Eminenti, Manolo; Mantegazza, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    We analyse the geometric properties of the high derivatives of the distance function from a submanifold of the Euclidean space. In particular, we show some relations with the second fundamental form and its covariant derivatives of independent interest. As an application we prove a conjecture of Ennio De Giorgi on the evolution of submanifolds of the Euclidean space by the gradient of functionals depending on the derivatives of the distance function.

  18. Modeling shock waves in an ideal gas: combining the Burnett approximation and Holian's conjecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi-Guang; Tang, Xiu-Zhang; Pu, Yi-Kang

    2008-07-01

    We model a shock wave in an ideal gas by combining the Burnett approximation and Holian's conjecture. We use the temperature in the direction of shock propagation rather than the average temperature in the Burnett transport coefficients. The shock wave profiles and shock thickness are compared with other theories. The results are found to agree better with the nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) and direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) data than the Burnett equations and the modified Navier-Stokes theory.

  19. On a directed variation of the 1-2-3 and 1-2 Conjectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barme, Emma; Bensmail, Julien; Przybyło, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the following question, which stands as a directed analogue of the well-known 1-2-3 Conjecture: Given any digraph D with no arc uv verifying d+(u) = d¯(v) = 1, is it possible to weight the arcs of D with weights among ⟨1; 2; 3⟩ so that, for every arc uv of D, the sum of...

  20. A Skew Version of the Loebl–Komlós–Sós Conjecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimošová, T.; Piguet, Diana; Rozhoň, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, August (2017), s. 743-749 ISSN 1571-0653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ16-07822Y; GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : extremal graph theory * trees * Loebl-Komlós-Sós conjecture * regularity lemma Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics

  1. More about Birkhoff's invariant and Thorne's hoop conjecture for horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetic, M [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Gibbons, G W; Pope, C N [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 OWA (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-07

    A recent precise formulation of the hoop conjecture in four spacetime dimensions is that the Birkhoff invariant {beta} (the least maximal length of any sweepout or foliation by circles) of an apparent horizon of energy E and area A should satisfy {beta} {<=} 4{pi}E. This conjecture together with the cosmic censorship or isoperimetric inequality implies that the length l of the shortest non-trivial closed geodesic satisfies l{sup 2} {<=} {pi}A. We have tested these conjectures on the horizons of all four-charged rotating black hole solutions of ungauged supergravity theories and found that they always hold. They continue to hold in the presence of a negative cosmological constant, and for multi-charged rotating solutions in gauged supergravity. Surprisingly, they also hold for the Ernst-Wild static black holes immersed in a magnetic field, which are asymptotic to the Melvin solution. In five spacetime dimensions we define {beta} as the least maximal area of all sweepouts of the horizon by two-dimensional tori, and find in all cases examined that {beta} (g) {<=} {l_brace}16 {pi}/ 3{r_brace} E, which we conjecture holds quiet generally for apparent horizons. In even spacetime dimensions D = 2N + 2, we find that for sweepouts by the product S{sup 1} x S{sup D-4}, {beta} is bounded from above by a certain dimension-dependent multiple of the energy E. We also find that l{sup D-2} is bounded from above by a certain dimension-dependent multiple of the horizon area A. Finally, we show that l{sup D-3} is bounded from above by a certain dimension-dependent multiple of the energy, for all Kerr-AdS black holes.

  2. The approximate Loebl-Komlós--Sós conjecture and embedding trees in sparse graphs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladký, Jan; Piguet, Diana; Simonovits, M.; Stein, M.; Szemerédi, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, April (2015), s. 1-11 ISSN 1935-9179 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : extremal graph theory * Loebl-Komlós-Sós conjecture * regularity lemma Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2015 http://www.aimsciences.org/ journals /displayArticlesnew.jsp?paperID=11110

  3. Domination Game: Extremal Families for the 3/5-Conjecture for Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Michael A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the domination game on a graph G, the players Dominator and Staller alternately select vertices of G. Each vertex chosen must strictly increase the number of vertices dominated. This process eventually produces a dominating set of G; Dominator aims to minimize the size of this set, while Staller aims to maximize it. The size of the dominating set produced under optimal play is the game domination number of G, denoted by γg(G. Kinnersley, West and Zamani [SIAM J. Discrete Math. 27 (2013 2090-2107] posted their 3/5-Conjecture that γg(G ≤ ⅗n for every isolate-free forest on n vertices. Brešar, Klavžar, Košmrlj and Rall [Discrete Appl. Math. 161 (2013 1308-1316] presented a construction that yields an infinite family of trees that attain the conjectured 3/5-bound. In this paper, we provide a much larger, but simpler, construction of extremal trees. We conjecture that if G is an isolate-free forest on n vertices satisfying γg(G = ⅗n, then every component of G belongs to our construction.

  4. Spatial Variability in the Ratio of Interstellar Atomic Deuterium to Hydrogen. II. Observations toward γ2 Velorum and ζ Puppis by the Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, George; Tripp, Todd M.; Ferlet, Roger; Jenkins, Edward B.; Sofia, U. J.; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred; Woźniak, Prezemysław R.

    2000-12-01

    High-resolution far-ultraviolet spectra of the early-type stars γ2 Vel and ζ Pup were obtained to measure the interstellar deuterium abundances in these directions. The observations were made with the Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph (IMAPS) during the ORFEUS-SPAS II mission in 1996. IMAPS spectra cover the wavelength range 930-1150 Å with λ/Δλ~80,000. The interstellar D I features are resolved and cleanly separated from interstellar H I in the Lyδ and Lyɛ profiles of both sight lines and also in the Lyγ profile of ζ Pup. The D I profiles were modeled using a velocity template derived from several N I lines in the IMAPS spectra recorded at higher signal-to-noise ratio. To find the best D I column density, we minimized χ2 for model D I profiles that included not only the N(D I) as a free parameter, but also the effects of several potential sources of systematic error, which were allowed to vary as free parameters. H I column densities were measured by analyzing Lyα absorption profiles in a large number of IUE high-dispersion spectra for each of these stars and applying this same χ2-minimization technique. Ultimately we found that D/H=2.18+0.36-0.31×10-5 for γ2 Vel and 1.42+0.25-0.23×10-5 for ζ Pup, values that contrast markedly with D/H derived in Paper I for δ Ori A (the stated errors are 90% confidence limits). Evidently, the atomic D/H ratio in the ISM, averaged over path lengths of 250-500 pc, exhibits significant spatial variability. Furthermore, the observed spatial variations in D/H do not appear to be anticorrelated with N/H, one measure of heavy-element abundances. We briefly discuss some hypotheses to explain the D/H spatial variability. Within the framework of standard big bang nucleosynthesis, the large value of D/H found toward γ2 Vel is equivalent to a cosmic baryon density of ΩBh2=0.023+/-0.002, which we regard as an upper limit since there is no correction for the destruction of deuterium in stars. This paper is

  5. Photopolymerization of highly filled dimethacrylate-based composites using Type I or Type II photoinitiators and varying co-monomer ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Luc D; Steinhaus, Johannes; Möginger, Bernhard; Gallez, Bernard; Stansbury, Jeffrey; Palin, William M; Leloup, Gaëtane; Leprince, Julian G

    2016-02-01

    The use of a Type I photoinitiator (monoacylphosphine oxide, MAPO) was described as advantageous in a model formulation, as compared to the conventional Type II photoinitiator (Camphorquinone, CQ). The aim of the present work was to study the kinetics of polymerization of various composite mixtures (20-40-60-80 mol%) of bisphenol A glycidyl dimethacrylate/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (BisGMA/TegDMA) containing either CQ or MAPO, based on real-time measurements and on the characterization of various post-cure characteristics. Polymerization kinetics were monitored by Fourier-transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) and dielectric analysis (DEA). A range of postcure properties was also investigated. FT-NIRS and DEA proved complementary to follow the fast kinetics observed with both systems. Autodecceleration occurred after ≈1 s irradiation for MAPO-composites and ≈5-10 s for CQ-composites. Conversion decreased with increasing initial viscosity for both photoinitiating systems. However despite shorter light exposure (3s for MAPO vs 20s for CQ-composites), MAPO-composites yielded higher conversions for all co-monomer mixtures, except at 20 mol% BisGMA, the less viscous material. MAPO systems were associated with increased amounts of trapped free radicals, improved flexural strength and modulus, and reduced free monomer release for all co-monomer ratios, except at 20 mol% BisGMA. This work confirms the major influence of the initiation system both on the conversion and network cross-linking of highly-filled composites, and further highlights the advantages of using MAPO photoinitiating systems in highly-filled dimethacrylate-based composites provided that sufficient BisGMA content (>40 mol%) and adapted light spectrum are used. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A proof of a conjecture by Schweizer on the Drinfeld modular polynomial ΦT (X, Y )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we prove a conjecture by Schweizer on the reduction of the Drinfeld modular polynomial ΦT (X, Y ) modulo T − 1. The proof mainly involves manipulations of binomial coefficients in characteristic p....

  7. The approximate Loebl-Komlós-Sós Conjecture I: The sparse decomposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladký, Jan; Komlós, J.; Piguet, Diana; Simonovits, M.; Stein, M.; Szemerédi, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2017), s. 945-982 ISSN 0895-4801 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Institutional support: RVO:67985840 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : extremal graph theory * Loebl–Komlós–Sós conjecture * regularity lemma Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UIVT-O) OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics; Pure mathematics (UIVT-O) Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/140982842

  8. A Conjecture on Institutional Rationalities and Property Rights in Public Procurement of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågren, Robert; Rolfstam, Max

    2013-01-01

    The increased interest in using public procurement as a policy tool for innovation has renewed a need for understanding the procurement process. A conjecture on institutional rationalities and property rights is offered to explain the hurdles present for conducting successful procurement projects....... If an efficient negotiation solution is to be achieved participants in procurement projects need to be aware of the other participants’ institutional rationalities and actively consider these while concluding the terms of procurement projects. Consequently, future policy efforts towards increased innovation have...... to be targeting the process of public procurement of innovation, rather than focusing on regulatory issues....

  9. Proof of Murphy-Cohen Conjecture on One-Dimensional Hard Ball Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lizhou CHEN

    2007-01-01

    We prove the Murphy and Cohen's conjecture that the maximum number of collisions of n+1 elastic particles moving freely on a line is n(n+1)/2 if no interior particle has mass less than the arithmetic mean of the masses of its immediate neighbors.In fact,we prove the stronger result that,for the same conclusion,the condition that no interior particle has mass less than the geometric mean,rather than the arithmetic mean,of the masses of its immediate neighbors suffices.

  10. Adjamagbo Determinant and Serre conjecture for linear groups over Weyl algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Adjamagbo, Kossivi

    2008-01-01

    Thanks to the theory of determinants over an Ore domain, also called Adjamagbo determinant by the Russian school of non commutative algebra, we extend to any Weyl algebra over a field of characteristic zero Suslin theorem solving what Suslin himself called the $K_1$-analogue of the well-known Serre Conjecture and asserting that for any integer $n$ greater than 2, any $n$ by $n$ matrix with coefficients in any algebra of polynomials over a field and with determinant one is the product of eleme...

  11. The approximate Loebl-Komlós-Sós Conjecture I: The sparse decomposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladký, Jan; Komlós, J.; Piguet, Diana; Simonovits, M.; Stein, M.; Szemerédi, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2017), s. 945-982 ISSN 0895-4801 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Institutional support: RVO:67985840 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : extremal graph theory * Loebl–Komlós–Sós conjecture * regularity lemma Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics ; BA - General Mathematics (UIVT-O) OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics ; Pure mathematics (UIVT-O) Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/140982842

  12. The Approximate Loebl-Komlos-Sos Conjecture III: The Finer Structure of LKS Graphs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladký, J.; Komlós, J.; Piguet, Diana; Simonovits, M.; Stein, M.; Szemerédi, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2017), s. 1017-1071 ISSN 0895-4801 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545; GA ČR GJ16-07822Y Grant - others:EPRSC(GB) EP/D063191/1; EPRSC(GB) EP/J501414/1; FP7(XE) PIEF-GA-2009-253925; GA MŠK(CZ) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0090 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : extremal graph theory * Loebl–Komlós–Sós conjecture * regularity lemma Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2016

  13. End Point of Black Ring Instabilities and the Weak Cosmic Censorship Conjecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras, Pau; Kunesch, Markus; Tunyasuvunakool, Saran

    2016-02-19

    We produce the first concrete evidence that violation of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture can occur in asymptotically flat spaces of five dimensions by numerically evolving perturbed black rings. For certain thin rings, we identify a new, elastic-type instability dominating the evolution, causing the system to settle to a spherical black hole. However, for sufficiently thin rings the Gregory-Laflamme mode is dominant, and the instability unfolds similarly to that of black strings, where the horizon develops a structure of bulges connected by necks which become ever thinner over time.

  14. A study about critical flow characteristics and the pipeline network modeling of a pressure regulator (II) : the influence of a opening ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Chang Hoon; Ha, Jong Man; Lee, Cheol Gu; Her, Jae Young; Im, Ji Hyun; Joo, Won Gu

    2005-01-01

    The suitable pressure regulator modeling at each opening ratio and pressure ratio is very important to obtain reliable results, especially in small scale pipeline network analysis such as a pressure regulator system. And it is needed to confirm both whether temperature recovery is achieved after passing by the pressure regulator's narrow neck and how much amount of low temperature area that can cause condensate accumulation is distributed by various PCV models and driving conditions. In this research, the numerical model resembling P company pressure regulator that is used widely for high pressure range in commercial, is adopted as the base model of CFD analysis to investigate pressure regulator's flow characteristics at each pressure ratio and opening ratio. And it is also introduced to examine pressure regulator's critical flow characteristics and possibility of condensation or freezing at each pressure ratio and opening ratio. Additionally, the comparison between the results of CFD analysis and the results of analytic solution obtained by compressible fluid-dynamics theory is attempted to validate the results of CFD modeling in this study and to estimate the accuracy of theoretical approach at each pressure ratio and opening ratio too

  15. SHARP - II. Mass structure in strong lenses is not necessarily dark matter substructure: a flux ratio anomaly from an edge-on disc in B1555+375

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsueh, J. -W; Fassnacht, C. D.; Vegetti, S.; McKean, J. P.; Spingola, C.; Auger, M. W.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Lagattuta, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational lens flux-ratio anomalies provide a powerful technique for measuring dark matter substructure in distant galaxies. However, before using these flux-ratio anomalies to test galaxy formation models, it is imperative to ascertain that the given anomalies are indeed due to the presence of

  16. Strategic Generation with Conjectured Transmission Price Responses in a Mixed Transmission Pricing System. Part 1. Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, B.F.; Rijkers, F.A.M.

    2004-05-01

    The conjectured supply function (CSF) model calculates an oligopolistic equilibrium among competing generating companies (GenCos), presuming that GenCos anticipate that rival firms will react to price increases by expanding their sales at an assumed rate. The CSF model is generalized here to include each generator's conjectures concerning how the price of transmission services (point-to-point service and constrained interfaces) will be affected by the amount of those services that the generator demands. This generalization reflects the market reality that large producers will anticipate that they can favorably affect transmission prices by their actions. The model simulates oligopolistic competition among generators while simultaneously representing a mixed transmission pricing system. This mixed system includes fixed transmission tariffs, congestion-based pricing of physical transmission constraints (represented as a linearized dc load flow), and auctions of interface capacity in a path-based pricing system. Pricing inefficiencies, such as export fees and no credit for counterflows, can be simulated. The model is formulated as a linear mixed complementarity problem, which enables very large market models to be solved. In the second paper of this two-paper series, the capabilities of the model are illustrated with an application to northwest Europe, where transmission pricing is based on such a mixture of approaches

  17. Strategic Generation with Conjectured Transmission Price Responses in a Mixed Transmission Pricing System. Part 2. Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wals, A.F.; Hobbs, B.F.; Rijkers, F.A.M.

    2004-05-01

    The conjectured transmission price response model presented in the first of this two-paper series considers the expectations of oligopolistic generators regarding how demands for transmission services affect the prices of those services. Here, the model is applied to northwest Europe, simulating a mixed transmission pricing system including export fees, a path-based auction system for between-country interfaces, and implicit congestion-based pricing of internal country constraints. The path-based system does not give credit for counterflows when calculating export capability. The application shows that this no-netting policy can exacerbate the economic inefficiencies caused by oligopolistic pricing by generators. The application also illustrates the effects of different generator conjectures regarding rival supply responses and transmission prices. If generators anticipate that their increased demand for transmission services will increase transmission prices, then competitive intensity diminishes and energy prices rise. In the example here, the effect of this anticipation is to double the price increase that results from oligopolistic (Cournot) competition among generators

  18. The positive action conjecture and asymptotically euclidean metrics in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.W.; Pope, C.N.

    1979-01-01

    The positive action conjecture requires that the action of any asymptotically Euclidean 4-dimensional Riemannian metric be positive, vanishing if and only if the space is flat. Because any Ricci flat, asymptotically Euclidean metric has zero action and is local extremum of the action which is a local minimum at flat space, the conjecture requires that there are no Ricci flat asymptotically Euclidean metrics other than flat space, which would establish that flat space is the only local minimum. We prove this for metrics on R 4 and a large class of more complicated topologies and for self-dual metrics. We show that if Rsupμsubμ >= 0 there are no bound states of the Dirac equation and discuss the relevance to possible baryon non-conserving processes mediated by gravitational instantons. We conclude that these are forbidden in the lowest stationary phase approximation. We give a detailed discussion of instantons invariant under an SU(2) or SO(3) isometry group. We find all regular solutions, none of which is asymptotically Euclidean and all of which possess a further Killing vector. In an appendix we construct an approximate self-dual metric on K3 - the only simply connected compact manifold which admits a self-dual metric. (orig.) [de

  19. A complete formulation of Baum-Connes' conjecture for the action of discrete quantum groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, D.; Kuku, A.O.

    2003-01-01

    We formulate a version of Baum-Connes' conjecture for a discrete quantum group, building on our earlier work. Given such a quantum group A, we construct a directed family {ε F } of C*-algebras (F varying over some suitable index set), borrowing previous ideas, such that there is a natural action of A on each ε F satisfying the assumptions of [8], which makes it possible to define the 'analytical assembly map', say μ i r,F , i=0,1, from the A- equivariant K-homology groups of ε F to the K-theory groups of the 'reduced' dual A-circumflex r . As a result, we can define the Baum-Connes' maps μ i r : lim→ KK i A (ε F ,C) → K i (A-circumflex r ), and in the classical case, i.e. when A is C 0 (G) for a discrete group, the isomorphism of the above maps for i=0,1 is equivalent to the Baum-Connes' conjecture. (author)

  20. Nanodeserts: A Conjecture in Nanotechnology to Enhance Quasi-Photosynthetic CO2 Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances “nanodeserts” as a conjecture on the possibility of developing the hierarchical structured polymeric nanomaterials for enhancing abiotic CO2 fixation in the soil-groundwater system beneath deserts (termed as quasi-photosynthetic CO2 absorption. Arid and semiarid deserts ecosystems approximately characterize one-third of the Earth’s land surface but play an unsung role in the carbon cycling, considering the huge potentials of such CO2 absorption to expand insights to the long-sought missing CO2 sink and the naturally unneglectable turbulence in temperature sensitivities of soil respiration it produced. “Nanodeserts” as a reconciled concept not only indicate a conjecture in nanotechnology to enhance quasi-photosynthetic CO2 absorption, but also aim to present to the desert researchers a better understanding of the footprints of abiotic CO2 transport, conversion, and assignment in the soil-groundwater system beneath deserts. Meanwhile, nanodeserts allow a stable temperature sensitivity of soil respiration in deserts by largely reducing the CO2 release above the deserts surface and highlighting the abiotic CO2 fixation beneath deserts. This may be no longer a novelty in the future.

  1. Broken bridges: a counter-example of the ER=EPR conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pisin; Wu, Chih-Hung; Yeom, Dong-han

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a counter-example to the ER=EPR conjecture. In an anti-de Sitter space, we construct a pair of maximally entangled but separated black holes. Due to the vacuum decay of the anti-de Sitter background toward a deeper vacuum, these two parts can be trapped by bubbles. If these bubbles are reasonably large, then within the scrambling time, there should appear an Einstein-Rosen bridge between the two black holes. Now by tracing more details on the bubble dynamics, one can identify parameters such that one of the two bubbles either monotonically shrinks or expands. Because of the change of vacuum energy, one side of the black hole would evaporate completely. Due to the shrinking of the apparent horizon, a signal of one side of the Einstein-Rosen bridge can be viewed from the opposite side. We analytically and numerically demonstrate that within a reasonable semi-classical parameter regime, such process can happen. Bubbles are a non-perturbative effect, which is the crucial reason that allows the transmission of information between the two black holes through the Einstein-Rosen bridge, even though the probability is highly suppressed. Therefore, the ER=EPR conjecture cannot be generic in its present form and its validity maybe restricted.

  2. Broken bridges: a counter-example of the ER=EPR conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Pisin; Wu, Chih-Hung; Yeom, Dong-han, E-mail: pisinchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: b02202007@ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: innocent.yeom@gmail.com [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we provide a counter-example to the ER=EPR conjecture. In an anti-de Sitter space, we construct a pair of maximally entangled but separated black holes. Due to the vacuum decay of the anti-de Sitter background toward a deeper vacuum, these two parts can be trapped by bubbles. If these bubbles are reasonably large, then within the scrambling time, there should appear an Einstein-Rosen bridge between the two black holes. Now by tracing more details on the bubble dynamics, one can identify parameters such that one of the two bubbles either monotonically shrinks or expands. Because of the change of vacuum energy, one side of the black hole would evaporate completely. Due to the shrinking of the apparent horizon, a signal of one side of the Einstein-Rosen bridge can be viewed from the opposite side. We analytically and numerically demonstrate that within a reasonable semi-classical parameter regime, such process can happen. Bubbles are a non-perturbative effect, which is the crucial reason that allows the transmission of information between the two black holes through the Einstein-Rosen bridge, even though the probability is highly suppressed. Therefore, the ER=EPR conjecture cannot be generic in its present form and its validity maybe restricted.

  3. A new algorithm to compute conjectured supply function equilibrium in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Cristian A.; Villar, Jose; Campos, Fco Alberto; Rodriguez, M. Angel

    2011-01-01

    Several types of market equilibria approaches, such as Cournot, Conjectural Variation (CVE), Supply Function (SFE) or Conjectured Supply Function (CSFE) have been used to model electricity markets for the medium and long term. Among them, CSFE has been proposed as a generalization of the classic Cournot. It computes the equilibrium considering the reaction of the competitors against changes in their strategy, combining several characteristics of both CVE and SFE. Unlike linear SFE approaches, strategies are linearized only at the equilibrium point, using their first-order Taylor approximation. But to solve CSFE, the slope or the intercept of the linear approximations must be given, which has been proved to be very restrictive. This paper proposes a new algorithm to compute CSFE. Unlike previous approaches, the main contribution is that the competitors' strategies for each generator are initially unknown (both slope and intercept) and endogenously computed by this new iterative algorithm. To show the applicability of the proposed approach, it has been applied to several case examples where its qualitative behavior has been analyzed in detail. (author)

  4. The differentiation of the character of solid lesions in the breast in the compression sonoelastography. Part II: Diagnostic value of BIRADS-US classification, Tsukuba score and FLR ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Sonoelastography is a dynamically developing method of ultrasound examination used to differentiate the character of focal lesions in the breasts. The aim of the Part II of the study is to determine the usefulness of sonoelastography in the differentiation diagnosis of focal breast lesions including the evaluation of the diagnostic value of Tsukuba score and FLR ratio in characterizing solid lesions in the breasts. Furthermore, the paper provides a comparison of classic B-mode imaging and son...

  5. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  6. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...

  7. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  8. THE DEMOGRAPHICS OF BROAD-LINE QUASARS IN THE MASS-LUMINOSITY PLANE. II. BLACK HOLE MASS AND EDDINGTON RATIO FUNCTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Brandon C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93107 (United States); Shen, Yue [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    We employ a flexible Bayesian technique to estimate the black hole (BH) mass and Eddington ratio functions for Type 1 (i.e., broad line) quasars from a uniformly selected data set of {approx}58, 000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7. We find that the SDSS becomes significantly incomplete at M {sub BH} {approx}< 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun} or L/L {sub Edd} {approx}< 0.07, and that the number densities of Type 1 quasars continue to increase down to these limits. Both the mass and Eddington ratio functions show evidence of downsizing, with the most massive and highest Eddington ratio BHs experiencing Type 1 quasar phases first, although the Eddington ratio number densities are flat at z < 2. We estimate the maximum Eddington ratio of Type 1 quasars in the observable universe to be L/L {sub Edd} {approx} 3. Consistent with our results in Shen and Kelly, we do not find statistical evidence for a so-called sub-Eddington boundary in the mass-luminosity plane of broad-line quasars, and demonstrate that such an apparent boundary in the observed distribution can be caused by selection effect and errors in virial BH mass estimates. Based on the typical Eddington ratio in a given mass bin, we estimate growth times for the BHs in Type 1 quasars and find that they are comparable to or longer than the age of the universe, implying an earlier phase of accelerated (i.e., with higher Eddington ratios) and possibly obscured growth. The large masses probed by our sample imply that most of our BHs reside in what are locally early-type galaxies, and we interpret our results within the context of models of self-regulated BH growth.

  9. Influence of Ca/Mg ratio on phytoextraction properties of Salix viminalis. II. Secretion of low molecular weight organic acids to the rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdziak, Z; Kozlowska, M; Kaczmarek, Z; Mleczek, M; Chadzinikolau, T; Drzewiecka, K; Golinski, P

    2011-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment in a phytotron was performed to investigate the effect of two different Ca/Mg ratios (4:1 and 1:10) and trace element ions (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in solution on the efficiency of low molecular weight organic acid (LMWOA) formation in Salix viminalis rhizosphere. Depending on the Ca/Mg ratio and presence of selected trace elements at 0.5mM concentration, the amount and kind of LMWOAs in the rhizosphere were significantly affected. In physiological 4:1 Ca/Mg ratio the following complex of acids was observed: malonic (Pb, Zn), citric, lactic, maleic and succinic (Zn) acids. Under 1:10 Ca/Mg ratio, citric (Cd, Zn), maleic and succinic (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) acids were seen. Additionally, high accumulation of zinc and copper in all systems was observed, with the exception of those where one of the metals was at higher concentration. Summing up, the results indicate a significant role of LMWOAs in Salix phytoremediation abilities. Both effects can be modulated depending on the mutual Ca/Mg ratio. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutraceuticals and Their Potential to Treat Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Separating the Credible from the Conjecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keryn G. Woodman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, complementary and alternative medicine has become increasingly popular. This trend has not escaped the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy community with one study showing that 80% of caregivers have provided their Duchenne patients with complementary and alternative medicine in conjunction with their traditional treatments. These statistics are concerning given that many supplements are taken based on purely “anecdotal” evidence. Many nutraceuticals are thought to have anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidant effects. Given that dystrophic pathology is exacerbated by inflammation and oxidative stress these nutraceuticals could have some therapeutic benefit for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD. This review gathers and evaluates the peer-reviewed scientific studies that have used nutraceuticals in clinical or pre-clinical trials for DMD and thus separates the credible from the conjecture.

