Proof of a conjecture of Z-W Sun on ratio monotonicity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brian Yi Sun
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we study the log-behavior of a new sequence { S n } n = 0 ∞ $\\{S_{n}\\} _{n=0}^{\\infty}$ , which was defined by Z-W Sun. We find that the sequence is log-convex by using the interlacing method. Additionally, we consider ratio log-behavior of { S n } n = 0 ∞ $\\{S_{n}\\}_{n=0}^{\\infty}$ and find the sequences { S n + 1 / S n } n = 0 ∞ $\\{S_{n+1}/S_{n}\\}_{n=0}^{\\infty}$ and { S n n } n = 1 ∞ $\\{\\sqrt[n]{S_{n}}\\} _{n=1}^{\\infty}$ are log-concave. Our results give an affirmative answer to a conjecture of Z-W Sun on the ratio monotonicity of this new sequence.
Type II1 factors satisfying the spatial isomorphism conjecture
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cameron, Jan; Christensen, Erik; Sinclair, Allan M.
2012-01-01
Det vises at hvis et par af von Neumann algebraer er tilstrækkeligt tæt på hinanden i Hausdorff-metrikken, og den ene er en II1 faktor, som er et krydset produkt af en abelsk von Neumann algebra med en gruuppvirkning af en gruppe men triviel begrænset kohomologi, så er de to algebraer unitært ækv...
On Ratio Monotonicity of a New Kind of Numbers Conjectured by Z.-W. Sun
Sun, Brian Y.
2015-01-01
Recently, Z. W. Sun put forward a series of conjectures on monotonicity of combinatorial sequences in the form of $\\{z_n/z_{n-1}\\}_{n=N}^\\infty$ and $\\{\\sqrt[n+1]{z_{n+1}}/\\sqrt[n]{z_n}\\}_{n=N}^\\infty$ for some positive integer $N$, where $\\{z_n\\}_{n=0}^\\infty$ is a sequence of positive integers. Luca and St\\u{a}nic\\u{a}, Hou et al., Chen et al., Sun and Yang proved some of them. In this paper, we give an affirmative answer to monotonicity of another new kind of number conjectured by Z. W. Su...
Some conjectures on the ratio of Hankel transforms for sequences and series reversion
Barry, Paul
2007-01-01
For each element of certain families of integer sequences, we study the term-wise ratios of the Hankel transforms of three sequences related to that element by series reversion. In each case, the ratios define well-known sequences, and in one case, we recover the initial sequence.
On a conjecture of Murty and Simon on diameter two critical graphs II
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haynes, Teresa W.; Henning, Michael A.; Yeo, Anders
2012-01-01
A graph G is diameter 2-critical if its diameter is two and the deletion of any edge increases the diameter. Murty and Simon conjectured that the number of edges in a diameter 2-critical graph of order n is at most n2/4 and that the extremal graphs are complete bipartite graphs with equal size pa...
The approximate Loebl-Komlos-Sos Conjecture II: The rough structure of LKS graphs
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hladký, Jan; Komlós, J.; Piguet, Diana; Simonovits, M.; Stein, M.; Szemerédi, E.
2017-01-01
Roč. 31, č. 2 (2017), s. 983-1016 ISSN 0895-4801 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Institutional support: RVO:67985840 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : extremal graph theory * Loebl–Komlós–Sós conjecture * regularity lemma Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics ; BA - General Mathematics (UIVT-O) Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/140982854
Gong, Sheng
2014-01-01
In 1919, Bieberbach posed a seemingly simple conjecture. That "simple" conjecture challenged mathematicians in complex analysis for the following 68 years! In that time, a huge number of papers discussing the conjecture and its related problems were inspired. Finally in 1984, de Branges completed the solution. In 1989, Professor Gong wrote and published a short book in Chinese, The Bieberbach Conjecture, outlining the history of the related problems and de Branges' proof. The present volume is the English translation of that Chinese edition with modifications by the author. In particular, he includes results related to several complex variables. Open problems and a large number of new mathematical results motivated by the Bieberbach conjecture are included. Completion of a standard one-year graduate complex analysis course will prepare the reader for understanding the book. It would make a nice supplementary text for a topics course at the advanced undergraduate or graduate level.
On the Firoozbakht's conjecture
Sabihi, Ahmad
2016-01-01
This paper proves Firoozbakht's conjecture using Rosser and Schoenfelds' inequality on the distribution of primes. This inequality is valid for all natural numbers ${n\\geq 21}$. Firoozbakht's conjecture states that if $ {p_{n}}$ and ${p_{(n+1)}}$ are consecutive prime numbers, then ${p_{(n+1)}^{1/(n+1)}< p_{n}^{1/n}}$ for every ${n\\geq 1}$. Rosser's inequality for the ${n}$th and ${(n+1)}$th roots, changes from strictly increasing to strictly decreasing for ${n\\geq 21}$. The inequality is con...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friedland, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2018-01-08
This note confirms Goldbach’s Conjecture from 1742. This is, every even integer greater than two is the sum of two prime numbers. An analysis of the nature of multiplication as description length reduction for addition precedes a contraposition that it is impossible to subtract any prime from a given even integer without the result ever being prime.
Lam, T Y
1978-01-01
From the Preface: "I felt it would be useful for graduate students to see a detailed account of the sequence of mathematical developments which was inspired by the Conjecture, and which ultimately led to its full solution.... I offered a course on Serre's Conjecture to a small group of graduate students in January, 1977 [at the University of California, Berkeley] one year after its solution by Quillen and Suslin. My course was taught very much in the spirit of a mathematical 'guided tour'. Volunteering as the guide, I took upon myself the task of charting a route through all the beautiful mathematics surrounding the main problem to be treated; the 'guide' then leads his audience through the route, on to the destination, pointing out the beautiful sceneries and historical landmarks along the way."
Hedetniemi's conjecture for Kneser hypergraphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hajiabolhassan, Hossein; Meunier, Frédéric
2016-01-01
One of the most famous conjectures in graph theory is Hedetniemi's conjecture stating that the chromatic number of the categorical product of graphs is the minimum of their chromatic numbers. Using a suitable extension of the definition of the categorical product, Zhu proposed in 1992 a similar c...... on the Zp-Tucker lemma....
Lanzagorta, Marco; Jitrik, Oliverio; Uhlmann, Jeffrey; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E.
2017-05-01
In previous research we designed an interferometric quantum seismograph that uses entangled photon states to enhance sensitivity in an optomechanic device. However, a spatially-distributed array of such sensors, with each sensor measuring only nm-vibrations, may not provide sufficient sensitivity for the prediction of major earthquakes because it fails to exploit potentially critical phase information. We conjecture that relative phase information can explain the anecdotal observations that animals such as lemurs exhibit sensitivity to impending earthquakes earlier than can be done confidently with traditional seismic technology. More specifically, we propose that lemurs use their limbs as ground motion sensors and that relative phase differences are fused in the brain in a manner similar to a phased-array or synthetic-aperture radar. In this paper we will describe a lemur-inspired quantum sensor network for early warning of earthquakes. The system uses 4 interferometric quantum seismographs (e.g., analogous to a lemurs limbs) and then conducts phase and data fusion of the seismic information. Although we discuss a quantum-based technology, the principles described can also be applied to classical sensor arrays
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Woods conjecture with = 2 is at least /(log ) for some positive constant > 2. ... Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, 4th Cross Street, Taramani, Chennai 600 113, India; Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, ...
Warping the Weak Gravity Conjecture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karta Kooner
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The Weak Gravity Conjecture, if valid, rules out simple models of Natural Inflation by restricting their axion decay constant to be sub-Planckian. We revisit stringy attempts to realise Natural Inflation, with a single open string axionic inflaton from a probe D-brane in a warped throat. We show that warped geometries can allow the requisite super-Planckian axion decay constant to be achieved, within the supergravity approximation and consistently with the Weak Gravity Conjecture. Preliminary estimates of the brane backreaction suggest that the probe approximation may be under control. However, there is a tension between large axion decay constant and high string scale, where the requisite high string scale is difficult to achieve in all attempts to realise large field inflation using perturbative string theory. We comment on the Generalized Weak Gravity Conjecture in the light of our results.
Multi - instantons and Maldacena's conjecture
Dorey, N.; Hollowood, T.J.; Khoze, V.V.; Mattis, M.P.; Vandoren, S.
1998-01-01
We examine certain n-point functions Gn in N = 4 supersymmetric SU(N) gauge theory at the conformal point. In the large-N limit, we are able to sum all leading-order multiinstanton contributions exactly. We find compelling evidence for Maldacena’s conjecture: (1) The large-N k-instanton
Reed's Conjecture on hole expansions
Fouquet, Jean-Luc
2012-01-01
In 1998, Reed conjectured that for any graph $G$, $\\chi(G) \\leq \\lceil \\frac{\\omega(G) + \\Delta(G)+1}{2}\\rceil$, where $\\chi(G)$, $\\omega(G)$, and $\\Delta(G)$ respectively denote the chromatic number, the clique number and the maximum degree of $G$. In this paper, we study this conjecture for some {\\em expansions} of graphs, that is graphs obtained with the well known operation {\\em composition} of graphs. We prove that Reed's Conjecture holds for expansions of bipartite graphs, for expansions of odd holes where the minimum chromatic number of the components is even, when some component of the expansion has chromatic number 1 or when a component induces a bipartite graph. Moreover, Reed's Conjecture holds if all components have the same chromatic number, if the components have chromatic number at most 4 and when the odd hole has length 5. Finally, when $G$ is an odd hole expansion, we prove $\\chi(G)\\leq\\lceil\\frac{\\omega(G)+\\Delta(G)+1}{2}\\rceil+1$.
A conjecture on numeral systems
Nour, Karim
1997-01-01
International audience; A numeral system is an infinite sequence of different closed normal $\\lambda$-terms intended to code the integers in $\\lambda$-calculus. H. Barendregt has shown that if we can represent, for a numeral system, the functions : Successor, Predecessor, and Zero Test, then all total recursive functions can be represented. In this paper we prove the independancy of these particular three functions. We give at the end a conjecture on the number of unary functions necessary to...
The Sato–Tate conjecture and generalizations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In his thesis, Artin verified his conjecture for many small primes p but could not prove it. In February, 1933, Hasse [14] proved the conjecture using techniques from algebraic geometry. One could say that understanding this function field analogue of the Riemann hypoth- esis was an important step in the annals of.
On a conjecture on linear systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In a remark to Green's conjecture, Paranjape and Ramanan analysed the vector bundle E which is the pullback by the canonical map of the universal quotient bundle TPg−1(−1) on Pg−1 and stated a more general conjecture and proved it for the curves with Clifford Index 1 (trigonal and plane quintics). In this paper ...
A paper on the Twin Prime Conjecture
Tanaka, Minoru; Tanaka, Kaoru
2005-01-01
The conjecture that there are infinitely many twin primes such as (3, 5), (5, 7), (11, 13) is still open problem in number theory. This paper introduces an unpublished paper written about 20 years ago which is intended to give the proof of the conjecture by constructing new larger twin primes from given twin primes.
The volume conjecture and topological strings
Dijkgraaf, R.; Fuji, H.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we discuss a relation between Jones-Witten theory of knot invariants and topological open string theory on the basis of the volume conjecture. We find a similar Hamiltonian structure for both theories, and interpret the AJ conjecture as the D-module structure for a D-brane partition
On a conjecture on linear systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In a remark to Green's conjecture, Paranjape and Ramanan analysed the vector bundle E which is the pullback by the canonical map of the universal quotient bundle T P g − 1 ( − 1 ) on P g − 1 and stated a more general conjecture and proved it for the curveswith Clifford Index 1 (trigonal and plane quintics). In this paper ...
Electricity market equilibrium based on conjectural variations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diaz, Cristian A.; Villar, Jose; Campos, Fco. Alberto; Reneses, Javier [Institute for Research in Technology, Technical School of Engineering, Comillas Pontifical University, Madrid 28015 (Spain)
2010-12-15
Many of the models used for the representation of the generation companies' behavior in oligopolistic electricity markets are based on conjectural variation equilibria, which are a generalization of the classic Cournot approach. However, one of the main drawbacks of these approaches is the complexity of assigning adequate values to the conjectures, which can dramatically affect the results obtained from these models. This paper reviews and analyses the main formulations of conjectural equilibria applied to electricity markets. The paper shows how these different formulations are equivalent, and presents the relationships among the conjectures they use. Finally, it presents a brief overview on the main methods to estimate or compute the conjectures of these types of models. (author)
The generic Green-Lazarsfeld Secant Conjecture
Farkas, Gavril; Kemeny, Michael
2016-01-01
Generalizing the well-known Green Conjecture on syzygies of canonical curves, Green and Lazarsfeld formulated in 1986 the Secant Conjecture predicting that a line bundle L of sufficiently high degree on a curve has a non-linear p-syzygy if and only if L fails to be (p+1)-very ample. Via lattice theory for special K3 surfaces, Voisin's solution of the classical Green Conjecture and calculations on moduli stacks of pointed curves, we prove: (1) The Green-Lazarsfeld Secant Conjecture in various degree of generality, including its strongest possible form in the divisorial case in the universal Jacobian. (2) The Prym-Green Conjecture on the naturality of the resolution of a general Prym-canonical curve of odd genus.
A new lower bound for the total domination number in graphs proving a Graffiti.pc Conjecture
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henning, Michael A.; Yeo, Anders
2014-01-01
the maximum distance in G of a vertex outside B to a vertex of B. The following conjecture is known as Graffiti.pc Conjecture #233 (http://cms.dt.uh.edu/ faculty/delavinae/research/wowII): if G is a connected graph of order at least two, then γt(G)≥2(ecc(B)+1)/3. We prove this conjecture. In fact...
Higher order integral stark-type conjectures
Emmons, Caleb J.
2006-01-01
The Stark conjectures attempt to capture the leading terms at s=0 of the S-incomplete Artin L-functions attached to an abelian extension of number fields as the image under a regulator map of an evaluator built out of S-units. We introduce a new conjecture of Popescu, which extends Rubin's higher order of vanishing Stark-type conjecture by removing the hypothesis that S contains splitting primes. We prove that the evaluator attached to an extension K/k can be written as a linear combina...
Numerical evidence for higher order Stark-type conjectures
McGown, Kevin,; Sands, Jonathan; Vallières, Daniel
2017-01-01
We give a systematic method of providing numerical evidence for higher order Stark-type conjectures such as (in chronological order) Stark's conjecture over $\\mathbb{Q}$, Rubin's conjecture, Popescu's conjecture, and a conjecture due to Burns that constitutes a generalization of Brumer's classical conjecture on annihilation of class groups. Our approach is general and could be used for any abelian extension of number fields, independent of the signature and type of places (finite or infinite)...
Voronoi's Conjecture for extensions of Voronoi parallelohedra
Magazinov, Alexander
2013-01-01
Let $I$ be a segment in the $d$-dimensional Euclidean space $\\mathbb E^d$. Let $P$ and $P+I$ be parallelohedra in $\\mathbb E^d$, where "+" denotes the Minkowski sum. We prove that Voronoi's Conjecture holds for $P+I$, i.e. $P+I$ is a Voronoi parallelohedron for some Euclidean metric in $\\mathbb E^d$, if Voronoi's Conjecture holds for $P$.
FeII/MgII Emission Line Ratio in High Redshift Quasars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dietrich, M.; Hamann, F.; Appenzeller, I.
2003-01-01
We present results of the analysis of near infrared spectroscopic observations of 6 high-redshift quasars (z > 4), emphasizing the measurement of the ultraviolet FeII/MgII emission line strength in order to estimate the beginning of intense star formation in the early universe. To investigate the...
The dynamical Mordell-Lang conjecture
Bell, Jason P; Tucker, Thomas J
2016-01-01
The Dynamical Mordell-Lang Conjecture is an analogue of the classical Mordell-Lang conjecture in the context of arithmetic dynamics. It predicts the behavior of the orbit of a point x under the action of an endomorphism f of a quasiprojective complex variety X. More precisely, it claims that for any point x in X and any subvariety V of X, the set of indices n such that the n-th iterate of x under f lies in V is a finite union of arithmetic progressions. In this book the authors present all known results about the Dynamical Mordell-Lang Conjecture, focusing mainly on a p-adic approach which provides a parametrization of the orbit of a point under an endomorphism of a variety.
The RUBISCO to Photosystem II Ratio Limits the Maximum Photosynthetic Rate in Picocyanobacteria.
Zorz, Jackie K; Allanach, Jessica R; Murphy, Cole D; Roodvoets, Mitchell S; Campbell, Douglas A; Cockshutt, Amanda M
2015-02-04
Marine Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus are picocyanobacteria predominating in subtropical, oligotrophic marine environments, a niche predicted to expand with climate change. When grown under common low light conditions Synechococcus WH 8102 and Prochlorococcus MED 4 show similar Cytochrome b6f and Photosystem I contents normalized to Photosystem II content, while Prochlorococcus MIT 9313 has twice the Cytochrome b6f content and four times the Photosystem I content of the other strains. Interestingly, the Prochlorococcus strains contain only one third to one half of the RUBISCO catalytic subunits compared to the marine Synechococcus strain. The maximum Photosystem II electron transport rates were similar for the two Prochlorococcus strains but higher for the marine Synechococcus strain. Photosystem II electron transport capacity is highly correlated to the molar ratio of RUBISCO active sites to Photosystem II but not to the ratio of cytochrome b6f to Photosystem II, nor to the ratio of Photosystem I: Photosystem II. Thus, the catalytic capacity for the rate-limiting step of carbon fixation, the ultimate electron sink, appears to limit electron transport rates. The high abundance of Cytochrome b6f and Photosystem I in MIT 9313, combined with the slower flow of electrons away from Photosystem II and the relatively low level of RUBISCO, are consistent with cyclic electron flow around Photosystem I in this strain.
The real Fatou conjecture (AM-144)
Graczyk, Jacek
2014-01-01
In 1920, Pierre Fatou expressed the conjecture that--except for special cases--all critical points of a rational map of the Riemann sphere tend to periodic orbits under iteration. This conjecture remains the main open problem in the dynamics of iterated maps. For the logistic family x- ax(1-x), it can be interpreted to mean that for a dense set of parameters ""a,"" an attracting periodic orbit exists. The same question appears naturally in science, where the logistic family is used to construct models in physics, ecology, and economics. In this book, Jacek Graczyk and Grzegorz Swiatek provi
Celebrating Cercignani's conjecture for the Boltzmann equation
Villani, Cédric
2011-01-01
Cercignani\\'s conjecture assumes a linear inequality between the entropy and entropy production functionals for Boltzmann\\'s nonlinear integral operator in rarefied gas dynamics. Related to the field of logarithmic Sobolev inequalities and spectral gap inequalities, this issue has been at the core of the renewal of the mathematical theory of convergence to thermodynamical equilibrium for rarefied gases over the past decade. In this review paper, we survey the various positive and negative results which were obtained since the conjecture was proposed in the 1980s. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.
Pepsinogen I/II ratio is related to glucose, triacylglycerol, and uric acid levels.
Tanaka, Muhei; Fukui, Michiaki; Kuroda, Masaaki; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Oda, Yohei; Naito, Yuji; Toda, Hitoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Naoto
2012-04-01
Under- and overnutrition are associated with a worse prognosis and constitute independent risk factors for morbidity and mortality. It is increasingly important to understand the factors that affect nutritional and metabolic statuses. The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between the pepsinogen I/II ratio and several biochemical markers. A cross-sectional study was performed in 1985 subjects who underwent a health screening test. Subjects had no medications for hyperuricemia, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, or hypertension. All subjects were classified into two groups. Subjects with a pepsinogen I/II ratio below 3 were defined as having atrophic gastritis. The relations between the pepsinogen I/II ratio and several biochemical markers, including total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, uric acid, cholinesterase, and glucose levels, were evaluated. The presence of atrophic gastritis was significantly associated with age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and triacylglycerol, uric acid, cholinesterase, and hemoglobin levels. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the pepsinogen I/II ratio was an independent determinant of glucose level (β = 0.104, P < 0.0001), triacylglycerol level (β = 0.072, P = 0.0014), uric acid level (β = 0.048, P = 0.0138), and hemoglobin (β = 0.037, P = 0.0429) after adjustments for age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and body mass index. The pepsinogen I/II ratio was related to glucose, triacylglycerol, and uric acid levels. Such an association fosters the idea that a decreased pepsinogen I/II ratio seems favorable for the prevention of overnutrition. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A monotonicity conjecture for real cubic maps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dawson, S.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Galeeva, R. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Milnor, J. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Tresser, C. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States)
1993-12-01
This will be an outline of work in progress. We study the conjecture that the topological entropy of a real cubic map depends ``monotonely`` on its parameters, in the sense that each locus of constant entropy in parameter space is a connected set. This material will be presented in more detail in a later paper.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
(Extremal cases for Mason's theorem and applications of the (abc) conjecture),. C. R. Acad. Sci., Paris, Ser. I 317(5) (1993) 441–444. [4] Nagell T, Sur une classe d'équations exponentielles, Ark. Mat. 3 (1958) 569–582. [5] Rundle R J, Generalization of Ruderman's problem to imaginary quadratic fields, Ph.D. Thesis (2012) ...
Deconstructing Arsovski's Proof of Snevily's Conjecture
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 9. Deconstructing Arsovski's Proof of Snevily's Conjecture ... Author Affiliations. Deepanshu Kush1. Integrated MSc Student, Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, Mharashtra 400 076, India ...
A proof of the Thompson Moonshine Conjecture
Griffin, Michael J.; Mertens, Michael H.
2016-01-01
In this paper we prove the existence of an infinite dimensional graded super-module for the finite sporadic Thompson group $Th$ whose McKay-Thompson series are weakly holomorphic modular forms of weight $\\frac 12$ satisfying properties conjectured by Harvey and Rayhaun.
Hod mice and the mouse set conjecture
Sargsyan, Grigor
2015-01-01
The author develops the theory of Hod mice below AD_{\\mathbb{R}}+ "\\Theta is regular". He uses this theory to show that HOD of the minimal model of AD_{\\mathbb{R}}+ "\\Theta is regular" satisfies GCH. Moreover, he shows that the Mouse Set Conjecture is true in the minimal model of AD_{\\mathbb{R}}+ "\\Theta is regular".
On the geometry of thin exceptional sets in Manin's conjecture
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lehmann, Brian; Tanimoto, Sho
2017-01-01
Manin’s Conjecture predicts the rate of growth of rational points of a bounded height after removing those lying on an exceptional set. We study whether the exceptional set in Manin’s Conjecture is a thin set....
Trahtman, A N
2012-01-01
A word w is called a synchronizing word of deterministic finite automaton (DFA) if w sends all states of the automaton to a unique state. In 1964, Jan Cerny discovered a sequence of an n-state complete DFA possessing a minimal synchronizing word of length (n-1)^2. The Cerny conjecture claims that it is also the upper bound on the length of such a word for a complete DFA. The problem has motivated great and constantly growing number of investigations and generalizations and together with the Road Coloring problem is considered as a most fascinating old problem in the theory of finite automata. The recently known upper bound for the length of the shortest synchronizing word is now equal to n(7n^2+6n-16)/48. An effort to prove the \\v{C}erny conjecture is presented.
Distribution of Prime Numbers,twin Primes and Goldbach Conjecture
Ganguly, Subhajit
2012-01-01
The following paper deals with the distribution of prime numbers, the twin prime numbers and the Goldbach conjecture. Starting from the simple assertion that prime numbers are never even, a rule for the distribution of primes is arrived at. Following the same approach, the twin prime conjecture and the Goldbach conjecture are found to be true.
A Conjectured Bound on Accidental Symmetries
Buican, Matthew
2012-01-01
In this note, we study a large class of four-dimensional R-symmetric theories, and we describe a new quantity, \\tau_U, which is well-defined in these theories. Furthermore, we conjecture that this quantity is larger in the ultraviolet (UV) than in the infrared (IR), i.e. that \\tau_U^{UV}>\\tau_U^{IR}. While we do not prove this inequality in full generality, it is straightforward to show that our conjecture holds in the subset of theories that do not have accidental symmetries. In addition, we subject our inequality to an array of non-trivial tests in theories with accidental symmetries and dramatically different dynamics both in N=1 and N=2 supersymmetry and find that our inequality is obeyed. One interesting consequence of this conjecture is that the mixing of accidental symmetries with the IR superconformal R current is bounded by the UV quantity, \\tau_U^{UV}. To demonstrate the potential utility of this bound, we apply it to the somewhat mysterious SU(2) gauge theory of Intriligator, Seiberg, and Shenker a...
Informed Conjecturing of Solutions for Differential Equations in a Modeling Context
Winkel, Brian
2015-01-01
We examine two differential equations. (i) first-order exponential growth or decay; and (ii) second order, linear, constant coefficient differential equations, and show the advantage of learning differential equations in a modeling context for informed conjectures of their solution. We follow with a discussion of the complete analysis afforded by…
An experimental system for spectral line ratio measurements in the TJ-II stellarator.
Zurro, B; Baciero, A; Fontdecaba, J M; Peláez, R; Jiménez-Rey, D
2008-10-01
The chord-integrated emissions of spectral lines have been monitored in the TJ-II stellarator by using a spectral system with time and space scanning capabilities and relative calibration over the entire UV-visible spectral range. This system has been used to study the line ratio of lines of different ionization stages of carbon (C(5+) 5290 A and C(4+) 2271 A) for plasma diagnostic purposes. The local emissivity of these ions has been reconstructed, for quasistationary profiles, by means of the inversion Fisher method described previously. The experimental line ratio is being empirically studied and in parallel a simple spectroscopic model has been developed to account for that ratio. We are investigating whether the role played by charge exchange processes with neutrals and the existence of non-Maxwellian electrons, intrinsic to Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) heating, leave any distinguishable mark on this diagnostic method.
On a conjecture concerning helly circle graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Durán Guillermo
2003-01-01
Full Text Available We say that G is an e-circle graph if there is a bijection between its vertices and straight lines on the cartesian plane such that two vertices are adjacent in G if and only if the corresponding lines intersect inside the circle of radius one. This definition suggests a method for deciding whether a given graph G is an e-circle graph, by constructing a convenient system S of equations and inequations which represents the structure of G, in such a way that G is an e-circle graph if and only if S has a solution. In fact, e-circle graphs are exactly the circle graphs (intersection graphs of chords in a circle, and thus this method provides an analytic way for recognizing circle graphs. A graph G is a Helly circle graph if G is a circle graph and there exists a model of G by chords such that every three pairwise intersecting chords intersect at the same point. A conjecture by Durán (2000 states that G is a Helly circle graph if and only if G is a circle graph and contains no induced diamonds (a diamond is a graph formed by four vertices and five edges. Many unsuccessful efforts - mainly based on combinatorial and geometrical approaches - have been done in order to validate this conjecture. In this work, we utilize the ideas behind the definition of e-circle graphs and restate this conjecture in terms of an equivalence between two systems of equations and inequations, providing a new, analytic tool to deal with it.
Empowering Polynomial Theory Conjectures with Spreadsheets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chris Petersdinh
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Polynomial functions and their properties are fundamental to algebra, calculus, and mathematical modeling. Students who do not have a strong understanding of the relationship between factoring and solving equations can have difficulty with optimization problems in calculus and solving application problems in any field. Understanding function transformations is important in trigonometry, the idea of the general antiderivative, and describing the geometry of a problem mathematically. This paper presents spreadsheet activities designed to bolster students' conceptualization of the factorization theorem for polynomials, complex zeros of polynomials, and function transformations. These activities were designed to use a constructivist approach involving student experimentation and conjectures.
A Reduction of the Graph Reconstruction Conjecture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monikandan S.
2014-08-01
Full Text Available A graph is said to be reconstructible if it is determined up to isomor- phism from the collection of all its one-vertex deleted unlabeled subgraphs. Reconstruction Conjecture (RC asserts that all graphs on at least three vertices are reconstructible. In this paper, we prove that interval-regular graphs and some new classes of graphs are reconstructible and show that RC is true if and only if all non-geodetic and non-interval-regular blocks G with diam(G = 2 or diam(Ḡ = diam(G = 3 are reconstructible
On conjectures of Minkowski and Woods for n= 9
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A well known conjecture in the geometry of numbers asserts that any closed sphere in R n of radius n / 4 contains a point of ∧ . This is known to be true for n ≤ 8 . Here we prove a more general conjecture of Woods for n = 9 from which this conjecture follows in R 9 . Together with a result of McMullen (J. Amer. Math. Soc.
Distribution of Prime Numbers,twin Primes and Goldbach Conjecture
Ganguly, Subhajit
2017-01-01
The following paper deals with the distribution of prime numbers, the twin prime numbers and the Goldbach conjecture. Starting from the simple assertion that prime numbers are never even, a rule for the distribution of primes is arrived at. Following the same approach, the twin prime conjecture and the Goldbach conjecture are found to be true. This record was migrated from the OpenDepot repository service in June, 2017 before shutting down.
A Computational Approach to the Graceful Tree Conjecture
Fang, Wenjie
2010-01-01
Graceful tree conjecture is a well-known open problem in graph theory. Here we present a computational approach to this conjecture. An algorithm for finding graceful labelling for trees is proposed. With this algorithm, we show that every tree with at most 35 vertices allows a graceful labelling, hence we verify that the graceful tree conjecture is correct for trees with at most 35 vertices.
On conjectures of Minkowski and Woods for n = 9
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
n/4 contains a point of ∧. This is known to be true for n ≤ 8. Here we prove a more general conjecture of Woods for n = 9 from which this conjecture follows in R9. Together with a result of McMullen (J. Amer. Math. Soc. 18 (2005) 711–734), the long standing conjecture of Minkowski follows for n = 9. Keywords. Lattice ...
On Selberg's small eigenvalue conjecture and residual eigenvalues
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Risager, Morten S.
2011-01-01
We show that Selberg’s eigenvalue conjecture concerning small eigenvalues of the automorphic Laplacian for congruence groups is equivalent to a conjecture about the non-existence of residual eigenvalues for a perturbed system. We prove this using a combination of methods from asymptotic perturbat......We show that Selberg’s eigenvalue conjecture concerning small eigenvalues of the automorphic Laplacian for congruence groups is equivalent to a conjecture about the non-existence of residual eigenvalues for a perturbed system. We prove this using a combination of methods from asymptotic...
A proof of the conjecture on the twin primes
Zuo-ling, Zhou
2016-06-01
In this short note, we have proved the conjecture on twin primes using some thoughts of the set theory. Firstly, using the original sieve method and a new notation(concept)introduced by myself, the conjecture on twin primes is summed up as an elementary successive limit, afterwards we form a subsequence of positive integers,and using it,we prove that the successive limits are commutative and complete the proof of the conjecture on twin primes We also give a more straightforward proof of the conjecture.
Singh, Ajeet; Datta, Poulami; Pandey, Lalit M
2017-04-01
Various metal ions are recently implicated in protein aggregates and are associated with numerous neurodegenerative diseases. In the present work, we have scrutinized the effect of stoichiometric variation of Cu(II) on BSA fibrillation at physiological pH 7.4 through Thioflavin-T dye binding study, residual protein concentration, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). Fibrillation kinetics was studied through ThT fluorescence, which illustrated dependency on stoichiometric ratio of Cu(II). The ThT intensity data were fitted to a single exponential expression to determine the aggregation rate, k, which revealed a slight lower k value for 1:1 ratio of BSA-Cu(II) reaction as compared to BSA alone whereas k value for 1:2 ratio of BSA-Cu(II) reaction was higher. Higher equilibrium residual concentration in case of 1:1 ratio of BSA-Cu(II) agreed to the lower aggregation rate. IR spectroscopy revealed the presence of increased β-sheet proportion to the detriment of α-helix conformation with increasing concentration of Cu(II) and illustrated maximum β-sheet proportion in 1:2 ratio of BSA-Cu(II). These results were combined with scattering results that showed the higher average hydrodynamic radius (Z-average value) of aggregates in 1:2 ratio of BSA-Cu(II) with respect to BSA and 1:1 ratio of BSA-Cu(II). AFM analysis confirmed the fibril formation. ITC analysis has shown the presence of two binding sites with many fold difference in binding affinity at prescribed in vitro conditions. An N-terminal binding site with many fold higher binding affinity was found as the first Cu(II) binding site. The free thiol group of the cysteine residue positioned at 34 (cys-34) in BSA was covalently capped and this modified BSA also showed the presence of two binding sites, which declined the cys-34 site as the second Cu(II) bind site. Therefore Zn(II) binding site was
The FZZ-duality conjecture. A proof
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hikida, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Schomerus, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2008-05-15
We prove that the cigar conformal field theory is dual to the Sine-Liouville model, as conjectured originally by Fateev, Zamolodchikov and Zamolodchikov. Since both models possess the same chiral algebra, our task is to show that correlations of all tachyon vertex operators agree. We accomplish this goal through an off-critical version of the geometric Langlands duality for sl(2). More explicitly, we combine the well-known self-duality of Liouville theory with an intriguing correspondence between the cigar and Liouville field theory. The latter is derived through a path integral treatment. After a very detailed discussion of genus zero amplitudes, we extend the duality to arbitrary closed surfaces. (orig.)
An equivalent problem to the Twin Prime Conjecture
Balestrieri, F.
2011-01-01
In this short paper we will show, via elementary arguments, the equivalence of the Twin Prime Conjecture to a problem which might be simpler to prove. Some conclusions are drawn, and it is shown that proving the Twin Prime Conjecture is equivalent to proving that there cannot be an infinite string of consecutive natural numbers satisfying some specified equations.
Wahl's conjecture for a minuscule G/P
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
complex semisimple algebraic group and P a parabolic subgroup of G. Wahl's conjecture was proved by Kumar in [4] using representation theoretic techniques. In [5], the authors considered Wahl's conjecture in positive characteristics, and observed that Wahl's conjec- ture will follow if there exists a Frobenius splitting of X ...
Contractor renormalization group and the Haldane conjecture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weinstein, Marvin
2001-05-01
The contractor renormalization group formalism (CORE) is a real-space renormalization group method which is the Hamiltonian analogue of the Wilson exact renormalization group equations. In an earlier paper [Phys. Rev. D 61, 034505 (2000)] I showed that the CORE method could be used to map a theory of free quarks and quarks interacting with gluons into a generalized frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet (HAF) and proposed using CORE methods to study these theories. Since generalizations of HAF's exhibit all sorts of subtle behavior which, from a continuum point of view, are related to topological properties of the theory, it is important to know that CORE can be used to extract this physics. In this paper I show that despite the folklore which asserts that all real-space renormalization group schemes are necessarily inaccurate, simple CORE computations can give highly accurate results even if one only keeps a small number of states per block and a few terms in the cluster expansion. In addition I argue that even very simple CORE computations give a much better qualitative understanding of the physics than naive renormalization group methods. In particular I show that the simplest CORE computation yields a first-principles understanding of how the famous Haldane conjecture works for the case of the spin-1/2 and spin-1 HAF.
Weak gravity conjecture and effective field theory
Saraswat, Prashant
2017-01-01
The weak gravity conjecture (WGC) is a proposed constraint on theories with gauge fields and gravity, requiring the existence of light charged particles and/or imposing an upper bound on the field theory cutoff Λ . If taken as a consistency requirement for effective field theories (EFTs), it rules out possibilities for model building including some models of inflation. I demonstrate simple models which satisfy all forms of the WGC, but which through Higgsing of the original gauge fields produce low-energy EFTs with gauge forces that badly violate the WGC. These models illustrate specific loopholes in arguments that motivate the WGC from a bottom-up perspective; for example the arguments based on magnetic monopoles are evaded when the magnetic confinement that occurs in a Higgs phase is accounted for. This indicates that the WGC should not be taken as a veto on EFTs, even if it turns out to be a robust property of UV quantum gravity theories. However, if the latter is true, then parametric violation of the WGC at low energy comes at the cost of nonminimal field content in the UV. I propose that only a very weak constraint is applicable to EFTs, Λ ≲(log 1/g )-1 /2Mpl , where g is the gauge coupling, motivated by entropy bounds. Remarkably, EFTs produced by Higgsing a theory that satisfies the WGC can saturate but not violate this bound.
Multi-Instantons and Maldacena's Conjecture
Dorey, N; Khoze, V V; Mattis, M P; Vandoren, S
1999-01-01
We examine certain n-point functions G_n in N=4 supersymmetric SU(N) gauge theory at the conformal point. In the large-N limit, we are able to evaluate all leading-order multi-instanton contributions exactly. We find compelling evidence for Maldacena's conjecture: (1) The large-N instanton collective coordinate space has the geometry of AdS_5 x S^5. (2) At the k-instanton level $G_n \\sim \\sqrt{N} g^8 k^n {\\cal Z}_k F_n(x_1,...,x_n)$, where F_n is identical to a convolution of n bulk-to-boundary SUGRA propagators, and {\\cal Z}_k is the partition function for 10-dimensional N=1 SU(k) gauge theory on flat space, reduced to 0 dimensions; this is in agreement with type IIB superstring calculations, up to an unknown k-dependent normalization factor for {\\cal Z}_k.
Interpreting multiple dualities conjectured from superconformal index identities
Khmelnitsky, A
2010-01-01
We consider field theory side of new multiple Seiberg dualities conjectured within superconformal index matching approach. We study the case of SU(2) supersymmetric QCD and find that the numerous conjectured duals are different faces of handful of master theories. These different faces are inequivalent to each other in a very peculiar sense. Some master theories are fully known; we construct superpotentials for others. We confirm that all index identities correspond to theories flowing to one and the same theory in the infrared, thus supporting the conjecture of index matching for Seiberg dual theories. However, none of the index identities considered in this paper actually implies an entirely new, unknown duality.
Quantum reciprocity conjecture for the non-equilibrium steady state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coleman, P; Mao, W [Center for Materials Theory, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)
2004-05-26
A consideration of the lack of history dependence in the non-equilibrium steady state of a quantum system leads us to conjecture that in such a system there is a set of quantum mechanical observables whose retarded response functions are insensitive to the arrow of time, and which consequently satisfy a quantum analogue of the Onsager reciprocity relations. Systems which satisfy this conjecture can be described by an effective free energy functional. We demonstrate that the conjecture holds in a resonant level model of a multi-lead quantum dot. (letter to the editor)
Majorization theory approach to the Gaussian channel minimum entropy conjecture.
García-Patrón, Raúl; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Cerf, Nicolas J
2012-03-16
A long-standing open problem in quantum information theory is to find the classical capacity of an optical communication link, modeled as a Gaussian bosonic channel. It has been conjectured that this capacity is achieved by a random coding of coherent states using an isotropic Gaussian distribution in phase space. We show that proving a Gaussian minimum entropy conjecture for a quantum-limited amplifier is actually sufficient to confirm this capacity conjecture, and we provide a strong argument towards this proof by exploiting a connection between quantum entanglement and majorization theory.
Planckian axions and the Weak Gravity Conjecture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bachlechner, Thomas C.; Long, Cody; McAllister, Liam [Department of Physics, Cornell University,Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)
2016-01-18
Several recent works http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1475-7516/2015/09/020, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP08(2015)032, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP10(2015)023 have claimed that the Weak Gravity Conjecture (WGC) excludes super-Planckian displacements of axion fields, and hence large-field axion inflation, in the absence of monodromy. We argue that in theories with N≫1 axions, super-Planckian axion diameters D are readily allowed by the WGC. We clarify the nontrivial relationship between the kinetic matrix K — unambiguously defined by its form in a Minkowski-reduced basis — and the diameter of the axion fundamental domain, emphasizing that in general the diameter is not solely determined by the eigenvalues f{sub 1}{sup 2}≤…≤f{sub N}{sup 2} of K: the orientations of the eigenvectors with respect to the identifications imposed by instantons must be incorporated. In particular, even if one were to impose the condition f{sub N}
Conjecturing and Generalization Process on The Structural Development
Ni'mah, Khomsatun; Purwanto; Bambang Irawan, Edy; Hidayanto, Erry
2017-06-01
This study aims to describe how conjecturing process and generalization process of structural development to thirty children in middle school at grade 8 in solving problems of patterns. Processing of the data in this study uses qualitative data analysis techniques. The analyzed data is the data obtained through direct observation technique, documentation, and interviews. This study based on research studies Mulligan et al (2012) which resulted in a five - structural development stage, namely prestructural, emergent, partial, structural, and advance. From the analysis of the data in this study found there are two phenomena that is conjecturing and generalization process are related. During the conjecturing process, the childrens appropriately in making hypothesis of patterns problem through two phases, which are numerically and symbolically. Whereas during the generalization of process, the childrens able to related rule of pattern on conjecturing process to another context.
Aspects of Quantum Mathematics Hitchin Connections and AJ Conjectures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lauridsen, Magnus Roed
We discuss two different areas related to -dimensional Topological Quantum Field Theory, namely geometric quantization and the AJ-conjecture in knot theory. First, we construct a Hitchin connection in geometric quantization with metaplectic correction of symplectic manifolds, and compare it to pr......We discuss two different areas related to -dimensional Topological Quantum Field Theory, namely geometric quantization and the AJ-conjecture in knot theory. First, we construct a Hitchin connection in geometric quantization with metaplectic correction of symplectic manifolds, and compare...... it to previous constructions. Second, we review the AJ-conjecture in knot theory, relating the coloured Jones polynomial and the A-polynomial. We reformulate this conjecture geometrically, drawing on geometric quantization of moduli spaces. Last, we use Faddeev's quantum dilogarithm to describe the asymptotic...
A proof of the Shepp-Olkin entropy concavity conjecture
Hillion, Erwan; Johnson, Oliver T
2017-01-01
We prove the Shepp--Olkin conjecture, which states that the entropy of the sum of independent Bernoulli random variables is concave in the parameters of the individual random variables. Our proof is a refinement of an argument previously presented by the same authors, which resolved the conjecture in the monotonic case (where all the parameters are simultaneously increasing). In fact, we show that the monotonic case is the worst case, using a careful analysis of concavity properties of the de...
Note: Dynamic Conjectural Variations in a Lanchester Oligopoly
Erickson, Gary M
1997-01-01
An approach based on dynamic conjectural variations is advanced for developing dynamic advertising strategies in a Lanchester oligopoly differential game. The approach allows competitors to anticipate rival reactions to market-share state variables, and maintains the computational advantage of open-loop Nash equilibrium strategies. In an empirical application to the ready-to-eat cereal industry, it is shown that advertising strategies based on dynamic conjectural variations can better explain...
