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Sample records for ratios body weights

  1. Genetic parameters for body weight ratio, fertility and growth traits in Canchim breed females

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio de Paula Mello; Maurício Mello de Alencar; Tiago Luciano Passafaro; Fabio Luiz Buranelo Toral

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the heritability of age at first calving (AFC), body condition score at first calving (BCF), body condition score at calving (BCC), weaning weight (WW), yearling weight (W12), weaning weight of calf/weight of cow at calving (RCC) and weaning weight of first calf/weight of cow at first calving (RCCF) ratios, and genetic correlations of AFC, BCF, WW and W12 with RCCF, in a Canchim beef cattle herd. The variance and covariance components were obtained ...

  2. Effects of sprint interval training and body weight reduction on power to weight ratio in experienced cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, William R; Finn, Joan A; Axtell, Robert S

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supramaximal sprint interval training (SIT), body weight reduction, and a combination of both treatments on peak and average anaerobic power to weight ratio (PPOan:Wt, APOan:Wt) by manipulating peak and average anaerobic power output (PPOan, APOan) and body weight (BW) in experienced cyclists. Participants (N = 34, age = 38.0 +/- 7.1 years) were assigned to 4 groups for a 10-week study. One group performed twice-weekly SIT sessions on a cycle ergometer while maintaining body weight (SIT). A second group did not perform SIT but intentionally reduced body weight (WR). A third group simultaneously performed SIT sessions and reduced body weight (SIT+WR). A control group cycled in their normal routine and maintained body weight (CON). The 30-second Wingate Test assessed pretest and posttest POan:Wt scores. There was a significant mean increase (p weight (kg) decreased significantly in WR and SIT + WR (80.3 +/- 13.7 to 75.3 +/- 11.9 and 78.9 +/- 10.8 to 73.4 +/- 10.8, respectively). The results demonstrate that cyclists can use SIT sessions and body weight reduction as singular training interventions to effect significant increases in anaerobic power to weight ratio, which has been correlated to enhanced aerobic cycling performance. However, the treatments were not effective as combined interventions, as there was no significant change in either PPOan:Wt or APOan:Wt in SIT + WR.

  3. Genetic parameters for body weight ratio, fertility and growth traits in Canchim breed females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de Paula Mello

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the heritability of age at first calving (AFC, body condition score at first calving (BCF, body condition score at calving (BCC, weaning weight (WW, yearling weight (W12, weaning weight of calf/weight of cow at calving (RCC and weaning weight of first calf/weight of cow at first calving (RCCF ratios, and genetic correlations of AFC, BCF, WW and W12 with RCCF, in a Canchim beef cattle herd. The variance and covariance components were obtained by bayesian inference with single and two-trait analyses. The statistical models included the additive direct and maternal, the permanent environmental and the residual random effects, and the fixed effects of year and month of birth or of calving, age of cow at calving and sex of calf, depending on the trait. The posterior means of heritability, obtained by single-trait analyses, were 0.12 (AFC, 0.36 (BCF, 0.18 (BCC, 0.50 (WW, 0.46 (W12, 0.16 (RCC and 0.40 (RCCF indicating that these traits have enough genetic variability to  show response to mass selection with the exception of AFC. The genetic correlations of AFC (-0.61, BCF (-0.36, WW (-0.20 and W12 (-0.05 with RCCF suggest that selection to reduce age and body condition score at first calving should improve the productivity trait of females at first calving, while selection for heavier females at young ages would not promote any change in the productivity of dams.

  4. Beneficial Effect of Bidens pilosa on Body Weight Gain, Food Conversion Ratio, Gut Bacteria and Coccidiosis in Chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicero L T Chang

    Full Text Available In the interests of food safety and public health, plants and their compounds are now re-emerging as an alternative approach to treat gastrointestinal diseases in chickens. Here, we studied the impact of the edible medicinal plant, B. pilosa, on growth performance, gut bacteria and coccidiosis in chickens. First, we found that B. pilosa significantly elevated body weight gain and lowered feed conversion ratio in chickens. Next, we showed that B. pilosa reduced cecal damage as evidenced by increased hemorrhage, villus destruction and decreased villus-to-crypt ratio in chicken ceca. We also performed pyrosequencing of the PCR ampilcons based on the 16S rRNA genes of gut bacteria in chickens. Metagenomic analysis indicated that the chicken gut bacteria belonged to 6 phyla, 6 classes, 6 orders, 9 families, and 8 genera. More importantly, we found that B. pilosa affected the composition of bacteria. This change in bacteria composition was correlated with body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and gut pathology in chickens. Collectively, this work suggests that B. pilosa has beneficial effects on growth performance and protozoan infection in chickens probably via modulation of gut bacteria.

  5. Whey protein improves HDL/non-HDL ratio and body weight gain in rats subjected to the resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely Raspante Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance exercise, such as weight-lifting (WL on the biochemical parameters of lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk in the rats fed casein (control or whey protein (WP diets. Thirty-two male Fisher rats were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise-trained groups and were fed control or WP diets. The WL program consisted of inducing the animals to perform the sets of jumps with weights attached to the chest. After seven weeks, arteriovenous blood samples were collected for analysis. The WL or WP ingestion were able to improve the lipid profile, reducing the TC and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations, but only WP treatment significantly increased the serum HDL concentrations, thereby also affecting the TC/HDL and HDL/non-HDL ratios. However, WL plus WP was more effective in improving the HDL/non-HDL ratio than the exercise or WP ingestion alone and the body weight gain than exercise without WP ingestion.

  6. Body Weight - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Body Weight URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Body Weight - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  7. Randomized controlled trial of changes in dietary carbohydrate/fat ratio and simple vs complex carbohydrates on body weight and blood lipids: the CARMEN study. The Carbohydrate Ratio Management in European National diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saris, W H; Astrup, A; Prentice, A M; Zunft, H J; Formiguera, X; Verboeket-van de Venne, W P; Raben, A; Poppitt, S D; Seppelt, B; Johnston, S; Vasilaras, T H; Keogh, G F

    2000-10-01

    To investigate the long-term effects of changes in dietary carbohydrate/fat ratio and simple vs complex carbohydrates. Randomized controlled multicentre trial (CARMEN), in which subjects were allocated for 6 months either to a seasonal control group (no intervention) or to one of three experimental groups: a control diet group (dietary intervention typical of the average national intake); a low-fat high simple carbohydrate group; or a low-fat high complex carbohydrate group. Three hundred and ninety eight moderately obese adults. The change in body weight was the primary outcome; changes in body composition and blood lipids were secondary outcomes. Body weight loss in the low-fat high simple carbohydrate and low-fat high complex carbohydrate groups was 0.9 kg (P Fat mass changed by -1.3kg (Plow-fat high simple carbohydrate, low-fat high complex carbohydrate and control diet groups, respectively. Changes in blood lipids did not differ significantly between the dietary treatment groups. Our findings suggest that reduction of fat intake results in a modest but significant reduction in body weight and body fatness. The concomitant increase in either simple or complex carbohydrates did not indicate significant differences in weight change. No adverse effects on blood lipids were observed. These findings underline the importance of this dietary change and its potential impact on the public health implications of obesity.

  8. Marijuana and Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patien...

  9. Dietary n-6 PUFA, carbohydrate: protein ratio and change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Madsen, Lise; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    . Dietary intake was determined at recruitment by using an FFQ that was designed for the study and validated. We applied linear regression models with 5-year change in weight or waist circumference as outcome and including a two-way interaction term between n-6 PUFA and carbohydrate intakes, lower...

  10. Body weight perception and body weight control behaviors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Robson; Claumann, Gaia S.; Felden, Érico P.G.; Silva, Diego A.S.; Pelegrini, Andreia

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the association between the perception of body weight (as above or below the desired) and behaviors for body weight control in adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that included 1051 adolescents (aged 15-19 years) who were high school students attending public schools. The authors collected information on the perception of body weight (dependent variable), weight control behaviors (initiative to change the weight, physical exercise, eatin...

  11. Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratio predicts body weight and fat loss success on 24-week diets varying in macronutrient composition and dietary fiber: results from a post-hoc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mads F; Blædel, Trine; Bendtsen, Line Q; Lorenzen, Janne K; Holm, Jacob B; Kiilerich, Pia; Roager, Henrik M; Kristiansen, Karsten; Larsen, Lesli H; Astrup, Arne

    2018-05-17

    Individuals with high pre-treatment bacterial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides (P/B) ratio have been reported to lose more body weight on diets high in fiber than subjects with a low P/B ratio. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine potential differences in dietary weight loss responses between participants with low and high P/B. Eighty overweight participants were randomized (52 completed) to a 500 kcal/d energy deficit diet with a macronutrient composition of 30 energy percentage (E%) fat, 52 E% carbohydrate and 18 E% protein either high (≈1500 mg calcium/day) or low ( ≤ 600 mg calcium/day) in dairy products for 24 weeks. Body weight, body fat, and dietary intake (by 7-day dietary records) were determined. Individuals were dichotomized according to their pre-treatment P/B ratio derived from 16S rRNA gene sequencing of collected fecal samples to test the potential modification of dietary effects using linear mixed models. Independent of the randomized diets, individuals with high P/B lost 3.8 kg (95%CI, 1.8,5.8; P ratio lost 8.3 kg (95% CI, 5.8;10.9, P ratio [Mean difference: 5.1 kg (95% CI, 1.7;8.6, P = 0.003)]. Partial correlation coefficients between fiber intake and weight change was 0.90 (P ratio and 0.25 (P = 0.29) among individuals with low P/B ratio. Individuals with high P/B lost more body weight and body fat compared to individuals with low P/B, confirming that individuals with a high P/B are more susceptible to weight loss on a diet rich in fiber.

  12. A nomograph method for assessing body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A E; McKay, D A; Cutlip, M B

    1976-03-01

    The ratio of weight/height emerges from varied epidemiological studies as the most generally useful index of relative body mass in adults. The authors present a nomograph to facilitate use of this relationship in clinical situations. While showing the range of weight given as desirable in life insurance studies, the scale expresses relative weight as a continuous variable. This method encourages use of clinical judgment in interpreting "overweight" and "underweight" and in accounting for muscular and skeletal contributions to measured mass.

  13. Medical weight loss versus bariatric surgery: does method affect body composition and weight maintenance after 15% reduction in body weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulovitz, Michelle G; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Conn, Carole A; Cohen, Deborah A; Ferraro, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate body composition changes in fat mass (FM) to lean body mass (LBM) ratios following 15% body weight loss (WL) in both integrated medical treatment and bariatric surgery groups. Obese patients (body mass index [BMI] 46.6 ± 6.5 kg/m(2)) who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery (BS), were matched with 24 patients undergoing integrated medical and behavioral treatment (MT). The BS and MT groups were evaluated for body weight, BMI, body composition, and waist circumference (WC) at baseline and after 15% WL. Following 15% body WL, there were significant decreases in %FM and increased %LBM (P maintenance of WL at 1 y were found. For both groups, baseline FM was found to be negatively correlated with percentage of weight regained (%WR) at 1 y post-WL (r = -0.457; P = 0.007). Baseline WC and rate of WL to 15% were significant predictors of %WR only in the BS group (r = 0.713; P = 0.020). If followed closely by professionals during the first 15% body WL, patients losing 15% weight by either medical or surgical treatments can attain similar FM:LBM loss ratios and can maintain WL for 1 y. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, Finn; Heitmann, Berit L

    2004-01-01

    on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... adjustment for education. For women, there was no evidence of a consistent association. CONCLUSION: The reviewed articles were not supportive of any associations between psychological workload and either general or abdominal obesity. Future epidemiological studies in this field should be prospective......BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...

  15. Estimation Of Body Weight From Linear Body Measurements In Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of body weight from body girth, keel length and thigh length was studied using one hundred Ross and one hundred Anak Titan broilers. Data were collected on the birds from day-old to 9 weeks of age. Body measurement was regressed against body weight at 9 weeks of age using simple linear and ...

  16. Phenotypic Correlations of Body Weight and Linear Body Traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on 126 Sigmond strain of Japanese quail chicks consisting of 42 each of heavy, medium and low body weight lines were used to estimate phenotypic correlations (rp ) among body weight (BWT) and linear body traits at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age. The linear body traits considered were breast girth (BG), shank length (SL), ...

  17. All rights reserved Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological Parameters of Rats Fed ... ABSTRACT: Food insecurity is a major problem of the developing nations. ... Except for the values of haemoglobin and packed cell volume that were ...

  18. The circulating concentration and ratio of total and high molecular weight adiponectin in post-menopausal women with and without osteoporosis and its association with body mass index and biochemical markers of bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodi, R; Hazell, M J; Durham, B H; Rees, C; Ranganath, L R; Fraser, W D

    2009-09-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that adiponectin plays a role in the regulation of bone metabolism. This was a cross-sectional study of 34 post-menopausal women with and 37 without osteoporosis. All subjects had body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), total-, high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin and their ratio, osteoprotegerin (OPG), a marker of bone resorption (betaCTX) and formation (P1NP) measured. We observed a positive correlation between BMI and BMD (r=0.44, plean subjects but there was no difference between those with or without osteoporosis. There were significant negative correlations between HMW/total-adiponectin ratio and BMI (r=-0.27, p=0.030) and with OPG (r=-0.44, pproduction of OPG thereby affecting osteoclasts mediated bone resorption.

  19. The effect of holiday weight gain on body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeller, Dale A

    2014-07-01

    The topic of holiday weight gain has been a frequent subject of the lay media; however, scientific interest has only been recent. Multiple studies in Western societies have reported average weight gains among adults during the period between mid-November and mid-January that were about 0.5 kg. The range in individual weight changes was large, however, and the already overweight and obese gain more weight than those who are healthy weight. When the average gain across the year was also measured, the holiday weight was the major contributor to annual excess weight gain. Efforts patterned to increase awareness to energy balance and body weight have been shown to be successful at reducing such gain. An exception to holiday weight gain being a major contributor to annual excess gain has been children, in whom summer weight gains have been observed to be the major contributor to average excess weight gain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High tobacco consumption lowers body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    in former or never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: High tobacco consumption causes lower body weight among current smokers. However, smoking does not seem to affect body shape or fat distribution causally. The lack of association between CHRNA3 genotype and body weight among former smokers and never smokers favours......BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study...... with a genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high...

  1. Does higher education reduce body weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Jane; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight has increased in almost all Western countries in the past twenty to thirty years, with social disparities in many of these countries. This paper contributes to the literature on the relation between education and body weight by studying the effect of higher...... education on body weight according to subgroups of parental income background. To uncover the causal relationship between higher education and body weight, we use a reform of the Danish student grant scheme, which involved a grant increase of approximately 60% in 1988. When using this reform as instrumental...

  2. Brain nuclear receptors and body weight regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essent...

  3. Estimating Body Weight of Cattle Using Linear Body Measurements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationships between body weight (BW) and heart girth, body length and height at withers of 116 Indigenous, 72 Friesian, 95 Brahman, 88 Red Dane and 123 Crossbred cattle from 42 smallholder herds in Nharira-Lancashire, Zimbabwe, were investigated. The principal objective was to develop simple models that ...

  4. Body contouring following massive weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Langer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global disease with epidemic proportions. Bariatric surgery or modified lifestyles go a long way in mitigating the vast weight gain. Patients following these interventions usually undergo massive weight loss. This results in redundant tissues in various parts of the body. Loose skin causes increased morbidity and psychological trauma. This demands various body contouring procedures that are usually excisional. These procedures are complex and part of a painstaking process that needs a committed patient and an industrious plastic surgeon. As complications in these patients can be quite frequent, both the patient and the surgeon need to be aware and willing to deal with them.

  5. Histamine and the regulation of body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Emilie A; Knigge, Ulrich; Warberg, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter. In the p......Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter...

  6. Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Zøllner; Ängquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals...... with greater body mass index and waist circumference were analyzed. Selecting subsets of large-scale observational cohort studies with similar characteristics as participants in clinical trials may reconcile the otherwise conflicting results....

  7. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Selection for body weight in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with selection for body weight (BW) in dairy cattle. The economic efficiency of present breeding schemes might increase further when selection decisions also consider information on BW as BW relates to feed costs and revenues from beef production. However, the practical

  9. Body weight changes, haematological and serum biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, platelet, lymphocytes, neutrophil, cholesterol, Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) values of the rams fed ammonium sulphate fortified diets were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the control. Haemoglobin concentration ...

  10. Agreement Between Actual and Perceived Body Weight in Adolescents and Their Weight Control Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mi Shin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : To investigate the agreements between actual and perceived body weight status among adolescents and to identify the associations of disagreements with their weight control behaviors. Methods : This study used the secondary data of a sample survey (n=13,871 of the Seoul Student Health Examination among middle and high schools in 2010. Agreements between actual (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese, according to 2007 Korean National Growth Charts and perceived body weight status (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese were examined using Chi-square and Cohen’s kappa agreement, and then multinomial logistic regression including gender, grade, and attempt of weight control or method of weight control was done. Results : Agreements between actual and perceived body weight status were only 45.2%, and disagreements were up to 54.8%, including mild over- (20.4%, severe over- (1.8%, mild under- (29.5%, and severe under-estimation (3.1%. The kappa coefficient of agreement was only 0.19. The odds ratios on severe over-estimated perception were 1.59 (95% CI, 1.22-2.07 in female subjects, 1.78 (95% CI, 1.36-2.34 in diet control behaviors, and 1.53 (95% CI, 1.18-2.00 in exercise. The odds ratios on severe under-estimated perception were only 0.40 (95% CI, 0.32–0.50 in female subjects but 5.77 (95% CI, 3.68-9.06 in taking medication. Conclusion : There were associations of body weight control behaviors with disagreements of actual and perceived weight status. Therefore, further study is needed to identify the weight disagreement-related factors and to promote the desired weight control behaviors for adolescents.

  11. Treadmill walking with body weight support

    OpenAIRE

    Aaslund, Mona Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rehabilitating walking in patients post-stroke with safe, task-specific, intensive training of sufficient duration, can be challenging. Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) has been proposed as an effective method to meet these challenges and may therefore have benefits over training overground walking. However, walking characteristics should not be aggravated during BWSTT or require a long familiarisation time compared to overground walking. Objectives: To investi...

  12. Universal equation for estimating ideal body weight and body weight at any BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Blackburn, George L; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2016-05-01

    Ideal body weight (IBW) equations and body mass index (BMI) ranges have both been used to delineate healthy or normal weight ranges, although these 2 different approaches are at odds with each other. In particular, past IBW equations are misaligned with BMI values, and unlike BMI, the equations have failed to recognize that there is a range of ideal or target body weights. For the first time, to our knowledge, we merged the concepts of a linear IBW equation and of defining target body weights in terms of BMI. With the use of calculus and approximations, we derived an easy-to-use linear equation that clinicians can use to calculate both IBW and body weight at any target BMI value. We measured the empirical accuracy of the equation with the use of NHANES data and performed a comparative analysis with past IBW equations. Our linear equation allowed us to calculate body weights for any BMI and height with a mean empirical accuracy of 0.5-0.7% on the basis of NHANES data. Moreover, we showed that our body weight equation directly aligns with BMI values for both men and women, which avoids the overestimation and underestimation problems at the upper and lower ends of the height spectrum that have plagued past IBW equations. Our linear equation increases the sophistication of IBW equations by replacing them with a single universal equation that calculates both IBW and body weight at any target BMI and height. Therefore, our equation is compatible with BMI and can be applied with the use of mental math or a calculator without the need for an app, which makes it a useful tool for both health practitioners and the general public. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Impact of Transcatheter Closure of Atrial Septal Defects in Pediatric Patients on Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Hung Lo

    2011-07-01

    Conclusion: Transcatheter closure of ASD positively affects weight gain. An increase of 7 percentile weight was observed at 1 year of follow-up. Patients with a younger age, higher pulmonary/systemic blood flow ratio, and a larger ratio of ASD diameter/body surface area may have better weight gain after ASD closure.

  14. Body weight and sensitivity of screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse H.; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Tjønneland, Anne

    2016-01-01

    benefit more from screening than other women. Methods: We combined data from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study and the organised population-based screening mammography programme in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women were categorised according to body mass index (BMI) (...Aim: Obese women tend to participate less in breast cancer screening than normal weight women. However, obese women have fattier breast than normal weight women, and screening mammography works better in fatty than in dense breasts. One might, therefore, hypothesise that obese women would actually......, and 35+). We measured recall rate, sensitivity and specificity for subsequent screens with a 2-year follow-up period. Results: The study included 6787 women. The recall rate varied from 1.4% for women with BMI women with BMI 35+, test for trend p = 0.86. Sensitivity varied from 42% (95...

  15. Body Weight Independently Affects Articular Cartilage Catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Matt Denning, Jason G. Winward, Michael Becker Pardo, J. Ty Hopkins, Matthew K. Seeley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW, +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP was measured immediately before (baseline and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response.

  16. Body weight reduction and metformin: Roles in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nozha, Omar; Habib, Fawziah; Mojaddidi, Moaz; El-Bab, Mohamed Fath

    2013-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common problem in women at fertile age. A prospective study was conducted to clarify the pathophysiological responses during an application of insulin sensitizer, metformin and weight reduction therapy at the Gynecology Center in Ohud hospital, in AL-Madinah AL-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Twenty healthy women served as controls and 180 PCOS women divided into three groups participated in the study. First group was treated with Clomid citrate 100mg/day from the 2nd day of menses to the 6th day plus gonadotrophin from day three to the 13th. Group II was treated as group I plus 850mg metformin twice a day and group III was treated as group I plus weight reduction. Clinical symptoms, menstrual pattern, hirsutism, blood glucose, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, insulin, hormonal, and lipid profiles were assessed pre- and post treatment. Insulin resistance was calculated. PCOS women had significantly higher values than the healthy women in most of the measurements. Metformin and weight reduction therapy resulted in a significant decrease in the fasting insulin, glucose/insulin ratio and HOMA-IR. Metformin and weight reduction therapy resulted in a significant decrease in the lipid parameters, testosterone, LH/FSH ratio, SHBG, and prolactin levels. HOMA-IR was significantly higher in women with PCOS. HOMA-IR was positively correlated with testosterone, estradiol, TG, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol parameters, and negatively correlated with HDL-cholesterol and FSH levels. Metformin therapy and weight reduction had favorable influences on the basic metabolic and hormonal profiles in women with PCOS and that metformin and lifestyle modification (weight reduction via diet restriction or exercise) resulted in a significantly greater weight loss than hormonal therapy alone. Metformin and weight reduction therapy decreased also hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  17. Relationship between perilipin gene polymorphisms and body weight and body composition during weight loss and weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Mariman, Edwin C M; Vogels, Neeltje; Bouwman, Freek G; den Hoed, Marcel; Brown, Louise; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-03-23

    Genetic variation in the perilipin (PLIN) gene may play a role in the etiology and treatment of obesity. To examine different polymorphisms in the PLIN gene in relation to body-weight regulation. 118 subjects followed a 6 wk VLCD, followed by 1 year weight maintenance. Body-weight (BW), body composition, leptin concentration, and polymorphisms of the PLIN gene: PLIN1:rs2289487, PLIN4:rs894160, PLIN6:rs1052700, PLIN5:rs2304795 and PLIN7:rs 2304796 were determined. BW loss during VLCD was 7.0+/-3.1 kg (p0.9, r2=0.72; PLIN5 and PLIN7: D' >0.9, r2=0.85. In men, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, body fat, leptin concentrations were significantly lower for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). In women weight loss and loss of fat mass were larger for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). For PLIN6 genotypes body weight and body fat were lower for homozygotes of the minor allele (T/T) in the men; in the women leptin concentrations were lower. The haplotype of PLIN5 and PLIN7 consisting of A/G and G/G of PLIN5 and A/A of PLIN7 showed a reduction in FM: 5.9+/-0.6 kg vs 3.1+/-0.4 kg, % body fat: 5.5+/-0.6% vs 2.2+/-0.2%, and leptin: 20.5+/-10.8 ng/ml vs 12.9+/-6.7 ng/ml over time in the women (pinfluencer of obesity risk in humans.

  18. Evaluation of Body Weight and Other Linear Parameters of Marshall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the body weight and other linear parameters of Marshall Broiler for repeatability estimates. A total of one hundred (100) broiler chickens (Marshall) was used in estimating the repeatability of body weight and linear parameters of day old from 2 to 8 weeks of age. Body weight (BW) and ...

  19. Self- Perception of Body Weight Status in Older Dutch Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, C; Dijkstra, S C; Visser, M

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of obesity is highest in older persons and a correct self-perception of body weight status is necessary for optimal weight control. The aim of this study was to determine self-perception of, and satisfaction with, body weight status, and to compare current versus ideal body image in a large, nationally representative sample of older people. Furthermore, determinants of misperception were explored. A cross-sectional study. The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA), conducted in a population-based sample in the Netherlands. 1295 men and women aged 60-96 years. Body weight status was assessed using measured weight and height. Self-perceived body weight status, satisfaction with body weight and current and ideal body image were also assessed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of age, educational level and objectively measured BMI with underestimation of body weight status. The prevalence of obesity was 19.9% in men and 29.3% in women. The agreement between objective and self-perceived body weight status was low (Kappa 99% of obese participants desired to be thinner (ideal body image < current image). Only 4.4% of obese men and 12.3% of obese women perceived their body weight status correctly. Higher age (women), lower educational level (men) and higher BMI (all) were associated with greater underestimation of body weight status. Many older persons misperceive their body weight status. Future actions to improve body weight perception in older persons are necessary to increase the impact of public health campaigns focussing on a healthy body weight in old age.

  20. Genetic analysis of body weight in South African Angora kids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variance and covariance components and ratios pertaining to direct additive genetic variation, maternal additive genetic variation, maternal permanent environmental variation, and the relationship between direct and maternal effects for birth weight (BW; kg), weaning weight (WW; kg) and body weight at 8, 12 and 16 ...

  1. Effectiveness of elastic band-type ankle–foot orthoses on postural control in poststroke elderly patients as determined using combined measurement of the stability index and body weight-bearing ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Jong Hyun Kim, Woo Sang Sim, Byeong Hee Won Usability Evaluation Technology Center, Advanced Biomedical and Welfare R&D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea Purpose: Poor recovery of postural stability poststroke is the primary cause of impairment in activities and social participation in elderly stroke survivors. The purpose of our study was to experimentally evaluate the effectiveness of our new elastic ankle–foot orthosis (AFO, compared to a traditional AFO fabricated with hard plastic, in improving postural stability in elderly chronic stroke survivors. Patients and methods: Postural stability was evaluated in ten chronic stroke patients, 55.7±8.43 years old. Postural stability was evaluated using the standardized methods of the Biodex Balance System combined with a foot pressure system, under three experimental conditions, no AFO, rigid plastic AFO, and elastic AFO (E-AFO. The following dependent variables of postural stability were analyzed: plantar pressure under the paretic and nonparetic foot, area of the center of balance (COB and % time spent in each location, distance traveled by the COB away from the body center, distance traveled by the center of pressure, and calculated index of overall stability, as well as indices anterior–posterior and medial–lateral stability. Results: Both AFO designs improved all indices of postural stability. Compared to the rigid plastic AFO, the E-AFO produced additional positive effects in controlling anterior–posterior body sway, equalizing weight bearing through the paretic and nonparetic limbs, and restraining the displacement of the center of pressure and of the COB. Conclusion: Based on our outcomes, we recommend the prescription of E-AFOs as part of a physiotherapy rehabilitation program to promote recovery of postural stability poststroke. When possible, therapeutic outcomes should be documented using the Biodex Balance System and

  2. Studies on body composition of crossbred lambs determined by tritiated water with 50:50 roughage: concentrate ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder Ali, Md.; Saxena, K.K.; Shukla, V.P.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    Six Muzzaffarnagri x Dorset and six Muzzaffarnagri x Suffolk crossbred lambs were fed 50 : 50 roughage : concentrate ratio having ME of 2.1 Mcal/kg of ratio until they attained 25 kg body weight. Body composition of all the lambs was determined at 25 kg body weight by direct (slaughter method) and indirect (TOH technique) methods. The average corrected TOH space expressed on percent of body weight was found to be 70.48 +- 0.82 and average total body water estimated by desiccation, expressed on percent of body weight, was observed as 69.8 +- 1.08. Body composition of Muzzaffarnagri x Suffolk and Muzzaffarnagri x Dorset crossbred lambs was determined and expressed on empty body weight. The moisture content in Muzzaffarnagri x Dorset crossbred lambs was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in Muzzaffarnagri x Suffolk crossbred lambs but fat and protein contents were not significantly different in the two processes. (author)

  3. Inverse odds ratio-weighted estimation for causal mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J

    2013-11-20

    An important scientific goal of studies in the health and social sciences is increasingly to determine to what extent the total effect of a point exposure is mediated by an intermediate variable on the causal pathway between the exposure and the outcome. A causal framework has recently been proposed for mediation analysis, which gives rise to new definitions, formal identification results and novel estimators of direct and indirect effects. In the present paper, the author describes a new inverse odds ratio-weighted approach to estimate so-called natural direct and indirect effects. The approach, which uses as a weight the inverse of an estimate of the odds ratio function relating the exposure and the mediator, is universal in that it can be used to decompose total effects in a number of regression models commonly used in practice. Specifically, the approach may be used for effect decomposition in generalized linear models with a nonlinear link function, and in a number of other commonly used models such as the Cox proportional hazards regression for a survival outcome. The approach is simple and can be implemented in standard software provided a weight can be specified for each observation. An additional advantage of the method is that it easily incorporates multiple mediators of a categorical, discrete or continuous nature. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  5. Body weight in relation to variation in body size of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, L; Hulscher, JB; Koopman, K; Zegers, PM

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationships between body weight in the Oystercatcher and two measures of its body size, bill length and wing length. The weight variation between individuals due to differences in body size is nearly as large as the seasonal variation in body weight within individuals. Wing

  6. Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rats fed raw kudzu and negative control diet showed negative mean weight changes(- 6.50g and -10.0g )while those fed with positive control and treated kudzu diet showed positive mean weight ... The result showed that the treated flour supported growth but had no definite effect on other parameters measured.

  7. Estimation of Live Weight of Calves from Body Measurements within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All phenotypic correlations between body measurements were positive and significant (P<0.001). The highest correlation coefficient was found between chest girth and body weight. The polynomial equation using chest girth as an independent variable predicted body weight more accurately within breed as compared to the ...

  8. Attribute Weighting Based K-Nearest Neighbor Using Gain Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nababan, A. A.; Sitompul, O. S.; Tulus

    2018-04-01

    K- Nearest Neighbor (KNN) is a good classifier, but from several studies, the result performance accuracy of KNN still lower than other methods. One of the causes of the low accuracy produced, because each attribute has the same effect on the classification process, while some less relevant characteristics lead to miss-classification of the class assignment for new data. In this research, we proposed Attribute Weighting Based K-Nearest Neighbor Using Gain Ratio as a parameter to see the correlation between each attribute in the data and the Gain Ratio also will be used as the basis for weighting each attribute of the dataset. The accuracy of results is compared to the accuracy acquired from the original KNN method using 10-fold Cross-Validation with several datasets from the UCI Machine Learning repository and KEEL-Dataset Repository, such as abalone, glass identification, haberman, hayes-roth and water quality status. Based on the result of the test, the proposed method was able to increase the classification accuracy of KNN, where the highest difference of accuracy obtained hayes-roth dataset is worth 12.73%, and the lowest difference of accuracy obtained in the abalone dataset of 0.07%. The average result of the accuracy of all dataset increases the accuracy by 5.33%.

  9. Birth weight ratio as an alternative to birth weight percentile to express infant weight in research and clinical practice: a nationwide cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, Bart Jan; Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Buimer, Maarten; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age.

  10. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  11. Dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio and added sugar as determinants of excessive gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between the protein:carbohydrate (P/C) ratio and added sugar intake in pregnancy and gestational weight gain (GWG). DESIGN: A prebirth cohort including 103 119 pregnancies enrolled between 1996 and 2003. SETTING: All women in Denmark were eligible to participate...... and defined as gain in g/week. We used multivariable linear regression, including adjusting for pre-pregnancy body mass index, to calculate relative change in GWG and 95% CI. RESULTS: Average GWG was 471(224) g/week. The adjusted weight gain was 16 g/week lower (95% CI 9 to 22, p for trend ....001) in the highest (Q5) versus lowest (Q1) quintile of the P/C ratio (∼3% average reduction across the entire pregnancy). Weight gain for those with >20%E vs

  12. Body weight and beauty: the changing face of the ideal female body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P

    2011-01-01

    By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  13. Mechanisms of body weight fluctuations in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eKistner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Typical body weight changes are known to occur in PD. Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake and expenditure in PD.

  14. Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratio predicts body weight and fat loss success on 24-week diets varying in macronutrient composition and dietary fiber: results from a post-hoc analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Blædel, Trine; Bendtsen, Line Q.

    2018-01-01

    weight loss responses between participants with low and high P/B. Subjects/methods: Eighty overweight participants were randomized (52 completed) to a 500 kcal/d energy deficit diet with a macronutrient composition of 30 energy percentage (E%) fat, 52 E% carbohydrate and 18 E% protein either high (â...

  15. Improving Stiffness-to-weight Ratio of Spot-welded Structures based upon Nonlinear Finite Element Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengyong

    2017-07-01

    Spot welding has been widely used for vehicle body construction due to its advantages of high speed and adaptability for automation. An effort to increase the stiffness-to-weight ratio of spot-welded structures is investigated based upon nonlinear finite element analysis. Topology optimization is conducted for reducing weight in the overlapping regions by choosing an appropriate topology. Three spot-welded models (lap, doubt-hat and T-shape) that approximate “typical” vehicle body components are studied for validating and illustrating the proposed method. It is concluded that removing underutilized material from overlapping regions can result in a significant increase in structural stiffness-to-weight ratio.

  16. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  17. Body weight changes in elderly psychogeriatric nursing home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoops, K.T.B.; Slump, E.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Brouwer, M.L.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. This study was undertaken to identify predictors of body weight change in nursing home patients with possible to severe dementia. Methods. For 24 weeks, 108 elderly residents of a nursing home were followed. Body weight was measured every 2 weeks. Other anthropometric characteristics,

  18. Interrelationships existing between body weight and egg production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty 76 weeks old Olympia Black layers were randomly selected, individually caged and intensively reared for a period of 16 weeks to study the effect of body weight on some egg production traits. The analysis of variance revealed significant effect of body weight on production traits investigated (P<0.01) except egg index ...

  19. Religion and body weight: a review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeary, Karen Hye-Cheon Kim; Sobal, Jeffery; Wethington, Elaine

    2017-10-01

    Increasing interest in relationships between religion and health has encouraged research about religion and body weight, which has produced mixed findings. We systematically searched 11 bibliographic databases for quantitative studies of religion and weight, locating and coding 85 studies. We conducted a systematic review, analysing descriptive characteristics of the studies as well as relevant religion-body weight associations related to study characteristics. We summarized findings for two categories of religion variables: religious affiliation and religiosity. For religious affiliation, we found evidence for significant associations with body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, Seventh-Day Adventists had lower body weight than other denominations in cross-sectional analyses. For religiosity, significant associations occurred between greater religiosity and higher body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, greater religiosity was significantly associated with higher body weight in bivariate analyses but less so in multivariate analyses. A greater proportion of studies that used a representative sample, longitudinal analyses, and samples with only men reported significant associations between religiosity and weight. Evidence in seven studies suggested that health behaviours and psychosocial factors mediate religion-weight relationships. More longitudinal studies and analyses of mediators are needed to provide stronger evidence and further elucidate religion-weight relationships. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  20. Water entry of cylindrical bodies with various aspect ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nayoung; Park, Hyungmin

    2017-11-01

    We experimentally investigate the water entry of cylindrical bodies with different aspect ratio (1.0-8.0), focusing on the deformation of free surface and resulting phenomena over and under the surface. The experiment is performed using a high-speed imaging (upto 10000 fps) and PIV. The head and tail of bodies are hemispherical and the nose part is additionally roughened with a sandpaper to see the effect of roughness as well. The release height is also adjusted to change the impact velocity at the free surface (Reynolds number is order of 105). For smooth surface (without cavity formation), a thin liquid film rises up the body after impacting, gathers at the pole and forms a jet over the free surfaces. The jet is created in the form of a thick and thin jet. The thin jet is produced by a water film riding up the surface of an object, and a thick jet is produced by rising water from underwater as the object sinks. However, as the aspect ratio increases, the liquid film does not fully ride up the body and cannot close, so there is an empty space below the free surface. With roughness (with cavity), the liquid film is detached from the body and splash/dome is formed above the free surface. The splash height and its collapsing time decrease with increasing the aspect ratio. Supported by Grants (MPSS-CG-2016-02, NRF-2017R1A4A1015523) of the Korea government.

  1. Control of body weight by eating behavior in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modjtaba eZandian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen.

  2. Hip fracture and anthropometric variations: dominance among trochanteric soft tissue thickness, body height and body weight during sideways fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Santanu; Roychowdhury, Amit; Pal, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Hip fracture depends on various anthropometric parameters such as trochanteric soft tissue thickness, body height and body weight. The objective was to evaluate the responses to the variations in anthropometric parameters during sideways fall, and to identify the most dominant parameter among them. Seven finite element models were developed having anthropometric variations in trochanteric soft tissue thickness (5-26 mm), body height (1.70-1.88 m), and body weight (63-93.37 kg). These were simulated for sideways fall with ANSYS-LS-DYNA® code. Significant effect of trochanteric soft tissue thickness variation was found on 'normalized peak impact force with respect to the body weight' (p=0.004, r²=0.808) and strain ratio (p=0.083, r²=0.829). But, variation in body height was found to be less significant on normalized peak impact force (p=0.478, r²=0.105) and strain ratio (p=0.292, r²=0.217). Same was true for the variation in body weight on normalized peak impact force (p=0.075, r²=0.456) and strain ratio (p=0.857, r²=0.007). The risk factor for fracture was also well correlated to the strain ratio for the inter-trochanteric zone (pfractures are clinically observed to happen. Trochanteric soft tissue thickness was found likely to be the most dominant parameter over body height and body weight, signifying that a slimmer elderly person, taller or shorter, with less trochanteric soft tissue thickness should be advised to take preventive measures against hip fracture under sideways fall. © 2013.

  3. Genetic parameters for quail body weights using a random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model including fixed and random linear regressions is described for analyzing body weights at different ages. In this study, (co)variance components, heritabilities for quail weekly weights and genetic correlations among these weights were estimated using a random regression model by DFREML under DXMRR option.

  4. Pengaruh Weight Training Dan Body Weight Training Terhadap Power Tungkai Atlet Bola Tangan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Nasrullah,, Rizki Muhammad Afif

    2016-01-01

    Belum diketahuinya latihan berpengaruh untuk meningkatkan power tungkai atlet bola tangan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1) mengetahui pengaruh weight training terhadap power otot tungkai atlet bola tangan, (2) mengetahui pengaruh body weight training terhadap power otot tungkai atlet bola tangan, dan (3) mengetahui metode latihan yang lebih berpengaruh antara weight training dan body weight training terhadap power otot tungkai atlet bola tangan.Penelitian ini adalah eksperimen dengan desa...

  5. Body talk among undergraduate women: why conversations about exercise and weight loss differentially predict body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylkiw, Louise; Butler, Nicole A

    2014-08-01

    Undergraduate women (N = 143) completed self-reports on exercise behavior, body orientation, body appreciation, and body-related talk. Results showed that conversations about weight loss/dieting and conversations about exercise differentially predicted body appreciation. Importantly, multiple regression analyses showed that the relationship between talk type and body appreciation was explained by the object-process dichotomy: Conversations about exercise oriented women to consider what their bodies can do which, in turn, predicted appreciation of one's body. In contrast, the relationship between conversations about weight loss/dieting and body appreciation was mediated by negative attitudes about one's body but not by an object orientation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Does Employee Body Weight Affect Employers' Behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene

    This paper offers a study of possible favoritism of normal-weight individuals when firms make decisions on hiring, firing and promoting. Most existing studies use a wage equation to document dispersion in wages between normal- and overweight, however little is known about the reason for dispersion...

  7. [Changes in body weight of the university students at university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Ruiz, María Nelia; Aguinaga Ontonso, Inés; Canga Armayor, Navidad; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; Hermoso de Mendoza, Juana; Serrano Monzo, Inmaculada; Marín Fernández, Blanca

    2015-06-01

    One of the strategies for the prevention of the obesity is the identification of critical periods of gain weight. Some studies confirm gain weight during the university period. The purpose of the present study was to determine the changes in the body weight of the university students in Navarre. Prospective cohort study. Public University of Navarre and the University of Navarre, in Pamplona. Study examined weight change among 452 students attending at university in Pamplona, during first and third course. Four hundred and fifty two students completed the questionnaire. Weight and height were measures and body mass index was calculated. The mean body weight increased 0,600 kg, 1,8 kg for males and no change in body weight was observed in female. 44,7 % of students gained weight (60,8 % of men and 36,8 % of women), and the gain weight was of 3,4 kg. University years are a critical factor for the gain weight, particularly males. Consideration of this, is necessary the development of effective weight gain prevention strategies during the university. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and birth weight in the BRISA cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Raina Jansen Cutrim Propp; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Lima Neto, Pedro Martins; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Bettiol, Heloisa

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy on the baby's birth weight. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study with 5,024 mothers and their newborns using a Brazilian birth cohort study. In the proposed model, estimated by structural equation modeling, we tested socioeconomic status, age, marital status, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking habit and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, hypertension and gestational diabetes, gestational weight gain, and type of delivery as determinants of the baby's birth weight. RESULTS For a gain of 4 kg/m2 (1 Standard Deviation [SD]) in pre-pregnancy body mass index, there was a 0.126 SD increase in birth weight, corresponding to 68 grams (p gestational weight gain represented a 0.280 SD increase in newborn weight, correponding to 151.2 grams (p weight was direct (standardized coefficient [SC] = 0.202; p weight gain during pregnancy (SC = -0.070, p weight gain during pregnany on birth weight was predominantly direct (SC = 0.269, p gained less weight during pregnancy (p gestational weight gain on the increase in birth weight was greater than that of pre-pregnancy body mass index.

  9. Self-perception of body weight status and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Baharudin, Azli; Omar, Azahadi; Cheong, Siew Man; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents is rising rapidly in many countries, including Malaysia. This article aims to present the associations between body mass index-based body weight status, body weight perception, and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia. The Malaysia School Based Nutrition Survey 2012, which included a body weight perception questionnaire and anthropometric measurements, was conducted on a representative sample of 40 011 students from Standard 4 until Form 5, with a 90.5% response rate. Comparing actual and perceived body weight status, the findings show that 13.8% of adolescents underestimated their weight, 35.0% overestimated, and 51.2% correctly judged their own weight. Significantly more normal weight girls felt they were overweight, whereas significantly more overweight boys perceived themselves as underweight. The overall appropriateness of weight control practices to body weight was 72.6%. Adolescents attempting to lose or gain weight need to have better understanding toward desirable behavioral changes. © 2014 APJPH.

  10. Adolescent preferences and reactions to language about body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Himmelstein, M S; Armstrong, S C; Kingsford, E

    2017-07-01

    Over 30% of youth and adolescents have overweight or obesity, and health care providers are increasingly discussing weight-based health with these patients. Stigmatizing language in provider-patient communication about obesity is well documented and could be particularly detrimental to youth and adolescents. Although some research has examined preferences for weight-based terminology among adults, no studies have addressed these issues in youth populations. This study represents a preliminary and systematic investigation of weight-based language preferences among adolescents with overweight and obesity enrolled in a summer weight loss camp. Participants (N=50) indicated preferences for weight-based language and emotional responses to words that their family members used in reference to their body weight. Weight neutral terminology ('weight', 'body mass index') were most preferred, although some differences in word preferences emerged by the participants' gender. Boys preferred having their weight described as 'overweight' and 'heavy', while girls preferred the word 'curvy'. A large proportion of participants, particularly girls, reported experiencing sadness, shame, and embarrassment if parents used certain words to describe their body weight, which highlights the importance of considering the emotional impact of weight-based terminology. Providers may consider asking youth and adolescents for their preferences when discussing weight-based health.

  11. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1997-01-01

    , and body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes......The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width...

  12. Does gastric bypass surgery change body weight set point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z; Mumphrey, M B; Morrison, C D; Münzberg, H; Ye, J; Berthoud, H R

    2016-12-01

    The relatively stable body weight during adulthood is attributed to a homeostatic regulatory mechanism residing in the brain which uses feedback from the body to control energy intake and expenditure. This mechanism guarantees that if perturbed up or down by design, body weight will return to pre-perturbation levels, defined as the defended level or set point. The fact that weight re-gain is common after dieting suggests that obese subjects defend a higher level of body weight. Thus, the set point for body weight is flexible and likely determined by the complex interaction of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Unlike dieting, bariatric surgery does a much better job in producing sustained suppression of food intake and body weight, and an intensive search for the underlying mechanisms has started. Although one explanation for this lasting effect of particularly Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) is simple physical restriction due to the invasive surgery, a more exciting explanation is that the surgery physiologically reprograms the body weight defense mechanism. In this non-systematic review, we present behavioral evidence from our own and other studies that defended body weight is lowered after RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy. After these surgeries, rodents return to their preferred lower body weight if over- or underfed for a period of time, and the ability to drastically increase food intake during the anabolic phase strongly argues against the physical restriction hypothesis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Although the mechanism involves central leptin and melanocortin signaling pathways, other peripheral signals such as gut hormones and their neural effector pathways likely contribute. Future research using both targeted and non-targeted 'omics' techniques in both humans and rodents as well as modern, genetically targeted, neuronal manipulation techniques in rodents will be necessary.

  13. Live weight and body measurement of Hungarian Thoroughbred broodmares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Bene

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Live weights and 21 body measurements of 110 adult brood mares from Thoroughbred breed were evaluated in Hungary. Body measurements and some body measure indices were determined. One way ANOVA was used to compare the studs. Regression equations were developed to estimate the live weight from body measurements. Population genetic parameters of the examined traits were estimated. Only few differences among studs, concerning evaluated body measurements, were presented - firstly: body measurements, related to the kilter and nutritional status (hearth girth - were significant. Between the mentioned traits and the live weight medium positive correlation (r = 0.47 - 0.79; P<0.01 was found. For the estimation of live weight with regression model the necessary data are as follows: hearth girth, 2nd width of rump and diagonal length of body. The determination coefficient was 0.80 (P<0.01. Height at withers, of back and at rump (h2 = 0.66, 0.67 and 0.51 showed medium heritability values. The heritability of depth of chest and height of bieler-point were 0.32 and 0.48, respectively. Quite small differences were found between the stallions in most of the body measurements. The live weight and height measurements were exceptions, as here the differences between the sires were slightly higher. As a conclusion it can be stated that the Thoroughbred population in Hungary is quite homogenous in terms of the most important body measurements.