  11. Nutraceuticals and Their Potential to Treat Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Separating the Credible from the Conjecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Keryn G; Coles, Chantal A; Lamandé, Shireen R; White, Jason D

    2016-11-09

    In recent years, complementary and alternative medicine has become increasingly popular. This trend has not escaped the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy community with one study showing that 80% of caregivers have provided their Duchenne patients with complementary and alternative medicine in conjunction with their traditional treatments. These statistics are concerning given that many supplements are taken based on purely "anecdotal" evidence. Many nutraceuticals are thought to have anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidant effects. Given that dystrophic pathology is exacerbated by inflammation and oxidative stress these nutraceuticals could have some therapeutic benefit for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). This review gathers and evaluates the peer-reviewed scientific studies that have used nutraceuticals in clinical or pre-clinical trials for DMD and thus separates the credible from the conjecture.

  12. Spin(7) instantons and the Hodge conjecture for certain abelian four-folds: A modest proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadas, T.R.

    2008-04-01

    The Hodge Conjecture is equivalent to a statement about conditions under which a complex vector bundle on a smooth complex projective variety (stably) admits a holomorphic structure. In the case of abelian four-folds, recent work in gauge theory suggests an approach using Spin(7) instantons. I advertise a class of examples due to Mumford where this approach could be tested. I construct explicit smooth vector bundles whose Chern characters are given Hodge classes - an instanton connection on these bundles would endow them with a holomorphic structure and thus prove that these classes are algebraic. I use complex multiplication to exhibit Cayley cycles representing the given Hodge classes. What is missing is an appropriate glueing theorem. (author)

  13. Experimental validation of Villain's conjecture about magnetic ordering in quasi-1D helimagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinti, F., E-mail: fabio.cinti@fi.infn.i [CNISM and Department of Physics, University of Florence, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); CNR-INFM S3 National Research Center, I-41100 Modena (Italy); Rettori, A. [CNISM and Department of Physics, University of Florence, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); CNR-INFM S3 National Research Center, I-41100 Modena (Italy); Pini, M.G. [ISC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Mariani, M.; Micotti, E. [Department of Physics A. Volta and CNR-INFM, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Lascialfari, A. [Department of Physics A. Volta and CNR-INFM, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Institute of General Physiology and Biological Chemistry, University of Milano, Via Trentacoste 2, I-20134 Milano (Italy); CNR-INFM S3 National Research Center, I-41100 Modena (Italy); Papinutto, N. [CIMeC, University of Trento, Via delle Regole, 101 38060 Mattarello (Italy); Department of Physics A. Volta and CNR-INFM, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Amato, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villingen PSI (Switzerland); Caneschi, A.; Gatteschi, D. [INSTM R.U. Firenze and Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Affronte, M. [CNR-INFM S3 National Research Center, I-41100 Modena (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia Via Campi 213/A, I-41100 Modena (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    Low-temperature magnetic susceptibility, zero-field muon spin resonance and specific heat measurements have been performed in the quasi-one-dimensional (1D) molecular helimagnetic compound Gd(hfac){sub 3}NITEt. The specific heat presents two anomalies at T{sub 0}=2.19(2)K and T{sub N}=1.88(2)K, while susceptibility and zero-field muon spin resonance show anomalies only at T{sub N}=1.88(2)K. The results suggest an experimental validation of Villain's conjecture of a two-step magnetic ordering in quasi-1D XY helimagnets: the paramagnetic phase and the helical spin solid phases are separated by a chiral spin liquid, where translational invariance is broken without violation of rotational invariance.

  14. Experimental validation of Villain's conjecture about magnetic ordering in quasi-1D helimagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinti, F.; Rettori, A.; Pini, M.G.; Mariani, M.; Micotti, E.; Lascialfari, A.; Papinutto, N.; Amato, A.; Caneschi, A.; Gatteschi, D.; Affronte, M.

    2010-01-01

    Low-temperature magnetic susceptibility, zero-field muon spin resonance and specific heat measurements have been performed in the quasi-one-dimensional (1D) molecular helimagnetic compound Gd(hfac) 3 NITEt. The specific heat presents two anomalies at T 0 =2.19(2)K and T N =1.88(2)K, while susceptibility and zero-field muon spin resonance show anomalies only at T N =1.88(2)K. The results suggest an experimental validation of Villain's conjecture of a two-step magnetic ordering in quasi-1D XY helimagnets: the paramagnetic phase and the helical spin solid phases are separated by a chiral spin liquid, where translational invariance is broken without violation of rotational invariance.

  15. A Conjecture on the Origine of Language, with many helps from Friedrich Nietzsche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heesook Kim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is agreed upon that among all the living things that have existed, only humans can speak. However, we do not know yet since when we have spoken. We find that Nietzsche left distinctive ideas on the origin of language. Reflecting on “eternal recurrence” and “overmen”, the concepts that Nietzsche made popular, we found out that he would agree on dating the origin of language from some 70,000 years ago when the human population shrank drastically to as low as 2,000 in the wake of the super-volcanic eruption at Lake Toba. At that time, the eternal recurrence that had shackled our ancestors for a long time suddenly disappeared and the small band of surviving members could not help becoming overmen or supermen of entire human species. We ascertained the conjecture with the latest development in evolution theory, archaeology and anatomical analysis on human fossils.

  16. Dynamics of second order rational difference equations with open problems and conjectures

    CERN Document Server

    Kulenovic, Mustafa RS

    2001-01-01

    This self-contained monograph provides systematic, instructive analysis of second-order rational difference equations. After classifying the various types of these equations and introducing some preliminary results, the authors systematically investigate each equation for semicycles, invariant intervals, boundedness, periodicity, and global stability. Of paramount importance in their own right, the results presented also offer prototypes towards the development of the basic theory of the global behavior of solutions of nonlinear difference equations of order greater than one. The techniques and results in this monograph are also extremely useful in analyzing the equations in the mathematical models of various biological systems and other applications. Each chapter contains a section of open problems and conjectures that will stimulate further research interest in working towards a complete understanding of the dynamics of the equation and its functional generalizations-many of them ideal for research project...

  17. Analysis of dynamic Cournot learning models for generation companies based on conjectural variations and forward expectation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Alcaraz, G.; Tovar-Hernandez, Jose H.; Moreno-Goytia, Edgar L.

    2009-01-01

    Electricity spot markets generally operate on an hourly basis; under this condition GENCOs can closely observe their competitors' market behavior. For this purposes, a detailed dynamic model is one of the tools used by GENCOs to understand the behavioral variations of competitors over time. The required abilities to rapidly adjust one's own decision-making create a need for new learning procedures and models. Conjectural variations (CV) have been proposed as a learning approach. In this paper a model based on forward expectations (FE) is proposed as a learning approach, and through illustrative examples it is shown that the market equilibria found by the CV model are also obtained by the FE model. (author)

  18. The hoop conjecture and cosmic censorship in the brane-world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Ken-ichi; Nakamura, Kouji; Mishima, Takashi

    2003-07-03

    The initial data of gravity for a cylindrical matter distribution confined on the brane is studied in the framework of the single brane Randall-Sundrum scenario. We numerically found that the sufficiently thin configuration of matter leads to the formation of the marginal surface on the brane in the Randall-Sundrum model, even if the configuration is infinitely long. This means that the hoop conjecture proposed by Thorne does not hold in the Randall-Sundrum scenario; Even if a mass M does not get compacted into a region whose circumference (C) in every direction is C{approx}<4{pi}GM, black holes with horizons can form on the brane-world of the Randall-Sundrum scenario.

  19. Conjecture on the critical frontier of the fully anisotropic homogeneous quenched bond-mixed potts ferromagnet in square lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.

    1980-01-01

    It is conjectured that a logarithmic provides a very accurate approximation of the yet unknown critical frontier of a fully anisotropic homogeneous quenched bond-mixed q-state Potts ferromagnet in square lattice, where the random coupling constant J is distributed according to the laws P(J) and P'(J) for 'horizontal' and 'vertical' bonds respectively. Such an equation contains as particular cases a great number of exact results as well as a few recent conjectures (which are definitively only approximate). (Author) [pt

  20. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  1. The Role of Oxytocin in Parenting and as Augmentative Pharmacotherapy: Critical Issues and Bold Conjectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van IJzendoorn, M H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M J

    2016-08-01

    Despite the sometimes heated debate about the validity of human oxytocin studies, experimental oxytocin research with intranasal administration is a growing field with promising preliminary findings. The effects of intranasally administered oxytocin compared to placebo on brain neural activity have been supported in animal studies and in human studies of neural resting state. In several studies, oxytocin sniffs have been shown to lead to down-regulation of amygdala activation in response to infant attachment vocalisations. Meta-analytic evidence shows that oxytocin enhances the salience of (emotional) stimuli, lowers stress and arousal, and elevates empathic concern and tender care, in particular for offspring and in-group members. Less firm evidence points at the amnestic effects of oxytocin. We also note that the average effect sizes of oxytocin experiments are small to modest, and that most studies include a small number of subjects and thus are seriously underpowered, which implies a high risk for publication bias and nonreplicability. Nevertheless, we argue that the power of within-subjects experiments with oxytocin has been underestimated. Much more work is needed, however, to create a firm knowledge base of the neural and behavioural effects of oxytocin. Human oxytocin research is still taking place in the context of discovery, in which bold conjectures are being generated. In the context of justification, these conjectures should subsequently be subjected to stringent attempts at refutations before we jump to theoretical or clinical conclusions. For this context of justification, we propose a multisite multiple replications project on the social stimuli salience enhancing effect of oxytocin. Clinical application of oxytocin is premature. Meta-analytically, the use of oxytocin in clinical groups tends to show only effectiveness in changing symptomatology in individuals with autism spectrum disorders but, even then, it is not yet a validated therapy and its

  2. A MULTIPLE TESTING OF THE ABC METHOD AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SECOND-GENERATION MODEL. PART II, TEST RESULTS AND AN ANALYSIS OF RECALL RATIO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALTMANN, BERTHOLD

    AFTER A BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE TEST PROGRAM (DESCRIBED MORE FULLY IN LI 000 318), THE STATISTICAL RESULTS TABULATED AS OVERALL "ABC (APPROACH BY CONCEPT)-RELEVANCE RATIOS" AND "ABC-RECALL FIGURES" ARE PRESENTED AND REVIEWED. AN ABSTRACT MODEL DEVELOPED IN ACCORDANCE WITH MAX WEBER'S "IDEALTYPUS" ("DIE OBJEKTIVITAET…

  3. Determination of the O/M ratios of polynary uranium oxides by Ce(IV)-Fe(II) back titration after dissolution in mixed sulphuric and phosphoric acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, T.; Sato, N.; Yamada, K.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium (IV) in polynary uranium oxides is determined after the solid has been dissolved in a warm mixed solution of sulphuric and phosphoric acids containing excess Ce(IV). The latter is titrated with a Fe(II) standard solution using ferroin as indicator. This method is especially effective for (mixed) uranium oxides which are difficult to dissolve in hot Ce(IV) sulphuric acid. The standard deviation of the determined x value in polynary oxides is estimated to be below ± 0.004 for samples of 10-30 mg. (orig.)

  4. Determination of the O/M ratios of polynary uranium oxides by Ce(IV)-Fe(II) back titration after dissolution in mixed sulphuric and phosphoric acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, T; Sato, N; Yamada, K

    1996-01-01

    Uranium (IV) in polynary uranium oxides is determined after the solid has been dissolved in a warm mixed solution of sulphuric and phosphoric acids containing excess Ce(IV). The latter is titrated with a Fe(II) standard solution using ferroin as indicator. This method is especially effective for (mixed) uranium oxides which are difficult to dissolve in hot Ce(IV) sulphuric acid. The standard deviation of the determined x value in polynary oxides is estimated to be below +/- 0.004 for samples of 10-30 mg.

  5. Testing holographic conjectures of complexity with Born-Infeld black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Jun; Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang [Sichuan University, Center for Theoretical Physics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Chengdu (China)

    2017-12-15

    In this paper, we use Born-Infeld black holes to test two recent holographic conjectures of complexity, the ''Complexity = Action'' (CA) duality and ''Complexity = Volume 2.0'' (CV) duality. The complexity of a boundary state is identified with the action of the Wheeler-deWitt patch in CA duality, while this complexity is identified with the spacetime volume of the WdW patch in CV duality. In particular, we check whether the Born-Infeld black holes violate the generalized Lloyd bound: C ≤ (2)/(πℎ) [(M - QΦ) - (M - QΦ){sub gs}], where gs stands for the ground state for a given electrostatic potential. We find that the ground states are either some extremal black hole or regular spacetime with nonvanishing charges. For Born-Infeld black holes, we compute the action growth rate at the late-time limit and obtain the complexities in CA and CV dualities. Near extremality, the generalized Lloyd bound is violated in both dualities. Near the charged regular spacetime, this bound is satisfied in CV duality but violated in CA duality. When moving away from the ground state on a constant potential curve, the generalized Lloyd bound tends to be saturated from below in CA duality. (orig.)

  6. Le Châtelier's conjecture: Measurement of colloidal eigenstresses in chemically reactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhaikal, Muhannad; Ioannidou, Katerina; Petersen, Thomas; Pellenq, Roland J.-M.; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2018-03-01

    Volume changes in chemically reactive materials, such as hydrating cement, play a critical role in many engineering applications that require precise estimates of stress and pressure developments. But a means to determine bulk volume changes in the absence of other deformation mechanisms related to thermal, pressure and load variations, is still missing. Herein, we present such a measuring devise, and a hybrid experimental-theoretical technique that permits the determination of colloidal eigenstresses. Applied to cementitious materials, it is found that bulk volume changes in saturated cement pastes at constant pressure and temperature conditions result from a competition of repulsive and attractive phenomena that originate from the relative distance of the solid particles - much as Henry Louis Le Châtelier, the father of modern cement science, had conjectured in the late 19th century. Precipitation of hydration products in confined spaces entails a repulsion, whereas the concurrent reduction in interparticle distance entails activation of attractive forces in charged colloidal particles. This cross-over from repulsion to attraction can be viewed as a phase transition between a liquid state (below the solid percolation) and the limit packing of hard spheres, separated by an energy barrier that defines the temperature-dependent eigenstress magnitude.

  7. Winding out of the Swamp: Evading the weak gravity conjecture with F-term winding inflation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Hebecker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new model of large field inflation along a winding trajectory in the field space of two axionic fields, where the “axions” originate from the complex structure moduli sector of a Calabi–Yau 3-fold at large complex structure. The winding trajectory arises from fixing one combination of axions by bulk fluxes and allows for a transplanckian effective field range. The inflaton potential arises from small “instantonic” corrections to the geometry and realises natural inflation. By working in a regime of large complex structure for two complex structure moduli the inflaton potential can be made subdominant without severe tuning. We also discuss the impact of the recent ‘no-go theorems’ for transplanckian axion periodicities on our work. Interestingly, our setup seems to realise a loophole pointed out in arXiv:1503.00795 and arXiv:1503.04783: our construction is a candidate for a string theory model of large field inflation which is consistent with the mild form of the weak gravity conjecture for axions.

  8. Bipartite discrimination of independently prepared quantum states as a counterexample to a parallel repetition conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akibue, Seiseki; Kato, Go

    2018-04-01

    For distinguishing quantum states sampled from a fixed ensemble, the gap in bipartite and single-party distinguishability can be interpreted as a nonlocality of the ensemble. In this paper, we consider bipartite state discrimination in a composite system consisting of N subsystems, where each subsystem is shared between two parties and the state of each subsystem is randomly sampled from a particular ensemble comprising the Bell states. We show that the success probability of perfectly identifying the state converges to 1 as N →∞ if the entropy of the probability distribution associated with the ensemble is less than 1, even if the success probability is less than 1 for any finite N . In other words, the nonlocality of the N -fold ensemble asymptotically disappears if the probability distribution associated with each ensemble is concentrated. Furthermore, we show that the disappearance of the nonlocality can be regarded as a remarkable counterexample of a fundamental open question in theoretical computer science, called a parallel repetition conjecture of interactive games with two classically communicating players. Measurements for the discrimination task include a projective measurement of one party represented by stabilizer states, which enable the other party to perfectly distinguish states that are sampled with high probability.

  9. Some considerations about the quest for quantum gravity and a conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsas, George

    2009-01-01

    Full text. There are two main possible routes for the quest for quantum gravity; the top-down and the bottom-up ones. The first option is built on the hope that human endeavor and some luck will be enough to bring us over our goal, while the later one relies on our well tested physical theories to unveil reliable low-energy quantum gravity effects, which would eventually bridge us to the full theory. In this talk I shall argue in favor of the latter one and illustrate how this strategy can bring us new insights about some full quantum gravity problems. In particular, we will revisit in this context the problem of the existence of naked singularities and endorse the view that 'the cosmic censor' would be oblivious to processes involving quantum effects. Finally, inspired by our results, we raise a thought provoking conjecture connecting naked singularities to elementary particles, namely, that 'naked singularities and elementary particles would be low-energy manifestations of a same quantum gravity structure a nd argue that, if this is the case, the Higgs (scalar) boson expected to be found in the LHC would be a composite rather than an elementary particle. (author)

  10. Quantum steering of multimode Gaussian states by Gaussian measurements: monogamy relations and the Peres conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Se-Wan; Nha, Hyunchul; Kim, M S

    2015-01-01

    It is a topic of fundamental and practical importance how a quantum correlated state can be reliably distributed through a noisy channel for quantum information processing. The concept of quantum steering recently defined in a rigorous manner is relevant to study it under certain circumstances and here we address quantum steerability of Gaussian states to this aim. In particular, we attempt to reformulate the criterion for Gaussian steering in terms of local and global purities and show that it is sufficient and necessary for the case of steering a 1-mode system by an N-mode system. It subsequently enables us to reinforce a strong monogamy relation under which only one party can steer a local system of 1-mode. Moreover, we show that only a negative partial-transpose state can manifest quantum steerability by Gaussian measurements in relation to the Peres conjecture. We also discuss our formulation for the case of distributing a two-mode squeezed state via one-way quantum channels making dissipation and amplification effects, respectively. Finally, we extend our approach to include non-Gaussian measurements, more precisely, all orders of higher-order squeezing measurements, and find that this broad set of non-Gaussian measurements is not useful to demonstrate steering for Gaussian states beyond Gaussian measurements. (paper)

  11. Competition and equilibria in electricity markets based on two-settlement system: A conjectural variation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, David

    This dissertation studies electricity markets based on two-settlement systems and applies the concept of conjectural variation (CV) as a tool for representing different levels of competitiveness in the market. Some recent theoretical works are addressed to support the use of CV as a solution concept. A notion of consistency is introduced to make the level of competitiveness of the market endogenous, and allows finding consistent CV equilibria and the corresponding conditions for existence of equilibria. First, a case is studied in which firms hold exogenous levels of forward commitments. Then, backward induction and sub-game perfection are used to solve sequentially for the spot and forward market equilibrium. This allows analyzing how firms take positions in the forward market, based on considering their later impact on the spot market. It is concluded that positions taken in the forward market depend largely on firms expectations about the competitiveness of both the spot and the forward market. Forward markets are welfare enhancing even if they are not as competitive as the associated spot market as long as they are not too oligopolistie. The above formulation is used to model a dynamic scenario to analyze market stability, linking this research to Dr. Alvarado's earlier research on market stability. This brings about interesting trade offs between market power and market stability.

  12. Inherited Sterility Induced in Progeny of Gamma Irradiated Males Spiny Bollworm, Earias insulana Boisd. II. Effect on Larval and Pupal Mortality, Development and Sex Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, A.R.H.; Sallam, H.A.; Mohamed, H.F.

    2010-01-01

    Spiny bollworm, Earias insulana Boisd. adult males were irradiated with sub sterilizing doses of 50,80,100 and 150 Gray (Gy) of gamma radiation. The number of surviving larvae was dose dependant and larval/pupal mortality increased as the dose applied to P1 males was increased. The larval mortality among F3 was reduced compared with that of the F1 and F2. The average developmental time from egg hatch to adult emergence at the four tested doses was slightly affected among the progeny descendant of irradiated P1 males through the three successive generations. The percentage of adult emergence was evidently reduced among F1 and F2 progeny resulting from parental males exposed to the three higher irradiation doses (80,100 and 150 Gy).The sex ratio was slightly altered in favor of males among the majority of all treatments. Raman studies of irradiated and unirradiated stones at different temperatures and irradiation times showed a relation between the bands of scattered peaks corresponding to (OH) stretching modes of vibration with the color changes

  13. DUST AND GAS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS FROM THE HERITAGE HERSCHEL KEY PROJECT. II. GAS-TO-DUST RATIO VARIATIONS ACROSS INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM PHASES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman-Duval, Julia; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret; Bot, Caroline; Bolatto, Alberto; Jameson, Katherine; Hughes, Annie; Hony, Sacha; Wong, Tony; Babler, Brian; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Fukui, Yasuo; Galametz, Maud; Galliano, Frederic; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Lee, Min-Young; Glover, Simon; Israel, Frank; Li, Aigen

    2014-01-01

    The spatial variations of the gas-to-dust ratio (GDR) provide constraints on the chemical evolution and lifecycle of dust in galaxies. We examine the relation between dust and gas at 10-50 pc resolution in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) based on Herschel far-infrared (FIR), H I 21 cm, CO, and Hα observations. In the diffuse atomic interstellar medium (ISM), we derive the GDR as the slope of the dust-gas relation and find GDRs of 380 −130 +250 ± 3 in the LMC, and 1200 −420 +1600 ± 120 in the SMC, not including helium. The atomic-to-molecular transition is located at dust surface densities of 0.05 M ☉  pc –2 in the LMC and 0.03 M ☉  pc –2 in the SMC, corresponding to A V ∼ 0.4 and 0.2, respectively. We investigate the range of CO-to-H 2 conversion factor to best account for all the molecular gas in the beam of the observations, and find upper limits on X CO to be 6 × 10 20  cm –2  K –1  km –1 s in the LMC (Z = 0.5 Z ☉ ) at 15 pc resolution, and 4 × 10 21  cm –2  K –1  km –1 s in the SMC (Z = 0.2 Z ☉ ) at 45 pc resolution. In the LMC, the slope of the dust-gas relation in the dense ISM is lower than in the diffuse ISM by a factor ∼2, even after accounting for the effects of CO-dark H 2 in the translucent envelopes of molecular clouds. Coagulation of dust grains and the subsequent dust emissivity increase in molecular clouds, and/or accretion of gas-phase metals onto dust grains, and the subsequent dust abundance (dust-to-gas ratio) increase in molecular clouds could explain the observations. In the SMC, variations in the dust-gas slope caused by coagulation or accretion are degenerate with the effects of CO-dark H 2 . Within the expected 5-20 times Galactic X CO range, the dust-gas slope can be either constant or decrease by a factor of several across ISM phases. Further modeling and observations are required to break the degeneracy between dust grain coagulation, accretion, and CO-dark H 2

  14. DUST AND GAS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS FROM THE HERITAGE HERSCHEL KEY PROJECT. II. GAS-TO-DUST RATIO VARIATIONS ACROSS INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM PHASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman-Duval, Julia; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bot, Caroline [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Bolatto, Alberto; Jameson, Katherine [Department of Astronomy, Lab for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Hughes, Annie; Hony, Sacha [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Wong, Tony [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bernard, Jean-Philippe [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Clayton, Geoffrey C. [Louisiana State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 233-A Nicholson Hall, Tower Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Galametz, Maud [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Galliano, Frederic; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Lee, Min-Young [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Glover, Simon [Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Israel, Frank [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Li, Aigen, E-mail: duval@stsci.edu [314 Physics Building, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); and others

    2014-12-20

    The spatial variations of the gas-to-dust ratio (GDR) provide constraints on the chemical evolution and lifecycle of dust in galaxies. We examine the relation between dust and gas at 10-50 pc resolution in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) based on Herschel far-infrared (FIR), H I 21 cm, CO, and Hα observations. In the diffuse atomic interstellar medium (ISM), we derive the GDR as the slope of the dust-gas relation and find GDRs of 380{sub −130}{sup +250} ± 3 in the LMC, and 1200{sub −420}{sup +1600} ± 120 in the SMC, not including helium. The atomic-to-molecular transition is located at dust surface densities of 0.05 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2} in the LMC and 0.03 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2} in the SMC, corresponding to A {sub V} ∼ 0.4 and 0.2, respectively. We investigate the range of CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor to best account for all the molecular gas in the beam of the observations, and find upper limits on X {sub CO} to be 6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2} K{sup –1} km{sup –1} s in the LMC (Z = 0.5 Z {sub ☉}) at 15 pc resolution, and 4 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2} K{sup –1} km{sup –1} s in the SMC (Z = 0.2 Z {sub ☉}) at 45 pc resolution. In the LMC, the slope of the dust-gas relation in the dense ISM is lower than in the diffuse ISM by a factor ∼2, even after accounting for the effects of CO-dark H{sub 2} in the translucent envelopes of molecular clouds. Coagulation of dust grains and the subsequent dust emissivity increase in molecular clouds, and/or accretion of gas-phase metals onto dust grains, and the subsequent dust abundance (dust-to-gas ratio) increase in molecular clouds could explain the observations. In the SMC, variations in the dust-gas slope caused by coagulation or accretion are degenerate with the effects of CO-dark H{sub 2}. Within the expected 5-20 times Galactic X {sub CO} range, the dust-gas slope can be either constant or decrease by a factor of several across ISM phases. Further modeling

  15. Effect of Fe(II)/Ce(III) dosage ratio on the structure and anion adsorptive removal of hydrothermally precipitated composites: Insights from EXAFS/XANES, XRD and FTIR

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia

    2016-10-24

    In this work, we present material chemistry in the hydrothermal synthesis of new complex structure materials based on various dosage ratios of Fe and Ce (1:0, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 0:1), characterize them by the relevant methods that allow characterization of both crystalline and amorphous phases and correlate their structure/surface properties with the adsorptive performance of the five toxic anions. The applied synthesis conditions resulted in the formation of different compounds of Fe and Ce components. The Fe-component was dominated by various phases of Fe hydrous oxides, whereas the Ce-component was composed of various phases of Ce carbonates. The presence of two metal salts in raw materials resulted in the formation of a mesoporous structure and averaged the surface area compared to one metal-based material. The surface of all Fe-Ce composites was abundant in Fe component phases. Two-metal systems showed stronger anion removal performance than one-metal materials. The best adsorption was demonstrated by Fe-Ce based materials that had low crystallinity, that were rich in phases and that exhibited surfaces were abundant in greater number of surface functional groups. Notably, Fe extended fine structures simulated by EXAFS in these better adsorbents were rich from oscillations from both heavy and light atoms. This work provides new insights on the structure of composite inorganic materials useful to develop their applications in adsorption and catalysis. It also presents new inorganic anion exchangers with very high removal potential to fluoride and arsenate.