Reed's conjecture on some special classes of graphs
Fouquet, Jean-Luc
2012-01-01
Reed conjectured that for any graph $G$, $\\chi(G) \\leq \\lceil \\frac{\\omega(G)+\\Delta(G)+1}{2}\\rceil$, where $\\chi(G)$, $\\omega(G)$, and $\\Delta(G)$ respectively denote the chromatic number, the clique number and the maximum degree of $G$. In this paper, we verify this conjecture for some special classes of graphs, in particular for subclasses of $P_5$-free graphs or $Chair$-free graphs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiroki Osumi
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori eradication is usually assessed using the 13C-urea breath test (UBT, anti-H. pylori antibody and the H. pylori stool antigen test. However, a few reports have used pepsinogen (PG, in particular, the percentage change in the PG I/II ratio. Here, we evaluated the usefulness of the percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios for determining the success of eradication therapy for H. pylori.In total, 650 patients received eradication therapy from October 2008 to March 2013 in our Cancer Institute Hospital. We evaluated the relationship between H. pylori eradication and percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios before and 3 months after treatment with CLEIA® (FUJIREBIO Inc, Tokyo, Japan. The gold standard of H. pylori eradication was defined as negative by the UBT performed 3 months after completion of eradication treatment. Cut-off values for percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios were set as +40, +25 and +10% when the serum PG I/II ratio before treatment was below 3.0, above 3.0 but below 5.0 and 5.0 or above, respectively.Serum PG I and PG II levels were measured in 562 patients with H. pylori infection before and after eradication therapy. Eradication of H. pylori was achieved in 433 patients studied (77.0%. The ratios of first, second, third-line and penicillin allergy eradication treatment were 73.8% (317/429, 88.3% (99/112, 75% (12/16 and 100% (5/5, respectively. An increasing percentage in the serum levels of the PG I/II ratios after treatment compared with the values before treatment clearly distinguished success from failure of eradication (108.2±57.2 vs. 6.8±30.7, p<0.05. Using the above cut-off values, the sensitivity, specificity and validity for determination of H. pylori were 93.1, 93.8 and 93.2%, respectively.In conclusion, the percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios are useful as evaluation criteria for assessing the success of eradication therapy for H. pylori.
Ling, Li; Zhang, Dapeng; Fan, Chihhao; Shang, Chii
2017-11-01
A novel Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process for degrading a model micropollutant, carbamazepine (CBZ), at a low Fe(II)/PMS ratio and neutral pH has been proposed in this study, and the mechanisms of radical generation in the system was explored. With a UV dose of 302.4 mJ/cm(2), an initial pH of 7, and CBZ, PMS, Fe(II) and citrate at initial concentrations of 10, 100, 12 and 26 μM, respectively, the CBZ degradation efficiency reached 71% in 20 min in the Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process, which was 4.7 times higher than that in either the citrate/UV/PMS or Fe(II)/citrate/PMS process. The enhanced CBZ degradation in the Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process was mainly attributed to the continuous activation of PMS by the UV-catalyzed regenerated Fe(II) from a Fe(III)-citrate complex, [Fe3O(cit)3H3](2-), which not only maintained Fe(III) soluble at neutral pH, but also increased 6.6 and 2.6 times of its molar absorbance and quantum yield as compared to those of ionic Fe(III), respectively. In the Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process, the SO4(•-) produced from the fast reaction between PMS and the initially-added Fe(II) contributed 11% of CBZ degradation. The PMS activation by the UV radiation and regenerated Fe(II) contributed additional 14% and 46% of CBZ removal, respectively. The low iron and citrate doses and the fast radical generation at neutral pH make the Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process suitable for degrading recalcitrant organic compounds in potable water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yue, G. K.; Veiga, R. E.; Poole, L. R.; Zawodny, J. M.; Proffitt, M. H.
1994-01-01
An empirical time-series model for estimating ozone mixing ratios based on Stratospheric Aerosols and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) monthly mean ozone data for the period October 1984 through June 1991 has been developed. The modeling results for ozone mixing ratios in the 10- to 30- km region in early months of 1993 are presented. In situ ozone profiles obtained by a dual-beam UV-absorption ozone photometer during the Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamics Expedition (SPADE) campaign, May 1-14, 1993, are compared with the model results. With the exception of two profiles at altitudes below 16 km, ozone mixing ratios derived by the model and measured by the ozone photometer are in relatively good agreement within their individual uncertainties. The identified discrepancies in the two profiles are discussed.
Gillespie, Alan R.; Kahle, Anne B.; Walker, Richard E.
1987-01-01
Two techniques for enhancing the color of multispectral images are described; both involve ratioing of data from different image channels. In the first technique, the ratioed data are assigned the primary color for display as color ratio pictures, and in the second method, image data are transformed to RGB chromaticity coordinates by ratioing the data acquired in three channels to the sum of their intensities. The two techniques are applied to a NASA Thermal-IR Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) image of Death Valley and to a Landsat MSS image of the Mojave Desert. The basic principles of ratioing are discussed, and the effects of atmospheric path radiances on the interpretation of ratioed images are investigated. It is observed that the color pictures produced using these two enhancement techniques are similar to the pictures enhanced by decorrelation and hue-saturation-intensity methods.
Model Checking Failed Conjectures in Theorem Proving: A Case Study
Pike, Lee; Miner, Paul; Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo
2004-01-01
Interactive mechanical theorem proving can provide high assurance of correct design, but it can also be a slow iterative process. Much time is spent determining why a proof of a conjecture is not forthcoming. In some cases, the conjecture is false and in others, the attempted proof is insufficient. In this case study, we use the SAL family of model checkers to generate a concrete counterexample to an unproven conjecture specified in the mechanical theorem prover, PVS. The focus of our case study is the ROBUS Interactive Consistency Protocol. We combine the use of a mechanical theorem prover and a model checker to expose a subtle flaw in the protocol that occurs under a particular scenario of faults and processor states. Uncovering the flaw allows us to mend the protocol and complete its general verification in PVS.
The Leopoldt and Iwasawa Conjectures for CM fields
Mihailescu, Preda
2014-01-01
This is a two - part paper, in which we prove the following fact: let K be a CM field and L/K be a CM Z_p-extension. Then the Iwasawa mu-invariant of L vanishes. For the case when L is the cyclotomic Z_p extension, this is the Iwasawa conjecture stating that mu = 0 - a fact which had been proven for abelian fields by Ferrero and Washington. If L is not cyclotomic, than the Leopoldt conjecture fails for K. In this case we show that there is some auxiliar CM Z_p-extension for which mu does not ...
An analytical proof for Lehmer's totient conjecture using Mertens' theorems
Sabihi, Ahmad
2016-01-01
We make an analytical proof for Lehmer's totient conjecture. Lehmer conjectured that there is no solution for the congruence equation $n-1\\equiv 0~(mod~\\phi(n))$ with composite integers,$n$, where $\\phi(n)$ denotes Euler's totient function. He also showed that if the equation has any composite solutions, $n$ must be odd, square-free, and divisible by at least 7 primes. Several people have obtained conditions on values ,$n$, and number of square-free primes constructing $n$ if the equation can...
Cosmic Censorship Conjecture in Kerr-Sen Black Hole
Gwak, Bogeun
2016-01-01
The validity of cosmic censorship conjecture for the Kerr-Sen black hole, which is a solution to the low-energy effective field theory for four-dimensional heterotic string theory, is investigated using charged particle absorption. When the black hole absorbs the particle, its charges are changed due to the conserved quantities of the particle. Changes in the black hole are constrained to the equation for the motion of the particle and are consistent with the laws of thermodynamics. Particle absorption increases the mass of the extremal Kerr-Sen black hole to more than its charges, so the black hole cannot be overcharged. Therefore, cosmic censorship conjecture is valid.
Green's canonical syzygy conjecture for generic curves of odd genus
Voisin, Claire
2003-01-01
We prove the Green conjecture for generic curves of odd genus. That is we prove the vanishing $K_{k,1}(X,K_X)=0$ for $X$ generic of genus $2k+1$. The curves we consider are smooth curves $X$ on a K3 surface whose Picard group has rank 2. This completes our previous work, where the Green conjecture for generic curves of genus $g$ with fixed gonality $d$ was proved in the range $d\\geq g/3$, with the possible exception of the generic curves of odd genus.
Schimmelmann, A.; Lewan, M.D.; Wintsch, R.P.
1999-01-01
Immature source rock chips containing different types of kerogen (I, II, IIS, III) were artificially matured in isotopically distinct waters by hydrous pyrolysis and by pyrolysis in supercritical water. Converging isotopic trends of inorganic (water) and organic (kerogen, bitumen, oil) hydrogen with increasing time and temperature document that water-derived hydrogen is added to or exchanged with organic hydrogen, or both, during chemical reactions that take place during thermal maturation. Isotopic mass-balance calculations show that, depending on temperature (310-381??C), time (12-144 h), and source rock type, between ca. 45 and 79% of carbon-bound hydrogen in kerogen is derived from water. Estimates for bitumen and oil range slightly lower, with oil-hydrogen being least affected by water-derived hydrogen. Comparative hydrous pyrolyses of immature source rocks at 330??C for 72 h show that hydrogen in kerogen, bitumen, and expelled oil/wax ranks from most to least isotopically influenced by water-derived hydrogen in the order IIS > II ~ III > I. Pyrolysis of source rock containing type II kerogen in supercritical water at 381 ??C for 12 h yields isotopic results that are similar to those from hydrous pyrolysis at 350??C for 72 h, or 330??C for 144 h. Bulk hydrogen in kerogen contains several percent of isotopically labile hydrogen that exchanges fast and reversibly with hydrogen in water vapor at 115??C. The isotopic equilibration of labile hydrogen in kerogen with isotopic standard water vapors significantly reduces the analytical uncertainty of D/H ratios when compared with simple D/H determination of bulk hydrogen in kerogen. If extrapolation of our results from hydrous pyrolysis is permitted to natural thermal maturation at lower temperatures, we suggest that organic D/H ratios of fossil fuels in contact with formation waters are typically altered during chemical reactions, but that D/H ratios of generated hydrocarbons are subsequently little or not affected
On a conjecture about inverse domination in graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frendrup, Allan; Henning, Michael A.; Randerath, Bert
set D of G. The inverse domination number of G is the minimum cardinality among all inverse dominating sets of G. The independence number of G is the maximum cardinality of an independent set of vertices in G. Domke, Dunbar, and Markus (Ars Combin. 72 (2004), 149-160) conjectured that the inverse...
On a Conjecture about Inverse Domination in Graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frendrup, Allan; Henning, Michael A.; Randerath, Bert
2010-01-01
dominating set D of G. The inverse domination number of G is the minimum cardinality among all inverse dominating sets of G. The independence number of G is the maximum cardinality of an independent set of vertices in G. Domke, Dunbar, and Markus (Ars Combin. 72 (2004), 149-160) conjectured that the inverse...
Testing for bank competition in Nigeria: a conjectural variation ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The Nigerian banking system has over the past decade experienced significant and rapid structural changes, with a lot of important effects on the degree of competitiveness of the banking industry using firm level balance sheet and income statement data for the period 1997 to 2001. We adopt the conjectural variation ...
Zassenhaus conjecture for A6 A6 A6
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
For the alternating group 6 of degree 6, Zassenhaus' conjecture about rational conjugacy of torsion units in integral group rings is confirmed. Author Affiliations. Martin Hertweck1. Universit¨at Stuttgart, Fachbereich Mathematik, IGT, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70550 Stuttgart, Germany. Dates. Manuscript received: 10 March 2007 ...
A Statistical Argument for the Weak Twin Primes Conjecture
Bruckman, P. S.
2006-01-01
Certain definitions introduce appropriate concepts, among which are the definitions of the counting functions of the primes and twin primes, along with definitions of the correlation coefficient in a bivariate sample space. It is argued conjecturally that the characteristic functions of the prime "p" and of the quantity "p"+2 are highly…
Contributions to a conjecture of Mueller and Schmidt on Thue ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 4. Contributions to a conjecture of Mueller and Schmidt on Thue inequalities. N SARADHA DIVYUM SHARMA. Research Article Volume 127 Issue 4 September 2017 pp 565- ...
On a conjecture about edge irregular total labelings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Miškuf, J.
2008-01-01
′V. Functions with this property were recently introduced and studied by Bača et al. and were called edge irregular total labelings. Our result confirms a recent conjecture of Ivančo and Jendrol' about such labelings for dense graphs, for graphs where the maximum and minimum degree are not too different...
Local Conjecturing Process in the Solving of Pattern Generalization Problem
Sutarto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Sisworo
2016-01-01
This aim of this study is to describe the process of local conjecturing in generalizing patterns based on Action, Process, Object, Schema (APOS) theory. The subjects were 16 grade 8 students from a junior high school. Data collection used Pattern Generalization Problem (PGP) and interviews. In the first stage, students completed PGP; in the second…
Revisiting the Zassenhaus conjecture on torsion units for the integral ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In recent years several new restrictions on integral partial augmentations for torsion units of ZG have been introduced, which have improved the effectiveness of the Luthar–Passi method for checking the Zassenhaus conjecture for specific groups. G. In this note, we report that the Luthar–Passi method with the new ...
Zassenhaus conjecture for A6 A6 A6
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
rational conjugacy of torsion units in integral group rings is confirmed. Keywords. Integral group ring; torsion unit; Zassenhaus conjecture. 1. Introduction. It has proven exceedingly difficult to achieve progress in a number of areas revolving around units in integral group rings of finite groups, and this applies in particular to ...
Fermat's last theorem and Catalan's conjecture in weak exponential arithmetics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Glivický, Petr; Kala, V.
2017-01-01
Roč. 63, 3-4 (2017), s. 162-174 ISSN 0942-5616 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Fermat's last theorem * Catalan's conjecture Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.250, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/malq.201500069/full
49 CFR Appendix II to Subpart A of... - Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier _____)
2010-10-01
... capital 4 $ $ $ 18 Shareholders' equity less intangibles L. 8−L. 5 $ $ $ 19 Long-term debt plus shareholders' equity less intangibles L. 7+L. 18 $ $ $ 20 Operating ratio (2 decimals) L. 11÷L. 9 % % % 21... Intangibles 2 A.R. Sch. 100, L. 32 6 Current liabilities 2 A.R. Sch. 101, L. 13 7 Long-term debt 2 A.R. Sch...
Limiting characteristics of a superconducting quantum interferometer. II. Signal-to-noise ratio
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butikov, E.I.; Feofilov, S.P.
1980-11-01
In the approximation of small fluctuations, the spectral density of intrinsic thermal noise limiting the maximal sensitivity of a constant-current SQUID is found in the low-frequency region. The dependence of the signal-to-noise ratio on the SQUID parameters and operating conditions of an interferometer with low-frequency magnetic flux modulation is studied. Estimates are given for the smallest detectable magnetic flux corresponding to optimal operating conditions of a SQUID.
Henderson, S. S.; Bernert, M.; Brezinsek, S.; Carr, M.; Cavedon, M.; Dux, R.; Lipschultz, B.; O’Mullane, M. G.; Reimold, F.; Reinke, M. L.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; The MST1 Team
2018-01-01
The diagnosis of tokamak divertor plasmas is limited in the ability to understand the behaviour and role of impurities, central to the overall understanding of how the divertor plasma can be utilised to control the power exhaust. New methods have been developed to extract the N concentration as well as plasma characteristics; the use of three visible N II lines has been shown to provide a unique solution of the background plasma density and temperature. Those techniques are applied to data from two sightlines sampling horizontally across the outer divertor plasma. The plasma densities obtained from the N II line ratios during a scan of the divertor temperature in a partially detached H-mode plasma suggest that, as the temperature drops, the plasma density decreases further up the divertor leg while closer to the strike point the plasma density increases. The former is consistent with the emission zone moving from the private flux region into the scrape-off-layer plasma, and therefore sampling two different density regimes, while the latter is consistent with electron pressure conservation along a field line. With an approximate model of the length of the emission region, the N II divertor concentration is calculated in this discharge to be ≈5-25% . The single N III line ratio measurement available within the same spectral range is dependent on temperature and density and therefore cannot provide a unique solution of both.
Butikov, E. I.; Feofilov, S. P.
1980-11-01
An investigation is presented of a dc SQUID with two Josephson junctions in a system for measuring small changes of a magnetic field with low-frequency modulation of the magnetic flux. Idealized theoretical signal characteristics are obtained, and their dependence on the modes of operation and parameters of the SQUID are studied. These characteristics are used to determine the minimum detectable changes of magnetic flux characterizing the limiting sensitivity of the SQUID. The spectral density of thermal noise is obtained for the low-frequency range which constrains the limiting sensitivity; the signal/noise ratio is studied as a function of the operating modes and parameters of the SQUID.
A modified atmospheric non-hydrostatic model on low aspect ratio grids: part II
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wen-Yih Sun
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Sun et al. (2012 proposed a modified non-hydrostatic model (MNH, in which the left-hand side of the continuity equation is multiplied by a parameter δ (4≤δ≤16 in the article to suppress high-frequency acoustic waves. They showed that the MNH allows a longer time step than the original non-hydrostatic model (NH. The MNH is also more accurate and efficient than the horizontal explicit and vertical implicit scheme (HE–VI when the aspect ratio (Δx/Δz is small. In addition to multiplying a parameter δ, here we propose to add a smoothing on the right-hand side of the continuity equation in the MNH to damp shortest sound waves. Linear stability analysis and non-linear model simulations show that the MNH with smoothing (henceforth abbreviated as MNHS can use twice the time interval of the MNH while maintaining the same accuracy. The MNHS is also more accurate and efficient than HE–VI when the aspect ratio is small.
Democracy and governance networks: compatible or not? : Four conjectures and their implications
E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans); C. Skelcher (Chris)
2007-01-01
textabstractThe relationship between representative democracy and governance networks is investigated at a theoretical level. Four conjectures about the relationship are defined. The incompatibility conjectures rests on the primacy of politics and sees governance networks as a threat. The
Baciero, A; Zurro, B; Martínez, M
2014-11-01
The isotope effect is an important topic that is relevant for future D-T fusion reactors, where the use of deuterium, rather than hydrogen, may lean to improved plasma confinement. An evaluation of the ratio of hydrogen/deuterium is needed for isotope effect studies in current isotopic experiments. Here, the spectral range around Hα and Dα lines, obtained with an intensified multi-channel detector mounted to a 1-m focal length spectrometer, is analyzed using a fit function that includes several Gaussian components. The isotopic ratio evolution for a single operational day of the TJ-II stellarator is presented. The role of injected hydrogen by Neutral Beam Injection heating is also studied.
Braun, S; Kusnoto, B; Hnat, W P
1999-05-01
Evaluating the anterior ratio is useful to forecast potential tooth mass discrepancies and related overjet or underjet. Because the arcs of the six anterior teeth have recently been described by the mathematical hyperbolic cosine function, it has permitted the design of a nomograph for ready use in clinical practice. A nomograph is a simple chart on which one can draw a straight line that will intersect three scales representing variables that satisfy an equation. A clinician may now evaluate and forecast the effects on overjet with purposeful alterations in the sums of the six maxillary and mandibular anterior tooth masses for various cross-arch canine widths with an accuracy of +/-0.5 mm.
Methodological problems undermine tests of the ideo-motor conjecture.
Jansson, Erik; Wilson, Andrew D; Williams, Justin H G; Mon-Williams, Mark
2007-10-01
Recent behavioural research has investigated whether viewing someone perform an action results in activation of that action by the observer. Postulated empirical support for this 'ideo-motor (IM) conjecture' typically rests upon two types of experimental paradigm (reaction time and movement tracking tasks). These paradigms purport to show movement facilitation when compatible movements are observed and vice versa, but only for biological stimuli. Unfortunately, these paradigms often contain confounding (and unavoidable) generic stimulus-response compatibility effects that are not restricted to observed human movement. The current study demonstrates in three experiments that equivalent compatibility effects can be produced by non-biological stimuli. These results suggest that existing empirical paradigms may not, and perhaps cannot, support the IM-conjecture.
Virus Structure: From Crick and Watson to a New Conjecture
Iorio, Alfredo
2007-01-01
We conjecture that certain patterns (scars), theoretically and numerically predicted to be formed by electrons arranged on a sphere to minimize the repulsive Coulomb potential (the Thomson problem) and experimentally found in spherical crystals formed by self-assembled polystyrene beads (an instance of the generalized Thomson problem), could be relevant to extend the classic Caspar and Klug construction for icosahedrally-shaped virus capsids. The main idea is that scars could be produced at an intermediate stage of the assembly of the virus capsids and the release of the bending energy present in scars into stretching energy could allow for a variety of non-spherical capsids' shapes. The conjecture can be tested in experiments on the assembly of artificial protein-cages where these scars should appear.
Introduction to sofic and hyperlinear groups and Connes' embedding conjecture
Capraro, Valerio
2015-01-01
This monograph presents some cornerstone results in the study of sofic and hyperlinear groups and the closely related Connes' embedding conjecture. These notions, as well as the proofs of many results, are presented in the framework of model theory for metric structures. This point of view, rarely explicitly adopted in the literature, clarifies the ideas therein, and provides additional tools to attack open problems. Sofic and hyperlinear groups are countable discrete groups that can be suitably approximated by finite symmetric groups and groups of unitary matrices. These deep and fruitful notions, introduced by Gromov and Radulescu, respectively, in the late 1990s, stimulated an impressive amount of research in the last 15 years, touching several seemingly distant areas of mathematics including geometric group theory, operator algebras, dynamical systems, graph theory, and quantum information theory. Several long-standing conjectures, still open for arbitrary groups, are now settled for sofic or hyperlinear ...
Conjecture on the physical implications of the scale anomaly
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hill, Christopher T.; /Fermilab
2005-10-01
Murray Gell-Mann, after co-inventing QCD, recognized the interplay of the scale anomaly, the renormalization group, and the origin of the strong scale, {Lambda}{sub QCD}. I tell a story, then elaborate this concept, and for the sake of discussion, propose a conjecture that the physical world is scale invariant in the classical, {h_bar}, limit. This principle has implications for the dimensionality of space-time, the cosmological constant, the weak scale, and Planck scale.
Contributions to a conjecture of Mueller and Schmidt on Thue ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
N Saradha
2017-08-03
Aug 3, 2017 ... Let , H and M denote the discriminant, height and. Mahler height of F(X, 1) respectively. For h ≥ 1, consider the Thue inequality. |F(X, Y)| ≤ h. (2) ... His result depended on the analysis of location of roots of F(X, 1). Bombieri modified a conjecture of Siegel on the inequality (2) as. NF(h) ≤ C(s, h), where C(s ...
Revisiting the Zassenhaus conjecture on torsion units for the integral ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Click here to view fulltext PDF ... In this note, we report that the Luthar–Passi method with the new restrictions are sufficient to verify the Zassenhaus conjecture with a computer for all groups of order less than 96, except for one group of order 48 – the non-split covering group of 4, and one of order 72 of isomorphism type ...
Graph theory favorite conjectures and open problems 1
Hedetniemi, Stephen; Larson, Craig
2016-01-01
This is the first in a series of volumes, which provide an extensive overview of conjectures and open problems in graph theory. The readership of each volume is geared toward graduate students who may be searching for research ideas. However, the well-established mathematician will find the overall exposition engaging and enlightening. Each chapter, presented in a story-telling style, includes more than a simple collection of results on a particular topic. Each contribution conveys the history, evolution, and techniques used to solve the authors’ favorite conjectures and open problems, enhancing the reader’s overall comprehension and enthusiasm. The editors were inspired to create these volumes by the popular and well attended special sessions, entitled “My Favorite Graph Theory Conjectures," which were held at the winter AMS/MAA Joint Meeting in Boston (January, 2012), the SIAM Conference on Discrete Mathematics in Halifax (June,2012) and the winter AMS/MAA Joint meeting in Baltimore(January, 2014). In...
What is the magnetic Weak Gravity Conjecture for axions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hebecker, Arthur; Henkenjohann, Philipp [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Witkowski, Lukas T. [APC, Universite Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France)
2017-03-15
The electric Weak Gravity Conjecture demands that axions with large decay constant f couple to light instantons. The resulting large instantonic corrections pose problems for natural inflation. We explore an alternative argument based on the magnetic Weak Gravity Conjecture for axions, which we try to make more precise. Roughly speaking, it demands that the minimally charged string coupled to the dual 2-form-field exists in the effective theory. Most naively, such large-f strings curve space too much to exist as static solutions, thus ruling out large-f axions. More conservatively, one might allow non-static string solutions to play the role of the required charged objects. In this case, topological inflation would save the superplanckian axion. Furthermore, a large-f axion may appear in the low-energy effective theory based on two subplanckian axions in the UV. The resulting effective string is a composite object built from several elementary strings and domain walls. It may or may not satisfy the magnetic Weak Gravity Conjecture depending on how strictly the latter is interpreted and on the cosmological dynamics of this composite object, which remain to be fully understood. Finally, we recall that large-field brane inflation is naively possible in the codimension-one case. We show how string-theoretic back-reaction closes this apparent loophole of large-f (non-periodic) pseudo-axions. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
A Counter Example to Cercignani's Conjecture for the d Dimensional Kac Model
Einav, Amit
2012-09-01
Kac's d dimensional model gives a linear, many particle, binary collision model from which, under suitable conditions, the celebrated Boltzmann equation, in its spatially homogeneous form, arise as a mean field limit. The ergodicity of the evolution equation leads to questions about the relaxation rate, in hope that such a rate would pass on the Boltzmann equation as the number of particles goes to infinity. This program, starting with Kac and his one dimensional `Spectral Gap Conjecture' at 1956, finally reached its conclusion in the Maxwellian case in a series of papers by authors such as Janvresse, Maslen, Carlen, Carvalho, Loss and Geronimo, but the hope to get a limiting relaxation rate for the Boltzmann equation with this linear method was already shown to be unrealistic (although the problem is still important and interesting due to its connection with the linearized Boltzmann operator). A less linear approach, via a many particle version of Cercignani's conjecture, is the grounds for this paper. In our paper, we extend recent results by the author from the one dimensional Kac model to the d dimensional one, showing that the entropy-entropy production ratio, Γ N , still yields a very strong dependency in the number of particles of the problem when we consider the general case.
Knowledge space theory and union-closed sets conjecture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chatchawan Panraksa
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The knowledge space theory provides a framework for knowledge management. One of major problems is to find core information for a body of knowledge. Union closed set conjecture, if true, guarantees that for a given knowledge space, there is an information that is linked to at least half of the knowledge units. This paper deals with a variant problem, where the knowledge space is also a topological space and possibly infinite. We prove that there is a point belonging to as many open sets as of the topological space itself.
The stable moduli space of Riemann surfaces: Mumford's conjecture
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, I.; Weiss, Michael
2007-01-01
D. Mumford conjectured in "Towards an enumerative geometry of the moduli space of curves" that the rational cohomology of the stable moduli space of Riemann surfaces is a polynomial algebra generated by certain classes $\\kappa_i$ of dimension $2i$. For the purpose of calculating rational cohomology......, one may replace the stable moduli space of Riemann surfaces by $B\\Gamma_{\\infty}$, where $\\Gamma_\\infty$ is the group of isotopy classes of automorphisms of a smooth oriented connected surface of ``large'' genus. Tillmann's theorem that the plus construction makes $B\\Gamma_{\\infty}$ into an infinite...
Conjecture and hypothesis: The importance of reality checks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Deamer
2017-03-01
Full Text Available In origins of life research, it is important to understand the difference between conjecture and hypothesis. This commentary explores the difference and recommends alternative hypotheses as a way to advance our understanding of how life can begin on the Earth and other habitable planets. As an example of how this approach can be used, two conditions have been proposed for sites conducive to the origin of life: hydrothermal vents in salty seawater, and fresh water hydrothermal fields associated with volcanic landmasses. These are considered as alternative hypotheses and the accumulating weight of evidence for each site is described and analyzed.
Graph Edge Coloring Vizing's Theorem and Goldberg's Conjecture
Stiebitz, Michael; Toft, Bjarne; Favrholdt, Lene M
2012-01-01
Features recent advances and new applications in graph edge coloring Reviewing recent advances in the Edge Coloring Problem, Graph Edge Coloring: Vizing's Theorem and Goldberg's Conjecture provides an overview of the current state of the science, explaining the interconnections among the results obtained from important graph theory studies. The authors introduce many new improved proofs of known results to identify and point to possible solutions for open problems in edge coloring. The book begins with an introduction to graph theory and the concept of edge coloring. Subsequent chapters explor
Generalization of the Haldane conjecture to SU(3 chains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miklós Lajkó
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We apply field theory methods to SU(3 chains in the symmetric representation, with p boxes in the Young tableau, mapping them into a flag manifold nonlinear σ-model with a topological angle θ=2πp/3. Generalizing the Haldane conjecture, we argue that the models are gapped for p=3m but gapless for p=3m±1 (for integer m, corresponding to a massless phase of the σ-model at θ=±2π/3. We confirm this with Monte Carlo calculations on the σ-model.
A Solution of Gaussian Optimizer Conjecture for Quantum Channels
Giovannetti, V.; Holevo, A. S.; García-Patrón, R.
2015-03-01
The long-standing conjectures of the optimality of Gaussian inputs and additivity are solved for a broad class of gauge-covariant or contravariant bosonic Gaussian channels (which includes in particular thermal, additive classical noise, and amplifier channels) restricting to the class of states with finite second moments. We show that the vacuum is the input state which minimizes the entropy at the output of such channels. This allows us to show also that the classical capacity of these channels (under the input energy constraint) is additive and is achieved by Gaussian encodings.
Yan, Wang-Ji; Ren, Wei-Xin
2016-12-01
In Part I of this study, some new theorems, corollaries and lemmas on circularly-symmetric complex normal ratio distribution have been mathematically proved. This part II paper is dedicated to providing a rigorous treatment of statistical properties of raw scalar transmissibility functions at an arbitrary frequency line. On the basis of statistics of raw FFT coefficients and circularly-symmetric complex normal ratio distribution, explicit closed-form probabilistic models are established for both multivariate and univariate scalar transmissibility functions. Also, remarks on the independence of transmissibility functions at different frequency lines and the shape of the probability density function (PDF) of univariate case are presented. The statistical structures of probabilistic models are concise, compact and easy-implemented with a low computational effort. They hold for general stationary vector processes, either Gaussian stochastic processes or non-Gaussian stochastic processes. The accuracy of proposed models is verified using numerical example as well as field test data of a high-rise building and a long-span cable-stayed bridge. This study yields new insights into the qualitative analysis of the uncertainty of scalar transmissibility functions, which paves the way for developing new statistical methodologies for modal analysis, model updating or damage detection using responses only without input information.
Reverse engineering Turing Machines and insights into the Collatz conjecture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John Nixon
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper I have extended my earlier work \\cite{jn} on small Turing Machines (TMs by developing a method for obtaining recursive definitions of the irreducible regular rules (IRR for a TM when explicit formulae for them cannot be obtained. This has been illustrated by two examples. The first example was randomly chosen and the second example was designed to simulate the Collatz conjecture. Analysis of this TM based on the its IRR suggested new approaches that might be the basis for a proof of this conjecture. The method involves running the TM backwards from a configuration set (CS. This in general produces a tree of CSs at each step. The aim is to find CS's $\\mathtt{y}$ that are reachable from a CS $x$ that simply specifies the symbol about to be read and the machine state. This means that following the computation forward from $x$ by adding some symbols when needed at the pointer, the CS $y$ can be reached. These CS's form the basis of the LHS's of the IRR.
Cosmic censorship conjecture in Kerr-Sen black hole
Gwak, Bogeun
2017-06-01
The validity of the cosmic censorship conjecture for the Kerr-Sen black hole, which is a solution to the low-energy effective field theory for four-dimensional heterotic string theory, is investigated using charged particle absorption. When the black hole absorbs the particle, the charge on it changes owing to the conserved quantities of the particle. Changes in the black hole are constrained to the equation for the motion of the particle and are consistent with the laws of thermodynamics. Particle absorption increases the mass of the Kerr-Sen black hole to more than that of the absorbed charges such as angular momentum and electric charge; hence, the black hole cannot be overcharged. In the near-extremal black hole, we observe a violation of the cosmic censorship conjecture for the angular momentum in the first order of expansion and the electric charge in the second order. However, considering an adiabatic process carrying the conserved quantities as those of the black hole, we prove the stability of the black hole horizon. Thus, we resolve the violation. This is consistent with the third law of thermodynamics.
Large N techniques for Nekrasov partition functions and AGT conjecture
Bourgine, Jean-Emile
2013-05-01
The AGT conjecture relates {N} = 2 4d SUSY gauge theories to 2d CFTs. Matrix model techniques can be used to investigate both sides of this relation. The large N limit refers here to the size of Young tableaux in the expression of the gauge theory partition function. It corresponds to the vanishing of Ω-background equivariant deformation parameters, and should not be confused with the t'Hooft expansion at large number of colors. In this paper, a saddle point approach is employed to study the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the gauge theory, leading to define β-deformed, or quantized, Seiberg-Witten curve and differential form. Then this formalism is compared to the large N limit of the Dijkgraaf-Vafa β-ensemble. A transformation law relating the wave functions appearing at both sides of the conjecture is proposed. It implies a transformation of the Seiberg-Witten 1-form in agreement with the definition specified earlier. As a side result, a remarkable property of {N} = 2 theories emerged: the instanton contribution to the partition function can be determined from the perturbative term analysis.
Cercignani's Conjecture is Sometimes True and Always Almost True
Villani, Cédric
We establish several new functional inequalities comparing Boltzmann's entropy production functional with the relative H functional. First we prove a longstanding conjecture by Cercignani under the nonphysical assumption that the Boltzmann collision kernel is superquadratic at infinity. The proof rests on the method introduced in [39] combined with a novel use of the Blachman-Stam inequality. If the superquadraticity assumption is not satisfied, then it is known that Cercignani's conjecture is not true; however we establish a slightly weakened version of it for all physically relevant collision kernels, thus extending previous results from [39]. Finally, we consider the entropy-entropy production version of Kac's spectral gap problem and obtain estimates about the dependence of the constants with respect to the dimension. The first two results are sharp in some sense, and the third one is likely to be, too; they contain all previously known entropy estimates as particular cases. This gives a first coherent picture of the study of entropy production, according to a program started by Carlen and Carvalho [12] ten years ago. These entropy inequalities are one step in our study of the trend to equilibrium for the Boltzmann equation, in both its spatially homogeneous and spatially inhomogeneous versions.
Counterexample to an additivity conjecture for output purity of quantum channels
Werner, R. F.; Holevo, A. S.
2002-09-01
A conjecture arising naturally in the investigation of additivity of classical information capacity of quantum channels states that the maximal purity of outputs from a quantum channel, as measured by the p-norm, should be multiplicative with respect to the tensor product of channels. We disprove this conjecture for p>4.79. The same example (with p=∞) also disproves a conjecture for the multiplicativity of the injective norm of Hilbert space tensor products.
The Weyl curvature conjecture and black hole entropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rudjord, Oeystein [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Oeyvind, Groen [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Box 1048 Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Hervik, Sigbjoern [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3J5 (Canada)], E-mail: oysteir@ulrik.uio.no, E-mail: oyvind.gron@iu.hio.no, E-mail: herviks@mathstat.dal.ca
2008-05-15
The universe today, containing stars, galaxies and black holes, seems to have evolved from a very homogeneous initial state. From this it appears as if the entropy of the universe is decreasing, in violation of the second law of thermodynamics. It has been suggested by Roger Penrose that this inconsistency can be solved if one assigns an entropy to the spacetime geometry. He also pointed out that the Weyl tensor has the properties one would expect to find in a description of a gravitational entropy. In this paper, we make an attempt to use this so-called Weyl curvature conjecture to describe the Hawking-Bekenstein entropy of black holes and the entropy of horizons due to a cosmological constant. Our analysis indicates that in the static spherically symmetric case this is not possible.
Flat monodromies and a Moduli Space Size Conjecture
Hebecker, Arthur; Henkenjohann, Philipp; Witkowski, Lukas T.
2017-12-01
We investigate how super-Planckian axions can arise when type IIB 3-form flux is used to restrict a two-axion field space to a one-dimensional winding trajectory. If one does not attempt to address notoriously complicated issues like Kähler moduli stabilization, SUSY-breaking and inflation, this can be done very explicitly. We show that the presence of flux generates flat monodromies in the moduli space which we therefore call `Monodromic Moduli Space'. While we do indeed find long axionic trajectories, these are non-geodesic. Moreover, the length of geodesics remains highly constrained, in spite of the (finite) monodromy group introduced by the flux. We attempt to formulate this in terms of a `Moduli Space Size Conjecture'. Interesting mathematical structures arise in that the relevant spaces turn out to be fundamental domains of congruence subgroups of the modular group. In addition, new perspectives on inflation in string theory emerge.
Cognition and Language: From Apprehension to Judgment -- Quantum Conjectures
Arecchi, F. T.
2014-12-01
We critically discuss the two moments of human cognition, namely, apprehension (A), whereby a coherent perception emerges from the recruitment of neuronal groups, and judgment (B), that entails the comparison of two apprehensions acquired at different times, coded in a suitable language and recalled by memory. (B) requires selfconsciousness, in so far as the agent who expresses the judgment must be aware that the two apprehensions are submitted to his/her own scrutiny and that it is his/her duty to extract a mutual relation. Since (B) lasts around 3 seconds, the semantic value of the pieces under comparison must be decided within this time. This implies a fast search of the memory contents. As a fact, exploring human subjects with sequences of simple words, we find evidence of a limited time window, corresponding to the memory retrieval of a linguistic item in order to match it with the next one in a text flow (be it literary, or musical,or figurative). Classifying the information content of spike trains, an uncertainty relation emerges between the bit size of a word and its duration. This uncertainty is ruled by a constant that can be given a numerical value and that has nothing to do with Planck's constant. A "quantum conjecture" in the above sense might explain the onset and decay of the memory window connecting successive pieces of a linguistic text. The conjecture here formulated is applicable to other reported evidences of quantum effects in human cognitive processes, so far lacking a plausible framework since no efforts to assign a quantum constant have been associated.
Liu, Yi-hong; Feng, Hai-lan; Bao, Yi-wang; Qiu, Yan
2007-02-18
To evaluate the effect of core:dentin thickness ratio on the flexure strength, fracture mode and origin of bilayered IPS Empress II ceramic composite specimens. IPS Empress II core ceramic, dentin porcelain and bilayered composite specimens with core:dentin thickness ratio of 2:1 and 1:1 were tested in three-point flexure strength. Mean strengths and standard deviations were determined. The optical microscopy was employed for identification of the fracture mode and origin. The flexure strength of dentin porcelain was the smallest(62.7 MPa), and the strength of bilayered composite specimens was smaller than single-layered core ceramic(190.2 MPa). The core: dentin ratio did not influence the strength of bilayered composite specimens. The frequency of occurrence of bilayered specimen delaminations was higher in the group of core: dentin thickness ratio of 1:1 than in the group of 2:1. IPS Empress II core ceramic was significantly stronger than veneering dentin porcelain. Core:dentin thickness ratio could significantly influence the fracture mode and origin, and bilayered IPS Empress II ceramic composite specimens showed little influence in the fracture strength.
On the coefficient conjecture of Clunie and Sheil-Small on univalent ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
(Math. Sci.) Vol. 125, No. 3, August 2015, pp. 277–290. c Indian Academy of Sciences. On the coefficient conjecture of Clunie and Sheil-Small on univalent harmonic mappings ... Conjecture A ([1], Open questions). For f = h + ¯g ∈ ...... of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India, for providing financial support in the.
Notes from the Underground: A Propos of Givental's Conjecture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Yun S.
2001-04-11
These brief notes record our puzzles and findings surrounding Givental's recent conjecture which expresses higher genus Gromov-Witten invariants in terms of the genus-0 data. We limit our considerations to the case of a projective line, whose Gromov-Witten invariants are well-known and easy to compute. We make some simple checks supporting his conjecture.
Green-Lazarsfeld's Gonality Conjecture for a Generic Curve of Odd Genus
Aprodu, Marian
2004-01-01
The gonality conjecture predicts that the gonality of a curve can be read off Koszul cohomology of line bundles of sufficiently large degree. We verify this conjecture for generic curves of odd genus. The even-genus case was previously solved in the joint work arXiv:math.AG/0301261.
The Equivariant Tamagawa Number Conjecture for modular motives with coefficients in Hecke algebras
Fouquet, Olivier
2016-01-01
Under mild hypotheses on the residual representation, we prove the Equivariant Tamagawa Number Conjecture for modular motives with coefficients in universal deformation rings and Hecke algebras using a novel combination of the methods of Euler systems and Taylor-Wiles systems. We also prove the compatibility of this conjecture with specialization.
Modelling of and Conjecturing on a Soccer Ball in a Korean Eighth Grade Mathematics Classroom
Lee, Kyeong-Hwa
2011-01-01
The purpose of this article was to describe the task design and implementation of cultural artefacts in a mathematics lesson based on the integration of modelling and conjecturing perspectives. The conceived process of integrating a soccer ball into mathematics lessons via modelling- and conjecturing-based instruction was first detailed. Next, the…
Alon-Babai-Suzuki's Conjecture Related to Binary Codes in Nonmodular Version
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sohn Gyoyong
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Let and be sets of nonnegative integers. Let be a family of subsets of with for each and for any . Every subset of can be represented by a binary code a such that if and if . Alon et al. made a conjecture in 1991 in modular version. We prove Alon-Babai-Sukuki's Conjecture in nonmodular version. For any and with , .
Test Driven Development: Advancing Knowledge by Conjecture and Confirmation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manfred Lange
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Test Driven Development (TDD is a critical agile software development practice that supports innovation in short development cycles. However, TDD is one of the most challenging agile practices to adopt because it requires changes to work practices and skill sets. It is therefore important to gain an understanding of TDD through the experiences of those who have successfully adopted this practice. We collaborated with an agile team to provide this experience report on their adoption of TDD, using observations and interviews within the product development environment. This article highlights a number of practices that underlie successful development with TDD. To provide a theoretical perspective that can help to explain how TDD supports a positive philosophy of software development, we have revised Northover et al.’s conceptual framework, which is based on a four stage model of agile development, to reinterpret Popper’s theory of conjecture and falsification in the context of agile testing strategies. As a result of our findings, we propose an analytical model for TDD in agile software development which provides a theoretical basis for further investigations into the role of TDD and related practices.