  14. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…

  15. Complications following body contouring surgery after massive weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasanbegovic, Emir; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is a way to achieve lasting weight loss in the obese. Body contouring surgery seeks to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by the excessive loose skin following massive weight loss. Higher complication rates are described in this type of surgery when done post......-bariatric. The purpose of this article is to compare complication rates of body contouring surgery when performed on patients with weight loss due to bariatric surgery compared to patients who lost weight due to dietary changes and/or exercise....

  16. Relationship Between Body Weight and Growth Traits of Crossbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    Pearson's correlation coefficient between body weight and other measured traits. .... management system where routine and ..... 13th Annual Conference of Animal ... and Genetic variation among local chickens in Edo State of Nigeria. Ed.

  17. Predicting live weight using body measurements in Afar goats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Predicting live weight using body measurements in Afar goats in north eastern. Ethiopia ... farmers get value for their stock rather than the middlemen. However ..... of West African long-legged and West African dwarf sheep in Northern Ghana.

  18. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to excess body weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monte Carlo simulation-modelling techniques were used for the uncertainty analysis. ... Deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from ischaemic heart disease, ... lasting change in the determinants and impact of excess body weight.

  19. Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers fed different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers fed different mixtures of ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... The experimental diets (starter and finisher diets) were offered to the respective bids with water ad libitum.

  20. Prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and birth weight in the BRISA cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina Jansen Cutrim Propp Lima

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy on the baby's birth weight. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study with 5,024 mothers and their newborns using a Brazilian birth cohort study. In the proposed model, estimated by structural equation modeling, we tested socioeconomic status, age, marital status, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking habit and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, hypertension and gestational diabetes, gestational weight gain, and type of delivery as determinants of the baby's birth weight. RESULTS For a gain of 4 kg/m2 (1 Standard Deviation [SD] in pre-pregnancy body mass index, there was a 0.126 SD increase in birth weight, corresponding to 68 grams (p < 0.001. A 6 kg increase (1 SD in gestational weight gain represented a 0.280 SD increase in newborn weight, correponding to 151.2 grams (p < 0.001. The positive effect of pre-pregnancy body mass index on birth weight was direct (standardized coefficient [SC] = 0.202; p < 0.001, but the negative indirect effect was small (SC = -0.076, p < 0.001 and partially mediated by the lower weight gain during pregnancy (SC = -0.070, p < 0.001. The positive effect of weight gain during pregnany on birth weight was predominantly direct (SC = 0.269, p < 0.001, with a small indirect effect of cesarean delivery (SC = 0.011; p < 0.001. Women with a higher pre-pregnancy body mass index gained less weight during pregnancy (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS The effect of gestational weight gain on the increase in birth weight was greater than that of pre-pregnancy body mass index.

  1. The Association of Antidepressant Medication and Body Weight Gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ranjbar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature and discover which antidepressants are responsible for weight gain and then to discuss the areas with lack of adequate knowledge. Method: An electronic search was conducted through Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library, and ScienceDirect. Forty nine empirical researches were identified and reviewed. Results: Amitriptyline, clomipramine, and mirtazapine have been associated with more weight gain induction in clinical studies, but not in animal-based studies. All TCAs have been reported to cause weight gain except protriptyline. MAOIs have been associated with weight gain. In SSRI group, citalopram and ecitalopram induce weight, yet mixed results exist for paroxetine and fluoxetine. Researches unanimously reported weight loss effect for bupropion. Some studies suggest contributing factors in the relationship of antidepressants with body weight changes including age, gender, base-line weights and treatment duration. Various results of different treatment durations have been reported in some cases but there are not continuous time-dependent studies for the influences of antidepressants on body weight changes. Conclusion: More studies are required to discover underlying mechanisms and the time-dependent effects of antidepressants on body weight changes.

  2. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner RM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rick M Gardner Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than

  3. Associations of body weight perception and weight control behaviors with problematic internet use among Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun

    2017-05-01

    We examined the association of body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, and weight control behaviors with problematic Internet use in a nationwide sample of Korean adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey collected from 37,041 boys and 33,655 girls in middle- and high- schools (grades 7-12) were analyzed. Participants were classified into groups based on BMI (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), body weight perception (underweight, normal weight, and overweight), and weight control behavior (no weight control behavior, appropriate weight control behavior, inappropriate weight control behavior). The risk of problematic Internet use was assessed with the Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form. Both boys and girls with inappropriate weight control behavior were more likely to have problematic Internet use. Underweight, overweight, and obese boys and girls were more likely to have problematic Internet use. For both boys and girls, subjective perception of underweight and overweight were positively associated with problematic Internet use. Given the negative effect of inappropriate weight control behavior, special attention needs to be given to adolescents' inappropriate weight control behavior, and an educational intervention for adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Body weight prediction of Brakmas and Bali cattle using body measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Hafiz, A.W.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the rural areas facilities for farm animal weighing are often difficult to find and the construction of such facilities is relatively expensive. Therefore a study was conducted with the objective to estimate body weight of Brakmas and Bali cattle using prediction equations of linear body measurements. Data of body weight and body measurements, namely withers height, body length and heart girth from 279 heads of Brakmas (age 1 to 10 y old and 74 heads of Bali (age 1 to 10 y old cows were collected. The animals were in average body condition of 3 (1= emaciated, 3= moderate fat cover, and 5= excess fat cover. The correlation analysis showed that body weight of Brakmas cattle was highly correlated with its body length, heart girth and withers height with the correlation coefficients of 0.967, 0.964 and 0.942, respectively, while body weight in Bali cattle had the highest correlation with heart girth followed by body length and height at withers with the correlation coefficient of 0.985, 0.954 and 0.945, respectively. Regression analysis showed that body length provided a good estimate of live body weight with high precision as it accounted for 91.6% of the variability in body weight in Brakmas cattle, while heart girth accounted 97.1% of body weight variability in Bali cattle. The combination of body length-withers height, body length-heart girth and body length-withers height-heart girth showed an improvement in terms of predictive precision with the changes of 0.21%, 0.21% and 0.44%, respectively, in coeficient of determination (R2 compared to a single measure of body length in Brakmas cattle. The combination of heart girth-body length did not show any change in R2 in Bali cattle compared to a single measure of heart girth. Combining heart girth-height at withers and the combination of all body measurements showed the increment in coefficients of determination at 0.41% and 0.51%, respectively as compared to heart girth. Although the combination

  5. What is a healthy body weight? Perspectives of overweight youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Heather M; Irwin, Jennifer D

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative assessment was completed of overweight/obese youths' perceptions of the meaning of "healthy body weight," barriers and facilitators to healthy body weight attainment, and what would effectively enhance and support their healthy body weight behaviours. This qualitative study targeted a sample of overweight and obese youth, aged 14 to 16 years. An experienced interviewer conducted 11 in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three qualitative researchers conducted independent and simultaneous inductive content analysis to facilitate confirmability. Data trustworthiness was supported via member checking, peer debriefing, and reflexive journalling. Most participants characterized healthy body weight as a combination of healthy eating and regular physical activity. Some included a psychological dimension in the definition. Perceived facilitators of a healthy body weight included family support, access to nutritious food at home, physical activity encouragement, and a physical activity environment at school. Perceived barriers included lack of family support, a poor nutrition environment, an unsupportive school environment, time, self-esteem, and bullying. Participants identified preferences for an intervention that would include opportunities for unstructured coeducational recreational activities, coeducational nutrition education sessions, and a gender-specific discussion forum. Participants provided a wealth of information to form the foundation of future youth-focused efficacious healthy body weight interventions.

  6. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  7. Overweight, obesity and perceptions about body weight among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has become a public health concern both in developing and developed countries. Previous research studies have shown that favourable perception of one's body weight is an important factor in weight control. This study determined prevalence of ...

  8. Estimates Of Genetic Parameters Of Body Weights Of Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    four (44) farrowings were used to estimate the genetic parameters (heritability and repeatability) of body weight of pigs. Results obtained from the study showed that the heritability (h2) of birth and weaning weights were moderate (0.33±0.16 ...

  9. Changes in body weight and pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seimon, R V; Espinoza, D; Finer, N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial showed a significantly increased relative risk of nonfatal cardiovascular events, but not mortality, in overweight and obese subjects receiving long-term sibutramine treatment with diet and exercise. We examined the rela......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial showed a significantly increased relative risk of nonfatal cardiovascular events, but not mortality, in overweight and obese subjects receiving long-term sibutramine treatment with diet and exercise. We examined...... the relationship between early changes (both increases and decreases) in pulse rate, and the impact of these changes on subsequent cardiovascular outcome events in both the placebo and sibutramine groups. SUBJECTS/METHODS: 9804 males and females, aged ⩾55 years, with a body mass index of 27-45 kg m(-)(2) were...... included in this current subanalysis of the SCOUT trial. Subjects were required to have a history of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus with at least one cardiovascular risk factor, to assess cardiovascular outcomes. The primary outcome event (POE) was a composite of nonfatal myocardial...

  10. Gender differences in body mass index, body weight perception and weight loss strategies among undergraduates in Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, P X; Ho, H L; Shuhaili, M S; Siti, A A; Gudum, H R

    2011-04-01

    This study was carried out among undergraduate students in Universiti Malaysia Sarawak with the objective of examining gender differences in body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, eating attitudes and weightloss strategies. Subjects consisted of 600 undergraduates (300 males and 300 females) recruited from the various faculties between September 2008 until mid-November 2008. The Original Figure Rating Scale: Body Weight Perception, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) were used as assessment tools. Overall, 52.8% of students had normal BMI, with approximately an equal number of both sexes. More males than females were overweight (33.7%), while more females were underweight (25.3%). Males were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight, and fail to see themselves as underweight. More than half of the females preferred their ideal figure to be underweight, whereas about 30% males chose an overweight figure as their ideal model. Females were generally more concerned about body weight, body shape and eating than males. They diet more frequently, had self-induced vomiting, and used laxatives and exercise as their weight-loss strategies. Issues pertaining to body weight perception, eating attitudes and weight-loss strategies exist with differences among male and female undergraduates. Thus, in order to correct misperceptions among young adults, a more tailored intervention programme and more in-depth studies into the various factors involved are required.

  11. Ratio of slopes method for quantitative analysis in ceramic bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainal Arifin Ahmad; Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Noor; Radzali Othman; Messer, P.F.

    1996-01-01

    A quantitative x-ray diffraction analysis technique developed at University of Sheffield was adopted, rather than the previously widely used internal standard method, to determine the amount of the phases present in a reformulated whiteware porcelain and a BaTiO sub 3 electrochemical material. This method, although still employs an internal standard, was found to be very easy and accurate. The required weight fraction of a phase in the mixture to be analysed is determined from the ratio of slopes of two linear plots, designated as the analysis and reference lines, passing through their origins using the least squares method

  12. Weight reduction with improvement of serum lipid profile and ratios ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-05

    Nov 5, 2007 ... assessing the impact of sesame treatment with evidence of weight loss and hypolipidaemia .... using a MSE tabletop centrifuge machine (Minor Gallenkamp). The ... showed the presence of essential oils mainly the carbo-.

  13. Body weight gain after radioiodine therapy of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidhauer, K.; Odatzidu, L.; Schicha, H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Analysis and follow up of body weight after radioiodine therapy (RITh) of hyperthyroidism, since excessive weight gain is a common complaint among these patients. Methods: Therapy and body weight related data of 100 consecutive RITh-patients were retrospectively analysed from the time before up to three years after RITh. All patients suffered from hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease or autonomy), but were adjusted to euthyroid levels after RITh. Patients' data were compared to a control group of 48 euthyroid patients out of the same ambulance and during the same time scale. Results: All patients (RITh and controls) gained weight over the time. There was no statistically significant difference in BMI development over three years between RITh-patients and controls (5.5% resp. 4.9% increase). In the first year after RITh, weight gain of the RITh patients was higher indeed, but lower in the follow up, resulting in the same range of weight gain after three years as the controls. Besides that women showed a slightly higher increase of BMI than men, and so did younger patients compared to elder as well as patients with overweight already before RITh. Conclusions: An initially distinct increase of body weight after RITh of hyperthyroidism is mainly a compensation of pretherapeutic weight loss due to hyperthyroidism. Presupposing adequate euthyroid adjustment of thyroid metabolism after therapy, RITh is not responsible for later weight gain and adipositas. (orig.) [de

  14. [Body weight gain after radioiodine therapy in hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidhauer, K; Odatzidu, L; Kiencke, P; Schicha, H

    2002-02-01

    Analysis and follow up of body weight after radioiodine therapy (RITh) of hyperthyroidism, since excessive weight gain is a common complaint among these patients. Therapy and body weight related data of 100 consecutive RITh-patients were retrospectively analysed from the time before up to three years after RITh. All patients suffered from hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease or autonomy), but were adjusted to euthyroid levels after RITh. Patients' data were compared to a control group of 48 euthyroid patients out of the same ambulance and during the same time scale. All patients (RITh and controls) gained weight over the time. There was no statistically significant difference in BMI development over three years between RITh-patients and controls (5.5% resp. 4.9% increase). In the first year after RITh, weight gain of the RITh patients was higher indeed, but lower in the follow up, resulting in the same range of weight gain after three years as the controls. Besides that women showed a slightly higher increase of BMI than men, and so did younger patients compared to elder as well as patients with overweight already before RITh. An initially distinct increase of body weight after RITh of hyperthyroidism is mainly a compensation of pretherapeutic weight loss due to hyperthyroidism. Presupposing adequate euthyroid adjustment of thyroid metabolism after therapy, RITh is not responsible for later weight gain and adipositas.

  15. Body image and gestational weight gain: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Briony; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 50% of Australian adult women of childbearing age are overweight or obese, and, when pregnant, the majority gain excessive weight; this is also the case in the United States and other developed nations. High gestational weight gain (GWG) is the strongest predictor of maternal overweight/obesity postbirth and is also associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity. Understanding factors that contribute to excessive GWG is vital in combating obesity. The aim of the current study was to examine whether body image attitudes (eg, feeling fat, attractive, or strong and fit, and salience of weight and shape) predict GWG. Pregnant women, recruited through advertisements on pregnancy online forums and parenting magazines, completed questionnaires assessing body image, demographic variables, and GWG. The Body Attitudes Questionnaire assessed body image in early-to-middle, middle, and late pregnancy (mean of 16.8, 24.7, and 33.0 weeks' gestation, respectively). Total GWG was calculated by subtracting self-reported pre pregnancy weight from self-reported weight at 36.8 weeks' gestation. A total of 150 pregnant women responded to the study's advertisements, and 72% (n = 108) took part. After controlling for pre pregnancy body mass index (BMI), lower attractiveness in early-to-middle pregnancy was associated with higher GWG. In late pregnancy, women who had the lowest feelings of fatness had greater GWG. Body image attitudes earlier in pregnancy did not predict whether GWG recommendations were exceeded. Women of higher BMI were more likely to gain excessive weight. The findings suggest that the type and timing of pregnancy, body attitudes, and the time of pregnancy when they are noted, predict GWG. However, more research in the area is needed, including assessment of the relationship between body image concerns, GWG, and other psychosocial factors. We recommend that midwives monitor body image concerns in pregnancy to help address factors affecting GWG in at

  16. Body weight gain during adulthood and uterine myomas: Pró-Saúde Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine de Lima Sírio Boclin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to investigate whether body weight gain during adulthood is associated with uterine myomas. 1,560 subjects were evaluated in a Pró-Saúde Study. Weight gain was evaluated in a continuous fashion and also in quintiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated through logistic regression models that were adjusted for education levels, color/race, body mass indices at age 20, age of menarche, parity, use of oral contraceptive methods, smoking, health insurance, and the Papanicolaou tests. No relevant differences were observed regarding the presence of uterine myomas among weight gain quintiles in that studied population.

  17. Impact of Body Weight and Body Composition on Ovarian Cancer Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Sarah A; Elliott, Sarah A; Kroenke, Candyce H; Sawyer, Michael B; Prado, Carla M

    2016-02-01

    Measures of body weight and anthropometrics such as body mass index (BMI) are commonly used to assess nutritional status in clinical conditions including cancer. Extensive research has evaluated associations between body weight and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients, yet little is known about the potential impact of body composition (fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)) in these patients. Thus, the purpose of this publication was to review the literature (using PubMed and EMBASE) evaluating the impact of body weight and particularly body composition on surgical complications, morbidity, chemotherapy dosing and toxicity (as predictors of prognosis), and survival in ovarian cancer patients. Body weight is rarely associated with intra-operative complications, but obesity predicts higher rates of venous thromboembolism and wound complications post-operatively in ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of FM and FFM are superior predictors of length of hospital stay compared to measures of body weight alone, but the role of body composition on other surgical morbidities is unknown. Obesity complicates chemotherapy dosing due to altered pharmacokinetics, imprecise dosing strategies, and wide variability in FM and FFM. Measurement of body composition has the potential to reduce toxicity if the results are incorporated into chemotherapy dosing calculations. Some findings suggest that excess body weight adversely affects survival, while others find no such association. Limited studies indicate that FM is a better predictor of survival than body weight in ovarian cancer patients, but the direction of this relationship has not been determined. In conclusion, body composition as an indicator of nutritional status is a better prognostic tool than body weight or BMI alone in ovarian cancer patients.

  18. The relationship between body weight and risk of death and serious injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Charles N; Grossman, David C; Kaufman, Robert P; Mack, Christopher D; Rivara, Frederick P

    2002-03-01

    We sought to investigate the effect of increased body weight on the risk of death and serious injury to occupants in motor vehicle crashes. We employed a retrospective cohort study design utilizing data from the National Automotive Sampling System, Crashworthiness Data System (CDS), 1993-1996. Subjects in the study included occupants involved in tow-away crashes of passenger cars, light trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles. Two outcomes were analyzed: death within 30 days of the crash and injury severity score (ISS). Two exposures were considered: occupant body weight and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). Occupant weight was available on 27263 subjects (76%) in the CDS database. Mortality was 0.67%. Increased body weight was associated with increased risk of mortality and increased risk of severe injury. The odds ratio for death was 1.013 (95% CI: 1.007, 1.018) for each kilogram increase in body weight. The odds ratio for sustaining an injury with ISS > or = 9 was 1.008 (95% CI: 1.004, 1.011) for each kilogram increase in body weight. After adjustment for potentially confounding variables (age, gender, seatbelt use, seat position and vehicle curbweight), the significant relationship between occupant weight and mortality persisted. After adjustment, the relationship between occupant weight and ISS was present, although less marked. Similar trends were found when BMI was analyzed as the exposure. In conclusion, increased occupant body weight is associated with increased mortality in automobile crashes. This is probably due in part to increased co-morbid factors in the more overweight occupants. However, it is possibly also due to an increased severity of injury in these occupants. These findings may have implications for vehicle safety design, as well as for transport safety policy.

  19. Continuous gamma irradiation influence on food intake, body weight, and weight of some rat organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatova, Z [Institute of Neurobiology SAV, Kosice (Czechoslovakia); Sedlakova, A; Ahlers, I; Praslicka, M [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta

    1977-01-01

    Food intake, body weight and weight of some organs were studied in male Wistar rats within 25 days of continuous gamma irradiation at a dose rate of 15.48 x 10/sup -3/ C/kg (6O R) per day in an experimental gamma field. A decrease in food intake and body weight and a decrease in thymus and spleen weights were found during the first week in irradiated rats. The thymus and spleen involutions did not progress within the second week. From the beginning of the third week till the end of the experiment the irradiated animals increased their weight and the food intake was even higher during the last week of irradiation in comparison with controls. The spleen and thymus involutions stopped but the weight remained at the lower level. The relative weight of the adrenal glands in irradiated animals only increased at the end of the period.

  20. Personality Traits and Body Weight: Evidence Using Sibling Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Past research has shown that personality traits relate to body weight, but this relationship may be confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics such as genetic endowments. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the association between personality traits, as measured by the Big Five taxonomy, and body weight among young adults is spurious owing to shared family background. Methods Participants were drawn from the full (n = 14,366) and family (n = 2,813) samples of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The study employed family-fixed effects to eliminate shared family background factors that might affect personality traits and body weight simultaneously. Results Among the Big Five personality traits, only conscientiousness showed a robust association with body weight, including body mass index (BMI) and obesity risk. These results were robust to adjustments for family-fixed effects, which indicates that the association between conscientiousness and body weight is generally not confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics shared by siblings. A one-standard-deviation increase in conscientiousness was associated with a decrease in BMI by 0.89 (equivalent to a 2.5 kg decrease in weight for an individual with an average height of the sample) and a 12% reduction in the probability of being obese. This study also found some suggestive evidence of gender and racial/ethnic differences. The association between conscientiousness and obesity was larger and statistically significant only for women, and conscientiousness was most strongly associated with obesity among Hispanic people. Conclusion Conscientiousness is associated with decreased body weight net of unobserved background characteristics that are shared by siblings. The results suggest that interventions that develop personality traits may have “spillover effects”; in other words, they may also help reduce obesity. PMID

  1. After massive weight loss: patients' expectations of body contouring surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzinger, Hugo B; Abayev, Sara; Pittermann, Anna; Karle, Birgit; Bohdjalian, Arthur; Langer, Felix B; Prager, Gerhard; Frey, Manfred

    2012-04-01

    Massive weight loss following bariatric surgery leads to excess skin with functional and aesthetic impairments. Surplus skin can then contribute to problems with additional weight loss or gain. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the frequency of massive soft tissue development in gastric bypass patients, to determine whether males and females experience similar post-bypass body changes, and to learn about the expectations and impairments related to body contouring surgery. A questionnaire addressing information on the satisfaction of body image, quality of life, and expectation of body contouring surgery following massive weight loss was mailed to 425 patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery between 2003 and 2009. Of these 425 individuals, 252 (59%) patients completed the survey. Ninety percent of women and 88% of men surveyed rated their appearance following massive weight loss as satisfactory, good, or very good. However, 96% of all patients developed surplus skin, which caused intertriginous dermatitis and itching. In addition, patients reported problems with physical activity (playing sports) and finding clothing that fit appropriately. Moreover, 75% of female and 68% of male patients reported desiring body contouring surgery. The most important expectation of body contouring surgery was improved appearance, followed by improved self-confidence and quality of life. Surplus skin resulting from gastric bypass surgery is a common issue that causes functional and aesthetic impairments in patients. Consequently, this increases the desire for body contouring surgery with high expectations for the aesthetic outcome as well as improved life satisfaction.

  2. Weight self-regulation process in adolescence: the relationship between control weight attitudes, behaviors and body weight status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi ePich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (n= 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008 in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT, we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed would be motivated either by a promotion focus (to show an attractive body, a prevention focus (to avoid social rejection of fatness, or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13% and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were Not at all concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13% and 11% respectively. By contrast 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious emotional (self-defense and cognitive (dissonance mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  3. Temperament and body weight from ages 4 to 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, A R; Kerr, J A; Terracciano, A

    2017-07-01

    In adulthood, conscientiousness and neuroticism are correlates of body weight and weight gain. The present research examines whether the childhood antecedents of these traits, persistence and negative reactivity, respectively, are associated with weight gain across childhood. We likewise examine sociability as a predictor of childhood weight gain and whether these three traits are associated with weight concerns and weight-management strategies in adolescence. Participants (N=4153) were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, an ongoing, population-based study of child and family health and well-being. At the baseline assessment, caregivers reported on their child's temperament. At every assessment from ages 4-5 to 14-15 years, study children were weighed and measured by trained staff; there were up to six biennial assessments of body mass index and waist circumference. At ages 14-15 years, study children (n=2975) also self-reported on their weight concerns and weight-management strategies. Study children rated lower in persistence or higher in negative reactivity in early childhood gained more weight between the ages of 4 and 15 years. Sociability was associated with weight gain among girls but not among boys. Lower persistence and higher negative reactivity at ages 4-5 years were also associated with greater weight concerns, restrained eating and use of unhealthy weight-management strategies at ages 14-15 years. Childhood traits related to conscientiousness and neuroticism are associated with objective weight gain across childhood and with concerns and strategies to manage weight in adolescence. These results are consistent with a lifespan perspective that indicates that trait psychological functioning contributes to health-related markers from childhood through old age.

  4. Body-weight-supported treadmill rehabilitation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Pamela W; Sullivan, Katherine J; Behrman, Andrea L; Azen, Stanley P; Wu, Samuel S; Nadeau, Stephen E; Dobkin, Bruce H; Rose, Dorian K; Tilson, Julie K; Cen, Steven; Hayden, Sarah K

    2011-05-26

    Locomotor training, including the use of body-weight support in treadmill stepping, is a physical therapy intervention used to improve recovery of the ability to walk after stroke. The effectiveness and appropriate timing of this intervention have not been established. We stratified 408 participants who had had a stroke 2 months earlier according to the extent of walking impairment--moderate (able to walk 0.4 to stroke had occurred (early locomotor training), the second group received this training 6 months after the stroke had occurred (late locomotor training), and the third group participated in an exercise program at home managed by a physical therapist 2 months after the stroke (home-exercise program). Each intervention included 36 sessions of 90 minutes each for 12 to 16 weeks. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants in each group who had an improvement in functional walking ability 1 year after the stroke. At 1 year, 52.0% of all participants had increased functional walking ability. No significant differences in improvement were found between early locomotor training and home exercise (adjusted odds ratio for the primary outcome, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50 to 1.39) or between late locomotor training and home exercise (adjusted odds ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.99). All groups had similar improvements in walking speed, motor recovery, balance, functional status, and quality of life. Neither the delay in initiating the late locomotor training nor the severity of the initial impairment affected the outcome at 1 year. Ten related serious adverse events were reported (occurring in 2.2% of participants undergoing early locomotor training, 3.5% of those undergoing late locomotor training, and 1.6% of those engaging in home exercise). As compared with the home-exercise group, each of the groups receiving locomotor training had a higher frequency of dizziness or faintness during treatment (P=0.008). Among patients with severe walking

  5. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures

  6. Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Lennart P J; Grabowski, Alena; Kram, Rodger

    2007-12-01

    The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In the present study, we investigated how independently altering body weight and body mass affects the metabolic cost of running. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that reducing body weight would decrease metabolic rate proportionally, and adding mass and weight would increase metabolic rate proportionally. Further, because previous studies show that adding mass alone does not affect the forces generated on the ground, we hypothesized that adding mass alone would have no substantial effect on metabolic rate. We manipulated the body weight and body mass of 10 recreational human runners and measured their metabolic rates while they ran at 3 m s(-1). We reduced weight using a harness system, increased mass and weight using lead worn about the waist, and increased mass alone using a combination of weight support and added load. We found that net metabolic rate decreased in less than direct proportion to reduced body weight, increased in slightly more than direct proportion to added load (added mass and weight), and was not substantially different from normal running with added mass alone. Adding mass alone was not an effective method for determining the metabolic cost attributable to braking/propelling body mass. Runners loaded with mass alone did not generate greater vertical or horizontal impulses and their metabolic costs did not substantially differ from those of normal running. Our results show that generating force to support body weight is the primary determinant of the metabolic cost of running. Extrapolating our reduced weight data to zero weight suggests that supporting body weight comprises at most 74% of the net cost of running. However, 74% is probably an

  7. Genetic parameters of body weight and prolificacy in pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaumont Catherine

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic parameters of body weight at weaning and of prolificacy were estimated in three commercial lines of pigeons selected by BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction on both traits. The model of analysis took into account the direct genetic effects for both traits and the effect of parental permanent environment for body weight. Depending on the line considered, body weight varied from 556.7 g to 647.6 g and prolificacy ranged from 12.5 to 16.8 pigeons weaned per couple of parents per year. Heritability of body weight was high, varying between 0.46 and 0.60, and permanent environment was responsible for 6% to 9% of the total variability. On the contrary, prolificacy was poorly heritable (0.04 to 0.12. They were highly and negatively correlated (-0.77 to -0.82. Body weight showed significant genetic trends in lines B and C. No significant genetic difference could be observed between males and females for both traits.

  8. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moorhead, Anne

    2011-03-31

    Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups\\' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a) community related public health nurses; (b) school public health nurses; (c) GPs and practice nurses (primary care); and (d) occupational health nurses (workplace) from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods\\/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based) - to determine the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals\\' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  9. Prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and birth weight in the BRISA cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Raina Jansen Cutrim Propp; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Lima Neto, Pedro Martins; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Bettiol, Heloisa

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy on the baby's birth weight. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study with 5,024 mothers and their newborns using a Brazilian birth cohort study. In the proposed model, estimated by structural equation modeling, we tested socioeconomic status, age, marital status, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking habit and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, hypertension and gestat...

  10. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Kathy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a community related public health nurses; (b school public health nurses; (c GPs and practice nurses (primary care; and (d occupational health nurses (workplace from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based - to determine the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  11. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain influence birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R; Xu, L; Wu, M L; Huang, S H; Cao, X J

    2018-02-01

    Evidence suggests that pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain have impact on pregnancy and birth weight, yet whether maternal gestational weight gain has a differential effect on the rates of adverse birth weight among women with different pre-pregnancy body mass index categories are unknown. We selected 1617 children matched with their mothers as study subjects. The subjects were divided into three categories: weight gain below the American Institute of Medicine guidelines, weight gain within the American Institute of Medicine guidelines and weight gain above the American Institute of Medicine guidelines. The prevalence of pre-pregnancy underweight and overweight/obese women was 16.3% and 12.3%. And nearly 15.2% of the women had gestational weight gain below American Institute of Medicine guideline, 52.1% of the women had gestational weight gain above American Institute of Medicine guideline. Maternal overweight and obese was associated with increased risk for macrosomia and large-for-gestational age. Women had gestational weight gain below American Institute of Medicine guideline were more likely to have low birth weight and small-for-gestational age than women who had gestational weight gain within American Institute of Medicine guideline. Furthermore, the risks for macrosomia and large-for-gestational age were increased in women with above American Institute of Medicine guideline. And for women with a normal weight before pregnancy, gestational weight gain above the American Institute of Medicine guidelines were associated with higher rates of macrosomia and large-for-gestational age, compared with the women of similar pre-pregnancy weight category but with gestational weight gain within the American Institute of Medicine guidelines. Women with abnormal pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain are at risk for adverse birth weight outcomes. Moreover, gestational weight gain has a differential effect on the rates of adverse

  12. Morphometric Characteristics and Length-Weight Relationship of Russian Sturgeon Juveniles Fed with Different Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Cristina ANDREI(GURIENCU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze some morphometric characteristics and the correlation between them for Russian sturgeon juveniles (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii reared in a recirculating aquaculture system fed at different fed with different ratio: 1% body weight (BW, 1.5% BW, 2% BW and ad libitum feeding (which was around 2.8% BW.Fish, with an average body mass around 248.194 ± 1.59 g. Following biometric measurements were made for each fish, including weight (W, total length (TL, standard length (SL, fork length (FL, maximum body depth (last depth of caudal peduncle, H; preanal distance (AD, predorsal distance (PD, length of head (C, preorbital distance (PO, length of pectoral fin (LPF, interorbital distance (ID, maximum width of head (MH, width of mouth (WM, width of the head at the level of the mouth (WHM. The obtained results showed significant differences between all morphometric measurements (p<0.05 for all the experimental variants, emphasizing that in the ad libitum feeding all morphometric measurements were significantly higher than in the other experimental variants. In order to highlight more eloquent these differences, were developed some linear regressions between the morphometric measurements and significant positive correlation (p<0.05 between dependent and independent variables were found.

  13. Body checking is associated with weight- and body-related shame and weight- and body-related guilt among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon-Krakus, Shauna; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2017-12-01

    This study examined whether body checking was a correlate of weight- and body-related shame and guilt for men and women. Participants were 537 adults (386 women) between the ages of 17 and 74 (M age =28.29, SD=14.63). Preliminary analyses showed women reported significantly more body-checking (pbody-related shame (pbody-related guilt (pbody checking was significantly and positively associated with weight- and body-related shame (R 2 =.29 and .43, pbody-related guilt (R 2 =.34 and .45, pbody checking is associated with negative weight- and body-related self-conscious emotions. Intervention and prevention efforts aimed at reducing negative weight- and body-related self-conscious emotions should consider focusing on body checking for adult men and women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for

  15. [Etiological and exacerbation factors for COPD. Body weight loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akihito

    2016-05-01

    Hunger or malnutrition is not only a historical issue but also a current problem worldwide. Biological responses to hunger are evolutionary prepared in our body, including energy generation by degradation of body proteins. Extreme weight loss (malnutrition) can cause air space enlargement in human and rodents. However, the changes in rodents could be reversible, since refeeding could repair the pathology. On the other hand, weight loss is a common feature in patients with more severe COPD. Complex factors, such as increased energy consumption, decreased food uptake by low grade inflammation, socio-economic factors and so on, are involved in weight loss. Weight loss in patients with COPD also increases the risk of exacerbation, hospitalization, and death.

  16. Does body image influence the relationship between body weight and breastfeeding maintenance in new mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Vivien; Keely, Alice; Denison, Fiona C

    2017-09-01

    Obese women have lower breastfeeding initiation and maintenance rates than healthy weight women. Research generally focuses on biomedical explanations for this. Psychosocial factors including body image and well-being after childbirth are less well understood as predictors of breastfeeding. In obese and healthy weight women, we investigated changes in body image between 72 hrs post-delivery and 6-8 weeks post-natal, studying how women's body image related to breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. We also investigated how psychological distress was related to body image. Longitudinal semi-structured questionnaire survey. Body image and psychological distress were assessed within 72 hrs of birth and by postal questionnaire at 6-8 weeks, for 70 obese and 70 healthy weight women initiating exclusive (breastmilk only) breastfeeding or mixed feeding (with formula milk) in hospital. Breastfeeding was re-assessed at 6-8 weeks. Obese women were less likely to exclusively breastfeed in hospital and maintain breastfeeding to 6-8 weeks. Better body image was related to maintaining breastfeeding and to lower post-natal psychological distress for all women, but education level was the most significant predictor of maintenance in multivariate regression including body image and weight status. Body image mediated, but did not moderate the relationship between weight and breastfeeding maintenance. Body image was lower overall in obese women, but all women had low body image satisfaction around childbirth, reducing further at 6-8 weeks. Health professionals should consider women's body image when discussing breastfeeding. A focus on breast function over form may support breastfeeding for all women. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Obesity can negatively affect breastfeeding initiation and maintenance, but there is little information about how psychosocial factors affect this relationship. Body image may be an important factor, but has not

  17. Influence of Body Weight on Bone Mass, Architecture, and Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Turner, Russell T.

    2016-01-01

    Weight-dependent loading of the skeleton plays an important role in establishing and maintaining bone mass and strength. This review focuses on mechanical signaling induced by body weight as an essential mechanism for maintaining bone health. In addition, the skeletal effects of deviation from normal weight are discussed. The magnitude of mechanical strain experienced by bone during normal activities is remarkably similar among vertebrates, regardless of size, supporting the existence of a conserved regulatory mechanism, or mechanostat, that senses mechanical strain. The mechanostat functions as an adaptive mechanism to optimize bone mass and architecture based on prevailing mechanical strain. Changes in weight, due to altered mass, weightlessness (spaceflight), and hypergravity (modeled by centrifugation), induce an adaptive skeletal response. However, the precise mechanisms governing the skeletal response are incompletely understood. Furthermore, establishing whether the adaptive response maintains the mechanical competence of the skeleton has proven difficult, necessitating development of surrogate measures of bone quality. The mechanostat is influenced by regulatory inputs to facilitate non-mechanical functions of the skeleton, such as mineral homeostasis, as well as hormones and energy/nutrient availability that support bone metabolism. While the skeleton is very capable of adapting to changes in weight, the mechanostat has limits. At the limits, extreme deviations from normal weight and body composition are associated with impaired optimization of bone strength to prevailing body size. PMID:27352896

  18. Body weight, anorexia, and undernutrition in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian M

    2013-09-01

    Ideal body weight for maximum life expectancy increases with advancing age. Older people, however, tend to weigh less than younger adults, and old age is also associated with a tendency to lose weight. Weight loss in older people is associated with adverse outcomes, particularly if unintentional, and initial body weight is low. When older people lose weight, more of the tissue lost is lean tissue (mainly skeletal muscle) than in younger people. When excessive, the loss of lean muscle tissue results in sarcopenia, which is associated with poor health outcomes. Unintentional weight loss in older people may be a result of protein-energy malnutrition, cachexia, the physiological anorexia of aging, or a combination of these. The physiological anorexia of aging is a decrease in appetite and energy intake that occurs even in healthy people and is possibly caused by changes in the digestive tract, gastrointestinal hormone concentrations and activity, neurotransmitters, and cytokines. A greater understanding of this decrease in appetite and energy intake during aging, and the responsible mechanisms, may aid the search for ways to treat undernutrition and weight loss in older people. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Body Weight, Body Condition, and Muscle Condition in Cats with Hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M E; Castellano, C A; Rishniw, M

    2016-11-01

    The contribution of fat loss versus muscle wasting to the loss of body weight seen in hyperthyroid cats is unknown. To investigate body weight, body condition score (BCS), and muscle condition score (MCS) in hyperthyroid cats. Four hundred sixty-two cats with untreated hyperthyroidism, 117 of which were reevaluated after treatment. Prospective cross-sectional and before-after studies. Untreated hyperthyroid cats had body composition evaluated (body weight, BCS, and MCS). A subset of these cats were reevaluated 3-12 months after treatment when euthyroid. Pretreatment body weight (median, 4.36 kg; IQR, 3.5 to 5.2 kg) was lower than premorbid weight (5.45 kg; IQR, 4.6 to 6.4 kg, P loss of muscle mass. Cats showed increases in body weight (median, 4.1 kg to 5.0 kg), BCS (median, 3/5 to 3.5/5), and MCS (2/3 to 3/3) after treatment (P hyperthyroid cats lose body weight but maintain an ideal or overweight BCS, with only a third being underweight. As in human hyperthyroid patients, this weight loss is associated with muscle wasting, which affects >75% of hyperthyroid cats. Successful treatment leads to weight gain and increase of BCS in most cats, but almost half fail to regain normal muscle mass. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. The role of body weight, fat distribution and weight change in ethnic differences in the 9-year incidence of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootveld, Laura R; Van Valkengoed, Irene G M; Peters, Ron J G; Ujcic-Voortman, Joanne K; Brewster, Lizzy M; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the role of body composition (body weight, fat distribution and weight change over time) in ethnic differences in the incidence of hypertension in an ethnic Dutch, South Asian Surinamese and African Surinamese background population living in the Netherlands. We included 361 participants without hypertension at baseline (147 ethnic Dutch, 82 South Asian Surinamese, 132 African Surinamese), aged 35-60 years, in whom anthropometric measurements and blood pressures were measured at baseline and after mean 9 years of follow-up. Data were analysed using logistic regression analyses, with hypertension at follow up as a dependent variable. Body weight, fat distribution and weight gain were positively associated with the risk of developing hypertension; these associations did not statistically significantly differ between ethnic groups [odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence interval (95% CI) per SD: BMI 1.5 (1.2-2.0); waist circumference 1.5 (1.2-1.9); waist to hip ratio (WHR) 1.4 (1.1-1.9), weight gain of 1-2.9 kg/m 1.8 (0.9-3.8)]. As compared with Dutch, a higher incidence of hypertension was found among South Asian Surinamese [OR 2.6 (1.4-4.8)] and in particular among African Surinamese [OR 3.1 (1.76-5.30)]. Among South Asian Surinamese, adjustment for WHR attenuated the OR the most [OR 1.9 (1.0-3.7)]; among African Surinamese, the strongest effect was observed for adjustment by BMI and WHR simultaneously [OR 2.5 (1.4-4.4)]. The ethnic differences in the incidence of hypertension among a middle-aged group with a Dutch, South Asian Surinamese and African Surinamese background were partly explained by body composition. This suggests that other factors may be involved, including genetic factors or unidentified other determinants.

  1. Inadequacy of Body Weight-Based Recommendations for Individual Protein Intake-Lessons from Body Composition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Corinna; Prado, Carla M; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-12-31

    Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM), which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1) 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years); (2) 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years) and (3) 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2 years). LM was assessed using different devices (magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, total body potassium and bioelectrical impedance), body weight-based protein intake, its ratio (per kg LM) and mean protein requirement were calculated. Variability in protein intake in all cohorts ranged from 0.83 to 1.77 g protein per kg LM per day using (theoretical protein intake of 60 g protein per day). Calculated mean protein requirement was 1.63 g protein per kg LM per day; consequently, 95.3% of healthy subjects, 100% of cirrhotic and 97.4% of cancer patients would present with a low protein intake per kg LM. Weight-adjusted recommendations are inadequate to address the LM specific differences in protein needs of healthy subjects or clinical populations. Absolute protein intake seems to be more relevant compared to the relative proportion of protein, which in turn changes with different energy needs.

  2. Inadequacy of Body Weight-Based Recommendations for Individual Protein Intake—Lessons from Body Composition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Geisler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM, which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years; (2 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years and (3 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2 years. LM was assessed using different devices (magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, total body potassium and bioelectrical impedance, body weight-based protein intake, its ratio (per kg LM and mean protein requirement were calculated. Variability in protein intake in all cohorts ranged from 0.83 to 1.77 g protein per kg LM per day using (theoretical protein intake of 60 g protein per day. Calculated mean protein requirement was 1.63 g protein per kg LM per day; consequently, 95.3% of healthy subjects, 100% of cirrhotic and 97.4% of cancer patients would present with a low protein intake per kg LM. Weight-adjusted recommendations are inadequate to address the LM specific differences in protein needs of healthy subjects or clinical populations. Absolute protein intake seems to be more relevant compared to the relative proportion of protein, which in turn changes with different energy needs.

  3. Weight-to-height ratio and aerobic capacity in 15-year-old male taekwondo martial artists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliszczuk, Tatiana; Jankowska, Ewa; Poliszczuk, Dmytro

    2013-01-01

    Martial arts are growing in popularity throughout the whole world. Their beneficial influence on physical development and fitness is noteworthy. Martial arts are an attractive form of physical recreation, constitute a perfect means for combating stress, and have a positive effect on general health, including during rehabilitation. The aim of this study is to assess physical development and aerobic capacity in boys who practice taekwondo and to determine the relationships between results of a fitness test and particular parameters of physical development. Study participants comparised 51 boys aged 15 years who practiced taekwondo (with training experience ranging from 1 to 6 years). Volkov´s modification of the Harvard Step Test was used to assess body height and body mass. BMI was also calculated. Centile charts were used to assess weight-to-height ratio and the level of measured parameters. BMI was analyzed according to the Cole classification system. Dispersion was calculated using a coefficient of variation. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between selected parameters was also calculated. Most study participants had normal BMI, but 30% showed overweight and 13% showed underweight or emaciation. Weight-to-height ratio differed significantly from the norm in 33% of the boys when compared to centile charts. All participants had average aerobic capacity. However, when weight-to-height ratio was compared to the results of the Harvard Step Test, boys with normal body proportions performed much better in the test than boys with abnormal body mass (p<0.05). Study participants showed abnormal weight-to-height ratio mainly in terms of overweight. The boys had greater body height and body mass compared to the general Polish population. Aerobic capacity differed considerably between participants.

  4. Direct and indirect effects of body weight on adult wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C; Powell, Lisa M

    2011-12-01

    Previous estimates of the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been conditional on education and occupation. In addition to the effect of current body weight status (body mass index (BMI) or obesity) on wages, this paper examines the indirect effect of body weight status in the late-teenage years on wages operating through education and occupation choice. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data, for women, we find that a one-unit increase in BMI is directly associated with 1.83% lower hourly wages whereas the indirect BMI wage penalty is not statistically significant. Neither a direct nor an indirect BMI wage penalty is found for men. However, results based on clinical weight classification reveal that the indirect wage penalty occurs to a larger extent at the upper tail of the BMI distribution for both men and women via the pathways of education and occupation outcomes. Late-teen obesity is indirectly associated with 3.5% lower hourly wages for both women and men. These results are important because they imply that the total effect of obesity on wages is significantly larger than has been estimated in previous cross-sectional studies. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of body weight, age and management system on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of doe age, body weight and different management systems, as practiced in various Angora goat studs, on reproductive performance of does was investigated. The data used were collected from 2000 to 2004 on 12 Angora goat studs kept under different management systems. The data set analysed for this study ...

  6. Estimation of genetic parameters for body weights of Kurdish sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameters and (co)variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedure, using animal models of kind 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, for body weight in birth, three, six, nine and 12 months of age in a Kurdish sheep flock. Direct and maternal breeding values were estimated using the best ...

  7. Fast food consumption pattern and body weight status among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed fast food consumption pattern (FFCP) and body weight status among the undergraduates of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, living in different halls of residence on the university campus during the Rain semester of 2011/2012 session. The study employed survey research design to give an ...

  8. Microsatellite markers associated with body and carcass weights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsatellite markers are presently used in selection to facilitate the genetic improvement of growth and carcass traits in chickens. The genetic improvement of six weeks live body and carcass weights of Cairo B-2 line, after six generation of selection, was compared with the control line (C line). Cairo B-2 line had higher ...

  9. Evaluation of Body Weight and Other Linear Parameters of Marshall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    records of Marshall Broiler chickens to be more alike is low. Repeatability and variance ... the feed efficiency as well as performance ... Body weight is regarded as a function of frame work or size of the ... an animal‟s life time. ... Teaching and Research Farm, Ladoke. Akintola ... measured with a weighing balance calibrated ...

  10. Effect of Fishmeal Supplementation on Body Weight Gain of White ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two 8-week feeding trials were carried out to investigate the effect of supplementing an inadequate commercial diet available in Eritrea. with fishmeal produced locally by sun-drying and grinding on the body weight gain of White Leghorn chicks. The commercial diet consisted 'of a mixture of sorghum, wheat middlings, ...

  11. Body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy and obstetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To find out the effects of pregnancy weight gain in different body mass index (BMI) groups on maternal and neonatal outcomes in women delivering singletons at term. Design: Retrospective analysis of clinical records of patients attending antenatal clinics and delivering in hospital from January 1st 1992 to ...

  12. Effect of Experimental Coccidiosis Infections on Body Weight Gain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infections with E. tenella in broiler breeder males showed that body weight gains of the uninfected males were significantly greater (p< 0.05) at 5, 7 and 14 days post inoculation (dpi) than those of the infected groups. Sperm productions at 0, 5 and 7 dpi (0=day of inoculation with infected oocysts) for the uninfected controls ...