  16. Effect of Fe(II)/Ce(III) dosage ratio on the structure and anion adsorptive removal of hydrothermally precipitated composites: Insights from EXAFS/XANES, XRD and FTIR

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia; Gerda, Vasyl; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Yablokova, Ganna

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present material chemistry in the hydrothermal synthesis of new complex structure materials based on various dosage ratios of Fe and Ce (1:0, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 0:1), characterize them by the relevant methods that allow characterization of both crystalline and amorphous phases and correlate their structure/surface properties with the adsorptive performance of the five toxic anions. The applied synthesis conditions resulted in the formation of different compounds of Fe and Ce components. The Fe-component was dominated by various phases of Fe hydrous oxides, whereas the Ce-component was composed of various phases of Ce carbonates. The presence of two metal salts in raw materials resulted in the formation of a mesoporous structure and averaged the surface area compared to one metal-based material. The surface of all Fe-Ce composites was abundant in Fe component phases. Two-metal systems showed stronger anion removal performance than one-metal materials. The best adsorption was demonstrated by Fe-Ce based materials that had low crystallinity, that were rich in phases and that exhibited surfaces were abundant in greater number of surface functional groups. Notably, Fe extended fine structures simulated by EXAFS in these better adsorbents were rich from oscillations from both heavy and light atoms. This work provides new insights on the structure of composite inorganic materials useful to develop their applications in adsorption and catalysis. It also presents new inorganic anion exchangers with very high removal potential to fluoride and arsenate.

  17. Validity of Serum Pepsinogen I/II Ratio for the Diagnosis of Gastric Epithelial Dysplasia and Intestinal Metaplasia during the Follow-Up of Patients at Risk for Intestinal-Type Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Dinis-Ribeiro

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A cohort of individuals (n = 136 with lesions as severe as atrophic chronic gastritis (ACG was cross-sectionally evaluated for the validity assessment of pepsinogen I (PGI and pepsinogen II (PGII serum levels for the diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (IM and gastric dysplasia. PGI/PGII ratio [median (range] was 4 (0.57.5 in patients with ACG (n = 35; 4.6 (1.9-6.8 in type I IM (n = 18; 4.2 (1.4-5.9 in type II or type III IM limited to the antrum and incisura (n = 20; 2.4 (0.4-5.6 in extensive incomplete IM (n = 38; and 1.3 (0.4-6.4 in low-grade dysplasia (n = 23 (P = .002. Using histopathologic data as a reference test, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (CI 95% was 0.73 (0.64-0.82 for extensive IM, 0.72 (0.58-0.85 for the diagnosis of dysplasia, and 0.81 (0.66-0.95 for the diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia. Using a PGI/PGII ratio of ≤3 as the cutoff for dysplasia diagnosis, the sensitivity was 70% (62-78%, the specificity was 65% (57-73%, and the negative predictive value estimates were over 90%. No differences in PG levels according to age or gender were observed. Helicobacter pylori did not significantly influence validity measurement estimates. PGI/PGII serum level ratio can be used even in the management of patients with a high a priori probability for a positive test. It may be useful for the exclusion of more advanced lesions (extensive IM and neoplastic lesions.

  18. An axion-induced SM/MSSM Higgs landscape and the Weak Gravity Conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herráez, Alvaro; Ibáñez, Luis E. [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC,Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-02-22

    We construct models in which the SM Higgs mass scans in a landscape. This is achieved by coupling the SM to a monodromy axion field through Minkowski 3-forms. The Higgs mass scans with steps given by δm{sub H}{sup 2}≃ημf, where μ and f are the axion mass and periodicity respectively, and η measures the coupling of the Higgs to the associated 3-form. The observed Higgs mass scale could then be selected on anthropic grounds. The monodromy axion may have a mass μ in a very wide range depending on the value of η, and the axion periodity f. For η≃1 and f≃10{sup 10} GeV , one has 10{sup −3} eV≲μ≲10{sup 3} eV, but ultralight axions with e.g. μ≃10{sup −17} eV are also possible. In a different realization we consider landscape models coupled to the MSSM. In the context of SUSY, 4-forms appear as being part of the auxiliary fields of SUSY multiplets. The scanning in the 4-forms thus translate into a landscape of vevs for the N=1 auxiliary fields and hence as a landscape for the soft terms. This could provide a rationale for the MSSM fine-tuning suggested by LHC data. In all these models there are 3-forms coupling to membranes which induce transitions between different vacua through bubble nucleation. The Weak Gravity Conjecture (WGC) set limits on the tension of these membranes and implies new physics thresholds well below the Planck scale. More generaly, we argue that in the case of string SUSY vacua in which the Goldstino multiplet contains a monodromy axion the WGC suggests a lower bound on the SUSY breaking scale m{sub 3/2}≳M{sub s}{sup 2}/M{sub p}.

  19. Combination of Mean Platelet Volume/Platelet Count Ratio and the APACHE II Score Better Predicts the Short-Term Outcome in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhui; Li, Yingchuan; Sheng, Xiaohua; Wang, Feng; Cheng, Dongsheng; Jian, Guihua; Li, Yongguang; Feng, Liang; Wang, Niansong

    2018-03-29

    Both the Acute physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score and mean platelet volume/platelet count Ratio (MPR) can independently predict adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. This study was aimed to investigate whether the combination of them could have a better performance in predicting prognosis of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) who received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Two hundred twenty-three patients with AKI who underwent CRRT between January 2009 and December 2014 in a Chinese university hospital were enrolled. They were divided into survivals group and non-survivals group based on the situation at discharge. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used for MPR and APACHE II score, and to determine the optimal cut-off value of MPR for in-hospital mortality. Factors associated with mortality were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The mean age of the patients was 61.4 years, and the overall in-hospital mortality was 48.4%. Acute cardiorenal syndrome (ACRS) was the most common cause of AKI. The optimal cut-off value of MPR for mortality was 0.099 with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.636. The AUC increased to 0.851 with the addition of the APACHE II score. The mortality of patients with of MPR > 0.099 was 56.4%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group with of ≤ 0.099 (39.6%, P= 0.012). Logistic regression analysis showed that average number of organ failure (OR = 2.372), APACHE II score (OR = 1.187), age (OR = 1.028) and vasopressors administration (OR = 38.130) were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Severity of illness was significantly associated with prognosis of patients with AKI. The combination of MPR and APACHE II score may be helpful in predicting the short-term outcome of AKI. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Combination of Mean Platelet Volume/Platelet Count Ratio and the APACHE II Score Better Predicts the Short-Term Outcome in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Both the Acute physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score and mean platelet volume/platelet count Ratio (MPR can independently predict adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. This study was aimed to investigate whether the combination of them could have a better performance in predicting prognosis of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI who received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT. Methods: Two hundred twenty-three patients with AKI who underwent CRRT between January 2009 and December 2014 in a Chinese university hospital were enrolled. They were divided into survivals group and non-survivals group based on the situation at discharge. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve was used for MPR and APACHE II score, and to determine the optimal cut-off value of MPR for in-hospital mortality. Factors associated with mortality were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean age of the patients was 61.4 years, and the overall in-hospital mortality was 48.4%. Acute cardiorenal syndrome (ACRS was the most common cause of AKI. The optimal cut-off value of MPR for mortality was 0.099 with an area under the ROC curve (AUC of 0.636. The AUC increased to 0.851 with the addition of the APACHE II score. The mortality of patients with of MPR > 0.099 was 56.4%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group with of ≤ 0.099 (39.6%, P= 0.012. Logistic regression analysis showed that average number of organ failure (OR = 2.372, APACHE II score (OR = 1.187, age (OR = 1.028 and vasopressors administration (OR = 38.130 were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Conclusion: Severity of illness was significantly associated with prognosis of patients with AKI. The combination of MPR and APACHE II score may be helpful in predicting the short-term outcome of AKI.

  1. Vertical and horizontal processes in the global atmosphere and the maximum entropy production conjecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to reconsider the Maximum Entropy Production conjecture (MEP in the context of a very simple two-dimensional zonal-vertical climate model able to represent the total material entropy production due at the same time to both horizontal and vertical heat fluxes. MEP is applied first to a simple four-box model of climate which accounts for both horizontal and vertical material heat fluxes. It is shown that, under condition of fixed insolation, a MEP solution is found with reasonably realistic temperature and heat fluxes, thus generalising results from independent two-box horizontal or vertical models. It is also shown that the meridional and the vertical entropy production terms are independently involved in the maximisation and thus MEP can be applied to each subsystem with fixed boundary conditions. We then extend the four-box model by increasing its resolution, and compare it with GCM output. A MEP solution is found which is fairly realistic as far as the horizontal large scale organisation of the climate is concerned whereas the vertical structure looks to be unrealistic and presents seriously unstable features. This study suggest that the thermal meridional structure of the atmosphere is predicted fairly well by MEP once the insolation is given but the vertical structure of the atmosphere cannot be predicted satisfactorily by MEP unless constraints are imposed to represent the determination of longwave absorption by water vapour and clouds as a function of the state of the climate. Furthermore an order-of-magnitude estimate of contributions to the material entropy production due to horizontal and vertical processes within the climate system is provided by using two different methods. In both cases we found that approximately 40 mW m−2 K−1 of material entropy production is due to vertical heat transport and 5–7 mW m−2 K−1 to horizontal heat transport.

  2. The approximate Loebl-Komlós-Sós Conjecture IV: Embedding techniques and the proof of the main result

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladký, Jan; Komlós, J.; Piguet, Diana; Simonovits, M.; Stein, M.; Szemerédi, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2017), s. 1072-1148 ISSN 0895-4801 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Institutional support: RVO:67985840 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : extremal graph theory * Loebl–Komlós–Sós conjecture * regularity lemma Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UIVT-O) OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics; Pure mathematics (UIVT-O) Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/140982878

  3. The approximate Loebl-Komlós-Sós Conjecture IV: Embedding techniques and the proof of the main result

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladký, Jan; Komlós, J.; Piguet, Diana; Simonovits, M.; Stein, M.; Szemerédi, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2017), s. 1072-1148 ISSN 0895-4801 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Institutional support: RVO:67985840 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : extremal graph theory * Loebl–Komlós–Sós conjecture * regularity lemma Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics ; BA - General Mathematics (UIVT-O) OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics ; Pure mathematics (UIVT-O) Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/140982878

  4. Towards a comprehensive theory for He II: II. A temperature-dependent field-theoretic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Ghassib, H.B.

    1982-09-01

    New experimental aspects of He II are used as a guide towards a comprehensive theory in which non-zero temperature U(1) and SU(2) gauge fields are incorporated into a gauge hierarchy of effective Lagrangians. We conjecture that an SU(n) gauge-theoretic description of the superfluidity of 4 He may be obtained in the limit n→infinity. We indicate, however, how experiments may be understood in the zeroth, first and second order of the hierarchy. (author)

  5. High content of MYHC II in vastus lateralis is accompanied by higher VO2/power output ratio during moderate intensity cycling performed both at low and at high pedalling rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, J; Szkutnik, Z; Karasinski, J; Duda, K; Kolodziejski, L; Zoladz, J A

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the content of various types of myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC) in the vastus lateralis muscle and pulmonary oxygen uptake during moderate power output incremental exercise, performed at low and at high pedalling rates. Twenty one male subjects (mean +/- SD) aged 24.1 +/- 2.8 years; body mass 72.9 +/- 7.2 kg; height 179.1 +/- 4.8 cm; BMI 22.69 +/- 1.89 kg.m(-2); VO2max 50.6 +/- 5.3 ml.kg.min(-1), participated in this study. On separate days, they performed two incremental exercise tests at 60 rev.min(-1) and at 120 rev.min(-1), until exhaustion. Gas exchange variables were measured continuously breath by breath. Blood samples were taken for measurements of plasma lactate concentration prior to the exercise test and at the end of each step of the incremental exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle, using Bergström needle, and they were analysed for the content of MyHC I and MyHC II using SDS--PAGE and two groups (n=7, each) were selected: group H with the highest content of MyHC II (60.7 % +/- 10.5 %) and group L with the lowest content of MyHC II (27.6 % +/- 6.1 %). We have found that during incremental exercise at the power output between 30-120 W, performed at 60 rev.min(-1), oxygen uptake in the group H was significantly greater than in the group L (ANCOVA, p=0.003, upward shift of the intercept in VO2/power output relationship). During cycling at the same power output but at 120 rev.min(-1), the oxygen uptake was also higher in the group H, when compared to the group L (i.e. upward shift of the intercept in VO2/power output relationship, ANCOVA, p=0.002). Moreover, the increase in pedalling rate from 60 to 120 rev.min(-1) was accompanied by a significantly higher increase of oxygen cost of cycling and by a significantly higher plasma lactate concentration in subjects from group H. We concluded that the muscle mechanical efficiency, expressed by the VO2/PO ratio

  6. Alternative Paths to Hearing (A Conjecture. Photonic and Tactile Hearing Systems Displaying the Frequency Spectrum of Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. H. Hara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the hearing process is considered from a system engineering perspective. For those with total hearing loss, a cochlear implant is the only direct remedy. It first acts as a spectrum analyser and then electronically stimulates the neurons in the cochlea with a number of electrodes. Each electrode carries information on the separate frequency bands (i.e., spectrum of the original sound signal. The neurons then relay the signals in a parallel manner to the section of the brain where sound signals are processed. Photonic and tactile hearing systems displaying the spectrum of sound are proposed as alternative paths to the section of the brain that processes sound. In view of the plasticity of the brain, which can rewire itself, the following conjectures are offered. After a certain period of training, a person without the ability to hear should be able to decipher the patterns of photonic or tactile displays of the sound spectrum and learn to ‘hear’. This is very similar to the case of a blind person learning to ‘read’ by recognizing the patterns created by the series of bumps as their fingers scan the Braille writing. The conjectures are yet to be tested. Designs of photonic and tactile systems displaying the sound spectrum are outlined.

  7. On the balanced case of the Brualdi-Shen conjecture on 4-cycle decompositions of Eulerian bipartite tournaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Del Valle Vega

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brualdi-Shen Conjecture on Eulerian Bipartite Tournaments states that any such graph can be decomposed into oriented 4-cycles. In this article we prove the balanced case of the mentioned conjecture. We show that for any $2n\\times 2n$ bipartite graph $G=(U\\cup V, E$ in which each vertex has $n$-neighbors with biadjacency matrix $M$ (or its transpose there is a proper edge coloring of a column permutation of $M$ denoted $M^{\\sigma}$ in which the nonzero entries of each of the $first$ $n$ columns are colored with elements from the set $\\{n+1, n+2, \\ldots, 2n\\}$ and the nonzero entries of each of the $last$  $n$ columns are colored with elements from the set $\\{1, 2, \\ldots, n\\}$ and if the nonzero entry $M^{\\sigma}_{r,j}$ is colored with color $i$ then $M^{\\sigma}_{r,i}$ must be a zero entry. Such a coloring will induce an oriented 4-cycle decomposition of the bipartite tournament corresponding to $M$. We achieve this by constructing an euler tour on the bipartite tournament which avoids traversing both pair of edges of any two internally disjoint $s$-$t$ 2-paths consecutively, where $s$ and $t$ belong to $V$.

  8. Black hole fusion in the extreme mass ratio limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emparan, Roberto; Martínez, Marina; Zilhão, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    We present a simple, general, and accurate construction of the event horizons for the fusion of two neutral, rotating black holes with arbitrary orientation and values of their spins, in the extreme mass ratio limit where one black hole is much larger than the other. We compute several parameters that characterize the fusion and investigate their dependence on the black hole spin and orientation axis. We also exhibit and study the appearance of transient toroidal topology of the horizon. An earlier conjecture about universal critical exponents before and after an axisymmetric pinch is proven.

  9. The differentiation of the character of solid lesions in the breast in the compression sonoelastography. Part II: Diagnostic value of BIRADS-US classification, Tsukuba score and FLR ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Dobruch-Sobczak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sonoelastography is a dynamically developing method of ultrasound examination used to differentiate the character of focal lesions in the breasts. The aim of the Part II of the study is to determine the usefulness of sonoelastography in the differentiation diagnosis of focal breast lesions including the evaluation of the diagnostic value of Tsukuba score and FLR ratio in characterizing solid lesions in the breasts. Furthermore, the paper provides a comparison of classic B-mode imaging and sonoelastography. Material and methods: From January to July 2010 in the Ultrasound Department of the Cancer Centre, The Institute of Maria Skłodowska-Curie, 375 breast ultrasound examinations were conducted. The examined group included patients who in B-mode examinations presented indications for pathological verification. They were 80 women aged between 17 and 83 (mean age was 50 with 99 solid focal lesions in the breasts. All patients underwent: the interview, physical examination, B-mode ultrasound examination and elastography of the mammary glands and axillary fossae. The visualized lesions were evaluated according to BIRADS-US classification and Tsukuba score as well as FLR ratio was calculated. In all cases, the histopathological and/or cytological verification of the tested lesions was obtained. Results: In the group of 80 patients, the examination revealed 39 malignant neoplastic lesions and 60 benign ones. The mean age of women with malignant neoplasms was 55.07 (SD=10.54, and with benign lesions – 46.9 (SD=15.47. In order to identify threshold values that distinguish benign lesions from malignant ones, a comparative analysis of statistical models based on BIRADS-US classification and Tsukuba score was conducted and the cut-off value for FLR was assumed. The sensitivity and specificity values for BIRADS-US 4/5 were 76.92% and 96.67% and for Tsukuba 3/4 – 64.1% and 98.33% respectively. The assumed FLR threshold value to differentiate between

  10. The differentiation of the character of solid lesions in the breast in the compression sonoelastography. Part II: Diagnostic value of BIRADS-US classification, Tsukuba score and FLR ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna

    2013-03-01

    Sonoelastography is a dynamically developing method of ultrasound examination used to differentiate the character of focal lesions in the breasts. The aim of the Part II of the study is to determine the usefulness of sonoelastography in the differentiation diagnosis of focal breast lesions including the evaluation of the diagnostic value of Tsukuba score and FLR ratio in characterizing solid lesions in the breasts. Furthermore, the paper provides a comparison of classic B-mode imaging and sonoelastography. From January to July 2010 in the Ultrasound Department of the Cancer Centre, The Institute of Maria Skłodowska-Curie, 375 breast ultrasound examinations were conducted. The examined group included patients who in B-mode examinations presented indications for pathological verification. They were 80 women aged between 17 and 83 (mean age was 50) with 99 solid focal lesions in the breasts. All patients underwent: the interview, physical examination, B-mode ultrasound examination and elastography of the mammary glands and axillary fossae. The visualized lesions were evaluated according to BIRADS-US classification and Tsukuba score as well as FLR ratio was calculated. In all cases, the histopathological and/or cytological verification of the tested lesions was obtained. In the group of 80 patients, the examination revealed 39 malignant neoplastic lesions and 60 benign ones. The mean age of women with malignant neoplasms was 55.07 (SD = 10.54), and with benign lesions - 46.9 (SD = 15.47). In order to identify threshold values that distinguish benign lesions from malignant ones, a comparative analysis of statistical models based on BIRADS-US classification and Tsukuba score was conducted and the cut-off value for FLR was assumed. The sensitivity and specificity values for BIRADS-US 4/5 were 76.92% and 96.67% and for Tsukuba 3/4 - 64.1% and 98.33% respectively. The assumed FLR threshold value to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions in the breasts equaled 3

  11. Model theory and algebraic geometry an introduction to E. Hrushovski’s proof of the geometric Mordell-Lang conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    This introduction to the recent exciting developments in the applications of model theory to algebraic geometry, illustrated by E. Hrushovski's model-theoretic proof of the geometric Mordell-Lang Conjecture starts from very basic background and works up to the detailed exposition of Hrushovski's proof, explaining the necessary tools and results from stability theory on the way. The first chapter is an informal introduction to model theory itself, making the book accessible (with a little effort) to readers with no previous knowledge of model theory. The authors have collaborated closely to achieve a coherent and self- contained presentation, whereby the completeness of exposition of the chapters varies according to the existence of other good references, but comments and examples are always provided to give the reader some intuitive understanding of the subject.

  12. Resolving contradictions in boundedly rational search: How strategists weigh contradictory beliefs to evaluate conjectures about the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrig, Timo; Schmidt, Jens

    2018-01-01

    When strategists form conjectures about the future (such as whether a technol- ogy will solve a particular problem or what will be future sources of competitive advantage) they typically face multiple plausible but mutually contradictory possi- bilities, as the future may unfold in a myriad...... as ”un- willingness to give up”. Our results provide for a mechanism that allows managers to economize on their cognitive resources when resolving contradictions, and they also show that how managers resolve contradictions provides direction for their fur- ther search process. We develop propositions...... that are empirically testable and thus allow identifying boundary conditions of our results, and we discuss how our results may be useful to managers and teachers....

  13. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  14. Super-light baryo-photons, weak gravity conjecture and exotic instantons in neutron-antineutron transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addazi, Andrea

    2018-05-01

    In companion papers (A. Addazi, Nuovo Cim. C, 38(1): 21 (2015); A. Addazi, Z. Berezhiani, and Y. Kamyshkov, arXiv:1607.00348), we have discussed current bounds on a new super-light baryo-photon, associated with a U(1) B-L gauge, from current neutron-antineutron data, which are competitive with Eötvös-type experiments. Here, we discuss the implications of possible baryo-photon detection in string theory and quantum gravity. The discovery of a very light gauge boson should imply violation of the weak gravity conjecture, carrying deep consequences for our understanding of holography, quantum gravity and black holes. We also show how the detection of a baryo-photon would exclude the generation of all B–L violating operators from exotic stringy instantons. We will argue against the common statement in the literature that neutron-antineutron data may indirectly test at least the 300–1000 TeV scale. Searches for baryo-photons can provide indirect information on the Planck (or string) scale (quantum black holes, holography and non-perturbative stringy effects). This strongly motivates new neutron-antineutron experiments with adjustable magnetic fields dedicated to the detection of super-light baryo-photons.

  15. Igusa's $p$-Adic local zeta function and the monodromy conjecture for non-degenerate surface singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Bories, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 Lemahieu and Van Proeyen proved the Monodromy Conjecture for the local topological zeta function of a non-degenerate surface singularity. The authors start from their work and obtain the same result for Igusa's p-adic and the motivic zeta function. In the p-adic case, this is, for a polynomial f\\in\\mathbf{Z}[x,y,z] satisfying f(0,0,0)=0 and non-degenerate with respect to its Newton polyhedron, we show that every pole of the local p-adic zeta function of f induces an eigenvalue of the local monodromy of f at some point of f^{-1}(0)\\subset\\mathbf{C}^3 close to the origin. Essentially the entire paper is dedicated to proving that, for f as above, certain candidate poles of Igusa's p-adic zeta function of f, arising from so-called B_1-facets of the Newton polyhedron of f, are actually not poles. This turns out to be much harder than in the topological setting. The combinatorial proof is preceded by a study of the integral points in three-dimensional fundamental parallelepipeds. Together with the work of L...

  16. Measurement of the Branching fraction ratio BR(B+ → (bar D)0 K+ → [K+π-]K+)/BR(B+ → (bar D)0 π+ → [K+π-]π+) with the CDF II detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squillacioti, Paola

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the author has described the first measurement performed at a hadron collider of the branching fraction of the Cabibbo-suppressed mode B + → (bar D) 0 K + . The analysis has been performed with 360 pb -1 of data collected by the CDF II detector

  17. Measurements of the Poisson ratio and fragility of glass-forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tage Emil; Olsen, Niels Boye

    Recently much attention has been given to models and phenomenology of glass-forming liquids that correlates fast and slow degrees of freedom . In particular the Poisson ratio has been correlated with fragility. We present data on shear - and bulk modulus obtained by the techniques...... of the piezoelectric transducers PBG and PSG on a number of glass-forming liquids. Hereby the Poisson ratio can be found. Furthermore the PSG also gives the temperature dependence of shear viscosity and thereby the fragility. The validity of the conjectured relation is discussed...

  18. The Virtual Reality Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Whitworth, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We take our world to be an objective reality, but is it? The assumption that the physical world exists in and of itself has struggled to assimilate the findings of modern physics for some time now. For example, an objective space and time would just "be", but in relativity, space contracts and time dilates. Likewise objective "things" should just inherently exist, but the entities of quantum theory are probability of existence smears, that spread, tunnel, superpose and entangle in physically ...

  19. Juvenile helium in ancient rocks: II. U-He,K-Ar, Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr systematics in the Monche Pluton. 3He/4He ratios frozen in uranium-free ultramafic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstikhin, I.N.; Dokuchaeva, V.S.; Kamensky, I.L.; Amelin, Yu.V.

    1992-01-01

    The important geodynamic parameter, the 3 He/ 4 He ratio in rocks and fluids of the continental crust, is generally decreasing from the mantle values (≅ 10 -5 ) to the radiogenic ratio (≅ 10 -8 ) on the time scale of about 1 Ga or less. However, the ratios, observed in some ancient rocks and minerals, are much higher than the radiogenic value due to a preferential retention of trapped He, when compared with radiogenic helium and/or a low U/ 3 He ratio in a sample. The distribution of He, Ar, Nd, and Sr isotopes, K, Rb, Sm, and U in ultrabasic rocks, in rock-forming minerals, in ores from the 2.49 Ga Monche Pluton, and in basic rocks of the Main Range (the Kola Peninsula) enables one to distinguish sources of the rocks and trapped fluids and outline some peculiarities of petrogenetic and fluid processes. The initial values of var-epsilon Nd (T) = -0.9 ± 0.5 , 87 Sr/ 86 Sr(T) = 0.7021 ± 0.0002, for the 2.49 Ga Monche Pluton are rather similar to these for other layered intrusions of the Baltic Shield. They differ considerably from the model values for the depleted 2.5 Ga old mantle. The observed and rather different sources of 3 He and 4 He as well as the considerable constancy of their ratio in different minerals, separated from both the ultramafic rocks and gabbros, implies: (1) an intensive process of mixing between mantle and crustal components: a melt convection in the chamber may have occurred; (2) the two types of rocks could originate by crystallization differentiation of one and the same melt. Practically all 3 He and 4 He are concentrated in secondary amphiboles; hence the fluid which stimulated the metamorphic process was probably released from the ultramafite-bearing melt

  20. Master Lovas-Andai and equivalent formulas verifying the 8/33 two-qubit Hilbert-Schmidt separability probability and companion rational-valued conjectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Paul B.