Lambert, D A; Catapano, A L; Smith, L C; Sparrow, J T; Gotto, A M
1996-12-20
The effect of the apolipoprotein C-II/C-III1 ratio on the capacity of purified bovine milk lipoprotein lipase to hydrolyse triglycerides was measured in a controlled model of pyrene-labeled nonanoyltriglycerides (1-2 ditetradecyl 3-pyrene nonanoyl glyceride) monolayer vesicles. Monolayer was composed of triglycerides, a non-hydrolysable phospholipid ether and cholesterol, a model system where the quality of the interface can be controlled. LPL released fatty acids from pyrene-triglycerides which were transferred from the lipoprotein structure to albumin. This transfer induces a decrease in the excimer production and in the excimer fluorescence intensity. Apolipoprotein C-II and C-III0 and C-III1 were purified from apolipoprotein VLDL. The 2 fragments, C-III1 A (peptide 1-40) and C-III1 B (peptide 41-79), were obtained after thrombin cleavage. Apolipoproteins C-III0 and C-III1 had a similar inhibitory effect on LPL. Inhibition with apo C-III0 or apo C-III1 was 85% of full LPL activity without inhibitor: Apo C-III1 B inhibited 62% of basal activity. It was 27% less effective than apo C-III1. Fragment C-III1 A did not inhibit LPL. The effect of change in both apo C-II (0-0.6 microM) and apo C-III1 (0-1.0 microM) on triglyceride hydrolysis shows the importance of the apo C-II/C-III1 ratio for the release of free fatty acids from triglycerides by LPL. The activating effect of apo C-II in the absence of the apo C-III inhibitor was maximal at 0.06 microM. No further activation was obtained between 0.06 and 0.30 microM. Higher concentrations decreased LPL activity. Apo C-III1 (0.1 microM) decreased the maximum activation by apo C-II from 0.0196 to 0.063 nmol/min/nmol LPL. Higher concentrations of apo C-III1 (0.1-0.5 microM) required higher apo C-II concentrations (0.30 microM instead of 0.06 microM) for maximal activation than when apo C-III1 was absent. The activity of the enzyme without apo C-II was decreased by 65% by 0.12 microM apo C-III1. Increasing the apo C-II
Conjecture of twin primes (Still unsolved problem in Number Theory. An expository essay
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hayat Rezgui
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to gather as much results of advances, recent and previous works as possible concerning the oldest outstanding still unsolved problem in Number Theory (and the most elusive open problem in prime numbers called "Twin primes conjecture" (8th problem of David Hilbert, stated in 1900 which has eluded many gifted mathematicians. This conjecture has been circulating for decades, even with the progress of contemporary technology that puts the whole world within our reach. So, simple to state, yet so hard to prove. Basic Concepts, many and varied topics regarding the Twin prime conjecture will be cover.
Proof of an entropy conjecture for Bloch coherent spin states and its generalizations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
H. Lieb, Elliott; Solovej, Jan Philip
2014-01-01
Wehrl used Glauber coherent states to define a map from quantum density matrices to classical phase space densities and conjectured that for Glauber coherent states the mininimum classical entropy would occur for density matrices equal to projectors onto coherent states. This was proved by Lieb...... in 1978 who also extended the conjecture to Bloch SU(2) spin-coherent states for every angular momentum $J$. This conjecture is proved here. We also recall our 1991 extension of the Wehrl map to a quantum channel from $J$ to $K=J+1/2, J+1, ...$, with $K=\\infty$ corresponding to the Wehrl map to classical...
Li Destri, Giovanni; Barchitta, Martina; Pesce, Antonio; Latteri, Saverio; Bosco, Dorotea; Di Cataldo, Antonio; Agodi, Antonella; Puleo, Stefano
2017-10-03
Purpose/aim: The appropriate staging of colorectal cancer requires at least 12 lymph nodes to be sampled. We evaluated whether lymph node sampling (LNS) and lymph node ratio (LNR) can predict the prognosis of stage II-III patients. This is a retrospective study on 432 patients classified in LNS ≥12 and LNS test, p < 0.001). In the patients with LNS ≥ 12, the cut-off of 0.257 could predict recurrence (specificity 86%). Stage II patients with LNS < 12 tend to have shorter DFS than stage II patients with LNS ≥ 12. In stage III patients, an appropriate LNR cut-off is a better prognostic predictor than LNR quartile, especially in patients with LNS ≥ 12.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rohrer, F.; Bruening, D.; Ehhalt, D.H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Chemie
1997-12-31
Tropospheric mixing ratios of NO and NOy were measured along the flight track of the TROPOZ II aircraft campaign. These measurements cover regions along the east coast of North America, the Pacific and Atlantic coast of South America and the Atlantic coast of North Africa and Europe. The meteorological conditions are close to the climatological mean: westerly winds at high and mid latitudes, variable and weak winds at low latitudes. (author) 2 refs.
Grigorov, Grigor; Jorza, Andrei; Patrikis, Stefan; Stein, William A.; Tarnita, Corina
2009-12-01
We describe theorems and computational methods for verifying the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjectural formula for specific elliptic curves over mathbb{Q} of analytic ranks 0 and 1 . We apply our techniques to show that if E is a non-CM elliptic curve over mathbb{Q} of conductor leq 1000 and rank 0 or 1 , then the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjectural formula for the leading coefficient of the L -series is true for E , up to odd primes that divide either Tamagawa numbers of E or the degree of some rational cyclic isogeny with domain E . Since the rank part of the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture is a theorem for curves of analytic rank 0 or 1 , this completely verifies the full conjecture for these curves up to the primes excluded above.
Violating the Weak Cosmic Censorship Conjecture in Four-Dimensional Anti-de Sitter Space
Crisford, Toby; Santos, Jorge E.
2017-05-01
We consider time-dependent solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations using anti-de Sitter (AdS) boundary conditions, and provide the first counterexample to the weak cosmic censorship conjecture in four spacetime dimensions. Our counterexample is entirely formulated in the Poincaré patch of AdS. We claim that our results have important consequences for quantum gravity, most notably to the weak gravity conjecture.
Proof of the Wehrl-type Entropy Conjecture for Symmmetric SU(N) Coherent States
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lieb, Elliott H.; Solovej, Jan Philip
2016-01-01
The Wehrl entropy conjecture for coherent (highest weight) states in representations of the Heisenberg group, which was proved in 1978 and recently extended by us to the group SU(2) SU(2) , is further extended here to symmetric representations of the groups SU(N) SU(N) for all N. This result gives...... further evidence for our conjecture that highest weight states minimize group integrals of certain concave functions for a large class of Lie groups and their representations....
The influence of temperature, pH, alkalinity, and type and concentration of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the rate of ozone (O3) decomposition, O3-exposure, .OH-exposure and the ratio Rct of the concentrations of .OH and O3 has been studied. For a standardized single ozon...
Accurso, G.; Saintonge, A.; Catinella, B.; Cortese, L.; Davé, R.; Dunsheath, S. H.; Genzel, R.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Heckman, T. M.; Jimmy; Kramer, C.; Li, Cheng; Lutz, K.; Schiminovich, D.; Schuster, K.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.; Tran, K. V.; Wang, J.
2017-10-01
We present Herschel PACS observations of the [C II] 158 μm emission line in a sample of 24 intermediate mass (9 < log M*/M⊙ < 10) and low metallicity (0.4 < Z/Z⊙ < 1.0) galaxies from the xCOLD GASS survey. In combination with IRAM CO (1-0) measurements, we establish scaling relations between integrated and molecular region L_{[C II]}/LCO (1-0) ratios as a function of integrated galaxy properties. A Bayesian analysis reveals that only two parameters, metallicity and offset from the main sequence, Δ(MS), are needed to quantify variations in the luminosity ratio; metallicity describes the total dust content available to shield CO from UV radiation, while Δ(MS) describes the strength of this radiation field. We connect the L_{[C II]}/LCO (1-0) ratio to the CO-to-H2 conversion factor and find a multivariate conversion function, which can be used up to z ˜ 2.5. This function depends primarily on metallicity, with a second-order dependence on Δ(MS). We apply this to the full xCOLD GASS and PHIBSS1 surveys and investigate molecular gas scaling relations. We find a flattening of the relation between gas mass fraction and stellar mass at log M* < 10.0. While the molecular gas depletion time varies with sSFR, it is mostly independent of mass, indicating that the low LCO/SFR ratios long observed in low-mass galaxies are entirely due to photodissociation of CO and not to an enhanced star formation efficiency.
Nguyen, Ha T; van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; van Boekel, M A J S
2017-09-01
This study investigated acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation during biscuit baking. Four types of wheat flour with different molar ratios of total fructose and glucose to asparagine were investigated. Nevertheless, the molar ratio in all four biscuit doughs exceeded one after proofing due to enzyme action. Data obtained after baking were used to develop a mechanistic model, based on the asparagine-related pathway, for acrylamide and HMF formation in the four baked biscuit types. Asparagine reacted with fructose to form a Schiff base before decarboxylation to produce acrylamide without Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Fructose contributed considerably to acrylamide formation and to HMF formation via caramelization in all four biscuit types. No clear correlation was found between acrylamide and HMF in baked biscuits, nor between asparagine and the sum of glucose and fructose concentrations in the wheat flour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Suzuki, D.; Bennett, D. P.; Sumi, T.; Bond, I. A.; Rogers, L. A.; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Freeman, M.;
2016-01-01
We report the results of the statistical analysis of planetary signals discovered in MOA-II microlensing survey alert system events from 2007 to 2012. We determine the survey sensitivity as a function of planet star mass ratio, q, and projected planet star separation, s, in Einstein radius units. We find that the mass-ratio function is not a single power law, but has a change in slope at q approx.10(exp -4), corresponding to approx. 20 Stellar Mass for the median host-star mass of approx. 0.6 M. We find significant planetary signals in 23 of the 1474 alert events that are well-characterized by the MOA-II survey data alone. Data from other groups are used only to characterize planetary signals that have been identified in the MOA data alone. The distribution of mass ratios and separations of the planets found in our sample are well fit by a broken power-law model. We also combine this analysis with the previous analyses of Gould et al. and Cassan et al., bringing the total sample to 30 planets. The unbroken power-law model is disfavored with a p-value of 0.0022, which corresponds to a Bayes factor of 27 favoring the broken power-law model. These results imply that cold Neptunes are likely to be the most common type of planets beyond the snow line.
A systematic review on soft-to-hard tissue ratios in orthognathic surgery part II: Chin procedures.
San Miguel Moragas, Joan; Oth, Olivier; Büttner, Michael; Mommaerts, Maurice Y
2015-10-01
Precise soft-to-hard tissue ratios in orthofacial chin procedures are not well established. The aim of this study was to determine useful soft-to-hard tissue ratios for planning the magnitude of sliding genioplasty (chin osteotomy), osseous chin recontouring and alloplastic chin augmentation. A systematic review of English and non-English articles using PubMed central, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Science Citation Index, Elsevier Science Direct Complete, Highwire Press, Springer Standard Collection, SAGE premier 2011, DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals, Sweetswise, Free E-Journals, Ovid Lippincott Williams & Wilkins total Access Collection, Wiley Online Library Journals, and Cochrane Plus databases from their onset until July 2014. Additional studies were identified by searching the references. Search terms included soft tissue, ratios, genioplasty, mentoplasty, chin, genial AND advancement, augmentation, setback, retrusion, impaction, reduction, vertical deficit, widening, narrowing, and expansion. Study selection criteria were as follows: only academic publications; human patients; no reviews; systematic reviews or meta-analyses; no cadavers; no syndromic patients; no pathology at the chin or mandible region; only articles of level of evidence from I to IV; number of patients must be cited in the articles; hard-to-soft tissue ratios must be cited in the articles or at least are able to be calculated with the quantitative data available in the article; if all patients of one article have had bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) performed along with chin osteotomy, there should be an independent group evaluation of the data concerning to the chin; and no restriction regarding the size of the group. Independent extraction of articles by two authors using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators (level of evidence). The search identified 22 articles. Eleven additional articles were found in their reference sections. Of these, two were
Qiang, Wang; Zihui, Ai; Chun, Zheng; Jian, Gong
2016-01-01
A ThO$_{2}$ sample with a nickel activation foil attached was irradiated in the leakage neutron field of CFBR-II reactor. The activities of the active products were measured after irradiation to obtain the reaction rates. The normalized reaction rates were also calculated based on the ENDF/B-VII.1, CENDL-3.1, JENDL-4.0, BROND-2.2 databases. The experimental reaction rate ratio is 4.37 with an uncertainty of 3.9\\% which is coincident with the ratios calculated based on the ENDFB-VII. 1, JENDL-4.0, BROND-2.2 databases, but is 11.2\\% larger than that based on CENDL-3.1 database.
Some Ratio Monotonic Properties of a New Kind of Numbers introduced by Z.-W. Sun
Sun, Brian Y.
2015-01-01
Recently, Z. W. Sun introduced a new kind of numbers $S_n$ and also posed a conjecture on ratio monotonicity of combinatorial sequences related to $S_n$. In this paper, by investigating some arithmetic properties of $S_n$, we give an affirmative answer to his conjecture. Our methods are based on a newly established criterion and interlacing method for log-convexity, and also the criterion for ratio log-concavity of a sequence due to Chen, Guo and Wang.
On the Erdős-Gyárfás Conjecture in Claw-Free Graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nowbandegani Pouria Salehi
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The Erdős-Gyárfás conjecture states that every graph with minimum degree at least three has a cycle whose length is a power of 2. Since this conjecture has proven to be far from reach, Hobbs asked if the Erdős-Gyárfás conjecture holds in claw-free graphs. In this paper, we obtain some results on this question, in particular for cubic claw-free graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bolsinov Alexey V.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The Mishchenko-Fomenko conjecture says that for each real or complex finite-dimensional Lie algebra g there exists a complete set of commuting polynomials on its dual space g*. In terms of the theory of integrable Hamiltonian systems this means that the dual space g* endowed with the standard Lie-Poisson bracket admits polynomial integrable Hamiltonian systems. This conjecture was proved by S. T. Sadetov in 2003. Following his idea, we give an explicit geometric construction for commuting polynomials on g* and consider some examples. (This text is a revised version of my paper published in Russian: A. V. Bolsinov, Complete commutative families of polynomials in Poisson–Lie algebras: A proof of the Mischenko–Fomenko conjecture in book: Tensor and Vector Analysis, Vol. 26, Moscow State University, 2005, 87–109.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giovannetti, V [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and CNR-INFM, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Holevo, A S [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Gubkina 8, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lloyd, S; Maccone, L [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States)
2010-10-15
A formulation of the generalized minimal output entropy conjecture for Gaussian channels is presented. It asserts that, for states with fixed input entropy, the minimal value of the output entropy of the channel (i.e. the minimal output entropy increment for fixed input entropy) is achieved by Gaussian states. In the case of centered channels (i.e. channels which do not add squeezing to the input state) this implies that the minimum is obtained by thermal (Gibbs) inputs. The conjecture is proved to be valid in some special cases.
Giovannetti, V.; Holevo, A. S.; Lloyd, S.; Maccone, L.
2010-10-01
A formulation of the generalized minimal output entropy conjecture for Gaussian channels is presented. It asserts that, for states with fixed input entropy, the minimal value of the output entropy of the channel (i.e. the minimal output entropy increment for fixed input entropy) is achieved by Gaussian states. In the case of centered channels (i.e. channels which do not add squeezing to the input state) this implies that the minimum is obtained by thermal (Gibbs) inputs. The conjecture is proved to be valid in some special cases.
de Morais, Camilo de L. M.; Silva, Se´rgio R. B.; Vieira, Davi S.; Lima, Ka´ssio M. G.
2016-01-01
The binding constant and stoichiometry ratio for the formation of iron(II)-(1,10-phenanthroline) or iron(II)-o-phenanthroline complexes has been determined by a combination of a low-cost analytical method using a smartphone and a molecular modeling method as a laboratory experiment designed for analytical and physical chemistry courses. Intensity…
Izotov, Y. I.; Thuan, T. X.; Guseva, N. G.
2017-10-01
We present Large Binocular Telescope spectrophotometric observations of five low-redshift (z logO/H = 7.46-7.79 and low masses M⋆ ˜ 106-107 M⊙, much lower than the M⋆ for known low-redshift LyC leaking galaxies, but probably more typical of the hypothetical population of low-luminosity dwarf LyC leakers at high redshifts. A broad H α emission line is detected in the spectra of all CSFGs, possibly related to expansion motions of supernova remnants. Such rapid ionized gas motions would facilitate the escape of the resonant Ly α emission from the galaxy. We show that a high O32 may not be a sufficient condition for LyC leakage and propose new diagnostics based on the He I λ3889/λ6678 and λ7065/λ6678 emission-line flux ratios. Using these diagnostics, we find that three CSFGs in our sample are likely to have density-bounded H II regions and are thus leaking large amounts of LyC radiation. The amount of leaking LyC radiation is probably much lower in the other two CSFGs.
Wan, Moli; Schröder, Christian; Peiffer, Stefan
2017-11-01
The formation of pyrite has been extensively studied because of its abundance in many anoxic environments. Yet, there is no consensus on the underlying pathways and kinetics of its formation. We studied the formation of pyrite during the reaction between reactive ferric hydroxides (goethite and lepidocrocite) and aqueous sulfide in an anoxic glove box at neutral pH. The formation of pyrite was monitored with Mössbauer spectroscopy using 57Fe isotope-enriched ferric (hydr)oxides. The initial molar ratios of Fe(III):S(-II) were adjusted to be 'high' with Fe(III) concentrations in excess of sulfide (HR) and 'low' (LR) with excess of sulfide. Approximately the same surface area was applied in all HR runs in order to compare the mineral reactivity of ferric hydroxides. Electron transfer between aqueous sulfide and ferric hydroxides in the first 2 h led to the formation of ferrous iron and methanol-extractable oxidized sulfur (MES). Metastable FeSx formed in all of the experiments. Pyrite formed at a different rate in HR and LR runs although the MES and ferrous iron concentrations were rather similar. In all HR runs, pyrite formation started after 48 h and achieved a maximum concentration after 1 week. In contrast, pyrite started to form only after 2 months in LR runs (Fe(III):S(-II) ∼ 0.2) with goethite and no pyrite formation was observed in LR with lepidocrocite after 6 months. Rates in LR runs were at least 2-3 orders of magnitude slower than in HR runs. Sulfide oxidation rates were higher with lepidocrocite than with goethite, but no influence of the mineral type on pyrite formation rates in HR runs could be observed. Pyrite formation rates in HR runs could not be predicted by the classical model of Rickard (1975). We therefore propose a novel ferric-hydroxide-surface (FHS) pathway for rapid pyrite formation that is based on the formation of a precursor species >FeIIS2-. Its formation is competitive to FeSx precipitation at high aqueous sulfide concentrations and
The elementary theory of groups a guide through the proofs of the Tarski conjectures
Fine, Benjamin; Myasnikov, Alexei; Rosenberger, Gerhard; Spellman, Dennis
2014-01-01
After being an open question for sixty years the Tarski conjecture was answered in the affirmative by Olga Kharlampovich and Alexei Myasnikov and independently by Zlil Sela. This book is an examination of the material on the general elementary theory of groups that is necessary to begin to understand the proofs.
Reducing CO2 flux by decreasing tillage in Ohio: overcoming conjecture with data
Soil could become an important sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) as global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions continue to grow, but data to support this conjecture are few. Sequestering soil carbon (C) depends upon many factors including soil type, climate, crop, tillage, nitrogen fertili...
The AJ-conjecture for the Teichmüller TQFT
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Malusà, Alessandro
We formulate the AJ-conjecture for the Teichm\\"{u}ller TQFT and we prove it in the case of the figure-eight knot complement and the $5_2$-knot complement. This states that the level-$N$ Andersen-Kashaev invariant, $J^{(\\mathrm{b},N)}_{M,K}$, is annihilated by the non-homogeneous $\\widehat...
Zumbo, Bruno D.; Pope, Gregory A.; Watson, Jackie E.; Hubley, Anita M.
1997-01-01
E. Roskam's (1985) conjecture that steeper item characteristic curve (ICC) "a" parameters (slopes) (and higher item total correlations in classical test theory) would be found with more concretely worded test items was tested with results from 925 young adults on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (H. Eysenck and S. Eysenck, 1975).…
HIGH-LYING OH ABSORPTION, [C II] DEFICITS, AND EXTREME L {sub FIR}/M {sub H2} RATIOS IN GALAXIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
González-Alfonso, E.; Blasco, A. [Universidad de Alcalá, Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Campus Universitario, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fischer, J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Sturm, E.; Graciá-Carpio, J.; Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Contursi, A. [Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Giessenbachstraße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Veilleux, S.; Meléndez, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Aalto, S.; Falstad, N. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden); Spoon, H. W. W. [Cornell University, Astronomy Department, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Henkel, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany); Verma, A. [University of Oxford, Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Spaans, M. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Smith, H. A.; Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hailey-Dunsheath, S. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others
2015-02-10
Herschel/PACS observations of 29 local (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies, including both starburst and active galactic nucleus (AGN) dominated sources as diagnosed in the mid-infrared/optical, show that the equivalent width of the absorbing OH 65 μm Π{sub 3/2} J = 9/2-7/2 line (W {sub eq}(OH65)) with lower level energy E {sub low} ≈ 300 K, is anticorrelated with the [C II]158 μm line to far-infrared luminosity ratio, and correlated with the far-infrared luminosity per unit gas mass and with the 60-to-100 μm far-infrared color. While all sources are in the active L {sub IR}/M {sub H2} > 50L {sub ☉}/M {sub ☉} mode as derived from previous CO line studies, the OH65 absorption shows a bimodal distribution with a discontinuity at L {sub FIR}/M {sub H2} ≈ 100 L {sub ☉}/M {sub ☉}. In the most buried sources, OH65 probes material partially responsible for the silicate 9.7 μm absorption. Combined with observations of the OH 71 μm Π{sub 1/2} J = 7/2-5/2 doublet (E {sub low} ≈ 415 K), radiative transfer models characterized by the equivalent dust temperature, T {sub dust}, and the continuum optical depth at 100 μm, τ{sub 100}, indicate that strong [C II]158 μm deficits are associated with far-IR thick (τ{sub 100} ≳ 0.7, N {sub H} ≳ 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}), warm (T {sub dust} ≳ 60 K) structures where the OH 65 μm absorption is produced, most likely in circumnuclear disks/tori/cocoons. With their high L {sub FIR}/M {sub H2} ratios and columns, the presence of these structures is expected to give rise to strong [C II] deficits. W {sub eq}(OH65) probes the fraction of infrared luminosity arising from these compact/warm environments, which is ≳ 30%-50% in sources with high W {sub eq}(OH65). Sources with high W {sub eq}(OH65) have surface densities of both L {sub IR} and M {sub H2} higher than inferred from the half-light (CO or UV/optical) radius, tracing coherent structures that represent the most buried/active stage of (circum)nuclear starburst
Anisimova, G. P.; Gorbenko, A. P.; Dolmatova, O. A.; Krylov, I. R.; Mashek, I. Ch.; Zygankova, G. A.; Tchoffo, M.
2017-10-01
In the one-configuration approximation, in the formalism of irreducible tensor operators, and in the intermediate (real) coupling scheme, numerical values of the fine-structure parameters are determined for the 3 p4 f and 3 p5 f highly excited configurations of the P II phosphorus ion with the energy-operator matrix in the LK-coupling approximation. With these values of the fine-structure parameters, the energy-operator matrix is numerically diagonalized in the LS-coupling approximation. The gyromagnetic ratios calculated in both basis sets in the absence of a field are compared with one another, as well as with their vector counterparts and the experimental g-factors available for the 3 p4 f configuration. The experimental and theoretical g-factors calculated with the LS basis set are in good agreement with the sole exception of the 3 F 2 level. Note that the calculation of g-factors from the Zeeman splitting in the linear region totally confirmed their agreement with the values calculated in the LS basis set ( g LS ) in the absence of a field. The gyromagnetic ratios are the main objectives of this and previous papers, especially for configurations for which experimental data are absent. Apart from the g-factors, the specific features of Zeeman splitting (the crossings and anticrossings of magnetic components) in the 3 p5 f configurations were determined. These data are to be compared with results of future experiments. Comparison of gyromagnetic ratios calculated in the intermediate coupling scheme with their vector counterparts showed that most levels of the configurations studied are closer than in the LK-coupling scheme.
Vakonaki, Eleni; Soulitzis, Nikolaos; Sifakis, Stavros; Papadogianni, Danae; Koutroulakis, Dimitrios; Spandidos, Demetrios A
2012-08-01
p63 plays an important role in several intracellular processes such as transcription activation and apoptosis. p63 has two N-terminal isoforms, TAp63 and ΔNp63. TAp63 isoform has p53-like functions, while ΔNp63 acts as a dominant negative inhibitor of the p53 family and is considered oncogenic. Although p63 and its isoforms are overexpressed in a wide variety of human malignancies such as cervical, head and neck, and lung cancer, their role in endometrial carcinoma has not been investigated. We measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction the mRNA expression of TAp63 and ΔNp63 in a series of 20 endometrioid adenocarcinomas paired with adjacent normal tissue. TAp63 isoform exhibited 1.8-fold overexpression in malignant samples, while ΔNp63 was 4.3-fold overexpressed in cancer specimens. Further analysis revealed that the ΔN/TA isoform ratio shifted from 0.5 in normal samples to 1.2 in tumor specimens. Statistical analysis also revealed an association of TAp63 expression with high body mass index (p = 0.034), late menopause (p = 0.020), and lower tumor grade (p = 0.034). ΔNp63 was also correlated with grade I/II tumors (p = 0.044). These results indicate that both p63 isoforms and especially ΔNp63 play an important role in the development and progression of grade I/II endometrial adenocarcinoma, especially in obese and late-menopause women.
The prime graph conjecture for integral group rings of some alternatings groups
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Salim
2013-03-01
Full Text Available We investigate the classical Zassenhaus Conjecture (ZC for integral group rings of alternating groups A9 and A10. Even the question (ZC remains open as no counterexample is known up to date, it been confirmed for special types of groups such as nilpotent groups by Roggenkamp, Scot and Weiss. However, a new method based on the partial augmentation of torsion units been established by Luthar and Passi to confirm the (ZC for A5. Later a weaker version of (ZC was proposed in 2007, we call it the Prime Graph Conjecture (PGC about the Gruenberg-Kegel (prime graph of the group of all normalized units of the integral group ring of a finite group. Recently, the (PGC has a positive answer for solvable groups, Frobenius groups and several simple groups. Here, as a consequence of our results, we confirm the (PGC for integral group rings of alternating groups An for all n<11.
On a directed variation of the 1-2-3 and 1-2 Conjectures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barme, Emma; Bensmail, Julien; Przybyło, Jakub
2017-01-01
In this paper, we consider the following question, which stands as a directed analogue of the well-known 1-2-3 Conjecture: Given any digraph D with no arc uv verifying d+(u) = d¯(v) = 1, is it possible to weight the arcs of D with weights among ⟨1; 2; 3⟩ so that, for every arc uv of D, the sum...
The approximate Loebl-Komlos-Sos Conjecture I: The sparse decomposition
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hladký, Jan; Komlós, J.; Piguet, Diana; Simonovits, M.; Stein, M.; Szemerédi, E.
2017-01-01
Roč. 31, č. 2 (2017), s. 945-982 ISSN 0895-4801 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Institutional support: RVO:67985840 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : extremal graph theory * Loebl–Komlós–Sós conjecture * regularity lemma Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics ; BA - General Mathematics (UIVT-O) Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/140982842
A skew version of the Loebl–Komlós–Sós conjecture
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Klimošová, T.; Piguet, Diana; Rozhoň, Václav
2017-01-01
Roč. 61, August (2017), s. 743-749 ISSN 1571-0653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ16-07822Y; GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : extremal graph theory * trees * Loebl-Komlós-Sós conjecture * regularity lemma Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics
Proofs to two inequality conjectures for a point on the plane of a triangle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fangjian Huang
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract We prove two conjectures for a point on the plane of a triangle presented in (Liu in J. Math. Inequal. 8(3:597-611, 2014, doi: 10.1007/s11590-013-0708-4 by using the successive difference substitution algorithm NEWTSDS. Compared with the original proof, the new one is simpler and more easily understood. Similar problems can be treated with the same procedure.
Domination Game: Extremal Families for the 3/5-Conjecture for Forests
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henning Michael A.
2017-05-01
Full Text Available In the domination game on a graph G, the players Dominator and Staller alternately select vertices of G. Each vertex chosen must strictly increase the number of vertices dominated. This process eventually produces a dominating set of G; Dominator aims to minimize the size of this set, while Staller aims to maximize it. The size of the dominating set produced under optimal play is the game domination number of G, denoted by γg(G. Kinnersley, West and Zamani [SIAM J. Discrete Math. 27 (2013 2090-2107] posted their 3/5-Conjecture that γg(G ≤ ⅗n for every isolate-free forest on n vertices. Brešar, Klavžar, Košmrlj and Rall [Discrete Appl. Math. 161 (2013 1308-1316] presented a construction that yields an infinite family of trees that attain the conjectured 3/5-bound. In this paper, we provide a much larger, but simpler, construction of extremal trees. We conjecture that if G is an isolate-free forest on n vertices satisfying γg(G = ⅗n, then every component of G belongs to our construction.
A proof of a conjecture by Schweizer on the Drinfeld modular polynomial ΦT (X, Y )
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter
2011-01-01
In this paper we prove a conjecture by Schweizer on the reduction of the Drinfeld modular polynomial ΦT (X, Y ) modulo T − 1. The proof mainly involves manipulations of binomial coefficients in characteristic p....
Carmon, Dan
2015-01-01
We prove a function field version of Chowla's conjecture on the autocorrelation of the Möbius function in the limit of a large finite field of characteristic 2, extending previous work in odd characteristic. PMID:25802413
Sabihi, Ahmad
2016-01-01
We approach a new proof of the strong Goldbach's conjecture for sufficiently large even integers by applying the Dirichlet's series. Using the Perron formula and the Residue Theorem in complex variable integration, one could show that any large even integer is demonstrated as a sum of two primes. In this paper,the Riemann Hypothesis is assumed to be true in throughout the paper. A novel function is defined on the natural numbers set.This function is a typical sieve function.Then based on this...
Conjecture on reflectionlessness of blood-vascular system as a wave-conducting medium
Goldobin, D. S.; Mizeva, I. A.
2017-06-01
Our research is related to the employment of photoplethysmography (PPG) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) techniques (measuring the blood volume and flux, respectively) for the peripheral vascular system. We derive the governing equations of the wave dynamics for the case of extremely inhomogeneous parameters. We argue for the conjecture that the blood-vascular system as a wave-conducting medium should be nearly reflection-free. With the reflectionlessness condition, one can find the general solution to the governing equation and, on the basis of this solution, analyse the relationships between PPG- and LDF-signals.
A Conjecture on Institutional Rationalities and Property Rights in Public Procurement of Innovation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ågren, Robert; Rolfstam, Max
2013-01-01
The increased interest in using public procurement as a policy tool for innovation has renewed a need for understanding the procurement process. A conjecture on institutional rationalities and property rights is offered to explain the hurdles present for conducting successful procurement projects...... to be targeting the process of public procurement of innovation, rather than focusing on regulatory issues........ If an efficient negotiation solution is to be achieved participants in procurement projects need to be aware of the other participants’ institutional rationalities and actively consider these while concluding the terms of procurement projects. Consequently, future policy efforts towards increased innovation have...
Sobolev Inequalities, Heat Kernels under Ricci Flow, and the Poincare Conjecture
Zhang, Qi S
2010-01-01
Focusing on Sobolev inequalities and their applications to analysis on manifolds and Ricci flow, "Sobolev Inequalities, Heat Kernels under Ricci Flow, and the Poincare Conjecture" introduces the field of analysis on Riemann manifolds and uses the tools of Sobolev imbedding and heat kernel estimates to study Ricci flows, especially with surgeries. The author explains key ideas, difficult proofs, and important applications in a succinct, accessible, and unified manner. The book first discusses Sobolev inequalities in various settings, including the Euclidean case, the Riemannian case,
A Possible Solution for Hilbert's Unsolved 8th Problem: Twin Prime Conjecture
Chen, Yuhsin; Ni, Yensen; Chen, Muyi
2017-01-01
We measure whether there are numerous pairs of twin primes (hereafter referred to as twin prime pairs) according to the prime number inferred by sieve of Eratosthenes. In this study, we reveal at least three additional twin prime pairs increased as n is increased by 1, while setting (6n+5)**2 as the range for estimating twin prime pairs. As a result, we prove the Twin Prime Conjecture proposed by de Polignac in 1849. That is, there are numerous twin prime pairs, indicating that there are nume...
The L-Homology Fundamental Class for IP-Spaces and the Stratified Novikov Conjecture
Banagl, Markus; Laures, Gerd; McClure, James E.
2014-01-01
An IP-space is a pseudomanifold whose defining local properties imply that its middle perversity global intersection homology groups satisfy Poincar\\'e duality integrally. We show that the symmetric signature induces a map of Quinn spectra from IP bordism to the symmetric $L$-spectrum of $\\Z$, which is, up to weak equivalence, an $E_\\infty$ ring map. Using this map, we construct a fundamental $L$-homology class for IP-spaces, and as a consequence we prove the stratified Novikov conjecture for...
On Green and Green-Lazarfeld conjectures for simple coverings of algebraic curves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edoardo Ballico
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Let X be a smooth genus g curve equipped with a simple morphism f: X -> C, where C is either the projective line or more generally any smooth curve whose gonality is computed by finitely many pencils. Here we apply a method developed by Aprodu to prove that if g is big enough then X satisfies both Green and Green-Lazarsfeld conjectures. We also partially address the case in which the gonality of C is computed by infinitely many pencils.
Maximal $k$-Edge-Colorable Subgraphs, Vizing's Theorem, and Tuza's Conjecture
Puleo, Gregory J.
2015-01-01
We prove that if $M$ is a maximal $k$-edge-colorable subgraph of a multigraph $G$ and if $F = \\{v \\in V(G) : d_M(v) \\leq k-\\mu(v)\\}$, then $d_F(v) \\leq d_M(v)$ for all $v \\in F$. (When $G$ is a simple graph, the set $F$ is just the set of vertices having degree less than $k$ in $M$.) This implies Vizing's Theorem as well as a special case of Tuza's Conjecture on packing and covering of triangles. A more detailed version of our result also implies Vizing's Adjacency Lemma for simple graphs.
Second isogeny descents and the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjectural formula
Creutz, Brendan; Miller, Robert L.
2012-01-01
Let h be a p-isogeny of elliptic curves. We describe how to perform h-descents on the nontrivial elements in the Shafarevich-Tate group which are killed by the dual isogeny h'. This makes computation of p-Selmer groups of elliptic curves admitting a p-isogeny over Q feasible for p = 5,7 in cases where an isogeny descent is insufficient and a full p-descent would be infeasible. As an application we complete the verification of the full Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjectural formula for all elli...
Group flow, complex flow, unit vector flow, and the (2+ϵ)-flow conjecture
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomassen, Carsten
2014-01-01
some even sum. We discuss various instances of this problem. We prove that every 6-edge-connected graph has a flow whose flow values are the three roots of unity in the complex plane. If the edge-connectivity 6 can be reduced, then it can be reduced to 4, and the 3-flow conjecture follows. We prove......If F is a (possibly infinite) subset of an abelian group Γ, then we define f(F,Γ) as the smallest natural number such that every f(F,Γ)-edge-connected (finite) graph G has a flow where all flow values are elements in F. We prove that f(F,Γ) exists if and only if some odd sum of elements in F equals...... that every 14-edge-connected graph has a flow whose flow values are the five roots of unity in the complex plane. Any such flow is balanced modulo 5. So, if the edge-connectivity 14 can be reduced to 9, then the 5-flow conjecture follows, as observed by F. Jaeger. We use vector flow to prove that, for each...
Nanodeserts: A Conjecture in Nanotechnology to Enhance Quasi-Photosynthetic CO2 Absorption
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenfeng Wang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper advances “nanodeserts” as a conjecture on the possibility of developing the hierarchical structured polymeric nanomaterials for enhancing abiotic CO2 fixation in the soil-groundwater system beneath deserts (termed as quasi-photosynthetic CO2 absorption. Arid and semiarid deserts ecosystems approximately characterize one-third of the Earth’s land surface but play an unsung role in the carbon cycling, considering the huge potentials of such CO2 absorption to expand insights to the long-sought missing CO2 sink and the naturally unneglectable turbulence in temperature sensitivities of soil respiration it produced. “Nanodeserts” as a reconciled concept not only indicate a conjecture in nanotechnology to enhance quasi-photosynthetic CO2 absorption, but also aim to present to the desert researchers a better understanding of the footprints of abiotic CO2 transport, conversion, and assignment in the soil-groundwater system beneath deserts. Meanwhile, nanodeserts allow a stable temperature sensitivity of soil respiration in deserts by largely reducing the CO2 release above the deserts surface and highlighting the abiotic CO2 fixation beneath deserts. This may be no longer a novelty in the future.
A new algorithm to compute conjectured supply function equilibrium in electricity markets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diaz, Cristian A.; Villar, Jose; Campos, Fco Alberto [Institute for Research in Technology, Technical School of Engineering, Comillas Pontifical University, Madrid 28015 (Spain); Rodriguez, M. Angel [Endesa, 28042 Madrid (Spain)
2011-02-15
Several types of market equilibria approaches, such as Cournot, Conjectural Variation (CVE), Supply Function (SFE) or Conjectured Supply Function (CSFE) have been used to model electricity markets for the medium and long term. Among them, CSFE has been proposed as a generalization of the classic Cournot. It computes the equilibrium considering the reaction of the competitors against changes in their strategy, combining several characteristics of both CVE and SFE. Unlike linear SFE approaches, strategies are linearized only at the equilibrium point, using their first-order Taylor approximation. But to solve CSFE, the slope or the intercept of the linear approximations must be given, which has been proved to be very restrictive. This paper proposes a new algorithm to compute CSFE. Unlike previous approaches, the main contribution is that the competitors' strategies for each generator are initially unknown (both slope and intercept) and endogenously computed by this new iterative algorithm. To show the applicability of the proposed approach, it has been applied to several case examples where its qualitative behavior has been analyzed in detail. (author)
Testing the ortholog conjecture with comparative functional genomic data from mammals.
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Nathan L Nehrt
2011-06-01
Full Text Available A common assumption in comparative genomics is that orthologous genes share greater functional similarity than do paralogous genes (the "ortholog conjecture". Many methods used to computationally predict protein function are based on this assumption, even though it is largely untested. Here we present the first large-scale test of the ortholog conjecture using comparative functional genomic data from human and mouse. We use the experimentally derived functions of more than 8,900 genes, as well as an independent microarray dataset, to directly assess our ability to predict function using both orthologs and paralogs. Both datasets show that paralogs are often a much better predictor of function than are orthologs, even at lower sequence identities. Among paralogs, those found within the same species are consistently more functionally similar than those found in a different species. We also find that paralogous pairs residing on the same chromosome are more functionally similar than those on different chromosomes, perhaps due to higher levels of interlocus gene conversion between these pairs. In addition to offering implications for the computational prediction of protein function, our results shed light on the relationship between sequence divergence and functional divergence. We conclude that the most important factor in the evolution of function is not amino acid sequence, but rather the cellular context in which proteins act.
A Schrödinger equation for solving the Bender-Brody-Müller conjecture
Moxley, Frederick Ira
2017-11-01
The Hamiltonian of a quantum mechanical system has an affiliated spectrum. If this spectrum is the sequence of prime numbers, a connection between quantum mechanics and the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function can be made. In this case, the Riemann zeta function is analogous to chaotic quantum systems, as the harmonic oscillator is for integrable quantum systems. Such quantum Riemann zeta function analogies have led to the Bender-Brody-Müller (BBM) conjecture, which involves a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian that maps to the zeros of the Riemann zeta function. If the BBM Hamiltonian can be shown to be Hermitian, then the Riemann Hypothesis follows. As such, herein we perform a symmetrization procedure of the BBM Hamiltonian to obtain a unique Hermitian Hamiltonian that maps to the zeros of the analytic continuation of the Riemann zeta function, and discuss the eigenvalues of the results. Moreover, a second quantization of the resulting Schrödinger equation is performed, and a convergent solution for the nontrivial zeros of the analytic continuation of the Riemann zeta function is obtained. Finally, the Hilbert-Pólya conjecture is discussed, and it is heuristically shown that the real part of every nontrivial zero of the Riemann zeta function converges at σ = 1/2.
Weak gravity conjecture, multiple point principle and the standard model landscape
Hamada, Yuta; Shiu, Gary
2017-11-01
The requirement for an ultraviolet completable theory to be well-behaved upon compactification has been suggested as a guiding principle for distinguishing the landscape from the swampland. Motivated by the weak gravity conjecture and the multiple point principle, we investigate the vacuum structure of the standard model compactified on S 1 and T 2. The measured value of the Higgs mass implies, in addition to the electroweak vacuum, the existence of a new vacuum where the Higgs field value is around the Planck scale. We explore two- and three-dimensional critical points of the moduli potential arising from compactifications of the electroweak vacuum as well as this high scale vacuum, in the presence of Majorana/Dirac neutrinos and/or axions. We point out potential sources of instability for these lower dimensional critical points in the standard model landscape. We also point out that a high scale AdS4 vacuum of the Standard Model, if exists, would be at odd with the conjecture that all non-supersymmetric AdS vacua are unstable. We argue that, if we require a degeneracy between three- and four-dimensional vacua as suggested by the multiple point principle, the neutrinos are predicted to be Dirac, with the mass of the lightest neutrino ≈ O(1-10) meV, which may be tested by future CMB, large scale structure and 21cm line observations.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio Moreno Hernández
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The critical tradition of Caesar’s Commentarii ascribes many conjectures of great textual value to Giovanni Giocondo. However, a remarkable number of these corrections, which are usually considered emendationes ope ingenii of the Aldine edition, are based on the previous manuscript tradition. After outlining the main features of Giocondo’s conception of the conjecture, as it is asserted in the Praefatio of the Venetian edition, in this article it is proven that a stratum of the conjectural practise of the Bellum Gallicum of the Aldine edition has an earlier origin, since it is already documented in a twelfthcentury manuscript, the Oxford, Merton Coll. 307. The present study analyses a group of corrections, which are commonly attributed to the 1513 edition, but which, in fact, have been previously documented in this twelfth-century manuscript.