  13. Testicular development and relationship between body weight, testis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... reports seem to indicate that boars with higher body and testis weight may ... in terms of loss of animals of good genetic standing may be of no practical ... weekly intervals until they reached 36 weeks of age. The ... Training of boars and semen collection. All in situ ..... on semen composition in the boar. Can.

  14. Weight loss expectations and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, M; Montagnese, C; Muscariello, E; Evans, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Papa, A; Iannetti, E; Colantuoni, A

    2014-04-01

    Unrealistic weight loss expectations (WLEs) and greater body dissatisfaction may be associated with the poor long-term outcomes of dietary and lifestyle weight loss treatments. We evaluated the association between body size, WLEs and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight. Forty-four young healthy women [age range 18-35 years, body mass index (BMI) range 23-40 kg/m2] were recruited. Women were classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI social (career, family acceptance, peer acceptance, mass media, social pressure) factors. Individual WLEs were compared with recommended clinical targets (5%, 10% and 20%) for weight loss. Body dissatisfaction was lower in non-obese subjects and was directly associated with BMI (P media, whereas they perceived that family and friends were supportive of a lesser degree of weight loss. We observed a mismatch between clinical and personal expectations, and social pressure and interpersonal relationships appear to have a prominent role with respect to influencing the association. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  15. Changes in body weight, body composition, and eating attitudes in high school wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka Humenikova; Betts, Nancy Mulhollen; Payton, Mark Edward

    2009-08-01

    Many wrestlers engage in chronic dieting and rapid "weight cutting" throughout the year to compete in a category below their natural weight. Such weight-management practices have a negative influence on their health and nutritional status, so the National Wrestling Coaches Association implemented a new weight-management program for high school wrestlers in 2006. The purpose of this study was to determine whether seasonal changes in weight, body fat, and eating attitudes occur among high school wrestlers after the implementation of the new weight-management rule. Fifteen high school wrestlers participated in the study. Their weight, body composition, and eating attitudes were measured preseason, in-season, and off-season. Body fat was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Attitudes toward dieting, food, and body weight were assessed using the Eating Attitude Test (EAT). No significant changes in body fat were detected from preseason to off-season. Weight increased from preseason to in-season (p < .05) and off-season (p < .05). Although the EAT score did not change significantly from preseason to off-season, 60% reported "thinking about burning up calories when exercising" during preseason, and only 40% felt that way during the season (p < .05) and 47% during, off-season (p < .05). The wrestlers experienced a significant weight gain from preseason to off-season with no significant changes in body fat. Their eating attitudes did not change significantly from preseason to off-season in this study, but further research using a large sample of high school wrestlers is warranted to confirm these findings.

  16. Attitudes to body weight, weight gain and eating behavior in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S; King, W; Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1994-12-01

    The eating behavior and attitudes to body weight of 100 healthy women were studied 3 days after the birth of their first child. During pregnancy women 'watch their weight' and use a range of methods of weight control which include cigarette smoking and inducing vomiting. During pregnancy 41 women reported weight control problems and 20 women considered their weight and eating problems to be greater than at any previous time. Picking was the most common unwanted behavior. Binge eating was experienced by 44 women, nine of whom reported it to be a 'severe' problem. Although women were ambivalent about being weighed at each antenatal visit, 81 recommended weighing once each month. The women held differing opinions on the effects of breastfeeding on body weight and on the need for nutritional supplements during pregnancy. Women reporting 'disordered eating' were more likely to have antenatal complications and give birth to low birthweight babies. The results suggest good obstetric care should include a history of the woman's eating behavior and body weight.

  17. Body composition of preschool children and relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Costa Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.

  18. Placental weight and birth weight to placental weight ratio in monochorionic and dichorionic growth-restricted and non-growth-restricted twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Alves Souza

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the placental weight and birth weight/placental weight ratio for intrauterine growth-restricted and non-intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of placentas from twin pregnancies. Placental weight and the birth weight/placental weight ratio were compared in intrauterine growth-restricted and non-intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins. The association between cord insertion type and placental lesions in intrauterine growth-restricted and non-intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins was also investigated. RESULTS: A total of 105 monochorionic (intrauterine growth restriction=40; non-intrauterine growth restriction=65 and 219 dichorionic (intrauterine growth restriction=57; non-intrauterine growth restriction=162 placentas were analyzed. A significantly lower placental weight was observed in intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic (p=0.022 and dichorionic (p<0.001 twins compared to non-intrauterine growth-restricted twins. There was no difference in the birth weight/placental weight ratio between the intrauterine growth restriction and non-intrauterine growth restriction groups for either monochorionic (p=0.36 or dichorionic (p=0.68 twins. Placental weight and the birth weight/placental weight ratio were not associated with cord insertion type or with placental lesions. CONCLUSION: Low placental weight, and consequently reduced functional mass, appears to be involved in fetal growth restriction in monochorionic and dichorionic twins. The mechanism by which low placental weight influences the birth weight/placental weight ratio in intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins needs to be determined in larger prospective studies.

  19. Body image concerns amongst massive weight loss patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Jo

    2013-05-01

    To explore body image matters amongst patients following massive weight loss. In contemporary health care, a growing number of morbidly obese patients are seeking surgical solutions such as bariatric surgery or in other cases engaging with radical lifestyle changes. Massive weight loss can leave patients with a huge excess of lax overstretched skin that in some cases can trigger major body image dissatisfaction or depression. There is a scarcity of research about the needs of this group of patients and this is important for nursing practice. A qualitative design using in-depth interviews was employed. Twenty white adults (18 women and two men) were recruited retrospectively amongst patients who had massive weight loss by undergoing bariatric surgery or radical lifestyle changes, aged 29-63 years. All of the participants gave signed informed consent. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. One core theme focusing on body image ugliness and three associated subthemes were identified: the subthemes included feeling socially marginalised, feeling depressed and sexual and intimacy difficulties. Body image matters are hugely significant and appear to have a lasting effect on emotional well-being and function, contributing to psychological distress and social isolation. Greater sensitivity is required in enabling patients to work through emotional isolation and shame that has been a part of their childhood. Furthermore more, treatments need to be accessible to this growing patient population such as reconstructive surgery. Nurses who care for massive weight loss patients need to be mindful of their psychodynamic needs and be non-judgemental and accepting. Moreover, nurses need to be aware of treatment options and be able to assess body image matters and implement quality care for this particular patient group including body image acceptance programmes and support groups. © 2013 Blackwell

  20. Preliminary radiation protection tests for the body height and body weight of the Chinese reference man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Z.Y.; Chang, Z.Y.; Lan, W.Z.; Yin, G.A.; Li, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    The radiation protection standard recommended by ICRP was evaluated in terms of its suitability for Chinese people. The body height and weight of 100,325 healthy Chinese were measured and anatomical data collected from usable corpses of persons who died by accident or sudden death. The data included the size and weight of certain organs. 18 refs

  1. Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, L.P.J.; Grabowski, A.; Kram, R.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In

  2. Genetic relationships among Body condition score, Body weight, Milk yield and Fertility in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk production, and fertility-related traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 8591 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, milk production, and/or fertility from 78 seasonal calving

  3. Impaired glucose tolerance in healthy men with low body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmoller André

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and high body mass index (BMI are recognized risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, data suggest that also underweight predisposes people to develop T2DM. Here, we experimentally tested if already moderate underweight is associated with impaired glucose tolerance as compared to normal weight controls. Obese subjects were included as additional reference group. Method We included three groups of low weight, normal weight, and obese subjects comprising 15 healthy male participants each. All participants underwent a standardized hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic glucose clamp intervention to determine glucose tolerance. In addition, insulin sensitivity index (ISI was calculated by established equation. Results ISI values were higher in low and normal weight than in obese subjects (P P = 0.303. Comparable to obese participants (P = 0.178, glucose tolerance was found decreased in low weight as compared with normal weight subjects (P = 0.007. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship between glucose tolerance and BMI in low (P = 0.043 and normal weight subjects (P = 0.021, an effect that was found inverse in obese participants (P = 0.028. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that not only obese but also healthy people with moderate underweight display glucose intolerance. It is therefore suggested that all deviations from normal BMI may be accompanied by an increased risk of developing T2DM in later life indicating that the maintenance of body weight within the normal range has first priority in the prevention of this disease.

  4. Dietary patterns and changes in body weight in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Matthias B; Fung, Teresa T; Manson, Joann E; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2006-08-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between adherence to dietary patterns and weight change in women. Women (51,670, 26 to 46 years old) in the Nurses' Health Study II were followed from 1991 to 1999. Dietary intake and body weight were ascertained in 1991, 1995, and 1999. A Western pattern, characterized by high intakes of red and processed meats, refined grains, sweets and desserts, and potatoes, and a prudent pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish, poultry, and salad dressing, were identified with principal component analysis, and associations between patterns and change in body weight were estimated. Women who increased their Western pattern score had greater weight gain (multivariate adjusted means, 4.55 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 2.86 kg for 1995 to 1999) than women who decreased their Western pattern score (2.70 and 1.37 kg for the two time periods), adjusting for baseline lifestyle and dietary confounders and changes in confounders over time (p < 0.001 for both time periods). Furthermore, among women who increased their prudent pattern score, weight gain was smaller (multivariate-adjusted means, 1.93 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 0.66 kg for 1995 to 1999) than among women who decreased their prudent pattern score (4.83 and 3.35 kg for the two time periods) (p < 0.001). The largest weight gain between 1991 and 1995 and between 1995 and 1999 was observed among women who decreased their prudent pattern score while increasing their Western pattern score (multivariate adjusted means, 6.80 and 4.99 kg), whereas it was smallest for the opposite change in patterns (0.87 and -0.64 kg) (p < 0.001). Adoption of a Western dietary pattern is associated with larger weight gain in women, whereas a prudent dietary pattern may facilitate weight maintenance.

  5. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  6. Regulation of food intake and body weight by recombinant proghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weizhen; Majumder, Arundhati; Wu, Xiaobin; Mulholland, Michael W

    2009-12-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid hormone derived from the endoproteolytic processing of its prehormone proghrelin. Although ghrelin has been reported to regulate food intake and body weight, it is still unknown whether proghrelin exercises any biological function. Here we show that recombinant proghrelin alters food intake and energy metabolism in mice. After intraperitoneal administration of recombinant proghrelin (100 nmol/kg body wt), cumulative food intake was significantly increased at days 1, 2, and 3 (6 +/- 0.3, 13 +/- 0.5, and 20 +/- 0.8 g vs. 5 +/- 0.2, 10 +/- 0.2, and 16 +/- 0.3 g of the control mice receiving normal saline, respectively, n = 6, P light photo period in mice treated with proghrelin increased significantly relative to the control (2.1 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.2 g, n = 6, P dark photo period was observed between mice treated with proghrelin and vehicle (4.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.3 +/- 0.6 g, n = 6, P > 0.05). This is associated with a decrease in body weight (0.42 +/- 0.04 g) for mice treated with proghrelin, whereas control animals gained body weight (0.31 +/- 0.04 g). Mice treated with proghrelin demonstrate a significant decrease in respiratory quotient, indicating an increase in fat consumption. Recombinant proghrelin is functionally active with effects on food intake and energy metabolism.

  7. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in south asian children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Joan L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls. BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size. The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99 and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31, adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity. Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96 and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67. Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in

  8. Body Weight Can Change How Your Emotions Are Perceived.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujung Oh

    Full Text Available Accurately interpreting other's emotions through facial expressions has important adaptive values for social interactions. However, due to the stereotypical social perception of overweight individuals as carefree, humorous, and light-hearted, the body weight of those with whom we interact may have a systematic influence on our emotion judgment even though it has no relevance to the expressed emotion itself. In this experimental study, we examined the role of body weight in faces on the affective perception of facial expressions. We hypothesized that the weight perceived in a face would bias the assessment of an emotional expression, with overweight faces generally more likely to be perceived as having more positive and less negative expressions than healthy weight faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants were asked to sort the emotional expressions of overweight and healthy weight facial stimuli that had been gradually morphed across six emotional intensity levels into one of two categories-"neutral vs. happy" (Experiment 1 and "neutral vs. sad" (Experiment 2. As predicted, our results demonstrated that overweight faces were more likely to be categorized as happy (i.e., lower happy decision threshold and less likely to be categorized as sad (i.e., higher sad decision threshold compared to healthy weight faces that had the same levels of emotional intensity. The neutral-sad decision threshold shift was negatively correlated with participant's own fear of becoming fat, that is, those without a fear of becoming fat more strongly perceived overweight faces as sad relative to those with a higher fear. These findings demonstrate that the weight of the face systematically influences how its emotional expression is interpreted, suggesting that being overweight may make emotional expressions appear more happy and less sad than they really are.

  9. Body weight and wages: evidence from Add Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J; Rees, Daniel I

    2012-01-01

    This note uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the relationship between body weight and wages. Ordinary least squares (OLS) and individual fixed effects estimates provide evidence that overweight and obese white women are paid substantially less per hour than their slimmer counterparts. Two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation confirms this relationship, suggesting that it is not driven by time-variant unobservables. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. [Leptin and the feedback regulation of body weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Ye, G; Sun, J

    1999-09-30

    Body weight may be controlled by a negative feedback loop. Recent studies have identified that the ob gene product, leptin, apparently and exclusively expressed in adipose tissue, is a part of the negative feedback loop. Leptin is proposed to act as an afferent signal in the negative feedback loop to hypothalamus that limiting food-intake, controlling energy homeostasis and regulating the mass of adipose tissue. The dificiency of or resistance to leptin causes severe obesity.

  11. A treasure trove of hypothalamic neurocircuitries governing body weight homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Claudia R; Coppari, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Changes in physical activities and feeding habits have transformed the historically rare disease of obesity into a modern metabolic pandemic. Obesity occurs when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over time. This energy imbalance significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus and as such represents an enormous socioeconomic burden and health threat. To combat obesity, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms and neurocircuitries underlying normal body weight homeostasis is required. In the 1940s, pioneering lesion experiments unveiled the importance of medial and lateral hypothalamic structures. In the 1980s and 1990s, several neuropeptides and peripheral hormones critical for appropriate feeding behavior, energy expenditure, and hence body weight homeostasis were identified. In the 2000s, results from metabolic analyses of genetically engineered mice bearing mutations only in selected neuronal groups greatly advanced our knowledge of the peripheral/brain feedback-loop modalities by which central neurons control energy balance. In this review, we will summarize these recent progresses with particular emphasis on the biochemical identities of hypothalamic neurons and molecular components underlying normal appetite, energy expenditure, and body weight homeostasis. We will also parse which of those neurons and molecules are critical components of homeostatic adaptive pathways against obesity induced by hypercaloric feeding.

  12. The impact of rate of weight loss on body composition and compensatory mechanisms during weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; With, Emilie; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Rapid weight loss (WL) has been associated with a larger loss of fat free mass and a disproportional reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR), but the evidence is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate the impact of WL rate on body composition and compensatory mechanisms activated...... with WL (reduced RMR, increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite), both during negative and neutral energy balance (EB). METHODS: Thirty-five participants with obesity were randomized to lose a similar weight rapidly (4 weeks) or gradually (8 weeks), and afterwards to maintain it (4 weeks). Body...... weight and composition, RMR, ExEff (10, 25 and 50 W), appetite feelings and appetite-regulating hormones (active ghrelin, cholecystokinin, total peptide YY (PYY), active glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin), in fasting and every 30 min up to 2.5 h, were measured at baseline and after each phase. RESULTS...

  13. Genetic risk scores for body fat distribution attenuate weight loss in women during dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, M; Allin, K H; Sørensen, T I A

    2018-01-01

    to lose weight. We aimed to study the effect of weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) on weight loss based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with waist-hip-ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI). METHOD: We included 707 participants (533 women and 174 men) from the NUGENOB multi......-center 10 week diet intervention study with weekly weight measurements. We created 3 GRSs, one including all reported WHRadjBMI SNPs (GRStotal), one including only SNPs with genome wide significance in women or with significantly greater effect in women (GRSwomen), and one excluding SNPs in the GRSwomen...... (GRSmen). The data was analyzed in a mixed linear model framework. RESULTS: The GRStotal and GRSwomen attenuated weight loss in women. The effect was strongest for the GRSwomen with an effect of 2.21 g/risk allele/day [95% CI (0.90;3.52), P=0.0009]. Adjustment for WHR, basal metabolic rate or diet...

  14. Ideal Body Weight Calculation in the Bariatric Surgical Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Michael R; Porter, Michelle M; Beekley, Alec C; Tichansky, David S

    2015-10-01

    In bariatric surgery, ideal body weight (IBW) is used to calculate excess body weight (EBW) and percent excess weight lost (%EWL). Bariatric literature typically uses the midpoint of the medium frame from older Metropolitan Life Insurance (MetLife) tables to estimate IBW. This is neither universal nor always clinically accurate. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of standard IBW formulas compared to MetLife data. Weight loss data from 200 bariatric surgical patients between 2009 and 2011 was used to assess the accuracy of IBW formulas. IBWs assigned from the midpoint of the medium frame and reassigned using different gender targets were compared to standard formulas and a new formula to assess the accuracy of all formulas to both targets. Using standard MetLife data, the mean IBW was 136 lb, the mean EBW was 153.6 lb, and the mean %EWL was 43.8 %. Using the new target baseline, the mean IBW was 137.1 lb, the mean EBW was 152.6 lb, and the mean %EWL was 44 %. Deitel and Greenstein's formula was accurate to 0.3 % of EBW using the standard method, while our new formula was accurate to 0.03 % of EBW. Deitel and Greenstein's formula is most accurate using standard target IBW. The most accurate is our formula using the new MetLife target IBW.

  15. Association between excess body weight and urine protein concentration in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefft, Karen M; Shaw, Darcy H; Ihle, Sherri L; Burton, Shelley A; Pack, LeeAnn

    2014-06-01

    Markedly overweight people can develop progressive proteinuria and kidney failure secondary to obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG). Glomerular lesions in dogs with experimentally induced obesity are similar to those in people with ORG. The aim of this study was to evaluate if urine protein and albumin excretion is greater in overweight and obese dogs than in dogs of ideal body condition. Client-owned dogs were screened for underlying health conditions. These dogs were assigned a body condition score (BCS) using a 9-point scoring system. Dogs with a BCS of ≥ 6 were classified as being overweight/obese, and dogs with a BCS of 4 or 5 were classified as being of ideal body weight. The urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UAC) were then determined, and compared between 20 overweight/obese dogs and 22 ideal body weight control dogs. Median UPC (0.04 [range, 0.01-0.14; interquartile range, 0.07]) and UAC (0.41 [0-10.39; 3.21]) of overweight/obese dogs were not significantly different from median UPC (0.04 [0.01-0.32; 0.07]) and UAC (0.18 [0-7.04; 1.75]) in ideal body weight dogs. Clinicopathologic abnormalities consistent with ORG were absent from overweight/obese dogs in this study. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  16. Residential proximity to major roads and placenta/birth weight ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Naruse, Hiroo; Kashima, Saori; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been demonstrated to increase the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight. We examined whether proximity to major roads (as a marker of exposure to air pollution) is associated with increased placenta/birth weight ratio (as a biomarker of the placental transport function). Data on parental characteristics and birth outcomes were extracted from the database maintained by a major hospital in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. We restricted the analysis to mothers who delivered liveborn single births from 1997 to 2008 (n = 14,189). Using geocoded residential information, each birth was classified according to proximity to major roads. We examined the association between proximity to major roads and the placenta/birth weight ratio, using multiple linear regression. Proximity to major roads was associated with higher placenta/birth weight ratio. After adjusting for potential confounders, living within 200 m of a major road increased the ratio by 0.48% (95% CI = 0.15 to 0. 80). In addition, proximity to major roads was associated with lower placenta weight and birth weight. These observed associations were stronger among participants living closer to major roads. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution is associated with higher placenta/birth weight ratio. Impaired placental oxygen and nutrient transport function might be a mechanism for explaining the observed association between air pollution and low birth weight as well as preterm birth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Residing in economically distressed rural Appalachia is independently associated with excess body weight in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, Demetrius A; Lennie, Terry A; Mudd-Martin, Gia T; Moser, Debra K

    2017-01-01

    -fold increased risk of overweight or obesity, controlling for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and health behaviors (odds ratio=6.36, 95%CI=1.97-20.48, p=0.002). Living in economically distressed rural Appalachia was associated with excess body weight in college students independent of sociodemographic factors, depressive symptoms, and obesity-related behaviors. Further research is needed to determine other characteristics of this region that are associated with excess body weight so that effective programs to reduce obesity risk can be implemented.

  18. Cancers attributable to excess body weight in Canada in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Zakaria

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Excess body weight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25.00 kg/m2 is an established risk factor for diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, but its relationship to cancer is lesser-known. This study used population attributable fractions (PAFs to estimate the cancer burden attributable to excess body weight in Canadian adults (aged 25+ years in 2010. Methods: We estimated PAFs using relative risk (RR estimates from the World Cancer Research Fund International Continuous Update Project, BMI-based estimates of overweight (25.00 kg/m2–29.99 kg/m2 and obesity (30.00+ kg/m2 from the 2000–2001 Canadian Community Health Survey, and cancer case counts from the Canadian Cancer Registry. PAFs were based on BMI corrected for the bias in self-reported height and weight. Results: In Canada in 2010, an estimated 9645 cancer cases were attributable to excess body weight, representing 5.7% of all cancer cases (males 4.9%, females 6.5%. When limiting the analysis to types of cancer associated with high BMI, the PAF increased to 14.9% (males 17.5%, females 13.3%. Types of cancer with the highest PAFs were esophageal adenocarcinoma (42.2%, kidney (25.4%, gastric cardia (20.7%, liver (20.5%, colon (20.5% and gallbladder (20.2% for males, and esophageal adenocarcinoma (36.1%, uterus (35.2%, gallbladder (23.7% and kidney (23.0% for females. Types of cancer with the greatest number of attributable cases were colon (1445, kidney (780 and advanced prostate (515 for males, and uterus (1825, postmenopausal breast (1765 and colon (675 for females. Irrespective of sex or type of cancer, PAFs were highest in the Prairies (except Alberta and the Atlantic region and lowest in British Columbia and Quebec. Conclusion: The cancer burden attributable to excess body weight is substantial and will continue to rise in the near future because of the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in Canada.

  19. The Combined Effect of Subjective Body Image and Body Mass Index (Distorted Body Weight Perception on Suicidal Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyong Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP and suicidal ideation. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES, an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI and body mass index (BMI categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Results: Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI, women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42 were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42. Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59. Conclusions: Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs.

  20. The combined effect of subjective body image and body mass index (distorted body weight perception) on suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Han, Kyu-Tae; Cheon, Sung-Youn; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-03-01

    Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP) and suicidal ideation. Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES), an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI) and body mass index (BMI) categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI), women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42) were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI) were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI) also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42). Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI) was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59). Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs.

  1. Perfluoroalkyl substances and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate in response to weight-loss diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Gang; Dhana, Klodian; Furtado, Jeremy D

    2018-01-01

    in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight-loss setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the 2-year POUNDS Lost randomized clinical trial based in Boston, Massachusetts, and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, that examined the effects of energy-restricted diets on weight changes, baseline...... and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.4 kg of body weight during the first 6 months (weight-loss period) and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight during the period of 6-24 months (weight regain period). After multivariate adjustment, baseline PFAS concentrations were...... not significantly associated with concurrent body weight or weight loss during the first 6 months. In contrast, higher baseline levels of PFASs were significantly associated with a greater weight regain, primarily in women. In women, comparing the highest to the lowest tertiles of PFAS concentrations...

  2. Effect of milnacipran on body weight in patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold LM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lesley M Arnold,1 Robert H Palmer,2 Michael R Hufford,3 Wei Chen21Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, 2Medical Affairs, Forest Research Institute Inc, Jersey City, NJ, 3Clinical Development, Cypress Bioscience Inc, San Diego, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of milnacipran on body weight in patients with fibromyalgia.Methods: Analyses were conducted in the following groups: patients from three double-blind, placebo-controlled milnacipran trials (3 months, n = 2096; 6 months, n = 1008; 354 patients receiving milnacipran in placebo-controlled trials and double-blind extension studies (total ≥ 12 months of treatment; and 1227 patients in a long-term (up to 3.25 years open-label milnacipran study.Results: In placebo-controlled trials, 77% of patients were overweight or obese at baseline (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Mean weight loss was found with milnacipran at 3 months (100 mg/day, —1.14 kg; 200 mg/day, —0.97 kg; placebo, —0.06 kg; P > 0.001 and 6 months (100 mg/day, -1.01 kg; 200 mg/day, -0.71 kg; placebo, —0.04 kg; P > 0.05. Approximately twice as many milnacipran-treated patients had ≥5% weight loss from baseline compared with placebo (3 and 6 months, P > 0.01. In extension studies, mean weight loss in patients receiving ≥12 months of milnacipran was —1.06 kg. In patients receiving ≥3 years of treatment in the open-label study, mean changes at 12, 24, 30, and 36–38 months were —1.16, —0.76, —0.19, and +0.11 kg, respectively. Among milnacipran-treated patients, rates of nausea (the most common adverse event were lower among patients who lost weight than among those who did not (3 months, P = 0.02.Conclusion: The majority of patients with fibromyalgia in the milnacipran studies were overweight or obese. Milnacipran was associated with mean weight loss at 3 and 6 months (P < 0.05 versus placebo and at

  3. The weight of a guilty conscience: subjective body weight as an embodiment of guilt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin V Day

    Full Text Available Guilt is an important social and moral emotion. In addition to feeling unpleasant, guilt is metaphorically described as a "weight on one's conscience." Evidence from the field of embodied cognition suggests that abstract metaphors may be grounded in bodily experiences, but no prior research has examined the embodiment of guilt. Across four studies we examine whether i unethical acts increase subjective experiences of weight, ii feelings of guilt explain this effect, and iii whether there are consequences of the weight of guilt. Studies 1-3 demonstrated that unethical acts led to more subjective body weight compared to control conditions. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that heightened feelings of guilt mediated the effect, whereas other negative emotions did not. Study 4 demonstrated a perceptual consequence. Specifically, an induction of guilt affected the perceived effort necessary to complete tasks that were physical in nature, compared to minimally physical tasks.

  4. The weight of a guilty conscience: subjective body weight as an embodiment of guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Martin V; Bobocel, D Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Guilt is an important social and moral emotion. In addition to feeling unpleasant, guilt is metaphorically described as a "weight on one's conscience." Evidence from the field of embodied cognition suggests that abstract metaphors may be grounded in bodily experiences, but no prior research has examined the embodiment of guilt. Across four studies we examine whether i) unethical acts increase subjective experiences of weight, ii) feelings of guilt explain this effect, and iii) whether there are consequences of the weight of guilt. Studies 1-3 demonstrated that unethical acts led to more subjective body weight compared to control conditions. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that heightened feelings of guilt mediated the effect, whereas other negative emotions did not. Study 4 demonstrated a perceptual consequence. Specifically, an induction of guilt affected the perceived effort necessary to complete tasks that were physical in nature, compared to minimally physical tasks.

  5. Dietary supplements for body-weight reduction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittler, Max H; Ernst, Edzard

    2004-04-01

    Compliance with conventional weight-management programs is notoriously poor, and a plethora of over-the-counter slimming aids are sold with claims of effectiveness. The objective of the study was to assess the evidence from rigorous clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses on the effectiveness of dietary supplements in reducing body weight. The study was a systematic review. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed, Cinahl, and the Cochrane Library until March 2003. Hand searches of medical journals, the authors' own files, and bibliographies of identified articles were conducted. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The screening of studies, selection, validation, data extraction, and the assessment of methodologic quality were performed independently by the 2 reviewers. To be included, trials were required to be randomized and double-blind. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of dietary supplements were included if they were based on the results of randomized, double-blind trials. Five systematic reviews and meta-analyses and 25 additional trials were included and reviewed. Data on the following dietary supplements were identified: chitosan, chromium picolinate, Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, glucomannan, guar gum, hydroxy-methylbutyrate, plantago psyllium, pyruvate, yerba maté, and yohimbe. The reviewed studies provide some encouraging data but no evidence beyond a reasonable doubt that any specific dietary supplement is effective for reducing body weight. The only exceptions are E. sinica- and ephedrine-containing supplements, which have been associated with an increased risk of adverse events. The evidence for most dietary supplements as aids in reducing body weight is not convincing. None of the reviewed dietary supplements can be recommended for over-the-counter use.

  6. Parental motivation to change body weight in young overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Dawson, Anna M; Haszard, Jillian J; Brown, Deirdre A

    2015-07-01

    To determine what factors are associated with parental motivation to change body weight in overweight children. Cross-sectional study. Dunedin, New Zealand. Two hundred and seventy-one children aged 4-8 years, recruited in primary and secondary care, were identified as overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) after screening. Parents completed questionnaires on demographics; motivation to improve diet, physical activity and weight; perception and concern about weight; parenting; and social desirability, prior to being informed that their child was overweight. Additional measures of physical activity (accelerometry), dietary intake and child behaviour (questionnaire) were obtained after feedback. Although all children were overweight, only 42% of parents perceived their child to be so, with 36% indicating any concern. Very few parents (n 25, 8%) were actively trying to change the child's weight. Greater motivation to change weight was observed for girls compared with boys (P = 0.001), despite no sex difference in BMI Z-score (P = 0.374). Motivation was not associated with most demographic variables, social desirability, dietary intake, parenting or child behaviour. Increased motivation to change the child's weight was observed for heavier children (P < 0.001), those who were less physically active (P = 0.002) and more sedentary (P < 0.001), and in parents who were more concerned about their child's weight (P < 0.001) or who used greater food restriction (P < 0.001). Low levels of parental motivation to change overweight in young children highlight the urgent need to determine how best to improve motivation to initiate change.

  7. Modulation of weight off-loading level over body-weight supported locomotion training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Low, K H; Lim, Peter A C; McGregor, A H

    2011-01-01

    With the evolution of robotic systems to facilitate overground walking rehabilitation, it is important to understand the effect of robotic-aided body-weight supported loading on lower limb muscle activity, if we are to optimize neuromotor recovery. To achieve this objective, we have collected and studied electromyography (EMG) data from key muscles in the lower extremity from healthy subjects walking over a wide range of body-weight off-loading levels as provided by a bespoke gait robot. By examining the impact of body-weight off-loading, it was found that muscle activation patterns were sensitive to the level of off-loading. In addition, a large off-loading might introduce disturbance of muscle activation pattern, led to a wider range of motion in terms of dorsiflexion/plantarflexion. Therefore, any future overground training machine should be enhanced to exclude unnecessary effect of body off-loading in securing the sustaining upright posture and providing assist-as-needed BWS over gait rehabilitation. © 2011 IEEE

  8. Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptoms and Body Weight Concerns in Patients Seeking Abdominoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Maria José Azevedo de; Nahas, Fábio Xerfan; Cordás, Táki Athanássios; Gama, Maria Gabriela; Sucupira, Eduardo Rodrigues; Ramos, Tatiana Dalpasquale; Felix, Gabriel de Almeida Arruda; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2016-03-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is one of the most common psychiatric conditions found in patients seeking cosmetic surgery, and body contouring surgery is most frequently sought by patients with BDD. To estimate the prevalence and severity of BDD symptoms in patients seeking abdominoplasty. Ninety patients of both sexes were preoperatively divided into two groups: patients with BDD symptoms (n = 51) and those without BDD symptoms (n = 39) based both on the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination (BDDE) and clinical assessment. Patients in the BDD group were classified as having mild to moderate or severe symptoms, according to the BDDE. Body weight and shape concerns were assessed using the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). The prevalence of BDD symptoms was 57%. There were significant associations between BDD symptoms and degree of body dissatisfaction, level of preoccupation with physical appearance, and avoidance behaviors. Mild to moderate and severe symptoms of BDD were present in 41% and 59% of patients, respectively, in the BDD group. It was found that the more severe the symptoms of BDD, the higher the level of concern with body weight and shape (P < .001). Patients having distorted self-perception of body shape, or distorted comparative perception of body image were respectively 3.67 or 5.93 times more likely to show more severe symptoms of BDD than those with a more accurate perception. Candidates for abdominoplasty had a high prevalence of BDD symptoms, and body weight and shape concerns were associated with increased symptom severity. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Maternal obesity, gestational weight gain and childhood cardiac outcomes: role of childhood body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toemen, L; Gishti, O; van Osch-Gevers, L; Steegers, E A P; Helbing, W A; Felix, J F; Reiss, I K M; Duijts, L; Gaillard, R; Jaddoe, V W V

    2016-07-01

    Maternal obesity may affect cardiovascular outcomes in the offspring. We examined the associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with childhood cardiac outcomes and explored whether these associations were explained by parental characteristics, infant characteristics or childhood body mass index. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 4852 parents and their children, we obtained maternal weight before pregnancy and in early, mid- and late pregnancy. At age 6 years, we measured aortic root diameter (cm) and left ventricular dimensions. We calculated left ventricular mass (g), left ventricular mass index (g m(-2.7)), relative wall thickness ((2 × left ventricular posterior wall thickness)/left ventricular diameter), fractional shorting (%), eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy and concentric remodeling. A one standard deviation score (SDS) higher maternal prepregnancy body mass index was associated with higher left ventricular mass (0.10 SDS (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08, 0.13)), left ventricular mass index (0.06 SDS (95% CI 0.03, 0.09)) and aortic root diameter (0.09 SDS (95% CI 0.06, 0.12)), but not with relative wall thickness or fractional shortening. A one SDS higher maternal prepregnancy body mass index was associated with an increased risk of eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy (odds ratio 1.21 (95% CI 1.03, 1.41)), but not of concentric remodeling. When analyzing the effects of maternal weight in different periods simultaneously, only maternal prepregnancy weight and early pregnancy weight were associated with left ventricular mass, left ventricular mass index and aortic root diameter (P-valuesMaternal prepregnancy body mass index and weight gain in early pregnancy are both associated with offspring cardiac structure in childhood, but these associations seem to be fully explained by childhood body mass index.

  10. Performance of AC/graphite capacitors at high weight ratios of AC/graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu [IM and T Ltd., Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research Center, Department of Applied Chemistry, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)

    2008-03-01

    The effect of negative to positive electrode materials' weight ratio on the electrochemical performance of both activated carbon (AC)/AC and AC/graphite capacitors has been investigated, especially in the terms of capacity and cycle-ability. The limited capacity charge mode has been proposed to improve the cycle performance of AC/graphite capacitors at high weight ratios of AC/graphite. (author)

  11. Seniors' body weight dissatisfaction and longitudinal associations with weight changes, anorexia of aging, and obesity: results from the NuAge Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mathieu; Shatenstein, Bryna; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Morais, José A; Payette, Hélène

    2015-03-01

    We examined longitudinal associations between weight dissatisfaction, weight changes, anorexia of aging, and obesity among 1,793 seniors followed over 4 years between 2003 and 2009. Obesity prevalence (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30) and prevalence/incidence of weight dissatisfaction, anorexia of aging (self-reported appetite loss), and weight changes ≥5% were assessed. Predictors of weight loss ≥5%, anorexia of aging, and weight dissatisfaction were examined using logistic regressions. Half of seniors experienced weight dissatisfaction (50.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [48.1, 53.1]). Anorexia of aging and obesity prevalence was 7.0% (95% CI = [5.7, 8.3]) and 25.1% (95% CI = [22.9, 27.3]), whereas incidence of weight gain/loss ≥5% was 6.6% (95% CI = [1.3, 11.9]) and 8.8% (95% CI = [3.3, 14.3]). Weight gain ≥5% predicts men's subsequent weight dissatisfaction (odds ratio [OR] = 6.66, 95% CI = [2.06, 21.60]). No other association was observed. Weight dissatisfaction is frequent but not associated with subsequent eating disorders. In men, weight gain predicted weight dissatisfaction. Seniors' weight dissatisfaction does not necessarily equate weight changes. Due to its high prevalence, it is of public health interest to understand how seniors' weight dissatisfaction may impact health. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Acculturation, body perception, and weight status among Vietnamese American students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Young; Hwang, Jessica; Yi, Jenny

    2011-12-01

    The effects of acculturation, body perception, and health behaviors on weight status among Vietnamese American students in Houston, Texas were examined for our research. A survey was mailed to 600 randomly selected Vietnamese American students at one university, and 261 complete surveys (response rate, 43.5%) were used for final analyses. Respondents were classified as overweight or normal weight based on the World Health Organization recommended overweight cutoff for Asians (BMI of 23 kg/m(2)). About 32% of respondents were overweight. Men, undergraduate students, and those with an acceptable body perception were more likely to be overweight. Nativity and its interaction with length of US residence were significant predictors of weight status after controlling for other variables. Foreign-born respondents were less likely to be overweight than US-born respondents, but the risk of being overweight with increasing years of US residence was much greater for the foreign-born than for the US-born. The results suggest the need for culturally tailored overweight and obesity prevention programs for Vietnamese Americans.

  13. Association between eating out of home and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Ilana N; Curioni, Cintia; Sichieri, Rosely

    2012-02-01

    Eating outside of the home environment on a frequent basis has been associated with weight gain. Food choices when eating out are usually high in energy content, which contributes to excessive energy intake; however, the available data on out-of-home eating and obesity are far from conclusive. This systematic review assesses the association between out-of-home eating and body weight in adults over 18 years of age. The literature databases searched included Medline, Embase, Lilacs, The Cochrane Library, and the ISI Web of Knowledge. The review includes a comprehensive quality assessment of all included observational studies, 20 cross-sectional studies, and 8 prospective cohort studies. All but one of the prospective cohort studies and about half of the cross-sectional analyses found a positive association between out-of-home eating and body weight. However, many methodological differences among the studies were found, such as the definition of out-of-home eating and its assessment, which limits comparisons. The results of the present analysis suggest that in future studies fast-food restaurants and other out-of-home dining venues should be analyzed separately, assessments based on a single 24-h recall should be avoided, and controls for at-home choices (which were not included in any of the studies reviewed) are necessary to evaluate this association. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  14. Weight and body mass index among female contraceptive clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Julia E; Lopez, Priscilla M; Simons, Hannah R

    2015-06-01

    As obesity may affect the efficacy of some contraceptives, we examined weight, body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of obesity among female contraceptive clients at 231 U.S. health centers. A secondary aim was to analyze differences in contraceptive method use by obesity status. Cross-sectional study using de-identified electronic health record data from family planning centers. We analyzed contraceptive visits made by 147,336 females aged 15-44 years in 2013. A total of 46.1% of clients had BMI ≥25. Mean body weight was 154.4 lb (S.D.=41.9); mean BMI was 26.1 (S.D.=6.6). A total of 40% had BMI ≥26, when levonorgestrel emergency contraception may become less effective. Obese clients had higher odds of using a tier 1 or tier 3 contraceptive method and had lower odds of using a tier 2 or hormonal method than non-obese clients. About half of contraceptive clients would be categorized as overweight or obese. Contraceptive method choices differed by obesity status. About half of contraceptive clients in this study population were overweight or obese. Contraceptive method choices differed by obesity status. All women - regardless of body size - should receive unbiased, evidence-based counseling on the full range of contraceptive options so that they can make informed choices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sugammadex and Ideal Body Weight in Bariatric Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sanfilippo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The obese patients have differences in body composition, drug distribution, and metabolism. Sugammadex at recovery in a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of real body weight (RBW can completely reverse the NMB block; in our study we investigated the safety and efficacy of Sugammadex dose based on their ideal body weight (IBW. Methods. 40 patients of both sexes undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery were enrolled divided into 2 groups according to the dose of Sugammadex: the first received a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of IBW and the second received a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of RBW. Both were anesthetized with doses calculated according to the IBW: fentanyl 2 μg kg−1, propofol 3 mg kg−1, rocuronium 0,6 mg kg−1, oxygen, air, and desflurane (6–8%. Maintenance doses of rocuronium were 1/4 of the intubation dose. Sugammadex was administrated at recovery. Results. The durations of intubation and maintenance doses of rocuronium were similar in both groups. In IBW group, the / value of 0.9 was reached in 151 ± 44 seconds and in 121 ± 55 seconds in RBW group (. Discussion. Recovery times to / of 0.9 are surprisingly similar in both groups without observing any postoperative residual curarization. Conclusion. Sugammadex doses calculated according to the IBW are certainly safe for a rapid recovery and absence of PORC.

  16. Cadm2 regulates body weight and energy homeostasis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Obesity is strongly linked to genes regulating neuronal signaling and function, implicating the central nervous system in the maintenance of body weight and energy metabolism. Genome-wide association studies identified significant associations between body mass index (BMI and multiple loci near Cell adhesion molecule2 (CADM2, which encodes a mediator of synaptic signaling enriched in the brain. Here we sought to further understand the role of Cadm2 in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia and weight gain. Methods: We first analyzed Cadm2 expression in the brain of both human subjects and mouse models and subsequently characterized a loss-of-function mouse model of Cadm2 for alterations in glucose and energy homeostasis. Results: We show that the risk variant rs13078960 associates with increased CADM2 expression in the hypothalamus of human subjects. Increased Cadm2 expression in several brain regions of Lepob/ob mice was ameliorated after leptin treatment. Deletion of Cadm2 in obese mice (Cadm2/ob resulted in reduced adiposity, systemic glucose levels, and improved insulin sensitivity. Cadm2-deficient mice exhibited increased locomotor activity, energy expenditure rate, and core body temperature identifying Cadm2 as a potent regulator of systemic energy homeostasis. Conclusions: Together these data illustrate that reducing Cadm2 expression can reverse several traits associated with the metabolic syndrome including obesity, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose homeostasis. Keywords: Cadm2/SynCAM2, Energy homeostasis, Insulin sensitivity, Genome-wide association studies, Leptin signaling

  17. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

  18. Influence of psychotropic drugs prescription on body weight increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca E. Martínez de Morentin-Aldabe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a major public health burden, not only by the rising prevalence but also because of the associated complications. Furthermore there is a number of diseases whose risk and onset is increased in subjects with overweight such as type 2 diabetes, dislipemias, tumors (endometrial, colon, breast, cancer, etc, skeletal disorders, digestive disturbances, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, psychological problems, obstetric and gynecological disorders.The prescription of psychotropic drugs is important and, in most countries, consumption has been increased in recent years. Indeed, several drugs used in the treatment of anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or epilepsy, can increase body weight and fat deposition or eventually decrease it. These side effects could make a previous situation of obesity to worsen, and it can even cause excessive weight gain in patients with a normal weight at the beginning of the treatment. This increase in adiposity may also contribute to the lack of adherence to the medication and thus a possible relapse of the patients.In this review we report the links between psychotropic drugs administration and weight gain as well as the potential mechanisms that are involved.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.17.1.4

  19. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 min. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups after moderate exercise. After vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72% and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (P food compared with both WL groups (P food. There was a wide range of underestimation and overestimation of calories during exercise and in a meal. Error in calorie estimation may be greater in overweight adults who are not attempting weight loss.

  20. Adolescent-parent interactions and communication preferences regarding body weight and weight management: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howlett Sarah A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and then a qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Results Nine focus groups were conducted; two were held with girls (n = 13, three with boys (n = 18, and four with parents (20 mothers, 12 fathers. Adolescent and parent descriptions of weight-related interactions could be classified into three distinct approaches: indirect/cautious (i.e. focus on eating or physical activity behaviors without discussing weight specifically; direct/open (i.e. body weight was discussed; and never/rarely discussing the subject. Indirect approaches were described most frequently by both adolescents and parents and were generally preferred over direct approaches. Parents and adolescents were circumspect but generally supportive of the potential role for family doctors to monitor and discuss adolescent weight status. Conclusions These findings have implications for developing acceptable messages for adolescent and family overweight prevention and treatment interventions.

  1. Variance components for body weight in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RO Resende

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the variance components for body weight in Japanese quails by Bayesian procedures. The body weight at hatch (BWH and at 7 (BW07, 14 (BW14, 21 (BW21 and 28 days of age (BW28 of 3,520 quails was recorded from August 2001 to June 2002. A multiple-trait animal model with additive genetic, maternal environment and residual effects was implemented by Gibbs sampling methodology. A single Gibbs sampling with 80,000 rounds was generated by the program MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling in Animal Model. Normal and inverted Wishart distributions were used as prior distributions for the random effects and the variance components, respectively. Variance components were estimated based on the 500 samples that were left after elimination of 30,000 rounds in the burn-in period and 100 rounds of each thinning interval. The posterior means of additive genetic variance components were 0.15; 4.18; 14.62; 27.18 and 32.68; the posterior means of maternal environment variance components were 0.23; 1.29; 2.76; 4.12 and 5.16; and the posterior means of residual variance components were 0.084; 6.43; 22.66; 31.21 and 30.85, at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. The posterior means of heritability were 0.33; 0.35; 0.36; 0.43 and 0.47 at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. These results indicate that heritability increased with age. On the other hand, after hatch there was a marked reduction in the maternal environment variance proportion of the phenotypic variance, whose estimates were 0.50; 0.11; 0.07; 0.07 and 0.08 for BWH, BW07, BW14, BW21 and BW28, respectively. The genetic correlation between weights at different ages was high, except for those estimates between BWH and weight at other ages. Changes in body weight of quails can be efficiently achieved by selection.

  2. Body weight manipulation, reinforcement value and choice between sucrose and wheel running: a behavioral economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2009-02-01

    Twelve female Long-Evans rats were exposed to concurrent variable (VR) ratio schedules of sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement (Sucrose VR 10 Wheel VR 10; Sucrose VR 5 Wheel VR 20; Sucrose VR 20 Wheel VR 5) with predetermined budgets (number of responses). The allocation of lever pressing to the sucrose and wheel-running alternatives was assessed at high and low body weights. Results showed that wheel-running rate and lever-pressing rates for sucrose and wheel running increased, but the choice of wheel running decreased at the low body weight. A regression analysis of relative consumption as a function of relative price showed that consumption shifted toward sucrose and interacted with price differences in a manner consistent with increased substitutability. Demand curves showed that demand for sucrose became less elastic while demand for wheel running became more elastic at the low body weight. These findings reflect an increase in the difference in relative value of sucrose and wheel running as body weight decreased. Discussion focuses on the limitations of response rates as measures of reinforcement value. In addition, we address the commonalities between matching and demand curve equations for the analysis of changes in relative reinforcement value.

  3. Practical Guidance for Conducting Mediation Analysis With Multiple Mediators Using Inverse Odds Ratio Weighting

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quynh C.; Osypuk, Theresa L.; Schmidt, Nicole M.; Glymour, M. Maria; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent flourishing of mediation analysis techniques, many modern approaches are difficult to implement or applicable to only a restricted range of regression models. This report provides practical guidance for implementing a new technique utilizing inverse odds ratio weighting (IORW) to estimate natural direct and indirect effects for mediation analyses. IORW takes advantage of the odds ratio's invariance property and condenses information on the odds ratio for the relationship be...