    2018-04-01

    We begin by investigating relationships between two forms of Hilbert-Schmidt two-rebit and two-qubit "separability functions"—those recently advanced by Lovas and Andai (J Phys A Math Theor 50(29):295303, 2017), and those earlier presented by Slater (J Phys A 40(47):14279, 2007). In the Lovas-Andai framework, the independent variable ɛ \\in [0,1] is the ratio σ (V) of the singular values of the 2 × 2 matrix V=D_2^{1/2} D_1^{-1/2} formed from the two 2 × 2 diagonal blocks (D_1, D_2) of a 4 × 4 density matrix D= ||ρ _{ij}||. In the Slater setting, the independent variable μ is the diagonal-entry ratio √{ρ _{11} ρ _ {44}/ρ _ {22 ρ _ {33}}}—with, of central importance, μ =ɛ or μ =1/ɛ when both D_1 and D_2 are themselves diagonal. Lovas and Andai established that their two-rebit "separability function" \\tilde{χ }_1 (ɛ ) (≈ ɛ ) yields the previously conjectured Hilbert-Schmidt separability probability of 29/64. We are able, in the Slater framework (using cylindrical algebraic decompositions [CAD] to enforce positivity constraints), to reproduce this result. Further, we newly find its two-qubit, two-quater[nionic]-bit and "two-octo[nionic]-bit" counterparts, \\tilde{χ _2}(ɛ ) =1/3 ɛ ^2 ( 4-ɛ ^2) , \\tilde{χ _4}(ɛ ) =1/35 ɛ ^4 ( 15 ɛ ^4-64 ɛ ^2+84) and \\tilde{χ _8} (ɛ )= 1/1287ɛ ^8 ( 1155 ɛ ^8-7680 ɛ ^6+20160 ɛ ^4-25088 ɛ ^2+12740) . These immediately lead to predictions of Hilbert-Schmidt separability/PPT-probabilities of 8/33, 26/323 and 44482/4091349, in full agreement with those of the "concise formula" (Slater in J Phys A 46:445302, 2013), and, additionally, of a "specialized induced measure" formula. Then, we find a Lovas-Andai "master formula," \\tilde{χ _d}(ɛ )= ɛ ^d Γ (d+1)^3 _3\\tilde{F}_2( -{d/2,d/2,d;d/2+1,3 d/2+1;ɛ ^2) }/{Γ ( d/2+1) ^2}, encompassing both even and odd values of d. Remarkably, we are able to obtain the \\tilde{χ _d}(ɛ ) formulas, d=1,2,4, applicable to full (9-, 15-, 27-) dimensional sets of

  1. Specificity of the Acute Tryptophan and Tyrosine Plus Phenylalanine Depletion and Loading Tests Part II: Normalisation of the Tryptophan and the Tyrosine Plus Phenylalanine to Competing Amino Acid Ratios in a New Control Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla A.-B. Badawy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Current formulations for acute tryptophan (Trp or tyrosine (Tyr plus phenylalanine (Phe depletion and loading cause undesirable decreases in ratios of Trp or Tyr + Phe to competing amino acids (CAA, thus undermining the specificities of these tests. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA cause these unintended decreases, and lowering their content in a new balanced control formulation in the present study led to normalization of all ratios. Four groups (n = 12 each of adults each received one of four 50 g control formulations, with 0% (traditional, 20%, 30%, or 40% less of the BCAA. The free and total [Trp]/[CAA] and [Phe + Tyr]/[BCAA + Trp] ratios all decreased significantly during the first 5 h following the traditional formulation, but were fully normalized by the formulation containing 40% less of the BCAA. We recommend the latter as a balanced control formulation and propose adjustments in the depletion and loading formulations to enhance their specificities for 5-HT and the catecholamines.

  2. Refinement of the Compton–Rayleigh scatter ratio method for use on the Mars Science Laboratory alpha particle X-ray spectrometer: II – Extraction of invisible element content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrett, Glynis M. [Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Campbell, John L., E-mail: icampbel@uoguelph.ca [Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Gellert, Ralf [Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); King, Penelope L. [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Nield, Emily; O’Meara, Joanne M.; Pradler, Irina [Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2016-02-01

    The intensity ratio C/R between Compton and Rayleigh scatter peaks of the exciting Pu L X-rays in the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) is strongly affected by the presence of very light elements such as oxygen which cannot be detected directly by the APXS. C/R values are determined along with element concentrations by fitting APXS spectra of geochemical reference materials (GRMs) with the GUAPX code. A quantity K is defined as the ratio between the C/R value determined by Monte Carlo simulation based on the measured element concentrations and the fitted C/R value from the spectrum. To ensure optimally accurate K values, the choice of appropriate GRMs is explored in detail, with attention paid to Rb and Sr, whose characteristic Kα X-ray peaks overlap the Pu Lα scatter peaks. The resulting relationship between the ratio K and the overall oxygen fraction is linear. This provides a calibration from which the concentration of additional light invisible constituents (ALICs) such as water may be estimated in unknown rock and conglomerate samples. Several GRMs are used as ‘unknowns’ in order to evaluate the accuracy of ALIC concentrations derived in this manner.

  3. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  4. A proof of the Biswas-Mitra-Bhattacharyya conjecture for the ideal quantum gas trapped under the generic power law potential U=\\sum\

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehedi Faruk, Mir; Muktadir Rahman, Md

    2016-03-01

    The well known relation for ideal classical gas $\\Delta \\epsilon^2=kT^2 C_V$ which does not remain valid for quantum system is revisited. A new connection is established between energy fluctuation and specific heat for quantum gases, valid in the classical limit and the degenerate quantum regime as well. Most importantly the proposed Biswas-Mitra-Bhattacharyya (BMB) conjecture (Biswas $et.$ $al.$, J. Stat. Mech. P03013, 2015.) relating hump in energy fluctuation and discontinuity of specific heat is proved and precised in this manuscript.

  5. Anti-pp,. cap alpha cap alpha. and p. cap alpha. elastic scattering at high energies and Chou-Yang conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rifique, M.

    1987-03-01

    The recent experimental measurements for anti-pp and ..cap alpha cap alpha.. elastic scattering at high energies have shown that the Chou-Yang conjecture regarding the relationship between the electromagnetic and the hadronic form factor of a particle is only an approximation. A new ansatz has been proposed to obtain hadronic form factors of proton and the ..cap alpha..-particle. These form factors have been used to explain the various characteristics of anti-pp, ..cap alpha cap alpha.. and p..cap alpha.. elastic scattering at high energies.

  6. VVER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (author)

  7. WWER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (Authors)

  8. Sharpening Sharpe Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Jonathan E. Ingersoll Jr.; Matthew I. Spiegel; Ivo Welch

    2002-01-01

    It is now well known that the Sharpe ratio and other related reward-to-risk measures may be manipulated with option-like strategies. In this paper we derive the general conditions for achieving the maximum expected Sharpe ratio. We derive static rules for achieving the maximum Sharpe ratio with two or more options, as well as a continuum of derivative contracts. The optimal strategy has a truncated right tail and a fat left tail. We also derive dynamic rules for increasing the Sharpe ratio. O...

  9. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  11. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers

  12. Optimized aspect ratios of restrained thick-wall cylinders by virtue of Poisson's ratio selection. Part two: Temperature application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty, J.P.M.; Henderson, B.; Francis, J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Incontrovertible evidence is presented that thermal stresses in cylindrical components which include nuclear reactors and containment vessels are shown to be highly dependent on the Poisson's ratio of the materials. → The key novelty is concerned with the identification of a new potential thermal applications for negative Poisson's ratio (auxetic) materials; i.e. those that get fatter when they are stretched. → Negative Poisson's ratio (auxetic) materials exhibit lower thermal stress build-up than conventional positive Poisson's ratio materials, this conjecture being proven using thermal surface plots. - Abstract: Analytical and numerical modelling have been employed to show that the choice of Poisson's ratio is one of the principal design criteria in order to reduce thermal stress build-up in isotropic materials. The modelling procedures are all twofold; consisting of a solution to a steady-state heat conduction problem followed by a linear static solution. The models developed take the form of simplistic thick-wall cylinders such model systems are applicable at macro-structural and micro-structural levels as the underlining formulations are based on the classical theory of elasticity. Generally, the results show that the Poisson's ratio of the material has a greater effect on the magnitude of the principal stresses than the aspect ratio of the cylinders investigated. Constraining the outside of these models significantly increases the thermal stresses induced. The most significant and original finding presented is that the for both freely expanding and constrained thick-wall cylinders the optimum Poisson's ratio is minus unity.

  13. Elucidation of covariant proofs in general relativity: example of the use of algebraic software in the shear-free conjecture in MAPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huf, P. A.; Carminati, J.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of a new algebraic software package in providing independent covariant proof of a conjecture in general relativity. We examine the proof of two sub-cases of the shear-free conjecture σ =0 => ω Θ =0 by Senovilla et al. (Gen. Relativ. Gravit 30:389-411, 1998): case 1: for dust; case 2: for acceleration parallel to vorticity. We use TensorPack, a software package recently released for the Maple environment. In this paper, we briefly summarise the key features of the software and then demonstrate its use by providing and discussing examples of independent proofs of the paper in question. A full set of our completed proofs is available online at http://www.bach2roq.com/science/maths/GR/ShearFreeProofs.html. We are in agreeance with the equations provided in the original paper, noting that the proofs often require many steps. Furthermore, in our proofs we provide fully worked algebraic steps in such a way that the proofs can be examined systematically, and avoiding hand calculation. It is hoped that the elucidated proofs may be of use to other researchers in verifying the algebraic consistency of the expressions in the paper in question, as well as related literature. Furthermore we suggest that the appropriate use of algebraic software in covariant formalism could be useful for developing research and teaching in GR theory.

  14. Copper (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Valine (2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid), is a chemical compound containing .... Stability constant (Kf). Gibb's free energy. ) (. 1. −. ∆. Mol. JG. [CuL2(H2O)2] ... synthesis and characterization of Co(ii), Ni(ii), Cu (II), and Zn(ii) complexes with ...

  15. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....... hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...

  16. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  17. Orbifolds of M-theory and type II string theories in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.

    1997-01-01

    We consider several orbifold compactifications of M-theory and theircorresponding type II duals in two space-time dimensions. In particular, we show that while the orbifold compactification of M-theory on T 9 /J 9 is dual to the orbifold compactification of type IIB string theory on T 8 /I 8 , the same orbifold T 8 /I 8 of type IIA string theory is dual to M-theory compactified on a smooth product manifold K3 x T 5 . Similarly, while the orbifold compactification of M-theory on (K3 x T 5 )/σ. J 5 is dual to the orbifold compactification of type IIB string theory on (K3 x T 4 )/σ.I 4 , the same orbifold of type IIA string theory is dual to the orbifold T 4 x (K3 x S 1 )/σ.J 1 of M-theory. The spectrum of various orbifold compactifications of M-theory and type II string theories on both sides are compared giving evidence in favor of these duality conjectures. We also comment on a connection between the Dasgupta-Mukhi-Witten conjecture and the Dabholkar-Park-Sen conjecture for the six-dimensional orbifold models of type IIB string theory and M-theory. (orig.)

  18. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Multimetallic Fe(II) and Mn(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron(II) and Manganese(II) complexes of the resulting ligand were obtained from its reactions with Fe(II) and Mn(II) salts in absolute methanol for the metal to ligand ratio 2:3. These complexes were characterized by Solubility, Conductivity, IR and UV-VIS spectrometry, elemental analysis and mass spectrometry. Keywords: ...

  20. Controlling the branching ratio of photodissociation using aligned molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.J.; Wendt-Larsen, I.; Stapelfeldt, H.

    1999-01-01

    Using a sample of iodine molecules, aligned by a strong, linearly polarized laser pulse, we control the branching ratio of the I+I and I+I* photodissociation channels by a factor of 26. The control relies on selective photoexcitation of two potential curves that each correlate adiabatically...

  1. Transformer ratio enhancement experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.; Power, J. G.; Kanareykin, A.; Neasheva, E.; Altmark, A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a multibunch scheme for efficient acceleration based on dielectric wakefield accelerator technology was outlined in J.G. Power, W. Gai, A. Kanareykin, X. Sun. PAC 2001 Proceedings, pp. 114-116, 2002. In this paper we present an experimental program for the design, development and demonstration of an Enhanced Transformer Ratio Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (ETR-DWA). The principal goal is to increase the transformer ratio R, the parameter that characterizes the energy transfer efficiency from the accelerating structure to the accelerated electron beam. We present here an experimental design of a 13.625 GHz dielectric loaded accelerating structure, a laser multisplitter producing a ramped bunch train, and simulations of the bunch train parameters required. Experimental results of the accelerating structure bench testing and ramped pulsed train generation with the laser multisplitter are shown as well. Using beam dynamic simulations, we also obtain the focusing FODO lattice parameters

  2. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  3. Design Concepts for Low Aspect Ratio High Pressure Turbines for High Bypass Ratio Turbofans, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The performance gains and weight reductions from using Ceramic Matrix Composite(CMC) turbine blades in both the High Pressure Turbine(HPT) and Low Pressure...

  4. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  5. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The ‘prospective potential support ratio’ has been proposed by researchers as a measure that accurately quantifies the burden of ageing, by identifying the fraction of a population that has passed a certain measure of longevity, for example, 17 years of life expectancy. Nevertheless......, the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models...

  6. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  7. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  8. The Liquidity Coverage Ratio: the need for further complementary ratios?

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers components of the Liquidity Coverage Ratio – as well as certain prevailing gaps which may necessitate the introduction of a complementary liquidity ratio. The definitions and objectives accorded to the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) highlight the focus which is accorded to time horizons for funding bank operations. A ratio which would focus on the rate of liquidity transformations and which could also serve as a complementary metric gi...

  9. Biomass accumulation, photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, nutrient contents and nitrate reductase activity in young rosewood plants (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke submitted to different NO3-:NH4+ ratios Acúmulo de biomassa, eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II, conteúdo de nutrientes e atividade da redutase do nitrato em plantas jovens de pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke submetidas a diferentes relações NO3-:NH4+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Caranhas de Sousa Barreto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke is a native tree species of Amazon rainforest growing naturally in acidic forest soils with reduced redox potential. However, this species can also been found growing in forest gaps containing oxide soils. Variations in the forms of mineral nitrogen (NO3- or NH4+ may be predicted in these different edaphic conditions. Considering that possibility, an experiment was carried out to analyze the effects of different NO3-:NH4+ ratios on the growth performance, mineral composition, chloroplastid pigment contents, photochemical efficiency photosystem II (PSII, and nitrate redutase activity (RN, E.C.1.6.6.1 on A. rosaeodora seedlings. Nine-month-old seedlings were grown in pots with a washed sand capacity of 7.5 kg and submitted to different NO3-:NH4+ ratios (T1 = 0:100%, T2 = 25:75%, T3 = 50:50%, T4 = 75:25%, and T5 = 100:0%. The lowest relative growth rate was observed when the NO3-:NH4+ ratio was equal to 0:100%. In general, high concentrations of NO3- rather than NH4+ favored a greater nutrient accumulation in different parts of the plant. For the chloroplastid pigment, the highest Chl a, Chl b, Chl tot, Chl a/b and Chl tot/Cx+c contents were found in the treatment with 75:25% of NO3-:NH4+, and for Chl b and Cx+c it was observed no difference. In addition, there was a higher photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm when high NO3- concentrations were used. A linear and positive response for the nitrate reductase activity was recorded when the nitrate content increased on the culture substrate. Our results suggest that A. rosaeodora seedlings have a better growth performance when the NO3- concentrations in the culture substrate were higher than the NH4+ concentrations.O pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke habita, naturalmente, solos florestais ácidos com potencial redox reduzido. No entanto, estas espécies têm sido encontradas também em clareiras que, teoricamente, apresentam solos mais oxidados. Nestas diferentes

  10. Energy Profit Ratio Compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

  11. Conjecturing via Reconceived Classical Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Hwa; Sriraman, Bharath

    2011-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is believed to be an efficient means of problem solving and construction of knowledge during the search for and the analysis of new mathematical objects. However, there is growing concern that despite everyday usage, learners are unable to transfer analogical reasoning to learning situations. This study aims at facilitating…

  12. The VPN Conjecture is True

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goyal, N.; Olver, N.K.; Shepherd, F.B.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the following network design problem. We are given an undirected graph G = (V,E) with edge costs c(e) and a set of terminal nodes W ⊆ V. A hose demand matrix is any symmetric matrix D, indexed by the terminals, such that for each i ∈ W, Σ

  13. Hierarchical competition models with the Allee effect II: the case of immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assas, Laila; Dennis, Brian; Elaydi, Saber; Kwessi, Eddy; Livadiotis, George

    2015-01-01

    This is part II of an earlier paper that dealt with hierarchical models with the Allee effect but with no immigration. In this paper, we greatly simplify the proofs in part I and provide a proof of the global dynamics of the non-hyperbolic cases that were previously conjectured. Then, we show how immigration to one of the species or to both would, drastically, change the dynamics of the system. It is shown that if the level of immigration to one or to both species is above a specified level, then there will be no extinction region where both species go to extinction.

  14. Towards a comprehensive theory for He II: A temperature-dependent field-theoretic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghassib, H.B.; Chela-Flores, J.

    1983-07-01

    New experimental aspects of He II, as well as recent developments in particle physics, are invoked to construct the rudiments of a comprehensive theory in which temperature-dependent U(1) and SU(2) gauge fields are incorporated into a hierarchy of effective Lagrangians. It is conjectured that an SU(n) gauge-theoretic description of superfluidity may be obtained in the limit n→infinity. However, it is outlined how experiments can be understood in the zeroth, first and second order of the hierarchy. (author)

  15. TBscore II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Lemvik, Grethe; Abate, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: The TBscore, based on simple signs and symptoms, was introduced to predict unsuccessful outcome in tuberculosis patients on treatment. A recent inter-observer variation study showed profound variation in some variables. Further, some variables depend on a physician assessing...... them, making the score less applicable. The aim of the present study was to simplify the TBscore. Methods: Inter-observer variation assessment and exploratory factor analysis were combined to develop a simplified score, the TBscore II. To validate TBscore II we assessed the association between start...

  16. Characterizing gamma fields using isomeric activation ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Ramkumar; Fleming, Ronald F.

    1994-12-01

    Isomeric activities were induced in indium by gamma irradiation in three different gamma fields, through the reactions 115In(γ, γ') 115mIn and 113In(γ, γ') 113mIn. The irradiation fields were (i) the 15 kCi 60Co source available in the University, (ii) the spent fuel gamma irradiator in the pool of the University's Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR) and (iii) south face of the core of the FNR during routine shut downs. Isomeric activation ratios can serve to characterize gamma fields, provided the response functions of the two (γ, γ') reactions sample different energy regimes of the gamma spectrum present in the irradiation fields. The response of an isomeric activation detector, in turn, depends on the number of activation energy levels of the nuclide and the probabilities with which the activation levels de-populate to the isomeric level. The reaction rate ratio RIn115m/ RIn113m was measured in the three gamma fields. The measured ratios were (i) 1.210 ± 0.011 in the 60Co source, (ii) 1.314 ± 0.060 in the spent fuel gamma irradiator and (iii) 1.298 ± 0.039 in a location alongside the FNR core during routine shut downs. The measured reaction rate ratios are not only close to each other, but close to unity as well. This indicates that the excitation functions for the reactions 115In(γ, γ') 115mIn and 113In(γ, γ') 113mIn have similar shapes and that for the nuclides 115In and 113In, the number of activation energy levels and the probabilities with which they populate the isomeric levels are very similar to each other. Thus, the ratio RIn115m/ RIn113m will not yield any information regarding the shape of gamma spectrum in the field of measurement. However by choosing (γ, γ') reactions with different shapes for the excitation functions one can measure a set of isomeric activation ratios that characterize a given gamma field.

  17. N=2 type II - heterotic duality and higher derivative F-terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Narain, K.S.; Taylor, T.R.

    1995-07-01

    We test the recently conjectured duality between N-2 supersymmetric type II and heterotic string models by analyzing a class of higher dimensional interactions in the respective low-energy Lagrangians. These are F-terms of the form F g W 2g where W is the gravitational superfield. On the type II side these terms are generated at the g-loop level and in fact are given by topological partition functions of the twisted Calabi-Yan sigma model. We show that on the heterotic side these terms arise at the one-loop level. We study in detail a rank 3 example and show that the corresponding couplings, F g satisfy the same holomorphic anomaly equations as in the type II case. Moreover we study the leading singularities of F g 's on the heterotic side, near the enhanced symmetry point and show that they are universal poles of order 2g - 2 with coefficients that are given by the Euler number of the moduli space of genus-g Riemann surfaces. This confirms a recent conjecture that the physics near the conifold singularity is governed by c=1 string theory at the self-dual point. (author). 24 refs

  18. Pb II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    This investigation describes the use of non-living biomass of Aspergillus caespitosus for removal of ... Pb(II) production has exceeded 3.5 million tons per year. It has been used in the ... This biomass was selected after screening a wide range of microbes. .... prolonged, which proved better biopolymer in metal uptake (Gadd ...

  19. Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1980-06-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated the potential for producing a viable longburn tokamak reactor by enhancing the volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer through the use of high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were assessed in the context of extended burn operation. Using a one-dimensional transport code plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the startup and shutdown portions of the tokamak cycle. A representative large aspect ratio tokamak with an aspect ratio of 8 was found to achieve a burn time of 3.5 h at capital cost only approx. 25% greater than that of a moderate aspect ratio design tokamak

  20. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  1. Spectroscopic and thermal degradation behavior of Mg(II, Ca(II, Ba(II and Sr(II complexes with paracetamol drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moamen S. Refat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Complexes of Mg(II, Ca(II, Ba(II and Sr(II with paracetamol drug were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity, UV–Vis, IR, and 1H NMR spectroscopy and thermal analysis, as well as screened for antimicrobial activity. The IR spectral data suggested that the ligand behaves as paracetamol behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the lone pair of electrons of nitrogen and carbonyl-O atoms of the amide group. From the microanalytical data, the stoichiometry of the complexes reacts with Mg(II, Ca(II, Ba(II and Sr(II by molar ratios (2:1 (paracetamol:metal ion. The thermal behavior (TG/DTG of the complexes was studied. The ligand and their metal complexes were screened against both of antibacterial and fungicidal activities.

  2. BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey - III. An Observed Link Between AGN Eddington Ratio and Narrow-Emission-Line Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyuseok; Schawinski, Kevin; Koss, Michael; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Lamperti, Isabella; Ricci, Claudio; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Berney, Simon; Crenshaw, D. Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the observed relationship between black hole mass (M(sub BH)), bolometric luminosity (L(sub bol)) and Eddington ratio (lambda(sub Edd)) with optical emission-line ratios ([N II] lambda6583/Halpha, [S II]lambda-lamda6716, 6731/Halpha, [O I] lamda6300/Halpha, [O III] lamda5007/Hbeta, [Ne III] lamda3869/Hbeta and He II lamda4686/Hbeta) of hard X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey. We show that the [N II] lamda6583/Halpha ratio exhibits a significant correlation with lamda(sub Edd) (R(sub Pear) = -0.44, p-value 3 x 10(exp. -13) sigma = 0.28 dex), and the correlation is not solely driven by M(sub BH) or L(sub bol). The observed correlation between [N II] lamda6583/Halpha ratio and M(sub BH) is stronger than the correlation with L(sub bol), but both are weaker than the lamda(sub Edd) correlation. This implies that the large-scale narrow lines of AGN host galaxies carry information about the accretion state of the AGN central engine. We propose that [N II] lamda6583/Halpha is a useful indicator of Eddington ratio with 0.6 dex of rms scatter, and that it can be used to measure lambda(sub Edd) and thus M(sub BH) from the measured L(sub bol), even for high-redshift obscured AGN. We briefly discuss possible physical mechanisms behind this correlation, such as the mass-metallicity relation, X-ray heating, and radiatively driven outflows.

  3. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  4. Deriving aerosol scattering ratio using range-resolved lidar ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... ratio (LDR) are used to suggest the type of aerosols. The altitude-dependent ... to the station and the experimentally measured lidar data. The 'model ... The integrated aerosol extinction profile with altitude-dependent S and k.

  5. RATIO_TOOL - SOFTWARE FOR COMPUTING IMAGE RATIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, G. L.

    1994-01-01

    Geological studies analyze spectral data in order to gain information on surface materials. RATIO_TOOL is an interactive program for viewing and analyzing large multispectral image data sets that have been created by an imaging spectrometer. While the standard approach to classification of multispectral data is to match the spectrum for each input pixel against a library of known mineral spectra, RATIO_TOOL uses ratios of spectral bands in order to spot significant areas of interest within a multispectral image. Each image band can be viewed iteratively, or a selected image band of the data set can be requested and displayed. When the image ratios are computed, the result is displayed as a gray scale image. At this point a histogram option helps in viewing the distribution of values. A thresholding option can then be used to segment the ratio image result into two to four classes. The segmented image is then color coded to indicate threshold classes and displayed alongside the gray scale image. RATIO_TOOL is written in C language for Sun series computers running SunOS 4.0 and later. It requires the XView toolkit and the OpenWindows window manager (version 2.0 or 3.0). The XView toolkit is distributed with Open Windows. A color monitor is also required. The standard distribution medium for RATIO_TOOL is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. An electronic copy of the documentation is included on the program media. RATIO_TOOL was developed in 1992 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Sun, SunOS, and OpenWindows are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories.

  6. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  7. Output factors and scatter ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, P N; Summers, R E; Samulski, T V; Baird, L C [Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA); Ahuja, A S; Dubuque, G L; Hendee, W R; Chhabra, A S

    1979-07-01

    Reference is made to a previous publication on output factors and scatter ratios for radiotherapy units in which it was suggested that the output factor should be included in the definitions of scatter-air ratio and tissue-maximum ratio. In the present correspondence from other authors and from the authors of the previous publication, the original definitions and the proposed changes are discussed. Radiation scatter from source and collimator degradation of beam energy and calculation of dose in tissue are considered in relation to the objective of accurate dosimetry.

  8. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-439 Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense... Bomb Increment II (SDB II) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants Department of the Navy Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Production...Mission and Description Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) is a joint interest United States Air Force (USAF) and Department of the Navy

  9. Large aspect ratio tokamak study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Sardella, C.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) investigated the potential for producing a viable long burn tokamak reactor through enhanced volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer by employing high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were accessed in the context of extended burn operation. Plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed using a one-dimensional transport code. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the field in the ohmic heating coil and the wave shape of the ohmic heating discharge. A high aspect ratio reference reactor was chosen and configured

  10. Arcjet nozzle area ratio effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  11. Arcjet Nozzle Area Ratio Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  12. Multi-instantons and exact results II: specific cases, higher-order effects, and numerical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinn-Justin, Jean; Jentschura, Ulrich D.