Short-Time Elasticity of Polymer Melts: Tobolsky Conjecture and Heterogeneous Local Stiffness
Bernini, S
2016-01-01
An extended Molecular-Dynamics study of the short-time "glassy" elasticity exhibited by a polymer melt of linear fully-flexible chains above the glass transition is presented. The focus is on the infinite-frequency shear modulus $G_\\infty$ manifested in the picosecond time scale and the relaxed plateau $G_p$ reached at later times and terminated by the structural relaxation. The local stiffness of the interactions with the first neighbours of each monomer exhibits marked distribution with average value given by $G_\\infty$. In particular, the neighbourhood of the end monomers of each chain are softer than the inner monomers, so that $G_\\infty$ increases with the chain length. $G_p$ is not affected by the chain length and is largely set by the non-bonding interactions, thus confirming for polymer melts the conjecture formulated by Tobolsky for glassy polymers.
A Conjecture on the Origine of Language, with many helps from Friedrich Nietzsche
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heesook Kim
2014-04-01
Full Text Available It is agreed upon that among all the living things that have existed, only humans can speak. However, we do not know yet since when we have spoken. We find that Nietzsche left distinctive ideas on the origin of language. Reflecting on “eternal recurrence” and “overmen”, the concepts that Nietzsche made popular, we found out that he would agree on dating the origin of language from some 70,000 years ago when the human population shrank drastically to as low as 2,000 in the wake of the super-volcanic eruption at Lake Toba. At that time, the eternal recurrence that had shackled our ancestors for a long time suddenly disappeared and the small band of surviving members could not help becoming overmen or supermen of entire human species. We ascertained the conjecture with the latest development in evolution theory, archaeology and anatomical analysis on human fossils.
The Approximate Loebl-Komlos-Sos Conjecture III: The Finer Structure of LKS Graphs
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hladký, J.; Komlós, J.; Piguet, Diana; Simonovits, M.; Stein, M.; Szemerédi, E.
2017-01-01
Roč. 31, č. 2 (2017), s. 1017-1071 ISSN 0895-4801 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545; GA ČR GJ16-07822Y EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Grant - others:EPRSC(GB) EP/D063191/1; EPRSC(GB) EP/J501414/1; FP7(XE) PIEF-GA-2009-253925; GA MŠK(CZ) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0090 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : extremal graph theory * Loebl–Komlós–Sós conjecture * regularity lemma Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2016
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gutierrez-Alcaraz, G.; Tovar-Hernandez, Jose H.; Moreno-Goytia, Edgar L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica y Electronica del Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, Morelia, Mich., Mexico (Mexico)
2009-12-15
Electricity spot markets generally operate on an hourly basis; under this condition GENCOs can closely observe their competitors' market behavior. For this purposes, a detailed dynamic model is one of the tools used by GENCOs to understand the behavioral variations of competitors over time. The required abilities to rapidly adjust one's own decision-making create a need for new learning procedures and models. Conjectural variations (CV) have been proposed as a learning approach. In this paper a model based on forward expectations (FE) is proposed as a learning approach, and through illustrative examples it is shown that the market equilibria found by the CV model are also obtained by the FE model. (author)
Extremals of Dirac operator spectral determinants and zeta functions, and Branson's conjecture
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Niels Martin
2007-01-01
Let (M,g) be a closed n-dimensional Riemannian spin manifold and let D be its Atiyah-Singer-Dirac operator. We study the variation of Riemannian metrics for the determinant and zeta function of D^2, and obtain results on finite index and local extremality at critical metrics. This involves the non......-trivial problem of a general, i.e. not only conformal, change of metrics of the spin geometry and Dirac operator, to compute the leading symbol of the pseudodifferential Hessian operator. There is a marked difference between even and odd n. For even n the determinant's Hessian has a log-polyhomogeneous symbol....... Combined with results by K. Okikiolu we can verify, with finitely many exceptional directions, a local, general variations version of Branson's Conjecture, which stated that the square of the Dirac operator behaves oppositely to the conformal Laplacian. We specialize to the round spheres S^n as our main...
Arias, F. J.
2017-09-01
In this poster, it is conjectured (and theoretically discussed) the possibility of planetary deuterium enrichment contribution in the past driven by planetary magnetic fields and external sources as solar winds or galactic clouds. The mechanism is interesting because: 1) is in clear contrast with current mechanism where planets and bodies are enriched with deuterium by preferential escape of ordinary hydrogen. 2) is linking deuterium enrichment with body magnetic fields, and then observed deuterium enrichment can be a hint that in the past there was magnetic activity in the body 3) open the possibility that geological records can be find with abrupt increase of deuterium and then the possible transit of the solar system crossing galactic clouds.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keryn G. Woodman
2016-11-01
Full Text Available In recent years, complementary and alternative medicine has become increasingly popular. This trend has not escaped the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy community with one study showing that 80% of caregivers have provided their Duchenne patients with complementary and alternative medicine in conjunction with their traditional treatments. These statistics are concerning given that many supplements are taken based on purely “anecdotal” evidence. Many nutraceuticals are thought to have anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidant effects. Given that dystrophic pathology is exacerbated by inflammation and oxidative stress these nutraceuticals could have some therapeutic benefit for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD. This review gathers and evaluates the peer-reviewed scientific studies that have used nutraceuticals in clinical or pre-clinical trials for DMD and thus separates the credible from the conjecture.
Woodman, Keryn G; Coles, Chantal A; Lamandé, Shireen R; White, Jason D
2016-11-09
In recent years, complementary and alternative medicine has become increasingly popular. This trend has not escaped the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy community with one study showing that 80% of caregivers have provided their Duchenne patients with complementary and alternative medicine in conjunction with their traditional treatments. These statistics are concerning given that many supplements are taken based on purely "anecdotal" evidence. Many nutraceuticals are thought to have anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidant effects. Given that dystrophic pathology is exacerbated by inflammation and oxidative stress these nutraceuticals could have some therapeutic benefit for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). This review gathers and evaluates the peer-reviewed scientific studies that have used nutraceuticals in clinical or pre-clinical trials for DMD and thus separates the credible from the conjecture.
Magdziak, Z; Kozlowska, M; Kaczmarek, Z; Mleczek, M; Chadzinikolau, T; Drzewiecka, K; Golinski, P
2011-01-01
A hydroponic experiment in a phytotron was performed to investigate the effect of two different Ca/Mg ratios (4:1 and 1:10) and trace element ions (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in solution on the efficiency of low molecular weight organic acid (LMWOA) formation in Salix viminalis rhizosphere. Depending on the Ca/Mg ratio and presence of selected trace elements at 0.5mM concentration, the amount and kind of LMWOAs in the rhizosphere were significantly affected. In physiological 4:1 Ca/Mg ratio the following complex of acids was observed: malonic (Pb, Zn), citric, lactic, maleic and succinic (Zn) acids. Under 1:10 Ca/Mg ratio, citric (Cd, Zn), maleic and succinic (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) acids were seen. Additionally, high accumulation of zinc and copper in all systems was observed, with the exception of those where one of the metals was at higher concentration. Summing up, the results indicate a significant role of LMWOAs in Salix phytoremediation abilities. Both effects can be modulated depending on the mutual Ca/Mg ratio. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tertre, E; Ferrage, E; Bihannic, I; Michot, L J; Prêt, D
2011-11-01
The aim of the present paper is to clarify previous results showing that selectivity coefficients determined for the exchange of Na(+) for Ca(2+) in montmorillonite were dependent on the solid/solution ratio. The organization of montmorillonite suspensions upon Na(+)/Ca(II) exchange was analyzed by combining optical microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray diffraction. All samples displayed flocculated characteristics, eliminating the possibility of contrasting accessibility of sorption sites with the solid/solution ratio. Modeling of experimental X-ray diffraction patterns was used to quantify the relative proportions of interlayer Ca(2+) and Na(+) cations along the exchange isotherm. The results further confirmed the influence of the solid/solution ratio on the degree of interlayer Ca(II)-for-Na(+) exchange, and specific selectivity coefficients for interlayer sites were determined. The effect of the solid/solution ratio was finally interpreted by the resulting local changes in the solution chemistry. We demonstrated that by accounting for the Donnan effect, the different data can be interpreted using a single selectivity coefficient. The obtained Kc constant was successfully applied to interpret existing hydrogeochemical data on a natural aquitard. This most likely represents a more constrained and valid approach for the modeling of reactive element transport in natural media than does the poorly defined Kd parameter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ALTMANN, BERTHOLD
AFTER A BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE TEST PROGRAM (DESCRIBED MORE FULLY IN LI 000 318), THE STATISTICAL RESULTS TABULATED AS OVERALL "ABC (APPROACH BY CONCEPT)-RELEVANCE RATIOS" AND "ABC-RECALL FIGURES" ARE PRESENTED AND REVIEWED. AN ABSTRACT MODEL DEVELOPED IN ACCORDANCE WITH MAX WEBER'S "IDEALTYPUS" ("DIE OBJEKTIVITAET…
Fiallo, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Angel
2017-01-01
We present results from a classroom-based intervention designed to help a class of grade 10 students (14-15 years old) learn proof while studying trigonometry in a dynamic geometry software environment. We analysed some students' solutions to conjecture-and-proof problems that let them gain experience in stating conjectures and developing proofs.…
Testing cosmic censorship conjecture near extremal black holes with cosmological constants
Zhang, Yuan
2013-01-01
Previously, we have shown that extremal Kerr-Newman black holes can be overcharged or overspun by a test particle, indicating possible violation of the cosmic censorship. In this paper, we consider extremal charged and rotating black holes with cosmological constants. By studying the motion of test particles, we find the following results: An extremal Reissner-Nordstrom anti-de Sitter (RN-AdS) black hole can be overcharged by a test particle but an extremal Reissner-Nordstrom de Sitter (RN-dS) black hole cannot be overcharged. We also show that both Kerr-de-Sitter (Kerr-dS) and Kerr-anti-de-Sitter (Kerr-AdS) black holes can be overspun by a test particle, implying a possible breakdown of the cosmic censorship conjecture. For the Kerr-AdS case, the overspinning requires that the energy of the particle be negative, a reminiscent of the Penrose process. In contrast to the extremal RN and Kerr black holes, in which cases the cosmic censorship is upheld, our results suggest some subtle relations between the cosmol...
Winding out of the Swamp: Evading the weak gravity conjecture with F-term winding inflation?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arthur Hebecker
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We present a new model of large field inflation along a winding trajectory in the field space of two axionic fields, where the “axions” originate from the complex structure moduli sector of a Calabi–Yau 3-fold at large complex structure. The winding trajectory arises from fixing one combination of axions by bulk fluxes and allows for a transplanckian effective field range. The inflaton potential arises from small “instantonic” corrections to the geometry and realises natural inflation. By working in a regime of large complex structure for two complex structure moduli the inflaton potential can be made subdominant without severe tuning. We also discuss the impact of the recent ‘no-go theorems’ for transplanckian axion periodicities on our work. Interestingly, our setup seems to realise a loophole pointed out in arXiv:1503.00795 and arXiv:1503.04783: our construction is a candidate for a string theory model of large field inflation which is consistent with the mild form of the weak gravity conjecture for axions.
Noisy Hegselmann-Krause Systems: Phase Transition and the 2 R-Conjecture
Wang, Chu; Li, Qianxiao; E, Weinan; Chazelle, Bernard
2017-03-01
The classic Hegselmann-Krause ( HK) model for opinion dynamics consists of a set of agents on the real line, each one instructed to move, at every time step, to the mass center of the agents within a fixed distance R. In this work, we investigate the effects of noise in the continuous-time version of the model as described by its mean-field Fokker-Planck equation. In the presence of a finite number of agents, the system exhibits a phase transition from order to disorder as the noise increases. We introduce an order parameter to track the phase transition and resolve the corresponding phase diagram. The system undergoes a phase transition for small R but none for larger R. Based on the stability analysis of the mean-field equation, we derive the existence of a forbidden zone for the disordered phase to emerge. We also provide a theoretical explanation for the well-known 2 R conjecture, which states that, for a random initial distribution in a fixed interval, the final configuration consists of clusters separated by a distance of roughly 2 R. Our theoretical analysis confirms previous simulations and predicts properties of the noisy HK model in higher dimension.
HILBERT-PÓLYA Conjecture, Zeta Functions and Bosonic Quantum Field Theories
Andrade, Julio C.
2013-07-01
The original Hilbert and Pólya conjecture is the assertion that the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function can be the spectrum of a self-adjoint operator. So far no such operator was found. However, the suggestion of Hilbert and Pólya, in the context of spectral theory, can be extended to approach other problems and so it is natural to ask if there is a quantum mechanical system related to other sequences of numbers which are originated and motivated by Number Theory. In this paper, we show that the functional integrals associated with a hypothetical class of physical systems described by self-adjoint operators associated with bosonic fields whose spectra is given by three different sequence of numbers cannot be constructed. The common feature of the sequence of numbers considered here, which causes the impossibility of zeta regularizations, is that the various Dirichlet series attached to such sequences — such as those which are sums over "primes" of (norm P)-s have a natural boundary, i.e. they cannot be continued beyond the line Re(s) = 0. The main argument is that once the regularized determinant of a Laplacian is meromorphic in s, it follows that the series considered above cannot be a regularized determinant. In other words, we show that the generating functional of connected Schwinger functions of the associated quantum field theories cannot be constructed.
Escaned, Javier; Echavarría-Pinto, Mauro; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M.; van de Hoef, Tim P.; de Vries, Ton; Kaul, Prashant; Raveendran, Ganesh; Altman, John D.; Kurz, Howard I.; Brechtken, Johannes; Tulli, Mark; von Birgelen, Clemens; Schneider, Joel E.; Khashaba, Ahmed A.; Jeremias, Allen; Baucum, Jim; Moreno, Raul; Meuwissen, Martijn; Mishkel, Gregory; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; Levite, Howard; Lopez-Palop, Ramon; Mayhew, Marc; Serruys, Patrick W.; Samady, Habib; Piek, Jan J.; Lerman, Amir; Khashaba, A.; Lasorda, D.; Meuwissen, M.; Levite, H.; Allaqaband, S.; Roberts, J.; Nseir, G.; Jones, S.; Samady, H.; van Geuns, R.; Raveendran, G.; Preli, R.; Blankenship, J.; Baucum, J.; Orlando, Q.; Escaned, J.; Palop, R.; Moreno, R.; Legutko, J.; Möllman, H.; Tulli, M.; Stables, R.; Gulati, R.; Powers, E.; Gil, R.; Carrabus, B.; Reczuch, K.; Brechtken, J.; Schneider, J.; Della Siega, A.; Mahoney, P.; Altman, J.; Mishkel, G.; Jeremias, A.; von Birgelen, C.; Kaul, P.; Fernandes, V.; Kurz, H.; Mayhew, M.; Tai, Z.
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) to characterize, outside of a pre-specified range of values, stenosis severity, as defined by fractional flow reserve (FFR) ≤0.80, in a prospective, independent, controlled, core
Zhou, Zhou; Dunn, Claire; Khadra, Ibrahim; Wilson, Clive G; Halbert, Gavin W
2017-12-04
The absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs is influenced by the luminal gastrointestinal fluid content and composition, which control solubility. Simulated intestinal fluids have been introduced into dissolution testing including endogenous amphiphiles and digested lipids at physiological levels; however, in vivo individual variation exists in the concentrations of these components, which will alter drug absorption through an effect on solubility. The use of a factorial design of experiment and varying media by introducing different levels of bile, lecithin, and digested lipids has been previously reported, but here we investigate the solubility variation of poorly soluble drugs through more complex biorelevant amphiphile interactions. A four-component mixture design was conducted to understand the solubilization capacity and interactions of bile salt, lecithin, oleate, and monoglyceride with a constant total concentration (11.7 mM) but varying molar ratios. The equilibrium solubility of seven low solubility acidic (zafirlukast), basic (aprepitant, carvedilol), and neutral (fenofibrate, felodipine, griseofulvin, and spironolactone) drugs was investigated. Solubility results are comparable with literature values and also our own previously published design of experiment studies. Results indicate that solubilization is not a sum accumulation of individual amphiphile concentrations, but a drug specific effect through interactions of mixed amphiphile compositions with the drug. This is probably due to a combined interaction of drug characteristics; for example, lipophilicity, molecular shape, and ionization with amphiphile components, which can generate specific drug-micelle affinities. The proportion of each component can have a remarkable influence on solubility with, in some cases, the highest and lowest points close to each other. A single-point solubility measurement in a fixed composition simulated media or human intestinal fluid sample will therefore provide a
Sovrano, Elisa
2017-10-11
We deal with the study of the evolution of the allelic frequencies, at a single locus, for a population distributed continuously over a bounded habitat. We consider evolution which occurs under the joint action of selection and arbitrary migration, that is independent of genotype, in absence of mutation and random drift. The focus is on a conjecture, that was raised up in literature of population genetics, about the possible uniqueness of polymorphic equilibria, which are known as clines, under particular circumstances. We study the number of these equilibria, making use of topological tools, and we give a negative answer to that question by means of two examples. Indeed, we provide numerical evidence of multiplicity of positive solutions for two different Neumann problems satisfying the requests of the conjecture.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roman-Duval, Julia; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bot, Caroline [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Bolatto, Alberto; Jameson, Katherine [Department of Astronomy, Lab for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Hughes, Annie; Hony, Sacha [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Wong, Tony [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bernard, Jean-Philippe [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Clayton, Geoffrey C. [Louisiana State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 233-A Nicholson Hall, Tower Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Galametz, Maud [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Galliano, Frederic; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Lee, Min-Young [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Glover, Simon [Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Israel, Frank [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Li, Aigen, E-mail: duval@stsci.edu [314 Physics Building, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); and others
2014-12-20
The spatial variations of the gas-to-dust ratio (GDR) provide constraints on the chemical evolution and lifecycle of dust in galaxies. We examine the relation between dust and gas at 10-50 pc resolution in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) based on Herschel far-infrared (FIR), H I 21 cm, CO, and Hα observations. In the diffuse atomic interstellar medium (ISM), we derive the GDR as the slope of the dust-gas relation and find GDRs of 380{sub −130}{sup +250} ± 3 in the LMC, and 1200{sub −420}{sup +1600} ± 120 in the SMC, not including helium. The atomic-to-molecular transition is located at dust surface densities of 0.05 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2} in the LMC and 0.03 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2} in the SMC, corresponding to A {sub V} ∼ 0.4 and 0.2, respectively. We investigate the range of CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor to best account for all the molecular gas in the beam of the observations, and find upper limits on X {sub CO} to be 6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2} K{sup –1} km{sup –1} s in the LMC (Z = 0.5 Z {sub ☉}) at 15 pc resolution, and 4 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2} K{sup –1} km{sup –1} s in the SMC (Z = 0.2 Z {sub ☉}) at 45 pc resolution. In the LMC, the slope of the dust-gas relation in the dense ISM is lower than in the diffuse ISM by a factor ∼2, even after accounting for the effects of CO-dark H{sub 2} in the translucent envelopes of molecular clouds. Coagulation of dust grains and the subsequent dust emissivity increase in molecular clouds, and/or accretion of gas-phase metals onto dust grains, and the subsequent dust abundance (dust-to-gas ratio) increase in molecular clouds could explain the observations. In the SMC, variations in the dust-gas slope caused by coagulation or accretion are degenerate with the effects of CO-dark H{sub 2}. Within the expected 5-20 times Galactic X {sub CO} range, the dust-gas slope can be either constant or decrease by a factor of several across ISM phases. Further modeling
Chubar, Natalia; Gerda, Vasyl; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Yablokova, Ganna
2017-02-01
In this work, we present material chemistry in the hydrothermal synthesis of new complex structure materials based on various dosage ratios of Fe and Ce (1:0, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 0:1), characterize them by the relevant methods that allow characterization of both crystalline and amorphous phases and correlate their structure/surface properties with the adsorptive performance of the five toxic anions. The applied synthesis conditions resulted in the formation of different compounds of Fe and Ce components. The Fe-component was dominated by various phases of Fe hydrous oxides, whereas the Ce-component was composed of various phases of Ce carbonates. The presence of two metal salts in raw materials resulted in the formation of a mesoporous structure and averaged the surface area compared to one metal-based material. The surface of all Fe-Ce composites was abundant in Fe component phases. Two-metal systems showed stronger anion removal performance than one-metal materials. The best adsorption was demonstrated by Fe-Ce based materials that had low crystallinity, that were rich in phases and that exhibited surfaces were abundant in greater number of surface functional groups. Notably, Fe extended fine structures simulated by EXAFS in these better adsorbents were rich from oscillations from both heavy and light atoms. This work provides new insights on the structure of composite inorganic materials useful to develop their applications in adsorption and catalysis. It also presents new inorganic anion exchangers with very high removal potential to fluoride and arsenate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chubar, Natalia
2016-10-24
In this work, we present material chemistry in the hydrothermal synthesis of new complex structure materials based on various dosage ratios of Fe and Ce (1:0, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 0:1), characterize them by the relevant methods that allow characterization of both crystalline and amorphous phases and correlate their structure/surface properties with the adsorptive performance of the five toxic anions. The applied synthesis conditions resulted in the formation of different compounds of Fe and Ce components. The Fe-component was dominated by various phases of Fe hydrous oxides, whereas the Ce-component was composed of various phases of Ce carbonates. The presence of two metal salts in raw materials resulted in the formation of a mesoporous structure and averaged the surface area compared to one metal-based material. The surface of all Fe-Ce composites was abundant in Fe component phases. Two-metal systems showed stronger anion removal performance than one-metal materials. The best adsorption was demonstrated by Fe-Ce based materials that had low crystallinity, that were rich in phases and that exhibited surfaces were abundant in greater number of surface functional groups. Notably, Fe extended fine structures simulated by EXAFS in these better adsorbents were rich from oscillations from both heavy and light atoms. This work provides new insights on the structure of composite inorganic materials useful to develop their applications in adsorption and catalysis. It also presents new inorganic anion exchangers with very high removal potential to fluoride and arsenate.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hladký, Jan; Komlós, J.; Piguet, Diana; Simonovits, M.; Stein, M.; Szemerédi, E.
2017-01-01
Roč. 31, č. 2 (2017), s. 1072-1148 ISSN 0895-4801 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Institutional support: RVO:67985840 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : extremal graph theory * Loebl–Komlós–Sós conjecture * regularity lemma Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics ; BA - General Mathematics (UIVT-O) Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/140982878
Ibáñez, Luis E.; Martín-Lozano, Víctor; Valenzuela, Irene
2017-11-01
It is known that there are AdS vacua obtained from compactifying the SM to 2 or 3 dimensions. The existence of such vacua depends on the value of neutrino masses through the Casimir effect. Using the Weak Gravity Conjecture, it has been recently argued by Ooguri and Vafa that such vacua are incompatible with the SM embedding into a consistent theory of quantum gravity. We study the limits obtained for both the cosmological constant Λ4 and neutrino masses from the absence of such dangerous 3D and 2D SM AdS vacua. One interesting implication is that Λ4 is bounded to be larger than a scale of order m ν 4 , as observed experimentally. Interestingly, this is the first argument implying a non-vanishing Λ4 only on the basis of particle physics, with no cosmological input. Conversely, the observed Λ4 implies strong constraints on neutrino masses in the SM and also for some BSM extensions including extra Weyl or Dirac spinors, gravitinos and axions. The upper bounds obtained for neutrino masses imply (for fixed neutrino Yukawa and Λ4) the existence of upper bounds on the EW scale. In the case of massive Majorana neutrinos with a see-saw mechanism associated to a large scale M ≃ 1010 - 14 GeV and Y ν1 ≃ 10-3, one obtains that the EW scale cannot exceed M EW ≲ 102 - 104 GeV. From this point of view, the delicate fine-tuning required to get a small EW scale would be a mirage, since parameters yielding higher EW scales would be in the swampland and would not count as possible consistent theories. This would bring a new perspective into the issue of the EW hierarchy.
Revesz, Kinga M.; Landwehr, Jurate Maciunas; Keybl, Jaroslav Edward
2001-01-01
A new method was developed to analyze the stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of small samples (400?20 ?g) of calcium carbonate. This new method streamlines the classical phosphoric acid - calcium carbonate (H3PO4 - CaCO3) reaction method by making use of a Thermoquest-Finnigan GasBench II preparation device and a Delta Plus XL continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer. To obtain reproducible and accurate results, optimal conditions for the H3PO4 - CaCO3 reaction had to be determined. At the acid-carbonate reaction temperature suggested by the equipment manufacturer, the oxygen isotope ratio results were unsatisfactory (standard deviation () greater than 1.5 per mill), probably because of a secondary reaction. When the acid-carbonate reaction temperature was lowered to 26?C and the reaction time was increased to 24 hours, the precision of the carbon and oxygen isotope ratios for duplicate analyses improved to 0.1 and 0.2 per mill, respectively. The method was tested by analyzing calcite from Devils Hole, Nevada, which was formed by precipitation from ground water onto the walls of a sub-aqueous cavern during the last 500,000 years. Isotope-ratio values previously had been obtained by the classical method for Devils Hole core DH-11. The DH-11 core had been recently re-sampled, and isotope-ratio values were obtained using this new method. The results were comparable to those obtained by the classical method. The consistency of the isotopic results is such that an alignment offset could be identified in the re-sampled core material, a cutting error that was then independently confirmed. The reproducibility of the isotopic values is demonstrated by a correlation of approximately 0.96 for both isotopes, after correcting for an alignment offset. This result indicates that the new method is a viable alternative to the classical method. In particular, the new method requires less sample material permitting finer resolution and allows automation of some processes
African Journals Online (AJOL)
userpc
with nickel(II) and cobalt(II) chloride in 2:1 mole ratio yielded Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes respectively. The synthesized compounds were characterized based on melting point/decomposition temperature, solubility, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility and infrared spectral analyses. The complexes have low molar ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. H. Hara
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, the hearing process is considered from a system engineering perspective. For those with total hearing loss, a cochlear implant is the only direct remedy. It first acts as a spectrum analyser and then electronically stimulates the neurons in the cochlea with a number of electrodes. Each electrode carries information on the separate frequency bands (i.e., spectrum of the original sound signal. The neurons then relay the signals in a parallel manner to the section of the brain where sound signals are processed. Photonic and tactile hearing systems displaying the spectrum of sound are proposed as alternative paths to the section of the brain that processes sound. In view of the plasticity of the brain, which can rewire itself, the following conjectures are offered. After a certain period of training, a person without the ability to hear should be able to decipher the patterns of photonic or tactile displays of the sound spectrum and learn to ‘hear’. This is very similar to the case of a blind person learning to ‘read’ by recognizing the patterns created by the series of bumps as their fingers scan the Braille writing. The conjectures are yet to be tested. Designs of photonic and tactile systems displaying the sound spectrum are outlined.
Black hole fusion in the extreme mass ratio limit
Emparan, Roberto; Martínez, Marina; Zilhão, Miguel
2018-02-01
We present a simple, general, and accurate construction of the event horizons for the fusion of two neutral, rotating black holes with arbitrary orientation and values of their spins, in the extreme mass ratio limit where one black hole is much larger than the other. We compute several parameters that characterize the fusion and investigate their dependence on the black hole spin and orientation axis. We also exhibit and study the appearance of transient toroidal topology of the horizon. An earlier conjecture about universal critical exponents before and after an axisymmetric pinch is proven.
(ii) and ni (ii) complexes with n
African Journals Online (AJOL)
DR. AMINU
II) complexes with a. Schiff base derived from. 4-dimetylamino benzaldehyde and primary amines. The chemical analysis data showed the formation of (1:1) metal - ligand ratio and a square planar geometry was suggested for Co(II) and Ni(II) ...
1998-01-01
This introduction to the recent exciting developments in the applications of model theory to algebraic geometry, illustrated by E. Hrushovski's model-theoretic proof of the geometric Mordell-Lang Conjecture starts from very basic background and works up to the detailed exposition of Hrushovski's proof, explaining the necessary tools and results from stability theory on the way. The first chapter is an informal introduction to model theory itself, making the book accessible (with a little effort) to readers with no previous knowledge of model theory. The authors have collaborated closely to achieve a coherent and self- contained presentation, whereby the completeness of exposition of the chapters varies according to the existence of other good references, but comments and examples are always provided to give the reader some intuitive understanding of the subject.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katarzyna Dobruch-Sobczak
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Sonoelastography is a dynamically developing method of ultrasound examination used to differentiate the character of focal lesions in the breasts. The aim of the Part II of the study is to determine the usefulness of sonoelastography in the differentiation diagnosis of focal breast lesions including the evaluation of the diagnostic value of Tsukuba score and FLR ratio in characterizing solid lesions in the breasts. Furthermore, the paper provides a comparison of classic B-mode imaging and sonoelastography. Material and methods: From January to July 2010 in the Ultrasound Department of the Cancer Centre, The Institute of Maria Skłodowska-Curie, 375 breast ultrasound examinations were conducted. The examined group included patients who in B-mode examinations presented indications for pathological verification. They were 80 women aged between 17 and 83 (mean age was 50 with 99 solid focal lesions in the breasts. All patients underwent: the interview, physical examination, B-mode ultrasound examination and elastography of the mammary glands and axillary fossae. The visualized lesions were evaluated according to BIRADS-US classification and Tsukuba score as well as FLR ratio was calculated. In all cases, the histopathological and/or cytological verification of the tested lesions was obtained. Results: In the group of 80 patients, the examination revealed 39 malignant neoplastic lesions and 60 benign ones. The mean age of women with malignant neoplasms was 55.07 (SD=10.54, and with benign lesions – 46.9 (SD=15.47. In order to identify threshold values that distinguish benign lesions from malignant ones, a comparative analysis of statistical models based on BIRADS-US classification and Tsukuba score was conducted and the cut-off value for FLR was assumed. The sensitivity and specificity values for BIRADS-US 4/5 were 76.92% and 96.67% and for Tsukuba 3/4 – 64.1% and 98.33% respectively. The assumed FLR threshold value to differentiate between
Foyer, C H; Lelandais, M; Harbinson, J
1992-07-01
The quantum efficiencies of photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII), [NADP]/[NADPH] ratios, and the activities of chloroplastic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and NADP-malate dehydrogenase were measured in intact pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves in air following the transition from darkness to 750 microeinsteins per square meter per second irradiance. PSII efficiency declined from a low value to a minimum within the first 10 to 15 seconds of irradiance, after which it increased progressively to the steady-state value. The resistance of electron flow between the photosystems was high at this time, but it was not the principal factor limiting electron flow. Oxidation of P700 was restricted by acceptor side processes for approximately the first 60 seconds of illumination. Once the acceptor side limitation was relieved, the oxidation state of P700 was used to estimate the quantum efficiency of electron transport by PSI. This was observed to increase progressively with time. The quantum efficiencies of both photosystems increased in parallel, consistent with a predominant role for noncyclic electron transport. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity increased in an approximately sigmoidal fashion with time of irradiance, paralleling the changes in the quantum efficiencies of the photosystems. In contrast, the activation of NADP-malate dehydrogenase did not show a lag period but increased with time, reaching a maximum value at about 50 seconds of illumination, after which it declined. The NADP pool was not extensively reduced during the first 10 seconds of illumination, but became so subsequently. It remained in the reduced state until about 60 seconds of illumination and then became relatively oxidized. The empirical relationship between NADP-malate dehydrogenase activity and the reduction state of the NADP pool supports the suggestion that NADP-malate dehydrogenase activity is a useful estimate of the reduction state of the stroma.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gutin, Gregory; Yeo, Anders
2001-01-01
A digraph obtained by replacing each edge of a complete multipartite graph by an arc or a pair of mutually opposite arcs with the same end vertices is called a semicomplete multipartite digraph. L. Volkmann conjectured that l≤2c−1, where l (c, respectively) is the number of vertices in a longest ...
C.H. Bangma (Chris); R. Kranse (Ries); B.G. Blijenberg (Bert); F.H. Schröder (Fritz)
1995-01-01
textabstractObjectives: The ratio between free and total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum (F/T ratio) was shown to improve the specificity of total serum PSA for the detection of prostate carcinoma in selected populations. In this study, the value of the F/T ratio for screening of prostate
Mermet, Laurent
2008-09-01
Over the last three decades, under pressure of concern about global change, studies about possible futures of social and ecological systems have rapidly developed. Some of them have reached an impressive level of ambition and impact on policy debates. However, only a limited number of research fields have yet embarked on such studies, whereas many more should become involved. Development of such research is also limited by the fact that it is still considered almost exclusively as a matter of collective assessment, at the interface between academia and policy making, rather as the fundamental scientific endeavour it is really. To push further, a number of stumbling blocks have still to be overcome until the conjectural nature of any research about future events and processes is fully accepted and scientists widen their repertoire of approaches for the study of possible futures. Such a study is necessary to prepare both for long-term transformations of the environment and for extreme events: beyond some significant differences, both domains share the fundamental traits that make the study of futures such a peculiar and challenging endeavour. In this effort, the resources provided by the futures studies field could be more thoroughly mobilized.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jauhri, K.S.; Sen, A.
1978-01-01
The C/N ratio at which maximum protein production was achieved by R. melogina and P. ostreatus on sugarcane bagasse and by C. aratus on wheat straw was determined. Optimum C/N ratios were 37.2:1, 30:1, and 25:1 for R. melongina, P. Ostreatus, and C. aratus, respectively. Better biomass and protein production were achieved by all 3 fungi by simultaneous increases of C and N concentration, but substrate utilization decreased.
[Dioxins: facts and conjectures].
Katsnel'son, B A; Koseleva, A A; Kuz'min, S V; Privalova, L I
2002-01-01
Dioxins and dioxin-like substances are highly toxic and extremely dangerous chemical compounds. Dioxins are formed during the thermal process associated with the use of chlorine. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-1,4-dioxin is the most toxic, the most typical and well-studied agent. The most characteristic and constant indicators of intoxication with dioxin-containing substances are altered body weight, chloracne, hepatic damage, thyroid involution, structural changes in the adrenal cortex, spleen, genitals, immunodeficiency. There is evidence for a role of these agents in the development of infertility and neonatal pathology.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
V Srinivas is currently with School of. Mathematics, TIFR,. Mumbai. Kapil H Paranjape after spending about a decade at the School of. Mathematics, TIFR,. Mumbai, and ... We perform addition and multiplication in this collection by fol- ... and multiplication operations in IF' q' Now a generalisation of Fermat's little theorem.
Tănase Alin-Eliodor
2014-01-01
This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.
Tajima, F. C.; Stahler, S. C.; Ohtani, E.; Yoshida, M.; Sigloch, K.
2011-12-01
Seismic tomography models published in the past two decades determined common long-wavelength features of subducting plates as high velocity anomalies and upwelling plumes as low velocity anomalies, and have led to a new class of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) modeling of global mantle convection with a link to tomography models [e.g., Becker and Boschi, 2002; Ritsema et al., 2007; Schuberth et al., 2009a,b]. However, even such high resolution numerical models do not account for the variation associated with different behaviors of subducting plates as they enter the mantle transition zone (MTZ), i.e., some flatten to form stagnant slabs with a large lateral extent and others descend further into the lower mantle. There are conventional interpretations applied for the cause of variation of the subducted slab behaviors, i.e., temperature difference due to different plate age, different geochemical compositions, different water content and subsequent possible reduction of viscosity etc., which could be taken as non-unique and somewhat equivocal. These parameters and conditions have been tested in two-dimensional numerical simulations, while the water content in the MTZ or the mechanisms of hydration and dehydration through subduction process are still in the realm of conjecture. Recent models of seismic P- and SH-wave velocities derived for the mantle structure beneath northeast China [Wang and Niu, 2010; Ye et al., 2011] using reflectivity synthetics with data from the dense Chinese networks of broadband seismic instruments, show a broader 660 km discontinuity (by about 30 to 70 km) and slower shear velocities above the MTZ than a global standard model iasp91 (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991). These features were interpreted with a mixture of different chemical properties which show delayed phase transformation, and effects of water above the flattened slab. Nonetheless, the SH-wave model has a structure similar to model TNA above the MTZ, which was derived for the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perrett, Glynis M. [Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Campbell, John L., E-mail: icampbel@uoguelph.ca [Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Gellert, Ralf [Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); King, Penelope L. [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Nield, Emily; O’Meara, Joanne M.; Pradler, Irina [Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada)
2016-02-01
The intensity ratio C/R between Compton and Rayleigh scatter peaks of the exciting Pu L X-rays in the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) is strongly affected by the presence of very light elements such as oxygen which cannot be detected directly by the APXS. C/R values are determined along with element concentrations by fitting APXS spectra of geochemical reference materials (GRMs) with the GUAPX code. A quantity K is defined as the ratio between the C/R value determined by Monte Carlo simulation based on the measured element concentrations and the fitted C/R value from the spectrum. To ensure optimally accurate K values, the choice of appropriate GRMs is explored in detail, with attention paid to Rb and Sr, whose characteristic Kα X-ray peaks overlap the Pu Lα scatter peaks. The resulting relationship between the ratio K and the overall oxygen fraction is linear. This provides a calibration from which the concentration of additional light invisible constituents (ALICs) such as water may be estimated in unknown rock and conglomerate samples. Several GRMs are used as ‘unknowns’ in order to evaluate the accuracy of ALIC concentrations derived in this manner.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdulla A.-B. Badawy
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Current formulations for acute tryptophan (Trp or tyrosine (Tyr plus phenylalanine (Phe depletion and loading cause undesirable decreases in ratios of Trp or Tyr + Phe to competing amino acids (CAA, thus undermining the specificities of these tests. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA cause these unintended decreases, and lowering their content in a new balanced control formulation in the present study led to normalization of all ratios. Four groups (n = 12 each of adults each received one of four 50 g control formulations, with 0% (traditional, 20%, 30%, or 40% less of the BCAA. The free and total [Trp]/[CAA] and [Phe + Tyr]/[BCAA + Trp] ratios all decreased significantly during the first 5 h following the traditional formulation, but were fully normalized by the formulation containing 40% less of the BCAA. We recommend the latter as a balanced control formulation and propose adjustments in the depletion and loading formulations to enhance their specificities for 5-HT and the catecholamines.
Uher, Jana; Call, Josep
2008-05-01
We tested 6 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), 3 orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), 4 bonobos (Pan paniscus), and 2 gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) in the reversed reward contingency task. Individuals were presented with pairs of quantities ranging between 0 and 6 food items. Prior to testing, some experienced apes had solved this task using 2 quantities while others were totally naïve. Experienced apes transferred their ability to multiple-novel pairs after 6 to 19 months had elapsed since their initial testing. Two out of 6 naïve apes (1 chimpanzee, 1 bonobo) solved the task--a proportion comparable to that of a previous study using 2 pairs of quantities. Their acquisition speed was also comparable to the successful subjects from that study. The ratio between quantities explained a large portion of the variance but affected naïve and experienced individuals differently. For smaller ratios, naïve individuals were well below 50% correct and experienced ones were well above 50%, yet both groups tended to converge toward 50% for larger ratios. Thus, some apes require no procedural modifications to overcome their strong bias for selecting the larger of 2 quantities. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Lessard, Sabin
2007-01-01
An exact sampling formula for a Wright–Fisher population of fixed size N under the infinitely many neutral alleles model is deduced. This extends the Ewens formula for the configuration of a random sample to the case where the sample is drawn from a population of small size, that is, without the usual large-N and small-mutation-rate assumption. The formula is used to prove a conjecture ascertaining the validity of a diffusion approximation for the frequency of a mutant-type allele under weak ...
Nour, Karim
2009-01-01
A numeral system is a sequence of an infinite different closed normal $\\lambda$-terms which has closed $\\lambda$-terms for successor and zero test. A numeral system is said adequate iff it has a closed $\\lambda$-term for predecessor. A storage operator for a numeral system is a closed $\\lambda$-term which simulate "call-by-value" in the context of a "call-by-name" strategy. E. Tronci conjectured the following result : a numeral system is adequate if it has a storage operator. This paper gives...
Huf, P. A.; Carminati, J.
2018-01-01
In this paper we explore the use of a new algebraic software package in providing independent covariant proof of a conjecture in general relativity. We examine the proof of two sub-cases of the shear-free conjecture σ =0 => ω Θ =0 by Senovilla et al. (Gen. Relativ. Gravit 30:389-411, 1998): case 1: for dust; case 2: for acceleration parallel to vorticity. We use TensorPack, a software package recently released for the Maple environment. In this paper, we briefly summarise the key features of the software and then demonstrate its use by providing and discussing examples of independent proofs of the paper in question. A full set of our completed proofs is available online at http://www.bach2roq.com/science/maths/GR/ShearFreeProofs.html. We are in agreeance with the equations provided in the original paper, noting that the proofs often require many steps. Furthermore, in our proofs we provide fully worked algebraic steps in such a way that the proofs can be examined systematically, and avoiding hand calculation. It is hoped that the elucidated proofs may be of use to other researchers in verifying the algebraic consistency of the expressions in the paper in question, as well as related literature. Furthermore we suggest that the appropriate use of algebraic software in covariant formalism could be useful for developing research and teaching in GR theory.
Xiaochuan, Z.
2011-01-01
This paper explores the factors that affect saving and consumption behaviours, in a context where some believe that the high savings ratio of the East Asia and oil-producing countries is one major cause for the global imbalances and the crisis. The paper elaborates on the factors behind the high savings ratios in East Asia and oil producing countries and low savings ratios in the United States. It argues that the high savings in East Asia can mainly be explained by cultural and structural fac...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter
1995-01-01
hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...... and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....
Measurements of the Poisson ratio and fragility of glass-forming liquids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Tage Emil; Olsen, Niels Boye
Recently much attention has been given to models and phenomenology of glass-forming liquids that correlates fast and slow degrees of freedom . In particular the Poisson ratio has been correlated with fragility. We present data on shear - and bulk modulus obtained by the techniques of the piezoele......Recently much attention has been given to models and phenomenology of glass-forming liquids that correlates fast and slow degrees of freedom . In particular the Poisson ratio has been correlated with fragility. We present data on shear - and bulk modulus obtained by the techniques...... of the piezoelectric transducers PBG and PSG on a number of glass-forming liquids. Hereby the Poisson ratio can be found. Furthermore the PSG also gives the temperature dependence of shear viscosity and thereby the fragility. The validity of the conjectured relation is discussed...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
PO de Wet
2005-06-01
Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.
Miles, T. R.; Haslum, M. N.; Wheeler, T. J.