  4. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Leif; Rasmussen, Michael H; Hilsted, Jannik

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and the ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (plasma tryptophan ratio) are reportedly low in obese subjects. The plasma tryptophan ratio predicts brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin production. If this ratio is low in obese subjects......, serotonin function may also be low. Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios have been measured only at single time points in obese subjects; it is not known whether low values for these 2 variables persist throughout a 24-h period. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether plasma tryptophan...... concentrations and ratios in obese subjects are lower than those in normal-weight subjects throughout a 24-h period and whether they increase when body weight is reduced. DESIGN: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios were examined in obese subjects before and after weight loss and in nonobese control...

  5. Estimating body weight and body composition of chickens by using noninvasive measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latshaw, J D; Bishop, B L

    2001-07-01

    The major objective of this research was to develop equations to estimate BW and body composition using measurements taken with inexpensive instruments. We used five groups of chickens that were created with different genetic stocks and feeding programs. Four of the five groups were from broiler genetic stock, and one was from sex-linked heavy layers. The goal was to sample six males from each group when the group weight was 1.20, 1.75, and 2.30 kg. Each male was weighed and measured for back length, pelvis width, circumference, breast width, keel length, and abdominal skinfold thickness. A cloth tape measure, calipers, and skinfold calipers were used for measurement. Chickens were scanned for total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) before being euthanized and frozen. Six females were selected at weights similar to those for males and were measured in the same way. Each whole chicken was ground, and a portion of ground material of each was used to measure water, fat, ash, and energy content. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate BW from body measurements. The best single measurement was pelvis width, with an R2 = 0.67. Inclusion of three body measurements in an equation resulted in R2 = 0.78 and the following equation: BW (g) = -930.0 + 68.5 (breast, cm) + 48.5 (circumference, cm) + 62.8 (pelvis, cm). The best single measurement to estimate body fat was abdominal skinfold thickness, expressed as a natural logarithm. Inclusion of weight and skinfold thickness resulted in R2 = 0.63 for body fat according to the following equation: fat (%) = 24.83 + 6.75 (skinfold, ln cm) - 3.87 (wt, kg). Inclusion of the result of TOBEC and the effect of sex improved the R2 to 0.78 for body fat. Regression analysis was used to develop additional equations, based on fat, to estimate water and energy contents of the body. The body water content (%) = 72.1 - 0.60 (body fat, %), and body energy (kcal/g) = 1.097 + 0.080 (body fat, %). The results of the present study

  6. Use of social networking sites and perception and intentions regarding body weight among adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa‐Kanyinga, H.; Hamilton, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Social networking sites (SNSs) not only offer users an opportunity to link with others but also allow individuals to compare themselves with other users. However, the link between the use of SNSs and the dissatisfaction with body weight is largely unknown. We investigated the associations between the use of SNSs and the perception of body weight and related behaviours among adolescent men and women. Methods The study sample consisted of 4,468 (48.5% women) 11–19‐year‐old Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Results Overall, 54.6% of students reported using SNSs for 2 h or less per day, 28.0% reported using them for more than 2 h d−1 and 17.4% reported infrequent or no use of SNSs (reference category). After adjustment for covariates, results showed that adolescent women who use SNSs for more than 2 h d−1 had greater odds of dissatisfaction with body weight (odds ratio = 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–3.16). More specifically, they were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.20; 95% CI: 1.34−3.60) compared with those who reported infrequent or no use of SNSs. Conversely, men who use SNSs for 2 h or less per day presented a lower risk for perceiving themselves as overweight (RRR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47−0.98) but not those who use SNSs for more than 2 h d−1. Women who use SNSs for more than 2 h d−1 reported a greater likelihood of trying to lose weight (RRR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.62−3.90). Conclusions Our results showed that heavy use of SNSs is associated with dissatisfaction with body weight in adolescent women. PMID:27812377

  7. Use of social networking sites and perception and intentions regarding body weight among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, H; Chaput, J-P; Hamilton, H A

    2016-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) not only offer users an opportunity to link with others but also allow individuals to compare themselves with other users. However, the link between the use of SNSs and the dissatisfaction with body weight is largely unknown. We investigated the associations between the use of SNSs and the perception of body weight and related behaviours among adolescent men and women. The study sample consisted of 4,468 (48.5% women) 11-19-year-old Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Overall, 54.6% of students reported using SNSs for 2 h or less per day, 28.0% reported using them for more than 2 h d -1 and 17.4% reported infrequent or no use of SNSs (reference category). After adjustment for covariates, results showed that adolescent women who use SNSs for more than 2 h d -1 had greater odds of dissatisfaction with body weight (odds ratio = 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-3.16). More specifically, they were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.20; 95% CI: 1.34-3.60) compared with those who reported infrequent or no use of SNSs. Conversely, men who use SNSs for 2 h or less per day presented a lower risk for perceiving themselves as overweight (RRR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47-0.98) but not those who use SNSs for more than 2 h d -1 . Women who use SNSs for more than 2 h d -1 reported a greater likelihood of trying to lose weight (RRR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.62-3.90). Our results showed that heavy use of SNSs is associated with dissatisfaction with body weight in adolescent women.

  8. Sleep, circadian rhythm and body weight: parallel developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-11-01

    Circadian alignment is crucial for body-weight management, and for metabolic health. In this context, circadian alignment consists of alignment of sleep, meal patterns and physical activity. During puberty a significant reduction in sleep duration occurs, and pubertal status is inversely associated with sleep duration. A consistent inverse association between habitual sleep duration and body-weight development occurs, independent of possible confounders. Research on misalignment reveals that circadian misalignment affects sleep-architecture and subsequently disturbs glucose-insulin metabolism, substrate oxidation, leptin- and ghrelin concentrations, appetite, food reward, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity and gut-peptide concentrations enhancing positive energy balance and metabolic disturbance. Not only aligning meals and sleep in a circadian way is crucial, also regular physical activity during the day strongly promotes the stability and amplitude of circadian rhythm, and thus may serve as an instrument to restore poor circadian rhythms. Endogenicity may play a role in interaction of these environmental variables with a genetic predisposition. In conclusion, notwithstanding the separate favourable effects of sufficient daily physical activity, regular meal patterns, sufficient sleep duration and quality sleep on energy balance, the overall effect of the amplitude and stability of the circadian rhythm, perhaps including genetic predisposition, may integrate the separate effects in an additive way.

  9. Increased body weight affects academic performance in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela S. Anderson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For K-12 students, obesity has been linked to student educational achievements. The study objective was to determine whether academic performance in university students is correlated with BMI. Students from two consecutive academic years (Jan–May 2013 and Jan–May 2014 were given an optional class survey in May, as extra credit. Of the 452 students that completed the survey, 204 females and 75 males (N = 279; 73% female and 27% male consented to participate in the study. The number of correct answers to problem-solving questions (PSQs and the overall final grade for the class were compared to the calculated BMI using linear regression with a Pearson's R correlation and unpaired t-tests. BMI was significantly negatively correlated with student's final grades (P = 0.001 Pearson's r = −0.190 and PSQs were positively correlated with final grades (P < 0.001; Pearson's r = 0.357. Our findings show a correlation between healthy body weight and improved academic performance. Further, the data suggest that future research in the area of body weight, diet, and exercise and any correlations of these with academic performance in college students are warranted.

  10. Effect of Leg-to-Body Ratio on Body Shape Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiire, Satoru

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have examined various aspects of human physical attractiveness. Attractiveness is considered an evolved psychological mechanism acquired via natural selection because an attractive body reflects an individual's health and fertility. The length of the legs is an often-emphasized aspect of attractiveness and has been investigated using the leg-to-body ratio (LBR), which reflects nutritional status of the infant, health status, fecundity, and other factors that are predictive of physical fitness. However, previous studies of leg length and physical fitness have produced mixed results. The present study investigated the relationship between LBR, defined as the height to perineum divided by total height, and perceived attractiveness. Three-dimensional stimuli (11 male and 11 female) were constructed with various LBR features. Each stimulus was rated by 40 women and 40 men in Japan on a 7-point scale. The results showed that the values closest to the average LBRs were rated as the most attractive. Furthermore, by fitting a quadratic curve on the relationship between attractiveness and LBR, an inverted U-shaped curve with the peak located at the average LBR was observed. In addition, high LBR values were rated as more attractive in females, whereas the opposite was true for males. These results suggest that average LBR is indicative of good health and good reproductive potential, whereas more extreme values are avoided because they could be indicative of diseases and other maladaptive conditions.

  11. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelides, M.; Wang, G.; Michaelides, M.; Thanos, P.K.; Kim, R.; Cho, J.; Ananth, M.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  12. Serial album validation for promotion of infant body weight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Costa Gonzaga Saraiva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to validate the content and appearance of a serial album for children aged from 7 to 10 years addressing the topic of prevention and control of body weight. Method: methodological study with descriptive nature. The validation process was attended by 33 specialists in educational technologies and/or in excess of infantile weight. The agreement index of 80% was the minimum considered to guarantee the validation of the material. Results: most of the specialists had a doctoral degree and a graduate degree in nursing. Regarding content, illustrations, layout and relevance, all items were validated and 69.7% of the experts considered the album as great. The overall agreement validation index for the educational technology was 0.88. Only the script-sheet 3 did not reach the cutoff point of the content validation index. Changes were made to the material, such as title change, inclusion of the school context and insertion of nutritionist and physical educator in the story narrated in the album. Conclusion: the proposed serial album was considered valid by experts regarding content and appearance, suggesting that this technology has the potential to contribute in health education by promoting healthy weight in the age group of 7 to 10 years.

  13. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2011-08-28

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  14. Gut Microbiota and Body Weight – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Duca

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The link between gut microbiota and insulin resistance has an important clinical impact, people affected by dysbiosis having a predisposition for developing: obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cancers, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Dysbiosis may lead through chronic inflammation to obesity and metabolic syndrome. We carried out a systematic review of the studies dedicated to the role of gut microbiota in weight gain and obesity. A systematic literature search of recent data published in electronic databases, was performed, using as search phrase: "gut microbiome and body weight and obesity". Studies that contained no data about the influence of gut microbiota changes on obesity were excluded. Western diet, antibiotic use in childhood, excessive maternal pre-pregnancy weight, Cesarean delivery, and testosterone deficiency are triggers of the alteration of microbiota and subsequently the appearance of obesity. Predominance of Firmicutes and anaerobic genera, changes in the mycobiome and viral intestinal population are implied in the etiology of obesity. Prebiotics, polyphenols, different herbs, medication (antidiabetics, calcium, physical exercise, rich fibre intake and bariatric surgery are the most important therapeutic options. Personalized dietary treatments, antiviral agents and mycobiome manipulation would represent the new target in treating obesity. Any change of the quantitative and qualitative composition of microbiota has influence on the components of metabolic syndrome, so any management strategy for the treatment or prevention of obesity in children and adulthood should have the microbiome as target.

  15. Body composition at birth and its relationship with neonatal anthropometric ratios: the newborn body composition study of the INTERGROWTH-21st project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, José; Puglia, Fabien A; Fenton, Tanis R; Cheikh Ismail, Leila; Staines-Urias, Eleonora; Giuliani, Francesca; Ohuma, Eric O; Victora, Cesar G; Sullivan, Peter; Barros, Fernando C; Lambert, Ann; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Ochieng, Roseline; Jaffer, Yasmin A; Altman, Douglas G; Noble, Alison J; Gravett, Michael G; Purwar, Manorama; Pang, Ruyan; Uauy, Ricardo; Kennedy, Stephen H; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-08-01

    BackgroundWe aimed to describe newborn body composition and identify which anthropometric ratio (weight/length; BMI; or ponderal index, PI) best predicts fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM).MethodsAir-displacement plethysmography (PEA POD) was used to estimate FM, FFM, and body fat percentage (BF%). Associations between FFM, FM, and BF% and weight/length, BMI, and PI were evaluated in 1,019 newborns using multivariate regression analysis. Charts for FM, FFM, and BF% were generated using a prescriptive subsample (n=247). Standards for the best-predicting anthropometric ratio were calculated utilizing the same population used for the INTERGROWTH-21 st Newborn Size Standards (n=20,479).ResultsFFM and FM increased consistently during late pregnancy. Differential FM, BF%, and FFM patterns were observed for those born preterm (34 +0 -36 +6 weeks' gestation) and with impaired intrauterine growth. Weight/length by gestational age (GA) was a better predictor of FFM and FM (adjusted R 2 =0.92 and 0.71, respectively) than BMI or PI, independent of sex, GA, and timing of measurement. Results were almost identical when only preterm newborns were studied. We present sex-specific centiles for weight/length ratio for GA.ConclusionsWeight/length best predicts newborn FFM and FM. There are differential FM, FFM, and BF% patterns by sex, GA, and size at birth.

  16. Relatively high-protein or 'low-carb' energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Bonomi, Alberto G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Scholte, Jolande; Thijssen, Myriam A M A; van Berkum, Frank; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2012-10-10

    'Low-carb' diets have been suggested to be effective in body weight (BW) management. However, these diets are relatively high in protein as well. To unravel whether body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein or the 'low-carb' component of the diet. Body-weight (BW), fat mass (FM), blood- and urine-parameters of 132 participants (age=50 ± 12 yr; BW=107 ± 20 kg; BMI=37 ± 6 kg/m(2); FM=47.5 ± 11.9 kg) were compared after 3 and 12 months between four energy-restricted diets with 33% of energy requirement for the first 3 months, and 67% for the last 9 months: normal-protein normal-carbohydrate (NPNC), normal-protein low-carbohydrate (NPLC); high-protein normal-carbohydrate (HPNC), high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC); 24h N-analyses confirmed daily protein intakes for the normal-protein diets of 0.7 ± 0.1 and for the high-protein diets of 1.1 ± 0.2g/kg BW (pvs. NP (-11.5 ± 4 kg; -9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (pvs. NC (-12.3 ± 3 kg; -10.3 ± 1.1 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-14.7 ± 5 kg; -11.9 ± 1.6 kg) vs. HPNC (-13.8 ± 3 kg; -11.9 ± 1.8 kg) (ns); NPLC (-12.2 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.8 kg) vs. NPNC (-10.7 ± 4 kg; -8.6 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (pvs. NPNC (pvs. NP (-8.9 ± 3 kg; -7.7 ± 0.6 kg) (pvs. NC (11.1 ± 3 kg; 9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-11.6 ± 5 kg ; -8.2 ± 0.7 kg) vs. HPNC (-14.1 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.9 kg) (ns); NPNC (-8.2 ± 3 kg; -6.7 ± 0.6 kg) vs. NPLC (-9.7 ± 3 kg; -8.5 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (pvs. NPNC (pvs. all other diets reduced diastolic blood pressure more. Relationships between changes in BW, FM, FFM or metabolic parameters and energy percentage of fat in the diet were not statistically significant. Metabolic profile and fat-free-mass were improved following weight-loss. Body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein, but not on the 'low-carb' component of the diet, while it is unrelated to the concomitant fat-content of the diet. Copyright

  17. Weight-Influenced Self-Esteem, Body Comparisons and Body Satisfaction : Findings among Women from The Netherlands and Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick. P. H.; van Brummen-Girigori, Odette

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined young women's weight-influenced self-esteem (WISE) in response to imagined weight gain and weight loss, and its relations to body satisfaction, body comparisons and global self-esteem. Young women from two different regions, that is, from the north of The Netherlands (n =

  18. Postpartum weight retention is associated with elevated ratio of oxidized LDL lipids to HDL-cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhkala, Jatta; Luoto, Riitta; Ahotupa, Markku; Raitanen, Jani; Vasankari, Tommi

    2013-12-01

    Oxidized LDL lipids (ox-LDL) are associated with lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The present study investigated how postpartum weight retention effects on ox-LDL and serum lipids. The study is a nested comparative research of a cluster-randomized controlled trial, NELLI (lifestyle and counselling during pregnancy). During early pregnancy (8-12 weeks) and 1 year postpartum, 141 women participated in measurements for determining of plasma lipids: total cholesterol (T-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerols (TAG) and ox-LDL. Subjects were stratified into tertiles (weight loss, unaltered weight and weight gain groups) based on their weight change from baseline to follow-up. Ox-LDL was determined by baseline level of conjugated dienes in LDL lipids. Among the group of weight gainers, concentration of TAG reduced less (-0.14 vs. -0.33, p = 0.002), HDL-C reduced more (-0.31 vs. -0.16, p = 0.003) and ox-LDL/HDL-C ratio increased (3.0 vs. -0.2, p = 0.003) when compared to group of weight loss. Both T-C and LDL-C elevated more (0.14 vs. -0.21, p = 0.008; 0.31 vs. 0.07, p = 0.015) and TAG and ox-LDL reduced less (-0.33 vs. 0.20, p = 0.033; -3.33 vs. -0.68, p = 0.026) in unaltered weight group compared to weight loss group. The women who gained weight developed higher TAG and ox-LDL/HDL-C ratio as compared to those who lost weight. Postpartum weight retention of 3.4 kg or more is associated with atherogenic lipid profile.

  19. Subsidence of a cementless femoral component influenced by body weight and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stihsen, Christoph; Radl, Roman; Keshmiri, Armin; Rehak, Peter; Windhager, Reinhard

    2012-05-01

    This trial was designed to evaluate the impact of physical characteristics such as body mass index, body weight and height on distal stem migration of a cementless femoral component, as the influence of obesity on the outcome of THA is still debated in literature and conflicting results have been found. In this retrospective cohort study, migration patterns for 102 implants were analysed using the Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse (EBRA-FCA, femoral component analysis). In all cases the Vision 2000 stem was implanted and combined with the Duraloc acetabular component (DePuy, Warsaw, Indiana). The mean follow-up was 93 months. EBRA-FCA evaluations revealed a mean subsidence of 1.38 mm after two years, 2.06 mm after five and 2.24 mm after seven years. Five stems loosened aseptically. Correlation between increased migration over the whole period and aseptic loosening was highly significant (p < 0.001). Surgical technique had a significant influence on migration and stem stability (p = 0.002) but physical patient characteristics such as body weight over 75 kg and height over 165 cm also significantly influenced stem subsidence towards progressive migration (p = 0.001, p < 0.001). However, a high BMI did not trigger progressive stem migration (p = 0.87). Being of the male gender raised the odds for increased migration (p = 0.03). Physical characteristics such as body weight and height showed significant influence on migration patterns of this cementless femoral component. The operating surgeon should be aware that body weight above 75 kg and height over 165 cm may trigger increased stem migration and the surgeon should aim to fit these prostheses as tightly as possible. However this study demonstrates that a high BMI does not trigger progressive stem migration. Further investigations are needed to confirm our findings.

  20. Holding fat stereotypes is associated with lower body dissatisfaction in normal weight Caucasian women who engage in body surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean; Jarry, Josée L

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Two-step estimation in ratio-of-mediator-probability weighted causal mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bein, Edward; Deutsch, Jonah; Hong, Guanglei; Porter, Kristin E; Qin, Xu; Yang, Cheng

    2018-04-15

    This study investigates appropriate estimation of estimator variability in the context of causal mediation analysis that employs propensity score-based weighting. Such an analysis decomposes the total effect of a treatment on the outcome into an indirect effect transmitted through a focal mediator and a direct effect bypassing the mediator. Ratio-of-mediator-probability weighting estimates these causal effects by adjusting for the confounding impact of a large number of pretreatment covariates through propensity score-based weighting. In step 1, a propensity score model is estimated. In step 2, the causal effects of interest are estimated using weights derived from the prior step's regression coefficient estimates. Statistical inferences obtained from this 2-step estimation procedure are potentially problematic if the estimated standard errors of the causal effect estimates do not reflect the sampling uncertainty in the estimation of the weights. This study extends to ratio-of-mediator-probability weighting analysis a solution to the 2-step estimation problem by stacking the score functions from both steps. We derive the asymptotic variance-covariance matrix for the indirect effect and direct effect 2-step estimators, provide simulation results, and illustrate with an application study. Our simulation results indicate that the sampling uncertainty in the estimated weights should not be ignored. The standard error estimation using the stacking procedure offers a viable alternative to bootstrap standard error estimation. We discuss broad implications of this approach for causal analysis involving propensity score-based weighting. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( cow) were -6.8 ± 3.0 and -8.9 ± 4.2 kg for weights recorded in April and June. Calf weights and weight gains from birth were greater ( cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue except in mid-summer. Cow weight change from April to each time was negative for Angus cows and lower ( Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue were heavier ( cows had the lowest ( cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( cow weight, 7.9 ± 3.0 to 15.8 ± 5.0 kg for cow weight change, and 0.07 ± 0.03 to 0.27 ± 0.1 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. Direct Romosinuano effects ranged from 14.8 ± 4.2 to 49.8 ± 7.7 kg for cow weight change and 0.2 ± 0.04 to 0.51 ± 0.14 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. The adaptive

  3. Self-reported body weight perception and dieting practices in community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassnig, Martin; Brar, Jaspreet S; Ganguli, Rohan

    2005-06-15

    Many patients with schizophrenia are exposed to serious health risks associated with their excess body weight. Evidence exists that even a moderate amount of weight loss may have significant health benefits. Thus, weight control in schizophrenia patients has become an important treatment goal. Although studies in the general population show that satisfaction with body weight is an important predictor for engagement in various weight loss measures, the perspective of schizophrenia patients has not been assessed. Information on self-reported weight perception, desire to lose weight as well as weight loss attempts was obtained according to methods employed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Cycle III (NHANES III). Body weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Perception of body weight and desire to lose weight were correlated to BMI. Both obese female and male subjects (BMI30) were aware of their weight status. However, whereas overweight females (BMI>25weight loss, caloric restriction (diet) was most frequently employed (by more than 80% of study subjects); yet only a third of study subjects (34.4%) engaged in the recommended combination of diet and exercise to lose weight. Questionable weight loss practices were also frequently employed, especially among women. Obese patients (BMI> or =30) were generally aware of their excess body weight and wanted to lose weight. Only non-obese, yet overweight males (BMI>25Weight loss practices did not always follow established recommendations. Especially women were likely to approach weight loss with questionably appropriate and unsafe methods.

  4. The role of body weight, fat distribution and weight change in ethnic differences in the 9-year incidence of hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootveld, Laura R.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Peters, Ron J. G.; Ujcic-Voortman, Joanne K.; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of body composition (body weight, fat distribution and weight change over time) in ethnic differences in the incidence of hypertension in an ethnic Dutch, South Asian Surinamese and African Surinamese background population living in the Netherlands. We included 361

  5. Body mass index, weight change, and survival in non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients in Connecticut women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuesong; Stevens, June; Bradshaw, Patrick T

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that obesiy and weight gain may affect the prognosis of several types of cancer. We investigated the impact of body mass index (BMI) as well as pre-and postdiagnosis weight changes on non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) prognosis. A cohort of 573 female incident NHL cases diagnosed during 1996-2000 in Connecticut was followed for a median of 7.8 yr. Self-reported height and weight at 3 time points before and after diagnosis were collected. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using proportional hazard models adjusting for factors believed to be associated with overall survival of NHL. Underweight (BMI treatment were found to have a poorer survival.

  6. Autopsy standards of body parameters and fresh organ weights in nonmacerated and macerated human fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroun, Lisa Leth; Graem, Niels

    2005-01-01

    Standards for body parameters and organ weights are important tools in fetal and perinatal pathology. Previously there has been only a weak emphasis on the effect of maceration on dimensions and weights. This study provides autopsy standards for body weight, body dimensions, and fresh organ weigh...... increased slightly with maceration, whereas body weight and head circumference were unaffected. User-friendly charts and tables of mean values and standard deviations for nonmacerated and macerated fetuses are provided.......Standards for body parameters and organ weights are important tools in fetal and perinatal pathology. Previously there has been only a weak emphasis on the effect of maceration on dimensions and weights. This study provides autopsy standards for body weight, body dimensions, and fresh organ weights...

  7. Thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and metabolic parameters in response to weight loss diets: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Liang, L; Bray, G A; Qi, L; Hu, F B; Rood, J; Sacks, F M; Sun, Q

    2017-06-01

    The role of thyroid hormones in diet-induced weight loss and subsequent weight regain is largely unknown. To examine the associations between thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight loss setting. Data analysis was conducted among 569 overweight and obese participants aged 30-70 years with normal thyroid function participating in the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) LOST randomized clinical trial. Changes in body weight and RMR were assessed during the 2-year intervention. Thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), total T3, total T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)), anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.6 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight over the remaining period from 6 to 24 months. Baseline free T3 and total T3 were positively associated, whereas free T4 was inversely associated, with baseline body weight, body mass index and RMR. Total T4 and TSH were not associated with these parameters. Higher baseline free T3 and free T4 levels were significantly associated with a greater weight loss during the first 6 months (Ppressure, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin at 6 months and 24 months (all P<0.05). In this diet-induced weight loss setting, higher baseline free T3 and free T4 predicted more weight loss, but not weight regain among overweight and obese adults with normal thyroid function. These findings reveal a novel role of thyroid hormones in body weight regulation and may help identify individuals more responsive to weight loss diets.

  8. Effect of different dietary energy levels on the body composition of Muzaffarnagari lambs fattened to different body weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.H.; Ranjhan, S.K.; Pathak, N.N.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty eight male and 32 female Muzaffarnagari lambs were reared intensively on 4 rations containing 1.8, 2.0, 2.1 and 2.3 Mcal ME/kg of ration upto 25, 30 and 35 kg weights. Body composition of 27 lambs at 25 kg, 11 lambs at 30 kg and 14 lambs at 35 kg body weight was determined direct by slaughter and desiccation and indirect by TOH dilution techniques. The average corrected TOH space 72.30 +- 1.01 percent at 25 kg body weight and 69.61 +- 1.63 percent at 30 and 35 kg body weight (combined). Mean values by desiccation for corresponding body weights were 65.21 +- 1.04 and 65.00 +- 1.26 percent, respectively. There was no significant difference in the moisture content between the groups and sexes at different body weights. Protein content was significantly (P < 0.01) high in male lambs at all the weights. The difference in fat content due to treatments and sex was non-significant at 25 kg weight but significant (P < 0.01) at 30 and 35 kg body weights. The percentage of fat increased with the increase in the ME content of rations except in the female lambs of group 3 at 35 kg body weight which recorded least fat. (auth.)

  9. Relationship between body satisfaction with self esteemand unhealthy body weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniali, Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

    2013-01-01

    A favorable or unfavorable attitude about self was named self esteem. According to Maslow theory to achieve quality of life and happiness, one must reach the gradual fulfillment of human needs, including a high degree of own self-esteem. Body dissatisfaction is a negative distortion of one's body which is especially mentioned by the women. Many studies have shown links between self esteem, body dissatisfaction, health and behaviors. this study intends to determine relationship between body satisfaction, self esteem and unhealthy weight control behaviors between women. This cross-sectional study was done on 408 women employees in Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 1390. They were chosen according to the stratified random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were 1) willing to participate in the study and 2) lack of serious physical defect 3) not being in pregnancy or breastfeeding course. Exclusion criteria was filling out questionnaires incompletely. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised of 4 sections as following: demographic (5items), A self-administrative questionnaire for body Satisfaction (7 items), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (10 items) and a standard Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Cranach's alpha was 0.9 or higher for the different sections. Finally, collected data was analyzed with SPSS18 using the independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, regression, Spearman correlation. Frequencies of participants by weight category were 14.1% for obese, 35.3% for overweight, 47.6% for normal weight. The mean body satisfaction score in the studied women was 63.26 ± 16.27 (from 100). Mean score of self esteem was 76.70 ± 10.45. 51.5% of women had medium self esteem, 47.5% had high self esteem. Pearson correlation showed that the variables of body Satisfaction (r = 0.3, P = 0.02), BMI (r = - 0.14, P self-esteem significantly. Women with higher self esteem used higher

  10. Developmental charts for children with osteogenesis imperfecta, type I (body height, body weight and BMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Krzysztof; Syczewska, Malgorzata

    2017-03-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder of type I collagen. Type I is the most common, which is called a non-deforming type of OI, as in this condition, there are no major bone deformities. This type is characterised by blue sclera and vertebral fractures, leading to mild scoliosis. The body height of these patients is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but there are no data proving this in the literature. The aim of this study is the preparation of the developmental charts of children with OI type I. The anthropometric data of 117 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta were used in this study (61 boys and 56 girls). All measurements were pooled together into one database (823 measurements in total). To overcome the problem of the limited number of data being available in certain age classes and gender groups, the method called reverse transformation was used. The body height of the youngest children, aged 2 and 3 years, is less than that of their healthy peers. Children between 4 and 7 years old catch up slightly, but at later ages, development slows down, and in adults, the median body height shows an SDS of -2.7. These results show that children with type I OI are smaller from the beginning than their healthy counterparts, their development slows down from 8 years old, and, ultimately, their body height is impaired. What is Known: • The body height of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type I is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but in the known literature, there is no measurement data supporting this opinion. What is New: • Children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta are smaller from the beginning than their healthy counterparts, their development slows down from 8 years old and, ultimately, their final body height is impaired. • The developmental charts for the body height, body weight and BMI of children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta are shown.

  11. Gut permeability is related to body weight, fatty liver disease, and insulin resistance in obese individuals undergoing weight reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damms-Machado, Antje; Louis, Sandrine; Schnitzer, Anna; Volynets, Valentina; Rings, Andreas; Basrai, Maryam; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and associated metabolic disorders are related to impairments of the intestinal barrier. We examined lactulose:mannitol (Lac:Man) permeability in obese individuals with and without liver steatosis undergoing a weight-reduction program to test whether an effective weight-loss program improves gut barrier function and whether obese patients with or without liver steatosis differ in this function. Twenty-seven adult, nondiabetic individuals [mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 43.7 ± 5.2; 78% with moderate or severe liver steatosis] were included in the follow-up intervention study (n = 13 by month 12). All patients reduced their weight to a mean ± SD BMI of 36.4 ± 5.1 within 12 mo. We assessed barrier functions by the oral Lac:Man and the fecal zonulin tests. Insulin resistance was assessed by the homeostatic model assessment index (HOMA), and liver steatosis by sonography and the fatty liver index (FLI). The Lac:Man ratio and circulating interleukin (IL) 6 concentration decreased during intervention from 0.080 (95% CI: 0.073, 0.093) to 0.027 (95% CI: 0.024, 0.034; P < 0.001) and from 4.2 ± 1.4 to 2.8 ± 1.6 pg/mL (P < 0.01), respectively. At study start, the Lac:Man ratio was higher in patients with moderate or severe steatosis than in those without any steatosis (P < 0.001). The Lac:Man ratio tended to correlate with HOMA (ρ = 0.55, P = 0.052), which correlated with FLI (ρ = 0.75, P < 0.01). A multiple-regression analysis led to a final model explaining FLI best through BMI, waist circumference, and the Lac:Man ratio. Intestinal permeability is increased in obese patients with steatosis compared with obese patients without. The increased permeability fell to within the previously reported normal range after weight reduction. The data suggest that a leaky gut barrier is linked with liver steatosis and could be a new target for future steatosis therapies. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01344525. © 2017 American Society

  12. Treadmill training and body weight support for walking after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrholz, Jan; Thomas, Simone; Elsner, Bernhard

    2017-08-17

    Treadmill training, with or without body weight support using a harness, is used in rehabilitation and might help to improve walking after stroke. This is an update of the Cochrane review first published in 2003 and updated in 2005 and 2014. To determine if treadmill training and body weight support, individually or in combination, improve walking ability, quality of life, activities of daily living, dependency or death, and institutionalisation or death, compared with other physiotherapy gait-training interventions after stroke. The secondary objective was to determine the safety and acceptability of this method of gait training. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 14 February 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Database of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (the Cochrane Library 2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to 14 February 2017), Embase (1980 to 14 February 2017), CINAHL (1982 to 14 February 2017), AMED (1985 to 14 February 2017) and SPORTDiscus (1949 to 14 February 2017). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings and ongoing trials and research registers, screened reference lists, and contacted trialists to identify further trials. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled and cross-over trials of treadmill training and body weight support, individually or in combination, for the treatment of walking after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias and methodological quality. The primary outcomes investigated were walking speed, endurance, and dependency. We included 56 trials with 3105 participants in this updated review. The average age of the participants was 60 years, and the studies were carried out in both inpatient and outpatient settings. All participants had at least some walking difficulties and many could not walk without assistance. Overall, the use of treadmill training did not increase the chances of walking

  13. Gestational Weight Gain and Pregnancy Outcomes in Relation to Body Mass Index in Asian Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavadharini, Balaji; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Deepa, Mohan; Jayashree, Gopal; Nrutya, Subramanyam; Shobana, Mahadevan; Malanda, Belma; Kayal, Arivudainambi; Belton, Anne; Joseph, Kurian; Rekha, Kurian; Uma, Ram; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the weight gain during pregnancy (using Institute of Medicine guidelines) among Asian Indians across different body mass index (BMI) categories (using World Health Organization Asia Pacific BMI cut points) and to compare the pregnancy outcomes in each of the different BMI categories. Retrospective records of 2728 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and private maternity centers in Chennai, South India, from January 2011 to January 2014 were studied. Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in relation to BMI and weight gain across different BMI categories. Overweight and obese women who gained more weight during pregnancy were at high risk of delivering macrosomic infants (overweight - odds ratio [OR]: 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-5.2, P = 0.02 and obese - OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4, P = 0.01). In addition, obese women who gained more weight were also at high risk of preterm labor (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-3.8; P = 0.01), cesarean section (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.4-2.5; P women who gained less weight had a protective effect from cesarean section and macrosomia. Overweight/obese women who gained more weight than recommended are at a high risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes. Normal and overweight women who gained weight less than recommended have low risk for cesarean section and macrosomia. However, they have a higher (statistically insignificant) risk for low birth weight and preterm birth. This highlights the need for gaining adequate weight during pregnancy.

  14. The effect of fast created inbreeding on litter size and body weights in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuwissen Theo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed to reveal any differences in effects of fast created versus total inbreeding on reproduction and body weights in mice. A line selected for large litter size for 124 generations (H and a control line (K maintained without selection for the same number of generations were crossed (HK and used as a basis for the experiment. Within the HK cross, full sib, cousin or random mating were practised for two generations in order to create new inbreeding (IBF at a fast rate. In the first generation of systematic mating, old inbreeding was regenerated in addition to creation of new inbreeding from the mating design giving total inbreeding (IBT. The number of pups born alive (NBA and body weights of the animals were then analysed by a model including both IBT and IBF. The IBT of the dam was in the present study found to reduce the mean NBA with -0.48 (± 0.22 (p F was -0.42 (± 0.27. For the trait NBA per female mated, the effect of IBT was estimated to be -0.45 (± 0.29 per 10% increase in the inbreeding coefficient and the effect of IBF was -0.90 (± 0.37 (p F of the dam could be found on sex-ratio and body weights at three and six weeks of age in a population already adjusted for IBT.

  15. Effects of body weight and alcohol consumption on insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holcomb Valerie B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a risk factor for the development of insulin resistance, which can eventually lead to type-2 diabetes. Alcohol consumption is a protective factor against insulin resistance, and thus protects against the development of type-2 diabetes. The mechanism by which alcohol protects against the development of type-2 diabetes is not well known. To determine the mechanism by which alcohol improves insulin sensitivity, we fed water or alcohol to lean, control, and obese mice. The aim of this study was to determine whether alcohol consumption and body weights affect overlapping metabolic pathways and to identify specific target genes that are regulated in these pathways. Method Adipose tissue dysfunction has been associated with the development of type-2 diabetes. We assessed possible gene expression alterations in epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT. We obtained WAT from mice fed a calorie restricted (CR, low fat (LF Control or high fat (HF diets and either water or 20% ethanol in the drinking water. We screened the expression of genes related to the regulation of energy homeostasis and insulin regulation using a gene array composed of 384 genes. Results Obesity induced insulin resistance and calorie restriction and alcohol improved insulin sensitivity. The insulin resistance in obese mice was associated with the increased expression of inflammatory markers Cd68, Il-6 and Il-1α; in contrast, most of these genes were down-regulated in CR mice. Anti-inflammatory factors such as Il-10 and adrenergic beta receptor kinase 1 (Adrbk1 were decreased in obese mice and increased by CR and alcohol. Also, we report a direct correlation between body weight and the expression of the following genes: Kcnj11 (potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11, Lpin2 (lipin2, and Dusp9 (dual-specificity MAP kinase phosphatase 9. Conclusion We show that alcohol consumption increased insulin sensitivity. Additionally, alterations

  16. Asymptotic weight and maturing rate in mice selected for body conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Masso Ricardo J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth patterns of four lines of mice selected for body conformation were analyzed with the logistic function, in order to provide baseline information about the relationship between asymptotic weight and maturing rate of body weight. Two lines were divergently selected favoring the phenotypic correlation between body weight and tail length (agonistic selection: CBi+, high body weight and long tail; CBi-, low body weight and short tail, whereas the other two lines were generated by a disruptive selection performed against the correlation between the aforementioned traits (antagonistic selection: CBi/C, high body weight and short tail; CBi/L, low body weight and long tail. The logistic parameters A (asymptotic weight and k (maturing rate behaved in CBi/C and CBi- mice and in CBi+ females as expected in terms of the negative genetic relationship between mature size and earliness of maturing. An altered growth pattern was found in CBi/L mice and in CBi+ males, because in the former genotype, selected for low body weight, the time taken to mature increased, whereas in the latter, selected for high body weight, there was a non-significant increase in the same trait. In accordance with the selective criterion, different sources of genetic variation for body weight could be exploited: one inversely associated with earliness of maturing (agonistic selection, and the other independent of maturing rate (antagonistic selection, showing that genetic variation of A is partly independent of k.

  17. Female waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index and sexual attractiveness in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. DIXSON, Baoguo LI, A.F. DIXSON

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Men and women at Northwest University (n = 751, Xi’an, China were asked to judge the attractiveness of photographs of female patients who had undergone micrograft surgery to reduce their waist-to-hip ratios (WHR. Micrograft surgery involves harvesting adipose tissue from the waist and reshaping the buttocks to produce a low WHR and an ‘hourglass’ female figure. This gynoid distribution of female body fat has been shown to correlate with measures of fertility and health. Significantly larger numbers of subjects, of both sexes, chose post-operative photographs, with lower WHRs, as more attractive than pre-operative photographs of the same women. Some patients had gained, and some had lost weight, post-operatively, with resultant changes in body mass index (BMI. However, these changes in BMI were not related to judgments of attractiveness. These results show that the hourglass female figure is rated as attractive in China, and that WHR, rather than BMI, plays a crucial role in such attractiveness judgments [Current Zoology 56 (2: 175–181, 2010].

  18. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung Min; Han, Kyungdo; Chung, Youn Jee; Yoon, Kun Ho; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2017-06-01

    Menstrual irregularity is an indicator of endocrine disorders and reproductive health status. It is associated with various diseases and medical conditions, including obesity and underweight. We aimed to assess the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity in Korean women. A total of 4,621 women 19 to 54 years of age who participated in the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect medical information assessing menstrual health status and body weight changes. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to evaluate the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity. Significantly higher ORs (95% CI) were observed in the association between menstrual irregularity and both weight loss (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.48) and weight gain (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86) after adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, calorie intake, education, income, metabolic syndrome, age of menarche, parity, and stress perception. Of note, significant associations were only observed in subjects with obesity and abdominal obesity, but not in non-obese or non-abdominally obese subjects. U-shaped patterns were demonstrated in both obese and abdominally obese subjects, indicating that greater changes in body weight are associated with higher odds of menstrual irregularity. We found a U-shaped pattern of association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity among obese women in the general Korean population. This result indicates that not only proper weight management but also changes in body weight may influence the regulation of the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  19. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Min Ko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMenstrual irregularity is an indicator of endocrine disorders and reproductive health status. It is associated with various diseases and medical conditions, including obesity and underweight. We aimed to assess the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity in Korean women.MethodsA total of 4,621 women 19 to 54 years of age who participated in the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect medical information assessing menstrual health status and body weight changes. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated to evaluate the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity.ResultsSignificantly higher ORs (95% CI were observed in the association between menstrual irregularity and both weight loss (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.48 and weight gain (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86 after adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, calorie intake, education, income, metabolic syndrome, age of menarche, parity, and stress perception. Of note, significant associations were only observed in subjects with obesity and abdominal obesity, but not in non-obese or non-abdominally obese subjects. U-shaped patterns were demonstrated in both obese and abdominally obese subjects, indicating that greater changes in body weight are associated with higher odds of menstrual irregularity.ConclusionWe found a U-shaped pattern of association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity among obese women in the general Korean population. This result indicates that not only proper weight management but also changes in body weight may influence the regulation of the menstrual cycle.

  20. Determinants of body weight status in Malaysia: an ethnic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andrew K G; Yen, Steven T; Feisul, Mustapha I

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the roles of sociodemographic and health lifestyle factors in affecting body mass index (BMI) across ethnic groups in Malaysia. Data are obtained from 2,436 observations from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1. The multi-ethnic sample is segmented into Malay, Chinese, and Indian/other ethnicities. Ordered probit analysis is conducted and marginal effects of sociodemographic and health lifestyle variables on BMI calculated. Malays between 41 and 58 years are more likely to be overweight or obese than their 31-40 years counterparts, while the opposite is true among Chinese. Retirees of Chinese and Indian/other ethnicities are less likely to be obese and more likely to have normal BMI than those between 31 and 40 years. Primary educated Chinese are more likely to be overweight or obese, while tertiary-educated Malays are less likely to suffer from similar weight issues as compared to those with only junior high school education. Affluent Malays and Chinese are more likely to be overweight than their low-middle income cohorts. Family illness history is likely to cause overweightness or obesity, irrespective of ethnicity. Malay cigarette smokers have lower overweight and obesity probabilities than non-cigarette smokers. There exists a need for flexible policies to address cross-ethnic differences in the sociodemographic and health-lifestyle covariates of BMI.

  1. Partial Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training in Spinocerebellar Ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Laura Alice Santos; Martins, Camilla Polonini; Horsczaruk, Carlos Henrique Ramos; da Silva, Débora Cristina Lima; Vasconcellos, Luiz Felipe; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Meira Mainenti, Míriam Raquel; Rodrigues, Erika de Carvalho

    2018-01-01

    The motor impairments related to gait and balance have a huge impact on the life of individuals with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). Here, the aim was to assess the possibility of retraining gait, improving cardiopulmonary capacity, and challenging balance during gait in SCA using a partial body weight support (BWS) and a treadmill. Also, the effects of this training over functionality and quality of life were investigated. Eight SCA patients were engaged in the first stage of the study that focused on gait training and cardiovascular conditioning. From those, five took part in a second stage of the study centered on dynamic balance training during gait. The first and second stages lasted 8 and 10 weeks, respectively, both comprising sessions of 50 min (2 times per week). The results showed that gait training using partial BWS significantly increased gait performance, treadmill inclination, duration of exercise, and cardiopulmonary capacity in individuals with SCA. After the second stage, balance improvements were also found. Combining gait training and challenging tasks to the postural control system in SCA individuals is viable, well tolerated by patients with SCA, and resulted in changes in capacity for walking and balance.

  2. Gender differences in body composition, physical activity, eating behavior and body image among normal weight adolescents--an evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Marosi, Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Body composition but also physical activity patterns underlie gender typical differences throughout human life. In the present study the body composition of 354 girls and 280 boys ageing between 11 and 18 years originating from Eastern Austria were analyzed using bioelectrical impedance method. Normal weight according to body mass index categories was a strict inclusion criterion. Information regarding physical activity during school and leisure time, daily nutritional habits, subjective body satisfaction and weight control practices were collected by means of a structured and standardized questionnaire. Results of the analyses reveal that--as to be expected--adolescent boys and girls differed significantly in body composition, but also in physical activity patterns. Even normal weight girls exhibited a significantly higher amount of absolute and relative fat mass, whereas normal weight boys showed a significantly higher amount of fat free body mass. Furthermore male adolescents were significantly more physically active than their female counterparts. According to the results of multiple regression analyses physical activity patterns had beside sex an independent influence on body composition parameters during adolescence. In contrast, girls and boys showed only minor differences in nutritional habits and weight control practices. Nutritional habits, body satisfaction and weight control practices were not significantly related to body composition parameters. The observed gender differences in body composition as well as in physical activity patterns are interpreted in an evolutionary sense.

  3. Using Bronson Equation to Accurately Predict the Dog Brain Weight Based on Body Weight Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Miguel Carreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study used 69 brains (n = 69 from adult dog cadavers, divided by their skull type into three groups, brachi (B, dolicho (D and mesaticephalic (M (n = 23 each, and aimed: (1 to determine whether the Bronson equation may be applied, without reservation, to estimate brain weight (BW in brachy (B, dolicho (D, and mesaticephalic (M dog breeds; and (2 to evaluate which breeds are more closely related to each other in an evolutionary scenario. All subjects were identified by sex, age, breed, and body weight (bw. An oscillating saw was used for a circumferential craniotomy to open the skulls; the brains were removed and weighed using a digital scale. For statistical analysis, p-values < 0.05 were considered significant. The work demonstrated a strong relationship between the observed and predicted BW by using the Bronson equation. It was possible to hypothesize that groups B and D present a greater encephalization level than M breeds, that B and D dog breeds are more closely related to each other than to M, and from the three groups, the D individuals presented the highest brain mass mean.

  4. Self-perception of body weight status in older Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteagudo, C.; Dijkstra, S.C.; Visser, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Objectives: The prevalence of obesity is highest in older persons and a correct self-perception of body weight status is necessary for optimal weight control. The aim of this study was to determine self-perception of, and satisfaction with, body weight status, and to compare current

  5. (Mis)interpretation of body weight in adult women and men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, I.H.M.; Bos, A.E.R.; Mayer, B.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined what methods people use to determine and interpret their body weight, and what factors are associated with either an underestimation of overweight or an overestimation of a healthy body weight. Method: The study used self-reported data on weight and height. Data

  6. Body image and weight control in South Africans 15 years or older: SANHANES-1

    OpenAIRE

    Mchiza, Zandile J.; Parker, Whadi-ah; Makoae, Mokhantso; Sewpaul, Ronel; Kupamupindi, Takura; Labadarios, Demetre

    2015-01-01

    Background South African studies have suggested that differences in obesity prevalence between groups may be partly related to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction. However, there has never been a national study that measured body image and its relationship to weight control in the country. Hence, the main aim of the study was to examine body image in relation to body mass index and weight control in South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional survey and a secondary analyses of...