    2004-01-01

    In this second part of the treatment of instantons in quantum mechanics, the focus is on specific calculations related to a number of quantum mechanical potentials with degenerate minima. We calculate the leading multi-instanton contributions to the partition function, using the formalism introduced in the first part of the treatise [Ann. Phys. (N. Y.) (previous issue) (2004)]. The following potentials are considered: (i) asymmetric potentials with degenerate minima, (ii) the periodic cosine potential, (iii) anharmonic oscillators with radial symmetry, and (iv) a specific potential which bears an analogy with the Fokker-Planck equation. The latter potential has the peculiar property that the perturbation series for the ground-state energy vanishes to all orders and is thus formally convergent (the ground-state energy, however, is non-zero and positive). For the potentials (ii), (iii), and (iv), we calculate the perturbative B-function as well as the instanton A-function to fourth order in g. We also consider the double-well potential in detail, and present some higher-order analytic as well as numerical calculations to verify explicitly the related conjectures up to the order of three instantons. Strategies analogous to those outlined here could result in new conjectures for problems where our present understanding is more limited

  13. Extinction of H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, F.P.; Kennicutt, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Visual extinction of H II regions in nine nearby galaxies as derived from the ratio of the radio continuum emission to H-alpha emission is systematically larger than visual extinction deduced from the Balmer lines alone, if one assumes a value Av/E(B-V) 3. An optically-limited sample of about 30 extragalactic H II regions has a mean extinction of 1.7 m in the visual while about 1.2 m is not seen in the reddening of the Balmer lines. Both reddening and extinction decreases with increasing galactic radius, at least for M33 and M101

  14. Tomo II

    OpenAIRE

    Llano Zapata, José Eusebio

    2015-01-01

    Memorias, histórico, físicas, crítico, apologéticas de la América Meridional con unas breves advertencias y noticias útiles, a los que de orden de Su Majestad hubiesen de viajar y describir aquellas vastas regiones. Reino Vegetal, Tomo II. Por un anónimo americano en Cádiz por los años de 1757. Muy Señor mío, juzgo que los 20 artículos del libro que remití a Vuestra Merced le habrán hecho formar el concepto que merece la fecundidad de aquellos países en las producciones minerales. Y siendo es...

  15. Synthesis and characterization of polychelates of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), oxovanadium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) with 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde-urea-formaldehyde polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, G.C.; Pancholi, H.B.; Patel, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    Polychelates of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), oxovandium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) with 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (2,4-DB)-urea(U)-formaldehyde(F) polymer (2,4-DBUF) have been prepared. Elemental analyses of the polychelates indicate a metal:ligand ratio of 1:2. The structures of the polychelates have been assigned on the basis of their elemental analyses, IR, reflectance spectra, magnetic moment, thermal data and their electrical conductivity behaviour. (author). 1 tab., 18 refs

  16. Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang

    2012-01-01

    In a Fisher market, a market maker sells m items to n potential buyers. The buyers submit their utility functions and money endowments to the market maker, who, upon receiving submitted information, derives market equilibrium prices and allocations of its items. While agents may benefit...... by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....

  17. Measurement of the Branching fraction ratio BR (B+ $\\bar{D}$0K+→ [K+π-] K+)/(BR (B+ $\\bar{D}$0π+ [K+π-+) with the CDF II detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squillacioti, Paola [Univ. of Siena (Italy)

    2006-11-01

    In this thesis the author has described the first measurement performed at a hadron collider of the branching fraction of the Cabibbo-suppressed mode B+ → $\\bar{D}$0 K+. The analysis has been performed with 360 pb-1 of data collected by the CDF II detector.

  18. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...

  19. Global Carbon Reservoir Oxidative Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration move carbon and oxygen between the atmosphere and the biosphere at a ratio that is characteristic of the biogeochemical processes involved. This ratio is called the oxidative ratio (OR) of photosynthesis and respiration, and is defined as the ratio of moles of O2 per moles of CO2. This O2/CO2 ratio is a characteristic of biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes, much like the 13C signature of CO2 transferred between the biosphere and the atmosphere has a characteristic signature. OR values vary on a scale of 0 (CO2) to 2 (CH4), with most ecosystem values clustered between 0.9 and 1.2. Just as 13C can be measured for both carbon fluxes and carbon pools, OR can also be measured for fluxes and pools and can provide information about the processes involved in carbon and oxygen cycling. OR values also provide information about reservoir organic geochemistry because pool OR values are proportional to the oxidation state of carbon (Cox) in the reservoir. OR may prove to be a particularly valuable biogeochemical tracer because of its ability to couple information about ecosystem gas fluxes with ecosystem organic geochemistry. We have developed 3 methods to measure the OR of ecosystem carbon reservoirs and intercalibrated them to assure that they yield accurate, intercomparable data. Using these tools we have built a large enough database of biomass and soil OR values that it is now possible to consider the implications of global patterns in ecosystem OR values. Here we present a map of the natural range in ecosystem OR values and begin to consider its implications. One striking pattern is an apparent offset between soil and biospheric OR values: soil OR values are frequently higher than that of their source biomass. We discuss this trend in the context of soil organic geochemistry and gas fluxes.

  20. GUT Scale Fermion Mass Ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We present a series of recent works related to group theoretical factors from GUT symmetry breaking which lead to predictions for the ratios of quark and lepton Yukawa couplings at the unification scale. New predictions for the GUT scale ratios y μ /y s , y τ /y b and y t /y b in particular are shown and compared to experimental data. For this comparison it is important to include possibly large supersymmetric threshold corrections. Due to this reason the structure of the fermion masses at the GUT scale depends on TeV scale physics and makes GUT scale physics testable at the LHC. We also discuss how this new predictions might lead to predictions for mixing angles by discussing the example of the recently measured last missing leptonic mixing angle θ 13 making this new class of GUT models also testable in neutrino experiments

  1. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... is a general tendency to focus on numerators and pay insufficient attention to denominators in ratios. Using a population-based survey experiment, I demonstrate how differently framed but logically equivalent representations of the exact same numerical value can have large effects on citizens’ preferences...... regarding salient political issues such as education and taxes. Furthermore, the effects of numerical framing are found across most groups of the population, largely regardless of their political predisposition and their general ability to understand and use numerical information. These findings have...

  2. High aspect ratio spheromak experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, S.; Schmid, P.

    1987-05-01

    The Reversatron RFP (R/a = 50cm/8cm) has been operated as an ohmically heated spheromak of high aspect ratio. We find that the dynamo can drive the toroidal field upward at rates as high as 10 6 G/sec. Discharges can be initiated and ramped upward from seed fields as low as 50 G. Small toroidal bias fields of either polarity (-0.2 < F < 0.2) do not significantly affect operation. 5 refs., 3 figs

  3. Multiple Improvements of Multiple Imputation Likelihood Ratio Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kin Wai; Meng, Xiao-Li

    2017-01-01

    Multiple imputation (MI) inference handles missing data by first properly imputing the missing values $m$ times, and then combining the $m$ analysis results from applying a complete-data procedure to each of the completed datasets. However, the existing method for combining likelihood ratio tests has multiple defects: (i) the combined test statistic can be negative in practice when the reference null distribution is a standard $F$ distribution; (ii) it is not invariant to re-parametrization; ...

  4. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low

  5. Cd(II), Cu(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Depending on the way goethite was pretreated with oxalic acid, affinity for Cd(II) varied ...... Effects and mechanisms of oxalate on Cd(II) adsorption on goethite at different ... precipitation, surfactant mediation, hydrothermal and micro-emulsion.

  6. Cu(II) AND Zn(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SYNTHESIS OF 2,2-DIMETHYL-4-PHENYL-[1,3]-DIOXOLANE USING ZEOLITE. ENCAPSULATED Co(II), Cu(II) AND Zn(II) COMPLEXES. B.P. Nethravathi1, K. Rama Krishna Reddy2 and K.N. Mahendra1*. 1Department of Chemistry, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560001, India. 2Department of Chemistry, Government ...

  7. Elizabeth II uus kunstigalerii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Tähistamaks oma troonile asumise 50. aastapäeva, avab Elizabeth II 6. II 2002 Buckinghami palees uue kunstigalerii, mis ehitatakse palee tiibhoonena. Arhitekt John Simpson. Elizabeth II kunstikogust

  8. Reproducibility of isotope ratio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, D.

    1981-01-01

    The use of an accelerator as part of a mass spectrometer has improved the sensitivity for measuring low levels of long-lived radionuclides by several orders of magnitude. However, the complexity of a large tandem accelerator and beam transport system has made it difficult to match the precision of low energy mass spectrometry. Although uncertainties for accelerator measured isotope ratios as low as 1% have been obtained under favorable conditions, most errors quoted in the literature for natural samples are in the 5 to 20% range. These errors are dominated by statistics and generally the reproducibility is unknown since the samples are only measured once

  9. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  10. Determinations of the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C Ratio for the Secondary Stars of AE Aquarii, SS Cygni, and RU Pegasi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Marra, Rachel E., E-mail: tharriso@nmsu.edu, E-mail: rmarra@nmsu.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    We present new moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of three CVs obtained using GNIRS on Gemini-North. These spectra covered three {sup 13}CO bandheads found in the K -band, allowing us to derive the isotopic abundance ratios for carbon. We find small {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios for all three donor stars. In addition, these three objects show carbon deficits, with AE Aqr being the most extreme ([C/Fe] = −1.4). This result confirms the conjecture that the donor stars in some long-period CVs have undergone considerable nuclear evolution prior to becoming semi-contact binaries. In addition to the results for carbon, we find that the abundance of sodium is enhanced in these three objects, and the secondary stars in both RU Peg and SS Cyg suffer magnesium deficits. Explaining such anomalies appears to require higher mass progenitors than commonly assumed for the donor stars of CVs.

  11. Using Ratio Analysis to Evaluate Financial Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The ways in which ratio analysis can help in long-range planning, budgeting, and asset management to strengthen financial performance and help avoid financial difficulties are explained. Types of ratios considered include balance sheet ratios, net operating ratios, and contribution and demand ratios. (MSE)

  12. Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff base complexes derived from o-phenylenediamine and acetoacetanilide. N RAMAN*, Y PITCHAIKANI RAJA and A KULANDAISAMY. Department of Chemistry, VHNSN College, Virudhunagar 626 001, India e-mail: ra_man@123india.com.

  13. LHC II system sensitivity to magnetic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Cotae, Vlad

    2005-01-01

    Experiments have been designed to reveal the influences of ferrofluid treatment and static magnetic field exposure on the photosynthetic system II, where the light harvesting complex (LHC II) controls the ratio chlorophyll a/ chlorophyll b (revealing, indirectly, the photosynthesis rate). Spectrophotometric measurement of chlorophyll content revealed different influences for relatively low ferrofluid concentrations (10-30 mul/l) in comparison to higher concentrations (70-100 mul/l). The overlapped effect of the static magnetic field shaped better the stimulatory ferrofluid action on LHC II system in young poppy plantlets.

  14. Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

  15. Are elderly dependency ratios associated with general population suicide rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2011-05-01

    The elderly population size is increasing worldwide due to falling birth rates and increasing life expectancy. It has been hypothesized that as the elderly dependency ratio (the ratio of those over the age of 65 years to those under 65) increases, there will be fewer younger people available to care for older people and this, in turn, will increase the burden on younger carers with increased levels of psychiatric morbidity leading to an increase in general population suicide rates. A cross-national study examining the relationship between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates was conducted using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations websites. The main findings were of a significant and independent positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates in both genders. The contribution of cross-national differences in psychiatric morbidity in younger carers on general population suicide rates requires further study. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in younger carers of older people should be examined by: (i) cross-national studies using standardized measures of psychiatric morbidity that are education-free, culture-fair and language-fair; and (ii) within-country longitudinal studies with changing elderly dependency ratios over time.

  16. THE POSSIBLE ROLE OF CORONAL STREAMERS AS MAGNETICALLY CLOSED STRUCTURES IN SHOCK-INDUCED ENERGETIC ELECTRONS AND METRIC TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Xiangliang; Chen, Yao; Feng, Shiwei; Wang, Bing; Du, Guohui [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Guo, Fan [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Li, Gang, E-mail: yaochen@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    Two solar type II radio bursts, separated by ∼24 hr in time, are examined together. Both events are associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) erupting from the same active region (NOAA 11176) beneath a well-observed helmet streamer. We find that the type II emissions in both events ended once the CME/shock fronts passed the white-light streamer tip, which is presumably the magnetic cusp of the streamer. This leads us to conjecture that the closed magnetic arcades of the streamer may play a role in electron acceleration and type II excitation at coronal shocks. To examine such a conjecture, we conduct a test-particle simulation for electron dynamics within a large-scale partially closed streamer magnetic configuration swept by a coronal shock. We find that the closed field lines play the role of an electron trap via which the electrons are sent back to the shock front multiple times and therefore accelerated to high energies by the shock. Electrons with an initial energy of 300 eV can be accelerated to tens of keV concentrating at the loop apex close to the shock front with a counter-streaming distribution at most locations. These electrons are energetic enough to excite Langmuir waves and radio bursts. Considering the fact that most solar eruptions originate from closed field regions, we suggest that the scenario may be important for the generation of more metric type IIs. This study also provides an explanation of the general ending frequencies of metric type IIs at or above 20-30 MHz and the disconnection issue between metric and interplanetary type IIs.

  17. Modeling Fe II Emission and Revised Fe II (UV) Empirical Templates for the Seyfert 1 Galaxy I Zw 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhweiler, F.; Verner, E.

    2008-03-01

    We use the narrow-lined broad-line region (BLR) of the Seyfert 1 galaxy, I Zw 1, as a laboratory for modeling the ultraviolet (UV) Fe II 2100-3050 Å emission complex. We calculate a grid of Fe II emission spectra representative of BLR clouds and compare them with the observed I Zw 1 spectrum. Our predicted spectrum for log [nH/(cm -3) ] = 11.0, log [ΦH/(cm -2 s-1) ] = 20.5, and ξ/(1 km s-1) = 20, using Cloudy and an 830 level model atom for Fe II with energies up to 14.06 eV, gives a better fit to the UV Fe II emission than models with fewer levels. Our analysis indicates (1) the observed UV Fe II emission must be corrected for an underlying Fe II pseudocontinuum; (2) Fe II emission peaks can be misidentified as that of other ions in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with narrow-lined BLRs possibly affecting deduced physical parameters; (3) the shape of 4200-4700 Å Fe II emission in I Zw 1 and other AGNs is a relative indicator of narrow-line region (NLR) and BLR Fe II emission; (4) predicted ratios of Lyα, C III], and Fe II emission relative to Mg II λ2800 agree with extinction corrected observed I Zw 1 fluxes, except for C IV λ1549 (5) the sensitivity of Fe II emission strength to microturbulence ξ casts doubt on existing relative Fe/Mg abundances derived from Fe II (UV)/Mg II flux ratios. Our calculated Fe II emission spectra, suitable for BLRs in AGNs, are available at http://iacs.cua.edu/people/verner/FeII. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 05-26555.

  18. A high signal-to-noise ratio composite quasar spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.J.; Hewett, P.C.; Foltz, C.B.; Chaffee, F.H.; Weymann, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    A very high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N of about 400) composite spectrum of the rest-frame ultraviolet and optical region of high luminosity quasars is presented. The spectrum is derived from 718 individual spectra obtained as part of the Large Bright Quasar Survey. The moderate resolution, 4A or less, and high signal-to-noise ratio allow numerous weak emission features to be identified. Of particular note is the large equivalent-width of the Fe II emission in the rest-frame ultraviolet and the blue continuum slope of the composite. The primary aim of this paper is to provide a reference spectrum for use in line identifications, and a series of large-scale representations of the composite spectrum are shown. A measure of the standard deviation of the individual quasar spectra from the composite spectrum is also presented. 12 refs

  19. (II) COMPLEX COMPOUND

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    electrochemical sensors, as well as in various chromatographic ... were carried out using Jenway pH meter Model 3320 and a conductivity ... Figure 1: the proposed molecular structure of the copper (II) Schiff base complex. M = Cu (II) or Mn (II).

  20. and copper(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (II) and copper(II)–zinc(II) complexes. SUBODH KUMAR1, R N PATEL1*, P V KHADIKAR1 and. K B PANDEYA2. 1 Department of Chemistry, APS University, Rewa 486 003, India. 2 CSJM University, Kanpur 208 016, India e-mail: (R N Patel) ...

  1. A Librarian's Primer on Financial Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbel, Sandra Sandor

    1982-01-01

    Explains in simple terms the nature and function of a number of basic types of business and industrial financial ratios. An annotated list of five basic sources for ratios is included and a reference list and bibliography are attached. (JL)

  2. Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Dvoøáèek Jaroslav

    1997-01-01

    The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.

  3. Relationships between breath ratios, spirituality and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...

  4. Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvoøáèek Jaroslav

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.

  5. Pius II. a utrakvismus

    OpenAIRE

    Šimek, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Milan Šimek Pius II. a utrakvismus Pius II. and utraquism Based on sources work - out, the thesis aims the description and analysis of the attitude alternation of Enea Sylvio Piccolomini - Pius II to the utraquism. The conclusions stress the postulate that Pius II. did not change that attitude, but just did not succed in quelling the utraquist movement. In the sense of political background that finally led to fatal dissention among both leaders, king Jiří of Poděbrady and pope Pius II.

  6. Role of dust in H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarazin, C.L.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to determine quantitatively the effects of U.V. absorbing dust on H II regions, and compare these effects with observations. Many observations indicate that dust grains are present within H II regions. An analytic theory is presented which describes all three of the effects of dust in H II regions. Although this model is relatively crude, it is useful in determining the approximate size of the modifications due to dust. In order to explore this problem more carefully, detailed numerical models of H II regions with dust were constructed. The ionization and thermal structure of these model H II regions is discussed. The observational consequences of the presence of dust are explored; the optical line intensities, radio continuum and line fluxes, and infrared emission of model H II regions with dust are given. These numerical models are compared with observations of diffuse nebulae. The optical line ratios are compared to several nearby bright H II regions, and it is found that the dust models may explain several anomalies in their spectrum

  7. Complexes of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and dioxouranium(II) with thiophene-2-aldehydethiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Balwan; Misra, Harihar

    1986-01-01

    Metal complexes of thiosemicarbazides have been known for their pharmacological applications. Significant antitubercular, fungicidal and antiviral activities have been reported for thiosemicarbazides and their derivatives. The present study describes the systhesis and characterisation of complexes of Co II , Cu II , Zn II ,Cd II and UO II with thiosemicarbazone obtained by condensing thiophene-2-aldehyde with thiosemicarbazide. 17 refs., 2 tables. (author)

  8. Determinations of the 12C/13C Ratio for the Secondary Stars of AE Aquarii, SS Cygni, and RU Pegasi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Marra, Rachel E.

    2017-07-01

    We present new moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of three CVs obtained using GNIRS on Gemini-North. These spectra covered three 13CO bandheads found in the K-band, allowing us to derive the isotopic abundance ratios for carbon. We find small 12C/13C ratios for all three donor stars. In addition, these three objects show carbon deficits, with AE Aqr being the most extreme ([C/Fe] = -1.4). This result confirms the conjecture that the donor stars in some long-period CVs have undergone considerable nuclear evolution prior to becoming semi-contact binaries. In addition to the results for carbon, we find that the abundance of sodium is enhanced in these three objects, and the secondary stars in both RU Peg and SS Cyg suffer magnesium deficits. Explaining such anomalies appears to require higher mass progenitors than commonly assumed for the donor stars of CVs. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).

  9. Application of Performance Ratios in Portfolio Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Kresta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cornerstone of modern portfolio theory was established by pioneer work of Harry Markowitz. Based on his mean-variance framework, Sharpe formulated his well-known Sharpe ratio aiming to measure the performance of mutual funds. The contemporary development in computer’s computational power allowed to apply more complex performance ratios, which take into account also higher moments of return probability distribution. Although these ratios were proposed to help the investors to improve the results of portfolio optimization, we empirically demonstrated in our paper that this may not necessarily be true. On the historical dataset of DJIA components we empirically showed that both Sharpe ratio and MAD ratio outperformed Rachev ratio. However, for Rachev ratio we assumed only one level of parameters value. Different set-ups of parameters may provide different results and thus further analysis is certainly required.

  10. Poisson's ratio of fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansson, Henrik; Helsing, Johan

    1996-05-01

    Poisson's ratio flow diagrams, that is, the Poisson's ratio versus the fiber fraction, are obtained numerically for hexagonal arrays of elastic circular fibers in an elastic matrix. High numerical accuracy is achieved through the use of an interface integral equation method. Questions concerning fixed point theorems and the validity of existing asymptotic relations are investigated and partially resolved. Our findings for the transverse effective Poisson's ratio, together with earlier results for random systems by other authors, make it possible to formulate a general statement for Poisson's ratio flow diagrams: For composites with circular fibers and where the phase Poisson's ratios are equal to 1/3, the system with the lowest stiffness ratio has the highest Poisson's ratio. For other choices of the elastic moduli for the phases, no simple statement can be made.

  11. PENGARUH PERUBAHAN RETURN ON ASSETS, PERUBAHAN DEBT TO EQUITY RATIO DAN PERUBAHAN CASH RATIO TERHADAP PERUBAHAN DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Soesetio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Dividend Payout Ratio used to calculate all of revenue that will be accepted by stockholders as cash dividend, usually explained as percentage. This research was conducted to know several factors that affected change of Dividend Payout Ratio and to know the significance level and the correlation between dependent and independent variable. Analysis instrument used was parametric statistic. Based on the result of statistic test,  The Change of Return on Asset (X1, The Change of Debt to Equity Ratio (X2,  were able to explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio, and The Change of CashRatio can’t explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio

  12. H/He ratios for WN stars in the LMC and the galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, D.N.; Conti, P.S.

    1982-01-01

    In the visible, most of the He II lines of WR stars are due to the Pickering series (n-4). Though there are significant problems with using the Pickering decrement the authors have utilized it to find H/He ratios for 21 WN stars in the LMC, and 38 stars in the Galaxy. They have additionally extended the analysis to include the derivation of the H/He ratio if the lines are optically thick. (Auth.)

  13. Validation of SAGE II ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnold, D. M.; Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Veiga, R. E.; Barnes, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Five ozone profiles from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared with coincident ozonesonde measurements obtained at Natal, Brazil, and Wallops Island, Virginia. It is shown that the mean difference between all of the measurements is about 1 percent and that the agreement is within 7 percent at altitudes between 20 and 53 km. Good agreement is also found for ozone mixing ratios on pressure surfaces. It is concluded that the SAGE II profiles provide useful ozone information up to about 60 km altitude.

  14. New possible resonance for population II Cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.; Kidman, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Light and velocity curves of some radial mode variable stars seem to indicate a resonance where the second overtone has a period exactly half that of the fundamental mode. The two classes of stars that show this resonance by bumps in their light curves are the classical Cepheids and the population II BL Her variables. We here propose that there is another resonance for the population II W Vir variables where the ratio of the first overtone to the fundamental periods is 0.5

  15. Pearce element ratios: A paradigm for testing hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J. K.; Nicholls, Jim; Stanley, Clifford R.; Pearce, T. H.

    Science moves forward with the development of new ideas that are encapsulated by hypotheses whose aim is to explain the structure of data sets or to expand existing theory. These hypotheses remain conjecture until they have been tested. In fact, Karl Popper advocated that a scientist's job does not finish with the creation of an idea but, rather, begins with the testing of the related hypotheses. In Popper's [1959] advocation it is implicit that there be tools with which we can test our hypotheses. Consequently, the development of rigorous tests for conceptual models plays a major role in maintaining the integrity of scientific endeavor [e.g., Greenwood, 1989].

  16. Hubungan Analisis Ratio Keuangan dengan Kesehatan Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekarso Soekarso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the business world, companies develop a vision and mission to improve welfare in the future. The work program the company is to achieve productivity and profitability. Finance in the company is one of the strategic functions that includes wealth management and transformation of added value (added value and also the control of corporate health. The financial statements such as balance sheet (balance sheet, profit and loss statement (income statement, and financial ratio (financial ratios, reflects the company's performance and health. Financial ratio analysis relates to the health of the company through a ratio of effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, profitability, liquidity, and solvability. Analysis shows that whenever actual value of financial ratios is above standard it means the company is healthy, and when the actual value of financial ratios is below the standard, it reversely means that companies are not healthy.

  17. On a conjecture on linear systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vector bundle E which is the pullback by the canonical map of the universal quotient bundle TPg−1(−1) on Pg−1 and stated a more general ... the canonical map. : C → Pg−1 of universal quotient bundle on Pg−1 . Then the map .... In other words, we have a subbundle of π. ∗. (W. ∗. ) that is isomorphic to L. −1 . This gives a.

  18. Thermodynamic aspects of light boson conjectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, P.S.; Miller, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Gauge theories have often led to the hypothesis for new particles (light bosons) in order to overcome their unpleasant features. Then one faces the dilemma of not observing these experimentally. We consider a many body system under thermal equilibrium which could emit the light bosons and point out the criterion for existence of the Bose-Einstein condensate for these new bosons

  19. The 'revealed preferences' theory: Assumptions and conjectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.H.

    1983-01-01

    Being kind of intuitive psychology the 'Revealed-Preferences'- theory based approaches towards determining the acceptable risks are a useful method for the generation of hypotheses. In view of the fact that reliability engineering develops faster than methods for the determination of reliability aims the Revealed-Preferences approach is a necessary preliminary help. Some of the assumptions on which the 'Revealed-Preferences' theory is based will be identified and analysed and afterwards compared with experimentally obtained results. (orig./DG) [de

  20. Mendelian Genetics: Paradigm, Conjecture, or Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, V.; Brouwer, W.

    1984-01-01

    Applies Kuhn's model of the structure of scientific revolutions, Popper's hypothetic-deductive model of science, and Lakatos' methodology of competing research programs to a historical biological episode. Suggests using Kuhn's model (emphasizing the nonrational basis of science) and Popper's model (emphasizing the rational basis of science) in…

  1. Mixed ligand complexes of alkaline earth metals: Part XII. Mg(II, Ca(II, Sr(II and Ba(II complexes with 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde and salicylaldehyde or hydroxyaromatic ketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITHLESH AGRAWAL

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of alkaline earth metal chlorides with 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde and salicylaldehyde, 2-hydroxyacetophenone or 2-hydroxypropiophenone have been carried out in 1 : 1 : 1 mole ratio and the mixed ligand complexes of the type MLL’(H2O2 (where M = Mg(II, Ca(II, Sr(II and Ba(II, HL = 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde and HL’ = salicylaldehyde, 2-hydroxyacetophenone or 2-hydroxypropiophenone have been isolated. These complexes were characterized by TLC, conductance measurements, IR and 1H-NMR spectra.