1998-01-01
A study involving 11,804 British children (age 10) found that when specified criteria for dyslexia were used, 269 children qualified as dyslexic. These included 223 boys and 46 girls, for a ratio of 4.51 to 1. Difficulties in interpreting these data are discussed and a defense of the criteria is provided. (Author/CR)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove
2008-01-01
The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...
Giving More Realistic Definitions of Trigonometric Ratios II
Bhattacharjee, Pramode Ranjan
2014-01-01
This paper being an extension of Bhattacharjee (2012) is very much relevant to Year 9 to Year 10A in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics". It also falls within the purview of class IX to class XII curriculum of Mathematics in India (Revised NCERT curriculum) for students aged 14-17 years. In Bhattacharjee (2012), the discovery of…
Controlling the branching ratio of photodissociation using aligned molecules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, J.J.; Wendt-Larsen, I.; Stapelfeldt, H.
1999-01-01
Using a sample of iodine molecules, aligned by a strong, linearly polarized laser pulse, we control the branching ratio of the I+I and I+I* photodissociation channels by a factor of 26. The control relies on selective photoexcitation of two potential curves that each correlate adiabatically...
Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G
1996-01-01
From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir
2017-01-01
The ‘prospective potential support ratio’ has been proposed by researchers as a measure that accurately quantifies the burden of ageing, by identifying the fraction of a population that has passed a certain measure of longevity, for example, 17 years of life expectancy. Nevertheless, the prospect......The ‘prospective potential support ratio’ has been proposed by researchers as a measure that accurately quantifies the burden of ageing, by identifying the fraction of a population that has passed a certain measure of longevity, for example, 17 years of life expectancy. Nevertheless......, the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models......, historical data, and forecasted data. Cohort life expectancy takes future mortality improvements into account, unlike period life expectancy, leading to a higher prospective potential support ratio. Our results indicate that using cohort instead of period life expectancy returns around 0.5 extra younger...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Shin-Shan [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
2005-01-01
We present the first measurement of the ratio of branching fractions Β(Λ_{b} → Λ_{c}^{+}μ^{-}¯ν_{μ})/Β(Λ_{b} → Λ_{c}^{+}π^{-}) based on 171.5 pb^{-1} of p¯p collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV taken with the CDF-II detector. In addition, we present measurements of Β(¯Β^{0} → D*^{+}μ^{-}¯ν_{μ})/Β(¯Β^{0} → D*^{+}π^{-}) and Β(¯Β^{0} → D^{+}μ^{-}¯ν_{μ}/Β(¯Β^{0} → D^{+}π^{-}), which serve as control samples to understand the data and Monte Carlo used for the Λ_{b} analysis.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
A A K Majumdar
2016-01-01
Two types of the Smarandache LCM ratio functions have been introduced by Murthy [1]. Recently, the second type of the Smarandache LCM ratio function has been considered by Khainar, Vyawahare and Salunke...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
CLEMENT O BEWAJI
ABSTRACT: A Schiff base was prepared from the reaction of 2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid and 2, 4 - pentanedione. The reaction of the prepared Schiff base with ethanolic solution of copper (II) chloride formed diaquo bis( N – 2 – amino – 3 - methylbutyl - 2, 4 - pentanedionato) copper (II) complex. The Schiff base is ...
Study of the twinned dendrite tip shape II: Experimental assessment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salgado-Ordorica, M.A., E-mail: mario.salgado@novelis.com [Laboratoire de Simulation des Materiaux LSMX, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 12, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Burdet, P.; Cantoni, M. [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Microscopie Electronique CIME, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 12, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Rappaz, M. [Laboratoire de Simulation des Materiaux LSMX, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 12, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2011-08-15
The favorable growth kinetics of twinned dendrites can be explained by their complex morphology, multiple side branching mechanisms, growth undercooling and tip morphology. Three models were proposed for the twinned dendrite tip shape: (i) a grooved tip satisfying the Smith condition at the triple line; (ii) a doublon , i.e. a double-tip dendrite that grows with a narrow and deep liquid channel in its center; and (iii) a pointed (or edgy) tip, with consideration of the solid-liquid interfacial energy anisotropy. In the first part of this work, phase field simulations of half a twinned dendrite with an appropriate boundary condition to reproduce the Smith condition supported the doublon conjecture, with a narrow liquid channel ending its solidification with the formation of small liquid droplets. In this part, experimental observations of twinned dendrite tips reveal the presence of a small, but well-defined, groove, thus definitely eliminating the edged tip hypothesis. Focused ion beam nanotomography and energy-dispersive spectroscopy chemical analysis in a transmission electron microscope reveal the existence of a positive solute gradient in a region localized within 2 {mu}m around the twin plane. In Al-Zn specimens, small particles aligned within the twin plane further support the doublon conjecture and the predicted formation of small liquid droplets below the doublon root.
A Conjecture Concerning Ball Lightning
Sturrock, P. A.
2016-01-01
There is at present no theory that can explain the curious properties of ball lightning. This suggests that we may not be using the most appropriate concepts. The concept of a 'parallel space' may point the way to a valid theory.
Hierarchical competition models with the Allee effect II: the case of immigration.
Assas, Laila; Dennis, Brian; Elaydi, Saber; Kwessi, Eddy; Livadiotis, George
2015-01-01
This is part II of an earlier paper that dealt with hierarchical models with the Allee effect but with no immigration. In this paper, we greatly simplify the proofs in part I and provide a proof of the global dynamics of the non-hyperbolic cases that were previously conjectured. Then, we show how immigration to one of the species or to both would, drastically, change the dynamics of the system. It is shown that if the level of immigration to one or to both species is above a specified level, then there will be no extinction region where both species go to extinction.
El texto de Ovidio, Amores II 10.9 y el topico del nauigium amoris
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriel Laguna Mariscal
1989-12-01
Full Text Available The reading errant ut seems nonsensical in Ou., Am. II 10.9. The literary topos involved in this passage (nauigium amoris: comparison between love and seafaring is quite frequent in classical poetry. The examples of the motif provided strongly suggest that the first term of the simile in line 9 must be Ovid himself. This admitted, errant ut is clearly wrong. Several of the conjectures proposed (auferor ut, erro uelut are adequate from a literary point of view, but Birt’s (errantem ut is to be preferred for linguistic and paleographical reasons.
Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy
Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan
2016-12-01
There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.
Synthesis, spectroscopic and antimicrobial properties of Co(II), Ni (II ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The results suggest a 1:2 [M:L] stoichiometry for the copper and cobalt complexes and a 1:1 [M:L] ratio for the nickel complex. The electronic absorption spectral data support octahedral geometry for cobalt(II) and copper(II) complexes and square planar for nickel (II). In-vitro antimicrobial properties of the compounds ...
Rubin, E
1967-10-01
Several aspects of the disparity in birth ratio of males over females are discussed including variations among different races, variations by order of birth, by age of the parent, and in multiple births. Avenues of statistical exploration are suggested in an attempt to indicate certain peculiarities in nature. The Negro population in the United States has a sex ratio of 102 males to 100 females as opposed to 105:100 for whites, a highly significant difference. Inferences from these statistics are suggested for study of the sex ratios of mixed unions. The group classified as Mulatto show a lower sex ratio and further analysis of this was suggested including examination of slave records. For the white population sex ratio declines from 106.2 to 102.9 between 1st order and 7th order births. This is highly significant. However, nonwhite determinations were more irregular. Data limitations on sex ratio by age of parent prevented conclusive results. Multiple births among whites show a decline from 105.3 for single live births to 103.2 for twins and 86.1 for all other plural deliveries. Among nonwhites these ratios are 102.3, 99.7, and 102.6 respectively. Further information should be developed using the multiple facts relating to the sex ratio at birth.
Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang
2012-01-01
by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Phillip M. Ligrani
1996-01-01
Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adel A.A. Emara
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Oxygen absorption–desorption processes for square planar Mn(II, Co(II and Mn(II complexes of tetradentate Schiff base ligands in DMF and chloroform solvents were investigated. The tetradentate Schiff base ligands were obtained by condensation reaction of ethylenediamine with salcyldehyde, o-hydroxyacetophenone or acetylacetone in the molar ratio 1:2. The square planar complexes were prepared by the reaction of the Schiff base ligands with Mn(II acetate, Co(II nitrate and Ni(II nitrate in dry ethanol under nitrogen atmosphere. The sorption processes were undertaken in the presence and absence of (pyridine axial-base in 1:1 M ratio of (pyridine:metal(II complexes. Complexes in DMF indicate significant oxygen affinity than in chloroform solvent. Cobalt(II complexes showed significant sorption processes compared to Mn(II and Ni(II complexes. The presence of pyridine axial base clearly increases oxygen affinity.
Anotaciones al texto del libro II de Tito Livio
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio Fontán
1987-12-01
Full Text Available Some fifty passages of the book II of Tite-Live, for which the author proposes lectures different from those of the last editions, specially the excellent one of R. M. Ogilvie (Oxford Classical Texts, 1974, are discussed here. So the author tries to justify the text adopted in his edition of the «Colección Hispánica de Autores Griegos y Latinos» (Madrid 1987. Only four of the here offered lectures are new conjectures. In all the others, whether the supposed lecture of the Nicomachean archetype or those of former editors are recovered. The prevailing criteria applied in this paper are the stemmatic one and the usus scribendi auctoris. A similar paper concerning the book I of the Roman historian was published in Emerita 42, 1974, pp. 343-373, and 43, 1975, pp. 1-24.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hua-Fang Liao
2014-03-01
Conclusion: Taipei II with multiple cutoff points could give more useful clinical information than using a single cutoff point. The multiple likelihood ratios of Taipei II for children older than 3 years and in different cultural backgrounds need further study.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
Abstract. Neutral tetradentate N2O2 type complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II),. Zn(II) and VO(II) have been synthesised using a Schiff base formed by the condensation of o-phenylenediamine with acetoacetanilide in alcohol medium. All the complexes were characterised on the basis of their microanalytical data, molar.
Une réponse négative à la conjecture de E. Tronci pour les systèmes numériques typés
Nour, Karim
1998-01-01
International audience; A numeral system is a sequence of an infinite different closed normal $\\lambda$-terms which has closed $\\lambda$-terms for successor and zero test. A numeral system is said adequate iff it has a closed $\\lambda$-term for predecessor. A storage operator for a numeral system is a closed $\\lambda$-term which simulate ``call-by-value'' in the context of a ``call-by-name'' strategy. E. Tronci conjectured the following result : a numeral system is adequate if it has a storag...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Windows User
used was oven-dried till constant weight and were ground to fine powder in a pestle and mortar. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Screening for lead sorption. 15 fungal isolates were screened for Pb(II) biosorption potential at initial pH value of 4.5 and temperature 30°C by incubating freshly harvested wet biomass corres-.
Pressure Ratio to Thermal Environments
Lopez, Pedro; Wang, Winston
2012-01-01
A pressure ratio to thermal environments (PRatTlE.pl) program is a Perl language code that estimates heating at requested body point locations by scaling the heating at a reference location times a pressure ratio factor. The pressure ratio factor is the ratio of the local pressure at the reference point and the requested point from CFD (computational fluid dynamics) solutions. This innovation provides pressure ratio-based thermal environments in an automated and traceable method. Previously, the pressure ratio methodology was implemented via a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and macro scripts. PRatTlE is able to calculate heating environments for 150 body points in less than two minutes. PRatTlE is coded in Perl programming language, is command-line-driven, and has been successfully executed on both the HP and Linux platforms. It supports multiple concurrent runs. PRatTlE contains error trapping and input file format verification, which allows clear visibility into the input data structure and intermediate calculations.
Inbreeding and parasite sex ratios.
Nee, Sean; West, Stuart A; Read, Andrew F
2002-04-07
The breeding system of parasitic protozoa affects the evolution of drug resistance and virulence, and is relevant to disease diagnosis and the development of chemo- and immunotherapy. A major group of protozoan parasites, the phylum Apicomplexa, that includes the aetiological agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis and coccidiosis, all have dimorphic sexual stages. The sex ratio (proportion of males produced by parasites) is predicted to depend upon the inbreeding rate, and it has been suggested that sex-ratio data offer a relatively cheap and easy method for indirectly estimating inbreeding rates. Here, we exploit a new theoretical machinery to show that there are generally valid relationships between f, Wright's coefficient of inbreeding, and sex ratio, z(*), the generality being with respect to population structure. To focus the discussion, we concentrate on malaria and show that the previously derived result, f = 1 - 2z(*), does not depend on the artificial assumptions about population structure that were previously made. Not only does this justify the use of sex ratio as an indirect measure of f, but also we argue that it may actually be preferable to measure f by measuring sex ratios, rather than by measuring departures from Hardy-Weinberg genotypic proportions both in malaria and parasites more generally.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Chemical speciation of citric acid complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) was investigated pH-metrically in 0.0-2.5% anionic, cationic and neutral micellar media. The primary alkalimetric data were pruned with SCPHD program. The existence of different binary species was established from modeling studies using the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
NICO
2010-06-15
Jun 15, 2010 ... physico-chemical techniques. A square planar geometry was suggested for Cu(II) and octahedral geometry proposed for Co(II),. Ni(II) and Zn(II). TG curves indicated that the complexes decompose in three to four steps. The presence of coordinated water in metal complexes was confirmed by thermal and ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Squillacioti, Paola [Univ. of Siena (Italy)
2006-11-01
In this thesis the author has described the first measurement performed at a hadron collider of the branching fraction of the Cabibbo-suppressed mode B^{+} → $\\bar{D}$^{0} K^{+}. The analysis has been performed with 360 pb^{-1} of data collected by the CDF II detector.
Inbreeding and parasite sex ratios
Nee, Sean; West, Stuart A; Read, Andrew F.
2002-01-01
The breeding system of parasitic protozoa affects the evolution of drug resistance and virulence, and is relevant to disease diagnosis and the development of chemo- and immunotherapy. A major group of protozoan parasites, the phylum Apicomplexa, that includes the aetiological agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis and coccidiosis, all have dimorphic sexual stages. The sex ratio (proportion of males produced by parasites) is predicted to depend upon the inbreeding rate, and it has been suggested tha...
Colorimetric determination of ferrous-ferric ratio in glass
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baumann, E W
1987-02-20
This memorandum describes a simple, rapid colorimetric procedure that can be used for analysis of vitrified melter feed. This method can replace the Moessbauer spectroscopy method for routine DWPF process control analysis. A colorimetric method has been developed that is recommended as a replacement for Moessbauer spectroscopy for process control measurements of the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio of melter feed for the DWPF analytical laboratory. The results agree satisfactorily with Moessbauer values. The method is suitable for remote operation and has several advantages. The total time involved is less than 30 minutes. Quantitative measurements of samples, reagents, and dilutions are unnecessary because only the ratio value is required and both Fe(II) and total Fe are measured on the same solution. Small samples (<3 mg total Fe) are required, minimizing radiation exposure, because of the high sensitivity of the colorimetric method. Relative precision and relative accuracy are about {plus minus}5%.
The spatially resolved [C II] Cooling line deficit in galaxies
Smith, J. D T; Croxall, Kevin; Draine, Bruce; Looze, Ilse De; Sandstrom, Karin; Armus, Lee; Beirão, Pedro; Bolatto, Alberto; Boquien, Mederic; Brandl, B.R.; Crocker, Alison; Dale, Daniel A.; Galametz, Maud; Groves, Brent; Helou, George; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Hunt, Leslie; Kennicutt, Robert; Walter, Fabian; Wolfire, Mark
2017-01-01
We present [C ii] 158 μm measurements from over 15,000 resolved regions within 54 nearby galaxies of the Kingfish program to investigate the so-called [C ii] "line-cooling deficit" long known to occur in galaxies with different luminosities. The [C ii]/TIR ratio ranges from above 1% to below 0.1%
Measuring Economies of Size with Expense Ratios
Langemeier, Michael R.
2013-01-01
This paper examines the relationship between three expense ratios: total expense ratio; adjusted total expense ratio; and economic total expense ratio; and discusses economies of size for a sample of Kansas farms. The total expense ratio and the adjusted total expense ratios, though commonly used to examine financial efficiency, are not as good of indicators of economies of size as the economic total expense ratio which includes opportunity costs on unpaid operator and family labor, and farm ...
Hoppe, Fred M; Hoppe, Daniel J; Walter, Stephen D
2017-02-01
The aim of this analysis was to provide an alternative derivation of the odds ratio (OR) to provide an intuitive meaning, freeing it from any mention of odds, which may make it a more useful concept for clinicians to use when describing treatment effect. By examining the four possible combinations of treatment/control and corresponding outcomes, we considered the conditional risk ratio (RR, also known as relative risk) of an event with the treatment compared with an event with the control for pairs of patients for whom treatment and control would yield different results. Both matched and unmatched studies are considered. We found that the OR could be derived as the RR of an outcome with treatment compared with an outcome with control conditional on the treatment and control resulting in different outcomes, thus providing a measure of the net benefit of treatment. It has been claimed that the OR comparing the effect of treatment vs. control does not have the same clinical interpretability as RR because it involves ratios of odds and so is difficult to explain in terms of patient numbers. This new derivation provides an interpretation of the OR as an RR but conditional on treatment and control resulting in different outcomes. This may help explain the reason ORs cause interpretation difficulties in practice. Moreover, the OR may be a more clinically useful parameter to patients because it deals with only those situations where the outcome differs between the two groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vestbo J
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.
Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Rasmus Tue
2016-01-01
Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... regarding salient political issues such as education and taxes. Furthermore, the effects of numerical framing are found across most groups of the population, largely regardless of their political predisposition and their general ability to understand and use numerical information. These findings have...
Water-land ratios of exoplanets
Höning, Dennis; Tosi, Nicola; Spohn, Tilman
2017-04-01
The habitability of ocean planets has been extensively discussed recently (1). We note that there are several arguments for a habitable planet preferably having a solid surface as well as an ocean as we find on Earth. A simple observation is that on Earth most bioactivity is found on continents and continental shelves while the deep oceans are mostly desert. The constancy of Earth's continental volume during the last hundreds of million years suggests that continental crust formation and erosion today are approximately in equilibrium. Although this equilibrium point depends on planet state variables such as the mantle temperature, it could appear reasonable to conjecture that a planet with a similar mass and total water inventory as Earth would possess a similar water-land surface fraction (of 3:2 if continental shelves are accounted for or 2:1 if the water covered surface is compared with the land surface). However, this conjecture neglects self-reinforcing mechanisms associated with continental growth, including a temperature rise below insulating continents and an increased subduction rate of sediments with the emergence of continents. These positive feedbacks become even more pronounced when the mantle-water cycle is accounted for (2). From extensive model calculations varying initial conditions and model parameters over wide ranges, we conclude that bifurcation occurs in the continental growth system and that the water-land fraction that characterizes the present-day Earth is not necessarily a typical result. Most of our models rather show a small continental volume accompanied by a large surface water fraction (water-world) or large continents with little surface water at the present day. An evolution leading to an Earth-like distribution results only for restricted sets of initial conditions. This opens the possibility that planets with Earth-like masses and total water inventory may be found that substantially differ from Earth with respect to their
Decreasing the chlorophyll a/b ratio in reconstituted LHCII: Structural and functional consequences
Kleima, F.J.; Hobe, S.; Calkoen, F.; Urbanus, M.L.; Peterman, E.J.G.; van Grondelle, R.; Paulsen, H.; van Amerongen, H.
1999-01-01
Trimeric (bT) and monomeric (bM) light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) with a chlorophyll a/b ratio of 0.03 were reconstituted from the apoprotein overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Chlorophyll/xanthophyll and chlorophyll/protein ratios of bT complexes and 'native' LHCII are rather similar, namely,
[O II] nebular emission from Mg II absorbers: star formation associated with the absorbing gas
Joshi, Ravi; Srianand, Raghunathan; Petitjean, Patrick; Noterdaeme, Pasquier
2017-10-01
We present nebular emission associated with 198 strong Mg II absorbers at 0.35 ≤z ≤ 1.1 in the fibre spectra of quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Measured [O II] luminosities (L_[O II]) are typical of sub-L⋆ galaxies with derived star formation rate (uncorrected for fibre losses and dust reddening) in the range of 0.5-20 M⊙ yr-1. Typically less than ∼3 per cent of the Mg II systems with rest equivalent width, W2796≥2Å, show L_[O II] ≥0.3 L^{\\star }_[O II]. The detection rate is found to increase with increasing W2796 and z. No significant correlation is found between W2796 and L_[O II] even when we restrict the samples to narrow z ranges. A strong correlation is seen between L_[O II] and z. While this is expected from the luminosity evolution of galaxies, we show that finite fibre size plays a very crucial role in this correlation. The measured nebular line ratios (like [O III]/[O II] and [O III]/H β) and their z evolution are consistent with those of galaxies detected in deep surveys. Based on the median stacked spectra, we infer the average metallicity (log Z ∼8.3), ionization parameter (log q∼7.5) and stellar mass (log (M/M⊙) ∼ 9.3). The Mg II systems with nebular emission typically have W2796 ≥2 Å, Mg II doublet ratio close to 1 and W(Fe II λ2600)/W2796∼0.5 as often seen in damped Ly α and 21-cm absorbers at these redshifts. This is the biggest reported sample of [O II] emission from Mg II absorbers at low-impact parameters ideally suited for probing various feedback processes at play in z ≤ 1 galaxies.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Paper electrophoresis is used for the study of equilibria in binary complex systems in solution. The stability constants of ML and ML2 complex species of some metal ions copper(II), manganese(II) and uranyl(II) with a-aminobutenoic acid and hydroxyproline were determined at an ionic strength of 0.1 M and 35 ºC.
Elizabeth II uus kunstigalerii
1999-01-01
Tähistamaks oma troonile asumise 50. aastapäeva, avab Elizabeth II 6. II 2002 Buckinghami palees uue kunstigalerii, mis ehitatakse palee tiibhoonena. Arhitekt John Simpson. Elizabeth II kunstikogust
Improved β Decay Branching Ratios
Iacob, V. E.; Hardy, J. C.; Golovko, V.
2008-04-01
The work we report here aims at increasing the precision possible in the measurement of branching ratios for superallowed β^+decays. Such highly accurate values are essential in generating precise ft-values for 0^+->0^+decays, which can then be used to test the Standard Model via the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix [1]. The required precision is ˜0.1% or better. While this limit was already achieved in the case of ^34Ar [2], it would have been very difficult, if not impossible, to achieve it for other β^+-decays without an upgrade to our acquisition and data-reduction systems. We have thus improved the controls over all the key elements in our experimental set-up: we now have direct control over the dead-time for the singles and coincidence channels and <0.1 mm control over the source-detector distance. In addition, we have extensively studied the efficiency of the β-detector with source-measurements tested against various Monte Carlo programs [3]. We have tested our new acquisition set-up on ^60Co and ^22Na (β^- and β^+ emitters respectively) to validate our new methods. Preliminary results on the two sources are statistically consistent with the expected values. An ^34Ar decay experiment using the new experimental configuration has already been performed and is currently analyzed. [1] J.C. Hardy and I.S. Towner, PRC 71, 055501 (2005) [2] V. Iacob et al., BAPS 52(3)B16; BAPS 52(9)HF3 [3] V. Golovko et al., BAPS 52(9)DH4; this BAPS
Are elderly dependency ratios associated with general population suicide rates?
Shah, Ajit
2011-05-01
The elderly population size is increasing worldwide due to falling birth rates and increasing life expectancy. It has been hypothesized that as the elderly dependency ratio (the ratio of those over the age of 65 years to those under 65) increases, there will be fewer younger people available to care for older people and this, in turn, will increase the burden on younger carers with increased levels of psychiatric morbidity leading to an increase in general population suicide rates. A cross-national study examining the relationship between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates was conducted using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations websites. The main findings were of a significant and independent positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates in both genders. The contribution of cross-national differences in psychiatric morbidity in younger carers on general population suicide rates requires further study. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in younger carers of older people should be examined by: (i) cross-national studies using standardized measures of psychiatric morbidity that are education-free, culture-fair and language-fair; and (ii) within-country longitudinal studies with changing elderly dependency ratios over time.
[Collagen types ratio in prediction of postoperative ventral hernias].
Lazarenko, V A; Ivanov, S V; Ivanov, I S; Rosberg, E P; Tsukanov, A V; Popova, L P; Tarabrin, D V; Obyedkov, E G
To analyze collagen types ratio in skin and aponeurosis in order to predict postoperative ventral hernias. The trial included 141 patients for the period 2012-2015. Group I (n=65) of patients without ventral hernias was divided into subgroup AI (primary operation, n=41) and BI (re-operation, n=24). Group II consisted of 76 patients with ventral hernias. We performed histological examination of skin and aponeurosis to define the collagen structure of connective tissue. There were significant differences between collagen type I/III ratio in skin (2.81±0.52 in group I vs. 1.13±0.48 in group II) and aponeurosis (2.69±0.41 vs. 1.09±0.21, respectively, p≤0.05). We revealed strong direct correlation (r=+0.92) between aponeurosis and skin specimens in one group. Collagen type I level was 73.81±2.74% in subgroup AI and 72.03±2.47% in subgroup BI. Collagen type I was predominant (p≤0.05). In patients with ventral hernias collagen type I/III ratio in skin is 2.54 times lower than in patients without hernias. Significant correlation of collagen types in skin and aponeurosis (r= +0.92) allows to predict the risk of postoperative ventral hernias on basis of skin fragment.
LHC II system sensitivity to magnetic fluids
Cotae, Vlad
2005-01-01
Experiments have been designed to reveal the influences of ferrofluid treatment and static magnetic field exposure on the photosynthetic system II, where the light harvesting complex (LHC II) controls the ratio chlorophyll a/ chlorophyll b (revealing, indirectly, the photosynthesis rate). Spectrophotometric measurement of chlorophyll content revealed different influences for relatively low ferrofluid concentrations (10-30 mul/l) in comparison to higher concentrations (70-100 mul/l). The overlapped effect of the static magnetic field shaped better the stimulatory ferrofluid action on LHC II system in young poppy plantlets.
Preparation and Antimicrobial Screeningof Cu (II, Ni (II, Zn (II Cd (II Complexes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. M. Desai
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The metal complexes of Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II Cd(II with organic ligands viz Hydrazine hydrate, 1,2-N,N'-Bisammonium thiocarbamoyl ethane and 1,4-N,N'-Bisammonium thiocarbamoyl benzene have been prepared. These ligands and metal complexes of dithiocarbamates were screened for their antimicrobial activity against various microbs.
Copper (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and zinc (II) complexes of Schiff ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. New Schiff base chelates of Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) derived from benzil-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone with aniline have been synthesised. Microanalytical data, molar conductance, and magnetic susceptibility values have been obtained, and IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-Vis, CV and EPR spectral studies have ...
Partial covering of a circle by equal circles. Part II: The case of 5 circles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zsolt Gáspár
2014-05-01
Full Text Available How must n equal circles of given radius r be placed so that they cover as great a part of the area of the unit circle as possible? In this Part II of a two-part paper, a conjectured solution of this problem for n = 5 is given for r varying from the maximum packing radius to the minimum covering radius. Results are obtained by applying a mechanical model described in Part I. A generalized tensegrity structure is associated with a maximum area configuration of the 5 circles, and by using catastrophe theory, it is pointed out that the ''equilibrium paths'' have bifurcations, that is, at certain values of r, the type of the tensegrity structure and so the type of the circle configuration changes.
Energy ratios in Finnish agricultural production
H. J. MIKKOLA; Ahokas, J.
2008-01-01
The objective of this study was to assess energy ratios and net energy in plant production and energy ratios in animal production in Finland. Energy ratios and net energy were determined on the basis of plant- and animal-specific energy analyses. In plant production, energy ratios and net energy were assessed as a function of nitrogen fertilization, because indirect energy input in the form of agrochemicals was 5473% from the total energy input and nitrogen was responsible for the major part ...
Determinations of the 12C/13C Ratio for the Secondary Stars of AE Aquarii, SS Cygni, and RU Pegasi
Harrison, Thomas E.; Marra, Rachel E.
2017-07-01
We present new moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of three CVs obtained using GNIRS on Gemini-North. These spectra covered three 13CO bandheads found in the K-band, allowing us to derive the isotopic abundance ratios for carbon. We find small 12C/13C ratios for all three donor stars. In addition, these three objects show carbon deficits, with AE Aqr being the most extreme ([C/Fe] = -1.4). This result confirms the conjecture that the donor stars in some long-period CVs have undergone considerable nuclear evolution prior to becoming semi-contact binaries. In addition to the results for carbon, we find that the abundance of sodium is enhanced in these three objects, and the secondary stars in both RU Peg and SS Cyg suffer magnesium deficits. Explaining such anomalies appears to require higher mass progenitors than commonly assumed for the donor stars of CVs. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).
Relationships between breath ratios, spirituality and health ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...
Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dvoøáèek Jaroslav
1997-03-01
Full Text Available The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.
Spectrophotometry mole ratio and continuous variation experiments ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The mole-ratio method yield a ratio of 1M : 1L for the silver dithizonate complex and 1M : 3L for cobalt. Employing the continuous variation method give M : L ratio's of 1 : 3 for both nickel and cobalt. Formation constants are readily calculated from absorbance data. Complete methods, data, calculations and outcomes are ...
Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios
Dvoøáèek Jaroslav
1997-01-01
The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.
Model of the extradiol-cleaving manganese(II) dioxygenase penicillamine-manganese(II) complex.
Sakurai, H; Shimomura, S; Yoshimura, T
1983-09-15
The structure of the green penicillamine(Pen)-Mn(II) complex prepared under air was determined from its electronic spectra, molar ratio, ESR spectra and oxygen consumptions at various pH values and by potentiometric titration. Pen bound with Mn(II) in a molar ratio of approximately 1:1 forming coordination bonds with a thiolate and an amino group, and the complex consumed about 1 mol of oxygen at pH 9-10. Oxygen binding to this complex was found to be reversible at room temperature. The oxygen adduct complex catalysed oxidative extradiol-cleavage of catechol at pH 7.0-7.5. The Pen-Mn(II)-02 complex seems to be a simple model of extradiol-cleaving manganese(II) dioxygenase, which was recently found in Bacillus brevis.
Application of Performance Ratios in Portfolio Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aleš Kresta
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The cornerstone of modern portfolio theory was established by pioneer work of Harry Markowitz. Based on his mean-variance framework, Sharpe formulated his well-known Sharpe ratio aiming to measure the performance of mutual funds. The contemporary development in computer’s computational power allowed to apply more complex performance ratios, which take into account also higher moments of return probability distribution. Although these ratios were proposed to help the investors to improve the results of portfolio optimization, we empirically demonstrated in our paper that this may not necessarily be true. On the historical dataset of DJIA components we empirically showed that both Sharpe ratio and MAD ratio outperformed Rachev ratio. However, for Rachev ratio we assumed only one level of parameters value. Different set-ups of parameters may provide different results and thus further analysis is certainly required.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuli Soesetio
2008-02-01
Full Text Available Dividend Payout Ratio used to calculate all of revenue that will be accepted by stockholders as cash dividend, usually explained as percentage. This research was conducted to know several factors that affected change of Dividend Payout Ratio and to know the significance level and the correlation between dependent and independent variable. Analysis instrument used was parametric statistic. Based on the result of statistic test, The Change of Return on Asset (X1, The Change of Debt to Equity Ratio (X2, were able to explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio, and The Change of CashRatio can’t explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio
Sk Imadul Islam; Suvendu Bikash Das; Sutapa Chakrabarty; Sudeshna Hazra; Akhil Pandey; Animesh Patra
2016-01-01
The synthesis of square planar Ni(II) and Pd(II) complexes with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) was characterized by elemental, physiochemical, and spectroscopic methods. Two complexes were prepared by the reaction of nickel acetate and palladium acetate with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) in 1 : 2 molar ratio. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) interaction with complexes was examined by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques at pH 7.4. All the spectral data suggest that coor...
Pearce element ratios: A paradigm for testing hypotheses
Russell, J. K.; Nicholls, Jim; Stanley, Clifford R.; Pearce, T. H.
Science moves forward with the development of new ideas that are encapsulated by hypotheses whose aim is to explain the structure of data sets or to expand existing theory. These hypotheses remain conjecture until they have been tested. In fact, Karl Popper advocated that a scientist's job does not finish with the creation of an idea but, rather, begins with the testing of the related hypotheses. In Popper's [1959] advocation it is implicit that there be tools with which we can test our hypotheses. Consequently, the development of rigorous tests for conceptual models plays a major role in maintaining the integrity of scientific endeavor [e.g., Greenwood, 1989].
Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial studies of Cu(II) and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... magnetic susceptibility, metal-ligand ratio determination, and antimicrobial activity. The low molar conductance values range (16.-27Ohm-1cm2mol-1) indicated that all the complexes are non-electrolytes. The magnetic susceptibility revealed that the Cu(II) complex is paramagnetic while Zn(II) complex is diamagnetic.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, J K; Hansen, J F
1993-01-01
The 18 month mortality rate in 2180 patients excluded from the Danish Verapamil Infarction Trail II (DAVIT II) was 25.6%. In non-consenters (n = 368) this was 15.0% compared with 13.85 in 897 placebo-treated patients (hazard ratio 1.09 [P = 0.60] when adjusting for sex and age). The increased...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
MBI
thereby enhancing higher affinity for the metal ions when compared to the monodentate ligands. Stability constant values of various metal ion complexes involving chelating ligands such as. Ni(II) – famotidine C8H15N7O2S3 complex, Cu-. Dapsone complex, Co(II), and Ni(II) – mixed ligand complexes of amino acids and ...
Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction
Xiang eWu; Anders eWestanmo; Liang eZhou; Junhao ePan
2013-01-01
Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are bett...
Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism
Lawrence, Keith Edward [Kobe, JP; Moser, William Elliott [Peoria, IL; Roozenboom, Stephan Donald [Washington, IL; Knox, Kevin Jay [Peoria, IL
2008-05-13
A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.
Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas
Alexios Arvanitis; Alexandra Hantzi
2016-01-01
Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchang...
Gao's conjecture on zero-sum sequences
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Current Issue : Vol. 127, Issue 4 · Current Issue Volume 127 | Issue 4. September 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...
Mendelian Genetics: Paradigm, Conjecture, or Research Program.
Oldham, V.; Brouwer, W.
1984-01-01
Applies Kuhn's model of the structure of scientific revolutions, Popper's hypothetic-deductive model of science, and Lakatos' methodology of competing research programs to a historical biological episode. Suggests using Kuhn's model (emphasizing the nonrational basis of science) and Popper's model (emphasizing the rational basis of science) in…
The Weinstein conjecture with multiplicities on spherizations
Hertzberg, Benjamin J.
2011-07-01
Si-based anodes have recently received considerable attention for use in Li-ion batteries, due to their extremely high specific capacity---an order of magnitude beyond that offered by conventional graphite anode materials. However, during the lithiation process, Si-based anodes undergo extreme increases in volume, potentially by more than 300 %. The stresses produced within the electrode by these volume changes can damage the electrode binder, the active Si particles and the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), causing the electrode to rapidly fail and lose capacity. These problems can be overcome by producing new anode materials incorporating both Si and C, which may offer a favorable combination of the best properties of both materials, and which can be designed with internal porosity, thereby buffering the high strains produced during battery charge and discharge with minimal overall volume changes. However, in order to develop useful anode materials, we must gain a thorough understanding of the structural, microstructural and chemical changes occurring within the electrode during the lithiation and delithiation process, and we must develop new processes for synthesizing composite anode particles which can survive the extreme strains produced during lithium intercalation of Si and exhibit no volume changes in spite of the volume changes in Si. In this work we have developed several novel synthesis processes for producing internally porous Si-C nanocomposite anode materials for Li-ion batteries. These nanocomposites possess excellent specific capacity, Coulombic efficiency, cycle lifetime, and rate capability. We have also investigated the influence of a range of different parameters on the electrochemical performance of these materials, including pore size and shape, carbon and silicon film thickness and microstructure, and binder chemistry.
The Reconstruction Conjecture and Edge Ideals
2008-01-01
Given a monomial ideal I in R = k[x1, . . . , xn], we define the multigraded Betti numbers i,b of I in terms of a multigraded minimal free resolution...5.5]). We will use Hochster’s formula from Stanley–Reisner theory to study the multigraded Betti numbers of the edge ideal of a graph. We will prove...Chapter 5]), the multigraded Betti number i,b of R/I can be computed via the reduced simplicial homology of certain subcomplexes of : i,b = i,B := dimk
Gao's conjecture on zero-sum sequences
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
need to recall the following precise definitions. Let G be a ..... two have been ruled out by hypothesis and the third one has been ruled out by part (c). Therefore |I| = 2p ..... For our convenience, instead of writing f(Zp ⊕ Zp), we write simply f (p). Harborth [12] considered a function g(n) which is related to f (n). To define g(n), let.
Gamma Ray Bursts Observations and Theoretical Conjectures
Alagoz, E; Carrillo, C; Golup, G T; Grimes, M; Herrera, Mora C; Gallo, Palomino J L; López, Vega A; Wicht, J
2008-01-01
Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are short bursts of very high energy photons which were discovered in the late 1960s. Ever since their discovery, scientists have wondered about their origin. Nowadays it is known that they originate outside the Milky Way because of their high red shift rst measured in the afterglows thanks to the Beppo-SAX satellite and ground-based observations. However, theoreticians still do not agree about the mechanism that generates the bursts, and different competing models are animatedly debated. Current GRB experiments include the Swift satellite and the Pierre Auger Observatory that could detect GRBs with an increase of the background. A forthcoming dedicated experiment is GLAST, a satellite observatory for detecting gamma rays with energies up to 300 GeV, whose launch is scheduled for early 2008.
Deconstructing Arsovski's Proof of Snevily's Conjecture The ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
, permutation-constraints, linear characters into finite fields. groups of odd order by Dasgupta et al. and our aim now is to resolve the general case. An imme- diate observation after reading the two successive resolutions is that in both proofs, ...
An intrinsic approach to Lichnerowicz conjecture
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
manifolds and their Ricci tensor is proportional to the metric tensor or in other words they are Einstien manifolds. From topological point of view each such manifold has its. (integral) cohomology ring isomorphic to precisely one of the compact rank one symmetric space to be referred to as its model CROSS henceforth.
On Ruckle's Conjecture on Accumulation Games
Alpern, S.; Fokkink, R.J.; Kikuta, K.
2010-01-01
In an accumulation game, the Hider secretly distributes his given total wealth $h$ among $n$ locations, while the Searcher picks $r$ locations and confiscates the material placed there. The Hider wins if what is left at the remaining $n-r$ locations is at least 1; otherwise the Searcher wins.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natarajan Singaravelan
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coat coloration in mammals is an explicit adaptation through natural selection. Camouflaging with the environment is the foremost evolutionary drive in explaining overall coloration. Decades of enquiries on this topic have been limited to repetitive coat color measurements to correlate the morphs with background/habitat blending. This led to an overwhelming endorsement of concealing coloration as a local phenotypic adaptation in animals, primarily rodents to evade predators. However, most such studies overlooked how rodents actually achieve such cryptic coloration. Cryptic coloration could be attained only through optimization between the yellow- to brown-colored "pheomelanin" and gray to black-colored "eumelanin" in the hairs. However, no study has explored this conjecture yet. "Evolution Canyon" (EC in Israel is a natural microscale laboratory where the relationship between organism and environment can be explored. EC is comprised of an "African" slope (AS, which exhibits a yellow-brownish background habitat, and a "European" slope (ES, exhibiting a dark grayish habitat; both slopes harbor spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus. Here, we examine how hair melanin content of spiny mice living in the opposing slopes of EC evolves toward blending with their respective background habitat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured hair-melanin (both eumelanin and pheomelanin contents of 30 spiny mice from the EC using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC that detects specific degradation products of eumelanin and pheomelanin. The melanin pattern of A. cahirinus approximates the background color of the slope on which they dwell. Pheomelanin is slightly (insignificantly higher in individuals found on the AS to match the brownish background, whereas individuals of the ES had significantly greater eumelanin content to mimic the dark grayish background. This is further substantiated by a significantly higher eumelanin and pheomelanin ratio on
ESTABLISHING THE CARDIOTHORACIC RATIO USING CHEST RA ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2015-09-01
Sep 1, 2015 ... The cardiothoracic ratio is therefore expressed as the ratio of the transverse diameter of the heart to the max- imum internal diameter of the thoracic cavity.1,8. De- termination of the heart size including the size of each of the four chambers of the heart is a very important measurement which helps clinicians ...
Estimates of Small Signal/Noise Ratios
Howard, L. D.
1985-01-01
Signal/Noise Ratio Meter measures ratio of signal power to noise power in input that contains both signal and noise. Signal and noise first filtered and normalized in analog circuitry, then digitized and sampled. Performance of SNR meter determined by statistical algorithm chosen for analysis of samples.
Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.
Barrett, D. R. B.
1984-01-01
Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)
Particle Ratios from Strongly Interacting Hadronic Matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Waseem Bashir
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We calculate the particle ratios K+/π+, K-/π-, and Λ/π- for a strongly interacting hadronic matter using nonlinear Walecka model (NLWM in relativistic mean field (RMF approximation. It is found that interactions among hadrons modify K+/π+ and Λ/π- particle ratios, while K-/π- is found to be insensitive to these interactions.
Construction of CCC resistance ratio bridge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Z.; Jensen, D.H.; Holtoug, J.U. [Danish Institute of Fundamental Metrology, Lynbgy (Denmark)
1994-12-31
The paper introduces the cryogenic current comparator (CCC) resistance ratio bridge being built at DFM, which is designed to relate the value of quantized hall resistance R{sub H}(i) to room temperature resistance standards. The CCC is an overlapping tube type with copper wire. A double constant current source is used to supply for the CCC resistance ratio bridge.
12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leverage ratio. 567.8 Section 567.8 Banks and... § 567.8 Leverage ratio. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a savings association assigned... associations not meeting the conditions set forth in paragraph (a) of this section, the minimum leverage...
Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio
Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.
2010-01-01
Temporal variations in the sex ratio, or the ratio of boys to girls at birth, have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews et al. ["You are what your mother eats: Evidence for maternal preconception diet
Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio
Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.
2009-01-01
Temporal variations in the sex ratio or the ratio of boys over girls at birth have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews, Johnson and Neil (2008) studied the direct evidence of individual pregnancies and
Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.
Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra
2016-01-01
Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.
Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexios Arvanitis
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.