  7. Monitoring dose-length product in computed tomography of the chest considering sex and body weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Nagahara, Kazunori; Hayakawa, Naomichi; Hanawa, Hironori; Hata, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Dose-length product (DLP) is widely used as an indicator of the radiation dose in computed tomography. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of sex and body weight in DLP-based monitoring of the radiation dose. Eight hundred computed tomographies of the chest performed using four different scanners were analysed. The DLP was compared with body weight by linear regression in men and women separately. The DLP was positively correlated with body weight, and dependence on sex and weight differed among scanners. Standard DLP values adjusted for sex and weight facilitated inter-scanner comparison of the radiation dose and its dependence on sex and weight. Adjusting the DLP for sex and weight allowed one to identify examinations with possibly excessive doses independently of weight. Monitoring the DLP in relation to sex and body weight appears to aid detailed comparison of the radiation dose among imaging protocols and scanners and daily observations to find unexpected variance. (authors)

  8. [The ratio birth-weight, placental weight and the term of delivery. A contribution to the problem of a relative placental insufficiency in late pregnancy (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, B

    1976-12-10

    It is suggested, that a relative placental insufficiency in late pregnancy is one of the releasing factors of childbirth. Under this assumption 1027 deliveries in term pregnancy (266th-294th day of pregnancy) were inquired on the interrelationship between the ratio brith-weight: placental-weight and the duration of pregnancy. The average birth-weight increases slighly but significantly with the duration of pregnancy just as the average placental-weight. The average ratio birth-weight: placental-weight decreases significantly: The more unfavorable the ratio birth-weight: placental-weight is, the shorter remains the fetus in utero. This underlines the assumption of a relative placental insufficiency as one of the releasing factors of childbirth.

  9. Dependence of transformer ratio on the shaper weighting function in transformer-coupled low noise preamplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripamonti, G.

    1987-10-01

    The optimum turn-ratio of transformers used for coupling large capacitance detectors to amplifiers is demonstrated to be dependent on the actual weighting function of the following shaper. As an example, the optimum finite cusp shaping with a flat top is considered. For this case, the optimum turn-ratio is found to be dependent on the flat top duration. As finite magnetizing inductance in real transformers produces diverging noise with unipolar shaping, flat-top tripolar zero-area shapers are also considered.

  10. Association of Smoking with Body Weight in US High School Students, 1999-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived body weight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived body weight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…

  11. Practical guidance for conducting mediation analysis with multiple mediators using inverse odds ratio weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh C; Osypuk, Theresa L; Schmidt, Nicole M; Glymour, M Maria; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J

    2015-03-01

    Despite the recent flourishing of mediation analysis techniques, many modern approaches are difficult to implement or applicable to only a restricted range of regression models. This report provides practical guidance for implementing a new technique utilizing inverse odds ratio weighting (IORW) to estimate natural direct and indirect effects for mediation analyses. IORW takes advantage of the odds ratio's invariance property and condenses information on the odds ratio for the relationship between the exposure (treatment) and multiple mediators, conditional on covariates, by regressing exposure on mediators and covariates. The inverse of the covariate-adjusted exposure-mediator odds ratio association is used to weight the primary analytical regression of the outcome on treatment. The treatment coefficient in such a weighted regression estimates the natural direct effect of treatment on the outcome, and indirect effects are identified by subtracting direct effects from total effects. Weighting renders treatment and mediators independent, thereby deactivating indirect pathways of the mediators. This new mediation technique accommodates multiple discrete or continuous mediators. IORW is easily implemented and is appropriate for any standard regression model, including quantile regression and survival analysis. An empirical example is given using data from the Moving to Opportunity (1994-2002) experiment, testing whether neighborhood context mediated the effects of a housing voucher program on obesity. Relevant Stata code (StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas) is provided. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Correlates of Body Image in Polish Weight Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine body image and body satisfaction in Polish adult men involved in resistance training and to investigate their relationships with objective anthropometric and training characteristics. Methods. The study included 176 males aged 18-31 years with 1-14 years resistance training experience. The Figure Rating Scale, Body Satisfaction Scale and a self-designed questionnaire were administered. Results. Approximately 62% of the participants would like to be more muscular, only 29% accepted their appearance and 9% would like to be less muscular. The body selected as the personal ideal (M = 5.34 was less muscular than the body considered by the participants to be ideal by other men (normative body; M = 6.07 and was more muscular than the body thought to be most attractive to women (M = 5.10. Actual and ideal body muscularity correlated positively with age and body mass, height and BMI. Dissatisfaction with trunk and motor characteristics correlated positively with ideal body and the body considered most attractive to women as well as with the discrepancy indices between the above factors and the actual body. Conclusions. Men regularly involved in resistance training were found to strive for a muscular physique. The normative body, the physique believed to be desired by other men, was more muscular than what was considered preferential to women. However, the latter constitutes a stronger determinant of the level of body satisfaction in men engaged in resistance training.

  13. Neonatal Body Composition According to the Revised Institute of Medicine Recommendations for Maternal Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston-Presley, Larraine; Catalano, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2009, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released revised pregnancy weight gain guidelines. There are limited data regarding the effect of maternal weight gain on newborn adiposity. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate neonatal fat mass, lean body mass, and percentage body fat according to current Institute of Medicine (IOM) pregnancy weight gain guidelines. Design: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective observational cohort study of neonates delivered at least 36 wk gestation and evaluated for fat mass, lean body mass, and percentage body fat. Women with abnormal glucose tolerance testing and other known medical disorders or pregnancies with known fetal anomalies were excluded. Pregravid body mass index (BMI) was categorized as normal weight (30 kg/m2). Maternal weight gain was quantified as less than, equal to, or greater than current IOM guidelines. Newborn body composition measurements were compared according to weight gain and BMI categories. Results: A total of 439 maternal-newborn pairs were evaluated; 19.8% (n = 87) of women gained less than IOM guidelines; 31.9% (n = 140), equal to IOM guidelines; and 48.3% (n = 212), greater than IOM guidelines. Significant differences for each component of body composition were found when evaluated by IOM weight gain categories (all ANOVA, P weight gain for women who were of normal weight before pregnancy remained significant. Conclusion: Maternal weight gain during pregnancy is a significant contributor to newborn body composition, particularly for women who are of normal weight before pregnancy. PMID:22821895

  14. Body fat percentage is better than indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliosa, Polyana Romano; Zaniqueli, Divanei; Alvim, Rafael de Oliveira; Barbosa, Miriam Carmo Rodrigues; Mill, José Geraldo

    2018-01-05

    To assess whether the indicators of weight status body mass index and waist-to-height ratio are similar to body fat percentage to identify obese children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile. This was a cross-sectional study involving 840 children and adolescents (6-18 years). The same individuals were classified as non-obese (

    body fat percentage and indicators of weight status, body mass index, and waist-to-height ratio. Body fat percentage was obtained by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance. Linear association between obesity and increased lipid fractions was tested by ANCOVA. Normal distribution curves of non-HDL cholesterol were designed for obese and non-obese. To provide the proportion of obese individuals with elevated non-HDL-c across all indicators, Z-score was calculated. Obese boys presented higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese, classified by body mass index (107±28 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p=0.001), waist-to-height ratio (115±29 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p<0.001) and body fat percentage (119±33 vs. 94±24mg/dL, p<0.001). Differently, obese girls presented with higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese only according to the body fat percentage classification (118±24 vs. 96±26mg/dL, p=0.001). A large shift to the right in the distribution curve of non-HDL cholesterol among obese girls compared with non-obese was observed only when body fat percentage was used to discriminate between obese and non-obese. Body fat percentage was better than the indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile, mainly among girls. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  15. Increased power to weight ratio of piezoelectric energy harvesters through integration of cellular honeycomb structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekharan, N; Thompson, L L

    2016-01-01

    The limitations posed by batteries have compelled the need to investigate energy harvesting methods to power small electronic devices that require very low operational power. Vibration based energy harvesting methods with piezoelectric transduction in particular has been shown to possess potential towards energy harvesters replacing batteries. Current piezoelectric energy harvesters exhibit considerably lower power to weight ratio or specific power when compared to batteries the harvesters seek to replace. To attain the goal of battery-less self-sustainable device operation the power to weight ratio gap between piezoelectric energy harvesters and batteries need to be bridged. In this paper the potential of integrating lightweight honeycomb structures with existing piezoelectric device configurations (bimorph) towards achieving higher specific power is investigated. It is shown in this study that at low excitation frequency ranges, replacing the solid continuous substrate of conventional bimorph with honeycomb structures of the same material results in a significant increase in power to weight ratio of the piezoelectric harvester. At higher driving frequency ranges it is shown that unlike the traditional piezoelectric bimorph with solid continuous substrate, the honeycomb substrate bimorph can preserve optimum global design parameters through manipulation of honeycomb unit cell parameters. Increased operating lifetime and design flexibility of the honeycomb core piezoelectric bimorph is demonstrated as unit cell parameters of the honeycomb structures can be manipulated to alter mass and stiffness properties of the substrate, resulting in unit cell parameter significantly influencing power generation. (paper)

  16. Hedonic and incentive signals for body weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egecioglu, Emil; Skibicka, Karolina P; Hansson, Caroline; Alvarez-Crespo, Mayte; Friberg, P Anders; Jerlhag, Elisabet; Engel, Jörgen A; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2011-09-01

    Here we review the emerging neurobiological understanding of the role of the brain's reward system in the regulation of body weight in health and in disease. Common obesity is characterized by the over-consumption of palatable/rewarding foods, reflecting an imbalance in the relative importance of hedonic versus homeostatic signals. The popular 'incentive salience theory' of food reward recognises not only a hedonic/pleasure component ('liking') but also an incentive motivation component ('wanting' or 'reward-seeking'). Central to the neurobiology of the reward mechanism is the mesoaccumbal dopamine system that confers incentive motivation not only for natural rewards such as food but also by artificial rewards (eg. addictive drugs). Indeed, this mesoaccumbal dopamine system receives and integrates information about the incentive (rewarding) value of foods with information about metabolic status. Problematic over-eating likely reflects a changing balance in the control exerted by hypothalamic versus reward circuits and/or it could reflect an allostatic shift in the hedonic set point for food reward. Certainly, for obesity to prevail, metabolic satiety signals such as leptin and insulin fail to regain control of appetitive brain networks, including those involved in food reward. On the other hand, metabolic control could reflect increased signalling by the stomach-derived orexigenic hormone, ghrelin. We have shown that ghrelin activates the mesoaccumbal dopamine system and that central ghrelin signalling is required for reward from both chemical drugs (eg alcohol) and also from palatable food. Future therapies for problematic over-eating and obesity may include drugs that interfere with incentive motivation, such as ghrelin antagonists.

  17. Relationship between chest compression depth and novice rescuer body weight during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Je Hyeok; Kim, Chan Woong

    2016-12-01

    This study determined if rescuer body weight is a major determinant of chest compression depth (CCD) among novice rescuers by analyzing the results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skill tests among medical students and determined the body weight threshold for those unable to achieve adequate CCD. Retrospective analysis of CPR test results was performed. A total of 107 medical students completed the tests, which included 5 cycles of CPR. Data were collected using a ResusciAnne SkillReporter. Anthropometric data including participant body weight, body mass index, and height were also collected. The relationships between CCD and anthropometric data were evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficient. In addition, univariate linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between body weight and CCD. The highest positive correlation was found between CCD and body weight (r = 0.636, P compression should preferentially be performed by rescuers of healthy weight or overweight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Yokukansankachimpihange increased body weight but not food-incentive motivation in wild-type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Takuya; Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; F Tanaka, Kenji; Mimura, Masaru

    2017-08-01

    Yokukansankachimpihange (YKSCH), a traditional Japanese medicine, is widely used for the amelioration of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia with digestive dysfunction. Regardless of its successful use for digestive dysfunction, the effect of YKSCH on body weight was unknown. Furthermore, if YKSCH increased body weight, it might increase motivation according to Kampo medicine theory. Therefore, we investigated whether YKSCH had the potential to increase body weight and enhance motivation in mice. To address this, C57BL/6J mice were used to evaluate the long-term effect of YKSCH on body weight and food-incentive motivation. As part of the evaluation, we optimized an operant test for use over the long-term. We found that feeding mice YKSCH-containing chow increased body weight, but did not increase their motivation to food reward. We propose that YKSCH may be a good treatment option for preventing decrease in body weight in patients with dementia.

  19. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  20. Prospect theory and body mass: Characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Lark eLim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  1. The relationship between waterpipe smoking and body weight: population-based findings from Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kenneth D; Ahn, SangNam; Mzayek, Fawaz; Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Asfar, Taghrid; Fouad, Fouad; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has well known effects on body weight, with current smokers weighing less than never-smokers, and cessation producing weight gain. Use of waterpipe (or "hookah") is increasing in many parts of the world but its effects on body weight are not known. We compared body mass index (BMI) among 2,536 adults (age ≥ 18 years old), who were never, former, current nondaily, or current daily waterpipe smokers, drawn from 2 representative, population-based household surveys of adults in Aleppo, Syria. Overall, 84.1% (n = 2,134) never-smoked waterpipe, 4.6% (n = 116) were former smokers, 9.9% (n = 251) were current nondaily smokers, and 1.4% (n = 35) were current daily smokers. Mean BMI of the sample was 30.2 kg/m(2) (SD = 6.3). Adjusted for cigarette smoking, number of chronic diseases, age, gender, income, and marital status, daily waterpipe users were 2.26 BMI units greater than never-smokers (beta = 2.26, 95% CI = 0.79-3.72), and had nearly threefold odds of being obese (odds ratio = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.06-7.76). Nondaily and former waterpipe users were similar to never-smokers in terms of BMI and obesity risk. Results indicate that daily waterpipe users, compared to never-users, have higher BMI, translating into 6 extra kilograms of weight on average, and are 3 times as likely to be obese. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. High dietary protein intake is associated with an increased body weight and total death risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Saiz, Carmen; Bulló, Mònica

    2016-04-01

    High dietary protein diets are widely used to manage overweight and obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus about their long-term efficacy and safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term high-protein consumption on body weight changes and death outcomes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. A secondary analysis of the PREDIMED trial was conducted. Dietary protein was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire during the follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for protein intake in relation to the risk of body weight and waist circumference changes, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular death, cancer death and total death. Higher total protein intake, expressed as percentage of energy, was significantly associated with a greater risk of weight gain when protein replaced carbohydrates (HR: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.05, 3.46) but not when replaced fat (HR: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.94, 3.03). However, no association was found between protein intake and waist circumference. Contrary, higher total protein intake was associated with a greater risk of all-cause death in both carbohydrate and fat substitution models (HR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.08, 2.35; and HR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.13, 2.43, respectively). A higher consumption of animal protein was associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal outcomes when protein substituted carbohydrates or fat. Higher dietary protein intake is associated with long-term increased risk of body weight gain and overall death in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Head-body ratio as a visual cue for stature in people and sculptural art

    OpenAIRE

    Mather, George

    2010-01-01

    Body size is crucial for determining the outcome of competition for resources and mates. Many species use acoustic cues to measure caller body size. Vision is the pre-eminent sense for humans, but visual depth cues are of limited utility in judgments of absolute body size. The reliability of internal body proportion as a potential cue to stature was assessed with a large sample of anthropometric data, and the ratio of head height to body height (HBR) was found to be highly correlated with sta...

  4. Associations between dairy protein intake and body weight and risk markers of diabetes and CVD during weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products have previously been reported to be associated with beneficial effects on body weight and metabolic risk markers. Moreover, primary data from the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study indicate a weight-maintaining effect of a high-protein-low-glycaemic index diet. The objective ...

  5. Prognostic significance of unintentional body weight loss in colon cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Hung; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Huang, Cheng Yi; Huang, Yun-Ching; Chin, Chih-Chien

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether unintentional body weight loss (BWL) provides additional clinical information in terms of tumor progression and prognosis in non-metastatic colon cancer. In the present study, a total of 2,406 consecutive colon cancer patients without metastasis were retrospectively enrolled. Unintentional BWL was defined as loss of >5% of body weight within the last 6-12 months, or defined subjectively upon fulfillment of at least two of the following: Evidence of change in clothing size and corroboration of the reported weight loss by family or friend. This category was recorded as present ('with') or absent ('without'). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the correlation between BWL and the tumor characteristics and post-operative outcomes of patients with colon cancer. The Cox regression model was used to determine the association of BWL with long-term survival of colon cancer patients. A significant association between BWL and tumor location [right vs. left: Odds ratio (OR)=1.62; Pcolon cancer is not just a symptom, but it is also correlated with tumor location, size and depth, and is a prognostic factor for poor outcomes including overall survival and tumor relapse.

  6. Genetic relationships among body condition score, body weight, milk yield, and fertility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Buckley, F; Dillon, P; Evans, R D; Rath, M; Veerkamp, R F

    2003-06-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk production, and fertility-related traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 8591 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, milk production, and/or fertility from 78 seasonal calving grass-based farms throughout southern Ireland. Of the cows included in the analysis, 4402 had repeated records across the 2 yr of the study. Genetic correlations between level of BCS at different stages of lactation and total lactation milk production were negative (-0.51 to -0.14). Genetic correlations between BW at different stages of lactation and total lactation milk production were all close to zero but became positive (0.01 to 0.39) after adjusting BW for differences in BCS. Body condition score at different stages of lactation correlated favorably with improved fertility; genetic correlations between BCS and pregnant 63 d after the start of breeding season ranged from 0.29 to 0.42. Both BW at different stages of lactation and milk production tended to exhibit negative genetic correlations with pregnant to first service and pregnant 63 d after the start of the breeding season and positive genetic correlations with number of services and the interval from first service to conception. Selection indexes investigated illustrate the possibility of continued selection for increased milk production without any deleterious effects on fertility or average BCS, albeit, genetic merit for milk production would increase at a slower rate.

  7. Body image and weight management: young people, internet advertisements and pharmacists

    OpenAIRE

    Luevorasirikul, Kanokrat

    2007-01-01

    Media promotion of the ideal body as slimness for women and muscularity for men, has led to increasing numbers of both genders reporting dissatisfaction with their bodies and trying to change using weight control products. It has been suggested that pharmacists can play a key role in promoting healthy lifestyles and weight management. The main aim of the research study was to examine the impact of media on body image perception and to investigate the role of pharmacists in weight man...

  8. Parental Characteristics Have a Larger Effect on Children's Health Behaviour than Their Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Erkelenz, Nanette; Wartha, Olivia; Brandstetter, Susanne; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Parents take an important role in a child's development, but there is currently limited information on parental correlates with children's health behaviour. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine whether parental characteristics, such as body weight, TV consumption and sport participation, affect children's body weight and health behaviour. Methods To examine the effects of parental characteristics on children's body weight and health behaviour, baseline data of 1,118 ...

  9. The effects of gait training with body weight support (BWS) with no body weight support (no-BWS) in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Muhammad Asad; Shafi, Hina; Khan, Ghazanfar Ali; Malik, Arshad Nawaz; Amjad, Imran

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the clinical outcomes for patients with stroke after gait training with body weight support (BWS) and with no body weight support (no-BWS).Experimental group was trained to walk by a BWS system with overhead harness (BWS group), and Control group was trained with full weight bearing walk on their lower extremities. Treatment session comprised of six weeks training. Treatment outcomes were assessed on the basis of Timed 10 Meter Walk Test, Timed Get Up and Go Test and Dynamic Gait Index. There was a significant (PTraining of gait in stroke patients while a percentage of their body weight supported by a harness, resulted in better walking abilities than the Training of gait while full weight was placed on patient's lower extremities.

  10. Sugammadex by ideal body weight versus 20% and 40% corrected weight in bariatric surgery - double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Maria da Conceição Duarte

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: The weight parameters for use of sugammadex in morbidly obese patients still need to be defined. Methods: A prospective clinical trial was conducted with sixty participants with body mass index ≥ 40 kg.m-2 during bariatric surgery, randomized into three groups: ideal weight (IW, 20% corrected body weight (CW20 and 40% corrected body weight (CW40. All patients received total intravenous anesthesia. Rocuronium was administered at dose of 0.6 mg.kg-1 of Ideal weight for tracheal intubation, followed by infusion of 0.3-0.6 mg.kg-1.h-1. Train of four (TOF was used to monitor depth of blockade. After spontaneous recovery TOF-count 2 at the end of surgery, 2 mg.kg-1 of sugammadex was administered. Primary outcome was neuromuscular blockade reversal time to TOF ≥ 0.9. Secondary outcome was the occurrence of postoperative residual curarization in post-anesthesia recovery room, searching the patient's ability to pass from the surgical bed to the transport, adequacy of oxygenation, respiratory pattern, ability to swallow saliva and clarity of vision. Results: Groups were homogenous in gender, age, total body weight, ideal body weight, body mass index, type and time of surgery. The reversal times (s were (mean ± standard deviation 225.2 ± 81.2, 173.9 ± 86.8 and 174.1 ± 74.9 respectively, in the IW, CW20 and CW40 groups (p = 0.087. Conclusions: No differences were observed between groups with neuromuscular blockade reversal time and frequency of postoperative residual curarization. We concluded that ideal body weight can be used to calculate sugammadex dose to reverse moderate neuromuscular blockade in morbidly obese patients.

  11. Effects of nicotine on body weight in rats with access to "junk" foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, N E; Popp, K A; Winders, S E

    1988-01-01

    The present experiment examined effects of nicotine on body weight of male and female rats when Oreo cookies, potato chips, laboratory chow, and water were available. Body weight and eating behavior were measured for 17-day periods before, during, and after nicotine or saline administration. There was an inverse relationship between nicotine and body weight. These effects were paralleled by changes in consumption of sweet foods. There were no effects of nicotine on salty or bland food consumption. Excessive gains in body weight after cessation of nicotine administration were greater for females than for males.

  12. Effects of Environmental Conditions on Activity, Feeding, and Body Weight in Male and Female Adolescent Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomchesson, Joshua L

    2006-01-01

    .... Responses to environmental enrichment included: body weight (BW), Body Mass Index score (BMI), Lee Index score (LI), consumption of standard rat chow, Oreo cookies, and Lays potato chips, and physical activity...

  13. Body image and personality: associations between the Big Five Personality Factors, actual-ideal weight discrepancy, and body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Tran, Ulrich S; Brooks, Louise Hoffmann; Kanaan, Laura; Luesse, Ellen-Marlene; Nader, Ingo W; Pietschnig, Jakob; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Studies have suggested associations between personality dimensions and body image constructs, but these have not been conclusively established. In two studies, we examined direct associations between the Big Five dimensions and two body image constructs, actual-ideal weight discrepancy and body appreciation. In Study 1, 950 women completed measures of both body image constructs and a brief measure of the Big Five dimensions. In Study 2,339 women completed measures of the body image constructs and a more reliable measure of the Big Five. Both studies showed that Neuroticism was significantly associated with actual-ideal weight discrepancy (positively) and body appreciation (negatively) once the effects of body mass index and social status had been accounted for. These results are consistent with the suggestion that Neuroticism is a trait of public health significance requiring attention by body image scholars. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  14. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2017-06-01

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Body weight status of school adolescents in Terengganu, Malaysia: a population baseline study

    OpenAIRE

    Aryati Ahmad; Nurzaime Zulaily; Nor Saidah Abdul Manan; Mohd Razif Shahril; Sharifah Wajihah Wafa Syed Saadun Tarek Wafa; Rahmah Mohd Amin; Engku Fadzli Hasan Syed Abdullah; Amran Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Body weight is highly associated with overall health status. Being severely thin or obese may impose the risk of many health problems. Early detection of body mass index (BMI) status may help to reduce the associated comorbidities. Although many studies in the literature have investigated the BMI of school adolescents in Malaysia, the data on status of body weight among school adolescents in suburban states like Terengganu is limited. This study aimed to describe the body ...

  16. Evaluation of neonatal brain myelination using the T1- and T2-weighted MRI ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soun, Jennifer E; Liu, Michael Z; Cauley, Keith A; Grinband, Jack

    2017-09-01

    To validate the T1- and T2-weighted (T1w/T2w) MRI ratio technique in evaluating myelin in the neonatal brain. T1w and T2w MR images of 10 term neonates with normal-appearing brain parenchyma were obtained from a single 1.5 Tesla MRI and retrospectively analyzed. T1w/T2w ratio images were created with a postprocessing pipeline and qualitatively compared with standard clinical sequences (T1w, T2w, and apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]). Quantitative assessment was also performed to assess the ratio technique in detecting areas of known myelination (e.g., posterior limb of the internal capsule) and very low myelination (e.g., optic radiations) using linear regression analysis and the Michelson Contrast equation, a measure of luminance contrast intensity. The ratio image provided qualitative improvements in the ability to visualize regional variation in myelin content of neonates. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant inverse relationship between the ratio intensity values and ADC values in the posterior limb of the internal capsule and the optic radiations (R 2  = 0.96 and P ratio images were 1.6 times higher than T1w, 2.6 times higher than T2w, and 1.8 times higher than ADC (all P ratio improved visualization of the corticospinal tract, one of the earliest myelinated pathways. The T1w/T2w ratio accentuates contrast between myelinated and less myelinated structures and may enhance our diagnostic ability to detect myelination patterns in the neonatal brain. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:690-696. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Genetic analysis of body weights of individually fed beef bulls in South Africa using random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selapa, N W; Nephawe, K A; Maiwashe, A; Norris, D

    2012-02-08

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for body weights of individually fed beef bulls measured at centralized testing stations in South Africa using random regression models. Weekly body weights of Bonsmara bulls (N = 2919) tested between 1999 and 2003 were available for the analyses. The model included a fixed regression of the body weights on fourth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, and 84) for starting age and contemporary group effects. Random regressions on fourth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test were included for additive genetic effects and additional uncorrelated random effects of the weaning-herd-year and the permanent environment of the animal. Residual effects were assumed to be independently distributed with heterogeneous variance for each test day. Variance ratios for additive genetic, permanent environment and weaning-herd-year for weekly body weights at different test days ranged from 0.26 to 0.29, 0.37 to 0.44 and 0.26 to 0.34, respectively. The weaning-herd-year was found to have a significant effect on the variation of body weights of bulls despite a 28-day adjustment period. Genetic correlations amongst body weights at different test days were high, ranging from 0.89 to 1.00. Heritability estimates were comparable to literature using multivariate models. Therefore, random regression model could be applied in the genetic evaluation of body weight of individually fed beef bulls in South Africa.

  18. Overestimation of own body weights in female university students: associations with lifestyles, weight control behaviors and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miso; Lee, Hongmie

    2010-12-01

    The study aimed to analyze the lifestyles, weight control behavior, dietary habits, and depression of female university students. The subjects were 532 students from 8 universities located in 4 provinces in Korea. According to percent ideal body weight, 33 (6.4%), 181 (34.0%), 283 (53.2%), 22 (4.1%) and 13 (2.5%) were severely underweight, underweight, normal, overweight and obese, respectively, based on self-reported height and weight. As much as 64.1% and only 2.4%, respectively, overestimated and underestimated their body weight status. Six overweight subjects were excluded from overestimation group for the purpose of this study, resulting in overestimation group consisting of only underweight and normal weight subjects. Compared to those from the normal perception group, significantly more subjects from the overestimation group were currently smoking (P = 0.017) and drank more often than once a week (P = 0.015), without any significant differences in dietary habits. Despite similar BMIs, subjects who overestimated their own weight statuses had significantly higher weight dissatisfaction (P = 0.000), obesity stress (P = 0.000), obsession to lose weight (P = 0.007) and depression (P = 0.018). Also, more of them wanted to lose weight (P = 0.000), checked their body weights more often than once a week (P = 0.025) and had dieting experiences using 'reducing meal size' (P = 0.012), 'reducing snacks' (P = 0.042) and 'taking prescribed pills' (P = 0.032), and presented 'for a wider range of clothes selection' as the reason for weight loss (P = 0.039), although none was actually overweight or obese. Unlike the case with overestimating one's own weight, being overweight was associated with less drinking (P = 0.035) and exercising more often (P = 0.001) and for longer (P = 0.001) and healthier reasons for weight control (P = 0.002), despite no differences in frequency of weighing and depression. The results showed that weight overestimation, independent of weight status

  19. Auditory brainstem response in neonates: influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna M. Giaffredo Angrisani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio on the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR in preterm (PT and term (T newborns. METHODS: 176 newborns were evaluated by ABR; 88 were preterm infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age. The preterm infants were compared to 88 term infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age. All newborns had bilateral presence of transient otoacoustic emissions and type A tympanometry. RESULTS: No interaural differences were found. ABR response did not differentiate newborns regarding weight/gestational age in males and females. Term newborn females showed statistically shorter absolute latencies (except on wave I than males. This finding did not occur in preterm infants, who had longer latencies than term newborns, regardless of gender. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and gestational age influence term infants' ABR, with lower responses in females. The weight/gestational age ratio did not influence ABR response in either groups.

  20. Associations of the pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with pregnancy outcomes in Taiwanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, I-Hsien; Chen, Chih-Ping; Sun, Fang-Ju; Wu, Chia-Hsun; Yeh, Sung-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain (GWG) are important factors in both maternal and infant outcomes. Little information is available in relation to different levels of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and body weight gain on obstetric outcomes in Taiwan. This study investigated the associations between pregnancy complications with pre-pregnant BMI and GWG, in Taiwanese women. Data were extracted from a delivery room information bank on all women delivering singleton babies in a medical center. Eight hundred and sixty pregnant women were included. The collected variables included basic information, GWG, and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Pregnant women were categorized according to their pre-pregnant BMI and GWG to evaluate the impacts of pre-pregnant BMI and maternal weight gain on the risk of pregnancy complications. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, and odds ratios were calculated. Pre-pregnancy BMI>=24 kg/m2 increased the risks of gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, and preterm labor. Preeclampsia and Cesarean delivery were positively associated with high weight gains (>18 kg), whereas a low birth weight and preterm labor were strongly associated with low weight gains (14 kg in women who were underweight and normal weight before pregnancy. An appropriate maternal BMI (18.5-24 kg/m2) at conception followed by a suitable gestational weight gain (10-14 kg) has substantial impact on the overall health of pregnant women and would lead to better obstetric management for Taiwanese women.

  1. The Role of Body Weight on Bone in Anorexia Nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Jacob; Hansen, Stinus; Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel

    2017-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased risk of fracture. The aim of this study was to assess bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), trabecular microarchitecture and estimated failure load in weight-bearing vs. non-weight-bearing bones...

  2. Effects of sugar intake on body weight: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, S.H.F.; Pasman, W.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Weight reduction programmes are mainly focused on reducing intake of fat and sugar. In this review we have evaluated whether the replacement of dietary (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or complex carbohydrates contributes to weight reduction. In two experimental studies, no short-term

  3. Association between body weight and dimensional shell traits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of regression models revealed that live weight of A. achatina was best predicted with multiple linear regression models, while with live weight of A. marginata was best predicted with simple linear regression model and multiple linear regression models. A test of accuracy of the linear regression models showed ...

  4. A study on body-weight perception, future intention and weight-management behaviour among normal-weight, overweight and obese women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2014-04-01

    We examined the socio-economic differential in the self-perception of body weight, future intention for weight management and actual weight-management behaviour among normal-weight, overweight and obese women in India. A population-based follow-up survey of ever-married women, systematically selected from the second round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples, who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. Information on women's perception about their own weight, intention of weight management and actual weight-management behaviour were collected through personal interview. Anthropometric measurements were obtained from women to compute their current BMI. Three hundred and twenty-five ever-married women aged 20-54 years residing in the national capital territory of Delhi in India. Discrepancy between self-perceived body weight and women's actual body weight was reported. One-quarter of overweight women and one in ten obese women perceived themselves as normal weight. Although a majority of overweight and obese women wanted to reduce their weight, a significant proportion of overweight (one in four) and 4 % of obese women also wanted to maintain their weight as it is. Only one in three overweight and one in four obese women were performing any physical activity to reduce their weight. These findings are important for public health interventions in obesity care. Implementation of health promotion and health education in the community should use effective school education and mass-media programmes to raise awareness of appropriate body weight to combat the growing level of obesity among Indian women.

  5. The importance of body image concerns in overweight and normal weight individuals with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Angelina; Murray, Susan M; Arlt, Jean M; Eneva, Kalina T; Chen, Eunice Y

    2017-09-01

    Body image concerns in binge eating disorder (BED) have been examined almost exclusively in overweight individuals with BED. The current study extends past research by including overweight and normal weight BED and non-BED groups to assess the multifactorial construct of body image using subscales of the Eating Disorder Examination 16.0 (EDE-16.0) and a Body Comparison Task. Independent of weight status and when controlling for age and race, women with BED are distinguished from those without BED by significantly greater overvaluation of shape and weight on the EDE-16.0 and significantly reduced weight satisfaction after a Body Comparison Task. Both BED diagnosis and weight status were independently associated with Weight Concern and Shape Concern subscales on the EDE-16.0. Taken together, these data provide further support for the consideration of body image concerns in the diagnostic criteria for BED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Body dimensions and weight to height indices in rescuers from the State Fire Service of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiśniewski Andrzej

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been published in Poland concerning body dimensions of firefighters from the State Fire Service although this knowledge is needed for e.g. development of personal protective equipment. The aim of the study was to evaluate body dimensions and weight-to-height ratio in firefighters from the State Fire Service. Using the anthropological procedures, body mass (BM and body height (BH were examined in 178 men at the chronological age (CA of 19.5 to 53 years who were rescuers from the national rescue and fire brigades of the State Fire Service. The study participants were divided into three categories of CA: up to 25 years, between 24 and 44 years, and over 44 years. The results were compared to population standards. It was found that BH of the youngest rescuers was significantly higher (0.05 than in other study participants. Based on the standardized values of BM and BMI, population of firefighters aged over 25 years was found to be characterized by overweight and, in certain cases, even by obesity. The excess level of body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kgm2 was found in nearly 60% of study participants, with half of the group classified as overweight (n=31, BMI ranging from 25 to 29.9 kg/m2, and 10% classified as obese. Due to the worrying high percentage of cases of excess body mass in firefighters from the State Fire Service, it was found that it is recommended to evaluate the relationships between body height and mass on regular basis during periodical obligatory tests of physical fitness of rescuers from the State Fire Service and to increase the frequency and duration of training sessions.

  7. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding the Essential Meaning of Measured Changes in Weight and Body Composition Among Women During and After Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Groenkjaer, Mette; Falkmer, Ursula; Delmar, Charlotte

    Changes in weight and body composition among women during and after adjuvant antineoplastic treatment for breast cancer may influence long-term survival and quality of life. Research on factual weight changes is diverse and contrasting, and their influence on women's perception of body and self seems to be insufficiently explored. The aim of this study was to expand the understanding of the association between changes in weight and body composition and the women's perception of body and selves. A mixed-methods research design was used. Data consisted of weight and body composition measures from 95 women with breast cancer during 18 months past surgery. Twelve women from this cohort were interviewed individually at 12 months. Linear mixed model and logistic regression were used to estimate changes of repeated measures and odds ratio. Interviews were analyzed guided by existential phenomenology. Joint displays and integrative mixed-methods interpretation demonstrated that even small weight gains, extended waist, and weight loss were associated with fearing recurrence of breast cancer. Perceiving an ambiguous transforming body, the women moved between a unified body subject and the body as an object dissociated in "I" and "it" while fighting against or accepting the body changes. Integrating findings demonstrated that factual weight changes do not correspond with the perceived changes and may trigger existential threats. Transition to a new habitual body demand health practitioners to enter a joint narrative work to reveal how the changes impact on the women's body and self-perception independent of how they are displayed quantitatively.

  9. Development of body weight support gait training system using antagonistic bi-articular muscle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yoshiyuki; Imai, Shingo; Nobutomo, Tatsuya; Miyoshi, Tasuku; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiroh

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a body weight support gait training system for stroke and spinal cord injury. This system consists of a powered orthosis, treadmill and equipment of body weight support. Attachment of the powered orthosis is able to fit subject who has difference of body size. This powered orthosis is driven by pneumatic McKibben actuator. Actuators are arranged as pair of antagonistic bi-articular muscle model and two pairs of antagonistic mono-articular muscle model like human musculoskeletal system. Part of the equipment of body weight support suspend subject by wire harness, and body weight of subject is supported continuously by counter weight. The powered orthosis is attached equipment of body weight support by parallel linkage, and movement of the powered orthosis is limited at sagittal plane. Weight of the powered orthosis is compensated by parallel linkage with gas-spring. In this study, we developed system that has orthosis powered by pneumatic McKibben actuators and equipment of body weight support. We report detail of our developed body weight support gait training system.

  10. Changes in body weight, composition, and shape: a 4-year study of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Simmons, Karla P; Connell, Lenda Jo; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, and shape in a group of male and female students over the 4-year college period. Anthropometric assessments including height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and body shape (via 3-dimensional body scanning) were conducted at the beginning of the freshman year and end of the senior year in 131 college students. Four-year changes included significant (p obese increased from 18% to 31%. The number of females and males with ≥30% and 20% body fat, respectively, increased from n = 14 to n = 26 (with n = 4 exhibiting normal weight obesity) over the 4-year period. The waist circumference changes were significantly (p obesity and normal weight obesity among this college population suggests the need for additional health promotion strategies on college campuses.

  11. Association of Plasma Leptin Levels With Maternal Body Weight and Body Mass Index in Premature and Term Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ping Ho

    2010-02-01

    Conclusion: Neonatal serum leptin concentrations within 24 hours of birth correlated with maternal body weight and BMI, especially in premature newborns. Premature newborns had significantly lower leptin levels than full-term newborns.

  12. Food shopping and weight concern. Balancing consumer and body normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were......, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management...

  13. Body Image and Self-Esteem in Normal Weight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleghorn, Alice A.; Penner, Louis A.

    Research suggests that, in clinical samples, body image disturbances are related to severe eating disorders and problems with self-concept and self-esteem. There have been relatively few studies, however, which have empirically investigated the relation between body image and personality characteristics among normal women. This study investigated…

  14. Perceived body image and weight: discrepancies and gender differences among University undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruf, F A; Akinpelu, A O; Nwankwo, M J

    2012-12-01

    Body image (BI) is a multidimensional construct that includes perceptual, attitudinal, behavioural components, and feedback from other people's perception of oneself. The feedback from others and the degree to which one accepts or rejects it can determine self evaluation and perception. Body weight perception is a strong determinant of nutritional habits and weight management among adolescents. One of the barriers to reducing rise in obesity prevalence could be its cultural acceptability in some developing countries. To explore the gender influences on perception of self- and opposite-sex body images (BI), perceived body weight and the actual body weight categories at which discrepancies occur among the perceived BIs in undergraduates. This was a survey of perceptual dimension of BI, perceived body weight and actual body weight carried out in 121 undergraduates aged 21-29 years. Discrepancies occurred between self-perceived BI and each of actual body weight (p= 0.00 at 0.00-0.02 confidence interval (CI)), perceived body weight (p= 0.01 at 0.000-0.02 CI) and self-ideal BI (p= 0.03 at 0.000-0.05 CI) of normal-weight males. Self-perceived BI and perceived body weight also differed in normal-weight females (p= 0.02 at 0.000-0.04 CI). Discrepancies (p= 0.02 at 0.00-0.04 CI) occurred between self-perceived BI and self-ideal BI, and between self-perceived BI and desired BI (p= 0.02 at 0.00-0.04 CI) in overweight females. Gender differences occurred for self-ideal BI (p= 0.00 at 0.00-0.02 CI), ideal image for the opposite sex (IBIOS) (p= 0.02 at 0.00-0.04 CI) and desired BI (p= 0.00 at 0.00-0.02 CI). Normal-weight males perceived their BI differently from their actual body weight, perceived body weight and self-ideal BI whereas normal-weight females perceived their BI differently from only their perceived body weight. Discrepancies occur between self-ideal BI and self-perceived BI, and between self-perceived BI and desired BI in overweight females. There are differential

  15. [Relation between leptin serun with weight and body fat distribution in postmenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios Ospino, Yubire; Díaz, N; Meertens, L; Naddaf, G; Solano, L; Fernández, M; Flores, A; González, M

    2010-01-01

    Leptin is a peptidic hormone secreted by the fat tissue and plays an important role in body weight regulation. After menopause, weight gain increases as well as android-like obesity. Previous studies suggest a relationship between leptin level, body mass index (BMI) and fat distribution. To establish the relationships between serum leptin, BMI, waist circumference (WC), and waist/hip ratio (WHR). 48 women under the age of 60 years and with amenorrhea for longer than one year were assessed. Leptin and estradiol (ELISA) levels were determined; normal values: 3.63-11.09 ng/mL and 0-65 pg/Ml. BMI (WHO), WC > 88 cm, and WHR > 0.80 were considered as indicators of cardiometabolic risk. Mean age for the group was 54 +/- 3.9 years; leptin: 8.4 +/- 3.7 ng/mL, and estradiol: 17.6 +/- 10.0 pg/mL; BMI: 27.0 +/- 4.9 kg/m(2); WC: 86.2 +/- 8.6 cm; and WHR: 0.84 +/- 0.06. Twenty percent of the women had hyperleptinemia, 58.4% malnourishment due to excessive intake, 35% presented WC cardiovascular risk. The highest leptin value was found in obese women. There was no association between serum leptin levels and anthropometrical variables. There was a significantly positive correlation between weight, height, BMI, WC, hip circumference, and estradiol. Postmenopausal women presented a high prevalence of overweight/obesity, android-like body fat distribution and normal serum leptin levels. The group assessed is considered to be at risk for cardiometabolic diseases according to anthropometrical indicators.

  16. Weight concerns in male low birth weight adolescents: relation to body mass index, self-esteem, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blond, Anna; Whitaker, Agnes H; Lorenz, John M; Feldman, Judith F; Nieto, Marlon; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A; Paneth, Nigel

    2008-06-01

    To compare weight concerns and self-reported body mass index (BMI) of low birth weight (LBW) adolescent boys to those of a normative sample and examine relationships among BMI, weight concerns, self-esteem, and depression in the LBW cohort. LBW boys (n = 260; mean age, 16.0) belong to the Neonatal Brain Hemorrhage Study birth cohort. Normative boys (n = 305; mean age, 16.5) belong to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Both samples were assessed in 2001-2004 with self-report questionnaires. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. Weight perception and weight dissatisfaction were assessed with the Eating Symptoms Inventory. In LBW boys, self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and depression with the Beck Depression Inventory. Based on self-reported height and weight, LBW boys were more likely to be healthy weight or underweight and less likely to be overweight than normative boys. Despite having healthier self-reported BMIs, LBW boys reported more weight concerns than the normative sample. A total of 46.9% of LBW boys perceived their weight as abnormal, and 76.5% desired weight change. Weight concerns in LBW boys mostly reflected a perception of being underweight (31.2% of the cohort) and a desire to gain weight (47.5% of the cohort), although only 6.5% were clinically underweight. Weight concerns, but not BMI, were related to clinical depression and lower self-esteem. LBW adolescent boys are at high risk of experiencing weight concerns. Weight concerns rather than BMI are associated with emotional problems in LBW boys.

  17. Body image and weight control in South Africans 15 years or older: SANHANES-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchiza, Zandile J; Parker, Whadi-Ah; Makoae, Mokhantso; Sewpaul, Ronel; Kupamupindi, Takura; Labadarios, Demetre

    2015-09-30

    South African studies have suggested that differences in obesity prevalence between groups may be partly related to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction. However, there has never been a national study that measured body image and its relationship to weight control in the country. Hence, the main aim of the study was to examine body image in relation to body mass index and weight control in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey and a secondary analyses of data were undertaken for 6 411 South Africans (15+ years) participating in the first South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Body image was investigated in relation to weight status and attempts to lose or gain weight. Data were analysed using STATA version 11.0. Descriptive statistics are presented as counts (numbers), percentages, means, standard error of means, and 95 % confidence intervals. Any differences in values were considered to be significantly different if the confidence intervals did not overlap. Overall, 84.5 % participants had a largely distorted body image and 45.3 % were highly dissatisfied about their body size. Overweight and obese participants under estimated their body size and desired to be thinner. On the other hand, normal- and under-weight participants over estimated their body size and desired to be fatter. Only 12.1 and 10.1 % of participants attempted to lose or gain weight, respectively, mainly by adjusting dietary intake and physical activity. Body mass index appears to influence body image and weight adjustment in South Africa. South Africans at the extreme ends of the body mass index range have a largely distorted body image and are highly dissatisfied by it. This suggests a need for health education and beneficial weight control strategies to halt the obesity epidemic in the country.

  18. genetic parameters for body weights of quail using random

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CMT

    ... of domesticated species by altering growth patterns through artificial selection ... models have also been used to describe food intake and weight gain in pigs and ... The major motivation for using orthogonal functions to estimate additive ...

  19. Microsatellite markers associated with body and carcass weights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... 2Department of Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza 12613, ..... breast muscle weight in meat-type chicken lines divergently selected ... Comparion of a modern broiler line and a heritage line unselected.

  20. Testicular development and relationship between body weight, testis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... INTRODUCTION. A major determinant of the reproductive performance of ... testis weight as one of the indices in selecting high quality breeding ... equipment (AV and collection bottles) as described by Swierstra and Rahnfeld ...

  1. Effects of canagliflozin on body weight and body composition in patients with type 2 diabetes over 104 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonde, Lawrence; Stenlöf, Kaj; Fung, Albert; Xie, John; Canovatchel, William; Meininger, Gary

    2016-05-01

    Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has been associated with weight loss in a broad range of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This analysis further evaluated changes in body weight and composition with canagliflozin in two 104-week, Phase 3 studies. In Study 1, patients aged 18-80 years (N = 1,450) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or glimepiride as add-on to metformin for a 52-week core treatment period, followed by a 52-week extension period. In Study 2, patients aged 55-80 years (N = 714) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or placebo added to stable background antihyperglycemic agents for a 26-week core treatment period, followed by a 78-week extension period. Percent change from baseline in body weight; proportion of patients with any weight loss, ≥5% weight loss, and ≥10% weight loss; change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference; change in body weight across weight-loss quartiles; and changes in body composition were evaluated in both studies. Canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided sustained weight loss versus either glimepiride or placebo over 104 weeks. More patients experienced any weight loss and ≥5% weight loss with canagliflozin versus comparator. Across the 3 highest weight-loss quartiles, canagliflozin provided greater weight loss versus glimepiride or placebo. BMI and waist circumference reductions were observed with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus either glimepiride or placebo over 104 weeks; more patients had BMI or waist circumference reductions with canagliflozin versus comparator. Body composition analysis indicated that the majority of weight loss was due to loss of fat mass. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated, with increased incidence of adverse events related to the SGLT2 inhibition mechanism. Canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided sustained reductions in body weight, BMI, and waist circumference in a greater proportion of patients with T2DM versus

  2. Generalized weighted ratio method for accurate turbidity measurement over a wide range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Ping; Song, Hong; Guo, Yilu; Zhan, Shuyue; Huang, Hui; Wang, Hangzhou; Tao, Bangyi; Mu, Quanquan; Xu, Jing; Li, Dejun; Chen, Ying

    2015-12-14

    Turbidity measurement is important for water quality assessment, food safety, medicine, ocean monitoring, etc. In this paper, a method that accurately estimates the turbidity over a wide range is proposed, where the turbidity of the sample is represented as a weighted ratio of the scattered light intensities at a series of angles. An improvement in the accuracy is achieved by expanding the structure of the ratio function, thus adding more flexibility to the turbidity-intensity fitting. Experiments have been carried out with an 850 nm laser and a power meter fixed on a turntable to measure the light intensity at different angles. The results show that the relative estimation error of the proposed method is 0.58% on average for a four-angle intensity combination for all test samples with a turbidity ranging from 160 NTU to 4000 NTU.