  2. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Keith Edward [Kobe, JP; Moser, William Elliott [Peoria, IL; Roozenboom, Stephan Donald [Washington, IL; Knox, Kevin Jay [Peoria, IL

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  3. ON RADIATION PRESSURE IN STATIC, DUSTY H II REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draine, B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation pressure acting on gas and dust causes H II regions to have central densities that are lower than the density near the ionized boundary. H II regions in static equilibrium comprise a family of similarity solutions with three parameters: β, γ, and the product Q 0 n rms ; β characterizes the stellar spectrum, γ characterizes the dust/gas ratio, Q 0 is the stellar ionizing output (photons/s), and n rms is the rms density within the ionized region. Adopting standard values for β and γ, varying Q 0 n rms generates a one-parameter family of density profiles, ranging from nearly uniform density (small Q 0 n rms ) to shell-like (large Q 0 n rms ). When Q 0 n rms ∼> 10 52 cm -3 s -1 , dusty H II regions have conspicuous central cavities, even if no stellar wind is present. For given β, γ, and Q 0 n rms , a fourth quantity, which can be Q 0 , determines the overall size and density of the H II region. Examples of density and emissivity profiles are given. We show how quantities of interest-such as the peak-to-central emission measure ratio, the rms-to-mean density ratio, the edge-to-rms density ratio, and the fraction of the ionizing photons absorbed by the gas-depend on β, γ, and Q 0 n rms . For dusty H II regions, compression of the gas and dust into an ionized shell results in a substantial increase in the fraction of the stellar photons that actually ionize H (relative to a uniform-density H II region with the same dust/gas ratio and density n = n rms ). We discuss the extent to which radial drift of dust grains in H II regions can alter the dust-to-gas ratio. The applicability of these solutions to real H II regions is discussed.

  4. Studies of mn (ii) and ni (ii) complexes with schiff base derived from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, manganese(II) complex is insoluble in most organic solvents but soluble in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). The molar conductance of the complexes measured are, indicating their non-electrolytic nature. The potentiometric and spectrophotometric studies of the complex compounds revealed 1:1 metal to ligand ratio.

  5. Quininium tetrachloridozinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zhuang Chen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound {systematic name: 2-[hydroxy(6-methoxyquinolin-1-ium-4-ylmethyl]-8-vinylquinuclidin-1-ium tetrachloridozinc(II}, (C20H26N2O2[ZnCl4], consists of a double protonated quininium cation and a tetrachloridozinc(II anion. The ZnII ion is in a slightly distorted tetrahedral coordination environment. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular N—H...Cl and O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  6. Burkina Faso - BRIGHT II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...

  7. Corporate prediction models, ratios or regression analysis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijnen, E.J.; Wijn, M.F.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The models developed in the literature with respect to the prediction of a company s failure are based on ratios. It has been shown before that these models should be rejected on theoretical grounds. Our study of industrial companies in the Netherlands shows that the ratios which are used in

  8. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio or the ratio of boys over girls at birth have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews, Johnson and Neil (2008) studied the direct evidence of individual pregnancies and

  9. The Golden Ratio--A Contrary Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Clement

    2005-01-01

    Many assertions about the occurrence of the golden ratio phi in art, architecture, and nature have been shown to be false, unsupported, or misleading. For instance, we show that the spirals found in sea shells, in particular the "Nautilus pompilius," are not in the shape of the golden ratio, as is often claimed. Some of the most interesting…

  10. Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D. R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

  11. Key financial ratios can foretell hospital closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, M L; Wertheim, P

    1993-11-01

    An analysis of various financial ratios sampled from open and closed hospitals shows that certain leverage, liquidity, capital efficiency, and resource availability ratios can predict hospital closure up to two years in advance of the closure with an accuracy of nearly 75 percent.

  12. Charge ratio of muons from atmospheric neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Stanev, Todor

    2003-05-22

    We calculate the intensities and angular distributions of positive and negative muons produced by atmospheric neutrinos. We comment on some sources of uncertainty in the charge ratio. We also draw attention to a potentially interesting signature of neutrino oscillations in the muon charge ratio, and we discuss the prospects for its observation (which are not quite within the reach of currently planned magnetized detectors)

  13. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio, or the ratio of boys to girls at birth, have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews et al. ["You are what your mother eats: Evidence for maternal preconception diet

  14. Financial Ratio Analysis Comes to Nonprofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabotar, Kent John

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate their financial health, a growing number of colleges, universities, and other nonprofit organizations are using financial ratio analysis, a technique used in business. The strengths and weaknesses of ratio analysis are assessed and suggestions are made on how nonprofits can use it most effectively. (Author/MLW)

  15. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes Microbes Can Distort the Sex Ratio of Populations. Stephen J Freeland Laurence D Hurst. General Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 68-78 ...

  16. Fe (III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of schiff bases based-on glycine and phenylalanine: Synthesis, magnetic/thermal properties and antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevgi, Fatih; Bagkesici, Ugur; Kursunlu, Ahmed Nuri; Guler, Ersin

    2018-02-01

    Zinc (II), copper (II), nickel (II), cobalt (II) and iron (III) complexes of Schiff bases (LG, LP) derived from 2-hydroxynaphthaldehyde with glycine and phenylalanine were reported and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analyses, melting point, FT-IR, magnetic susceptibility and thermal analyses (TGA). TGA data show that iron and cobalt include to the coordinated water and metal:ligand ratio is 1:2 while the complex stoichiometry for Ni (II), Cu (II) and Zn (II) complexes is 1:1. As expected, Ni (II) and Zn (II) complexes are diamagnetic; Cu (II), Co (II) and Fe (III) complexes are paramagnetic character due to a strong ligand of LG and LP. The LG, LP and their metal complexes were screened for their antimicrobial activities against five Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis) and three Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and one fungi (Candida albicans) by using broth microdilution techniques. The activity data show that ligands and their metal complexes exhibited moderate to good activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi.

  17. cobalt(II), nickel(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    procedures. The supporting electrolyte, NaClO4 used in the voltammetric experiment was purchased from. Sigma. IR spectra were recorded in KBr medium on .... (13⋅6). L = Schiff base ligand form of one broad band envelope. The electronic spectra of Co(II) complex showed two spin-allowed transitions at 17856 and ...

  18. Quiet High Speed Fan II (QHSF II): Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Karen; Weir, Don; Ross, Dave

    2012-01-01

    This report details the aerodynamic, mechanical, structural design and fabrication of a Honey Engines Quiet High Speed Fan II (lower hub/tip ratio and higher specific flow than the Baseline I fan). This fan/nacelle system incorporates features such as advanced forward sweep and an advanced integrated fan/fan exit guide vane design that provides for the following characteristics: (1) Reduced noise at supersonic tip speeds, in comparison to current state-of-the-art fan technology; (2) Improved aeroelastic stability within the anticipated operating envelope; and (3) Aerodynamic performance consistent with current state-of-the-art fan technology. This fan was fabricated by Honeywell and tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Ft Low Speed Wind Tunnel for aerodynamic, aeromechanical, and acoustic performance.

  19. THE HCN/HNC ABUNDANCE RATIO TOWARD DIFFERENT EVOLUTIONARY PHASES OF MASSIVE STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Mihwa; Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kee-Tae, E-mail: mihwajin.sf@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongeun.lee@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: ktkim@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-20

    Using the H{sup 13}CN and HN{sup 13}C J = 1–0 line observations, the abundance ratio of HCN/HNC has been estimated for different evolutionary stages of massive star formation: infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), high-mass protostellar objects (HMPOs), and ultracompact H ii regions (UCH iis). IRDCs were divided into “quiescent IRDC cores (qIRDCc)” and “active IRDC cores (aIRDCc),” depending on star formation activity. The HCN/HNC ratio is known to be higher at active and high temperature regions related to ongoing star formation, compared to cold and quiescent regions. Our observations toward 8 qIRDCc, 16 aIRDCc, 23 HMPOs, and 31 UCH iis show consistent results; the ratio is 0.97 (±0.10), 2.65 (±0.88), 4.17 (±1.03), and 8.96 (±3.32) in these respective evolutionary stages, increasing from qIRDCc to UCH iis. The change of the HCN/HNC abundance ratio, therefore, seems directly associated with the evolutionary stages of star formation, which have different temperatures. One suggested explanation for this trend is the conversion of HNC to HCN, which occurs effectively at higher temperatures. To test the explanation, we performed a simple chemical model calculation. In order to fit the observed results, the energy barrier of the conversion must be much lower than the value provided by theoretical calculations.

  20. Geometrical scaling in charm structure function ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroun, G.R.; Rezaei, B.

    2014-01-01

    By using a Laplace-transform technique, we solve the next-to-leading-order master equation for charm production and derive a compact formula for the ratio R c =F L cc ¯ /F 2 cc ¯ , which is useful for extracting the charm structure function from the reduced charm cross section, in particular, at DESY HERA, at small x. Our results show that this ratio is independent of x at small x. In this method of determining the ratios, we apply geometrical scaling in charm production in deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Our analysis shows that the renormalization scales have a sizable impact on the ratio R c at high Q 2 . Our results for the ratio of the charm structure functions are in a good agreement with some phenomenological models

  1. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios Arvanitis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  2. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  3. Independent isomer yield ratio of 90Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Warner, R.A.; Ford, G.P.; Willmes, H.

    1985-05-01

    The independent isomer yield ratio for 90 Rb from thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been measured by use of a new technique involving a pulsed reactor and an on-line mass spectrometer facility. The apparent isomer yield ratio was measured for different ion collection time intervals and extrapolated to zero collection time to eliminate interference from 90 Kr decay. The observed isomer yield ratio of 8.7 +- 1.0 is one of the largest ratios measured for a low energy fission process. However, a statistical model analysis shows that the average angular momentum ( = 4.5) deduced from this isomer yield ratio is consistent with average angular momentum for other products from low energy fission. 7 refs

  4. Energy ratios in Finnish agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. MIKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess energy ratios and net energy in plant production and energy ratios in animal production in Finland. Energy ratios and net energy were determined on the basis of plant- and animal-specific energy analyses. In plant production, energy ratios and net energy were assessed as a function of nitrogen fertilization, because indirect energy input in the form of agrochemicals was 54—73% from the total energy input and nitrogen was responsible for the major part of this. The highest energy ratio was 18.6 for reed canary grass. As a whole reed canary grass was superior to the other crops, which were barley, spring wheat, spring turnip rape, ley for silage, potato and sugar beet. Reed canary grass and sugar beet gained the highest net energy yields of 111–115 GJ ha-1. The optimum energy ratio was gained in general with less nitrogen fertilization intensity than farmers use. The energy ratios in pork production varied between 0.14–1.28 depending on what was included or excluded in the analysis and for milk production between 0.15–1.85. Ratios of 1.28 in pork production and 1.85 in milk production are unrealistic as they do not give any shelter to the animals, although they can be approached in very low-input production systems. If the ratio is calculated with feed energy content then the ratio is low, 0.14–0.22 for pork and 0.15 for milk. This shows that animals can convert 14–22 percent of the input energy to usable products. In pork production, the largest portion of the energy input was the ventilation of the building. In milk production milking and cooling consumes a lot of energy and for this reason the electricity consumption is high.;

  5. Nuclear physics II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elze, T.

    1988-01-01

    This script consisting of two parts contains the matter of the courses Nuclear Pyhsics I and II, as they were presented in the winter term 1987/88 and summer term 1988 for students of physics at Frankfurt University. In the present part II the matter of the summer term is summarized. (orig.) [de

  6. World War II Homefront.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  7. Quantification in immunohistochemistry: the measurement of the ratios of collagen types I and II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loos, C. M.; Marijianowski, M. M.; Becker, A. E.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative techniques in immunohistochemistry are needed, but they are rarely applied because of doubtful reproducibility. We have developed a method for the detection of collagen types I and III in situ. The method applied was a two-step immuno-alkaline phosphatase technique with visualization of

  8. An Automated High Aspect Ratio Mesher for Computational Fluid Dynamics, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are routinely used while designing, analyzing, and optimizing air- and spacecraft. An important component of CFD...

  9. The photometric evolution of dissolving star clusters. II. Realistic models. Colours and M/L ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anders, P.; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.; BAumgardt, H.

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary synthesis models are the primary means of constructing spectrophotometric models of stellar populations, and deriving physical parameters from observations compared with these models. One of the basic assumptions of evolutionary synthesis models has been the time-independence of the

  10. Comparison of Maxilla Mandibular Transverse Ratios With Class II Anteroposterior Discrepancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-20

    skeletal relationships. Malocclusion can occur in all three planes of space and result from dental , skeletal, or both dental and skeletal anomalies ...somewhat surprising when considering the prevalence of dental anomalies such as root dilacerations and morphologic anomalies . The data suggests that...Approval: \\SCJ o------===== Date 10Jul14 SERVICE DEAN APPROVAL 1. Name: DREW W. FALUS, COL, USAF. DC DEAN, GRADUATE DENTAL EDUCATION 2. School (if

  11. Spectrophotometry of white dwarfs as observed at high signal-to-noise ratio. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstein, J.L.; Liebert, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    CCD spectrophotometry is presented of 140 white dwarfs at high SNR and is analyzed in detail. Energy distributions at 14,000 A are given at bandpasses from 3571 to 8300 A, and equivalent widths of lines of H, He I, metals, and atomic and molecular carbon are given as functions of color for DB, DQ, DZ, and DA stars. New forbidden H I transitions at 6068 A and 6632 A are found in at least the two hottest DB stars, new metallic features are found in cooler DZ stars, and the presence of Ca I in vMa 2 is confirmed. The spectrum of the hot DQAB star G227 - 5 and the pressure-shifted carbon bands seen in 0038-226 are discussed in detail. Comparison of the optical energy distribution of the latter with published IR fluxes shows that the 1-2 micron region is strongly depressed, with extensive blanketing. Equivalent widths, central depths, and width parameters are presented for H-alpha in 73 DA stars in the sample, and their dependences on color are studied. 64 refs

  12. Population II brown dwarfs and dark haloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinnecker, H.

    1986-01-01

    Opacity-limited fragmentation is investigated as a function of the dust-to-gas ratio and it is found that the characteristic protostellar mass Msub(*) is metallicity-dependent. This dependence is such that, for the low metallicity gas out of which the stars of Population II formed in the halo, Msub(*) is less than 0.1 M solar mass. If applicable, these theoretical considerations would predict that substellar masses have formed more frequently under the metal-poor conditions in the early Galaxy (Population II brown dwarfs). Thus the missing mass in the Galactic halo and in the dark haloes around other spirals may well reside in these metal-poor Population II brown dwarfs. (author)

  13. Comparing computing formulas for estimating concentration ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.

    1984-03-01

    This paper provides guidance on the choice of computing formulas (estimators) for estimating concentration ratios and other ratio-type measures of radionuclides and other environmental contaminant transfers between ecosystem components. Mathematical expressions for the expected value of three commonly used estimators (arithmetic mean of ratios, geometric mean of ratios, and the ratio of means) are obtained when the multivariate lognormal distribution is assumed. These expressions are used to explain why these estimators will not in general give the same estimate of the average concentration ratio. They illustrate that the magnitude of the discrepancies depends on the magnitude of measurement biases, and on the variances and correlations associated with spatial heterogeneity and measurement errors. This paper also reports on a computer simulation study that compares the accuracy of eight computing formulas for estimating a ratio relationship that is constant over time and/or space. Statistical models appropriate for both controlled spiking experiments and observational field studies for either normal or lognormal distributions are considered. 24 references, 15 figures, 7 tables

  14. RTNS-II utilization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwilsky, Klaus M.

    1978-09-01

    This plan describes a general program for the effective utilization of this resource by the fusion materials community. Because its flux is low relative to levels expected in commercial fusion reactors, the RINS-II is not expected to produce data of direct engineering significance (with some exceptions). Rather, it will be used chiefly to aid in the development of models of high energy neutron effects. Such models are needed in projecting engineering data obtained in high flux fission reactors to the fusion environment. Fission reactors, because of their relatively soft neutron spectra, cannot produce the high ratio of transmutations to displacements (except in an important special case) or the high energy recoil atoms appropriate to fusion reactors utilizing the D-T reaction.

  15. VELOCITY-RESOLVED [C ii] EMISSION AND [C ii]/FIR MAPPING ALONG ORION WITH HERSCHEL *,**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoechea, Javier R.; Teyssier, D.; Etxaluze, M.; Goldsmith, P.F.; Ossenkopf, V.; Gerin, M.; Bergin, E.A.; Black, J.H.; Cernicharo, J.; Cuadrado, S.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Hacar, A.; Lis, D.C.; Marcelino, N.; Melnick, G.J.; Müller, H.S.P.; Persson, C.; Pety, J.; Röllig, M.; Schilke, P.; Simon, R.; Snell, R.L.; Stutzki, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first ~7.5′×11.5′ velocity-resolved (~0.2 km s−1) map of the [C ii] 158 μm line toward the Orion molecular cloud 1 (OMC 1) taken with the Herschel/HIFI instrument. In combination with far-infrared (FIR) photometric images and velocity-resolved maps of the H41α hydrogen recombination and CO J=2-1 lines, this data set provides an unprecedented view of the intricate small-scale kinematics of the ionized/PDR/molecular gas interfaces and of the radiative feedback from massive stars. The main contribution to the [C ii] luminosity (~85 %) is from the extended, FUV-illuminated face of the cloud (G0>500, nH>5×103 cm−3) and from dense PDRs (G≳104, nH≳105 cm−3) at the interface between OMC 1 and the H ii region surrounding the Trapezium cluster. Around ~15 % of the [C ii] emission arises from a different gas component without CO counterpart. The [C ii] excitation, PDR gas turbulence, line opacity (from [13C ii]) and role of the geometry of the illuminating stars with respect to the cloud are investigated. We construct maps of the L[C ii]/LFIR and LFIR/MGas ratios and show that L[C ii]/LFIR decreases from the extended cloud component (~10−2–10−3) to the more opaque star-forming cores (~10−3–10−4). The lowest values are reminiscent of the “[C ii] deficit” seen in local ultra-luminous IR galaxies hosting vigorous star formation. Spatial correlation analysis shows that the decreasing L[C ii]/LFIR ratio correlates better with the column density of dust through the molecular cloud than with LFIR/MGas. We conclude that the [C ii] emitting column relative to the total dust column along each line of sight is responsible for the observed L[C ii]/LFIR variations through the cloud. PMID:26568638

  16. VELOCITY-RESOLVED [C ii] EMISSION AND [C ii]/FIR MAPPING ALONG ORION WITH HERSCHEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoechea, Javier R; Teyssier, D; Etxaluze, M; Goldsmith, P F; Ossenkopf, V; Gerin, M; Bergin, E A; Black, J H; Cernicharo, J; Cuadrado, S; Encrenaz, P; Falgarone, E; Fuente, A; Hacar, A; Lis, D C; Marcelino, N; Melnick, G J; Müller, H S P; Persson, C; Pety, J; Röllig, M; Schilke, P; Simon, R; Snell, R L; Stutzki, J

    2015-10-10

    We present the first ~7.5'×11.5' velocity-resolved (~0.2 km s -1 ) map of the [C ii] 158 μ m line toward the Orion molecular cloud 1 (OMC 1) taken with the Herschel /HIFI instrument. In combination with far-infrared (FIR) photometric images and velocity-resolved maps of the H41 α hydrogen recombination and CO J =2-1 lines, this data set provides an unprecedented view of the intricate small-scale kinematics of the ionized/PDR/molecular gas interfaces and of the radiative feedback from massive stars. The main contribution to the [C ii] luminosity (~85 %) is from the extended, FUV-illuminated face of the cloud ( G 0 >500, n H >5×10 3 cm -3 ) and from dense PDRs ( G ≳10 4 , n H ≳10 5 cm -3 ) at the interface between OMC 1 and the H ii region surrounding the Trapezium cluster. Around ~15 % of the [C ii] emission arises from a different gas component without CO counterpart. The [C ii] excitation, PDR gas turbulence, line opacity (from [ 13 C ii]) and role of the geometry of the illuminating stars with respect to the cloud are investigated. We construct maps of the L [C ii]/ L FIR and L FIR / M Gas ratios and show that L [C ii]/ L FIR decreases from the extended cloud component (~10 -2 -10 -3 ) to the more opaque star-forming cores (~10 -3 -10 -4 ). The lowest values are reminiscent of the "[C ii] deficit" seen in local ultra-luminous IR galaxies hosting vigorous star formation. Spatial correlation analysis shows that the decreasing L [C ii]/ L FIR ratio correlates better with the column density of dust through the molecular cloud than with L FIR / M Gas . We conclude that the [C ii] emitting column relative to the total dust column along each line of sight is responsible for the observed L [C ii]/ L FIR variations through the cloud.

  17. Biologically active new Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes of N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. SPÎNU

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron(II, cobalt(II, nickel (II, copper (II, zinc(II and cadmium(II complexes of the type ML2Cl2, where M is a metal and L is the Schiff base N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine (TNAM formed by the condensation of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylamine, were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis as well as magnetic and spectroscopic measurements. The elemental analyses suggest the stoichiometry to be 1:2 (metal:ligand. Magnetic susceptibility data coupled with electronic, ESR and Mössbauer spectra suggest a distorted octahedral structure for the Fe(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, a square-planar geometry for the Cu(II compound and a tetrahedral geometry for the Zn(II and Cd(II complexes. The infrared and NMR spectra of the complexes agree with co-ordination to the central metal atom through nitrogen and sulphur atoms. Conductance measurements suggest the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes, except for the Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes, which are 1:2 electrolytes. The Schiff base and its metal chelates were screened for their biological activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the metal chelates were found to possess better antibacterial activity than that of the uncomplexed Schiff base.

  18. Introducing optional reserve ratios in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Lóránt Varga

    2010-01-01

    As of the reserve maintenance period commencing in November 2010, Hungarian credit institutions will be free to decide whether to apply the previously valid 2% reserve ratio, or to apply a higher mandatory reserve ratio. Credit institutions required to hold reserves may select from reserve ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5%, and may change their decision on a semi-annual basis. In line with the international best practice, the purpose of the MNB’s reserve requirement system is to support credit institu...

  19. Transcription and the aspect ratio of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kasper Wibeck; Bohr, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    analysis of transcription. It is shown that under certain reasonable assumptions transcription is only possible if the aspect ratio is in the regime corresponding to further twisting. We find this constraint to be in agreement with long-established crystallographic studies of DNA.......Two separate regimes exist for the aspect ratio of DNA. A low aspect regime where DNA will twist further under strain and a high aspect regime where DNA will untwist under strain. The question of the overall geometry, i.e. the aspect ratio, of DNA is revisited from the perspective of a geometrical...

  20. Financial Ratios and Perceived Household Financial Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Garrett

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the relative strength of three objective measures of financial health (using the solvency, liquidity, and investment asset ratio in predicting a household’s subjective feeling of current financial satisfaction. Using a sample of 6,923 respondents in the 2008 Health and Retirement Study this paper presents evidence of two main findings: 1 the solvency ratio is most strongly associated with financial satisfaction levels based on a cross-sectional design and 2 changes in the investment asset ratio are most strongly associated with changes in financial satisfaction over time.

  1. Urinary oxalate to creatinine ratios in healthy Turkish schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Ismail; Çelik, İlknur; Poyrazoglu, Hakan M; Köse, Kader; Tanrıkulu, Esen; Sahin, Habibe; Yılmaz, Kenan; Öztürk, Ahmet; Yel, Sibel; Gündüz, Zübeyde; Düşünsel, Ruhan

    2017-11-01

    we aimed to establish reference values for urinary oxalate to creatinine ratios in healthy children aged 6-15 years and to investigate the relationship between their nutritional habits and oxalate excretion. Random urine specimens from 953 healthy children aged 6-15 years were obtained and analyzed for oxalate and creatinine. Additionally, a 24-h dietary recall form was prepared and given to them. The ingredient composition of the diet was calculated. The children were divided into three groups according to age: Group I (69 years, n = 353), Group II (10-12 years, n = 335), and Group III (13-15 years, n = 265). The 95th percentile of the oxalate to creatinine ratio for subjects aged 6-9, 10-12, and 13-15 years were 0.048, 0.042, and 0.042 mg/mg, respectively. The oxalate to creatinine ratio was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 and Group 3. Urinary oxalate excretion was positively correlated with increased protein intake and negatively correlated with age. A significant positive correlation was determined between urinary oxalate excretion and the proline, serine, protein, and glycine content of diet. Dietary proline intake showed a positive correlation with the urine oxalate to creatinine ratio and was found to be an independent predictor for urinary oxalate. These data lend support to the idea that every country should have its own normal reference values to determine the underlying metabolic risk factor for kidney stone disease since regional variation in the dietary intake of proteins and other nutrients can affect normal urinary excretion of oxalate.

  2. Evolved H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchwell, E.

    1975-01-01

    A probable evolutionary sequence of H II regions based on six distinct types of observed objects is suggested. Two examples which may deviate from this idealized sequence, are discussed. Even though a size-mean density relation of H II regions can be used as a rough indication of whether a nebula is very young or evolved, it is argued that such a relation is not likely to be useful for the quantitative assignment of ages to H II regions. Evolved H II regions appear to fit into one of four structural types: rings, core-halos, smooth structures, and irregular or filamentary structures. Examples of each type are given with their derived physical parameters. The energy balance in these nebulae is considered. The mass of ionized gas in evolved H II regions is in general too large to trace the nebula back to single compact H II regions. Finally, the morphological type of the Galaxy is considered from its H II region content. 2 tables, 2 figs., 29 refs

  3. Compressible gas flow through idealized cracks of large aspect ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivers, T.C.; Skinner, J.; Williams, M.E.

    1975-07-01

    Gas flow through large aspect ratio idealized cracks is considered, where isothermal conditions with choking at exit are assumed in the theoretical analysis. For smooth wall cracks, comparisons are made between experimentally determined flowrates and those predicted, and good agreement is shown. This is followed by consideration of flow through a notional crack to examine the influence of width and surface roughness. By considering flow as simply proportional to Wsup(n), the treatment shows 'n' to reduce with W increasing, but surface roughness increases 'n' over the value appropriate to smooth conditions. From these observations it is concluded that further work is required to determine:- (i) real crack geometry and its influence on any leak-before-break philosophy, and (ii) the influence of real surface roughness on flowrate. (author)

  4. The gas-to-dust ratio in the Orion nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perinotto, M.; Patriarchi, P.

    1974-01-01

    About sixty spectra have been obtained using an image tube with the nebular spectrograph of the Asiago 122cm reflector, in a position W-E from north of the Trapezium across the star P 1925 into the bay area of the Orion Nebula. Twenty-five spectra have been selected for accurate measurements of the Hβ intensity and of the electron density by the [S II] 6730/6716 intensity line ratio. The results are interpreted in terms of well-mixed gas and dust, not only in the central bright regions, but even in the bay area, where the coefficient of dust extinction counted per electron is found to be larger than in the bright centre of the nebula

  5. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    instances of curious sex ratios exemplify an important principle: the fitness ..... markable transition - the whole means of sex determination has changed. No longer ... to the cytoplasmic symbiont is self-evident; the symbionts simply increase the.

  6. Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Depart...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children with Asthma, published in Volume 3,...

  7. Anomalous Enantiomer Ratios in Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, G.; Sant, M.; Asiyo, C.

    2009-03-01

    The enantiomer (mirror-image) ratios of sugar acids in carbonaceous meteorites have been measured. D-enantiomer excesses are found in all acids measured thus far. This includes rare as well as common compounds.