Energy ratios in Finnish agricultural production
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. J. MIKKOLA
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess energy ratios and net energy in plant production and energy ratios in animal production in Finland. Energy ratios and net energy were determined on the basis of plant- and animal-specific energy analyses. In plant production, energy ratios and net energy were assessed as a function of nitrogen fertilization, because indirect energy input in the form of agrochemicals was 5473% from the total energy input and nitrogen was responsible for the major part of this. The highest energy ratio was 18.6 for reed canary grass. As a whole reed canary grass was superior to the other crops, which were barley, spring wheat, spring turnip rape, ley for silage, potato and sugar beet. Reed canary grass and sugar beet gained the highest net energy yields of 111115 GJ ha-1. The optimum energy ratio was gained in general with less nitrogen fertilization intensity than farmers use. The energy ratios in pork production varied between 0.141.28 depending on what was included or excluded in the analysis and for milk production between 0.151.85. Ratios of 1.28 in pork production and 1.85 in milk production are unrealistic as they do not give any shelter to the animals, although they can be approached in very low-input production systems. If the ratio is calculated with feed energy content then the ratio is low, 0.140.22 for pork and 0.15 for milk. This shows that animals can convert 1422 percent of the input energy to usable products. In pork production, the largest portion of the energy input was the ventilation of the building. In milk production milking and cooling consumes a lot of energy and for this reason the electricity consumption is high.;
Shear modulus reconstruction by ultrasonically measured strain ratio.
Sumi, Chikayoshi; Matsuzawa, Hidenori
2007-12-01
In addition to a description of our three previously developed one-dimensional (1D) methods from the viewpoint of shear modulus reconstruction using the strain ratio, two new methods for stabilizing the 1D methods are described, together with their limitations. As confirmed using human in vivo breast tissues, method 1 for evaluating the strain ratio itself is useful when the measurement accuracy of the strain distribution is high. However, because tissues having high shear moduli, such as scirrhous carcinoma, often form singular points/regions, both methods 2 and 3 using the strain ratio (initial estimate) and a regularization method are effective for realizing a unique, stable, useful shear modulus reconstruction. Because method 3 carries out implicit integration only at singular points/regions, whereas method 2 carries out implicit integration throughout the region of interest (ROI), the smaller number of singular points enables more rapid shear modulus reconstruction by method 3 than by method 2. Like method 1, method 3 is also useful when the measurement accuracy of the strain distribution is high. However, when evaluating strain distribution in an ROI with a high spatial resolution to obtain a shear modulus reconstruction having a high spatial resolution, shear modulus reconstructions obtained by methods 1, 2, and 3 often become laterally unstable due to the instability and low accuracy of the strains in the reference regions (reference strains), i.e., regularization in methods 2 and 3 cannot reduce the instability in the initial estimate. To cope with this instability, (i) the reconstruction obtained by calculating the strain ratio should be low-pass filtered; for breast tissues, in particular, the reconstruction of the inverse shear modulus should be low-pass filtered, not the reconstruction of the shear modulus. (ii) Otherwise, when using homogeneous regions as a reference, such as a block of reference material, fatty tissue, or parenchyma, evaluation of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SANDRA S. KONSTANTINOVIC
2007-10-01
Full Text Available The composition and stability of the complexes of isatin-b-thiosemicarbazone with Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, Pd(II and Hg(II have been investigated using spectrophotometric method at 30 °C and constant ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm-3 (KNO3 in 70 % ethanol. Experimental results indicate the formation of MeL and MeL2 complexes for Ni(II and Co(II, and MeL for Cu(II, Zn(II, Pd(II and Hg(II complexes, whose stability constants, bn, have been calculated using a computerized iterative method of successive approximation.
Circadian rhythm of proteinuria: consequences of the use of urinary protein:creatinine ratios
Koopman, M. G.; Krediet, R. T.; Koomen, G. C.; Strackee, J.; Arisz, L.
1989-01-01
Proteinuria in patients with glomerular disease has a circadian rhythm, but for creatinine such a rhythm is either absent or of low amplitude. We found in 18 of 23 admitted patients (group I) and in seven outpatients (group II) a marked circadian rhythm of the protein: creatinine ratio. Estimates of
Nitrate leaching in forest ecosystems is related to forest floor C/N ratios
Gundersen, P.; Callesen, I.; Vries, de W.
1998-01-01
Relationships between nitrogen (N) output with seepage water and forest floor C/N ratios were analysed by use of three independent datasets: (i) a compilation of input-output studies in temperate forest ecosystems in Europe; (ii) a seven-year nationalDanish survey of nitrate concentrations in forest
CALIPSO lidar ratio retrieval over the ocean.
Josset, Damien; Rogers, Raymond; Pelon, Jacques; Hu, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhaoyan; Omar, Ali; Zhai, Peng-Wang
2011-09-12
We are demonstrating on a few cases the capability of CALIPSO to retrieve the 532 nm lidar ratio over the ocean when CloudSat surface scattering cross section is used as a constraint. We are presenting the algorithm used and comparisons with the column lidar ratio retrieved by the NASA airborne high spectral resolution lidar. For the three cases presented here, the agreement is fairly good. The average CALIPSO 532 nm column lidar ratio bias is 13.7% relative to HSRL, and the relative standard deviation is 13.6%. Considering the natural variability of aerosol microphysical properties, this level of accuracy is significant since the lidar ratio is a good indicator of aerosol types. We are discussing dependencies of the accuracy of retrieved aerosol lidar ratio on atmospheric aerosol homogeneity, lidar signal to noise ratio, and errors in the optical depth retrievals. We are obtaining the best result (bias 7% and standard deviation around 6%) for a nighttime case with a relatively constant lidar ratio (in the vertical) indicative of homogeneous aerosol type.
Jones, Thomas; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan
2016-01-01
The present study examined functional strength and endocrine responses to varying ratios of strength and endurance training in a concurrent training regimen. 30 resistance-trained men completed 6 weeks of 3 d·wk-1 of i) strength training (ST), ii) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 3:1 (CT3), iii) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 1:1 (CT1) or iv) no training (CON). Strength training was conducted using whole-body, multi-joint exercises, while endurance training c...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Tupe, S.G; Rajwade, J.M; Paknikar, K.M
2007-01-01
...: flask volume ratio and concentrations of Hg (II), ammonium sulfate and yeast extract). When data obtained were analyzed using specialized software for Taguchi design, Qualitek‐4 (Nutek Inc., MI, USA), Hg (II...
Characteristic ratio assignment in fractional order systems.
Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Haeri, Mohammad
2010-10-01
In this paper the characteristic ratios and generalized time constant are defined for all-pole commensurate fractional order systems. The sufficient condition for stability of these systems in terms of their characteristic ratios is obtained. Also an analytical approach for characteristic ratio assignment (CRA) to have a non-overshooting fast closed loop step response is introduced. The proposed CRA method is then employed to design a fractional order controller. Computer simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the CRA based designed fractional order controllers. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Studies of mn (ii) and ni (ii) complexes with schiff base derived from ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
However, manganese(II) complex is insoluble in most organic solvents but soluble in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). The molar conductance of the complexes measured are, indicating their non-electrolytic nature. The potentiometric and spectrophotometric studies of the complex compounds revealed 1:1 metal to ligand ratio.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MITHLESH AGRAWAL
2002-04-01
Full Text Available The reactions of alkaline earth metal chlorides with 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde and salicylaldehyde, 2-hydroxyacetophenone or 2-hydroxypropiophenone have been carried out in 1 : 1 : 1 mole ratio and the mixed ligand complexes of the type MLL(H2O2 (where M = Mg(II, Ca(II, Sr(II and Ba(II, HL = 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde and HL = salicylaldehyde, 2-hydroxyacetophenone or 2-hydroxypropiophenone have been isolated. These complexes were characterized by TLC, conductance measurements, IR and 1H-NMR spectra.
The photometric evolution of dissolving star clusters. II. Realistic models. Colours and M/L ratios
Anders, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833967; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072834870; BAumgardt, H.
2009-01-01
Evolutionary synthesis models are the primary means of constructing spectrophotometric models of stellar populations, and deriving physical parameters from observations compared with these models. One of the basic assumptions of evolutionary synthesis models has been the time-independence of the
Signal-to-noise ratios in IUE low-dispersion spectra. II - Photometrically corrected images
Ayres, Thomas R.
1993-01-01
Photometrically corrected images from the IUE's two intensified vidicon cameras are used to explore the character of detector noise, and a protocol for the derivation of realistic noise models is proposed on the basis of available collections of UV-Flood calibration images. The incomplete removal of the pixel-to-pixel sensitivity pattern can lead to a factor-of-2 enhancement in apparent noise; even with good suppression of pixel granularity, the remaining random noise can exhibit saturation behavior which causes S/N to cease improving with increasing exposure. When all relevant effects are considered, underlying, 'pristine' noise models show virtually no dependence on spatial position.
Comparison of Maxilla Mandibular Transverse Ratios With Class II Anteroposterior Discrepancies
2014-03-20
Radiographic Cephalometry. Carol Stream: Quintessence, 1995. Print 17. Kahl-Nieke, B., Fischbach, H., & Schwarze , C. W. (1996). Treatment and...maxillary expansion : a comparison of technique, response, and stability. The Angle Orthodontist, 67(4), 309-320. 24. Pancherz, H., & Fackel, U... appliance . The European Journal of Orthodontics, 12(2), 209-218. 59 25. Periago, D. R., Scarfe, W. C., Moshiri, M., Scheetz, J. P., Silveira, A. M
Quininium tetrachloridozinc(II
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-Zhuang Chen
2009-10-01
Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound {systematic name: 2-[hydroxy(6-methoxyquinolin-1-ium-4-ylmethyl]-8-vinylquinuclidin-1-ium tetrachloridozinc(II}, (C20H26N2O2[ZnCl4], consists of a double protonated quininium cation and a tetrachloridozinc(II anion. The ZnII ion is in a slightly distorted tetrahedral coordination environment. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular N—H...Cl and O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.
Synthesis and cytotoxic effect on RD cell line of Pd(II and Cu(II
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahasin Alias
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Complexes of Cr(III, Cd(II, Ni(II, Pd(II and Cu(II with new ligand sodium [5-(p-nitro phenyl-/4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-dithiocarbamato hydrazide] (TRZ.DTC have been prepared and characterized in solid state by using flame atomic absorption, elemental analysis C.H.N.S, FT-IR, UV–vis spectrophotometry, thermal analysis TGA, conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The ratio of M:L and logK was determined by molar ratio method. From the spectral studies, an octahedral monomer structure was proposed for all complexes except copper(II which has a dimeric structure. Cadmium(II has tetrahedral geometry. Structural geometries of these compounds were also suggested in gas phase by using hyper chem-8 program. The heat of formation, binding energy, and dipole moment were calculated by PM3 and ZINDO/1 methods. ZINDO/1 was used to evaluate the vibration spectra of the (TRZ.DTC ligand and starting material as authentic compound. Cytotoxic effect of Pd, Cu and ligand was evaluated against Rhabdomyosarcoma cell line by using four different concentrations (500, 250, 125 & 62.5 μg/ml in three exposure times 24, 48 and 72 h and compared this effect with control positive Cis-Pt. The efficiency of these new compounds on RD cell line may be attributed to blocking the protein synthesis of the cells.
From Fibonacci Sequence to the Golden Ratio
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alberto Fiorenza
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the well-known characterization of the Golden ratio as limit of the ratio of consecutive terms of the Fibonacci sequence, and we give an explanation of this property in the framework of the Difference Equations Theory. We show that the Golden ratio coincides with this limit not because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of the characteristic polynomial, but, from a more general point of view, because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of a restricted set of roots, which in this special case coincides with the two roots of the characteristic polynomial. This new perspective is the heart of the characterization of the limit of ratio of consecutive terms of all linear homogeneous recurrences with constant coefficients, without any assumption on the roots of the characteristic polynomial, which may be, in particular, also complex and not real.
Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Depart...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children with Asthma, published in Volume 3,...
Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio
... Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio Toxoplasmosis Testing Trace Minerals Transferrin and Iron-binding Capacity ( ... Blood in Urine (Hematuria) Bone Marrow Disorders Breast Cancer Cancer Cardiovascular Disease Celiac Disease Cervical Cancer Chronic ...
KINSHIP INSTITUTIONS AND SEX RATIOS IN INDIA
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
TANIKA CHAKRABORTY; SUKKOO KIM
2010-01-01
.... Because kinship rules vary by caste, language, religion, and region, we construct sex ratios by these categories at the district level by using data from the 1901 Census of India for Punjab (North), Bengal (East), and Madras (South...
Determining sex ratios of turtle hatchlings
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Previous status assessments of marine turtles have assumed that the natural sex ratio of a marine turtle population is 1:1 (e.g. Conant et al. 2009). However, this...
The Sharpe ratio of estimated efficient portfolios
Kourtis, Apostolos
2016-01-01
Investors often adopt mean-variance efficient portfolios for achieving superior risk-adjusted returns. However, such portfolios are sensitive to estimation errors, which affect portfolio performance. To understand the impact of estimation errors, I develop simple and intuitive formulas of the squared Sharpe ratio that investors should expect from estimated efficient portfolios. The new formulas show that the expected squared Sharpe ratio is a function of the length of the available data, the ...
Inequalities for q-gamma function ratios
Das, Sourav
2017-10-01
In this work inequalities for the ratios of q-gamma function are obtained which generalize the results obtained independently by Artin, Wendel, Gautschi and Jameson. Using these inequalities bounds for Gaussian binomial coefficients and q-Wallis ratio are derived and Bohr-Mollerup theorem is also proved as applications. The recent methods developed for gamma functions are used in order to obtain main results.
Millennium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...
Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.
2015-12-01
We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.
A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.
Coates, John M; Page, Lionel
2009-11-25
Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D), which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.
A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John M Coates
Full Text Available Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D, which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.
CHEMICAL SPECIATION OF Pb(II), Cd(II)
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Chemical speciation of Pb(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of L-methionine in 0.0-60 % v/v 1,2-propanediol-water mixtures maintaining an ionic strength of 0.16 M at 303 K has been studied pH metrically. The active forms of ligand are LH2+, LH and L-. The predominant species detected are ML, ...
Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
(ii) that these individuals vary in all sorts of characteristics. (iii)that ... of fitness: it is a measure of the net effect of heritable characteristics on reproductive success. .... Such genes reside within cell organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. Many insects and crustaceans also harbour endosymbionts such as bacteria.
Correlation of Waist-Hip-Ratio and Waist-Height-Ratio to ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Height ratio(WHtR), could predict cardiovascular disease risk factors. Objective: To evaluate the correlation between central obesity measured by waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with cardiovascular ...
Equations to convert compacted crown ratio to uncompacted crown ratio for trees in the Interior West
Chris Toney; Matthew C. Reeves
2009-01-01
Crown ratio is the proportion of total tree length supporting live foliage. Inventory programs of the US Forest Service generally define crown ratio in terms of compacted or uncompacted measurements. Measurement of compacted crown ratio (CCR) involves envisioning the transfer of lower branches of trees with asymmetric crowns to fill holes in the upper portion of the...
Abdel-Rahman, Laila H.; Ismail, Nabawia M.; Ismael, Mohamed; Abu-Dief, Ahmed M.; Ahmed, Ebtehal Abdel-Hameed
2017-04-01
This study highlights synthesis and characterization of a tetradentate ONNO Schiff base ligand namely (1, 1‧- (pyridine-2, 3-dimethyliminomethyl) naphthalene-2, 2‧-diol) and hereafter denotes as "HNDAP″ and selected metal complexes including Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II) and Cd(II) as a central metal. HNDAP was synthesized from 1:2 M ratio condensation of 2, 3-diaminopyridine and 2- hydroxy-1-naphthaldhyde, respectively. The stoichiometric ratios of the prepared complexes were estimated using complementary techniques such as; elemental analyses (-C, H, N), FT-IR, magnetic measurements and molar conductivity. Furthermore, their physicochemical studies were carried out using thermal TGA, DTA and kinetic-thermodynamic studies along with DFT calculations. The results of elemental analyses showed that these complexes are present in a 1:1 metal-to- ligand molar ratio. Moreover, the magnetic susceptibilities values at room temperature revealed that Mn(II), Fe(II) and Co(II) complexes are paramagnetic in nature and have an octahedral (Oh) geometry. In contrast, Cd(II) is diamagnetic and stabilizes in square planar sites. The molar conductivity measurements indicated that all complexes are nonelectrolytes in dimethyl formamide. Spectral data suggested that the ligand is as tetradentate and coordinated with Co(II) ion through two phenolic OH and two azomethine nitrogen. However, for Mn(II), Fe(II) and Cd(II) complexes, the coordination occurred through two phenolic oxygen and two azomethine nitrogen with deprotonation of OH groups. The proposed chemical structures have been validated by quantum mechanics calculations. Antimicrobial activities of both the HNDAP Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes were tested against strains of Gram (-ve) E. coli and Gram (+ve) B. subtilis and S. aureus bacteria and C. albicans, A. flavus and T. rubrum fungi. All the prepared compounds showed good results of inhibition against the selected pathogenic microorganisms. The investigated
Quiet High Speed Fan II (QHSF II): Final Report
Kontos, Karen; Weir, Don; Ross, Dave
2012-01-01
This report details the aerodynamic, mechanical, structural design and fabrication of a Honey Engines Quiet High Speed Fan II (lower hub/tip ratio and higher specific flow than the Baseline I fan). This fan/nacelle system incorporates features such as advanced forward sweep and an advanced integrated fan/fan exit guide vane design that provides for the following characteristics: (1) Reduced noise at supersonic tip speeds, in comparison to current state-of-the-art fan technology; (2) Improved aeroelastic stability within the anticipated operating envelope; and (3) Aerodynamic performance consistent with current state-of-the-art fan technology. This fan was fabricated by Honeywell and tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Ft Low Speed Wind Tunnel for aerodynamic, aeromechanical, and acoustic performance.
Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)
2015-12-01
Related Operations and Maintenance ACAT - Acquisition Category ADM - Acquisition Decision Memorandum APB - Acquisition Program Baseline APPN...DoN) ACAT ID program, with the USAF as the lead service. SDB II provides the warfighter the capability to attack mobile targets from stand-off, through
Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion.
Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G
2016-06-14
Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.
Fabrication of carbon nanotubes paste electrode for determination of Cd (II) and Pb (II) ions
Le Hai, Tran; Hai, Tran Duy
2017-09-01
In this study, the electrode for determination of Cd (II) and Pb (II) was prepared by a paste composition of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and paraffin oil as a binder. Effect of MWCNTs/paraffin oil ratio on electrochemical behaviors of the electrodes was investigated. For the characterization of the fabricated MWCNT paste electrodes, the cyclic voltammetry, SEM images, RAMAN and XRD spectroscopy were employed. It was found that the electrode containing 20% (w/w) paraffin oil and 80 % (w/w) MWCNTs exhibited the satisfactory properties through the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) results. This electrode showed a reversible redox process with an electrochemical mechanism of controlled diffusion. Furthermore, the ASV results of the prepared electrode revealed a linear response of Pb (II) and Cd (II) concentrations with a detection limit of 6.33 µmol.L-1 and 0.42 µmol.L-1, respectively
African Journals Online (AJOL)
CLEMENT O BEWAJI
ABSTRACT: N – histidyl – 2, 4 – pentanedione Schiff base was prepared from the reaction of histidine and 2, 4 - pentandione. The reaction of methanolic solution of N – histidyl – 2, 4 – pentanedione Schiff base with ethanolic solution of copper (II) chloride gave diaquo bis( N – histidyl - 2, 4 - pentanedionato) copper (II) ...
Synthesis and characterisation of Cu (II), Ni (II), Mn (II), Zn (II) and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... are square-planar except the Mn(II) and VO(II) chelates, which are of octahedral and square pyramidal geometry respectively. The monomeric and neutral nature of the complexes was confirmed by their magnetic susceptibility data and low conductance values. The ESR spectra of copper and vanadyl complexes in DMSO ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pii, Tine; Nielsen, Peter Arnt
2008-01-01
Artiklen redegør for de vigtigste regler i Europaparlamentets og Rådets forordning om lovvalgsregler for forpligtelser uden for kontraktforhold (Rom II) og sammenligner dem med dansk ret.......Artiklen redegør for de vigtigste regler i Europaparlamentets og Rådets forordning om lovvalgsregler for forpligtelser uden for kontraktforhold (Rom II) og sammenligner dem med dansk ret....
Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiang eWu
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.
Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.
Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao
2013-01-01
Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.
Optimal aspect ratio of endocytosed spherocylindrical nanoparticle
Chen, Ying-Bing; Liu, Yan-Hui; Zeng, Yan; Mao, Wei; Hu, Lin; Mao, Zong-Liang; Xu, Hou-Qiang
2015-02-01
Recent simulations have demonstrated that bioparticle size and shape modulate the process of endocytosis, and studies have provided more quantitative information that the endocytosis efficiency of spherocylindrical bioparticles is decided by its aspect ratio. At the same time, the dimensions of the receptor-ligand complex have strong effects on the size-dependent exclusion of proteins within the cellular environment. However, these earlier theoretical works including simulations did not consider the effects of ligand-receptor complex dimension on the endocytosis process. Thus, it is necessary to resolve the effects of ligand-receptor complex dimension and determine the optimal aspect ratio of spherocylindrical bioparticles in the process of endocytosis. Accordingly, we proposed a continuum elastic model, of which the results indicate that the aspect ratio depends on the ligand-receptor complex dimension and the radius of the spherocylindrical bioparticle. This model provides a phase diagram of the aspect ratio of endocytosed spherocylindrical bioparticles, the larger aspect ratio of which appears in the phase diagram with increasing ligand density, and highlights the bioparticle design.
Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: gbrion@engr.uky.edu
2002-06-15
This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Endo, Masanori; Sugiyama, Shichihisa
1986-12-10
A engine where ratio of fan's or propeller's air flow rate to air flow rate through engine combustion chamber is more than 15 is generally named the ultra bypass ratio engine (UBE). This engine employs the exhaust gas from the engine separately to the fan or propeller and jet nozzle exhaust to obtain higher total thrust efficiency. The increase rate of thrust by using UBE is equal to the improvement rate of fuel comsumption. Much efforts are continuously made to develop UBE toward the 21 century by many companies and it is necessary to develop the core engine of high specific output and high heat efficiency, and variable pitch / high aspect ratio fan or propeller and to reseach the integrated system technology. (5 refs, 9 figs)
VELOCITY-RESOLVED [C ii] EMISSION AND [C ii]/FIR MAPPING ALONG ORION WITH HERSCHEL *,**
Goicoechea, Javier R.; Teyssier, D.; Etxaluze, M.; Goldsmith, P.F.; Ossenkopf, V.; Gerin, M.; Bergin, E.A.; Black, J.H.; Cernicharo, J.; Cuadrado, S.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Hacar, A.; Lis, D.C.; Marcelino, N.; Melnick, G.J.; Müller, H.S.P.; Persson, C.; Pety, J.; Röllig, M.; Schilke, P.; Simon, R.; Snell, R.L.; Stutzki, J.
2015-01-01
We present the first ~7.5′×11.5′ velocity-resolved (~0.2 km s−1) map of the [C ii] 158 μm line toward the Orion molecular cloud 1 (OMC 1) taken with the Herschel/HIFI instrument. In combination with far-infrared (FIR) photometric images and velocity-resolved maps of the H41α hydrogen recombination and CO J=2-1 lines, this data set provides an unprecedented view of the intricate small-scale kinematics of the ionized/PDR/molecular gas interfaces and of the radiative feedback from massive stars. The main contribution to the [C ii] luminosity (~85 %) is from the extended, FUV-illuminated face of the cloud (G0>500, nH>5×103 cm−3) and from dense PDRs (G≳104, nH≳105 cm−3) at the interface between OMC 1 and the H ii region surrounding the Trapezium cluster. Around ~15 % of the [C ii] emission arises from a different gas component without CO counterpart. The [C ii] excitation, PDR gas turbulence, line opacity (from [13C ii]) and role of the geometry of the illuminating stars with respect to the cloud are investigated. We construct maps of the L[C ii]/LFIR and LFIR/MGas ratios and show that L[C ii]/LFIR decreases from the extended cloud component (~10−2–10−3) to the more opaque star-forming cores (~10−3–10−4). The lowest values are reminiscent of the “[C ii] deficit” seen in local ultra-luminous IR galaxies hosting vigorous star formation. Spatial correlation analysis shows that the decreasing L[C ii]/LFIR ratio correlates better with the column density of dust through the molecular cloud than with LFIR/MGas. We conclude that the [C ii] emitting column relative to the total dust column along each line of sight is responsible for the observed L[C ii]/LFIR variations through the cloud. PMID:26568638
Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios
Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements
2013-08-20
A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.
Criminalization of Homosexuality and Sex Ratios
Chang, Simon
2015-01-01
Sexual activities between consenting adults of the same sex are still criminalized in more than one third of the countries in the world despite a global wave of decriminalization in the past sixty years. This paper empirically investigates the effect of sex ratios, i.e. relative number of men to women, on the criminalization of same-sex sexual conducts. At the individual level, people in high sex ratio countries are found to be more hostile against homosexuality and the homosexuals than their...
Rotor inflow variability with advance ratio
Hoad, Danny R.; Althoff, Susan L.; Elliott, Joe W.
1988-01-01
A comparative study is conducted for the results of inflow calculations based on several analytical wake methods and laser-velocimeter rotor inflow measurements near a rectangular four-bladed rotor system operating in forward flight. The induced-flow characteristics at all advance ratios were found to be unsymmetrical about the longitudinal centerline, with maximum downwash in the rear portion of the disk, and skewed toward the advancing blade-side. Comparisons among analytical methods show that the region of induced upflow over the rotor disk was effectively modeled only at an advance ratio value of 0.15.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. SPÎNU
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Iron(II, cobalt(II, nickel (II, copper (II, zinc(II and cadmium(II complexes of the type ML2Cl2, where M is a metal and L is the Schiff base N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine (TNAM formed by the condensation of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylamine, were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis as well as magnetic and spectroscopic measurements. The elemental analyses suggest the stoichiometry to be 1:2 (metal:ligand. Magnetic susceptibility data coupled with electronic, ESR and Mössbauer spectra suggest a distorted octahedral structure for the Fe(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, a square-planar geometry for the Cu(II compound and a tetrahedral geometry for the Zn(II and Cd(II complexes. The infrared and NMR spectra of the complexes agree with co-ordination to the central metal atom through nitrogen and sulphur atoms. Conductance measurements suggest the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes, except for the Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes, which are 1:2 electrolytes. The Schiff base and its metal chelates were screened for their biological activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the metal chelates were found to possess better antibacterial activity than that of the uncomplexed Schiff base.
Cu(II) mediates kinetically distinct, non-amyloidogenic aggregation of amyloid-β peptides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jeppe T.; Østergaard, Jesper; Rozlosnik, Noemi
2011-01-01
Cu(II) ions are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease by influencing the aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. Elucidating the underlying Cu(II)-induced Aβ aggregation is paramount for understanding the role of Cu(II) in the pathology of Alzheimer disease. The aim of this study...... on this study we propose three mechanistic models for the Cu(II)-induced aggregation of Aβ1-40 depending on the Cu(II):Aβ ratio, and identify key reaction steps that may be feasible targets for preventing Cu(II)-associated aggregation or toxicity in Alzheimer disease. © 2011 by The American Society...
Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2017-12-05
Dec 5, 2017 ... patients' pain perceptions.[2]. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is relatively new recognized inflammation marker and significant relationship between NLR and outcomes and/or prognosis of many clinical situations including different types of cancers. (colorectal, gastric, pancreatic, esophageal, lung, etc.),.
Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background and Aim: Postoperative pain is well known and usually disturbing complication of surgery. Inflammation plays an important role in the development and progression of postoperative pain. We aimed to investigate possible relationship between preoperatively measured neutrophil‑lymphocyte ratio (NLR) – as an ...
Giving More Realistic Definitions of Trigonometric Ratios
Bhattacharjee, Pramode Ranjan
2012-01-01
Trigonometry is a well known branch of Mathematics. The study of trigonometry is of great importance in surveying, astronomy, navigation, engineering, and in different branches of science. This paper reports on the discovery of flaws in the traditional definitions of trigonometric ratios of an angle, which (in most cases) make use of the most…
IKONOS Signal-to-Noise Ratio Estimation
Zanoni, Vicki; Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Pagnutti, Mary
2002-01-01
This viewgraph presentation focuses on the differences in Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) between IKONOS imagery with and without Modulation Transfer Function Correction (MTFC). The researchers used a simulated scene to evaluate the effects of MTFC on SNR. They also used four very uniform IKONOS scenes, two of Antarctica, one of Ivanpah, CA, and one of Mali to estimate SNR.
Measuring Isotope Ratios Across the Solar System
Webster, Chris R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.
2012-01-01
Stable isotope ratios in C, H, N, O and S are powerful indicators of a wide variety of planetary geophysical processes that can identify origin, transport, temperature history, radiation exposure, atmospheric escape, environmental habitability and biology [1]. For the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite, for example, the (sup 1)(sup 3)C/(sup 1)(sup 2)C ratio identifies it as a Mars (SNC) meteorite; the ??K/??Ar ratio tells us the last time the rock cooled to solid, namely 4 Gya; isotope ratios in (sup 3)He, (sup 2)(sup 1)Ne and (sup 3)?Ar show it was in space (cosmic ray exposure) for 10-20 million years; (sup 1)?C dating that it sat in Antarctica for 13,000 years before discovery; and clumped isotope analysis of (sup 1)?O(sup 1)(sup 3)C(sup 1)?O in its carbonate that it was formed at 18+/-4 ?C in a near-surface aqueous environment [2]. Solar System Formation
Nonseparating High-Area-Ratio Supersonic Nozzles
Wagner, W. R.; Kassner, R. R.
1984-01-01
Procedure determines supersonic-nozzle contours that allow higher nozzle-exit wall pressures, reducing chamber pressure without causing wall-flow separation as encountered in optimum large-area-ratio nozzle designs. Procedure applies to chemical-laser nozzles, jet-engine and gas turbines, wind tunnels and rocket nozzles.
Delayed reinforcement and fixed-ratio performance.
Jarmolowicz, David P; Lattal, Kennon A
2013-11-01
Effects of delayed reinforcement on fixed-ratio (FR) maintained responding of pigeons were investigated. In Experiments 1-3, the delay of reinforcement was increased across successive sessions until pigeons paused for 300 s. Both signaled and unsignaled delays were studied across different conditions. Overall response rates and run rates (timed from the first to last response of a ratio) decreased and postreinforcement pauses increased as delays increased in each experiment. As delays increased, the likelihood of pausing during a ratio run also increased. When these measures were plotted as a function of obtained delays, signaled delays had less of an effect on the above measures than did unsignaled ones. In Experiment 2, delays had a greater effect on the above measures than did a control condition arranging equivalent interreinforcer intervals to those accompanying the delays. Experiments 3 and 4 examined the generality of the effects obtained in the first two experiments. In Experiment 3, delays imposed on FR or yoked-interval schedules had similar behavioral effects. In Experiment 4, effects similar to those found in Experiments 1-3 for 1, 10, and 20-s delays imposed on FR 50 schedules were found when the FR requirement increased across sessions. Despite the different contingencies relating response rate and reinforcement rates on interval and ratio schedules, delays of reinforcement generally affect performance on these schedules similarly. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Mathematical ratio in defining arch form
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Johan A Budiman
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The treatment of Class I malocclusion aims to arrange teeth position in a good arch form. The arch form consists of tooth size and arch dimension (intercanine width, canine depth, intermolar width, molar depth. Numerous methods have been used to describe the arch form quantitatively. The aim of this study was to develop a mathematical ratio for identifying arch form (square, oval, tapered using arch dimension variables (intercanine width, canine depth, intermolar width, molar depth. Materials and Methods: Dental cast pre and post-orthodontic treatments from 190 Indonesian patients were scanned to obtain digital data. All data were measured using “Image Tool.” The measured data (tooth size, intercanine width, intercanine depth, intermolar width, intermolar depth, and arch perimeter were analyzed statistically using ordered logistic to find out determining variables to the arch form. Results: The validity, reliability, and normality of all the data were analyzed using Stata. From analyzing the data using ordered logistic, intercanine width and intermolar depth showed a reverse relation to the arch form. The shape of the arch form (square, oval, and tapered can be described quantitatively by using ratio (CD/CW/(MD/MW; a ratio less than 45.30% indicates square, 45.30–53.37% indicates oval, and more than 53.37% indicates tapered. Conclusions: (CD/CW/(MD/MW ratio can be used to describe arch form quantitatively.
Factors affecting egg ratios in planktonic rotifers
Sarma, S.S.S.; Gulati, R.D.; Nandini, S.
2005-01-01
Edmondson’s egg ratio (number of amictic eggs per female) is an important life history variable, which has been in wide use to understand and predict patterns of population growth in planktonic rotifers under field conditions. It is also useful as an indicator of the health of rotifers under culture
75 FR 79286 - Designated Reserve Ratio
2010-12-20
... withstand a future banking crisis. A 2 percent reserve ratio prior to past crises would ] barely have...: Munsell St. Clair, Chief, Banking and Regulatory Policy Section, (202) 898-8967, Christopher Bellotto... current and future years, including historic experience and potential and estimated losses from insured...
Influence of pollution of boron chlorinity ratio
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Narvekar, P.V.; Zingde, M.D.
Presence of boron in domestic wastewater has resulted in high B/CI ratio at some locations in the coastal water around Bombay. A widest range (0.215-0.281) of B/CI was observed at a location with high influence of wastewater release. The mean B...
Handcycling : different modes and gear ratios
van der Woude, L H; Bosmans, I; Bervoets, B; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.)
2001-01-01
Handrim wheelchair propulsion is a straining form of ambulation. In contrast, arm crank exercise in laboratory settings has shown a higher degree of gross mechanical efficiency and increased levels of peak power output. Moreover, arm crank exercise can be conducted at different gear ratios and in
Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth.
Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Colijn, Grant P; Amiot, Volodymyr; Vinish, Erin
2010-05-23
Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels) and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive) childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the potential mitigating effect of their partners' income.
Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amiot Volodymyr
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000399.htm Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type II (MEN II) is a disorder passed ...
THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE UV AND OPTICAL Fe ii EMISSION LINES IN TYPE 1 AGNs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kovacević-Dojcinović, Jelena; Popović, Luka Č., E-mail: jkovacevic@aob.bg.ac.rs, E-mail: lpopovic@aob.bg.ac.rs [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia)
2015-12-15
We investigate the spectral properties of the UV (λλ2650–3050 Å) and optical (λλ4000–5500 Å) Fe ii emission features in a sample of 293 Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database. We explore different correlations between their emission line properties, as well as the correlations with other emission lines from the spectral range. We find several interesting correlations and outline the most interesting results as follows. (i) There is a kinematical connection between the UV and optical Fe ii lines, indicating that the UV and optical Fe ii lines originate from the outer part of the broad line region, the so-called intermediate line region. (ii) The unexplained anticorrelations of the optical Fe ii equivalent width (EW Fe ii{sub opt}) versus EW [O iii] 5007 Å and EW Fe ii{sub opt} versus FWHM Hβ have not been detected for the UV Fe ii lines. (iii) The significant averaged redshift in the UV Fe ii lines, which is not present in optical Fe ii, indicates an inflow in the UV Fe ii emitting clouds, and probably their asymmetric distribution. (iv) Also, we confirm the anticorrelation between the intensity ratio of the optical and UV Fe ii lines and the FWHM of Hβ, and we find the anticorrelations of this ratio with the widths of Mg ii 2800 Å, optical Fe ii, and UV Fe ii. This indicates a very important role for the column density and microturbulence in the emitting gas. We discuss the starburst activity in high-density regions of young AGNs as a possible explanation of the detected optical Fe ii correlations and intensity line ratios of the UV and optical Fe ii lines.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
userpc
decomposition ... and left in an ice bath for 3hours. The solid complexes ... Table 1. Physical Properties of the ligand and its corresponding metal (II) Complexes. Compound/Ligand. Colour. Percentage. Yield(%). Melting. Point (. °. C). Decomposition.
Kahn, J
2017-01-01
Set to begin data taking at the end of 2018, the Belle II experiment is the next-generation B-factory experiment hosted at KEK in Tsukuba, Japan. The experiment represents the cumulative effort from the collaboration of experimental and detector physics, computing, and software development. Taking everything learned from the previous Belle experiment, which ran from 1998 to 2010, Belle II aims to probe deeper than ever before into the field of heavy quark physics. By achieving an integrated luminosity of 50 ab−1 and accumulating 50 times more data than the previous experiment across its lifetime, along with a rewritten analysis framework, the Belle II experiment will push the high precision frontier of high energy physics. This paper will give an overview of the key components and development activities that make the Belle II experiment possible.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (â¥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (â¥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and...
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LEO II is a second-generation software system developed for use on the PC, which is designed to convert location references accurately between legal descriptions and...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Gamble II produces a high-voltage (2 MV), high-current (1 MA), short (100 ns) pulse of energy of either positive or negative polarity. This terawatt power...
The effect of calcium to magnesium ratio on adenosine triphosphatases from wheat roots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Buczek
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The activities of ATPase isolated from 4 days old wheat roots grown on distilled water were found to be associated with the ratio of Ca : Mg ions added in different proportions to the incubation medium. This relationship was stated in the crude cell wall free homogenate (fraction I as well as subcellular fraction II and fraction III under investigations. It is stated moreover that activity of ATPases extracted from wheat roots grown on deficient nutrient solution with different Ca : Mg ratio is dependend on exogenic ratio of these cations. These results support the concept that activity of plant ATPases depends not only .on mineral nutrition and concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions but also on the Ca : Mg ratio in soil or in nutrient solution and in separate subcellular fractions of plant cells.
Kuhr, Thomas
2012-12-01
Belle II, a next-generation B-factory experiment, will search for new physics effects in a data sample about 50 times larger than the one collected by its predecessor, the Belle experiment. To match the advances in accelerator and detector technology, the computing system and the software have to be upgraded as well. The Belle II computing model is presented and an overview of the distributed computing system and the offline software framework is given.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
WINTEC
[(pentaaqua)(4-nitrobenzoato-O,O′)barium(II)] units are linked into an infinite one-dimensional chain along b-axis with the aid of the ... long Ba⋅⋅⋅Ba distance of 6⋅750(1) Å is observed between adjacent Ba(II) ions in the chain and the oxygen atoms of the ... The colour- less crystalline blocks that separated were filtered,.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Justin L. Wilson
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory properties of PPAR-α plays an important role in attenuating hypertension. The current study determines the anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory role of PPAR-α agonist during a slow-pressor dose of Ang II (400 ng/kg/min. Ten to twelve week old male PPAR-α KO mice and their WT controls were implanted with telemetry devices and infused with Ang II for 12 days. On day 12 of Ang II infusion, MAP was elevated in PPAR-α KO mice compared to WT (161±4 mmHg versus 145±4 mmHg and fenofibrate (145 mg/kg/day reduced MAP in WT + Ang II mice (134±7 mmHg. Plasma IL-6 levels were higher in PPAR-α KO mice on day 12 of Ang II infusion (30±4 versus 8±2 pg/mL and fenofibrate reduced plasma IL-6 in Ang II-treated WT mice (10±3 pg/mL. Fenofibrate increased renal expression of CYP4A, restored renal CYP2J expression, reduced the elevation in renal ICAM-1, MCP-1 and COX-2 in WT + Ang II mice. Our results demonstrate that activation of PPAR-α attenuates Ang II-induced hypertension through up-regulation of CYP4A and CYP2J and an attenuation of inflammatory markers such as plasma IL-6, renal MCP-1, renal expression of ICAM-1 and COX-2.
Berlett, B S; Chock, P B; Yim, M B; Stadtman, E. R.
1990-01-01
In bicarbonate/CO2 buffer, Mn(II) and Fe(II) catalyze the oxidation of amino acids by H2O2 and the dismutation of H2O2. As the Mn(II)/Fe(II) ratio is increased, the yield of carbonyl compounds per mole of leucine oxidized is essentially constant, but the ratio of alpha-ketoisocaproate to isovaleraldehyde formed increases, and the fraction of H2O2 converted to O2 increases. In the absence of Fe(II), the rate of Mn(II)-catalyzed leucine oxidation is directly proportional to the H2O2, Mn(II), an...
The type of solvent and volume of the solvent used to load pheromone/volatile components onto rubber septa had significant effects on release ratios, the variability of those release ratios, and the recoverability of the volatile components during subsequent extraction with hexane. Volatile release ...
Econometric models for predicting confusion crop ratios
Umberger, D. E.; Proctor, M. H.; Clark, J. E.; Eisgruber, L. M.; Braschler, C. B. (Principal Investigator)
1979-01-01
Results for both the United States and Canada show that econometric models can provide estimates of confusion crop ratios that are more accurate than historical ratios. Whether these models can support the LACIE 90/90 accuracy criterion is uncertain. In the United States, experimenting with additional model formulations could provide improved methods models in some CRD's, particularly in winter wheat. Improved models may also be possible for the Canadian CD's. The more aggressive province/state models outperformed individual CD/CRD models. This result was expected partly because acreage statistics are based on sampling procedures, and the sampling precision declines from the province/state to the CD/CRD level. Declining sampling precision and the need to substitute province/state data for the CD/CRD data introduced measurement error into the CD/CRD models.
Signal-to-noise ratio determination circuit
Deerkoski, L. F. (Inventor)
1973-01-01
A signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) determination of an input is described, having signal components within a given frequency range and noise components, without actual measurement of the noise components. Bandpass limiter having a constant signal plus noise output level is connected to the output of the first filter, the signal-to-noise ratio of the input to the bandpass limiter being linearly related to the dbm level of signal components at the output. Calibration is connected to the bandpass limiter and is responsive to the signal components at the output to derive the SNR of the input to the determination circuit. The SNR determination circuit is disclosed for use in a diversity receiver having a plurality of input channels.
True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms
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Alan eGarnham
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality.
The reaction index and positivity ratio revisited
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Andersen, Flemming
2008-01-01
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value of these st......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value...... of the IVDK and our department. Calculation of RI's and PR's for patch test allergens is of limited value as a measure of quality of the patch test materials, because it predominantly reflects differences in scoring and reading of patch test reactions. Further, questionable reactions (+?) may be clinically...... relevant and very important for the individual patient. Focus on standardization of patch test materials, patch test technique, and reading of patch test reactions is mandatory....
Gyromagnetic ratio of a massive body.
Cohen, J. M.; Tiomno, J.; Wald, R. M.