  3. [Relationship between body weight status in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age in adults and type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Long; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Ying; Guo, Min; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-03-01

    To explore the relationship between weight status in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age in adults and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The data of 14 population samples from China Multicenter Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology conducted in 1998 were used. Approximately 1 000 men and women in each sample were surveyed for cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body weight at age 25 years. The body mass index (BMI) at the age 25 years was calculated. The association between body weight in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age and T2DM was examined by using logistic regression model. The incidence of T2DM in low weight group (BMIweight group (BMI: 18.5-23.9 kg/m(2)), overweight group (BMI: 24.0-27.9 kg/m(2)) and obese group (BMI:≥28.0 kg/m(2)) at 25 years old were 2.4%(30/1263), 2.8%(266/9562), 4.0%(70/1739) and 6.4% (7/110), respectively (P value for trendincidence of T2DM for adults with weight change 12.5 kg at middle age were 2.5% (18/712), 1.3%(21/1629), 2.1%(48/2330), 2.3%(59/2585), 3.7%(94/2518), and 4.6% (133/2900) respectively. (P value for trend weight gain were positively correlated with T2DM after adjusted other risk factors (all P values for trend weight gain at middle age were both independently associated with the increased risk of T2DM in middle-aged men and women.

  4. Physical Activity Plays an Important Role in Body Weight Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Chaput

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging literature highlights the need to incorporate physical activity into every strategy intended to prevent weight gain as well as to maintain weight loss over time. Furthermore, physical activity should be part of any plan to lose weight. The stimulus of exercise provides valuable metabolic adaptations that improve energy and macronutrient balance regulation. A tight coupling between energy intake and energy expenditure has been documented at high levels of physical exercise, suggesting that exercise may improve appetite control. The regular practice of physical activity has also been reported to reduce the risk of stress-induced weight gain. A more personalized approach is recommended when planning exercise programs in a clinical weight loss setting in order to limit the compensatory changes associated to exercise-induced weight loss. With modern environment promoting overeating and sedentary behavior, there is an urgent need for a concerted action including legislative measures to promote healthy active living in order to curb the current epidemic of chronic diseases.

  5. Chili pepper as a body weight-loss food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Sharon; Kubatka, Peter; Rodrigo, Luis; Gazdikova, Katarina; Caprnda, Martin; Fedotova, Julia; Zulli, Anthony; Kruzliak, Peter; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2017-06-01

    Chili has culinary as well as medical importance. Studies in humans, using a wide range of doses of chili intake (varying from a single meal to a continuous uptake for up to 12 weeks), concluded that it facilitates weight loss. In regard to this, the main targets of chili are fat metabolism, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis. To induce weight loss, the active substance of chili, capsaicin, activates Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel sub-family V member 1 (TRPV1) channels) receptors causing an increase in intracellular calcium levels and triggering the sympathetic nervous system. Apart from TRPV1, chili directly reduces energy expenditure by activating Brown Adipose Tissue. Weight loss by chili is also the result of an improved control of insulin, which supports weight management and has positive effects for treatment for diseases like obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review summarizes the major pathways by which chili contributes to ameliorating parameters that help weight management and how the consumption of chili can help in accelerating weight loss through dietary modifications.

  6. Effect of Herbal Immunodulator on Body weight gain in immunosuppressed broiler birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Mode

    Full Text Available The herbal immunomodulator was evaluated in immunosupressed broiler birds in terms of body weight gain. The treatment with Ocimum sanctum and Emblica officinalis @ 3 gm /kg feed for 2 weeks were found to be effective immunomodulator in increasing body weight gain in broiler birds. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 269-270

  7. Weight information labels on media models reduce body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Seidell, Jacob C

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine how weight information labels on variously sized media models affect (pre)adolescent girls' body perceptions and how they compare themselves with media models. METHODS: We used a three (body shape: extremely thin vs. thin vs. normal weight) × three (information label: 6-kg

  8. Effects of body weight and condition changes after parturition on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean weight loss for Friesians from calving to commencement of luteal activity was 0.45 kg/day while that of Sahiwals was 0.64 kg/day. The relative weight loss was 6 and 7% for Friesians and Sahiwals respectively. The mean body condition loss for the two breeds showed Sahiwals lost less body condition at ...

  9. Weights and linear measurements of the body and some organs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The absolute weights of the body, heart, kidneys, spleen, pancreas, liver, gonads, digestive tract and adrenal glands, as well as the absolute linear measurements of the body, digestive tract and oviduct were determined in adult female and male African white-bellied tree pangolins. The relative weights, relative lengths and ...

  10. Effects of chronic restraint stress on body weight, food intake, and hypothalamic gene expressions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joo Yeon; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sang Soo

    2013-12-01

    Stress affects body weight and food intake, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We evaluated the changes in body weight and food intake of ICR male mice subjected to daily 2 hours restraint stress for 15 days. Hypothalamic gene expression profiling was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Daily body weight and food intake measurements revealed that both parameters decreased rapidly after initiating daily restraint stress. Body weights of stressed mice then remained significantly lower than the control body weights, even though food intake slowly recovered to 90% of the control intake at the end of the experiment. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that chronic restraint stress affects the expression of hypothalamic genes possibly related to body weight control. Since decreases of daily food intake and body weight were remarkable in days 1 to 4 of restraint, we examined the expression of food intake-related genes in the hypothalamus. During these periods, the expressions of ghrelin and pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA were significantly changed in mice undergoing restraint stress. Moreover, daily serum corticosterone levels gradually increased, while leptin levels significantly decreased. The present study demonstrates that restraint stress affects body weight and food intake by initially modifying canonical food intake-related genes and then later modifying other genes involved in energy metabolism. These genetic changes appear to be mediated, at least in part, by corticosterone.

  11. Body Weight, Self-Esteem, and Depression in Korean Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oksoo; Kim, Kyeha

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether body mass index (BMI) and perception of a body weight problem predict level of self esteem and depression in Korean female adolescents. Results showed that perception of a weight problem, but not BMI, contributed significantly to the prediction of level of self esteem and depression. (BF)

  12. ZResponse to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-03-01

    To quantify the response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei, the body weight (BW), total length (TL), body length (BL), first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD), first abdominal segment width (FASW), and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspnng were measured by calculating seven body measunngs of offspnng produced by a nested mating design. Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L. vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire, and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis. The results show that hentabilities among vanous traits were high: 0.515±0.030 for body weight and 0.394±0.030 for total length. After one generation of selection. the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth. In the 5th month, the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspnng generation. Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable. The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied dunng breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly, simultaneously with increased production.

  13. Body weight as an indicator of fat-free mass in active elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonati, Jaqueline G; Modeneze, Dênis M; Vilarta, Roberto; Maciel, Erika S; Boccaletto, Estela M A

    2011-04-01

    Fat-free mass (FFM) reduction and the tendency for a reduction in surrounding fatty issue and increase in the middle are a natural consequence of growing old and should be studied in order to gain a better understanding of the aging process. This study set out to find the FFM differences between active elderly women in two age groups (60-69 and 70-80 years) and to determine which of the anthropometric measurements, body weight (BW), abdominal circumference (AC), or body mass index (BMI) are the best predictors of FFM variation within the group. Eighty-one (n=81) active elderly women of the Third Age willingly signed up to participate in the research during the activities at the University of the Third Age (UTA) in Brazil. The research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medical Sciences of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP). Body weight (BW), height (H) and the BMI were measured according to the international standards. The AC was measured in centimetres at the H of the navel and body composition was ascertained using bioimpedance analysis. The SAS program was used to perform the statistical analysis of independent samples and parametric data. The results showed FFM values with significant differences between the two groups, with the lowest values occurring among the women who were over 70 years of age. In the analysis, the Pearson's Correlation Coefficient for each measured independent variable was ascertained, with the BW measurement showing the highest ratio (0.900). The BW measurement was regarded as reliable, low-cost and easy to use for monitoring FFM in elderly women who engage in physical activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genomewide association study of body weight traits in Baluchi sheep

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    assisted selection (MAS) and gene-based selection in sheep breeding strategies. ... control criteria (genotyping frequency >95%, minor allele frequency >0.05 and .... of roles in the body: food digestion, regulation of other proteins and ...

  15. Cocaine's appetite for fat and the consequences on body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billing, Lawrence; Ersche, Karen D

    2015-03-01

    For many individuals in treatment for cocaine dependence, weight gain is a substantial problem during recovery. This weight gain causes significant distress and seems to increase the risk of relapse. The mechanisms underlying cocaine's effects on weight remain elusive. It is widely assumed that this weight gain reflects a metabolic or behavioural compensatory response to the cessation of cocaine use. Here we challenge this assumption and outline potential mechanisms by which chronic cocaine use produces disturbances in the regulation of fat intake and storage, through its effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, specifically the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesize that the cocaine-induced alteration in fat regulation results in cocaine users developing a pronounced appetite for fatty food but keeps their fat mass low. This altered fat appetite subsequently leads to excessive weight gain when individuals enter treatment and stop using cocaine. Our aim is to shed light on the neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie the alterations in eating and fat regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals, to open up potential new avenues to support these individuals in recovery.

  16. Modification of Hidden Layer Weight in Extreme Learning Machine Using Gain Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggraeny Fetty Tri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme Learning Machine (ELM is a method of learning feed forward neural network quickly and has a fairly good accuracy. This method is devoted to a feed forward neural network with one hidden layer where the parameters (i.e. weight and bias are adjusted one time randomly at the beginning of the learning process. In neural network, the input layer is connected to all characteristics/features, and the output layer is connected to all classes of species. This research used three datasets from UCI database, which were Iris, Breast Wisconsin, and Dermatology, with each dataset having several features. Each characteristic/feature of the data has a role in the process of classification levels, starting from the most influencing role to non-influencing at all. Gain ratio was used to extract each feature role on each datasets. Gain ratio is a method to extract feature role in order to develop a decision tree structure. In this study, ELM structure has been modified, where the random weights of the hidden layer were adjusted to the level of each feature role in determining the species class, so as to improve the level of training and testing accuracy. The proposed method has higher classification accuracy rate than basic ELM on all three datasets, which were 99%, 96%, and 82%, respectively.

  17. Variance Component Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Body Weight Traits in Purebred Korean Native Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Cahyadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative trait locus (QTL is a particular region of the genome containing one or more genes associated with economically important quantitative traits. This study was conducted to identify QTL regions for body weight and growth traits in purebred Korean native chicken (KNC. F1 samples (n = 595 were genotyped using 127 microsatellite markers and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms that covered 2,616.1 centi Morgan (cM of map length for 26 autosomal linkage groups. Body weight traits were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 20 weeks of age. Weight of half carcass was also collected together with growth rate. A multipoint variance component linkage approach was used to identify QTLs for the body weight traits. Two significant QTLs for growth were identified on chicken chromosome 3 (GGA3 for growth 16 to18 weeks (logarithm of the odds [LOD] = 3.24, Nominal p value = 0.0001 and GGA4 for growth 6 to 8 weeks (LOD = 2.88, Nominal p value = 0.0003. Additionally, one significant QTL and three suggestive QTLs were detected for body weight traits in KNC; significant QTL for body weight at 4 weeks (LOD = 2.52, nominal p value = 0.0007 and suggestive QTL for 8 weeks (LOD = 1.96, Nominal p value = 0.0027 were detected on GGA4; QTLs were also detected for two different body weight traits: body weight at 16 weeks on GGA3 and body weight at 18 weeks on GGA19. Additionally, two suggestive QTLs for carcass weight were detected at 0 and 70 cM on GGA19. In conclusion, the current study identified several significant and suggestive QTLs that affect growth related traits in a unique resource pedigree in purebred KNC. This information will contribute to improving the body weight traits in native chicken breeds, especially for the Asian native chicken breeds.

  18. Comparison of body weight-supported treadmill training versus body weight-supported overground training in people with incomplete tetraplegia: a pilot randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilvelkumar, Thangavelu; Magimairaj, Henry; Fletcher, Jebaraj; Tharion, George; George, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of body weight-supported treadmill training and body weight-supported overground training for improving gait and strength in people with traumatic incomplete tetraplegia. Assessor blinded randomized trial. Rehabilitation institute of a tertiary care teaching hospital in India. Sixteen participants with traumatic motor incomplete tetraplegia and within two years of injury. Participants were randomised to one of two groups: body weight-supported overground training on level ground and body weight-supported treadmill training. Both groups received 30 minutes of gait training per day, five days a week for eight weeks. In addition, both groups received regular rehabilitation which included flexibility, strength, balance, self care and functional training. The primary outcome measure was the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (/20 points) and the secondary outcome was the Lower Extremity Muscle Score (/50 points). There was no statistically significant between group differences in the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury [mean difference=0.3points; 95% CI (-4.8 to 5.4); p=0.748] or the Lower Extremity Muscle Score [mean difference=0.2 points; 95% CI (-3.8 to 5.1); p=0.749]. Gait training with body weight-supported overground training is comparable to treadmill training for improving locomotion in people with traumatic incomplete tetraplegia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Seasonal fluctuations in body weight during growth of Thoroughbred racehorses during their athletic career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuji; Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2017-08-18

    Domesticated horses adapt to environmental conditions through seasonal fluctuations in their metabolic rate. The seasonal change of metabolic rates of domesticated horses in pastures is documented. However, there are few investigations on seasonal body weight change of domesticated horses housed in stables, which are provided constant energy intake throughout the year. Both seasonal changes and gain in body weight of racehorses during their athletic career is known to a lesser extent because their body weight are not measured in most countries. Here, we used a seasonal-trend decomposition method to conduct a time series analysis of body weight of Thoroughbred racehorses participating in flat races held by the Japan Racing Association from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2014. We acquired 640,431 body weight measurements for race starts and included 632,540 of these in the time series analysis. Based on seasonal component analysis, the body weight of male and gelding horses peaked in autumn and winter and reached its nadir in summer. In contrast, the body weight of female horses peaked in autumn and reached the nadir in spring. Based on trend component analysis, most of the increase in body weight was observed when all sexes approached 5 years of age. The slope of the body weight gain was smaller after that, and an approximately 30 kg gain was observed during their careers. These results indicate that the body weight of a Thoroughbred racehorse fluctuates seasonally, and that there may be sex differences in energy balance mechanisms. Moreover, the present results suggest that the physiological development of Thoroughbred racehorses is completed just before they reach 5 years of age.

  20. Estimation of genetic parameters for body weight at different ages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... and yearling weight (YW, n = 1450) of Mehraban sheep, collected during 1995 - 2007 at Mehraban sheep. Breeding Station in Hamedan ... Key words: Mehraban sheep, heritability, genetic correlation, body weight traits. ..... parameters and genetic change for reproduction, weight, and wool characteristic of ...

  1. Body Weight Determination from Foot Outline Length among the Iban Population in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairunnisa Bt Mohd Anas K

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Foot impressions form a valuable physical evidence to solve crime. Foot impression measurements provide valuable information in estimating stature, weight, gender and age in crime scene investigation. In Asian countries, many people living in rural places walk without footwear. The aim of this research is to generate regression equations to determine living body weight from foot outline length among the Iban population of Malaysia. The study involved 200 (100 males, 100 females adult Ibans, mostly living in Sarawak, a state in   Malaysia. Following the standard procedure, the foot outlines were collected followed by body weight measurements and were recorded for analysis. The collected data were analysed with PASW 20 computer software. The correlation coefficient (R between the foot outline lengths and body weight was determined for males, females and pooled sample. Based on the foot outline and body weight, 30 regression equations were generated, 10 for males, 10 for females and 10 for pooled samples/unknown gender. The correlation coefficient (R values were positive and statistically significant. It is concluded that the present investigation provided regression equations to determine body weight from foot outline anthropometry. These equations can be used to determine body weight even when partial foot impressions are available at crime scenes.   Keywords: Forensic Science, Body Weight, Foot Outline, Iban Population, Malaysia

  2. Obesity, Body Image, Depression, and Weight-control Behaviour Among Female University Students in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Eun Mi; Choi, Seung Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become epidemic worldwide and 31.0% of Korean adults are obese. Obesity is the main cause of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, and cancer. The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour with respect to obesity. Methods: This study examined obesity, body ima...

  3. Hispanic maternal influences on daughters' unhealthy weight control behaviors: The role of maternal acculturation, adiposity, and body image disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Norma; Matthews-Ewald, Molly R; McCarley, Kendall; Scherer, Rhonda; Posada, Alexandria

    2016-12-01

    This study examined whether maternal adiposity, acculturation, and perceived-ideal body size discrepancy for daughters were associated with daughters' engagement in unhealthy weight control behaviors. A total of 97 Hispanic mother-daughter dyads completed surveys, rated a figure scale, and had their height, weight, and adiposity assessed. Mothers (M age =39.00, SD=6.20 years) selected larger ideal body sizes for their daughters (M age =11.12, SD=1.53 years) than their daughters selected for themselves. Mothers had a smaller difference between their perception of their daughters' body size and ideal body size compared to the difference between their daughters' selection of their perceived and ideal body size. More acculturated mothers and those mothers with larger waist-to-hip ratios were more likely to have daughters who engaged in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These findings highlight the relevant role that maternal acculturation and adiposity may have in influencing daughters' unhealthy weight control behaviors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Maternal weight and body composition in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on weight gain in pregnancy suggested that maternal weight on average increased by 0.5-2.0 kg in the first trimester of pregnancy. This study examined whether mean maternal weight or body composition changes in the first trimester of pregnancy. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. POPULATION: We studied 1,000 Caucasian women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. SETTING: Large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Maternal height and weight were measured digitally in a standardized way and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Maternal body composition was measured using segmental multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA). Sonographic examination confirmed the gestational age and a normal ongoing singleton pregnancy in all subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal weight, maternal body composition. RESULTS: The mean BMI was 25.7 kg\\/m(2) and 19.0% of the women were in the obese category (> or =30.0 kg\\/m(2)). Cross-sectional analysis by gestational age showed that there was no change in mean maternal weight, BMI, total body water, fat mass, fat-free mass or bone mass before 14 weeks gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, mean maternal weight and mean body composition values remain unchanged in the first trimester of pregnancy. This has implications for guidelines on maternal weight gain during pregnancy. We also recommend that calculation of BMI in pregnancy and gestational weight gain should be based on accurate early pregnancy measurements, and not on self-reported or prepregnancy measurements.

  5. Associations among body condition score, body weight, and reproductive performance in seasonal-calving dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Macdonald, K A; Burke, C R; Lee, J M; Berry, D P

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify and quantify relationships between body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in dairy cows with reproduction variables in pasture-based, seasonal-calving dairy herds. Over 2,500 lactation records from 897 spring-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in the analyses. Eleven BCS- and 11 BW-related variables were generated, including observations at calving, nadir, planned start of mating (PSM), and first service, as well as days to nadir and the amount and rate of change between periods. The binary reproductive variables were cycling by PSM, mated in the first 21 d from PSM, pregnant to first service, and pregnant in the first 21, 42, and 84 d of the seasonal mating period. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify BCS and BW variables that significantly affected the probability of a successful reproductive outcome. After adjusting for the fixed effect of year of calving, parity (for cycling by PSM only), and the interval from calving to either first service or PSM, reproductive performance was found to be significantly affected by BW or BCS at key points, and by BCS and BW change during lactation. All reproductive response measures were negatively affected when BCS and BW measures indicated an increased severity and duration of the postpartum negative energy balance. In particular, cycling by PSM was positively associated with calving BCS, whereas pregnancy at 21, 42, and 84 d post-PSM were positively associated with nadir BCS and BW gain post-PSM, and negatively associated with BCS loss between calving and nadir. The results highlight the important role that BCS and BW loss has on reproductive performance, especially in seasonal-calving dairy systems because of the short period between calving and PSM.

  6. Body Weight and Matching with a Physically Attractive Romantic Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, Julie H.; Cawley, John; Joyner, Kara; Sobal, Jeffery

    2008-01-01

    Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage…

  7. Body Mass Index and self perceptions of weight status among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Overweight/obesity is on the rise in developing countries, especially in urban areas. Although overweight/obesity is one of the leading preventable causes of death less is known about the prevalence of obesity and the perceptions about weight among patients attending healthcare facilities. Previous studies ...

  8. Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…

  9. Weight, body composition and handgrip strength among pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praygod, George; Range, Nyagosya; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate deficits in weight, arm fat area (AFA), arm muscle area (AMA) and handgrip strength among smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB+) patients starting treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional study among PTB+ patients and age- and sex-matched neighborhood controls. HIV statu...

  10. Body Fat Distribution Ratios and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity in Youth With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksman, Amy; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Barrowman, Nicholas; Walker, Scott; Hoey, Lynda; Katz, Sherri Lynne

    2017-04-15

    Obesity and regional fat distribution, measured by neck fat mass percentage using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), correlate with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity in adults. In obese children, neck-to-waist-circumference ratio predicts OSA. This study examined associations between body fat percentage and distribution and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) severity in obese youth, measured with DXA. Cross-sectional retrospective study conducted at a tertiary children's hospital. Participants were aged 6 to 18 years with obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 99th percentile [BMI z-score 2.35] or > 95th percentile with comorbidity). They underwent polysomnography and DXA to quantify body fat percentage and distribution ratios (neck-to-abdominal fat percentage [NAF % ratio]). SDB was defined as apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 5 and OSA as obstructive AHI (OAHI) > 1 event/h. Relationships of BMI z-score and NAF % ratio to log AHI and log OAHI were evaluated. Thirty individuals participated; 18 male; median age 14.1 years. Twenty-four individuals had BMI z-scores > 2.35. Ten had AHI > 5 events/h. NAF % ratio was significantly associated with log AHI in males and with log OAHI in all, whereas total fat mass percent was not. The association between log OAHI and NAF % ratio was significant in males, but not females. NAF % ratio was significantly associated with log OAHI in those with BMI z-score above 2.35. NAF % ratio was associated with OSA severity in males and youth with BMI > 99th percentile; however, total fat mass percentage was not, suggesting that body fat distribution is associated with OSA risk in youth. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  11. Differences in sexual size dimorphism among farmed tilapia species and strains undergoing genetic improvement for body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Lind

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many tilapia (Oreochromis spp. farmers produce all-male populations because of the superior growth rate of males compared to females. To investigate differences in body weight at harvest of males and females among different tilapia strains, we analyzed data from 62,787 individuals collected from pedigreed breeding programs of O. niloticus (GIFT from Malaysia, the Abbassa line from Egypt, and the Akosombo line from Ghana, O. shiranus (the Bunda College-Domasi selection line, O. aureus (a selection line under development in Abbassa, Egypt, and a selection line from Israel and a synthetic selection line of Red tilapia under development in Jitra, Malaysia, derived from stock from Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand (O. sp.. Mixed models were separately fitted to the data from each selection line. There was a significant sex effect in all strains (P < 0.001. A significant (P < 0.001 sex by generation interaction was observed in all strains (scale effect, not reversal of rankings, except Red tilapia and O. shiranus. Least squares means showed a large range in the magnitude of body weight differences between sexes across the seven strains. The largest percentage difference between females and males was in O. aureus from Egypt (female body weight was 52.2% that of males at harvest, whereas the smallest difference was observed in the GIFT strain of O. niloticus (female body weight 84.7% that of males. Female to male body weight percentages for Red tilapia, O. shiranus, Egypt O. niloticus, Israeli O. aureus and Ghana O. niloticus were 81.3, 81.0, 69.1, 61.7 and 61.0, respectively. We discuss the results in relation to the potential productivity improvements due to superior growth rates of all-male culture compared to mixed-sex culture in tilapia populations differing in the female to male body weight ratio.

  12. Body Satisfaction, Weight Gain, and Binge Eating Among Overweight Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Haines, Jess; Austin, S. Bryn; Field, Alison E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine if body satisfaction is associated with body mass index (BMI) change and whether it protects against the development of frequent binge eating among overweight and obese adolescent girls. Methods We used prospective data from 9 waves of an ongoing cohort study of adolescents, the Growing Up Today Study. At enrollment in 1996, participants were 9 to 14 years old. Questionnaires were mailed to participants annually until 2001, then biennially through 2007. Girls who were overweight or obese in 1996 were included in the analysis (n=1 559). Our outcomes were annual change in BMI and incident frequent binge eating, defined as binge eating at least weekly and no use of compensatory behaviors. Results At baseline, 57.2% of the overweight and obese girls were at least somewhat satisfied with their bodies. During 11 years of follow-up, 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) [7.8, 10.8]) of the girls started to binge eat frequently. Controlling for BMI and other confounders, overweight and obese girls who reported being at least somewhat satisfied with their bodies made smaller BMI gains (β=−0.10 kg/m2, 95% CI [−0.19, −0.02]) and had 61% lower odds of starting to binge eat frequently (odds ratio (OR)=0.39, 95% CI [0.24, 0.64]) than their less satisfied peers. Compared to girls who were the least satisfied with their bodies, girls who were the most satisfied had 85% lower odds of starting to binge eat frequently (OR=0.15, 95% CI [0.06, 0.37]). The association between body satisfaction and starting to binge eat frequently was stronger for younger adolescents than older adolescents. Conclusions While body dissatisfaction is common among overweight and obese girls, body satisfaction may protect against excessive weight gain and binge eating. Prevention of body dissatisfaction must begin early and should be considered as a component of both obesity and eating disorder prevention programs. PMID:22565419

  13. Body Size Perceptions and Weight Status of Adults in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mass index (BMI) (25–26.9 kg/m2): About 50% of men and. 30% of women. ... body weight perception of adults in the Nigerian rural community. A large ... [7] Blacks were more satisfied with their body .... Differences between self and people perceptions were ..... body image in accordance with reigning values, which equate.

  14. An attitude of gratitude: The effects of body-focused gratitude on weight bias internalization and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaev, Jamie; Markey, Charlotte H; Brochu, Paula M

    2018-06-01

    Internalized weight bias and body dissatisfaction are associated with a number of negative psychological and physical health outcomes. The current study examined the effectiveness of body-focused gratitude, through a short writing exercise, as a strategy to reduce internalized weight bias and improve body image. Young adults (M age  = 22.71, SD = 2.08, 51.2% female) were randomly assigned to either a body gratitude condition (n = 185) or a control condition (n = 184). Results indicated that participants in the gratitude condition reported significantly lower weight bias internalization and significantly more favorable appearance evaluation and greater body satisfaction when compared to the control condition. These effects were in the small range (ds = 0.27-0.33), and neither gender nor BMI moderated these effects. These findings provide preliminary support for body-focused gratitude writing exercises as an effective individual-level strategy for both reducing internalized weight bias and improving body image. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Overestimation of own body weights in female university students: associations with lifestyles, weight control behaviors and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Miso; Lee, Hongmie

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the lifestyles, weight control behavior, dietary habits, and depression of female university students. The subjects were 532 students from 8 universities located in 4 provinces in Korea. According to percent ideal body weight, 33 (6.4%), 181 (34.0%), 283 (53.2%), 22 (4.1%) and 13 (2.5%) were severely underweight, underweight, normal, overweight and obese, respectively, based on self-reported height and weight. As much as 64.1% and only 2.4%, respectively, overestima...

  16. Mind-Body Practice and Body Weight Status in a Large Population-Based Sample of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Géraldine M; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-04-01

    In industrialized countries characterized by a high prevalence of obesity and chronic stress, mind-body practices such as yoga or meditation may facilitate body weight control. However, virtually no data are available to ascertain whether practicing mind-body techniques is associated with weight status. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the practice of mind-body techniques and weight status in a large population-based sample of adults. A total of 61,704 individuals aged ≥18 years participating in the NutriNet-Santé study (2009-2014) were included in this cross-sectional analysis conducted in 2014. Data on mind-body practices were collected, as well as self-reported weight and height. The association between the practice of mind-body techniques and weight status was assessed using multiple linear and multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. After adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, regular users of mind-body techniques were less likely to be overweight (OR=0.68, 95% CI=0.63, 0.74) or obese (OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.50, 0.61) than never users. In addition, regular users had a lower BMI than never users (-3.19%, 95% CI=-3.71, -2.68). These data provide novel information about an inverse relationship between mind-body practice and weight status. If causal links were demonstrated in further prospective studies, such practice could be fostered in obesity prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Simplified derivation of stopping power ratio in the human body from dual-energy CT data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masatoshi; Sagara, Shota

    2017-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to propose an alternative parameterization for the empirical relation between mean excitation energies (I-value) and effective atomic numbers (Z eff ) of human tissues, and to present a simplified formulation (which we called DEEDZ-SPR) for deriving the stopping power ratio (SPR) from dual-energy (DE) CT data via electron density (ρ e ) and Z eff calibration. We performed a numerical analysis of this DEEDZ-SPR method for the human-body-equivalent tissues of ICRU Report 46, as objects of interest with unknown SPR and ρ e . The attenuation coefficients of these materials were calculated using the XCOM photon cross-sections database. We also applied the DEEDZ-SPR conversion to experimental DECT data available in the literature, which was measured for the tissue-characterization phantom using a dual-source CT scanner at 80 kV and 140 kV/Sn. It was found that the DEEDZ-SPR conversion enables the calculation of SPR simply by means of the weighted subtraction of an electron-density image and a low- or high-kV CT image. The simulated SPRs were in excellent agreement with the reference values over the SPR range from 0.258 (lung) to 3.638 (bone mineral-hydroxyapatite). The relative deviations from the reference SPR were within ±0.6% for all ICRU-46 human tissues, except for the thyroid that presented a -1.1% deviation. The overall root-mean-square error was 0.21%. Application to experimental DECT data confirmed this agreement within the experimental accuracy, which demonstrates the practical feasibility of the method. The DEEDZ-SPR conversion method could facilitate the construction of SPR images as accurately as a recent DECT-based calibration procedure of SPR parameterization based directly on the CT numbers in a DECT data set. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. Depressed Mood and Body Weight: Exploring Race Differences in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Christie-Mizell, C. Andre

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 1994-1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged Mother and Young Adult file, this article examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in adolescence. The authors also examine whether this relationship varies by race and gender. Their findings indicate that over a 4-year…

  19. Relationship of testicular development with age, body weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to measure the development of several testicular characteristics and to investigate the relationship between testicular parameters with body growth, semen characteristics and serum testosterone levels in growing ram lambs. Seventeen single born Kivircik ram lambs from three to four year old ewes ...

  20. Exercise affects body composition but not weight in postmenopausal women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Monninkhof, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month moderate-to-vigorous exercise program combining aerobic and muscle strength training on body composition among sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 189 sedentary

  1. False consensus effect for attitudes related to body shape in normal weight women concerned with body shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, S L; Williamson, D A; Martin, C K

    2002-06-01

    This study investigated the presence of the False Consensus Effect (FCE) with body and shape-related attitudes in 30 normal weight women who scored high or low on a measure of concern with body shape. The participants were asked to rate depressive, positive, neutral, and body shape self-statements for relevance to self and to others. They also estimated the percentage of individuals that would agree with each attitudinal statement. Women with high body shape concerns rated themselves and others as significantly more likely to agree with the statements expressing such concerns than those with low concerns. They also believed that a significantly higher percentage of others would favor those attitudes. This pattern of findings is supportive of the presence of a FCE in normal weight women preoccupied with body shape and size.

  2. Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia-In; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7-12. The body mass index (BMI) of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity) and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem) were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  3. Accuracy of body image perception and preferred weight loss strategies in schizophrenia: a controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, C; Meyer, J M; Leckband, S G

    2008-02-01

    Obesity in severely mentally ill (SMI) populations is an increasing problem, but there is no controlled data regarding the relationship between SMI and weight perception. Fifty patients with schizophrenia and 50 demographically matched control participants were recruited. Weight, height, and body image accuracy were assessed for all participants, and assessments of mood, psychotic symptom severity and anxiety, and preferred modes of weight loss were assessed for the schizophrenia sample. Patients with schizophrenia were significantly more likely to be obese than controls (46% vs. 18%, P < 0.005), and most patients expressed an interest in losing weight. Obese participants with schizophrenia underestimated their body size (11.0%) more than controls (4.9%) (P < 0.05). Patients with schizophrenia are more likely to underestimate their body size, independent of the effects of obesity. However, they also express concern about weight issues and willingness to participate in psychoeducational groups targeted at weight loss.

  4. The Relationship of Body Length and Ratio Pappilla with Sex in Gobi Fish (Sicyopterus macrostetholepis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rona Taula Sari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Research about the relationship of body length and ratio papilla with sex in goby fish (S. macrostetholepis Blkr. has been done at Animal Structure and Developmental Laboratory, Biologi Department, Faculty of Matematics and Natural Sciences, Andalas University, Padang, which purposed to analyse the relationship of body length and ratio papilla with sex of goby fish (S. macrostetholepis Blkr.. The samples were taken in wild stream area at Batangkuranji river, Padang City. This research used descriptive method and data were analyzed by qualitatively and quantitatively. The results of investigation showed that in several goby fishes (S. macrostetholepis Blkr. with different sex had the same of body length and the same of ratio papilla. So, there was not relationship between of body length and ratio papilla with sex.  Goby fishes (S. macrostetholepis Blkr. it belongs to the hermaphrodite protogini, which the androgynous young females, while in adulthood, it would change sex to male. The results of this study are expected to add to the treasures of knowledge and information about reproductive gobies (S. macrostetholepis Blkr. in the preservation and development of fish farming.   

  5. Lee-side flow structures of very low aspect ratio cruciform wing–body configurations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tuling, S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A numerical and experimental investigation was performed to study the dominant flow structures in the lee side of a cruciform wing–body configuration at supersonic speeds in the + orientation. The wings or strakes are of very low aspect ratio...

  6. The relationship between vertical cup‑disc ratio and body mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the relationship between vertical cup disc ratio (VCDR) and body mass index (BMI) in a population screened for glaucoma in Port Harcourt, Nigeria Materials and Method: This study was part of a one-day screening exercise for glaucoma at the University of Port Harcourt. Demographic data included age, ...

  7. Influence of Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Lifestyle Behaviors on Plasma Adipokines: A Randomized Weight Loss Trial in Older Men and Women with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate effects of weight loss on adipokines and health measures in obese older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to either weight loss (WL (men: 12, women: 14 or weight stable (WS group (men: 12, women: 13. WL intervention included meal replacements and structured exercise training. Measurements of leptin, adiponectin, soluble leptin receptor, lifestyle behaviors, and body composition were collected at baseline and 6 months. Univariate analysis of covariance was performed on 6 month variables, and Spearman and partial correlations were made between variables. Results. Weight loss was 13.0% and 6.7% in WL for men and women, respectively. Women in WL had lower whole body and trunk fat than WS. The leptin : adiponectin ratio was lower for women in WL than WS at 6 months, with no group differences in adipokines for men. Leptin and free leptin index correlated with body fat in both genders at baseline. Interestingly, only women showed reductions in leptin (P<0.100 and correlations between the percentage change leptin and trunk fat and the percentage changes in free leptin index with total fat and trunk fat. Partial correlations between 6 month adipokines after adjustments for covariates and group/time period show potential multivariate influences. Conclusions. In the presence of an effective weight loss intervention in older obese adults, there are significant relationships between weight and fat loss and leptin in women, but not men, suggesting gender-specific features of adipokine metabolism in this age group.

  8. The effect of the holiday season on body weight and composition in college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Casey N

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapid increase in obesity rates, determining critical periods for weight gain and the effects of changes in fat mass is imperative. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in body weight and composition over the holiday season (Thanksgiving through New Year's in male and female college students. Methods Subjects completed three visits: the first occurred within 2 weeks prior to Thanksgiving, the second occurred within 5 to 7 days following Thanksgiving, and the third occurred within 10 days following New Year's Day. A total of 82 healthy male and female college age subjects participated. Body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was assessed at visits 1 and 3 while body weight was assessed at all three visits. Results Average body weight remained relatively unchanged from pre-Thanksgiving to post-New Year's (71.3 ± 14 kg vs. 71.2 ± 15 kg; P = 0.71 and, in fact, a subset of normal weight subjects lost a significant amount of body weight. However, percent body fat (25.9 ± 9 %fat vs. 27.0 ± 9 %fat; P P P = 0.08 was not significantly different than the post-New Year's. A significant positive relationship (P P Conclusion Despite the fact that body weight remained unchanged over the course of the holiday season, a significant increase in %body fat and fat mass was observed. With recent evidence showing marked morbidity and mortality to be associated with increased body fat (particularly abdominal adiposity, results from this study suggest body weight alone may underestimate the potentially deleterious effects of the holiday season.

  9. Use of a Bayesian hierarchical model to study the allometric scaling of the fetoplacental weight ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Ernesto Castro Morales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to propose the use of a Bayesian hierarchical model to study the allometric scaling of the fetoplacental weight ratio, including possible confounders. Methods: data from 26 singleton pregnancies with gestational age at birth between 37 and 42 weeks were analyzed. The placentas were collected immediately after delivery and stored under refrigeration until the time of analysis, which occurred within up to 12 hours. Maternal data were collected from medical records. A Bayesian hierarchical model was proposed and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to obtain samples from distribution a posteriori. Results: the model developed showed a reasonable fit, even allowing for the incorporation of variables and a priori information on the parameters used. Conclusions: new variables can be added to the modelfrom the available code, allowing many possibilities for data analysis and indicating the potential for use in research on the subject.

  10. Relationship between body temperature, weight, and hematological parameters of black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lucas Cardoso; Barros, Marilia

    2016-06-01

    Basal thermal values of captive adult black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) in a thermoneutral environment were measured via different methods, along with body weight and hematological parameters. Body temperatures were recorded with rectal (RC), subcutaneous (SC) microchip transponder and infrared (left and right) tympanic membrane (TM) thermometries. Thermal values were correlated with body mass and some hematological data. Similar RC and SC temperatures were observed, these being significantly higher than the left and right TM values. SC temperature was positively correlated and in close agreement with RC measurements. Although body temperatures were not influenced by gender, capture time, or body weight, they were correlated with hematological parameters. Thus, body temperatures in this species seem to reflect some of the characteristics of the assessments' location, with SC microchip transponders being a less invasive method to assess body temperature in these small-bodied non-human primates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Response to selection and genetic parameters of body and carcass weights in Japanese quail selected for 4-week body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaldari, M; Pakdel, A; Yegane, H Mehrabani

    2010-01-01

    , respectively. There was a significant effect of sex, generation, and line (P difference for BW and carcass weights but not for carcass percentage components between sexes (P ... to improve carcass traits. Also, intense selection resulting in high rates of inbreeding might result in decreased response to selection due to inbreeding depression....

  12. Relationship of body mass index and waist to hip ratio measurement with hypertension in young adult medical students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S.; Haque, I.U.; Rehman, A.U.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the BMI profile and waist to hip ratio measurements of young adult medical students of Lahore medical and dental college and its relationship with hypertension. All the students of Lahore medical and dental college were asked to undergo physical examination. Height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded. The partial correlation coefficient was used to quantify the association between BMI and waist-to-hip circumference ratio with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the influence of body mass index and waist-to-hip circumference ratio on the variance of systolic and diastolic BP. Mean BMI was 23.24 (SD+-4.31). Descriptive analysis revealed that 103 (21.3%) of the study population were classified as underweight, 251 (52 %) as normal weight, 99 (20.5%) as overweight, and 30 (6.2 %) as obese. Abdominal adiposity, as measured by increased WHR, was present in 56 subjects (11.59 %). Partial correlation controlled for age revealed strong positive correlation between BMI and WHR for males. 7.24% had high systolic blood pressure, minimum systolic BP was 90 while maximum being 160 mmHg. Same was the value for high diastolic blood pressure i.e. 35 (7.24%), range was from 60 to 100mm Hg. Results of the partial correlation coefficient controlled for age, indicated a significant positive correlation between SBP and DBP. Stepwise linear regression analysis controlled for age revealed that both body mass index and waist-to-hip circumference ratio were independently correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The present results suggest that prevalence of overweight and obesity among the medical students is higher than in general population. Those with either higher BMI or central adiposity distribution are potential candidates of increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. (author)

  13. The development of associations among body mass index, body dissatisfaction, and weight and shape concern in adolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Haines, Jess; Blood, Emily A; Field, Alison E; Austin, S Bryn

    2012-11-01

    To examine how the associations among body mass index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern evolve from late childhood through late adolescence in boys and girls. We analyze data from subjects aged 9-18 years from the Growing Up Today Study, a national prospective cohort of U.S. youth (n = 16,882, yielding 59,750 repeated-measures observations during five waves of data collection). Generalized additive models produced curves of association for body dissatisfaction and weight concern across BMI percentiles. Generalized estimating equations (adjusting for correlated within-subject repeated measures, sibling clusters, pubertal maturation, and region of residence) tested main and interactive effects of BMI, age, and gender. Girls above the 50th BMI percentile reported greater body dissatisfaction than girls below the 50th percentile. By contrast, boys who reported the most body dissatisfaction were either above the 75th BMI percentile (approaching overweight) or below the 10th percentile (approaching underweight). Body dissatisfaction increased with age for both girls and boys, but the gender-specific patterns of BMI effects remained constant. Male and female participants in the overweight/obese BMI range reported the greatest weight concern, but among older adolescents (particularly girls), healthy weight became increasingly associated with greater weight and shape concern. Body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern intensify across adolescence, but associations between the constructs and BMI remain gender specific. Findings have important implications for eating disorder risk assessment and prevention. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Body image and weight control in youth: 9-year international trends from 24 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quick, V.; Nansel, T.; Liu, D.

    2014-01-01

    for weight loss were assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey conducted in 24 countries cross-sectionally at three time points (2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010). Logistic regression models examined change over time in overestimation of body size in non-overweight adolescents......-perceived overweight with increased odds of dieting diminished over time. CONCLUSIONS: Body size perceptions among adolescents may have changed over time concurrent with shifts in country-level body weight. However, controlling for country-level overweight prevalence did not impact trends in dieting for weight loss...

  15. The social patterning of relative body weight and obesity in Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa; Lissau, Inge; Lahelma, Eero

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Relative body weight is typically inversely associated with social status in affluent societies but studies comparing the social patterning of relative body weight and obesity in different countries have only seldom been conducted. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare....... Relative weight was studied by using body mass index (BMI), and those with BMI > or =30 kg/m(2) were regarded as obese. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the social patterning of obesity in the pooled dataset. Two-variable interaction effects were tested separately. RESULTS: Compared...

  16. Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Analisa

    2014-06-01

    The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Depressive symptoms in women's midlife in relation to their body weight before, during and after childbearing years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Pottegård, Anton; Kirkegaard, Hans

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine how weight and weight changes related to pregnancy were associated with depressive symptoms 11-16 years after childbirth. METHOD: We followed 16,998 first-time mothers from the Danish National Birth Cohort up till 16 years after birth and estimated...... associations between depressive symptoms and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (kg m(-2)), weight changes in different time periods, and BMI-adjusted waist circumference 7 years after birth (WCBMI, cm). Depressive symptoms were estimated by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression 10-item scale....... Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Compared with normal-weight, we found that underweight, overweight and obesity were associated with greater odds of depressive symptoms (1.29, 1.24 and 1.73, respectively). Compared...

  18. Relationship of weight, body dissatisfaction, and self-esteem in African American and white female dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, M B; Brownell, K D; Wilfley, D E

    1997-09-01

    The present study examined the relationship among weight, body dissatisfaction, and self-esteem in a large group of African American and white female dieters who were generally overweight and of middle to high socioeconomic status. Subjects were participants in a survey of dieting practices undertaken by Consumer Reports magazine. Major outcome measures included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an assessment of shape and weight attitudes. No significant differences between African American and white women were found for body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, discrepancies between actual and ideal weight and shape, or the relationship between self-esteem and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index contributed less to body satisfaction scores in African American than in white women. This study provides a comparison of African American and white women in the upper social classes, and raises the possibility that previous findings of less body concern in African American women reflect class rather than race effects.

  19. RECOMANDATION FOR A BETTER CONTROL OF THE BODY WEIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Manescu

    2012-01-01

    From fitness magazines to tv commercials it’s an every day information bombing about diets. The latest always say that "this popular diet doesn't work, but ours will" or it’s showed a photoshoped before and after picture. And although the term diet automatically gets us thinking of people who need to lose weight, it’s definition says: "the food or drink prescribed to a person for a special reason". So for those who play sports or have goals in fitness, having the proper diet is important as w...

  20. Relationships between neonatal weight, limb lengths, skinfold thicknesses, body breadths and circumferences in an Australian cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pomeroy

    Full Text Available Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight.We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia. We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data.Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference, this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds.Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length was unrelated to birth

  1. Effect of repeated administration of cinnamon aqueous extract on body weight, glucose levels and lipid profile on over weight rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, F.; Akhtar, N.