  8. Recent development in isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platzner, I.

    1992-01-01

    Within the limited of this review the following topics will be briefly discussed: a) Accuracy, precision, internal relative standard deviation (RISD) and external relative standard deviation (RESD) of isotope ratio measurements. With advanced instrumentation and use of standard reference materials, high accuracy and RESD = 0.002% (or better) may be achieved; b) The advantages of modern automatic isotope ratio mass spectrometer are briefly described. Computer controlled operation and data acquisition, and multiple ion collection are the recent important improvement; c) The isotopic fractionation during the course of isotope ratio measurement is considered as a major source of errors in thermal ionization of metallic elements. The phenomenon in strontium, neodymium, uranium, lead and calcium and methods to correct the measured data are discussed; d) Applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in atomic weight determinations, the isotope dilution technique, isotope geology, and isotope effects in biological systems are described together with specific applications in various research and technology area. (author)

  9. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... between preoperatively measured neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) – as an inflammation ... analgesic (tenoxicam – as the first drug of choice, paracetamol, tramadol, or pethidine) usage ... fracture fixation). Age, sex, type of ...

  10. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it used? The urine albumin test or albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) is used to screen people with chronic conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure ( hypertension ) that put them at an ...

  11. Temperature diagnostic line ratios of Fe XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J.C.; Smith, B.W.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM)

    1986-01-01

    Based on extensive calculations of the excitation rates of Fe XVII, four temperature-sensitive line ratios are investigated, paying special attention to the contribution of resonances to the excitation rates and to the contributions of dielectronic recombination satellites to the observed line intensities. The predictions are compared to FPCS observations of Puppis A and to Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and SOLEX observations of the sun. Temperature-sensitive line ratios are also computed for emitting gas covering a broad temperature range. It is found that each ratio yields a differently weighted average for the temperature and that this accounts for some apparent discrepancies between the theoretical ratios and solar observations. The effects of this weighting on the Fe XVII temperature diagnostics and on the analogous Fe XXIV/Fe XXV satellite line temperature diagnostics are discussed. 27 references

  12. Ratio Analysis: Where Investments Meet Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Susan D.; Woodbury, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses ratio analysis by which investments may be evaluated. Requires the use of fundamental mathematics, problem solving, and a comparison of the mathematical results within the framework of industry. (Author/NB)

  13. Isotopic ratios in the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This colloquium is aimed at presentation of isotope ratio measurements in different objects of solar system and surrounding interstellar space and evaluation of what information on composition and structure of primitive solar nebula and on chemical evolution of interstellar space in this part of the galaxy can be deduced from it. Isotope ratio in solar system got from laboratory study of extraterrestrial materials is a subject of this colloquium. Then isotope ratio measured in solar wind, planets and comets. Measurements either are made in-situ by mass spectrometry of ions in solar wind or planetery atmosphere gases either are remote measurements of spectra emitted by giant planets and comets. At last, planetology and astrophysics implications are presented and reviewed. Consraints for solar system formation model can be deduced from isotope ratio measurement. Particularly, isotope anomalies are marks of the processes, which have influenced the primitive solar nebula contraction [fr

  14. From Fibonacci Sequence to the Golden Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fiorenza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the well-known characterization of the Golden ratio as limit of the ratio of consecutive terms of the Fibonacci sequence, and we give an explanation of this property in the framework of the Difference Equations Theory. We show that the Golden ratio coincides with this limit not because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of the characteristic polynomial, but, from a more general point of view, because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of a restricted set of roots, which in this special case coincides with the two roots of the characteristic polynomial. This new perspective is the heart of the characterization of the limit of ratio of consecutive terms of all linear homogeneous recurrences with constant coefficients, without any assumption on the roots of the characteristic polynomial, which may be, in particular, also complex and not real.

  15. Determining sex ratios of turtle hatchlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Previous status assessments of marine turtles have assumed that the natural sex ratio of a marine turtle population is 1:1 (e.g. Conant et al. 2009). However, this...

  16. Preliminary PBFA II design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.L.; VanDevender, J.P.; Martin, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    The upgrade of Sandia National Laboratories particle beam fusion accelerator, PBFA I, to PBFA II presents several interesting and challenging pulsed power design problems. PBFA II requires increasing the PBFA I output parameters from 2 MV, 30 TW, 1 MJ to 4 MV, 100 TW, 3.5 MJ with the constraint of using much of the same PBFA I hardware. The increased PBFA II output will be obtained by doubling the number of modules (from 36 to 72), increasing the primary energy storage (from 4 MJ to 15 MJ), lowering the pulse forming line (PFL) output impedance, and adding a voltage doubling network

  17. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy

  18. The Laplace Likelihood Ratio Test for Heteroscedasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martin van Zyl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the likelihood ratio test for heteroscedasticity, assuming the Laplace distribution, gives good results for Gaussian and fat-tailed data. The likelihood ratio test, assuming normality, is very sensitive to any deviation from normality, especially when the observations are from a distribution with fat tails. Such a likelihood test can also be used as a robust test for a constant variance in residuals or a time series if the data is partitioned into groups.

  19. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, John M; Page, Lionel

    2009-11-25

    Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D), which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

  20. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Coates

    Full Text Available Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D, which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

  1. Analysis of the width ratio and wear rate of maxillary anterior teeth in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yeon-Ah; Yang, Hong-So; Park, Sang-Won; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Park, Chan

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the width ratio of maxillary anterior teeth according to age in the Korean population and to evaluate the maxillary central incisor width-to-length (W/L) ratio, given differences in age and gender. Ninety-three Korean adults were divided into 3 groups (n = 31) by age. Group I was 20 - 39 years old, Group II was 40 - 59 years old, and Group III was over 60 years of age. After taking an impression and a cast model of the maxillary arch, the anterior teeth width ratio and central incisor W/L ratio were calculated from standard digital images of the cast models using a graph paper with a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera. The calculated ratios were compared among all groups and central incisor W/L ratio were analyzed according to age and gender. All comparative data were statistically analyzed with one-sample t-tests, one-way ANOVAs with Tukey tests, and independent t-tests. No significant differences in maxillary anterior teeth ratios were found among the age groups. The maxillary central incisor W/L ratios in Group III were the greatest and were significantly higher than those in the other groups. The central incisor W/L ratio of men was higher than that of women in Group II. Maxillary anterior teeth width ratios were similar in all age groups in the Korean population. The maxillary central incisor was observed as worn teeth in the group over 60 years of age, and a significant difference between genders was found in 40 to 50 year olds.

  2. Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 113; Issue 3. Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff base complexes derived from o-phenylenediamine and acetoacetanilide. N Raman Y Pitchaikani Raja A Kulandaisamy. Inorganic Volume 113 Issue 3 June 2001 pp 183-189 ...

  3. INFLUENCE OF SCALE RATIO, ASPECT RATIO, AND PLANFORM ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SUPERCAVITATING HYDROFOILS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    performance of supercavitating hydrofoils. No appreciable scale effect was found for scale ratios up to 3 in the fully-cavitating flow region. The...overall performance of the hydrofoil by increasing the aspect ratio above 3, and (2) moderate taper ratio seems to be advantageous in view of the overall performance of supercavitating hydrofoils. (Author)

  4. Kinetics of FeII-polyaminocarboxylate oxidation by molecular oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jessica M.; Farley, Kevin J.; Carbonaro, Richard F.

    2018-03-01

    Complexation of iron by naturally-occurring and synthetic organic ligands has a large effect on iron oxidation and reduction rates which in turn affect the aqueous geochemistry of many other chemical constituents. In this study, the kinetics of FeII oxidation in the presence of the polyaminocarboxylate synthetic chelating agents ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and trimethylenediamine-N,N,N‧,N‧-tetraacetic acid (TMDTA) was investigated over the pH range 5.50-8.53. Batch oxidation experiments in the presence of molecular oxygen were conducted using a 2:1 M concentration ratio of polyaminocarboxylate (ligand, L) to FeII. The experimental data resembled first order kinetics for the oxidation of FeII-L to FeIII-L and observed rate constants at pH 6.0 were comparable to rate constants for the oxidation of inorganic FeII. Similar to other structurally-similar FeII-polyaminocarboxylate complexes, oxidation rates of FeII-EGTA and FeII-TMDTA decrease with increasing pH, which is the opposite trend for the oxidation of FeII complexed with inorganic ligands. However, the oxidation rates of FeII complexed with EGTA and TMDTA were considerably lower (4-5 orders of magnitude) than FeII complexed to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The distinguishing feature of the slower-reacting complexes is that they have a longer backbone between diamine functional groups. An analytical equilibrium model was developed to determine the contributions of the species FeIIL2- and FeII(H)L- to the overall oxidation rate of FeII-L. Application of this model indicated that the protonated FeII(H)L species are more than three orders of magnitude more reactive than FeIIL2-. These rate constants were used in a coupled kinetic equilibrium numerical model where the ligand to iron ratio (TOTL:TOTFe) and pH were varied to evaluate the effect on the FeII oxidation rate. Overall, increasing TOTL:TOTFe for EGTA and TMDTA enhances FeII oxidation rates at lower pH and inhibits FeII oxidation

  5. The Belle II Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, J

    2017-01-01

    Set to begin data taking at the end of 2018, the Belle II experiment is the next-generation B-factory experiment hosted at KEK in Tsukuba, Japan. The experiment represents the cumulative effort from the collaboration of experimental and detector physics, computing, and software development. Taking everything learned from the previous Belle experiment, which ran from 1998 to 2010, Belle II aims to probe deeper than ever before into the field of heavy quark physics. By achieving an integrated luminosity of 50 ab−1 and accumulating 50 times more data than the previous experiment across its lifetime, along with a rewritten analysis framework, the Belle II experiment will push the high precision frontier of high energy physics. This paper will give an overview of the key components and development activities that make the Belle II experiment possible.

  6. Factor II assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003674.htm Factor II assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  7. Factor II deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000549.htm Factor II deficiency To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  8. Ni(II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    analytical chemistry, catalysis, electrochemistry, ring-opening metathesis ... Ethanol was dried over anhydrous copper(II) sulfate and distilled over metallic sodium. ... All bacteria were inoculated into Nutrient Broth (Difco) and incubated for 24 h ...

  9. NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and selected...

  10. Disruption Rose Tinted II

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    'Disruption - Rose Tinted II' continues to engage narratives of historical English china as previously explored in the work 'Rose Tinted'. This work engages the sleepy rural idyll which is overlaid with visual contemporary social commentary.

  11. NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and selected...

  12. Gamble II Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Gamble II produces a high-voltage (2 MV), high-current (1 MA), short (100 ns) pulse of energy of either positive or negative polarity. This terawatt power...

  13. Leo II PC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LEO II is a second-generation software system developed for use on the PC, which is designed to convert location references accurately between legal descriptions and...

  14. Tokapole II device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprott, J.G.

    1978-05-01

    A discussion is given of the design and operation of the Tokapole II device. The following topics are considered: physics considerations, vacuum vessel, poloidal field, ring and support design, toroidal field, vacuum system, initial results, and future plans

  15. copper(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptadionato)copper(II) ... Abstract. Equilibrium concentrations of various condensed and gaseous phases have been thermodyna- ... phere, over a wide range of substrate temperatures and total reactor pressures.

  16. Digital optical computer II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Peter S.; Stone, Richard V.

    1991-12-01

    OptiComp is currently completing a 32-bit, fully programmable digital optical computer (DOC II) that is designed to operate in a UNIX environment running RISC microcode. OptiComp's DOC II architecture is focused toward parallel microcode implementation where data is input in a dual rail format. By exploiting the physical principals inherent to optics (speed and low power consumption), an architectural balance of optical interconnects and software code efficiency can be achieved including high fan-in and fan-out. OptiComp's DOC II program is jointly sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR), the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO), NASA space station group and Rome Laboratory (USAF). This paper not only describes the motivational basis behind DOC II but also provides an optical overview and architectural summary of the device that allows the emulation of any digital instruction set.

  17. The synthesis and characterization of 1,2-dihydroxyimino-3,6-di-aza-8,9-O-iso-butylidene nonane and its complexes with Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canpolat, E.; Kaya, M.; Gorgulu, A.O.

    2002-01-01

    1,2-dihydroxyimino-3,6-di-aza-8,9-O-iso-butylidene nonane (H 2 L) was synthesized starting from 1,2-O-iso-butylidene-4-aza-6-amino hexane (RNH 2 ) and antichloroglyoxime. Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of H 2 L have a metal:ligand ratio 1:2 and the ligand coordinates through two N atoms, as do most of the vic-dioximes. However, Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes of H 2 L have a metal: ligand ratio 1:1 and one chloride ion and one water molecule are also coordinated to the metal ion. Structures of the ligand and its transition-metal complexes are proposed, according to elemental analysis, IR, 13 C and 1 H NMR spectra, magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). (author)

  18. SPEAR II performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The single beam and colliding beam performance of the SLAC electron-positron storage ring SPEAR II is described. The sevenfold increase in harmonic number in SPEAR II in comparison to SPEAR I has made significant changes in single beam behavior. Strong synchrobetatron resonances and a new transverse instability are observed, and our first studies of these phenomena are described. Measurements on current dependent bunch lengthening are presented. (auth)

  19. Computing at Belle II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhr, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Belle II, a next-generation B-factory experiment, will search for new physics effects in a data sample about 50 times larger than the one collected by its predecessor, the Belle experiment. To match the advances in accelerator and detector technology, the computing system and the software have to be upgraded as well. The Belle II computing model is presented and an overview of the distributed computing system and the offline software framework is given.

  20. Nsls-II Boster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurov, S. M.; Akimov, A. V.; Akimov, V. E.; Anashin, V. V.; Anchugov, O. V.; Baranov, G. N.; Batrakov, A. M.; Belikov, O. V.; Bekhtenev, E. A.; Blum, E.; Bulatov, A. V.; Burenkov, D. B.; Cheblakov, P. B.; Chernyakin, A. D.; Cheskidov, V. G.; Churkin, I. N.; Davidsavier, M.; Derbenev, A. A.; Erokhin, A. I.; Fliller, R. P.; Fulkerson, M.; Gorchakov, K. M.; Ganetis, G.; Gao, F.; Gurov, D. S.; Hseuh, H.; Hu, Y.; Johanson, M.; Kadyrov, R. A.; Karnaev, S. E.; Karpov, G. V.; Kiselev, V. A.; Kobets, V. V.; Konstantinov, V. M.; Kolmogorov, V. V.; Korepanov, A. A.; Kramer, S.; Krasnov, A. A.; Kremnev, A. A.; Kuper, E. A.; Kuzminykh, V. S.; Levichev, E. B.; Li, Y.; Long, J. De; Makeev, A. V.; Mamkin, V. R.; Medvedko, A. S.; Meshkov, O. I.; Nefedov, N. B.; Neyfeld, V. V.; Okunev, I. N.; Ozaki, S.; Padrazo, D.; Petrov, V. V.; Petrichenkov, M. V.; Philipchenko, A. V.; Polyansky, A. V.; Pureskin, D. N.; Rakhimov, A. R.; Rose, J.; Ruvinskiy, S. I.; Rybitskaya, T. V.; Sazonov, N. V.; Schegolev, L. M.; Semenov, A. M.; Semenov, E. P.; Senkov, D. V.; Serdakov, L. E.; Serednyakov, S. S.; Shaftan, T. V.; Sharma, S.; Shichkov, D. S.; Shiyankov, S. V.; Shvedov, D. A.; Simonov, E. A.; Singh, O.; Sinyatkin, S. V.; Smaluk, V. V.; Sukhanov, A. V.; Tian, Y.; Tsukanova, L. A.; Vakhrushev, R. V.; Vobly, P. D.; Utkin, A. V.; Wang, G.; Wahl, W.; Willeke, F.; Yaminov, K. R.; Yong, H.; Zhuravlev, A.; Zuhoski, P.

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II is a third generation light source, which was constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This project includes a highly-optimized 3 GeV electron storage ring, linac preinjector, and full-energy synchrotron injector. Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics built and delivered the booster for NSLS-II. The commissioning of the booster was successfully completed. This paper reviews fulfilled work by participants.

  1. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G

    2016-06-14

    Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  2. Accentuated hyperparathyroidism in type II Bartter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Daniel; Gurevich, Evgenia; Sinai-Treiman, Levana; Shalev, Hannah

    2016-07-01

    Bartter syndrome (BS) may be associated with different degrees of hypercalciuria, but marked parathyroid hormone (PTH) abnormalities have not been described. We compared clinical and laboratory data of patients with either ROMK-deficient type II BS (n = 14) or Barttin-deficient type IV BS (n = 20). Only BS-IV patients remained mildly hypokalemic in spite of a higher need for potassium supplementation. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was mildly decreased in only four BS-IV patients. Average PTH values were significantly higher in BS-II (160.6 ± 85.8 vs. 92.5 ± 48 pg/ml in BS-IV, p = 0.006). In both groups, there was a positive correlation between age and log(PTH). Levels of 25(OH) vitamin D were not different. Total serum calcium was lower (within normal limits) and age-related serum phosphate (Pi)-SDS was increased in BS-II (1.19 ± 0.71 vs. 0.01 ± 1.04 in BS-IV, p < 0.001). The GFR threshold for Pi reabsorption was higher in BS-II (5.63 ± 1.25 vs. 4.36 ± 0.98, p = 0.002). Spot urine calcium/creatinine ratio and nephrocalcinosis rate (100 vs. 16 %) were higher in the BS-II group. PTH, serum Pi levels, and urinary threshold for Pi reabsorption are significantly elevated in type II vs. type IV BS, suggesting a PTH resistance state. This may be a response to more severe long-standing hypercalciuria, leading to a higher rate of nephrocalcinosis in BS-II.

  3. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  4. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  5. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: gbrion@engr.uky.edu

    2002-06-15

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  6. Mixing ratio sensor for alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-24

    In order to improve the combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, a mixing ratio sensor has so far been proposed to detect the above mixing ratio by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, because of the arrangement of its transparent substance in the fuel passage with the sealing material in between, this sensor invited the leakage of the fluid due to deterioration of the sealing material, etc. and its cost became high because of too many parts to be assembled. In view of the above, in order to reduce the number of parts, to lower the cost of parts and the assembling cost and to secure no fluid leakage from the fuel passage, this invention formed the above fuel passage and the above transparent substance both concerning the above mixing ratio sensor in an integrated manner using light transmitting resin. (3 figs)

  7. Mixing ratio sensor of alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-07

    In order to improve combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing and change the condition of control depending upon the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, the above mixing ratio has so far been detected by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, in case when a light emitting diode is used for the light source above, two kinds of sensors are further needed. Concerning the two kinds of sensors above, this invention offers a mixing ratio sensor for the alcohol mixed fuel which can abolish a temperature sensor to detect the environmental temperature by making a single compensatory light receiving element deal with the compensation of the amount of light emission of the light emitting element due to the temperature change and the compensation of the critical angle caused by the temperature change. (6 figs)

  8. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  9. Golden ratio beauty as scientific function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Olsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Normally when one is considering the golden ratio in the history of ideas, one is often looking at it as an aesthetic principle – usually associated with Greek art, sculpture and mathematics. However, in recent years the prevalence of the golden ratio within a broad range of scientific disciplines has brought its role in the perfection of science to the forefront. I would like to collapse these two areas by proposing a somewhat novel way of looking at the aesthetics of the golden ratio: its pervasive expression in scientific form and function is the basis of the aesthetics in the world. Therefore, science contains the same mathematical beauty as found in artistic expression. The golden ratio guides the Chaos Border of Kolmogorov, Arnold, and Moser (KAM theorem and it can be found hidden in all elementary particles, and even in the proportions of dark matter and energy relative to visible matter and energy. It is evident in the structure and growth functions of plants and animals and it can be found in the physiological functions of humans. It now appears that without the golden ratio, we would not have the form or function of the proton, cell, athlete, horse, species, planet, solar system or galaxy.

  10. Fourier ventricular amplitude ratio to evaluate atrial septal defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makler, P.T. Jr.; McCarthy, D.M.; Adler, L.; Alavi, A.

    1985-01-01

    First harmonic Fourier analysis of gated blood pool scans results in the formation of two functional images, a phase and amplitude image. The authors have previously shown that the total amplitude values of the two ventricles can be used to quantitate valvular insufficiency. The ventricular amplitude ratio (VAR, left/right) in normals is 1.14 0.11 and patients with valvular insufficiency is elevated (0.3 0.77). In patients with atrial septal defect (ASD), the right ventricle has a larger stroke volume than the left ventricle, and the VAR should be less than unity. To evaluate whether the amplitude image would permit quantification of shunt flow in ASD, the authors compared the VAR to the OP/QS ratio determined by cardiac catheterization (cath) in 3 groups of patients; group I (n=9) had ASD without valvular insufficiency (one patient had right-to-left shunting due to tricuspid stenosis; group II (n=4) had ventricular septal defect; and group III (n=2) had ASD plus valvular insufficiency. QP/QS shunt flow is also determined in group I using standard first-pass radionuclide angiography (rna). The data suggest that the VAR technique accurately determines the magnitude of shunt flow in ASD patients without concomitant valvular insufficiency

  11. D/H ratio for Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.; Schempp, W.V.; Baines, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of Jupiter's spectrum near the R5(0) HD line at 6063.88 A are reported. A feature with an equivalent width of 0.065 + or - 0.021 mA is coincident with the expected line. This feature is compared with HD profiles computed for inhomogeneous scattering models for Jupiter to yield a range for the Jovian D/H ratio of 1.0-2.9 x 10 to the -5th. This D/H ratio is in the lower range of previously reported D/H values for Jupiter and corresponds to an essentially solar D/H ratio for Jupiter. The detection of HD features in the presence of probable blends with spectral features of minor atmospheric hydrocarbon molecules is discussed. Such blends may make unambiguous identification of HD features difficult. 26 references

  12. Odor concentration invariance by chemical ratio coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoshige Uchida

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Many animal species rely on chemical signals to extract ecologically important information from the environment. Yet in natural conditions chemical signals will frequently undergo concentration changes that produce differences in both level and pattern of activation of olfactory receptor neurons. Thus, a central problem in olfactory processing is how the system is able to recognize the same stimulus across different concentrations. To signal species identity for mate recognition, some insects use the ratio of two components in a binary chemical mixture to produce a code that is invariant to dilution. Here, using psychophysical methods, we show that rats also classify binary odor mixtures according to the molar ratios of their components, spontaneously generalizing over at least a tenfold concentration range. These results indicate that extracting chemical ratio information is not restricted to pheromone signaling and suggest a general solution for concentration-invariant odor recognition by the mammalian olfactory system.

  13. Isotope ratio in stellar atmospheres and nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbuy, B.L.S.

    1987-01-01

    The determination of isotopic ratios in stellar atmospheres is studied. The isotopic shift of atomic and molecular lines of different species of a certain element is examined. CH and MgH lines are observed in order to obtain the 12 C: 13 C and 24 Mg: 25 Mg: 26 Mg isotpic ratios. The formation of lines in stellar atmospheres is computed and the resulting synthetic spectra are employed to determine the isotopic abundances. The results obtained for the isotopic ratios are compared to predictions of nucleosynthesis theories. Finally, the concept of primary and secondary element is discussed, and these definitions are applied to the observed variations in the abundance of elements as a function of metallicity. (author) [pt

  14. Transport in a small aspect ratio torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gates, D.A.; Mynick, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    Transport theory in toroidal devices often assumes large aspect ratio and also assumes the poloidal field is small compared to the toroidal field. These assumptions result in transport which in the low collision rate limit is dominated by banana orbits, giving the largest collisionless excursion of a particle from an initial flux surface. However in a small aspect ratio device the gyro radius may be larger than the banana excursion, resulting in significant deviations from the standard neoclassical predictions. In this paper we report numerical simulation of diffusion in low and high beta low aspect ratio equilibria. We also sketch an analytic theory. The diffusion, which we refer to as omniclassical, is a combination of neoclassical and properly averaged classical effects, and can be two or three times the neoclassical value. Good agreement of the analytic theory with numerical simulations is obtained. (author)

  15. The reaction index and positivity ratio revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Andersen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value of these st......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value...