1973-01-01
It is well known that the gyromagnetic ratio (g factor) of a classical, slowly rotating body whose charge density is proportional to its mass density must be equal to unity. However, if the body is very massive, the spacetime curvature effects of general relativity become important and the result g = 1 is no longer valid. We calculate here the gyromagnetic ratio of a slowly rotating, massive shell with uniform charge density. When the shell is large compared with the Schwarzschild radius we have g = 1, but as the shell becomes more massive the g factor increases. In the limit as the shell approaches its Schwarzschild radius we obtain g approaching 2 (the same value as for an electron).
On a combination of the 1-2-3 conjecture and the antimagic labelling conjecture
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bensmail, Julien; Senhaji, Mohammed; Lyngsie, Kasper Szabo
2017-01-01
This paper is dedicated to studying the following question: Is it always possible to injectively assign the weights 1, ..., |E(G)| to the edges of any given graph G (with no component isomorphic to K2) so that every two adjacent vertices of G get distinguished by their sums of incident weights? O...
The 3-flow conjecture, factors modulo k, and the 1-2-3-conjecture
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomassen, Carsten; Wu, Yezhou; Zhang, Cun-Quan
2016-01-01
Let k be an odd natural number ≥5, and let G be a (6k−7)-edge-connected graph of bipartite index at least k−1. Then, for each mapping f:V(G)→N, G has a subgraph H such that each vertex v has H-degree f(v) modulo k. We apply this to prove that, if c:V(G)→Zk is a proper vertex-coloring of a graph G......, that problem belongs to P while it is NP-complete for nonbipartite graphs. The characterization also implies that every 3-edge-connected bipartite graph with at least 3 vertices has such an edge-labeling, and so does every simple bipartite graph of minimum degree at least 3....
MARKETING MIX BY BED OCCUPANCY RATIO (BOR
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Abdul Muhith
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR in RSI Arafah Mojosari during the last three years are at under ideal rate and the lowest of the three existing hospitals in the area of Mojosari. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship marketing mix with Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Methods: This research uses analytic methods with crossectional approach. Variables in the study is marketing mix and Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR. The population in this study were all patients hospitalized in the RSI Arafah Mojosari. Samples amounted 44 respondents taken by the Stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using the questionnaire and analyzed using Fisher's Exact test. Result: The results obtained more than 50% of respondents (59.1% rate well against the marketing mix is developed by the hospital management and the majority of respondents (79.5% are in the treatment room that has a number BOR is not ideal. Fisher Exact test test results obtained probabililty value=0.02<0.05 so that H0 is rejected, which means there is a relationship marketing mix with the Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Discussion: Hospitals which able to develop the marketing mix very well, can attract consumers to use inpatient services at the hospital, with that BOR value will increase as the increased use of inpatient services. Hospital management must be able to formulate a good marketing mix strategy that hospital marketing objectives can be achieved. Conformity between service quality and service rates must be addressed, otherwise it extent of media promotions can attract patients to inpatient services.
Institutional Environment and Bank Capital Ratios
Alraheb Ab, Tammuz,; Nicolas, Christina; Tarazi, Amine
2017-01-01
Please do not quote without the permission of the authors. Abstract We investigate the influence of the institutional environment on bank capital levels. Using a sample of 187 banks operating in the MENA region for the period 2004 to 2014, we find that low corruption levels, high political stability, as well as high economic and financial freedom are associated with higher capital adequacy levels. The effect of institutional factors on bank capital ratios is also more pronounced for conventio...
Polymer squeeze cuts water/oil ratios
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wieland, D.R.
1973-01-01
Polymer squeeze techniques have reduced water/oil ratios by 60 to 90% in the Bemis Shutts field of Ellis County, Kans. More than 100 wells have been treated and the success ratio has been extremely high. Not only have W/O ratios been drastically reduced, but a high percentage of the wells has shown a significant increase in oil production. The Bemis Shutts field is divided into 4 sectors: (1) Bemis Shutts with 522 wells; (2) Burnett Sector with 309 wells; (3) Brunnett Southwest Sector with 57 wells; and (4) Walters Sector with 105 wells. Seventy companies or individuals operate these producing wells. Polymer techniques and treatments have progressed at a very rapid pace in the past year. The general stratigraphy including a description of the Arbuckle group, is described. Analyses of water samples will indicate the type, or types, of gypsum deposits and corrosion that are contributing to production problems. Hydrogen sulfide gas in these waters (probably from bacteria) may be causing corrosion.
Surface area-volume ratios in insects.
Kühsel, Sara; Brückner, Adrian; Schmelzle, Sebastian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico
2017-10-01
Body mass, volume and surface area are important for many aspects of the physiology and performance of species. Whereas body mass scaling received a lot of attention in the literature, surface areas of animals have not been measured explicitly in this context. We quantified surface area-volume (SA/V) ratios for the first time using 3D surface models based on a structured light scanning method for 126 species of pollinating insects from 4 orders (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera). Water loss of 67 species was measured gravimetrically at very dry conditions for 2 h at 15 and 30 °C to demonstrate the applicability of the new 3D surface measurements and relevance for predicting the performance of insects. Quantified SA/V ratios significantly explained the variation in water loss across species, both directly or after accounting for isometric scaling (residuals of the SA/V ∼ mass2/3 relationship). Small insects with a proportionally larger surface area had the highest water loss rates. Surface scans of insects to quantify allometric SA/V ratios thus provide a promising method to predict physiological responses, improving the potential of body mass isometry alone that assume geometric similarity. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Student Obstacles in Ratio and Proportion Learning
Andini, W.; Jupri, Al
2017-02-01
Ratio and proportion are mathematics topics that are learned in elementary school. In the learning process, teachers often found students who have difficulties in learning these topics. Analysing the difficulties on the topics is important for teachers, as an attempt to doa reflection of the learning process and as a reference in devising a learning plan, including for anticipation of the possibility of these barriers that might appear in the next learning process. This research used as the qualitative method, and involved 49 students of grade 5 and one teacher. From the analysis of the data, i.e., student test results and observation of the learning, we found some obstacles that faced by students, such as students confused in understanding about ratio and proportion topic, students found it difficult in completing the problem which have different contexts, the learning material of ratio and proportion topic that presented in textbooks are still partial (not depth), and the lack of ability of the teacher in creating problems.
Offspring sex ratio of Iranian dentists.
Ghasemi, Hadi; Mirdehghan, Seyedeh Reihaneh; Namdari, Mahshid; Bayat, Fariborz
2016-11-01
To assess the impact of occupational factors on the sex ratio of dentists' children. A randomly selected 501 Iranian dentists participated in a telephone interview. The participants were contacted by their mobile number to answer questions about demographic variables (gender, age, marriage status), practice-related variables (year of graduation as general or specialist dentist, years of clinical work, working hours, average number of radiographs taken in a day, and spouse's job), and questions about their children (number, gender and date of birth of each child). Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square tests served for statistical evaluation. Of all participating dentists, 71 % were men, about two-thirds were 35- to 50-year olds, and 89 % were married. In total, the dentists had 768 children; about 21 % had no child. Of all the children, 54 % were boys (overall sex ratio = 1.17). The offspring sex ratio was 1.13 among male dentists, 1.50 for female dentists, and 1.44 when both parents were dentists. Higher percentages of boys were prevalent among female dentists, younger dentists, and general dental practitioners (p dentists' children in this study. However, the result needs evaluation in further studies.
Measurement of the ratio of B+ and B0 meson lifetimes.
Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J-L; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Arnoud, Y; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Beauceron, S; Begel, M; Bellavance, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Boehnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Butler, J M; Bystricky, J; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clément, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; da Motta, H; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Feligioni, L; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golling, T; Gómez, B; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gurzhiev, S N; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Hagopian, S; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Harder, K; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Juste, A; Kado, M M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kau, D; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Kim, K H; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Krzywdzinski, S; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Lager, S; Lahrichi, N; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A-C; Lebrun, P; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Leonidopoulos, C; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Lubatti, H J; Lueking, L; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A-M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martens, M; Mattingly, S E K; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McCroskey, R; Meder, D; Melanson, H L; Melnitchouk, A; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Miettinen, H; Mihalcea, D; Mitrevski, J; Mokhov, N; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nelson, S; Neustroev, P; Noeding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Nurse, E; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Oshima, N; Otero y Garzón, G J; Padley, P; Parashar, N; Park, J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Perea, P M; Perez, E; Peters, O; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Phaf, L; Piegaia, R; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pope, B G; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Przybycien, M B; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rani, K J; Rapidis, P A; Ratoff, P N; Reay, N W; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schukin, A A; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sengupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shephard, W D; Shpakov, D; Sidwell, R A; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smith, R P; Smolek, K; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Song, Y; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stanton, N R; Stark, J; Steele, J; Steinbrück, G; Stevenson, K; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tentindo-Repond, S; Thomas, E; Thooris, B; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torborg, J; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vlimant, J-R; Von Toerne, E; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Wahl, H D; Walker, R; Wang, L; Wang, Z-M; Warchol, J; Warsinsky, M; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wegner, M; Wermes, N; White, A; White, V; Whiteson, D; Wicke, D; Wijngaarden, D A; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wittlin, J; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xu, Q; Xuan, N; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yen, Y; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zabi, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zdrazil, M; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhang, X; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zitoun, R; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G; Zylberstejn, A
2005-05-13
The ratio of the B+ and B0 meson lifetimes was measured using data collected in 2002-2004 by the D0 experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. These mesons were reconstructed in B-->mu(+)nuD(*-)X decays, which are dominated by B0 and B-->mu(+)nuD 0X decays, which are dominated by B+. The ratio of lifetimes is measured to be tau(+)/tau(0)=1.080+/-0.016(stat)+/-0.014(syst).
Noise of Embedded High Aspect Ratio Nozzles
Bridges, James E.
2011-01-01
A family of high aspect ratio nozzles were designed to provide a parametric database of canonical embedded propulsion concepts. Nozzle throat geometries with aspect ratios of 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1 were chosen, all with convergent nozzle areas. The transition from the typical round duct to the rectangular nozzle was designed very carefully to produce a flow at the nozzle exit that was uniform and free from swirl. Once the basic rectangular nozzles were designed, external features common to embedded propulsion systems were added: extended lower lip (a.k.a. bevel, aft deck), differing sidewalls, and chevrons. For the latter detailed Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were made to predict the thrust performance and to optimize parameters such as bevel length, and chevron penetration and azimuthal curvature. Seventeen of these nozzles were fabricated at a scale providing a 2.13 inch diameter equivalent area throat." ! The seventeen nozzles were tested for far-field noise and a few data were presented here on the effect of aspect ratio, bevel length, and chevron count and penetration. The sound field of the 2:1 aspect ratio rectangular jet was very nearly axisymmetric, but the 4:1 and 8:1 were not, the noise on their minor axes being louder than the major axes. Adding bevel length increased the noise of these nozzles, especially on their minor axes, both toward the long and short sides of the beveled nozzle. Chevrons were only added to the 2:1 rectangular jet. Adding 4 chevrons per wide side produced some decrease at aft angles, but increased the high frequency noise at right angles to the jet flow. This trend increased with increasing chevron penetration. Doubling the number of chevrons while maintaining their penetration decreased these effects. Empirical models of the parametric effect of these nozzles were constructed and quantify the trends stated above." Because it is the objective of the Supersonics Project that
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prashanth Adiga
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Aims and Objectives. (i To determine the predictive value of cerebrouterine (CU ratio (middle cerebral artery to uterine artery pulsatility index, MCA/UT PI in assessing perinatal outcome among hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. (ii To compare between CU ratio and CP ratio (MCA/Umbilical artery PI as a predictor of adverse perinatal outcome. Methods. A prospective observational study was done in a tertiary medical college hospital, from September 2012 to August 2013. One hundred singleton pregnancies complicated by hypertension peculiar to pregnancy were enrolled. Both CU and CP ratios were estimated. The perinatal outcomes were studied. Results. Both cerebrouterine and cerebroplacental ratios had a better negative predictive value in predicting adverse perinatal outcome. However, both CU and CP ratios when applied together were able to predict adverse outcomes better than individual ratios. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and the negative predictive values for an adverse neonatal outcome with CU ratio were 61.3%, 70.3%, 56%, and 78.9%, respectively, compared to 42%, 57.5%, 62%, and 76% as with CP ratio. Conclusion. Cerebrouterine ratio and cerebroplacental ratio were complementary to each other in predicting the adverse perinatal outcomes. Individually, both ratios were reassuring for favorable perinatal outcome with high negative predictive value.
Cini, R; Orioli, P
1981-04-01
A series of ternary complexes between adenosine 5'-triphosphoric acid (ATP), 2,2'-bipyridyl, and the transition metal ions manganese (II), cobalt(II), copper (II), and zinc(II) in the ratio 1:1:1 have been prepared. The solid compounds are crystalline and can be formulated as [M(II)-H2ATP-2,2'-Bipyridyl]2 . 4H2O (MATPbipy). X-ray powder patterns show them to be all isomorphous. Potentiometric titrations in aqueous solutions are in agreement with the presence of two ionizable protons. Ultraviolet and visible spectra, epr, and magnetic susceptibility measurements suggest that the metal ions have a high-spin distorted octahedral coordination. From infrared spectra it can be deduced that ATP coordinates to the metal only through the oxygen atoms of the phosphate groups. These compounds, which are particularly stable towards hydrolysis, form possible models for ATP transport in biological fluids.
Word Class Ratios and Genres in Written Japanese: Revisiting the Modifier Verb Ratio
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bor HODOŠČEK
2011-10-01
Full Text Available This paper explores the variability of genres in the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese using the modifier-verb ratio proposed by Kabashima and Jukaku (1965. Using bagplots to quantifying the relation between noun and modifier-verb ratios, as well as some summary statistics obtain from them, we attempt to classify genres according to Kabashima and Jugaku (1965. Our initial analysis confirms previous research results, while at the same time uncovering some contradictions in the ratios of the genre of magazines.
Cd(II and Pb(II complexes of the polyether ionophorous antibiotic salinomycin
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tanabe Makoto
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural polyether ionophorous antibiotics are used for the treatment of coccidiosis in poultry and ruminants. They are effective agents against infections caused by Gram-positive microorganisms. On the other hand, it was found that some of these compounds selectively bind lead(II ions in in vivo experiments, despite so far no Pb(II-containing compounds of defined composition have been isolated and characterized. To assess the potential of polyether ionophores as possible antidotes in the agriculture, a detailed study on their in vitro complexation with toxic metal ions is required. In the present paper we report for the first time the preparation and the structure elucidation of salinomycin complexes with ions of cadmium(II and lead(II. Results New metal(II complexes of the polyether ionophorous antibiotic salinomycin with Cd(II and Pb(II ions were prepared and structurally characterized by IR, FAB-MS and NMR techniques. The spectroscopic information and elemental analysis data reveal that sodium salinomycin (SalNa undergoes a reaction with heavy metal(II ions to form [Cd(Sal2(H2O2] (1 and [Pb(Sal(NO3] (2, respectively. Abstraction of sodium ions from the cavity of the antibiotic is occurring during the complexation reaction. Salinomycin coordinates with cadmium(II ions as a bidentate monoanionic ligand through the deprotonated carboxylic moiety and one of the hydroxyl groups to yield 1. Two salinomycin anions occupy the equatorial plane of the Cd(II center, while two water molecules take the axial positions of the inner coordination sphere of the metal(II cation. Complex 2 consists of monoanionic salinomycin acting in polydentate coordination mode in a molar ratio of 1: 1 to the metal ion with one nitrate ion for charge compensation. Conclusion The formation of the salinomycin heavy metal(II complexes indicates a possible antidote activity of the ligand in case of chronic/acute intoxications likely to occur in the stock
Type II Forward Storage Site Facilities. POMCUS System. Volume 1
1980-09-01
heads of state met in May II C.39 Figure 3. Impact of DoD Plan on the Theater Force Ratio 2.5 Key: wM The rango of the theater force ratio that could...might well choose co bypass distribution to POMCUS at a particular moment in order to sat- iPfy the demands of more vocal claimants. None of the Army’s
1993-01-01
For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.
Synthesis and characterization of novel M(II) (M = Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The coordination chemistry towards the M(II) metal centre (M = Mn, Ni, Cu or Zn) of ... ligand (E)-2-amino-N'-[1-(pyridin-2-yl)ethylidene]benzohydrazide (H3L) has been ... UV-Visible spectroscopy, elemental analysis and X-ray crystal diffraction. ... KEY WORDS: Schiff base, Phenolate, Manganese(II), Nickel(II), Copper(II), ...
Leptin to adiponectin ratio in preeclampsia.
Khosrowbeygi, A; Ahmadvand, H
2013-04-01
The aim of the present study was to assess leptin/adiponectin ratio in preeclamptic patients compared with normal pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was designed. The study population consisted of 30 preeclamptic patients and 30 healthy pregnant women. Serum levels of total leptin and adiponectin were assessed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. The one-way ANOVA and Student's t tests and Pearson's correlation analysis were used for statistical calculations. Levels of leptin and adiponectin were also adjusted for BMI. A p-value preeclamsia and imbalance between the adipocytokines could be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.
Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) Handbook
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2016-01-01
The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.
Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station (EBBR) Handbook
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cook, DR
2011-02-23
The energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.
Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays
2010-11-01
Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 (“burners”) do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 (“breeders”) have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is “attractive” for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR<1, the heat, gamma, and neutron emission increase as material is recycled. The uranium utilization is at or below 1%, just as it is in thermal reactors as both types of reactors require continuing fissile support. For CR>1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found
Čermák, P.; Štekl, I.; Beneš, P.; Brudanin, V. B.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Egorov, V. G.; Kovalenko, V. E.; Kovalík, A.; Salamatin, A. V.; Timkin, V. V.; Vylov, Ts.; Briancon, Ch.; Šimkovic, F.
2004-07-01
The project aims at the measurement of very rare processes of double-beta decay of 106Cd and 48Ca. The experimental facility TGV II (Telescope Germanium Vertical) makes use of 32 HPGe planar detectors mounted in one common cryostat. The detectors are interleaved with thin foils containing ββ sources. Besides passive shielding against background radiation made of pure copper, lead and boron dopped polyethylene additional techniques for background suppression based on digital pulse shape analysis are used. The experimental setup is located in Modane underground laboratory (France). A review of the TGV II facility, its performance parameters and capabilities are presented.
Zegarelli, Mark
2012-01-01
An easy-to-understand primer on advanced calculus topics Calculus II is a prerequisite for many popular college majors, including pre-med, engineering, and physics. Calculus II For Dummies offers expert instruction, advice, and tips to help second semester calculus students get a handle on the subject and ace their exams. It covers intermediate calculus topics in plain English, featuring in-depth coverage of integration, including substitution, integration techniques and when to use them, approximate integration, and improper integrals. This hands-on guide also covers sequences and series, wit
Gralla, Preston
2011-01-01
Unlock the potential of Samsung's outstanding smartphone with this jargon-free guide from technology guru Preston Gralla. You'll quickly learn how to shoot high-res photos and HD video, keep your schedule, stay in touch, and enjoy your favorite media. Every page is packed with illustrations and valuable advice to help you get the most from the smartest phone in town. The important stuff you need to know: Get dialed in. Learn your way around the Galaxy S II's calling and texting features.Go online. Browse the Web, manage email, and download apps with Galaxy S II's 3G/4G network (or create you
Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar
2008-06-30
Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.
The Log-Ratio Beam Position Monitor
Kalinin, A.
2002-12-01
Bergoz Instrumentation has designed a new Log-Ratio Beam Position Monitor (LRBPM). It can be used to measure position of a single short bunch, a bunch train, successive and repetitive (circulating) bunches/trains. The monitor has four parallel channels with band pass filters and logarithmic demodulating high dynamic range amplifiers. The amplifiers detect the envelopes of the RF-bursts brought about by the pickup signals in the filters. Log-ratio processing and conversion of the pickup axes to X,Y is done using a broadband analog technique. The monitor can be used either in a continuous mode, or Sample&Hold or Track&Hold modes. In the last two modes, the LRBPM can be triggered by the beam signal itself. The accuracy limits coming from an inherent demodulator noise, logarithmic nonlinearity, speed of response, etc. of the amplifiers (Analog Devices) are discussed. An accessory developed to determine the LRBPM center offset and resolution with the present beam signals is described.
Finger Length Ratios in Serbian Transsexuals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Svetlana Vujović
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Atypical prenatal hormone exposure could be a factor in the development of transsexualism. There is evidence that the 2nd and 4th digit ratio (2D : 4D associates negatively with prenatal testosterone and positively with estrogens. The aim was to assess the difference in 2D : 4D between female to male transsexuals (FMT and male to female transsexuals (MFT and controls. We examined 42 MFT, 38 FMT, and 45 control males and 48 control females. Precise measurements were made by X-rays at the ventral surface of both hands from the basal crease of the digit to the tip using vernier calliper. Control male and female patients had larger 2D : 4D of the right hand when compared to the left hand. Control male’s left hand ratio was lower than in control female’s left hand. There was no difference in 2D : 4D between MFT and control males. MFT showed similar 2D : 4D of the right hand with control women indicating possible influencing factor in embryogenesis and consequently finger length changes. FMT showed the lowest 2D : 4D of the left hand when compared to the control males and females. Results of our study go in favour of the biological aetiology of transsexualism.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan Gonzalez
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we proceed to study properties of MellinâBarnes (MB transforms of UsyukinaâDavydychev (UD functions. In our previous papers (Allendes et al., 2013 [13], Kniehl et al., 2013 [14], we showed that multi-fold MellinâBarnes (MB transforms of UsyukinaâDavydychev (UD functions may be reduced to two-fold MB transforms and that the higher-order UD functions may be obtained in terms of a differential operator by applying it to a slightly modified first UD function. The result is valid in d=4 dimensions, and its analog in d=4â2Îµ dimensions exits, too (Gonzalez and Kondrashuk, 2013 [6]. In Allendes et al. (2013 [13], the chain of recurrence relations for analytically regularized UD functions was obtained implicitly by comparing the left-hand side and the right-hand side of the diagrammatic relations between the diagrams with different loop orders. In turn, these diagrammatic relations were obtained using the method of loop reduction for the triangle ladder diagrams proposed in 1983 by Belokurov and Usyukina. Here, we reproduce these recurrence relations by calculating explicitly, via Barnes lemmas, the contour integrals produced by the left-hand sides of the diagrammatic relations. In this a way, we explicitly calculate a family of multi-fold contour integrals of certain ratios of Euler gamma functions. We make a conjecture that similar results for the contour integrals are valid for a wider family of smooth functions, which includes the MB transforms of UD functions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez, Ivan [Valparaiso Univ. (Chile). Inst. de Fisica y Astronomia; Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kondrashuk, Igor [Univ. del Bio-Bio, Chillan (Chile). Dept. de Ciencias Basicas; Notte-Cuello, Eduardo A. [La Serena Univ. (Chile). Dept. de Matematicas; Parra-Ferrada, Ivan [Talca Univ. (Chile). Inst. de Matematica y Fisica; Rojas-Medar, Marko A. [Univ. de Tarapaca, Arica (Chile). Inst. de Alta Investigacion
2016-12-15
In this paper we proceed to study properties of Mellin-Barnes (MB) transforms of Usyukina-Davydychev (UD) functions. In our previous papers [Nuclear Physics B 870 (2013) 243], [Nuclear Physics B 876 (2013) 322] we showed that multi-fold Mellin-Barnes (MB) transforms of Usyukina-Davydychev (UD) functions may be reduced to two-fold MB transforms and that the higher-order UD functions were obtained in terms of a differential operator by applying it to a slightly modified first UD function. The result is valid in d=4 dimensions and its analog in d=4-2ε dimensions exits too [Theoretical and Mathematical Physics 177 (2013) 1515]. In [Nuclear Physics B 870 (2013) 243] the chain of recurrent relations for analytically regularized UD functions was obtained implicitly by comparing the left hand side and the right hand side of the diagrammatic relations between the diagrams with different loop orders. In turn, these diagrammatic relations were obtained due to the method of loop reductions for the triangle ladder diagrams proposed in 1983 by Belokurov and Usyukina. Here we reproduce these recurrent relations by calculating explicitly via Barnes lemmas the contour integrals produced by the left hand sides of the diagrammatic relations. In such a way we explicitly calculate a family of multi-fold contour integrals of certain ratios of Euler gamma functions. We make a conjecture that similar results for the contour integrals are valid for a wider family of smooth functions which includes the MB transforms of UD functions.
Cu (II), Zn (II) andMn (II) complexes of poly (methyl vinyl ether-alt ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
MVE-alt-MA)) with Zn(II), Mn(II) and Cu(II) ions were synthesized from the reaction of the aqueous solution of copolymer and metal(II) chlorides at different temperatures ranging from 25° to 40°C. Elemental analysis of themetal-polymer complexes ...
Kuenen, L P S; Siegel, Joel P
2015-03-01
The type of solvent and the volume used to load pheromone components onto rubber septa had significant effects on pheromone release ratios, the variability of those release ratios, and the recoverability of the volatile components during subsequent extraction with hexane. Volatile release ratios of synthetic Oriental fruit moth (OFM) pheromone and additional volatile compounds were determined using a gas chromatograph column as a volatile trap for rapid (≤1 hr) analysis from individual rubber septa. Volatile compound solutions were prepared in hexane, pentane, CH2Cl2, and methyl tert-butyl ether, and a 10, 33, or 100 μl aliquot of each solution was applied to rubber septa. Septa loaded with 100 μl of CH2Cl2 emitted significantly (P < 0.05) higher alcohol: acetate (OH:Ac) ratios than septa loaded with the other solvents, which were all similar. Release ratios of the alcohol and acetate components of the OFM pheromone components were assessed over a 3 week period using septa loaded with each solvent. Regardless of loading solvent, the OFM OH:Ac ratios declined logarithmically over 3 weeks; however, the decay slope from septa loaded with CH2Cl2 solutions was different from those of the other three solvents, which were nearly all the same. A high variability in OH:Ac release ratios was measured overall, regardless of the solvent used or the volume it was applied in. Four compounds of near-equal mass: 1-dodecanol, 1-dodecanal, methyl decanoate, and tridecane emitted different release ratios dependent on the solvent, hexane or CH2Cl2, with which a septum was loaded. The more polar and the greater the mass of the test compound, the slower it was emitted from a septum regardless of solvent. These combined results plus comparisons to earlier reports, suggest that researchers should empirically assess the release ratios from septa to be used in bioassays rather than just reporting the type of septum, ratios of compounds applied and solvent used to prepare them.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fa-Shun Yan
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the main form of dementia and has a steadily increasing prevalence. As both oxidative stress and metal homeostasis are involved in the pathogenesis of AD, it would be interesting to develop a dual function agent, targeting the two factors. Curcumin, a natural compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, is an antioxidant and can also chelate metal ions. Whether the complexes of curcumin with metal ions possess neuroprotective effects has not been evaluated. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of the complexes of curcumin with Cu(II or Zn(II on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The use of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 cells, a widely used neuronal cell model system, was adopted. It was revealed that curcumin–Cu(II complexes systems possessed enhanced O2·–-scavenging activities compared to unchelated curcumin. In comparison with unchelated curcumin, the protective effects of curcumin–Cu(II complexes systems were stronger than curcumin–Zn(II system. Curcumin–Cu(II or –Zn(II complexes systems significantly enhanced the superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities and attenuated the increase of malondialdehyde levels and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities, in a dose-dependent manner. The curcumin–Cu(II complex system with a 2:1 ratio exhibited the most significant effect. Further mechanistic study demonstrated that curcumin–Cu(II or –Zn(II complexes systems inhibited cell apoptosis via downregulating the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB pathway and upregulating Bcl-2/Bax pathway. In summary, the present study found that curcumin–Cu(II or –Zn(II complexes systems, especially the former, possess significant neuroprotective effects, which indicates the potential advantage of curcumin as a promising agent against AD and deserves further study.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarah L Gordon
Full Text Available Synaptobrevin II (sybII is a vesicular soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE protein that is essential for neurotransmitter release, and thus its correct trafficking to synaptic vesicles (SVs is critical to render them fusion competent. The SV protein synaptophysin binds to sybII and facilitates its retrieval to SVs during endocytosis. Synaptophysin and sybII are the two most abundant proteins on SVs, being present in a 1:2 ratio. Synaptophysin and sybII are proposed to form a large multimeric complex, and the copy number of the proteins in this complex is also in a 1:2 ratio. We investigated the importance of this ratio between these proteins for the localisation and trafficking of sybII in central neurons. SybII was overexpressed in mouse hippocampal neurons at either 1.6 or 2.15-2.35-fold over endogenous protein levels, in the absence or presence of varying levels of synaptophysin. In the absence of exogenous synaptophysin, exogenous sybII was dispersed along the axon, trapped on the plasma membrane and retrieved slowly during endocytosis. Co-expression of exogenous synaptophysin rescued all of these defects. Importantly, the expression of synaptophysin at nerve terminals in a 1:2 ratio with sybII was sufficient to fully rescue normal sybII trafficking. These results demonstrate that the balance between synaptophysin and sybII levels is critical for the correct targeting of sybII to SVs and suggests that small alterations in synaptophysin levels might affect the localisation of sybII and subsequent presynaptic performance.
van Bezouwen, Laura
2016-01-01
In this thesis we discuss several structures of photosystem II, which are determined by electron microscopy and single particle analysis. When the structure is known it can be combined with the function, which is of key importance for optimal use of its properties. In this thesis plants, Arabidopsis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sel, Ozlem; Radha, A.V.; Dideriksen, Knud
2012-01-01
Abstract The synthesis, characterization and crystallization energetics of amorphous iron (II) carbonate (AFC) are reported. AFC may form as a precursor for siderite (FeCO3). The enthalpy of crystallization (DHcrys) of AFC is similar to that of amorphous magnesium carbonate (AMC) and more...
Vassiliadis, Gaëlle; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Peduzzi, Jean
Class II microcins are 4.9- to 8.9-kDa polypeptides produced by and active against enterobacteria. They are classified into two subfamilies according to their structure and their gene cluster arrangement. While class IIa microcins undergo no posttranslational modification, class IIb microcins show a conserved C-terminal sequence that carries a salmochelin-like siderophore motif as a posttranslational modification. Aside from this C-terminal end, which is the signature of class IIb microcins, some sequence similarities can be observed within and between class II subclasses, suggesting the existence of common ancestors. Their mechanisms of action are still under investigation, but several class II microcins use inner membrane proteins as cellular targets, and some of them are membrane-active. Like group B colicins, many, if not all, class II microcins are TonB- and energy-dependent and use catecholate siderophore receptors for recognition/translocation across the outer membrane. In that context, class IIb microcins are considered to have developed molecular mimicry to increase their affinity for their outer membrane receptors through their salmochelin-like posttranslational modification.
1974-01-01
The network of survey reference points on the Lab II site was extended to meet the geodetic needs of the SPS and its North Experimental Area. The work was greatly eased by a geodolite, a measuring instrument on loan from the Fermi Laboratory, which uses a modulated laser beam. (See CERN Courier 14 (1974) p. 247.)
African Journals Online (AJOL)
(4,5) hava been reported. It has been found that several of the dicobelt (II) complexes of the coie'cial diporphyrins catalyze the four—electron reduction of dioxygen to water (6—10). In our laboratories we. have synthesized a hybrid porphyrin—like ligand 1 that allows the incorporation of two metals within one macrocyclic ...
Photosystem II and photoinhibition
Feikema, Willem Onno
2006-01-01
Plants harvest light energy and convert it into chemical energy. Light absorption by photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) results in charge separations in their reaction centers (RCs), initiating a chain of redox reactions with PSI generating the reducing power for CO2 assimilation into sugars, and
Root : shoot ratios, optimization and nitrogen productivity.
Agren, Göran I; Franklin, Oskar
2003-12-01
Plants respond to nitrogen availability by changing their root : shoot ratios. One hypothesis used to explain this allocation is that plants optimize their behaviour by maximizing their relative growth rate. The consequences of this hypothesis were investigated by formulating two models for root : shoot allocation, with and without explicit inclusion of maintenance respiration. The models also took into account that relative growth rate is a linear function of plant nitrogen concentration. The model without respiration gave qualitatively reasonable results when predictions were compared with observed results from growth experiments with birch and tomato. The explicit inclusion of maintenance respiration improved considerably the agreement between prediction and observation, and for birch was within the experimental accuracy. Further improvements will require additional details in the description of respiratory processes and the nitrogen uptake function. Plants growing under extreme nutrient stress may also optimize their behaviour with respect to other variables in addition to relative growth rate.
High resolution color band pyrometer ratioing
Bickler, Donald B. (Inventor); Henry, Paul K. (Inventor); LoGiurato, D. Daniel (Inventor)
1989-01-01
The sensing head of a two-color band ratioing pyrometer of a known type using a fiber optic cable to couple radiation to dual detector photodiodes is improved to have high spatial resolution by focusing the radiation received through an objective lens (i.e., by focusing the image of a target area) onto an opaque sheet spaced in front of the input end of the fiber optic cable. A two-mil hole in that sheet then passes radiation to the input end of the cable. The detector has two channels, one for each color band, with an electronic-chopper stabilized current amplifier as the input stage followed by an electronic-chopper stabilized voltage amplifier.
Parental investment, sexual selection and sex ratios.
Kokko, Hanna; Jennions, Michael D
2008-07-01
Conventional sex roles imply caring females and competitive males. The evolution of sex role divergence is widely attributed to anisogamy initiating a self-reinforcing process. The initial asymmetry in pre-mating parental investment (eggs vs. sperm) is assumed to promote even greater divergence in post-mating parental investment (parental care). But do we really understand the process? Trivers [Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man 1871-1971 (1972), Aldine Press, Chicago] introduced two arguments with a female and male perspective on whether to care for offspring that try to link pre-mating and post-mating investment. Here we review their merits and subsequent theoretical developments. The first argument is that females are more committed than males to providing care because they stand to lose a greater initial investment. This, however, commits the 'Concorde Fallacy' as optimal decisions should depend on future pay-offs not past costs. Although the argument can be rephrased in terms of residual reproductive value when past investment affects future pay-offs, it remains weak. The factors likely to change future pay-offs seem to work against females providing more care than males. The second argument takes the reasonable premise that anisogamy produces a male-biased operational sex ratio (OSR) leading to males competing for mates. Male care is then predicted to be less likely to evolve as it consumes resources that could otherwise be used to increase competitiveness. However, given each offspring has precisely two genetic parents (the Fisher condition), a biased OSR generates frequency-dependent selection, analogous to Fisherian sex ratio selection, that favours increased parental investment by whichever sex faces more intense competition. Sex role divergence is therefore still an evolutionary conundrum. Here we review some possible solutions. Factors that promote conventional sex roles are sexual selection on males (but non-random variance in male mating success
Ratio-Based Gradual Aggregation of Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iftikhar, Nadeem
2012-01-01
cause data management and data storage issues. However, non-flexible and ineffective means of data aggregation not only reduce performance of database queries but also lead to erroneous reporting. This paper presents flexible and effective ratio-based methods for gradual data aggregation in databases....... Gradual data aggregation is a process that reduces data volume by converting the detailed data into multiple levels of summarized data as the data gets older. This paper also describes implementation strategies of the proposed methods based on standard database technology.......Majority of databases contain large amounts of data, gathered over long intervals of time. In most cases, the data is aggregated so that it can be used for analysis and reporting purposes. The other reason of data aggregation is to reduce data volume in order to avoid over-sized databases that may...
AbouEl-Enein, S. A.; El-Saied, F. A.; Kasher, T. I.; El-Wardany, A. H.
2007-07-01
Salicylidene- N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H 2L 1) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene- N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H 2L 2) and their iron(III), manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by IR, electronic spectra, molar conductivities, magnetic susceptibilities and ESR. Mononuclear complexes are formed with molar ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 (M:L). The IR studies reveal various modes of chelation. The electronic absorption spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements show that the iron(III), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) complexes of H 2L 1 have octahedral geometry. While the cobalt(II) complexes of H 2L 2 were separated as tetrahedral structure. The copper(II) complexes have square planar stereochemistry. The ESR parameters of the copper(II) complexes at room temperature were calculated. The g values for copper(II) complexes proved that the Cu sbnd O and Cu sbnd N bonds are of high covalency.
AbouEl-Enein, S A; El-Saied, F A; Kasher, T I; El-Wardany, A H
2007-07-01
Salicylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H(2)L(1)) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H(2)L(2)) and their iron(III), manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by IR, electronic spectra, molar conductivities, magnetic susceptibilities and ESR. Mononuclear complexes are formed with molar ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 (M:L). The IR studies reveal various modes of chelation. The electronic absorption spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements show that the iron(III), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) complexes of H(2)L(1) have octahedral geometry. While the cobalt(II) complexes of H(2)L(2) were separated as tetrahedral structure. The copper(II) complexes have square planar stereochemistry. The ESR parameters of the copper(II) complexes at room temperature were calculated. The g values for copper(II) complexes proved that the Cu-O and Cu-N bonds are of high covalency.
EFFECT OF THE SEX RATIO ON THE EGG FERTILITY OF MUSCOVY DUCK (CAIRINA MOSHCATA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matina NICKOLOVA
2005-04-01
Full Text Available Study was carried out for establishing the optimal sex ratio in Muscovy duck breeding. Four variants of the ratio of the male to the female individuals were tested: 1:5(I, 1:6(II, 1:7(III and 1:8(IV. In the frames of each sex ratio (variant, two subgroups (sub-variants were formed with the aim of establishing the effect of the hierarchy relations among the drakes on egg fertility: with one male in a group (A and with more than one male in a group (B. The highest egg fertility – 97.09 % was achieved at 1:5 sex ratio (with more than one drake in a group and the lowest – 93.41 % at 1:8 sex ratio (with a single male in a group. Signifi cant decrease in egg fertility was registered when increasing the sex ratio to 1:8, that effect being displayed more weakly at more than one male in the group. When increasing the ratio, the presence of more than one drake in the family group exerted a positive infl uence on egg fertility, due to the preference of the males to certain females and the distribution of the rest of the females among the drakes placed in the hierarchy below the “alpha”, depending on their grade in the hierarchy order. The most appropriate sex ratio for Muscovy duck species was 1:5, and, when there was shortage of the male reproduction material, 1:6 ratio was also acceptable, especially if more than one drakes were placed in the family group (effect of supporting the alpha.
/sup 14/CO/sub 2/ ratios method for detecting pyruvate carboxylation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kelleher, J.K.; Bryan, B.M. III
1985-11-15
The pattern of oxidative metabolism of pyruvate may be assessed by comparing the steady-state /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from four isotopes in identical samples. The assay requires measuring the ratios of steady-state /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from two isotope pairs, (2-/sup 14/C)pyruvate:(3-/sup 14/C)pyruvate and (1-/sup 14/C)acetate:(2-/sup 14/C)acetate. These ratios are defined as the ''pyruvate /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ ratio'' and the ''acetate /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ ratio,'' respectively. If pyruvate is metabolized exclusively via pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), the two ratios will be identical. Alternatively, if any pyruvate enters the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle via pyruvate carboxylation (PC), the pyruvate /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ ratio will be less than the acetate /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ ratio. If pyruvate enters the TCA cycle only through PC (with oxaloacetate and fumarate in equilibrium) the pyruvate /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ ratio will approach a value of 1.0. An equation is presented for the quantitative evaluation of pyruvate oxidation by these two pathways. We have used this method to detect relative changes in the pattern of pyruvate metabolism in rat liver mitochondria produced by exposure to 1 mM octanoyl carnitine, a compound known to alter the PC:PDH activity ratio. The major advantages of the method are (i) that it provides a sensitive method for detecting pyruvate carboxylation at physiological pyruvate concentrations and (ii) that it provides a method for distinguishing between effects on pyruvate transport and effects on pyruvate oxidation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kravchenko, Natasa [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)
2008-05-01
We present a measurement of the relative branching ratio of the Cabibbo-suppressed D^{+} meson decay into three charged pions using 193 pb^{-1} of data collected by CDF II detector at Fermilab's Tevatron.
Bila, K.; Moretti, M.; de Bello, F.; Dias, A.T.C.; Pezzatti, G.B.; van Oosten, A.R.; Berg, M.P.
2014-01-01
Recent investigations have shown that two components of community trait composition are important for key ecosystem processes: (i) the community-weighted mean trait value (CWM), related to the mass ratio hypothesis and dominant trait values in the community, and (ii) functional diversity (FD),
Changes in the Rubisco to photosystem ratio dominates photoacclimation across phytoplankton taxa.
Vandenhecke, Jennifer Marie-Rose; Bastedo, Jake; Cockshutt, Amanda M; Campbell, Douglas A; Huot, Yannick
2015-06-01
When growth irradiance changes, phytoplankton acclimates by changing allocations to cellular components to re-balance their capacity to absorb photons versus their capacity to use the electrons from the oxidation of water at photosystem II. Published changes in the cellular allocations resulting from photoacclimation across algal groups highlight that algae adopt different strategies. We examined the photoacclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus of six marine phytoplankters under near-natural diel irradiance patterns. For most of the phytoplankters, Chl a per structural photosystem II unit decreased with increasing growth irradiance, but a parallel decline in optical packaging effect allowed cells to maintain their functional absorption cross section serving active photosystem II units (σ PSII). Furthermore, no significant changes were observed in the ratio of Chl a per photosystem I. The diatom Skeletonema marinoi proved an exception to this pattern as Chl a per photosystem II is stable and Chl a per photosystem I slightly decreased with light intensity. A clear decrease in the photosystem content per cell was observed for all species except for Thalassiosira oceanica and S. marinoi. Rubisco content per cell showed little variation with irradiance for most algae, except for a 3-fold increase in S. marinoi. A ~700 % increase in the Rubisco:photosystem ratio across species with increasing growth irradiance indicates this is a key cellular stoichiometric adjustment to balance photon absorption capacity and the carbon reduction capacity. Increasing the Rubisco:photosystem ratio occurs through a decrease in the photosystems per cell for most of the phytoplankters in this study, except in the case of S. marinoi where Rubisco per cell increased.