    2012-01-01

    Plants are the source of both traditional and medicinal plant for curing and treatment of diseases in recent year. Plant extracts containing several active constituents which often work together synergistically. The study was designed to investigate the effect CNAE on lipid profile and glucose level in overweight albino wistar rats. Animal were divided into two group 1 receive CNAE and 2 receive equal volume of tap water. Extract were given daily once a day at the dose of 2ml/animal. After the 17 % of reduction of weight treatment were terminated and blood sample were collected for biochemical estimation. The result show significant decrease in body weight total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol and significant increase in high y density lipoprotein while non-significant effect were observed in electrolyte levels. The data of present research demonstrated that CNAE not only possess hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties as well as it could be used for reduction body weight. (author)

  2. Maternal recalled gestational weight gain, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and obesity in the daughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuebe, Alison M.; Forman, Michele R.; Michels, Karin B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Emerging evidence suggests that exposures during fetal life affect adult metabolism. We assessed the relation between recalled maternal pre-pregnancy body mass, gestational weight gain (GWG), and adiposity in the daughter. Design Retrospective cohort study among mother-nurse daughter dyads in the Nurses’ Health Study II and the Nurses’ Mothers’ Cohort. Mothers of participants completed questionnaires regarding their nurse-daughter in 2001. Participants 26,506 mother-nurse daughter dyads born between 1946 and 1964. Main outcome measures Body mass index of the nurse-daughter at age 18 and in 2001. Results At age 18, 561 (2.1%) daughters were obese (BMI greater than 30), and in 2001, 5,442 (22.0%) were obese. Adjusting for covariates, women whose mothers had a recalled pre-pregnancy BMI of 29 had a 6.1-fold increased risk of obesity at age 18 and a 3.4-fold risk of obesity in 2001, compared with women whose mothers had a pre-pregnancy BMI of 21. We found a U-shaped association between recalled GWG and offspring obesity. Compared with a maternal weight gain of 15–19 lb, GWG obesity risk at age 18 (odds ratio[OR] 1.54, 95% confidence interval[CI] 1.02–2.34) and in 2001 (OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.05–1.53). High weight gain (40+ lbs) was also associated with obesity risk at age 18 (OR 1.81, 95%CI 1.22–2.69) and in 2001 (OR 1.74, 95%CI 1.48–2.04). These associations were stronger among mothers who were overweight prior to pregnancy (p for interaction = 0.03), and they persisted with adjustment for birth weight. Conclusion A high recalled pre-pregnancy BMI and extremes of recalled GWG are associated with an increased risk of adolescent and adult obesity in offspring, particularly when the mother is overweight. Pre-pregnancy weight and GWG may be modifiable fetal origins of overweight and obesity in women. PMID:19528964

  3. Long-lasting improvements in liver fat and metabolism despite body weight regain after dietary weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17-36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions.

  4. Long-Lasting Improvements in Liver Fat and Metabolism Despite Body Weight Regain After Dietary Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C.; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17–36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. RESULTS Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. CONCLUSIONS A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions. PMID:23963894

  5. BMI, body fat and waist-to-height ratio of stunted v. non-stunted Indian children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanur, Mitravinda S; Ghugre, Padmini S

    2016-06-01

    To compare the BMI, body fat and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) of stunted and non-stunted children following different growth trajectories from low socio-economic strata in Mumbai, India. Cross-sectional, case-control study. Weight, height, skinfold thicknesses and waist circumference were measured. Information regarding the duration of breast-feeding, age at initiation of complementary feeding and income was obtained. Birth weight was obtained from records. BMI, body fat, WHtR and change in weight sd were calculated. Children who were beneficiaries of anganwadis, Mumbai city, India. Three hundred and thirty children aged 2-4 years were selected in each of the stunted and non-stunted groups after matching for age and sex. After adjusting for birth weight, change in weight sd, duration of breast-feeding, age at complementary feeding initiation and income, stunted children had significantly higher body fat, WHtR and BMI than the non-stunted (Pchildren were classified based on their change in weight sd. Stunted children with no change in weight sd had higher mean body fat, BMI (Pchildren had higher BMI and WHtR than the non-stunted (both Pchildren had higher BMI than the non-stunted (Pfat in young children. Such a tendency, if continued during later childhood and adolescence, can increase the risk of obesity and non-communicable diseases.

  6. Neonatal immune challenge does not affect body weight regulation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah J; Mouihate, Abdeslam; Galic, Michael A; Ellis, Shaun L; Pittman, Quentin J

    2007-08-01

    The perinatal environment plays a crucial role in programming many aspects of adult physiology. Myriad stressors during pregnancy, from maternal immune challenge to nutritional deficiency, can alter long-term body weight set points of the offspring. In light of the increasing concern over body weight issues, such as obesity and anorexia, in modern societies and accumulating evidence that developmental stressors have long-lasting effects on other aspects of physiology (e.g., fever, pain), we explored the role of immune system activation during neonatal development and its impact on body weight regulation in adulthood. Here we present a thorough evaluation of the effects of immune system activation (LPS, 100 microg/kg ip) at postnatal days 3, 7, or 14 on long-term body weight, adiposity, and body weight regulation after a further LPS injection (50 microg/kg ip) or fasting and basal and LPS-induced circulating levels of the appetite-regulating proinflammatory cytokine leptin. We show that neonatal exposure to LPS at various times during the neonatal period has no long-term effects on growth, body weight, or adiposity. We also observed no effects on body weight regulation in response to a short fasting period or a further exposure to LPS. Despite reductions in circulating leptin levels in response to LPS during the neonatal period, no long-term effects on leptin were seen. These results convincingly demonstrate that adult body weight and weight regulation are, unlike many other aspects of adult physiology, resistant to programming by a febrile-dose neonatal immune challenge.

  7. Effect of melatonin on serum glucose and body weights in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayat, M.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in experimental animal models that oxidative stress causes persistent and chronic hyperglycaemia, causing reduction in antioxidant defence system, ultimately leading to accumulation of free radicals.This study was performed to observe the effect of melatonin on serum glucose and body weights in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino rats. Methods: Forty healthy adult male albino rats were included in the study and divided equally into 4 groups for 6 weeks. Group-A was taken as control. Group-B received streptozotocin I/P in a dose of 37 mg/kg body weight. Group-C received 10 mg/100 ml melatonin in drinking water and Group-D received only melatonin. Results: Streptozotocin significantly increased serum glucose and decreased weight in group B animals, whereas in group C, melatonin significantly restored serum glucose but could not restore the body weights reduced by streptozotocin. There was a significant reduction in body weight in melatonin treated group D animals. Conclusion: Melatonin decreases oxidative stress and hyperglycemia, but cannot restore the body weight reduced by streptozotocin. In fact, it further reduces body weight both in diabetic and normal state. (author)

  8. Weight and Body Composition Changes during the First Three Years of College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareen S. Gropper

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in weight, body mass index (BMI, percent and absolute body fat, fat-free mass, and waist circumference were investigated in a group of males and females during the first three years (from 2007 to 2010 of college. Significant three-year gains were observed for weight 2.1±4.7 kg, BMI 0.7±1.6 kg/m2, percent body fat 2.7±3.3%, and fat mass 2.3±3.5 kg. A significant loss of fat-free mass, −0.5 kg, was observed among females. Absolute gains in weight, BMI, and percent and absolute body fat were highest during the freshman year, followed by the junior year, and lowest during the sophomore year. Among the 70% of students gaining weight over the three years, weight gain averaged 4.3 kg. The numbers of females with over 30% body fat doubled, and the number of males with over 20% body fat increased fivefold. Initially 15% of students were classified as obese/overweight and 79% normal weight; by the end of the junior year, 24% were obese/overweight and 70% were normal weight. Efforts on college campuses to promote healthy lifestyles among its student population are needed throughout the college years.

  9. Effect of endorsed body weight on specific absorption rate during magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Harish K.; Gupta, R.K.; Gujral, R.B.; Shukla, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    As a routine safety of the patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the limits of radiofrequency (RF) specific absorption rate (SAR) are set by the manufacturers of all MRI systems because RF causes thermo genesis of the RF exposed tissue. It has been mandatory practice to endorse body weight and age of the patients required by the MRI systems for the SAR check. The problems arise on those patients who are critically ill, and consequently body weight could not be measured. In such cases, approximate body weight has to be endorsed. In case of underweight and overweight patients, sometimes SAR check does not permit to run the MRI pulse sequences. Also, in such cases, body weight remains the parameter which is being changed to get the MRI done. The purpose of this study is to assess the change of SAR with endorsed body weight. The change of SAR was recorded with the endorsed weight using phantoms and most commonly used T1 and T2 weighted pulse sequence on clinical MRI system. At true endorsed weight, using respective coils and the head and spine coil phantoms, the body averaged and localised SAR were found to be within limits while this was not the case with body coil phantom. Unrealistic endorsed weights are permissible for the adult age cases in all coils while using the routine T1 and T2 weighted pulse sequences. This finding is absolutely new in the field and certainly, will be of great applicability to develop a uniform and standard system of SAR checks in the patient interest. (author)

  10. Changes in health-related behaviors and their effect on dissatisfaction with body weight in youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16s1p79 The aim of the present study was to establish whether changes in health related behaviors are associated with changes in the satisfaction/dissatisfaction with body weight in youths. It was a prospective study that performed a secondary analysis of data from Project “Saúde na Boa”, which included youths attending night classes in secondary public schools in Recife in the state of Pernambuco and Florianópolis in the state of Santa Catarina. Data on the youths’ body type (thinness or excess weight and degree of satisfaction/dissatisfaction with body weight and lifestyle (level of physical activity, participation in physical education classes, sedentary behavior and snacks, soda and alcohol intake were collected at 10 schools from each town (five in the intervention group and five in the control group. The percentages of youths dissatisfied with their body weight were 50.5% and 48.6% at baseline and after intervention, respectively. The percentage of youths with body dissatisfaction due to thinness decreased (21.4% vs. 16.5%, while the percentage of youths with body dissatisfaction due to excess weight increased (29.1% vs. 32.1%. Approximately 41.2% of the youths with body dissatisfaction due to thinness and 18.3% of those dissatisfied due to excess weight became satisfied with their body weight after intervention. The intervention targeting health-related behaviors induced changes in the youths’ degree of satisfaction with their body weight.

  11. Obesity Index That Better Predict Metabolic Syndrome: Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Waist Hip Ratio, or Waist Height Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim was to compare body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist hip ratio (WHR, and waist height ratio (WHtR to identify the best predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS among Qatari adult population. Methods. A cross-sectional survey from April 2011 to December 2012. Data was collected from 1552 participants followed by blood sampling. MetS was defined according to Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII and International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis was performed. Results. Among men, WC followed by WHR and WHtR yielded the highest area under the curve (AUC (0.78; 95% CI 0.74–0.82 and 0.75; 95% CI 0.71–0.79, resp.. Among women, WC followed by WHtR yielded the highest AUC (0.81; 95% CI 0.78–0.85 & 0.79; 95% CI 0.76–0.83, resp.. Among men, WC at a cut-off 99.5 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with sensitivity 81.6% and 63.9% specificity. Among women, WC at a cut-off 91 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with the corresponding sensitivity and specificity of 86.5% and 64.7%, respectively. BMI had the lowest sensitivity and specificity in both genders. Conclusion. WC at cut-off 99.5 cm in men and 91 cm in women was the best predictor of MetS in Qatar.

  12. Parental employment and children's body weight: Mothers, others, and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M; Dunifon, Rachel E; Kalil, Ariel

    2013-10-01

    A robust body of literature spanning several countries indicates a positive association between maternal employment and child body mass index (BMI). Fewer studies have examined the role of paternal employment. More importantly, little empirical work examines the mechanisms that might explain the relationships between parental employment and children's BMI. Our paper tests the relationship between the cumulative experience of maternal and spouse employment over a child's lifetime and that child's BMI, overweight, and obesity at age 13 or 14. We further examine several mechanisms that may explain these associations. We use data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child file on cohorts of children who were born during a period of dramatic increase in both childhood obesity and maternal employment. We find that the number of hours that highly-educated mothers work over her child's lifetime is positively and statistically significantly associated with her child's BMI and risk of overweight at ages 13 or 14. The work hours of mothers' spouses and partners, on the other hand, are not significantly associated with these outcomes. Results suggest that, for children of highly-educated mothers, the association between maternal work hours and child BMI is partially mediated by television viewing time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of body weight and BMI on the efficacy of levonorgestrel emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Nathalie; Abitbol, Jean Louis; Mathé, Henri; Scherrer, Bruno; Guillard, Hélène; Gainer, Erin; Ulmann, André

    2015-02-01

    To further evaluate the effect of weight and body mass index (BMI) on the efficacy of levonorgestrel emergency contraception. Data from two large, multicenter, randomized controlled trials designed to assess emergency contraceptive efficacy were pooled to evaluate the effect of weight and BMI on pregnancy rates among women who received levonorgestrel. Descriptive methods (comparison of means and distributions according to pregnancy status and pregnancy rates across weight and BMI categories) as well as cubic spline modeling were used to describe the relationship between pregnancy risk and weight/BMI. The analysis population comprised 1731 women, among whom 38 pregnancies were reported. Women for whom levonorgestrel was not effective in preventing pregnancy had a significantly higher mean body weight and BMI than women who did not become pregnant (76.7 vs. 66.4 kg, p85 kg groups, respectively. Statistical modeling demonstrated a steep increase in pregnancy risk starting from a weight near 70-75 kg to reach a risk of pregnancy of 6% or greater around 80 kg. Similar results were obtained for statistical modeling of BMI as well as when the two studies were analyzed individually. All analyses showed a significant drop in the efficacy of levonorgestrel emergency contraception with increasing body weight, with pregnancy risk in the higher weight categories similar to expected rates in the absence of contraception. Like body weight, increasing BMI was highly correlated with increased pregnancy risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Age and body weight of Moroccan local cattle at puberty: Effect of season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazouz, A.; Asri, A.

    1988-01-01

    Moroccan local cattle are a distinct breed comprising almost 90% of the total cattle population of 2.5 million. The age and the body weight of some 1662 heifers attaining puberty were determined under two production systems by monitoring plasma progesterone levels as an indicator of the first ovulation. The effect of season on these parameters was also studied. Ovarian cyclicity commenced in 50% of heifers by the age of 16.5 months and at a body weight of 144 kg (70% of the mature body weight). The time of puberty was correlated with both age and body weight and was influenced by both the season of the year at which puberty was reached and the system of rearing. The mean age at which behavioural oestrus was first observed and the heifer inseminated was 26.5 months. Fifty per cent of 546 heifers were pregnant by 27 months of age. (author). 18 refs, 7 figs

  15. The benefits of body weight loss on health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Ju Pan

    2011-04-01

    Conclusion: Obesity can cause impaired HRQOL, which can be improved through BMI intervention. In addition to the benefits of biomedical aspect, this could be an incentive goal for keeping body weight control.

  16. Should dosing of rocuronium in obese patients be based on ideal or corrected body weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyhoff, Christian S; Lund, Jørgen; Jenstrup, Morten T

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pharmacokinetic studies in obese patients suggest that dosing of rocuronium should be based on ideal body weight (IBW). This may, however, result in a prolonged onset time or compromised conditions for tracheal intubation. In this study, we compared onset time, conditions for tracheal...... intubation, and duration of action in obese patients when the intubation dose of rocuronium was based on three different weight corrections. METHODS: Fifty-one obese patients, with a median (range) body mass index of 44 (34-72) kg/m2, scheduled for laparoscopic gastric banding or gastric bypass under...... propofol-remifentanil anesthesia were randomized into three groups. The patients received rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg) based on IBW (IBW group, n = 17), IBW plus 20% of excess weight (corrected body weight [CBW]20% group, n = 17), or IBW plus 40% of excess weight (CBW40% group, n = 17). Propofol was administered...

  17. Do weight management interventions delivered by online social networks effectively improve body weight, body composition, and chronic disease risk factors? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Erik A; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Ptomey, Lauren T; Steger, Felicia L; Honas, Jeffery J; Washburn, Richard A; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Currently, no systematic review/meta-analysis has examined studies that used online social networks (OSN) as a primary intervention platform. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of weight management interventions delivered through OSN. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched (January 1990-November 2015) for studies with data on the effect of OSNs on weight loss. Only primary source articles that utilized OSN as the main platform for delivery of weight management/healthy lifestyle interventions, were published in English language peer-reviewed journals, and reported outcome data on weight were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. Five articles were included in this review. Results One-hundred percent of the studies ( n = 5) reported a reduction in baseline weight. Three of the five studies (60%) reported significant decreases in body weight when OSN was paired with health educator support. Only one study reported a clinical significant weight loss of ≥5%. Conclusion Using OSN for weight management is in its early stages of development and, while these few studies show promise, more research is needed to acquire information about optimizing these interventions to increase their efficacy.

  18. Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index, Gestational Weight Gain, and Birth Weight: A Cohort Study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoping Yang

    Full Text Available To assess whether pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI modify the relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG and child birth weight (specifically, presence or absence of low birth weight (LBW or presence of absence of macrosomia, and estimates of the relative risk of macrosomia and LBW based on pre-pregnancy BMI were controlled in Wuhan, China.From June 30, 2011 to June 30, 2013. All data was collected and available from the perinatal health care system. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the independent association among pregnancy weight gain, LBW, normal birth weight, and macrosomia within different pre-pregnancy BMI groups. We built different logistic models for the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM Guidelines and Chinese-recommended GWG which was made from this sample. The Chinese-recommended GWG was derived from the quartile values (25th-75th percentiles of weight gain at the time of delivery in the subjects which comprised our sample.For LBW children, using the recommended weight gain of the IOM and Chinese women as a reference, the OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a positive relationship for lean and normal weight women, but not for overweight and obese women. For macrosomia, considering the IOM's recommended weight gain as a reference, the OR magnitude for pregnancy weight gain above recommendations resulted in a positive correlation for all women. The OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a negative relationship for normal BMI and lean women, but not for overweight and obese women based on the IOM recommendations, significant based on the recommended pregnancy weight gain for Chinese women. Of normal weight children, 56.6% were above the GWG based on IOM recommendations, but 26.97% of normal weight children were above the GWG based on Chinese recommendations.A GWG above IOM recommendations might not be helpful for Chinese women. We need unified criteria to

  19. Body characteristics, [corrected] dietary protein and body weight regulation. Reconciling conflicting results from intervention and observational studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Z Ankarfeldt

    Full Text Available Physiological evidence indicates that high-protein diets reduce caloric intake and increase thermogenic response, which may prevent weight gain and regain after weight loss. Clinical trials have shown such effects, whereas observational cohort studies suggest an association between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals into clinical trials.Data were available from the European Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes post-weight-loss weight-maintenance trial and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH cohort. Participants of the DCH cohort were matched with participants from the DiOGenes trial on gender, diet, and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein of the matched trial participants.Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger waist circumference and larger fat mass than the participants in the entire DCH cohort. A better weight maintenance in the high-protein group compared to the low protein group was observed in the subgroups of the DCH cohort matching body characteristics of the trial participants.This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals with greater body mass index and waist circumference were analyzed. Selecting subsets of large-scale observational cohort studies with similar characteristics as participants in clinical trials may reconcile the otherwise conflicting

  20. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting body weight in Tellicherry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VCRI_AN_GENETICS

    Abstract. Data on 566 Tellicherry goats, recorded between 1988 and 2007 were used to study the effect of non- genetic factors on body weight and daily gain from birth to 12 months of age. The least-squares means for body weight at birth and at 12 months of age were 2.17 ± 0.03 and 18.78 ± 0.44 kg, respectively. The pre-.

  1. Weight-related sport motive and girls’ body image, weight control behaviors and self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, A.P.; Woertman, L.; Bakker, F.C.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that exercise for weight control is associated with disordered eating indices in older adolescent or adult exercisers in fitness centers. This study examined whether these relationships could be replicated in a more general sample of 140 Dutch adolescent girls between 13 and 18

  2. Walnut consumption in a weight reduction intervention: effects on body weight, biological measures, blood pressure and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Barkai, Hava-Shoshana; Pakiz, Bilge; Heath, Dennis D

    2017-12-04

    Dietary strategies that help patients adhere to a weight reduction diet may increase the likelihood of weight loss maintenance and improved long-term health outcomes. Regular nut consumption has been associated with better weight management and less adiposity. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a walnut-enriched reduced-energy diet to a standard reduced-energy-density diet on weight, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and satiety. Overweight and obese men and women (n = 100) were randomly assigned to a standard reduced-energy-density diet or a walnut-enriched (15% of energy) reduced-energy diet in the context of a behavioral weight loss intervention. Measurements were obtained at baseline and 3- and 6-month clinic visits. Participants rated hunger, fullness and anticipated prospective consumption at 3 time points during the intervention. Body measurements, blood pressure, physical activity, lipids, tocopherols and fatty acids were analyzed using repeated measures mixed models. Both study groups reduced body weight, body mass index and waist circumference (time effect p weight was -9.4 (0.9)% vs. -8.9 (0.7)% (mean [SE]), for the standard vs. walnut-enriched diet groups, respectively. Systolic blood pressure decreased in both groups at 3 months, but only the walnut-enriched diet group maintained a lower systolic blood pressure at 6 months. The walnut-enriched diet group, but not the standard reduced-energy-density diet group, reduced total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) at 6 months, from 203 to 194 mg/dL and 121 to 112 mg/dL, respectively (p weight loss that is comparable to a standard reduced-energy-density diet in the context of a behavioral weight loss intervention. Although weight loss in response to both dietary strategies was associated with improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors, the walnut-enriched diet promoted more favorable effects on LDL-C and systolic blood pressure. The trial

  3. Effects of snack consumption for 8 weeks on energy intake and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viskaal-van Dongen, M; Kok, F J; de Graaf, C

    2010-02-01

    Consumption of snacks might contribute to the obesity epidemic. It is not clear how the moment of consumption and energy density of snacks can influence the compensatory response to consumption of snacks in the long term. To investigate the effects of snack consumption for 8 weeks on changes in body weight, emphasizing on moment of consumption and energy density. In total, 16 men and 66 women (mean age 21.9 years (s.d. 0.3 year), mean body mass index 20.7 kg m(-2) (s.d. 0.2 kg m(-2))) were randomly assigned to one of four parallel groups in a 2 x 2 design: snacks consumed with or between meals and snacks having a low (12 kJ g(-1)) energy density. For 8 weeks, subjects consumed mandatory snacks that provided 25% of energy requirements on each day. Body weight, body composition, physical activity level (PAL) and energy intake were measured in week 1 and week 8. There were no differences in changes in body weight between the four groups. Moment of consumption (P=0.7), energy density (P=0.8) and interaction (P=0.09) did not influence body weight. Similarly, there were no differences in changes in body composition, PAL and energy intake between the four groups. Body weight after 8 weeks of snack consumption was not affected by moment of consumption and energy density of snacks. This finding suggests that consuming snacks that are high or low in energy density does not necessarily contribute to weight gain. Healthy, nonobese young adults may be able to maintain a normal body weight through an accurate compensation for the consumption of snacks.

  4. Can lifestyle factors explain why body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio increase with increasing tobacco consumption? The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, C; Toft, U; Jørgensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between smoking, lifestyle, and weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WH ratio) is complex, and not fully understood. METHODS: In total, 6784 subjects (2408 daily smokers) were included in a population-based study (the Inter99 study) in Denmark. Weight...... consumption, but these factors did largely explain the increasing WH ratio. The relationship between BMI and tobacco consumption is complex, and the public needs to be informed that smoking is not a 'diet'.......BACKGROUND: The relationship between smoking, lifestyle, and weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WH ratio) is complex, and not fully understood. METHODS: In total, 6784 subjects (2408 daily smokers) were included in a population-based study (the Inter99 study) in Denmark. Weight...... by sociodemographic factors, rather than lifestyle factors. However, neither sociodemographic nor lifestyle factors could fully explain the increased BMI associated with heavier smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors could not fully explain why BMI increased with increasing daily tobacco...

  5. Effects of pistachios on body weight in Chinese subjects with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that pistachios can improve blood lipid profiles in subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia which could reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, there is also a widely perceived view that eating nuts can lead to body weight gain due to their high fat content. Purpose To investigate the impact of different dosages of pistachios on body weight, blood pressure, blood lipids, blood glucose and insulin in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Methods Ninety subjects with metabolic syndrome (consistent with 2005 International Diabetes Federation metabolic syndrome standard without diabetes were enrolled in three endocrinology outpatient clinics in Beijing. All subjects received dietary counseling according to the guidelines of the American Heart Association Step I diet. After a 4 week run-in, subjects were randomized to consume either the recommended daily serving of 42 g pistachios (RSG, a higher daily serving of 70 g pistachio (HSG or no pistachios (DCG for 12 weeks. Results Subjects in all three groups were matched at baseline for BMI: DCG 28.03 ± 4.3; RSG 28.12 ± 3.22; and HSG 28.01 ± 4.51 kg/m2. There were no significant changes in body weight or BMI in any groups during the study nor any change from baseline at any time point in any group. During the entire study, there were no significant differences in waist-to-hip ratio among the groups or any change from baseline in any group (DCG -0.00 ± 0.03, RSG -0.01 ± 0.02 and HSG 0.01 ± 0.04. There were no significant differences detected among groups in triglycerides, fasting glucose and 2 hour postprandial glucose following a 75 gram glucose challenge. Exploratory analyses demonstrated that glucose values 2 h after a 75 gm glucose challenge were significantly lower at week 12 compared with baseline values in the HSG group (-1.13 ± 2.58 mmol/L, p = 0.02, and a similar trend was noted in the RSG group (-0.77 ± 2.07 mmol/L, p = 0.06, while no

  6. Ghrelin in the regulation of body weight and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, T R; Tong, J; Datta, R; Culler, M; Tschöp, M H

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin, a peptide hormone predominantly produced by the stomach, was isolated as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin is a potent stimulator of growth hormone (GH) secretion and is the only circulatory hormone known to potently enhance feeding and weight gain and to regulate energy homeostasis following central and systemic administration. Therapeutic intervention with ghrelin in catabolic situations may induce a combination of enhanced food intake, increased gastric emptying and nutrient storage, coupled with an increase in GH thereby linking nutrient partitioning with growth and repair processes. These qualities have fostered the idea that ghrelin-based compounds may have therapeutic utility in treating malnutrition and wasting induced by various sub-acute and chronic disorders. Conversely, compounds that inhibit ghrelin action may be useful for the prevention or treatment of metabolic syndrome components such as obesity, impaired lipid metabolism or insulin resistance. In recent years, the effects of ghrelin on glucose homeostasis, memory function and gastrointestinal motility have attracted considerable amount of attention and revealed novel therapeutic targets in treating a wide range of pathologic conditions. Furthermore, discovery of ghrelin O-acyltransferase has also opened new research opportunities that could lead to major understanding of ghrelin physiology. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ghrelin synthesis, secretion, mechanism of action and biological functions with an additional focus on potential for ghrelin-based pharmacotherapies. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (≤45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (Phypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (Pdiet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. PMID:23671029

  8. Perceptions relating to body size, weight loss and weight-loss interventions in black South African women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Catherine E; Davidowitz, Kesiah J; Goedecke, Julia H

    2016-02-01

    A higher tolerance for a larger body size has been associated with obesity in black South African (SA) women. The aim of the present study was to explore perceptions regarding body size and weight loss in a sample of black women from a low-income community in Cape Town, SA. Qualitative pilot study including five focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Khayelitsha, Cape Town, SA. Twenty-one black SA women. The majority of participants had positive perceptions of overweight/obesity, which were influenced by community and cultural perceptions, but some inconsistencies were observed as overweight/obesity was also associated with ill health. Participants identified many benefits to weight loss, but due to the association with sickness, they were concerned about being stigmatised in their community. Although participants had knowledge about healthy eating, the main barrier to eating healthily included the perceived higher cost of healthier food and food insecurity. All participants saw exercise as a strategy to lose weight and improve health, and were interested in participating in a community-based exercise intervention, but negative community perceptions and conflicting views regarding who should lead the intervention were identified as barriers. These findings highlight the complexities surrounding participants' perceptions regarding body size, weight loss and weight-loss interventions, and emphasise low socio-economic status as a barrier to change. The study also highlights the strong influence of cultural ideals and community perceptions on personal perceptions. These findings underscore the necessity for culturally appropriate weight-loss interventions in low-income, transitioning communities.

  9. Evaluation of body weight of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    A postichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) is an ecological and economic species in East Asia. Conventional biometric monitoring method includes diving for samples and weighing above water, with highly variable in weight measurement due to variation in the quantity of water in the respiratory tree and intestinal content of this species. Recently, video survey method has been applied widely in biometric detection on underwater benthos. However, because of the high flexibility of A. japonicus body, video survey method of monitoring is less used in sea cucumber. In this study, we designed a model to evaluate the wet weight of A. japonicus, using machine vision technology combined with a support vector machine (SVM) that can be used in field surveys on the A. japonicus population. Continuous dorsal images of free-moving A. japonicus individuals in seawater were captured, which also allows for the development of images of the core body edge as well as thorn segmentation. Parameters that include body length, body breadth, perimeter and area, were extracted from the core body edge images and used in SVM regression, to predict the weight of A. japonicus and for comparison with a power model. Results indicate that the use of SVM for predicting the weight of 33 A. japonicus individuals is accurate ( R 2=0.99) and compatible with the power model ( R 2 =0.96). The image-based analysis and size-weight regression models in this study may be useful in body weight evaluation of A. japonicus in lab and field study.

  10. SNPs of melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) associated with body weight in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ruixia; Zhang, Yibo; Du, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), which is associated with inherited human obesity, is involoved in food intake and body weight of mammals. To study the relationships between MC4R gene polymorphism and body weight in Beagle dogs, we detected and compared the nucleotide sequence of the whole coding region and 3'- and 5'- flanking regions of the dog MC4R gene (1214 bp). In 120 Beagle dogs, two SNPs (A420C, C895T) were identified and their relation with body weight was analyzed with RFLP-PCR method. The results showed that the SNP at A420C was significantly associated with canine body weight trait when it changed amino acid 101 of the MC4R protein from asparagine to threonine, while canine body weight variations were significant in female dogs when MC4R nonsense mutation at C895T. It suggested that the two SNPs might affect the MC4R gene's function which was relative to body weight in Beagle dogs. Therefore, MC4R was a candidate gene for selecting different size dogs with the MC4R SNPs (A420C, C895T) being potentially valuable as a genetic marker.

  11. Toward a quantitative theory of food consumption choices and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttet, Sebastien; Dolar, Veronika

    2015-04-01

    We propose a calibrated dynamic model of food consumption choices and body weight to study changes in daily caloric intake, weight, and the away-from-home share of calories consumed by adult men and women in the U.S. during the period between 1971 and 2006. Calibration reveals substantial preference heterogeneity between men and women. For example, utility losses stemming from weight gains are ten times greater for women compared to men. Counterfactual experiments show that changes in food prices and household income account for half of the increase in weight of adult men, but only a small fraction of women's weight. We argue that quantitative models of food consumption choices and body weight have a unique role to play in future research in the economics of obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Who wants a slimmer body? The relationship between body weight status, education level and body shape dissatisfaction among young adults in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Yee Tak Derek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body shape dissatisfaction has been thought to have an indispensable impact on weight control behaviors. We investigated the prevalence of body shape dissatisfaction (BSD and explored its association with weight status, education level and other determinants among young adults in Hong Kong. Methods Information on anthropometry, BSD, and socio-demographics was collected from a random sample of 1205 young adults (611 men and 594 women aged 18-27 in a community-based household survey. BSD was defined as a discrepancy between current and ideal body shape based on a figure rating scale. Cross-tabulations, homogeneity tests and logistic regression models were applied. Results The percentages of underweight men and women were 16.5% and 34.9% respectively, and the corresponding percentages of being overweight or obese were 26.7% and 13.2% for men and women respectively. Three-quarters of young adults had BSD. Among women, 30.9% of those underweight and 75.5% of those with normal weight desired a slimmer body shape. Overweight men and underweight women with lower education level were more likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than those with higher education level. After controlling for other determinants, underweight women were found to have a higher likelihood to maintain their current body shapes than other women. Men were found to be less likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than women. Conclusions Overweight and obesity in men and underweight in women were prevalent among Hong Kong young adults. Inappropriate body shape desire might predispose individuals to unhealthy weight loss or gain behaviors. Careful consideration of actual weight status in body shape desire is needed in health promotion and education, especially for underweight and normal weight women and those with a low education level.

  13. Magnetization transfer on T2-weighted image : magnetization Transfer ratios in normal brain and cerebral lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Myung Kwan; Roh, Hong Gee; Suh, Chang Hae; Cho, Young Kook; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Sung Tae; Choi, Sung Kyu [Inha Univ. College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the magnetization transfer ratio(MTR) of various normal structures and pathologic lesions, as seen on magnetization transfer T2-weighted images (MT+T2WI). Materials and Methods : In ten normal volunteers, T2-weighted images without MT (MT-T2WI) and with MT(MT+T2WI) were obtained. Off-set pulses used in MT+T2WI were 400, 600, 1000, 1500, and 2000Hz. In 60 clinical cases infarction(n=10), brain tumors(n=5), traumatic hematomas(n=5), other hematomas(n=3) vascular malformation(n=2) white matter disease(n=2) normal(n=31) and others(n=2), both MT-T2WI and MT+T2WI images were obtained using an off-set pulse of 600 Hz. In all volunteers and patients, MTR in various normal brain parenchyma and abnormal areas was measured. Results : The MTRs of white and gray matter were 48% and 45% respectively at 400 Hz, 26% and 22% at 600Hz, 12% and 11% of 1000Hz, 10% and 9% 1500HZ, and 9% and 8% at 2000Hz of RF. The MTR of CSF was 43% at 400 Hz of off-resonance RF, while the contrast resolution of T2WI was poor. An off-resonance of 600Hz appeared to be the optimal frequency. In diseased areas,MTRs varied but were usually similar to or lower than those of brain parenchyma. Conclusion : The optimal off-resonance RF on MT+T2WI appears to be 600 Hz for relatively high MTR of brain parenchyma and low MTR of CSF,in which MTRs of white and gray matter were 26% and 22%, respectively, of 600Hz off-set pulse. The MTRs of cerebral lesions varied and further studies of various cerebral lesions are needed.

  14. Genetic parameter estimates for weaning weight and Kleiber ratio in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    China Supakorn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to evaluate the factors affecting on weaning weight (WW and Kleiber ratio (KR and toestimate genetic parameters for two traits in goats. The fixed factors affecting both traits indicated that year-season of birth,sex, birth type and regression of the Thai Native (TN, Boer (BO and Saanen (SA influenced on WW and KR (P<0.05. Malesin this population were heavier (P<0.05 than females. Weaning weights and KR of single kid were significantly higher (P<0.05 than other birth rearing types. Bivariate analysis of three models (Model 1: without maternal genetic effect, Model 2:with maternal genetic effect and am = 0, and Model 3: with maternal genetic effect and am  0 were used to estimate geneticparameters for this research. Estimated direct heritabilities from all models were 0.26 to 0.38 for WW, and 0.22 to 0.35 for KR.Estimated maternal heritabilities from Model 2 and 3 were 0.09 and 0.12 for WW and 0.08 and 0.11 for KR, respectively. Thedirect genetic and phenotypic correlations between WW and KR were positive and moderate values. Maternal genetic correlationsbetween them were positive and of low values. An antagonistic direct-maternal correlations from Model 3 withintraits and between traits indicated that offspring of does with superior maternal abilities probably may provide an inferiordirect genetic effect in the same trait and between traits. It was therefore possible to rapidly improve WW and KR in thisgoat population through selection, while the adverse effects of direct-maternal correlation within and between traits shouldbe considered. The best fit model would be a model including maternal genetic effect without a direct-maternal genetic covariance.

  15. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Amundson, M C; Hackbart, K S; Fuenzalida, M J; Herlihy, M M; Ayres, H; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Guenther, J N; Grummer, R R; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤ 2.50) versus higher (≥ 2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2

  16. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P. D.; Souza, A. H.; Amundson, M. C.; Hackbart, K. S.; Fuenzalida, M. J.; Herlihy, M. M.; Ayres, H.; Dresch, A. R.; Vieira, L. M.; Guenther, J. N.; Grummer, R. R.; Fricke, P. M.; Shaver, R. D.; Wiltbank, M. C.

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤2.50) versus higher (≥2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2, and

  17. [Body weight evolution and classification of body weight in relation to the results of bariatric surgery: roux-en-Y gastric bypass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Patrícia Fátima Sousa; Rasera Junior, Irineu; Leite, Celso Vieira de Souza; Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques de

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the evolution and classification of body weight in relation to the results of bariatric surgery in women who underwent the procedure more than two years ago. A total of 141 women underwent banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The participants were divided according to the time elapsed since surgery and the percentage of excess weight lost (%EWL): 75. The women in the group with %EWL 75 (36.2%) ranged from normal to pre-obese and presented lower late weight gain than the women in the other groups. Weight evolution two or more years after surgery showed the expected reductions, with some individuals responding better to surgery than others. This shows that it is necessary to monitor, investigate and intervene to obtain the desired results.

  18. Effects of Persea americana leaf extracts on body weight and liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-16

    Apr 16, 2007 ... weight of either aqueous or methanolic extract of P. americana leaf daily for 8 weeks. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the overall body weight gain of the hyperlipidaemic rats compared to normal control. However, the administration of the aqueous and methanolic extracts provoked 14 and.

  19. The Effect of Xylopia Aethiopica Leaves on Body Weight and Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Xylopia aethiopica leaves on body weight and growth performance was studied on growing Wistar rats. The study involved twenty-four rats of comparable sizes and weights ranging from 150 to 300g and divided into four groups of six rats each. Group A served as the control while groups B, C and D served as ...

  20. Body Fineness Ratio as a Predictor of Maximum Prolonged-Swimming Speed in Coral Reef Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jeffrey A.; Alfaro, Michael E.; Noble, Mae M.; Fulton, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to sustain high swimming speeds is believed to be an important factor affecting resource acquisition in fishes. While we have gained insights into how fin morphology and motion influences swimming performance in coral reef fishes, the role of other traits, such as body shape, remains poorly understood. We explore the ability of two mechanistic models of the causal relationship between body fineness ratio and endurance swimming-performance to predict maximum prolonged-swimming speed (Umax) among 84 fish species from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. A drag model, based on semi-empirical data on the drag of rigid, submerged bodies of revolution, was applied to species that employ pectoral-fin propulsion with a rigid body at U max. An alternative model, based on the results of computer simulations of optimal shape in self-propelled undulating bodies, was applied to the species that swim by body-caudal-fin propulsion at Umax. For pectoral-fin swimmers, Umax increased with fineness, and the rate of increase decreased with fineness, as predicted by the drag model. While the mechanistic and statistical models of the relationship between fineness and Umax were very similar, the mechanistic (and statistical) model explained only a small fraction of the variance in Umax. For body-caudal-fin swimmers, we found a non-linear relationship between fineness and Umax, which was largely negative over most of the range of fineness. This pattern fails to support either predictions from the computational models or standard functional interpretations of body shape variation in fishes. Our results suggest that the widespread hypothesis that a more optimal fineness increases endurance-swimming performance via reduced drag should be limited to fishes that swim with rigid bodies. PMID:24204575

  1. Relationship between body satisfaction with self esteemand unhealthy body weight management

    OpenAIRE

    Daniali, Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A favorable or unfavorable attitude about self was named self esteem. According to Maslow theory to achieve quality of life and happiness, one must reach the gradual fulfillment of human needs, including a high degree of own self-esteem. Body dissatisfaction is a negative distortion of one's body which is especially mentioned by the women. Many studies have shown links between self esteem, body dissatisfaction, health and behaviors. this study intends to determine relationship b...

  2. The Role of Attachment in Body Weight and Weight Loss in Bariatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Abigail; Hollywood, Amelia; Ogden, Jane; Hashemi, Majid

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the role of attachment styles in obesity. The present study explored differences in insecure attachment styles between an obese sample waiting for bariatric surgery (n = 195) and an age, sex and height matched normal weight control group (n = 195). It then explored the role of attachment styles in predicting change in BMI 1 year post bariatric surgery (n = 143). The bariatric group reported significantly higher levels of anxious attachment and lower levels of avoidant attachment than the control non-obese group. Baseline attachment styles did not, however, predict change in BMI post surgery. Attachment style is different in those that are already obese from those who are not. Attachment was not related to weight loss post surgery.

  3. The Role of Attachment in Body Weight and Weight Loss in Bariatric Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nancarrow, Abigail; Hollywood, Amelia; Ogden, Jane; Hashemi, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to explore the role of attachment styles in obesity. Material and Methods The present study explored differences in insecure attachment styles between an obese sample waiting for bariatric surgery (n = 195) and an age, sex and height matched normal weight control group (n = 195). It then explored the role of attachment styles in predicting change in BMI 1 year post bariatric surgery (n = 143). Results The bariatric group reported significant...

  4. [Natural evolution of excess body weight (overweight and obesity) in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá Travé, T; Gallinas Victoriano, F

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the chronological evolution of excess body weight (overweight and obesity) in order to raise public awareness within the different areas of intervention (family, school, business environment, health services) and to take effective actions. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of 604 healthy subjects (307 males and 297 females) have been recorded at birth and at the age of 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 years. The excess body weight has been calculated according to national references from Ferrández et al. Prevalence of excess body weight at age 14 years was significantly higher (P<.05) in males (29%) than in females (12.8%). BMI (kg/m2) was significantly higher (P<.05) for both sexes in every age period, except for birth and age 1 year, in those patients with excess body weight at age 14, with respect to patients with normal nutritional status of the same age. Those groups with excess body weight at age 14 showed a BMI (Z-score) reaching overweight or obesity levels at age 4, and progressively increasing. Excess body weight probably starts at early stages in life, when dietary habits of the child depends almost exclusively on family habits, and may be aggravated during school attendance. Finally, a disproportionate weight increase occurs in adolescence that is probably related to unhealthy dietary habits and way of life. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness of icatibant for treatment of hereditary angioedema attacks is not affected by body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Teresa; Zanichelli, Andrea; Aberer, Werner

    2018-01-01

    Background: Icatibant is a bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist used for the treatment of hereditary angioedema attacks resulting from C1-inhibitor deficiency. Treatment is not adjusted by body weight however the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the effectiveness of icatibant is not documented in ...

  6. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Weight-Related Criticism from Romantic Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, Christie; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Hull-Blanks, Elva; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura; Sollenberger, Sonja

    2001-01-01

    Examines weight-related criticism from romantic partners and the importance of the romantic relationship in relation to the body image and self esteem for college freshmen women. Results reveal that self esteem and body image were positively related. Partner importance also predicted self esteem, whereas criticism did not. (Contains 55 references…

  7. Body weight - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...le URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/open_tggates_body_...atabase Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Body weight - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive ...

  8. Eating frequency and weight and body composition: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, Raquel; da Silva Garcez, Anderson; Kac, Gilberto; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2017-08-01

    The present review aimed to examine the association of eating frequency with body weight or body composition in adults of both sexes. PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched. PRISMA and MOOSE protocols were followed. Observational studies published up to August 2016 were included. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed with the Downs and Black checklist. A systematic review of the literature. Adults (n 136 052); the majority of studies were developed in the USA and Europe. Thirty-one articles were included in the review: two prospective and twenty-nine cross-sectional studies. Thirteen per cent of the studies received quality scores above 80 %. The assessment of eating frequency and body composition or body weight varied widely across the studies. Potential confounders were included in 73 % of the studies. Fourteen studies reported an inverse association between eating frequency and body weight or body composition, and seven studies found a positive association. The majority of studies applied multiple analyses adjusted for potential confounders, such as sex, age, education, income, smoking, physical activity and alcohol intake. Six studies took into account under-reporting of eating frequency and/or energy intake in the analysis, and one investigated the mediation effect of energy intake. There is not sufficient evidence confirming the association between eating frequency and body weight or body composition when misreporting bias is taken into account. However, in men, a potential protective effect of high eating frequency was observed on BMI and visceral obesity.

  9. Association of newborn diseases with weight/length ratio and the adequacy of weight for gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Dias Bertagnon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the frequencies of newborn diseases in thosenewborns classified according to a weight/length rate and thoseclassified by the adequacy weight for gestational age. Methods: Aretrospective cross-sectional study by record assessment was carriedout enclosing all the live newborns at Hospital Geral do Grajaú, fromSeptember to December, 2009 (n =577 classified according to therate weight/length and also to the adequacy weight for gestationalage. The 10 and 90 percentiles of the weight/length distribution, nowdesignated as “indices” were calculated leading to the followingclassification: low index, for newborns below 54.8 g/cm; high index,for those over 75.8 g/cm; and average index, for the remainingnewborns. According to the adequacy weight for gestational age thenewborns were designated as pre-term for gestational age; term smallfor gestational age; appropriate term and large term. In this samplethere were no small and large pre-term or post-term newborns. Majordiseases were related to the index and adequacy extracts by the χ2test for a contingency table. Results: A significant association wasfound among low index, pre-term for gestational age newborns andterm small for gestational age; between average index and appropriatefor gestational age term newborns; and high index with large termappropriate for gestational age newborns (p< 0.001. Hypoglycemia(3.4% was associated to both low and high indices, to appropriatefor gestational age preterm newborns and to small for gestational ageterm newborns. Sepsis (3.1% was associated to both low index andpre-term appropriate for gestational age newborns. The respiratorydistress syndrome (1.3% was associated to low index and pre-termappropriate for gestational age newborns. Other respiratory distresssyndromes (3.8% were associated to low and high indices but notto the adequacy for gestational age classification. Jaundice (14.9%was not associated to the studied classifications

  10. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Gilmartin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. The ability to pursue self-esteem and the accruing social benefits is emphasized in the interrelated sub themes including social acceptance, undoing depression and sexual vitality. Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss appears to facilitate improvement in body image and well-being. Adjustment to the changing body image is both empowering and challenging. Supportive educational programmes need to be developed to assist this transition to a more positive body image and appreciation; these could usefully include access to and involvement with patient support groups.

  11. Concordance of In-Home "Smart" Scale Measurement with Body Weight Measured In-Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn M; Wing, Rena R

    2016-06-01

    Newer "smart" scales that transmit participants' body weights directly to data collection centers offer the opportunity to simplify weight assessment in weight management research; however, little data exist on the concordance of these data compared to weights measured at in-person assessments. We compared the weights of 58 participants (mean±SD BMI = 31.6±4.8, age = 52.1±9.7 years, 86.2% White, 65.5% Female) measured by study staff at an in-person assessment visit to weights measured on the same day at home using BodyTrace "smart" scales. These measures occurred after 3 months of an internet-based weight management intervention. Weight (mean±SD) measured at the 3-month in-person assessment visit was 81.5±14.7kg compared to 80.4±14.5kg measured on the same day using in-home body weight scales; mean bias =1.1±0.8kg, 95% limits of agreement = -0.5 to 2.6. Two outliers in the data suggest that there may be greater variability between measurements for participants weighing above 110 kg. Results suggest good concordance between the measurements and support the use of the BodyTrace smart scale in weight management research. Future trials using BodyTrace scales for outcome assessment should clearly define protocols for measurement and associated instructions to participants (e.g., instruct individuals to weigh at the same time of day, similarly clothed). Finally, measure concordance should be investigated in a group of individuals weighing more than 110kg.