  16. Uranium isotope ratio measurements in field settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.W.; Barshick, C.M.; Young, J.P.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a technique for uranium isotope ratio measurements of powder samples in field settings. Such a method will be invaluable for environmental studies, radioactive waste operations, and decommissioning and decontamination operations. Immediate field data can help guide an ongoing sampling campaign. The measurement encompasses glow discharge sputtering from pressed sample hollow cathodes, high resolution laser spectroscopy using conveniently tunable diode lasers, and optogalvanic detection. At 10% 235 U enrichment and above, the measurement precision for 235 U/( 235 U+ 238 U) isotope ratios was ±3%; it declined to ±15% for 0.3% (i.e., depleted) samples. A prototype instrument was constructed and is described

  17. Ultima Ratio as a Constitutional Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarlo Tuori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues the criminal law notion of ultima ratio is an instance of a broader constitutional law principle of proportionality. However, ultima ratio is not the only principle relevant in a constitutional assessment of criminalization. The role of ultima ratio is to impose limitations on criminalization. But constitutional doctrines also exist which call for criminalization and might even be seen as establishing a criminalization obligation. The paper examines three constitutional counter weights to ultima ratio. The first of these is discussed in the context of state constitutions. This is the cluster of the interrelated constitutional doctrines of the horizontal effect of fundamental rights and the protective duty of the state, as well as the understanding of collective security as a basic right. These doctrines are analysed in the light of the praxis of the German Constitutional Court and the Finnish Constitutional Law Committee. The two other constitutional counterweights are discussed at the level of the transnational, European constitution. These are the principles of precaution and effectiveness. Este artículo defiende que el concepto de ultima ratio es una instancia más amplia del principio de proporcionalidad dentro del derecho constitucional. Sin embargo, el ultima ratio no es el único principio relevante en la valoración constitucional de la criminalización. El papel del ultima ratio es imponer límites a la criminalización. Pero también existen doctrinas constitucionales que exigen la criminalización e incluso dan pie a entender que obligan a establecer una pena. El documento examina tres contrapesos constitucionales al ultima ratio. En primer lugar, se analiza en el contexto de las constituciones estatales. Este es el conjunto de las doctrinas constitucionales interrelacionadas entre el efecto horizontal de los derechos fundamentales y el deber de protección del Estado, así como la asunción de la seguridad colectiva

  18. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  19. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as a marker of systemic endothelial dysfunction in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Urbistondo, Diego; Beltrán, Almudena; Beloqui, Oscar; Huerta, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio has demonstrated to be a prognostic inflammatory marker in cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and pathologic urinary albumin/creatinine ratio as an early marker of cardiovascular risk and systemic endothelial dysfunction, associated with microvascular disease, in asymptomatic subjects. A unicenter cross-sectional study was conducted, including 1816 asymptomatic subjects. Patients with previous cardiovascular disease, those who were treated with ACE inhibitors and/or angiotensin II receptor blockers and patients with albumin/creatinine ratio over 300mg/g were excluded. The outcome of the study was the presence of a pathologic urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly associated with altered urinary albumin/creatinine ratio in the univariate analysis and after adjustment for other known endothelial and cardiovascular risk factors (age, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes or altered glomerular filtration rate). Based on the sensitivity and specificity of different neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio thresholds, 3 risk groups were created for altered urinary albumin/creatinine ratio: low risk in those with neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio 3. These groups were found to have a statistically significant and independent prognostic power for altered urinary albumin/creatinine ratio in asymptomatic patients. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio appears to be a cost-efficient, non-invasive and independent potential marker of systemic endothelial dysfunction in asymptomatic subjects. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Cd(II and Pb(II complexes of the polyether ionophorous antibiotic salinomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanabe Makoto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural polyether ionophorous antibiotics are used for the treatment of coccidiosis in poultry and ruminants. They are effective agents against infections caused by Gram-positive microorganisms. On the other hand, it was found that some of these compounds selectively bind lead(II ions in in vivo experiments, despite so far no Pb(II-containing compounds of defined composition have been isolated and characterized. To assess the potential of polyether ionophores as possible antidotes in the agriculture, a detailed study on their in vitro complexation with toxic metal ions is required. In the present paper we report for the first time the preparation and the structure elucidation of salinomycin complexes with ions of cadmium(II and lead(II. Results New metal(II complexes of the polyether ionophorous antibiotic salinomycin with Cd(II and Pb(II ions were prepared and structurally characterized by IR, FAB-MS and NMR techniques. The spectroscopic information and elemental analysis data reveal that sodium salinomycin (SalNa undergoes a reaction with heavy metal(II ions to form [Cd(Sal2(H2O2] (1 and [Pb(Sal(NO3] (2, respectively. Abstraction of sodium ions from the cavity of the antibiotic is occurring during the complexation reaction. Salinomycin coordinates with cadmium(II ions as a bidentate monoanionic ligand through the deprotonated carboxylic moiety and one of the hydroxyl groups to yield 1. Two salinomycin anions occupy the equatorial plane of the Cd(II center, while two water molecules take the axial positions of the inner coordination sphere of the metal(II cation. Complex 2 consists of monoanionic salinomycin acting in polydentate coordination mode in a molar ratio of 1: 1 to the metal ion with one nitrate ion for charge compensation. Conclusion The formation of the salinomycin heavy metal(II complexes indicates a possible antidote activity of the ligand in case of chronic/acute intoxications likely to occur in the stock

  1. Cd(II) and Pb(II) complexes of the polyether ionophorous antibiotic salinomycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The natural polyether ionophorous antibiotics are used for the treatment of coccidiosis in poultry and ruminants. They are effective agents against infections caused by Gram-positive microorganisms. On the other hand, it was found that some of these compounds selectively bind lead(II) ions in in vivo experiments, despite so far no Pb(II)-containing compounds of defined composition have been isolated and characterized. To assess the potential of polyether ionophores as possible antidotes in the agriculture, a detailed study on their in vitro complexation with toxic metal ions is required. In the present paper we report for the first time the preparation and the structure elucidation of salinomycin complexes with ions of cadmium(II) and lead(II). Results New metal(II) complexes of the polyether ionophorous antibiotic salinomycin with Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions were prepared and structurally characterized by IR, FAB-MS and NMR techniques. The spectroscopic information and elemental analysis data reveal that sodium salinomycin (SalNa) undergoes a reaction with heavy metal(II) ions to form [Cd(Sal)2(H2O)2] (1) and [Pb(Sal)(NO3)] (2), respectively. Abstraction of sodium ions from the cavity of the antibiotic is occurring during the complexation reaction. Salinomycin coordinates with cadmium(II) ions as a bidentate monoanionic ligand through the deprotonated carboxylic moiety and one of the hydroxyl groups to yield 1. Two salinomycin anions occupy the equatorial plane of the Cd(II) center, while two water molecules take the axial positions of the inner coordination sphere of the metal(II) cation. Complex 2 consists of monoanionic salinomycin acting in polydentate coordination mode in a molar ratio of 1: 1 to the metal ion with one nitrate ion for charge compensation. Conclusion The formation of the salinomycin heavy metal(II) complexes indicates a possible antidote activity of the ligand in case of chronic/acute intoxications likely to occur in the stock farming

  2. Ratio method of measuring W boson mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This dissertation describes an alternative method of measuring the W boson mass in DØ experiment. Instead of extracting MW from the fitting of W → ev fast Monte Carlo simulations to W → ev data as in the standard method, we make the direct fit of transverse mass between W → ev data and Z → ee data. One of the two electrons from Z boson is treated as a neutrino in the calculation of transverse mass. In ratio method, the best fitted scale factor corresponds to the ratio of W and Z boson mass (MW/MZ). Given the precisely measured Z boson mass, W mass is directly fitted from W → ev and Z → ee data. This dissertation demonstrates that ratio method is a plausible method of measuring the W boson mass. With the 1 fb-1 DØ Run IIa dataset, ratio method gives MW = 80435 ± 43(stat) ± 26(sys) MeV.

  3. Decay ratio for third order Brownian oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, H.; Kanemoto, S.

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained the analytical expressions of the decay ratios for two types of third order Brownian oscillators which are generalizations of the second order Brownian oscillator driven by the Gaussian-white noise. The resulting expressions will provide us useful baseline information for more complicated practical problems and their applications

  4. Bowen ratio over the Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taufarová, Klára; Dvořáková, Marcela; Czerný, Radek; Pokorný, Radek; Janouš, Dalibor

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2007), s. 131-136 ISSN 1803-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD526/03/H036; GA MŽP SM/640/18/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Bowen ratio * evapotranspiration * transpiration * eddy covariance technique Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  5. Crown ratio influences allometric scaling in trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annikki Makela; Harry T. Valentine

    2006-01-01

    Allometric theories suggest that the size and shape of organisms follow universal rules, with a tendency toward quarter-power scaling. In woody plants, however, structure is influenced by branch death and shedding, which leads to decreasing crown ratios, accumulation of heartwood, and stem and branch tapering. This paper examines the impacts on allometric scaling of...

  6. Measuring Poisson Ratios at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozon, R. S.; Shepic, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    Simple extensometer ring measures bulges of specimens in compression. New method of measuring Poisson's ratio used on brittle ceramic materials at cryogenic temperatures. Extensometer ring encircles cylindrical specimen. Four strain gauges connected in fully active Wheatstone bridge self-temperature-compensating. Used at temperatures as low as liquid helium.

  7. Multipole mixing ratios in /sup 154/Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Won Mo; Song, Choong Sik; Joo, Koan Sik

    1985-06-01

    We have measured gamma-gamma angular correlations to determine the mixing ratios of several gamma transitions in /sup 154/Gd. The results are compared with those derived from the pairing-plus-quadrupole model and from the interacting boson model.

  8. Factors affecting egg ratios in planktonic rotifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarma, S.S.S.; Gulati, R.D.; Nandini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Edmondson’s egg ratio (number of amictic eggs per female) is an important life history variable, which has been in wide use to understand and predict patterns of population growth in planktonic rotifers under field conditions. It is also useful as an indicator of the health of rotifers under culture

  9. 34 CFR 668.172 - Financial ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... effect of changes in accounting principles, and the effect of changes in accounting estimates; (2) May... intangible assets defined as intangible in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles; and (5... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial ratios. 668.172 Section 668.172 Education...

  10. Abundance Ratios in Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Seyda; Peletier, Reynier F.; Toloba, Elisa; Mentz, Jaco J.

    The aim of this study is to determine abundance ratios and star formation histories (SFH) of dwarf ellipticals in the nearby Virgo cluster. We perform a stellar population analysis of 39 dEs and study them using index-index and scaling relations. We find an unusual behaviour where [Na/Fe] is

  11. Asymptotics for ratios with applications to reinsurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladoucette, S.A.; Teugels, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of results pertaining to moment convergence for certain ratios of random variables involving sums, order statistics and extreme terms in the sense of modulus. Most of the literature on this matter originates from Darling (1952) who gave a criterion for the convergence

  12. Influence of pollution of boron chlorinity ratio

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, P.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    Presence of boron in domestic wastewater has resulted in high B/CI ratio at some locations in the coastal water around Bombay. A widest range (0.215-0.281) of B/CI was observed at a location with high influence of wastewater release. The mean B...

  13. 12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... anticipating or experiencing significant growth and have well-diversified risks, including no undue interest rate risk exposure, excellent asset quality, high liquidity, and good earnings. (b) For all savings... capital ratios may be required if warranted by the particular circumstances or risk profiles of an...

  14. Likelihood-ratio-based biometric verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that for single-user verification the likelihood ratio is optimal.

  15. Likelihood Ratio-Based Biometric Verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    The paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that, for single-user verification, the likelihood ratio is optimal.

  16. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Aim: Postoperative pain is well known and usually disturbing complication of surgery. Inflammation plays an important role in the development and progression of postoperative pain. We aimed to investigate possible relationship between preoperatively measured neutrophil‑lymphocyte ratio (NLR) – as an ...

  17. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  18. Tracing lead pollution sources in abandoned mine areas using stable Pb isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-Jin; Lee, Jung-A; Park, Jae-Seon; Lee, Khanghyun; Lee, Won-Seok; Han, Jin-Seok; Choi, Jong-Woo

    2014-02-01

    This study focused on Pb isotope ratios of sediments in areas around an abandoned mine to determine if the ratios can be used as a source tracer. For pretreatment, sediment samples were dissolved with mixed acids, and a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS, Nu plasma II) was used to investigate the Pb isotopic composition of the samples. The measured isotope ratios were then corrected for instrumental mass fractionation by measuring the (203)Tl/(205)Tl ratio. Repeated measurements with the NIST SRM 981 reference material showed that the precision of all ratios was below 104 ppm (±2σ) for 50 ng/g. The isotope ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb) found were 0.85073 ± 0.0004~0.85373 ± 0.0003 for the main stream, while they were 0.83736 ± 0.0010 for the tributary and 0.84393 ± 0.0002 for the confluence. A binary mixing equation for isotope ratios showed that the contributions of mine lead to neighboring areas were up to 60%. Therefore, Pb isotope ratios can be a good source tracer for areas around abandoned mines.

  19. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Volodymyr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the

  20. Manganese and the II system in photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyard, Jacques

    1971-01-01

    The evolution during greening of some components of system II of photosynthesis has been followed in plastids extracted from Zea mays grown in the dark. Manganese studies were done by means of neutron activation, electron spin resonance (ESR) was also used in some experiments. Oxygen evolution of isolated plastids was followed by polarography (with a membrane electrode). The evolution of manganese/carotenoids ratio can be divided in three parts. During the first hour of greening, the increase shows an input of Mn in the plastids; then, whereas carotenoids content of those plastids presents no changes, Mn is released in the medium; at last, carotenoids synthesis is parallel to Mn fixation in the plastids, the ratio being constant after 24 hours of greening. From various measurements on chloroplastic manganese, it is shown that the development of system II can be divided in two main phases: during the first one (that is during the first day of light) the components are not yet bound together but the relations become more and more strong. Then, during the last period of the development, the organisation of system II is complete and the transformations of the plastids are parallel to the raise of their activity. (author) [fr

  1. About APPLE II Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented

  2. VATICANO II CONCILIO DOCTRINAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Bojorge

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a century since the army of Victor Manuel invaded Rome and put an end to Vatican I. In this article we try to understand Vatican II linking it to the previous circumtances and binding it to its doctrinal and pastoral character. Vatican II omitted many subjects that seemed important, e. g. not giving any dogmatic definitions. Contrasting with the Tridentine and Vatican I, that were mostly doctrinal, Vatican II was pastoral. But it was also doctrinal as were the two previous also pastoral. The Constitution "Dei Verbum" brings forth the intentions that led John XXIII to summon the Council in 5-8-1962. The world looked confused and agitated. What could the Church do?

  3. Datalogger usando nios ii

    OpenAIRE

    Campoverde Rugel, Luis Enrique; Velásquez Vargas, Washington Adrián; Ponguillo, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    El presente proyecto consiste en la implementación de un Datalogger utilizando el microprocesador NIOS II el cual fue embebido en el FPGA CYCLONE II que se encuentra integrada en la tarjeta de desarrollo ALTERA DE2, el cual obtiene datos de distintos sensores y los almacena en una tarjeta SD Card. Para la realización del proyecto se aplican cuatro etapas. La primera etapa está basada en obtener los datos mediante el uso de sensores y la transmisión usando un PIC, la siguiente etapa se basa...

  4. Results from SAGE II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nico, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first nine runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 66 -13 +18 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result of 73 -16 +18 (stat) -7 5 (sys) SNU, the capture rate is 69 -11 +11 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. This represents only 52%--56% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models

  5. Information on Asse II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The brochure published by BfS describes the actual situation of Asse II with respect to the debate on an interim storage and the status of the realization of a final repository search law. During the visit of the new environment minister Hendricks in the underground facility repository Asse II the issue interim storage site and the retrieval of the corroded casks with radioactive waste were discussed. The challenges for BFS include the acceleration of the retrieval process and the safety of the procedure.

  6. TJ-II project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejaldre, C.; Gozalo, J.J.A.; Perez, J.B.; Magaria, F.C.; Diaz, J.R.C.; Perez, J.G.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Garcia, L.; Krivenski, V.I.; Martin, R.; Navarro, A.P.; Perea, A.; Rodriguez-Yunta, A.; Ayza, M.S.; Varias, A.

    1990-01-01

    The TJ-II device is a medium-size helical-axis stellarator to be built in Madrid. Its main characteristics are potential for high-beta operation; flexibility, i.e., its rotational transform can be varied over a wide range and its shear to some extent; and bean-shaped plasma cross section. The latest understanding of TJ-II physics in the fields of electron cyclotron resonance heating, transport, and magneto-hydrodynamics, and the engineering solutions introduced in its final design are discussed

  7. ECLESIOLOGIA DO VATICANO II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Codina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Não se pode compreender a eclesiologia do Vaticano II sem conhecer a vida, o estilo pastoral e o carisma de João XXIII, que convocou o Concílio e abriu o caminho em direção a uma nova configuração eclesial que acabava com séculos de uma Igreja de Cristandade. O Vaticano II implica uma transição de uma Igreja clerical a uma Igreja Povo de Deus, povo de batizados. A passagem de uma Igreja juridicista e legalista a uma Igreja Mistério de comunhão em Cristo. Mudar de uma Igreja triunfalista e ligada ao poder mundano a uma Igreja vivificada pela força renovadora do Espírito. A Igreja está a caminho rumo ao Reino de Deus juntamente com todos os cristãos e com toda a humanidade. A recepção do Vaticano II supõe uma conversão pastoral: voltar ao Evangelho e abrir-se aos novos sinais dos tempos seguindo o Espírito que inspirou João XXIII. ABSTRACT: You cannot understand the Ecclesiology of Vatican II without knowing the life, the pastoral style and the charisma of John XXIII, who convened the Council and opened the way toward a new ecclesial setting that ended centuries of a church of Christendom. The Vatican II involves a transition from a clerical Church to a “People (baptized people of God” Church. The Vatican II implies the passage from a juridical and legalistic Church to a Church as the Mystery of the communion in Christ. The Vatican II implies the change from a triumphalistic Church and connected to worldly power to a Church vivified by the renewing force of the Spirit. The Church is on its way toward the Kingdom of God together with all Christians and all mankind. The reception of the Vatican II supposes a pastoral conversion: a return to the Gospel and openness to new signs of the times following the Spirit that inspired John XXIII.

  8. Galaxy S II

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2011-01-01

    Unlock the potential of Samsung's outstanding smartphone with this jargon-free guide from technology guru Preston Gralla. You'll quickly learn how to shoot high-res photos and HD video, keep your schedule, stay in touch, and enjoy your favorite media. Every page is packed with illustrations and valuable advice to help you get the most from the smartest phone in town. The important stuff you need to know: Get dialed in. Learn your way around the Galaxy S II's calling and texting features.Go online. Browse the Web, manage email, and download apps with Galaxy S II's 3G/4G network (or create you

  9. Calculus II For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Zegarelli, Mark

    2012-01-01

    An easy-to-understand primer on advanced calculus topics Calculus II is a prerequisite for many popular college majors, including pre-med, engineering, and physics. Calculus II For Dummies offers expert instruction, advice, and tips to help second semester calculus students get a handle on the subject and ace their exams. It covers intermediate calculus topics in plain English, featuring in-depth coverage of integration, including substitution, integration techniques and when to use them, approximate integration, and improper integrals. This hands-on guide also covers sequences and series, wit

  10. HERSCHEL EXTREME LENSING LINE OBSERVATIONS: [C ii] VARIATIONS IN GALAXIES AT REDSHIFTS z = 1–3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Yang, Huan; Finkelstein, K.; Finkelstein, Steven; Carilli, Chris; Combes, Françoise; Dassas, Karine; Guillard, Pierre; Nesvadba, Nicole; Frye, Brenda; Gerin, Maryvonne; Rigby, Jane; Shin, Min-Su; Spaans, Marco; Strauss, Michael A.; Papovich, Casey

    2017-01-01

    We observed the [C ii] line in 15 lensed galaxies at redshifts 1 < z < 3 using HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory and detected 14/15 galaxies at 3 σ or better. High magnifications enable even modestly luminous galaxies to be detected in [C ii] with Herschel . The [C ii] luminosity in this sample ranges from 8 × 10 7 L ⊙ to 3.7 × 10 9 L ⊙ (after correcting for magnification), confirming that [C ii] is a strong tracer of the ISM at high redshifts. The ratio of the [C ii] line to the total far-infrared (FIR) luminosity serves as a measure of the ratio of gas to dust cooling and thus the efficiency of the grain photoelectric heating process. It varies between 3.3% and 0.09%. We compare the [C ii]/FIR ratio to that of galaxies at z = 0 and at high redshifts and find that they follow similar trends. The [C ii]/FIR ratio is lower for galaxies with higher dust temperatures. This is best explained if increased UV intensity leads to higher FIR luminosity and dust temperatures, but gas heating does not rise due to lower photoelectric heating efficiency. The [C ii]/FIR ratio shows weaker correlation with FIR luminosity. At low redshifts highly luminous galaxies tend to have warm dust, so the effects of dust temperature and luminosity are degenerate. Luminous galaxies at high redshifts show a range of dust temperatures, showing that [C ii]/FIR correlates most strongly with dust temperature. The [C ii] to mid-IR ratio for the HELLO sample is similar to the values seen for low-redshift galaxies, indicating that small grains and PAHs dominate the heating in the neutral ISM, although some of the high [CII]/FIR ratios may be due to turbulent heating.

  11. HERSCHEL EXTREME LENSING LINE OBSERVATIONS: [C ii] VARIATIONS IN GALAXIES AT REDSHIFTS z = 1–3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Yang, Huan [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Finkelstein, K.; Finkelstein, Steven [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Carilli, Chris [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (United States); Combes, Françoise [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, CNRS, 61 Avenue de l’Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Dassas, Karine; Guillard, Pierre; Nesvadba, Nicole [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, Centre Universitaire d’Orsay (France); Frye, Brenda [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Gerin, Maryvonne [LERMA,24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Rigby, Jane [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Shin, Min-Su [Oxford University, Oxford, OX1 3PA (United Kingdom); Spaans, Marco [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Strauss, Michael A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Papovich, Casey, E-mail: malhotra@asu.edu [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    We observed the [C ii] line in 15 lensed galaxies at redshifts 1 < z < 3 using HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory and detected 14/15 galaxies at 3 σ or better. High magnifications enable even modestly luminous galaxies to be detected in [C ii] with Herschel . The [C ii] luminosity in this sample ranges from 8 × 10{sup 7} L {sub ⊙} to 3.7 × 10{sup 9} L {sub ⊙} (after correcting for magnification), confirming that [C ii] is a strong tracer of the ISM at high redshifts. The ratio of the [C ii] line to the total far-infrared (FIR) luminosity serves as a measure of the ratio of gas to dust cooling and thus the efficiency of the grain photoelectric heating process. It varies between 3.3% and 0.09%. We compare the [C ii]/FIR ratio to that of galaxies at z = 0 and at high redshifts and find that they follow similar trends. The [C ii]/FIR ratio is lower for galaxies with higher dust temperatures. This is best explained if increased UV intensity leads to higher FIR luminosity and dust temperatures, but gas heating does not rise due to lower photoelectric heating efficiency. The [C ii]/FIR ratio shows weaker correlation with FIR luminosity. At low redshifts highly luminous galaxies tend to have warm dust, so the effects of dust temperature and luminosity are degenerate. Luminous galaxies at high redshifts show a range of dust temperatures, showing that [C ii]/FIR correlates most strongly with dust temperature. The [C ii] to mid-IR ratio for the HELLO sample is similar to the values seen for low-redshift galaxies, indicating that small grains and PAHs dominate the heating in the neutral ISM, although some of the high [CII]/FIR ratios may be due to turbulent heating.

  12. On a combination of the 1-2-3 conjecture and the antimagic labelling conjecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensmail, Julien; Senhaji, Mohammed; Lyngsie, Kasper Szabo

    2017-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to studying the following question: Is it always possible to injectively assign the weights 1, ..., |E(G)| to the edges of any given graph G (with no component isomorphic to K2) so that every two adjacent vertices of G get distinguished by their sums of incident weights? One...... for any graph, provided we are allowed to use some number of additional edge weights. For some classes of sparse graphs, namely 2-degenerate graphs and graphs with maximum average degree 3, we show that only a small (constant) number of such additional weights suffices....

  13. Econometric models for predicting confusion crop ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, D. E.; Proctor, M. H.; Clark, J. E.; Eisgruber, L. M.; Braschler, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Results for both the United States and Canada show that econometric models can provide estimates of confusion crop ratios that are more accurate than historical ratios. Whether these models can support the LACIE 90/90 accuracy criterion is uncertain. In the United States, experimenting with additional model formulations could provide improved methods models in some CRD's, particularly in winter wheat. Improved models may also be possible for the Canadian CD's. The more aggressive province/state models outperformed individual CD/CRD models. This result was expected partly because acreage statistics are based on sampling procedures, and the sampling precision declines from the province/state to the CD/CRD level. Declining sampling precision and the need to substitute province/state data for the CD/CRD data introduced measurement error into the CD/CRD models.

  14. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eGarnham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality.

  15. Neuroprotective Effects and Mechanisms of Curcumin–Cu(II and –Zn(II Complexes Systems and Their Pharmacological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-Shun Yan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the main form of dementia and has a steadily increasing prevalence. As both oxidative stress and metal homeostasis are involved in the pathogenesis of AD, it would be interesting to develop a dual function agent, targeting the two factors. Curcumin, a natural compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, is an antioxidant and can also chelate metal ions. Whether the complexes of curcumin with metal ions possess neuroprotective effects has not been evaluated. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of the complexes of curcumin with Cu(II or Zn(II on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The use of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 cells, a widely used neuronal cell model system, was adopted. It was revealed that curcumin–Cu(II complexes systems possessed enhanced O2·–-scavenging activities compared to unchelated curcumin. In comparison with unchelated curcumin, the protective effects of curcumin–Cu(II complexes systems were stronger than curcumin–Zn(II system. Curcumin–Cu(II or –Zn(II complexes systems significantly enhanced the superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities and attenuated the increase of malondialdehyde levels and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities, in a dose-dependent manner. The curcumin–Cu(II complex system with a 2:1 ratio exhibited the most significant effect. Further mechanistic study demonstrated that curcumin–Cu(II or –Zn(II complexes systems inhibited cell apoptosis via downregulating the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB pathway and upregulating Bcl-2/Bax pathway. In summary, the present study found that curcumin–Cu(II or –Zn(II complexes systems, especially the former, possess significant neuroprotective effects, which indicates the potential advantage of curcumin as a promising agent against AD and deserves further study.

  16. Neuroprotective Effects and Mechanisms of Curcumin-Cu(II) and -Zn(II) Complexes Systems and Their Pharmacological Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fa-Shun; Sun, Jian-Long; Xie, Wen-Hai; Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2017-12-28

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main form of dementia and has a steadily increasing prevalence. As both oxidative stress and metal homeostasis are involved in the pathogenesis of AD, it would be interesting to develop a dual function agent, targeting the two factors. Curcumin, a natural compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa , is an antioxidant and can also chelate metal ions. Whether the complexes of curcumin with metal ions possess neuroprotective effects has not been evaluated. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of the complexes of curcumin with Cu(II) or Zn(II) on hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The use of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, a widely used neuronal cell model system, was adopted. It was revealed that curcumin-Cu(II) complexes systems possessed enhanced O₂ ·- -scavenging activities compared to unchelated curcumin. In comparison with unchelated curcumin, the protective effects of curcumin-Cu(II) complexes systems were stronger than curcumin-Zn(II) system. Curcumin-Cu(II) or -Zn(II) complexes systems significantly enhanced the superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities and attenuated the increase of malondialdehyde levels and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities, in a dose-dependent manner. The curcumin-Cu(II) complex system with a 2:1 ratio exhibited the most significant effect. Further mechanistic study demonstrated that curcumin-Cu(II) or -Zn(II) complexes systems inhibited cell apoptosis via downregulating the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway and upregulating Bcl-2/Bax pathway. In summary, the present study found that curcumin-Cu(II) or -Zn(II) complexes systems, especially the former, possess significant neuroprotective effects, which indicates the potential advantage of curcumin as a promising agent against AD and deserves further study.

  17. Adjusted Money's Worth Ratios in Life Annuities

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Casassus; Eduardo Walker

    2013-01-01

    The Money's Worth Ratio (MWR) measures an annuity's actuarial fairness. It is calculated as the discounted present value of expected future payments divided by its cost. We argue that from the perspective of annuitants, this measure may overestimate the value-for-money obtained, since it does not adjust for liquidity or risk factors. Measuring these factors is challenging, requiring detailed knowledge of assets, liabilities, and of the stochastic processes followed by them. Using a multi-fact...

  18. Modelling the liquidity ratio as macroprudential instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Willem van den End; Mark Kruidhof

    2012-01-01

    The Basel III Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) is a microprudential instrument to strengthen the liquidity position of banks. However, if in extreme scenarios the LCR becomes a binding constraint, the interaction of bank behaviour with the regulatory rule can have negative externalities. We simulate the systemic implications of the LCR by a liquidity stress-testing model, which takes into account the impact of bank reactions on second round feedback effects. We show that a flexible approach of ...

  19. Realisation Ratios in the Capital Expenditure Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Leon Berkelmans; Gareth Spence

    2013-01-01

    The Australian Bureau of Statistics capital expenditure survey is one of the inputs into the Reserve Bank’s forecasts for private business investment. This article considers several methods for interpreting the expectations data from this survey and evaluates these methods using out-of-sample forecasts. Forecasts based on long-run average realisation ratios are found to be the most accurate of the options considered, although the use of these forecasts for predicting investment in the nationa...

  20. Production ratio of pseudoscalar to vector mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chliapnikov, P.V.; Uvarov, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    The P/V ratio of directly produced pseudoscalar (P) to vector (V) mesons is analysed using the data on the K S 0 and K * (892) total inclusive cross sections in pp, π + p and K ± p reactions. The indication for a change of P/V from a value of about 1 at low energies, where the fragmentation processes dominate, to a value of 1/3, suggested by spin-statistics, at high energies is discussed. (orig.)