Ha, Juyoung; Trainor, Thomas P; Farges, François; Brown, Gordon E
2009-05-19
Sorption of Zn(II) to hematite nanoparticles (HN) (av diam=10.5 nm) and microparticles (HM) (av diam=550 nm) was studied in the presence of oxalate anions (Ox2-(aq)) in aqueous solutions as a function of total Zn(II)(aq) to total Ox2-(aq) concentration ratio (R=[Zn(II)(aq)]tot/[Ox2-(aq)]tot) at pH 5.5. Zn(II) uptake is similar in extent for both the Zn(II)/Ox/HN and Zn(II)/Ox/HM ternary systems and the Zn(II)/HN binary system at [Zn(II)(aq)](tot)system than for the Zn(II)/Ox/HM ternary and the Zn(II)/HN and Zn(II)/HM binary systems at [Zn(II)(aq)]tot>4 mM. In contrast, Zn(II) uptake for the Zn(II)/HM binary system is a factor of 2 greater than that for the Zn(II)/Ox/HM and Zn(II)/Ox/HN ternary systems and the Zn(II)/HN binary system at [Zn(II)(aq)]totternary system at both R values examined (0.16 and 0.68), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) results are consistent with the presence of inner-sphere oxalate complexes and outer-sphere ZnOx(aq) complexes, and/or type A ternary complexes. In addition, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopic results suggest that type A ternary surface complexes (i.e., >O2-Zn-Ox) are present. In the Zn(II)/Ox/HN ternary system at R=0.15, ATR-FTIR results indicate the presence of inner-sphere oxalate and outer-sphere ZnOx(aq) complexes; the EXAFS results provide no evidence for inner-sphere Zn(II) complexes or type A ternary complexes. In contrast, ATR-FTIR results for the Zn/Ox/HN sample with R = 0.68 are consistent with a ZnOx(s)-like surface precipitate and possibly type B ternary surface complexes (i.e., >O2-Ox-Zn). EXAFS results are also consistent with the presence of ZnOx(s)-like precipitates. We ascribe the observed increase of Zn(II)(aq) uptake in the Zn(II)/Ox/HN ternary system at [Zn(II)(aq)]tot>or=4 mM relative to the Zn(II)/Ox/HM ternary system to formation of a ZnOx(s)-like precipitate at the hematite nanoparticle/water interface.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peng, Weijun; Li, Hongqiang; Liu, Yanyan; Song, Shaoxian, E-mail: shaoxian@uaslp.mx
2016-02-28
Graphical abstract: The oxygenous functional groups located at the edges of on GO sheets mainly participated in the complexation of Pb(II). And the Pb(II) might bridged different GO sheets through simultaneously binding the hydroxyl or carboxyl groups at the edges. - Highlights: • Amorphous graphite was preferable to synthesize GO adsorbent for Pb(II). • The marginal oxygenous groups of GO sheets mainly participated in the complexation of Pb(II). • Pb(II) might bridged different GO sheets through simultaneously binding the hydroxyl or carboxyl groups at the edges. - Abstract: Comparative study has been performed on the adsorption of Pb(II) on graphene oxides (GOs) prepared from flaky, lump and amorphous graphites with the Hummers method in this work. The GOs were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Chemical analysis, Raman spectroscopy and Atomic force microscope. The results indicated that GO prepared from amorphous graphite had lower C/O ratio and more thin layers (less than 2 nm in thickness) than those prepared from the other two natural graphites. The adsorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics model, and the equilibrium data agreed precisely with the Langmuir model. The hydroxyl and carboxyl located at the edges of GO sheets mainly participated in the complexation of Pb(II), and different GO sheets were bridged by Pb(II) through simultaneously bonding the marginal oxygenous groups.
Baba, Yosuke; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Usui, Rie; Takahashi, Hironori; Matsubara, Shigeki
2016-07-01
In hypertensive pregnant women, the protein-to-creatinine (P/C) ratio is well correlated with 24-h proteinuria and a P/C ratio of 0.27 (g/gCr) is used to reflect significant proteinuria (>0.3 g/day). The aim of this study was to obtain data on normotensive pregnant women, which have so far been lacking. The study population consisted of 74 pregnant women who met the following criteria: (i) ≥22 gestational weeks; (ii) a positive result (≥1+) on dipstick test; (iii) a positive result (>0.27) for P/C ratio; and (iv) 24-h urine test performed within 2 days of the P/C ratio. The correlation between the P/C ratio and 24-h proteinuria, the incidence rates of significant proteinuria according to P/C ratios, and appropriate threshold of the P/C ratio to rule in significant proteinuria were determined using the appropriate statistical methods. The P/C ratio was moderately correlated with the 24-h proteinuria, with a correlation coefficient of 0.64 (95% confidence interval, 0.487-0.76). The area under the receiver-operator curve was 0.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.87); however, no clear shoulder was identifiable. The incidence rates of significant proteinuria according to P/C ratios of 0.27-0.49, 0.50-0.74, 0.75-0.99, and >1 were 41, 66, 100, and 100%, respectively, indicating that all normotensive pregnant women with a P/C ratio > 0.75 had significant proteinuria. Normotensive pregnant women showed a significant correlation between the P/C ratio and 24-h urine protein level. All normotensive pregnant women with a P/C ratio > 0.75 had significant proteinuria, suggesting that a P/C ratio > 0.75 may be the 'rule-in' threshold of significant proteinuria in this population. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Potentiometric and spectrometric study: Copper (II), nickel (II) and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Equilibrium and solution structural study of mixed-metal-mixed-ligand complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) with L-cysteine, L-threonine and imidazole are conducted in aqueous solution by potentiometry and spectrophotometry. Stability constants of the binary, ternary and quaternary complexes are determined at 25 ± 1 ° C ...
Spectroscopic and potentiometric studies of Co (II) and Ni (II ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The Schiff base complexes of cobalt(II) and nickel(II) were synthesized by refluxing the mixture of ethanolic solutions of the Schiff base and metal(II) chlorides, respectively. The complexes were characterized by gravimetry, spectrophotometry, potentiometry, molar conductance and infrared analyses. The N-(1- ...
Fetal gender ratio in recurrent miscarriages
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Del Fabro A
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Anna Del Fabro1, Lorenza Driul1, Omar Anis1, Ambrogio P Londero1, Serena Bertozzi2, Livio Bortotto3, Diego Marchesoni11Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Clinic of Surgery, 3Unit of Genetics, University Hospital of Udine, Udine, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gender ratio and incidence of chromosomal anomalies in the products of conception (POC from recurrent miscarriages.Methods: We determined the karyotypes of POC from patients with recurrent spontaneous miscarriages between 1999 and 2009.Results: In total, 313 specimens were successfully karyotyped, with a median gestational age of 10 weeks at miscarriage (interquartile range 8–13; 199 (64% were females and 114 (36% were males. In total, 121 (39% had abnormal karyotypes, the most prevalent of which were chromosome 21 and 16 trisomies, triploidy, and monosomy X.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that female POC might be more susceptible to recurrent miscarriages than male ones during embryogenesis, implantation, and initial fetal development.Keywords: fetal gender, recurrent miscarriages, karyotype anomalies
Zhang, Kai; Yan, Renbin; Bundy, Kevin; Bershady, Matthew; Haffner, L. Matthew; Walterbos, René; Maiolino, Roberto; Tremonti, Christy; Thomas, Daniel; Drory, Niv; Jones, Amy; Belfiore, Francesco; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Nitschelm, Christian; Andrews, Brett; Brinkmann, Jon; Brownstein, Joel R.; Cheung, Edmond; Li, Cheng; Law, David R.; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Storchi Bergmann, Thaisa; Simmons, Audrey
2017-04-01
Diffuse ionized gas (DIG) is prevalent in star-forming galaxies. Using a sample of 365 nearly face-on star-forming galaxies observed by Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO, we demonstrate how DIG in star-forming galaxies impacts the measurements of emission-line ratios, hence the interpretation of diagnostic diagrams and gas-phase metallicity measurements. At fixed metallicity, DIG-dominated low ΣHα regions display enhanced [S II]/Hα, [N II]/Hα, [O II]/Hβ and [O I]/Hα. The gradients in these line ratios are determined by metallicity gradients and ΣHα. In line ratio diagnostic diagrams, contamination by DIG moves H II regions towards composite or low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LI(N)ER)-like regions. A harder ionizing spectrum is needed to explain DIG line ratios. Leaky H II region models can only shift line ratios slightly relative to H II region models, and thus fail to explain the composite/LI(N)ER line ratios displayed by DIG. Our result favours ionization by evolved stars as a major ionization source for DIG with LI(N)ER-like emission. DIG can significantly bias the measurement of gas metallicity and metallicity gradients derived using strong-line methods. Metallicities derived using N2O2 are optimal because they exhibit the smallest bias and error. Using O3N2, R23, N2 = [N II]/Hα and N2S2Hα to derive metallicities introduces bias in the derived metallicity gradients as large as the gradient itself. The strong-line method of Blanc et al. (IZI hereafter) cannot be applied to DIG to get an accurate metallicity because it currently contains only H II region models that fail to describe the DIG.
REA, The Editors of
1988-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Heat Transfer II reviews correlations for forced convection, free convection, heat exchangers, radiation heat transfer, and boiling and condensation.
Transport phenomena II essentials
REA, The Editors of
2012-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration
Numerical analysis II essentials
REA, The Editors of; Staff of Research Education Association
1989-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Numerical Analysis II covers simultaneous linear systems and matrix methods, differential equations, Fourier transformations, partial differential equations, and Monte Carlo methods.
Algebra & trigonometry II essentials
REA, Editors of
2012-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Algebra & Trigonometry II includes logarithms, sequences and series, permutations, combinations and probability, vectors, matrices, determinants and systems of equations, mathematica
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ludovik Osterc
1999-12-01
Full Text Available Como es sabido, el 13 de septiembre de 1598, a las cinco de la mañana, falleció en el Escorial el Rey Felipe II. Sevilla que según sus historiadores siempre se distinguió entre todas las ciudades de España por el fausto y suntuosidad de los sucesos solemnes, ya sea cuando los monarcas se dignaban visitarla, ya sea cuando se trataba de honrar su memoria con ocasión de su muerte, se habia excedido a si misma en el reinado de Felipe II. La pública y señorial entrada de su padre, el emperador Carlos V cuando en 1526 vino a esta ciudad para realizar sus bodas con la Infanta Isabel de Portugal, que por su magnificencia consignan sus anales, como superior a cuantas hubo antes en análogas circunstancias, no puede compararse con el recibimiento dispensado a Felipe II, el año de 1570, que por encargo de su Cabildo describió la docta pluma de Mal Lara.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thiessen, H.A.
1982-08-01
The present conception of LAMPF II is a high-intensity 16-GeV synchrotron injected by the LAMPF 800-MeV H/sup -/ beam. The proton beam will be used to make secondary beams of neutrinos, muons, pions, kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons more intense than those of any existing or proposed accelerator. For example, by taking maximum advantage of a thick target, modern beam optics, and the LAMPF II proton beam, it will be possible to make a negative muon beam with nearly 100% duty factor and nearly 100 times the flux of the existing Stopped Muon Channel (SMC). Because the unique features of the proposed machine are most applicable to beams of the same momentum as LAMPF (that is, < 2 GeV/c), it may be possible to use most of the experimental areas and some of the auxiliary equipment, including spectrometers, with the new accelerator. The complete facility will provide improved technology for many areas of physics already available at LAMPF and will allow expansion of medium-energy physics to include kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons. When LAMPF II comes on line in 1990 LAMPF will have been operational for 18 years and a major upgrade such as this proposal will be reasonable and prudent.
10 CFR 436.21 - Savings-to-investment ratio.
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings-to-investment ratio. 436.21 Section 436.21 Energy... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.21 Savings-to-investment ratio. The savings-to-investment ratio... conservation measure. The denominator of the ratio is the present value of the net increase in investment and...
Tamil Nadu and the Diagonal Divide in Sex Ratios
A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); S. Srinivasan (Sharada)
2009-01-01
textabstractBetween 1961 and 2001, India’s 0-6 sex ratio has steadily declined. Despite evidence to the contrary, this ratio is often characterised in terms of a diagonal divide with low 0-6 sex ratios in northern and western India and normal 0-6 sex ratios in eastern and southern India. While
26 CFR 26.2642-5 - Finality of inclusion ratio.
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finality of inclusion ratio. 26.2642-5 Section...-5 Finality of inclusion ratio. (a) Direct skips. The inclusion ratio applicable to a direct skip...) Other GSTs. With respect to taxable distributions and taxable terminations, the inclusion ratio for a...
Pair correlation and twin primes revisited
Conrey, Brian; Keating, Jonathan P.
2016-10-01
We establish a connection between the conjectural two-over-two ratios formula for the Riemann zeta-function and a conjecture concerning correlations of a certain arithmetic function. Specifically, we prove that the ratios conjecture and the arithmetic correlations conjecture imply the same result. This casts a new light on the underpinnings of the ratios conjecture, which previously had been motivated by analogy with formulae in random matrix theory and by a heuristic recipe.
Oxidative ratio (OR) of UK peats
Clay, G. D.; Worrall, F.; Masiello, C. A.
2012-04-01
The oxidative ratio (OR) is the amount of CO2 sequestered in the terrestrial biosphere for each mol of O2 produced. The OR governs the effectiveness of a terrestrial biome to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and it has been used to calculate the balance of terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks across the globe. However, few studies have investigated the controls of the variability in OR. What factors affect OR - climate? Soil type? Vegetation type? N deposition? Land use? Land use change? Small shifts in OR could have important implications in the global partitioning of CO2 between the atmosphere, biosphere, and oceans. This study looks at peat soils (Histosols) from a series of sites representing a climatic transect across the UK. Duplicate peat cores were taken, along with samples of above-ground vegetation and litter, from sites in northern Scotland (Forsinard), southern Scotland (Auchencorth), northern England (Moor House; Thorne Moor) through the Welsh borders (Whixhall Moss) and Somerset levels (Westhay Moor) to Dartmoor and Bodmin Moor in the south west of England. Sub-samples of the cores were analysed for their CHNO concentrations using a Costech ECS 4010 Elemental combustion system. Using the method of Masiello et al. (2008), OR values could be calculated from these elemental concentrations. Initial results show that OR values of UK peats varied between 0.94 and 1.1 with a median value of 1.05 which similar to the median value of World soils but the range is at the more reduced end. There was significant variation between peat cores, even between peat cores on the same site and the peat showed significant reduction in OR with depth in the core.
[Hemodialysis improves the subendocardial viability ratio].
De Blasio, Antonella; Sirico, Maria; Di Micco, Lucia; Di Iorio, Biagio
2013-01-01
The subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), a parameter introduced by Buckberg, represents a non-invasive measure of myocardial perfusion related to left ventricular work. AIM. The aim of this study was to verify if dialysis may determine modifications of SEVR and how these modifications are modulated in the 2-day interdialytic period. METHODS.We studied 54 subjects of mean age 6314 years and receiving dialysis for 3215 months. Exclusion criteria were diabetes, resistant hypertension and peripheral vascular diseases and intradialytic hypotension evidenced during the study dialysis session. Pulse wave velocity and SEVR assessments were performed during the third dialysis session of the week, before (pre-HD) and after (post-HD) dialysis, in 2-day interdialytic period after and at the beginning of the following dialysis session. RESULTS.Dialysis reduces PWV, in particular the tertile with the lowest PWV presents the highest percentage reduction (-26%) compared with the second and the third tertiles. In the same way, dialysis leads to an increase of SEVR and patients in the tertile with the highest SEVR values maintain high SEVR values during dialysis and in the interdialytic period. Patients with severe vascular calcifications present higher PWV value and lower SEVR value. CONCLUSIONS.The results of present study demonstrate that ultrafiltration improves PWV (with a mean reduction of 16%) and SEVR (increase of 13%) and that the severity of vascular calcifications influences the effect of ultrafiltration on these two parameters. More studies are certainly necessary to verify our findings. Considered the higher mortality of patients with higher SEVR, it would be important to understand if new dialytic strategies are needed in patients with higher PVW and lower SEVR values.
Numerical Estimation of the Spent Fuel Ratio
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lindgren, Eric R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Durbin, Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilke, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Margraf, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunn, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2016-01-01
Sabotage of spent nuclear fuel casks remains a concern nearly forty years after attacks against shipment casks were first analyzed and has a renewed relevance in the post-9/11 environment. A limited number of full-scale tests and supporting efforts using surrogate materials, typically depleted uranium dioxide (DUO 2 ), have been conducted in the interim to more definitively determine the source term from these postulated events. However, the validity of these large- scale results remain in question due to the lack of a defensible spent fuel ratio (SFR), defined as the amount of respirable aerosol generated by an attack on a mass of spent fuel compared to that of an otherwise identical surrogate. Previous attempts to define the SFR in the 1980's have resulted in estimates ranging from 0.42 to 12 and include suboptimal experimental techniques and data comparisons. Because of the large uncertainty surrounding the SFR, estimates of releases from security-related events may be unnecessarily conservative. Credible arguments exist that the SFR does not exceed a value of unity. A defensible determination of the SFR in this lower range would greatly reduce the calculated risk associated with the transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask systems. In the present work, the shock physics codes CTH and ALE3D were used to simulate spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and DUO 2 targets impacted by a high-velocity jet at an ambient temperature condition. These preliminary results are used to illustrate an approach to estimate the respirable release fraction for each type of material and ultimately, an estimate of the SFR. This page intentionally blank
Heteroleptic neutral Ru(II) complexes based photodiodes
Elgazzar, Elsayed; Dayan, O.; Serbetci, Z.; Dere, A.; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; El-Tantawy, Farid; Farooq, W. A.; Yakuphanoglu, F.
2017-07-01
The two complexes Ru (II) containing 2,6-bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine and 2-pyridine and 2-quinoline carboxylates were synthesized to fabricate organic photodiodes. The electrical properties of Au / Ru (II) complex (I) / n - Si / Al and Au / Ru (II) complex (II) / n - Si / Al diodes were investigated by current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements. The fabricated devices give a high rectification behavior with rectification ratio of 2.4 × 104 -2.1 × 103 at ± 4 V. The diodes exhibited a high photoconductivity based on trap levels within band gap. The series resistance and barrier height were calculated from (C - V) measurements and compared to other of (I - V) . The obtained results indicate that the prepared photodiodes can be used as photosensor for optoelectronic applications.
Babahan, Ilknur; Eyduran, Fatih; Coban, Esin Poyrazoglu; Orhan, Nil; Kazar, Didem; Biyik, Halil
2014-03-01
Two novel vicinal dioxime ligands containing (4-methoxybenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone glyoxime (L1H2) or 4-ethoxybenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone glyoxime (L2H2)) thiosemicarbazone units were synthesized and characterized using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMQC, MS, infrared and, UV-VIS. spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Mononuclear nickel(II), copper(II) and cobalt(II) complexes with a metal:ligand ratio of 1:2 for L1H2 and L2H2 were also synthesized. The effect of pH and solvent on the absorption spectra of both ligands and complexes was determined. IR spectra show that the ligands act in a bidentate manner and coordinates N4 donor groups of the ligands to NiII, CuII and CoII ions. The detection of H-bonding (Osbnd H⋯O) in the [M(LH)2] metal complexes by IR spectra supported the square-planar MN4 coordination of mononuclear complexes. The antimicrobial activities of compounds L1H2 , L2H2 , and their Ni(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes were evaluated using the disc diffusion method against 12 bacteria and 4 yeasts. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against 7 bacteria and 3 yeasts were also determined. Among the test compounds attempted, L1H2 , [Ni(L1H)2 ], [Cu(L1H)2 ], L2H2 , [Ni(L2H)2 ] and [Cu(L2H)2 ] showed some activities against certain Gram-positive bacteria and some of the yeasts tested.
Reproducibility of the nicotine metabolite ratio in cigarette smokers.
St Helen, Gideon; Novalen, Maria; Heitjan, Daniel F; Dempsey, Delia; Jacob, Peyton; Aziziyeh, Adel; Wing, Victoria C; George, Tony P; Tyndale, Rachel F; Benowitz, Neal L
2012-07-01
The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR or 3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine) has been used to phenotype CYP2A6-mediated nicotine metabolism. Our objectives were to analyze (i) the stability of NMR in plasma, saliva, and blood in various storage conditions, (ii) the relationship between NMRs derived from blood, plasma, saliva, and urine, and (iii) the reproducibility of plasma NMR in ad libitum cigarette smokers. We analyzed data from four clinical studies. In studies 1 and 2, we assessed NMR stability in saliva and plasma samples at room temperature (~22°C) over 14 days and in blood at 4°C for up to 72 hours. In studies 2 and 3, we used Bland-Altman analysis to assess agreement between blood, plasma, saliva, and urine NMRs. In study 4, plasma NMR was measured on six occasions over 44 weeks in 43 ad libitum smokers. Reliability coefficients for stability tests of NMR in plasma and saliva at room temperature were 0.97 and 0.98, respectively, and 0.92 for blood at 4°C. Blood NMR agreed consistently with saliva and plasma NMRs but showed more variability in relation to urine NMR. The reliability coefficient for repeated plasma NMR measurements in smokers was 0.85. The NMR is stable in blood, plasma, and saliva at the conditions tested. Blood, plasma, and saliva NMRs are similar whereas urine NMR is a good proxy for these NMR measures. Plasma NMR was reproducible over time in smokers. One measurement may reliably estimate a smoker's NMR for use as an estimate of the rate of nicotine metabolism. ©2012 AACR
Yin Yang gene expression ratio signature for lung cancer prognosis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wayne Xu
Full Text Available Many studies have established gene expression-based prognostic signatures for lung cancer. All of these signatures were built from training data sets by learning the correlation of gene expression with the patients' survival time. They require all new sample data to be normalized to the training data, ultimately resulting in common problems of low reproducibility and impracticality. To overcome these problems, we propose a new signature model which does not involve data training. We hypothesize that the imbalance of two opposing effects in lung cancer cells, represented by Yin and Yang genes, determines a patient's prognosis. We selected the Yin and Yang genes by comparing expression data from normal lung and lung cancer tissue samples using both unsupervised clustering and pathways analyses. We calculated the Yin and Yang gene expression mean ratio (YMR as patient risk scores. Thirty-one Yin and thirty-two Yang genes were identified and selected for the signature development. In normal lung tissues, the YMR is less than 1.0; in lung cancer cases, the YMR is greater than 1.0. The YMR was tested for lung cancer prognosis prediction in four independent data sets and it significantly stratified patients into high- and low-risk survival groups (p = 0.02, HR = 2.72; p = 0.01, HR = 2.70; p = 0.007, HR = 2.73; p = 0.005, HR = 2.63. It also showed prediction of the chemotherapy outcomes for stage II & III. In multivariate analysis, the YMR risk factor was more successful at predicting clinical outcomes than other commonly used clinical factors, with the exception of tumor stage. The YMR can be measured in an individual patient in the clinic independent of gene expression platform. This study provided a novel insight into the biology of lung cancer and shed light on the clinical applicability.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ticuţa Negreanu-Pîrjol
2011-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper we report the synthesis, physical-chemical characterization and antimicrobial activity of some new complex compounds of hetero-aromatic biguanides ligands, chlorhexidine base (CHX and chlorhexidine diacetate (CHXac2 with metallic ions Cu(II and Zn(II, in different molar ratio. The synthesized complexes were characterized by elemental chemical analysis and differential thermal analysis. The stereochemistry of the metallic ions was determined by infrared spectra, UV-Vis, EPR spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility in the aim to establish the complexes structures. The biological activity of the new complex compounds was identified in solid technique by measuring minimum inhibition diameter of bacterial and fungal culture, against three standard pathogen strains, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphilococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The results show an increased specific antimicrobial activity for the complexes chlorhexidine:Cu(II 1:1 and 1:2 compared with the one of the Zn(II complexes.
Average [O II]nebular emission associated with Mg II absorbers: Dependence on Fe II absorption
Joshi, Ravi; Srianand, Raghunathan; Petitjean, Patrick; Noterdaeme, Pasquier
2018-01-01
We investigate the effect of Fe II equivalent width (W2600) and fibre size on the average luminosity of [O II]λλ3727,3729 nebular emission associated with Mg II absorbers (at 0.55 ≤ z ≤ 1.3) in the composite spectra of quasars obtained with 3 and 2 arcsec fibres in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We confirm the presence of strong correlations between [O II] luminosity (L_{[O II]}) and equivalent width (W2796) and redshift of Mg II absorbers. However, we show L_{[O II]} and average luminosity surface density suffers from fibre size effects. More importantly, for a given fibre size the average L_{[O II]} strongly depends on the equivalent width of Fe II absorption lines and found to be higher for Mg II absorbers with R ≡W2600/W2796 ≥0.5. In fact, we show the observed strong correlations of L_{[O II]} with W2796 and z of Mg II absorbers are mainly driven by such systems. Direct [O II] detections also confirm the link between L_{[O II]} and R. Therefore, one has to pay attention to the fibre losses and dependence of redshift evolution of Mg II absorbers on W2600 before using them as a luminosity unbiased probe of global star formation rate density. We show that the [O II] nebular emission detected in the stacked spectrum is not dominated by few direct detections (i.e., detections ≥3σ significant level). On an average the systems with R ≥0.5 and W2796 ≥2Å are more reddened, showing colour excess E(B - V) ˜ 0.02, with respect to the systems with R <0.5 and most likely traces the high H I column density systems.
Isotope ratio analysis by Orbitrap mass spectrometry
Eiler, J. M.; Chimiak, L. M.; Dallas, B.; Griep-Raming, J.; Juchelka, D.; Makarov, A.; Schwieters, J. B.
2016-12-01
Several technologies are being developed to examine the intramolecular isotopic structures of molecules (i.e., site-specific and multiple substitution), but various limitations in sample size and type or (for IRMS) resolution have so far prevented the creation of a truly general technique. We will discuss the initial findings of a technique based on Fourier transform mass spectrometry, using the Thermo Scientific Q Exactive GC — an instrument that contains an Orbitrap mass analyzer. Fourier transform mass spectrometry is marked by exceptionally high mass resolutions (the Orbitrap reaches M/∆M in the range 250,000-1M in the mass range of greatest interest, 50-200 amu). This allows for resolution of a large range of nearly isobaric interferences for isotopologues of volatile and semi-volatile compounds (i.e., involving isotopes of H, C, N, O and S). It also provides potential to solve very challenging mass resolution problems for isotopic analysis of other, heavier elements. Both internal and external experimental reproducibilities of isotope ratio analyses using the Orbitrap typically conform to shot-noise limits down to levels of 0.2 ‰ (1SE), and routinely in the range 0.5-1.0 ‰, with similar accuracy when standardized to concurrently run reference materials. Such measurements can be made without modifications to the ion optics of the Q Exactive GC, but do require specially designed sample introduction devices to permit sample/standard comparison and long integration times. The sensitivity of the Q Exactive GC permits analysis of sub-nanomolar samples and quantification of multiply-substituted species. The site-specific capability of this instrument arises from the fact that mass spectra of molecular analytes commonly contain diverse fragment ion species, each of which samples a specific sub-set of molecular sites. We will present applications of this technique to the biological and abiological chemistry of amino acids, forensic identification of
High Aspect Ratio Semiconductor Heterojunction Solar Cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Redwing, Joan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Material Science and Engineering; Mallouk, Tom [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Mayer, Theresa [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Dickey, Elizabeth [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wronski, Chris [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
2013-05-17
The project focused on the development of high aspect ratio silicon heterojunction (HARSH) solar cells. The solar cells developed in this study consisted of high density vertical arrays of radial junction silicon microwires/pillars formed on Si substrates. Prior studies have demonstrated that vertical Si wire/pillar arrays enable reduced reflectivity and improved light trapping characteristics compared to planar solar cells. In addition, the radial junction structure offers the possibility of increased carrier collection in solar cells fabricated using material with short carrier diffusion lengths. However, the high junction and surface area of radial junction Si wire/pillar array devices can be problematic and lead to increased diode leakage and enhanced surface recombination. This study investigated the use of amorphous hydrogenated Si in the form of a heterojunction-intrinsic-thin layer (HIT) structure as a junction formation method for these devices. The HIT layer structure has widely been employed to reduce surface recombination in planar crystalline Si solar cells. Consequently, it was anticipated that it would also provide significant benefits to the performance of radial junction Si wire/pillar array devices. The overall goals of the project were to demonstrate a HARSH cell with a HIT-type structure in the radial junction Si wire/pillar array configuration and to develop potentially low cost pathways to fabricate these devices. Our studies demonstrated that the HIT structure lead to significant improvements in the open circuit voltage (V_{oc}>0.5) of radial junction Si pillar array devices compared to devices fabricated using junctions formed by thermal diffusion or low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). In addition, our work experimentally demonstrated that the radial junction structure lead to improvements in efficiency compared to comparable planar devices for devices fabricated using heavily doped Si that had reduced carrier diffusion
Hirschmann, Michaela; Charlot, Stephane; Feltre, Anna; Naab, Thorsten; Choi, Ena; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Somerville, Rachel S.
2017-12-01
Galaxies occupy different regions of the [O III]λ5007/H β-versus-[N II]λ6584/H α emission-line ratio diagram in the distant and local Universe. We investigate the origin of this intriguing result by modelling self-consistently, for the first time, nebular emission from young stars, accreting black holes (BHs) and older, post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stellar populations in galaxy formation simulations in a full cosmological context. In post-processing, we couple new-generation nebular-emission models with high-resolution, cosmological zoom-in simulations of massive galaxies to explore which galaxy physical properties drive the redshift evolution of the optical-line ratios [O III]λ5007/H β, [N II]λ6584/H α, [S II]λλ6717, 6731/H α and [O I]λ6300/H α. The line ratios of simulated galaxies agree well with observations of both star-forming and active local Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies. Towards higher redshifts, at fixed galaxy stellar mass, the average [O III]/H β is predicted to increase and [N II]/H α, [S II]/H α and [O I]/H α to decrease - widely consistent with observations. At fixed stellar mass, we identify star formation history, which controls nebular emission from young stars via the ionization parameter, as the primary driver of the cosmic evolution of [O III]/H β and [N II]/H α. For [S II]/H α and [O I]/H α, this applies only to redshifts greater than z = 1.5, the evolution at lower redshift being driven in roughly equal parts by nebular emission from active galactic nuclei and post-AGB stellar populations. Instead, changes in the hardness of ionizing radiation, ionized-gas density, the prevalence of BH accretion relative to star formation and the dust-to-metal mass ratio (whose impact on the gas-phase N/O ratio we model at fixed O/H) play at most a minor role in the cosmic evolution of simulated galaxy line ratios.
The Influence of Mg(II and Ca(II Ions on Rutin Autoxidation in Weakly Alkaline Aqueous Solutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Živanović Slavoljub C.
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside is one of the most abundant bioflavonoids with various biological and pharmacological activities. Considering the ubiquitous presence of Mg(II and Ca(II ions in biological systems we decided to investigate their influence on the autoxidation of rutin in weakly alkaline aqueous solutions. Changes in UV-Vis spectra recorded during the rutin autoxidation in aqueous solution at pH 8.4 revealed that this process was very slow in the absence of metal ions. The presence of Mg(II and, especially Ca(II ion, increased the transformation rate of rutin. UV-Vis spectra recorded after prolonged autoxidation indicated the formation of humic acidlike products in the presence of Mg(II and Ca(II ions. Four new compounds formed during the initial stage of rutin autoxidation in the presence of Mg(II and Ca(II ions were detected by HPLCDAD. Based on the analysis of their DAD UV-Vis spectra and comparison of their retention times with the retention time value for rutin, we concluded that the initial rutin transformation products were formed by the water addition on double bond in ring C and hydroxylation of ring B. A very small decrease of the initial rutin concentration (4% was observed by HPLC-DAD in the absence of metal ions for the period of 90 minutes. However, rutin concentration decrease was much larger in the presence of Mg(II and Ca(II ions (14% and 24%, respectively. The more pronounced effect of Ca(II ion on the rutin autoxidation may be explained by the stronger binding of Mg(II ion to rutin and thus greater stabilizing effect on reaction intermediates caused by its higher ionic potential (charge/ionic radius ratio in comparison to Ca(II ion. The results of this study may contribute to the better understanding of interactions of Mg(II and Ca(II ions with natural phenolic antioxidants which are important for their various biological activities.
Algebra II workbook for dummies
Sterling, Mary Jane
2014-01-01
To succeed in Algebra II, start practicing now Algebra II builds on your Algebra I skills to prepare you for trigonometry, calculus, and a of myriad STEM topics. Working through practice problems helps students better ingest and retain lesson content, creating a solid foundation to build on for future success. Algebra II Workbook For Dummies, 2nd Edition helps you learn Algebra II by doing Algebra II. Author and math professor Mary Jane Sterling walks you through the entire course, showing you how to approach and solve the problems you encounter in class. You'll begin by refreshing your Algebr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monika Tyagi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Pd(II and Pt(II were synthesized with the macrocyclic ligand, i.e., 2,3,9,10-tetraketo-1,4,8,11-tetraazacycoletradecane. The ligand was prepared by the [2 + 2] condensation of diethyloxalate and 1,3-diamino propane and characterized by elemental analysis, mass, IR and 1H NMR spectral studies. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, electronic and electron paramagnetic resonance spectral studies. The molar conductance measurements of Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes in DMF correspond to non electrolyte nature, whereas Pd(II and Pt(II complexes are 1:2 electrolyte. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, whereas square planar geometry assigned for Pd(II and Pt(II. In vitro the ligand and its metal complexes were evaluated against plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium odum, Aspergillus niger and Rhizoctonia bataticola and some compounds found to be more active as commercially available fungicide like Chlorothalonil.
Should we add visual acuity ratios to referral criteria for potential cerebral visual impairment?
van der Zee, Ymie J; Stiers, Peter; Evenhuis, Heleen M
To determine whether the assessment of visual acuity ratios might improve the referral of children with (sub)normal visual acuity but at risk of cerebral visual impairment. In an exploratory study, we assessed visual acuity, crowding ratio and the ratios between grating acuity (Teller Acuity Cards-II) and optotype acuity (Cambridge Crowding Cards) in 60 typically developing school children (mean age 5y8m±1y1m), 21 children with ocular abnormalities only (5y7m±1y9m) and 26 children with (suspected) brain damage (5y7m±1y11m). Sensitivities and specificities were calculated for targets and controls from the perspective of different groups of diagnosticians: youth health care professionals (target: children with any visual abnormalities), ophthalmologists and low vision experts (target: children at risk of cerebral visual impairment). For youth health care professionals subnormal visual acuity had the best sensitivity (76%) and specificity (70%). For ophthalmologists and low vision experts the crowding ratio had the best sensitivity (67%) and specificity (79 and 86%). Youth health care professionals best continue applying subnormal visual acuity for screening, whereas ophthalmologists and low vision experts best add the crowding ratio to their routine diagnostics, to distinguish children at risk of visual impairment in the context of brain damage from children with ocular pathology only. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
The second-to-fourth digit ratio correlates with aggressive behavior in professional soccer players.
Perciavalle, Valentina; Di Corrado, Donatella; Petralia, Maria Cristina; Gurrisi, Lino; Massimino, Simona; Coco, Marinella
2013-06-01
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that high levels of testosterone during prenatal life, testified by a low second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), as well as in adulthood affect the aggressive behavior of professional soccer players. Using 18 male professional players from a first level Italian Soccer Team we calculated: i) the 2D:4D ratio of the right hand, ii) the number of yellow and red cards per game, iii) the mean salivary testosterone concentration (Sal/T) and iv) the handling of aggressive impulses as assessed by the Picture Frustration test (PFT). Soccer players with a lower 2D:4D ratio had a higher number of fouls per game. A significant negative correlation was observed between Sal/T and 2D:4D ratio, as well as between 2D:4D ratio and the aggressiveness of players. By contrast, a significant positive correlation of Sal/T and fouls/game score and PFT was detected. No significant correlation was detected between 2D:4D or Sal/T and the playing position of players. Results of this study revealed that in professional soccer players, aggressive behavior, with the consequent increased risk of fouls during the game, is more likely to occur in individuals with high testosterone levels, not only in adulthood, but also during their intrauterine life.
Elite collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D: 4D ratios than those of nonathlete controls.
Hsu, Cheng-Chen; Su, Borcherng; Kan, Nai-Wen; Lai, Su-Ling; Fong, Tsorng-Harn; Chi, Chung-Pu; Chang, Ching-Chyuan; Hsu, Mei-Chich
2015-03-01
The ratio of the length of the second finger (index finger) to the fourth finger (ring finger) (2D:4D ratio) is a putative marker for prenatal hormones. Physiological research has suggested a low 2D:4D ratio correlates with high athletic ability. Athletes of specific sports (e.g., American football) have lower 2D:4D ratios than those of nonathletes, whereas athletes of some sports (e.g., rowing, gymnastics, and soccer) do not. This study investigated the 2D:4D ratios among collegiate tennis athletes, elite collegiate tennis athletes, and nonelite collegiate tennis athletes and compared them with nonathletes of both sexes. The participants included 43 elite collegiate tennis athletes (Level I intercollegiate athletes in Taiwan; 27 males and 16 females), 107 nonelite collegiate tennis athletes (Level II athletes; 55 males and 52 females), and 166 nonathlete college students (80 males and 86 females). The principle findings suggest that (a) regardless of sex, collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; (b) elite collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; (c) among females but not males, athletes and nonelite athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; and (d) males have lower 2D:4D values than those of females.
A modified blood pressure to height ratio improves accuracy for hypertension in childhood.
Mourato, Felipe A; Nadruz, Wilson; Moser, Lucia R D N; de Lima Filho, José L; Mattos, Sandra S
2015-03-01
The blood pressure to height ratio (BP:HT) has been proposed as a simple method for identifying children with elevated BP. This procedure shows good accuracy for the screening of hypertension in adolescents but less so in younger children. Our aim in this study was to modify the BP:HT ratio and determine if this change would increase accuracy when measuring hypertension during childhood. BP levels of 4,327 children (aged 5-12 years) were retrospectively obtained from medical charts. The modified ratio (BT:eHT13) was calculated as: BP/(HT + 7 × (13 - age in years)). Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to estimate cutoff points and the accuracy of the conventional and modified ratio to detect prehypertension and hypertension. The prevalences of prehypertension and hypertension were 3.91% and 5.44%, respectively. In general, BP:eHT13 showed higher sensitivity (ranging from 0.95 to 1.00) and specificity (ranging from 0.80 to 0.98) in detecting prehypertension, level I hypertension, and level II hypertension than BP:HT (sensitivity ranging from 0.91 to 1.00; specificity ranging from 0.59 to 0.89). The modified BP:eHT13 ratio showed better sensitivity and specificity for the screening of BP abnormalities in children aged 5-12 years. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Copper (II) nickel (II), cobalt (II) and oxovanadium (IV) complexes of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 112; Issue 3. Copper(II) nickel(II), cobalt(II) and oxovanadium(IV) complexes of substituted ∙ - ... Author Affiliations. S Sevagapandian1 K Nehru1 P R Athappan1. Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, India ...
Deriving metabolic engineering strategies from genome-scale modeling with flux ratio constraints.
Yen, Jiun Y; Nazem-Bokaee, Hadi; Freedman, Benjamin G; Athamneh, Ahmad I M; Senger, Ryan S
2013-05-01
Optimized production of bio-based fuels and chemicals from microbial cell factories is a central goal of systems metabolic engineering. To achieve this goal, a new computational method of using flux balance analysis with flux ratios (FBrAtio) was further developed in this research and applied to five case studies to evaluate and design metabolic engineering strategies. The approach was implemented using publicly available genome-scale metabolic flux models. Synthetic pathways were added to these models along with flux ratio constraints by FBrAtio to achieve increased (i) cellulose production from Arabidopsis thaliana; (ii) isobutanol production from Saccharomyces cerevisiae; (iii) acetone production from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803; (iv) H2 production from Escherichia coli MG1655; and (v) isopropanol, butanol, and ethanol (IBE) production from engineered Clostridium acetobutylicum. The FBrAtio approach was applied to each case to simulate a metabolic engineering strategy already implemented experimentally, and flux ratios were continually adjusted to find (i) the end-limit of increased production using the existing strategy, (ii) new potential strategies to increase production, and (iii) the impact of these metabolic engineering strategies on product yield and culture growth. The FBrAtio approach has the potential to design "fine-tuned" metabolic engineering strategies in silico that can be implemented directly with available genomic tools. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Shenashen, Mohamed A; El-Safty, Sherif A; Elshehy, Emad A
2014-12-21
High exposure to metals, such as cobalt (Co), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd), potentially has adverse effects, and can cause severe health problems, leading to a number of specific diseases. This study primarily aims to monitor, detect, separate, and remove the trace concentrations of Co(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) ions in water, without a preconcentration process, using aluminosilica optical sensor (ASOS) monoliths. These monolithic scaffolds with advantageous physical features (i.e., large surface area-to-volume ratios of the scaffolds, active acid sites and uniform mesocage cubic pores) can strongly induce H-bonding and dispersive interactions with organic chelating agent, resulting in the formation of stable ASOS. In this engineering process, ASOS offers a simple and one-step sensing/capture procedure for the quantification and visual detection of the target elements from water, without requiring sophisticated instrumentation. The key result in this study is the ion selectivity exhibited by the designed ASOS toward the targets, Co(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) ions, in environmental and waste disposal samples, as well as its reproducibility over a number of analysis/regeneration cycles. These findings can be useful in the fabrication of ASOS can be tailored to suit various applications.
REA, The Editors of
2013-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Thermodynamics II includes review of thermodynamic relations, power and refrigeration cycles, mixtures and solutions, chemical reactions, chemical equilibrium, and flow through nozzl
Physical chemistry II essentials
REA, The Editors of
1992-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Physical Chemistry II includes reaction mechanisms, theoretical approaches to chemical kinetics, gravitational work, electrical and magnetic work, surface work, kinetic theory, collisional and transport properties of gases, statistical mechanics, matter and waves, quantum mechanics, and rotations and vibrations of atoms and molecules.
Smolarski, Dennis C
2012-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Data Structures II includes sets, trees, advanced sorting, elementary graph theory, hashing, memory management and garbage collection, and appendices on recursion vs. iteration, alge
Ganesh, A
2009-01-01
About the Book: This book Engineering Mathematics-II is designed as a self-contained, comprehensive classroom text for the second semester B.E. Classes of Visveswaraiah Technological University as per the Revised new Syllabus. The topics included are Differential Calculus, Integral Calculus and Vector Integration, Differential Equations and Laplace Transforms. The book is written in a simple way and is accompanied with explanatory figures. All this make the students enjoy the subject while they learn. Inclusion of selected exercises and problems make the book educational in nature. It shou
Kern, Werner
1991-01-01
This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever
Computer science II essentials
Raus, Randall
2012-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Computer Science II includes organization of a computer, memory and input/output, coding, data structures, and program development. Also included is an overview of the most commonly