  12. Landslide susceptibility mapping by comparing weight of evidence, fuzzy logic, and frequency ratio methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vakhshoori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A regional scale basin susceptible to landslide located in Qaemshahr area in northern Iran was chosen for comparing the reliability of weight of evidence (WofE, fuzzy logic, and frequency ratio (FR methods for landslide susceptibility mapping. The locations of 157 landslides were identified using Google Earth® or extracted from archived data, from which, 22 rockslides were eliminated from the data-set due to their different conditions. The 135 remaining landslides were randomly divided into two groups of modelling (70% and validation (30% data-sets. Elevation, slope degree, slope aspect, lithology, land use/cover, normalized difference vegetation index, rainfall, distance to drainage network, roads, and faults were considered as landslide causative factors. The landslide susceptibility maps were prepared using the three mentioned methods. The validation process was measured by the success and prediction rates calculated by area under receiver operating characteristic curve. The ‘OR’, ‘AND’, ‘SUM’, and ‘PRODUCT’ operators of the fuzzy logic method were unacceptable because these operators classify the target area into either very high or very low susceptible zones that are inconsistent with the physical conditions of the study area. The results of fuzzy ‘GAMMA’ operators were relatively reliable while, FR and WofE methods showed results that are more reliable.

  13. Birth Weight, Nutritional Status and Body Composition among Malaysian Children Aged 7 to 10 Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ang, Yeow Nyin

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Studies have indicated that lower birth weight is associated with lower body mass index, but the use of birth weight in predicting later nutritional status and adiposity remains inconsistent. Hence, this paper aimed to examine the relationship between birth weight and nutritional status with body composition among Malaysian children. This study is part of the Nutritional Survey of Malaysian Children, which is part of the four-country South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS). Subjects comprising 398 boys and 389 girls from the main ethnic groups, namely Malays, Chinese, Indians, Sabah and Sarawak natives, were recruited using a stratified random sampling. Anthropometric measurements comprised body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and body fat (BF). Body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) adjusted with height were included, and birth weight was obtained by parental report. Nutritional status such as weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and BMI-for-age (BAZ) were determined using the WHO growth reference for 5–19 years. Physical activity level was assessed using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children. Mean birth weight, height, weight, and BF were 3.1±0.5kg, 128.0±8.1cm, 28.4±8.9kg, and 27.9±9.1% respectively. Boys (20.4±4.2kg) had higher FFM (p 4.0kg) (WAZ: 0.51±1.35; HAZ: -0.07 ± 0.67) at p<0.05. Besides, there were significant differences in weight, height, BAZ, FFM and FFMI between birth weight groups. Birth weight has weak correlation (p<0.01) with FFM (r = 0.22), WAZ (r = 0.21), HAZ (r = 0.20), BAZ (r = 0.18) and WC (r = 0.14). After adjusting for covariates, we found that higher birth weight was associated with significant higher values in all anthropometric measurements (p<0.01), especially WC (β = 2.82, p<0.001). Multiple regression analysis also indicated that birth weight positively predicted later nutritional status; 1kg increase in birth weight predicted 0.70, 0.46, and 0

  14. Weight and body composition change over a six-week holiday period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, D R; Larson, J N; Wengreen, H

    2012-03-01

    Change in weight and body composition was assessed over a six-week holiday period. Baseline testing occurred the Monday or Tuesday prior to Thanksgiving Day (November 24 or 25, 2008), and the post-holiday assessment was the Monday or Tuesday after New Year's Day (January 5 or 6, 2009). Thirteen men and 21 women ranging in age from 23-61 years completed the study. The majority of participants (24 of 34) perceived that they had gained weight, and four did gain ≥2 kg. However, despite some changes to dietary and exercise habits, on average there was no difference between pre-holiday weight (74.0±17.8 kg) and post-holiday weight (73.9±18.1 kg), nor between pre-holiday body fat percentage (25.4±9.0%) and post-holiday body fat percentage (25.4±8.9%). Despite a perception of substantial weight gain, body weight and body fat remained unchanged over a six-week holiday period.

  15. Effects of the Dietary Protein and Carbohydrate Ratio on Gut Microbiomes in Dogs of Different Body Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a health epidemic in both humans and pets. A dysbiotic gut microbiota has been associated with obesity and other metabolic disorders. High-protein, low-carbohydrate (HPLC diets have been recommended for body weight loss, but little is known about their effects on the canine gut microbiome. Sixty-three obese and lean Labrador retrievers and Beagles (mean age, 5.72 years were fed a common baseline diet for 4 weeks in phase 1, followed by 4 weeks of a treatment diet, specifically, the HPLC diet (49.4% protein, 10.9% carbohydrate or a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC diet (25.5% protein, 38.8% carbohydrate in phase 2. 16S rRNA gene profiling revealed that dietary protein and carbohydrate ratios have significant impacts on gut microbial compositions. This effect appeared to be more evident in obese dogs than in lean dogs but was independent of breed. Consumption of either diet increased the bacterial evenness, but not the richness, of the gut compared to that after consumption of the baseline diet. Macronutrient composition affected taxon abundances, mainly within the predominant phyla, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The LPHC diet appeared to favor the growth of Bacteroides uniformis and Clostridium butyricum, while the HPLC diet increased the abundances of Clostridium hiranonis, Clostridium perfringens, and Ruminococcus gnavus and enriched microbial gene networks associated with weight maintenance. In addition, we observed a decrease in the Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio and an increase in the Bacteroides to Prevotella ratio in the HPLC diet-fed dogs compared to these ratios in dogs fed other diets. Finally, analysis of the effect of diet on the predicted microbial gene network was performed using phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt.

  16. A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by…

  17. Relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-03-01

    Recent research indicates that chewing behavior may influence energy intake and energy expenditure. However, little is known about the relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status. In the present study, 64 fully dentate normal-weight or overweight/obese adults were asked to consume five portions of a test food and the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration before swallowing and chewing rate were measured. Adjusting for age and gender, normal-weight participants used a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.003) and a longer chewing duration (p chewing rate (p = 0.597). A statistically significant negative correlation between body mass index and the number of chewing cycles (r = -0.296, p = 0.020) and chewing duration (r = -0.354, p = 0.005) was observed. In conclusion, these results suggest that chewing behavior is associated with body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

  18. Parental Misperception of Their Child's Body Weight Status Impedes the Assessment of the Child's Lifestyle Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine if distinct characteristics are associated with parental misclassification of underweight (UW, normal weight (NW, and overweight or obese (OWOB children and the implications of misclassification on the parental evaluation of the child's lifestyle habits. Methods. Cross-sectional analysis (2004 sample of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (1998–2010 (n=1,125. Results. 16%, 55%, and 77% of NW, UW and OWOB children were perceived inaccurately, respectively. Misperception was significantly higher in nonimmigrant parents of UW children, in highly educated parents of NW children and in NW and OWOB children with lower BMI percentiles. Erroneous body weight status identification impedes the evaluation of eating habits of all children as well as physical activity and fitness levels of UW and OWOB children. Conclusion. Parental misclassification of the child's body weight status and lifestyle habits constitutes an unfavorable context for healthy body weight management.

  19. Influence of the body weight on the onset and progression of puberty in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomova, Analia; Robeva, Ralitsa; Kumanov, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Unlike in girls, the data on the relationship between pubertal development and body weight in boys are controversial. We measured the height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), pubic hair stages, testicular volume, penis length and circumference of 4030 boys, aged between 7 and 19 years. According to their body weight, the investigated children and adolescents were divided in four groups at each age: underweight boys (BMI puberty occurred when the boys' weight gained 40.33±9.03 kg (median 39.00) and BMI was 18.62±3.12 kg/m2 (median 17.80), whereas the late stage was reached at weight of 62.44±10.39 kg (median 61.00) and BMI 21.47±2.84 kg/m2 (median 21.20). Earlier maturing boys were heavier than their coevals, whereas underweight boys developed puberty later. The onset and progression of puberty in boys are in a significant positive relationship with weight and BMI. Moreover, in the overweight boys pubertal development begins and comes to the late stage earlier in comparison with normal weight children, whereas in those who are underweight a delay at every stage of the development is observed.

  20. Body Weight and Breast Cancer: Nested Case-Control Study in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kops, Natália Luiza; Bessel, Marina; Caleffi, Maira; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Wendland, Eliana Marcia

    2018-04-28

    Current studies have shown that fast weight gain may be more important than body mass index on the incidence of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between body weight and breast cancer. This was a case-control study nested in a cohort of a breast cancer mammography screening program in Southern Brazil. A trained investigator administered a standardized interview to collect sociodemographic and clinical data, and body weight history (weight at menarche, at marriage, at first and last pregnancy, and at menopause). Current anthropometric measurements were also made. Fifty-seven women with cancer (66.7% postmenopausal) and 159 controls were included. Current age (60.3 ± 10.4 vs. 55.8 ± 8.4 years, P weight at different stages of life. Women with social vulnerability recruited at a mammography screening program in Southern Brazil showed a large weight gain during life, but no significant differences were found in body weight between women with or without breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ground reaction forces during level ground walking with body weight unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barela, Ana M. F.; de Freitas, Paulo B.; Celestino, Melissa L.; Camargo, Marcela R.; Barela, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Partial body weight support (BWS) systems have been broadly used with treadmills as a strategy for gait training of individuals with gait impairments. Considering that we usually walk on level ground and that BWS is achieved by altering the load on the plantar surface of the foot, it would be important to investigate some ground reaction force (GRF) parameters in healthy individuals walking on level ground with BWS to better implement rehabilitation protocols for individuals with gait impairments. Objective: To describe the effects of body weight unloading on GRF parameters as healthy young adults walked with BWS on level ground. Method: Eighteen healthy young adults (27±4 years old) walked on a walkway, with two force plates embedded in the middle of it, wearing a harness connected to a BWS system, with 0%, 15%, and 30% BWS. Vertical and horizontal peaks and vertical valley of GRF, weight acceptance and push-off rates, and impulse were calculated and compared across the three experimental conditions. Results: Overall, participants walked more slowly with the BWS system on level ground compared to their normal walking speed. As body weight unloading increased, the magnitude of the GRF forces decreased. Conversely, weight acceptance rate was similar among conditions. Conclusions: Different amounts of body weight unloading promote different outputs of GRF parameters, even with the same mean walk speed. The only parameter that was similar among the three experimental conditions was the weight acceptance rate. PMID:25590450

  2. Ground reaction forces during level ground walking with body weight unloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. F. Barela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Partial body weight support (BWS systems have been broadly used with treadmills as a strategy for gait training of individuals with gait impairments. Considering that we usually walk on level ground and that BWS is achieved by altering the load on the plantar surface of the foot, it would be important to investigate some ground reaction force (GRF parameters in healthy individuals walking on level ground with BWS to better implement rehabilitation protocols for individuals with gait impairments. Objective: To describe the effects of body weight unloading on GRF parameters as healthy young adults walked with BWS on level ground. Method: Eighteen healthy young adults (27±4 years old walked on a walkway, with two force plates embedded in the middle of it, wearing a harness connected to a BWS system, with 0%, 15%, and 30% BWS. Vertical and horizontal peaks and vertical valley of GRF, weight acceptance and push-off rates, and impulse were calculated and compared across the three experimental conditions. Results: Overall, participants walked more slowly with the BWS system on level ground compared to their normal walking speed. As body weight unloading increased, the magnitude of the GRF forces decreased. Conversely, weight acceptance rate was similar among conditions. Conclusions: Different amounts of body weight unloading promote different outputs of GRF parameters, even with the same mean walk speed. The only parameter that was similar among the three experimental conditions was the weight acceptance rate.

  3. Watching reality weight loss TV. The effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourn, Rebecca; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a weight loss reality TV show on body satisfaction, mood and food consumption. Young Australian women (N = 99) first completed baseline measures of state body satisfaction and mood. They were then randomly allocated to either a weight loss or a home renovation programme and were provided with snack foods during viewing. Post-measures included state body satisfaction, state mood and trait dietary restraint and snack food consumption. BMI moderated the relationship between condition and body satisfaction and mood. Larger women experienced less body satisfaction and less positive mood in response to the weight loss programme. Dietary restraint moderated the relationship between condition and food consumption. A greater percentage of women with lower dietary restraint ate in the control condition; whilst a greater percentage of women with higher dietary restraint ate food whilst watching the weight loss programme. These findings highlight the potential negative impact of weight-focused reality TV on mood, body satisfaction and snack food consumption among some women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of maternal breast milk and serum levels of macronutrients, hormones, and maternal body composition with infant's body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhshi, Adeleh; Mehrad-Majd, Hassan; Vahid, Farhad; Safarian, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the association of maternal serum and breast-milk levels of macronutrients, hormones, growth factors, and maternal body composition with infant's body weight. Eighty mother-infant pairs comprised 40 with overweight or obese infant and 40 with normal-weight infant were enrolled in this study. The level of ghrelin, Leptin, adiponectin, EGF, and IGF1 in plasma and breast milk were assessed. Daily breast milk intake and macronutrient concentration along with anthropometric indices of mother-infant pairs were also assessed. No significant differences were observed in concentrations of serum hormones between two groups (p > 0.05). However, hormones levels in maternal serum were higher than those in breast milk. A significant positive correlation was found between serum EGF and ghrelin (r = 0.57, p = 0 macronutrient content was not comparable between two groups. However, the average daily breast milk consumption in obese infants was higher than normals (p = 0.001). Milk EGF and leptin were related to a decrease of 59% and 46% the odds of obese infant development, respectively. There was a significant association of milk EGF and ghrelin with birth weight (B = -0.19, p = 0.04 and B = -0.2, p = 0.04, respectively), and also serum leptin with infant's body weight at the 6th month. Our findings provide a positive association of maternal weight, daily breast milk intake, EGF, and ghrelin with infant's body weight.

  5. Evaluation of 8-week body weight control program including sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) supplementation in Korean female college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Sung, Min Jung

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a body weight control program with supplementation of sea tangle (20 g/day) on 22 female college students. The contents of the program for 8 weeks contained diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification through nutrition education. Body composition, dietary habit scores, serum lipid profiles, daily nutrient intakes and the quality of life were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the program. Average age of subjects and height were 20.8 years and 161.9 cm, respectively. After 8 weeks, there were significant reductions in body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, waist-hip ratio and BMI. The dietary habit score such as a balanced diet, regularity of mealtime, overeating, eating while watching TV or using the computer and eating salty food were increased significantly. Serum lipid levels such as total cholesterol level, LDL-cholesterol level and triglyceride level were decreased but not significantly. There were decreases in intake of energy, protein and fat and increases in intakes of dietary fiber, folic acid, calcium and potassium from the beginning to the end of the program. There were significant improvements on subcomponents of quality of life; physical functioning, general-health and vitality. The limitation of this study was the fact that there was no control group, but an overall evaluation suggests the 8-week body weight control program consisting of diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification with supplementation of sea tangle would be helpful to improve the body composition, dietary habits, daily nutrient intakes and quality of life in Korean female college students. PMID:20098584

  6. Calorie Labeling in Chain Restaurants and Body Weight: Evidence from New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Brandon J

    2017-10-01

    This study analyzes the impact of local mandatory calorie labeling laws implemented by New York jurisdictions on body weight. The analysis indicates that on average the point-of-purchase provision of calorie information on chain restaurant menus reduced body mass index (BMI) by 1.5% and lowered the risk of obesity by 12%. Quantile regression results indicate that calorie labeling has similar impacts across the BMI distribution. An analysis of heterogeneity suggests that calorie labeling has a larger impact on the body weight of lower income individuals, especially lower income minorities. The estimated impacts of calorie labeling on physical activity, smoking, and the consumption of alcoholic beverages, fruits, and vegetables are small in magnitude, which suggests that other margins of adjustment drive the body-weight impacts estimated here. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effect of Gestational Weight Gain and Prepregnancy Body Mass Index in Adolescent Mothers on Weight and Body Mass Index of Adolescent Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Susan W; Holland, Margaret L; Smith, Joyce A; Meng, Ying; Kitzman, Harriet

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the association of the gestational weight gain and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) of low-income adolescent mothers with the risk of their children being overweight and/or obese in late adolescence. Study subjects were low-income, primiparous adolescents (n = 360) who self-identified as black and participated in the New Mothers Study in Memphis, Tennessee, and their children. Gestational weight gain was examined as a continuous variable and also categorized into overgain, recommended gain, and undergain following the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. The effects of maternal prepregnancy BMI percentiles and calculated BMI were also considered. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used. The main outcome measures were offspring overweight, obesity, and BMI. Thirty-nine percent of offspring were overweight or obese. Higher maternal gestational weight gain increased the risk for offspring overweight and obesity. There was an interaction between gestational weight gain and prepregnancy BMI: offspring of mothers with a BMI percentile ≤76 were at greater risk of obesity with higher maternal weight gain. If mothers with a BMI percentile between the 29th and 83rd percentiles overgained, offspring were at greater risk for overweight. Using calculated BMIs, if a mother's BMI was ≤26 kg/m 2 , offspring risk for obesity was greater with higher gestational weight gain. High gestational weight gain had a larger effect on offspring overweight and obesity if maternal prepregnancy BMI percentile was ≤76. The gestational weight gain of primiparous adolescents who self-identified as black had an effect on offspring weight. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Understanding depressive symptoms after bariatric surgery: the role of weight, eating and body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Paula; Bastos, Ana Pinto; Venâncio, Carla; Vaz, Ana Rita; Brandão, Isabel; Costa, José Maia; Machado, Paulo; Conceição, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms have been reported as prevalent after bariatric surgery. This study aims to analyze the role of weight, eating behaviors and body image in depressive symptomatology in bariatric surgery patients assessed post-operatively. This is a cross-sectional study including 52 bariatric surgery patients assessed post-operatively with a follow-up time ranging from 22 to 132 months. Psychological assessment included a clinical interview (Eating Disorder Examination) to assess eating disorders psychopathology, and three self-report measures: Outcome Questionnaire 45--general distress; Beck Depression Inventory--depressive symptoms; and Body Shape Questionnaire--body image. Our data show that depressive symptoms after surgery are associated with loss of control over eating, increased concerns with body image, and body mass index regain. Multiple linear regressions was tested including these variables and showed that body mass index regain after surgery, loss of control over eating and concerns with body image significantly explained 50% of the variance of post-operative depressive symptoms, being the concern with body image the most significant variable: greater dissatisfaction with body image was associated with more depressive symptoms. The results of this study showed that a subgroup of patients presents a significant weight gain after bariatric surgery, which is associated with episodes of loss of control over eating, concerns with body image and depressive symptoms. These results stress the relevance of body image concerns after surgery and the importance of clinically addressing these issues to optimize psychological functioning after bariatric surgery.

  9. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cettour-Rose Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested.

  10. Weight parameters of body parts in sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon from the Konstantinolázeňsko microregion, the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzal Vladimír

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sika deer is widely spread species, in Czech Republic mostly occurred in West Bohemia. This species is defined as one of the most harmful ungulate game in the forests. For the wildlife population of sika deer in the microregion Konstantinolázeňsko in West Bohemia, total weight after the hunt, weight after expelling organs, weight of the head and distal parts of the limbs, and weight of the internal organs (heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney were determined. Correlations between the weights of specific body parts (organs were evaluated. Ratio between the weight after expelling organs (after gralloch and the weight after hunt (total weight was determined. The weight after expelling organs was 74% of the total weight. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between the age and weight of individuals, and between the male age and the weight of the head. Without taking into account age differences, we show that males have a higher body weight than females, a form of sexual dimorphism.

  11. Differences for gender, weight and exercise in body image disturbance and eating disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnado-Sullivan, P J; Horton, R; Savoy, S

    2006-09-01

    Differences for gender, weight, exercise frequency and type for eating disorder symptoms and body image disturbance were examined. Further understanding of male body image disturbance was the primary goal. Males (n=200) and females (n=233) completed measures to assess eating disorder symptoms and multiple components of body image disturbance. Measures were modified to be more appropriate for males. Females endorsed higher levels of eating and body concerns. Males were divided between a desire to maintain, increase or decrease their size. Higher weight and exercise frequency was associated with increased body image concern and eating disorder symptoms, particularly for males. Exercise frequency was also linked to higher self-esteem for males. Males who used muscle-enhancing supplements indicated increased social pressures and concern for appearance, and a desire to increase their size. The findings support that weight and exercise frequency affect eating disorder symptoms and body image disturbance. Males appear to exhibit body image disturbance, which is related to their current weight status. Results support the call for further development of measures that more adequately address male concerns.

  12. Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-In Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7–12. The body mass index (BMI of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p < 0.05 and obese adolescents (p < 0.001 had a lower level of self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents.

  13. Body weight gain induced by a newer antipsychotic agent reversed as negative symptoms improved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, M; Nakayama, K

    2005-07-01

    We describe a patient in whom improvement in negative symptoms contributed to early weight loss and subsequent long-term improvement in weight management. Case report. A 26-year-old woman with schizophrenia gained 7 kg over the course of 1 year after starting treatment with olanzapine. However, as negative symptoms gradually improved with treatment, she became motivated to diet and exercise regularly. She quickly lost 9 kg and subsequently maintained optimal weight (55 kg; body mass index, 24.1 kg/m(2) ). Important strategies for minimizing weight gain in patients taking antipsychotic agents include improving negative symptoms of avolition and apathy, regular monitoring of body weight and potential medical consequences of overweight and obesity, and educating the patient about the importance of diet and regular exercise.

  14. Over, under, or about right: misperceptions of body weight among food stamp participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ver Ploeg, Michele L; Chang, Hung-Hao; Lin, Biing-Hwan

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the associations between misperception of body weight and sociodemographic factors such as food stamp participation status, income, education, and race/ethnicity. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999-2004 and multivariate logistic regression are used to estimate how sociodemographic factors are associated with (i) the probability that overweight adults misperceive themselves as healthy weight; (ii) the probability that healthy-weight adults misperceive themselves as underweight; and (iii) the probability that healthy-weight adults misperceive themselves as overweight. NHANES data are representative of the US civilian noninstitutionalized population. The analysis included 4,362 men and 4,057 women. BMI derived from measured weight and height was used to classify individuals as healthy weight or overweight. These classifications were compared with self-reported categorical weight status. We find that differences across sociodemographic characteristics in the propensity to underestimate or overestimate weight status were more pronounced for women than for men. Overweight female food stamp participants were more likely to underestimate weight status than income-eligible nonparticipants. Among healthy-weight and overweight women, non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American women, and women with less education were more likely to underestimate actual weight status. We found few differences across sociodemographic characteristics for men. Misperceptions of weight are common among both overweight and healthy-weight individuals and vary across socioeconomic and demographic groups. The nutrition education component of the Food Stamp Program could increase awareness of healthy body weight among participants.

  15. General relativistic dynamics of an extreme mass-ratio binary interacting with an external body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Casals, Marc

    2017-10-01

    We study the dynamics of a hierarchical three-body system in the general relativistic regime: an extreme mass-ratio inner binary under the tidal influence of an external body. The inner binary consists of a central Schwarzschild black hole and a test body moving around it. We discuss three types of tidal effects on the orbit of the test body. First, the angular momentum of the inner binary precesses around the angular momentum of the outer binary. Second, the tidal field drives a "transient resonance" when the radial and azimuthal frequencies are commensurable. In contrast with resonances driven by the gravitational self-force, this tidal-driven resonance may boost the orbital angular momentum and eccentricity (a relativistic version of the Kozai-Lidov effect). Finally, for an orbit-dynamical effect during the nonresonant phase, we calculate the correction to the innermost stable circular (mean) orbit due to the tidal interaction. Hierarchical three-body systems are potential sources for future space-based gravitational wave missions, and the tidal effects that we find could contribute significantly to their waveform.

  16. Head-body ratio as a visual cue for stature in people and sculptural art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, George

    2010-01-01

    Body size is crucial for determining the outcome of competition for resources and mates. Many species use acoustic cues to measure caller body size. Vision is the pre-eminent sense for humans, but visual depth cues are of limited utility in judgments of absolute body size. The reliability of internal body proportion as a potential cue to stature was assessed with a large sample of anthropometric data, and the ratio of head height to body height (HBR) was found to be highly correlated with stature. A psychophysical experiment was carried out to investigate whether the cue actually influences stature judgments. Participants were shown pairs of photographs of human figures in which HBR had been manipulated systematically, and asked to select the figure that appeared taller. Results showed that figures with a relatively small HBR were consistently perceived as taller than figures with a relatively large HBR. Many classical statues such as Michelangelo's David depart from the classical proportions defined in Leonardo's Vitruvian Man. A supplementary experiment showed that perceived stature in classical statues also depends on HBR. Michelangelo's David was created with the HBR of a man 165 cm (5 ft 5 in) tall.

  17. Combined associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with the outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nohr, E.A.; Vaeth, M.; Baker, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although both maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) may affect birth weight, their separate and joint associations with complications of pregnancy and delivery and with postpartum weight retention are unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate...... the combined associations of prepregnancy BMI and GWG with pregnancy outcomes and to evaluate the trade-offs between mother and infant for different weight gains. DESIGN: Data for 60892 term pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort were linked to birth and hospital discharge registers. Self...

  18. Physical Activity, Body Size, Intentional Weight Loss and Breast Cancer Risk: Fellowship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    early life physical activity and weight interactions in postmenopausal women; 2) age specific intentional weight loss; 3) method of weight loss. In...Effects of aerobic exercise and dietary carbohydrate on energy expenditure and body composition during weight reduction in obese women. Am J Clin...3600 1 soccer , and swimming as well as labor, but not high school 1-2 561 696 0.95 (0.83-1.08) s r 3-4 694 957 0.91 (0.81-1.02) physical education. Up

  19. Upper body push and pull strength ratio in recreationally active adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete, Rodney J; Hanney, William J; Pabian, Patrick; Kolber, Morey J

    2013-04-01

    Agonist to antagonist strength data is commonly analyzed due to its association with injury and performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the agonist to antagonist ratio of upper body strength using two simple field tests (timed push up/timed modified pull up) in recreationally active adults and to establish the basis for reference standards. One hundred eighty (180) healthy recreationally active adults (111 females and 69 males, aged 18-45 years) performed two tests of upper body strength in random order: 1. Push-ups completed during 3 sets of 15 seconds with a 45 second rest period between each set and 2. Modified pull-ups completed during 3 sets of 15 seconds with a 45 second rest period between each set. The push-up to modified pull-up ratio for the males was 1.57:1, whereas females demonstrated a ratio of 2.72:1. The results suggest that for our group of healthy recreationally active subjects, the upper body "pushing" musculature is approximately 1.5-2.7 times stronger than the musculature involved for pulling. In this study, these recreationally active adults displayed greater strength during the timed push-ups than the modified pull-ups. The relationship of these imbalances to one's performance and or injury risk requires further investigation. The reference values, however, may serve the basis for future comparison and prospective investigations. The field tests in this study can be easily implemented by clinicians and an agonist/antagonist ratio can be determined and compared to our findings. 2b.

  20. "Is there an Association Between Self-Reported Sleep Duration, Body Mass Index and Waist-Hip Ratio in Young Adults? A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, M Ganesh; Prakash, Jay; Dash, Sambit; Chowdhury, Sudipta; Ahmed, Zuhilmi Bin; Yusof, Muhammad Zaim Zharif Bin Mohd

    2014-09-01

    Sleep is vital for mental and physical health of an individual. Duration of sleep influences the metabolism and regulates body weight. To assess the cross-sectional association of sleep duration with body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio in Malaysian students. Eighty-nine Malaysian students of both genders, and with a mean (standard deviation) age of 21.2 (0.9) years were included. Institutional Ethics Committee clearance was obtained prior to the start of study. The subjects were interviewed regarding the average hours of sleep/day, their self-reported sleep duration was categorized as 7hour/day. Their height (in meters), weight (in kilograms), waist and hip circumference (in centimetre) were measured. BMI and waist-hip ratio were calculated using appropriate formulas and expressed as mean (standard deviation). The duration of sleep was compared with BMI and waist-hip ratio using one way ANOVA. No statistical significance was observed when sleep duration was associated with BMI (p=0.65) and waist-hip ratio (p=0.95). Duration of sleep did not affect BMI and waist hip ratio in the Malaysian students in our study. The age and healthy lifestyle of the subjects in this study may have been a reason for no significant influence of short sleep duration on the BMI and waist-hip ratio. No association was found between sleep duration with BMI and waist hip ratio in the Malaysian students.

  1. Male pre- and post-pubertal castration effect on live weight, components of empty body weight, estimated nitrogen excretion and efficiency in Piemontese hypertrofic cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Biagini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of sexual neutering and age of castration on empty body weight (EBW components and estimated nitrogen excretion and efficiency, a trial was carried out on 3 groups of double-muscled Piemontese calves: early castrated (EC, 5th month of age, late castrated (LC, 12th month of age and intact males (IM, control group. Animals were fed at the same energy and protein level and slaughtered at 18th month of age. Live and slaughtering performances and EBW components were recorded, whereas N excretion was calculated by difference between diet and weight gain N content. In live and slaughtering performances, IM showed higher final, carcass and total meat weight than EC and LC (P<0.01. In EBW components, IM showed higher blood and head weight than EC and LC (P<0.01 and 0.05 respectively, and differences were found between EC and LC for head weights (P<0.01. IM showed higher body crude protein (BCP than EC and LC (P<0.01 and 0.05 respectively, but BCP/EBW ratio was higher only in IM than EC (P<0.05. Estimated N daily gain was higher in IM than EC and LC (P<0.01. Only LC showed higher excretion than IM (P<0.05, and N efficiency was higher in IM than EC and LC (P<0.05 and 0.01 respectively. In conclusion, for the Piemontese hypertrophied cattle castration significantly increases N excretion (+7% and reduces N efficiency (-15%, leading to a lower level of sustainability.

  2. Effects of exercise during the holiday season on changes in body weight, body composition and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J L; Krishnan, S; Stoner, M A; Goktas, Z; Cooper, J A

    2013-09-01

    Identifying critical periods of greater weight gain could provide useful information to combat the obesity epidemic. We tested whether body weight (BW), body fat percentage (BF%) and blood pressure (BP) changed during the holiday season (thanksgiving to new year's day) and the impact of regular exercise on these parameters. A total of 48 males and 100 females (age 18-65 years) with a mean body mass index of 25.1±0.5 kg/m(2) were evaluated in mid-November (visit 1) and early January (visit 2; across 57±0.5 days). Anthropometric data, BF%, BP and self-reported exercise were recorded. Participants showed significant increases in BW (0.78±0.1 kg, Pholiday weight gain and was not a significant predictor for changes in BW or BF%. Data are reported as means±s.e. Our participants gained an average of 0.78 kg, which indicates the majority of average annual weight gain (1 kg/y) reported by others may occur during the holiday season. Obese participants are most at risk as they showed the greatest increases in BF%. Initial BW, not exercise, significantly predicted BF% and BW gain.

  3. Post-discharge body weight and neurodevelopmental outcomes among very low birth weight infants in Taiwan: A nationwide cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Ting; Chen, Chao-Huei; Wang, Teh-Ming; Hsu, Ya-Chi

    2018-01-01

    Background Premature infants are at high risk for developmental delay and cognitive dysfunction. Besides medical conditions, growth restriction is regarded as an important risk factor for cognitive and neurodevelopmental dysfunction throughout childhood and adolescence and even into adulthood. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between post-discharge body weight and psychomotor development using a nationwide dataset. Materials and methods This was a nationwide cohort study conducted in Taiwan. Total of 1791 premature infants born between 2007 and 2011 with a birth weight of less than 1500 g were enrolled into this multi-center study. The data were obtained from the Taiwan Premature Infant Developmental Collaborative Study Group. The growth and neurodevelopmental evaluations were performed at corrected ages of 6, 12 and 24 months. Post-discharge failure to thrive was defined as a body weight below the 3rd percentile of the standard growth curve for Taiwanese children by the corrected age. Results The prevalence of failure to thrive was 15.8%, 16.9%, and 12.0% at corrected ages of 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. At corrected ages of 24 months, 12.9% had low Mental Developmental Index (MDI) scores (MDIneurodevelopmental impairment. Post-discharge failure to thrive was significantly associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. After controlling for potential confounding factors (small for gestational age, extra-uterine growth retardation at discharge, cerebral palsy, gender, mild intraventricular hemorrhage, persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, hemodynamic significant patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, surfactant use and indomethacin use), post-discharge failure to thrive remained a risk factor. Conclusion This observational study observed the association between lower body weight at corrected age of 6, 12, and 24 months and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes among VLBW

  4. Association of Body Weight and Body Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Women and Men from Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Bahtiri, Elton; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatciu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-08-01

    Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered potentially modifiable determinants of bone mass. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the association between body weight and body mass index (BMI) with total hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD). This cross-sectional study included a population of 100 women and 32 men from Kosovo into three BMI groups. All the study subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. Total hip BMD levels of obese menopausal and premenopausal women and men were significantly higher compared to overweight or normal weight subjects, while lumbar spine BMD levels of only menopausal women and men were higher among obese subjects. Age-adjusted linear regression analysis showed that BMI is a significant independent associate of lumbar spine and total hip BMD in menopausal women and men. Despite positive association between BMI and lumbar spine and total hip BMD in menopausal women, presence of more obese and osteoporotic subjects among menopausal women represent a population at risk for fractures because of poor balance and frequent falls; therefore, both obesity and osteoporosis prevention efforts should begin early on in life.

  5. Role of obesity and media in body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the association of media and obesity status with body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait. 228 female students, aged 19-25 years, were selected at convenience from the Women's College in Kuwait. A previously validated questionnaire was used to collect information on the role of media in body concern and how parents, peers and the girls themselves perceived girls' body shapes. Weight and height were gathered by self-reporting. Use of internet and reading women's magazines had a significant impact on dieting by the girls to lose weight (Pobese girls than non-obese girls. Only watching television had a significant impact on girls' body shape concern (Pobese and 81% of obese girls were dissatisfied with their current weight. There were significant differences between obese and non-obese girls regarding the girls' views and the views of their peers and parents about the body weight of the girls (P<0.000 for all). The pressure from peers and parents, in addition to the mass media, may lead to disturbed attitudes towards eating among Kuwaiti girls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Relationship between body weight status and self-concept in schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Rodríguez García, Pedro L; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Pérez-Soto, Juan J; Tarraga Marcos, Loreto; Tarraga López, Pedro

    2014-11-30

    Body weight status has been linked to other health parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body weight status and self-concept in a sample of 216 students (9.26 ± 1.26 years) from schools of the Southeast of Spain. BMI (Body-mass index) was used to evaluate the body weight status. Subjects were classified into normal weight, overweight and obesity according to international standards. The six dimensions of self-concept (intellectual, behavioral, physical, lack of anxiety, social and life satisfaction) were assessed using the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale. The results showed significant associations between BMI and intellectual self-concept, life satisfaction, global self-concept and physical self. Subjects categorized as overweight or obese were those who showed lower scores on the self-concept scale. Interventions focused on improving the body weight status are needed in order to achieve better self-concept levels and health among young people. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Minooee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM/ body lean mass (BLM in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW. Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27 vs. 15.7% (22. Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively. Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS

  8. Short-term increase of body weight triggers immunological variables in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, H; Janssens, G P J; Stuyven, E; Cox, E; Buyse, J; Hesta, M

    2012-01-15

    Overweight in dogs is, as in other companion animals, a major risk factor for several metabolic disorders. However, it is not yet known whether immunity is challenged by increased body weight in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a short-term increase in body weight on immunological variables in adult healthy beagle dogs. Sixteen dogs, divided into a control group (CG) and weight gain group (WGG), were included. During a period of 13 weeks, the CG was fed at maintenance energy requirement (MER), whereas the WGG received a double amount of food. After 13 weeks, blood samples were taken for immunological and biochemical analyses. Weight gain and increased body condition score in the WGG were accompanied by a significant higher leptin concentration. Weight gain increased the number of lymphocytes and immunoglobulins A and M and was responsible for a higher proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Short-term increase of body weight thus seems to trigger immunological variables in dogs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Decreased hedonic responsiveness following chronic mild stress is not secondary to loss of body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, P; Moreau, J L; Nielsen, C K; Papp, M; Sluzewska, A

    1996-07-01

    Chronic exposure to mild unpredictable stress (CMS) has previously been found to decrease hedonic responsiveness, as measured by the consumption of palatable sweet solutions or sensitivity to brain stimulation reward. These effects are reversed by chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs, and the CMS procedure has been proposed as a relatively valid animal model of depression. It has recently been suggested that the behavioural effects of CMS may be secondary to loss of body weight. This article collates data from five laboratories using the CMS procedure. Data are presented from seven studies using five different rat strains, as well as CD1 mice. Three-week exposure to CMS significantly decreased sucrose consumption by Lister hooded, PVG hooded, Wistar, and Wistar WU rats, and by CD1 mice, and sensitivity to brain stimulation reward in Ibm:Ro Ro rats. Weight loss in different experiments varied between 0 and 10%. Hedonic sensitivity relative to body weight (e.g., mg sucrose/g body weight) decreased significantly in all experiments. Animals maintained on a restricted feeding regime lost weight but did not show decreases in sucrose intake. It is concluded that decreased hedonic sensitivity following chronic mild stress cannot be attributed to loss of body weight.

  10. Prenatal Centrifugation: A Mode1 for Fetal Programming of Body Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.

    2005-01-01

    'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1 -g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also crossfostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P) 12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.

  11. Age-related differences in body weight loss in response to altered thyroidal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, A D

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether age-related differences in body weight loss in hyperthyroidism could be related to caloric intake, the body weight and food consumption of Fischer 344 male rats were monitored every other day for four weeks. Six-month-old (young) rats were compared to 16-month-old rats (intermediate age) and 25-month-old (aged) rats. Hypothyroidism was induced with 0.025% methimazole in the drinking water for four weeks. Hyperthyroidism was induced with triiodothyronine (T3) injections (15 micrograms/100 g body weight i.p.) for the last 10 days of observation. A group of young rats pair fed with aged rats was included as a control group. The body weight changes of aged rats were similar to hypothyroid young rats. An index of T3 catabolic effect was calculated based on the net weight loss and food intake. This index was not different in aged rats compared to young rats. The apparent hypersensitivity of aged rats to T3 as evidenced by excessive weight loss could totally be attributed to decreased caloric intake. It is concluded that aged rats compared to the young are not more sensitive to the overall catabolic effects of thyroid hormones.

  12. Behavioral and body size correlates of energy intake underreporting by obese and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsch, M J; Fong, A K; Green, M W

    1999-03-01

    To examine behavioral and body size influences on the underreporting of energy intake by obese and normal-weight women. Seven-day estimated food records were kept by subjects before they participated in a 49-day residential study. Self-reported energy intake was compared with energy intake required to maintain a stable body weight during the residential study (reference standard). Energy intake bias and its relationship to various body size and behavioral measures were examined. Twenty-two, healthy, normal-weight (mean body mass index [BMI] = 21.3) and obese (mean BMI = 34.2) women aged 22 to 42 years were studied. Analysis of variance, paired t test, simple linear regression, and Pearson correlation analyses were conducted. Mean energy intake from self-reported food records was underreported by normal-weight (-9.7%) and obese (-19.4%) women. BMI correlated inversely with the energy intake difference for normal-weight women (r = -.67, P = .02), whereas the Beck Depression Inventory correlated positively with the energy intake difference for obese women (r = .73, P behavioral traits play a role in the ability of women to accurately self-report energy intake. BMI appears to be predictive of underreporting of energy intake by normal-weight women, whereas emotional factors related to depression appear to be more determinant of underreporting for obese women. Understanding causative factors of the underreporting phenomenon will help practicing dietitians to devise appropriate and realistic diet intervention plans that clients can follow to achieve meaningful change.

  13. Body image perception and attempts to change weight among female medical students at Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessing body image self-perception has used BMI as an indicator of nutritional status. The visual analogue scale is a highly effective instrument for assessing people′s level of dissatisfaction with their body weight while evaluating the perceptual component of body image. Objective: By knowing body mass index of female medical students, to find out their pattern of body image perception and any attempts done to change their weight. Materials and Methods: All the students residing in MBBS ladies hostel were included in this study and a questionnaire regarding body image perception, diet, physical activity and attempts to change weight was instituted. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Results: Among 147 study subjects, according to BMI, 25(17% were undernourished while 111(75.5% and 11(7.5% were normally nourished and overweight respectively. 35(23.8% of the subjects felt they were lean, 95(64.6% felt they were normal and 17(11.6% felt they were overweight. Regarding image satisfaction, 98(66.7% of them were satisfied with their image and out of 49 who were not satisfied 30 (20.4 % wanted to reduce weight. Skipping meals was practiced by 42 (28.6% of subjects. Conclusion: About 75.5% of the study group were having normal BMI. Most of them perceived their image correctly regarding to their weight. Most of the underweight and all overweight females were not satisfied. Underweight females preferred to gain weight and overweight females preferred to lose weight.

  14. Pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives may reduce body weight in rats with diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Magdalena; Knutelska, Joanna; Bednarski, Marek; Nowiński, Leszek; Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Kazek, Grzegorz; Mordyl, Barbara; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Zaręba, Paula; Kulig, Katarzyna; Sapa, Jacek

    2016-04-05

    Obesity affects an increasing number of individuals in the human population and significant importance is attached to research leading to the discovery of drug which would effectively reduce weight. The search for new drugs with anorectic activity and acting within the adrenergic system has attracted the interest of researchers. This study concerns the experimental effects on body weight of α2-adrenoceptor antagonists from the group of pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives in rats with diet-induced obesity. The intrinsic activity of the test compounds at the α-adrenoreceptors was tested. Obesity in rats was obtained by the use of fatty diet and then the influence of the test compounds on body weight, food and water intakes, lipid and glucose profiles and glycerol and cortisol levels were determinated. The effects of the compounds on locomotor activity, body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate were tested. One of the test compounds (1-(3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl)pyrrolidin-2-one) reduces the animal's body weight and the amount of peritoneal adipose tissue during chronic administration, at the same time it does not cause significant adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. This compound decreases temperature and elevates glycerol levels and does not change the locomotor activity and cortisol level at anti-obese dose. Some derivatives of pyrrolidin-2-one that act as antagonists of the α2-adrenoreceptor may reduce body weight. Reducing body weight for 1-(3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl)pyrrolidin-2-one can be associated with decrease in food intake, body fat reduction, reduction of blood glucose, and increased thermogenesis and lipolysis. This effect cannot be the result of changes in spontaneous activity or stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Health risks, past usage, and intention to use weight loss products in normal weight women with high and low body dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenhunt, B L; Williamson, D A; Netemeyer, R G; Andrews, C

    2003-06-01

    There are many health risks involved with the use of weight loss products by normal weight women. The mass media may compound this problem through the promotion of weight loss products and a thin body size. This study tested women's perceptions of different weight loss product ads to determine if body dysphoria (i.e., an over concern with body size and shape in normal weight people) was associated with risk beliefs, past behaviors, and intention toward using weight loss products. Normal weight women (age range = 18-41 yr), who were classified as either high (n=45) or low (n=43) on a measure of body dysphoria, rated different weight loss products according to their perception of health risks, past behavior, and their intention to consume the products. These products were a dietary fat substitute (olestra), a prescription obesity medication (sibutramine), and an over-the-counter appetite suppressant (phenylpropanolamine). High body dysphoric women reported higher intentions to use the products as well as increased prior use of two of the three weight loss products. High body dysphoric women did not believe that these weight loss products were harmless. They recognized potential health risks associated with using such products, but nonetheless, expressed intention to use these weight loss products at a higher frequency. Also, several variables related to body image were found to effectively discriminate normal weight women at risk for abusing weight loss products. This study found that women who do not need to lose weight but have significant body image concerns were willing to use potentially harmful weight loss products despite the knowledge that such products might pose significant health risks. Techniques utilized by advertising regulatory agencies such as warning labels did not have a strong deterrent effect for stated intentions to use the products. Implications of these findings for public health policy issues were discussed.

  16. Organ doses as a function of body weight for environmental gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Petoussi, N.; Zankl, M.; Veit, R.; Jacob, P.; Drexler, G.

    1991-01-01

    The organ doses for γ rays from typical environmental sources were determined with Monte Carlo calculations using anthropomorphic phantoms having different body sizes. It has been suggested that body weight is the predominant factor influencing organ doses for environmental γ rays, regardless of sex and age. A weight function expressing organ doses for environmental γ rays was introduced. This function fitted well with the organ doses calculated using the different phantoms. The function coefficients were determined mathematically with the least squares method. On the assumption that this function was applicable to organ doses for human bodies with diverse characteristics, the variances in organ doses due to race, sex, age and difference in body weight of adults were investigated. The variations of organ doses due to race and sex were not significant. Differences in body weight were found to alter organ doses by a maximum of 10% for γ rays over 100 keV, and 20% for low-energy γ rays. The doses for organs located deep inside a body, such as ovaries, differed between a newborn baby and an adult by a maximum factor of 2 to 3. For γ rays over 100 keV, the variation was within a factor of 2 for all organs. The organ doses for adolescents more than 12 years agreed within 15% with those of the average adult. (author)

  17. [Longitudinal study of weight and body mass index after renal transplantation during 5 years of evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Castillo, Rafael; Fernandez Gallegos, Ruth; Esteban de la Rosa, Rafael Jose; Peña Amaro, María Pilar

    2014-08-01

    Gain weight after transplantation is relatively common, also tends to be multifactorial and can be influenced by glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive medications, delayed graft function and cause serious health complications. Assess changes in weight, degree of obesity and body mass index as well as the effect of immunosuppressive treatment over these 5 years after kidney transplantation. The samples were 119 kidney transplant recipients, 70 men and 49 women, that attended the query post for five years. All patients were measured Pretransplant and post (from 1st year to the 5th year) weight, height and body mass index calculated by the formula weight/size2 relating it to immunosuppressive treatment taking. There is a considerable increase of body mass index, weight and degree of obesity in the first year after transplantation to increase more slowly in the next four years. The type of immunosuppressive treatment influence the weight and degree of obesity that occurs in this period of time. A high prevalence there are overweight and obesity after the transplant especially during the first year. A year patients earn an average of 6.6 kg in weight and an average of 2.5 kg/m2 in their BMI. During treatment should minimize doses of steroids and include dietary treatment and adequate physical exercise. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Zinc Compound on Body Weight and Recovery of Bone Marrow in Mice Treated with Total Body Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yii Huang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if zinc compound would have effects on body weight loss and bone marrow suppression induced by total body irradiation (TBI. ICR mice were divided randomly into two groups and treated with test or control compounds. The test compound contained zinc (amino acid chelated with bovine prostate extract, and the control was reverse osmosis pure water (RO water. One week after receiving the treatment, mice were unirradiated, or irradiated with 6 or 3 Gy by 6MV photon beams to the total body. Body weight changes were examined at regular intervals. Three and 5 weeks after the radiation, animals were sacrificed to examine the histologic changes in the bone marrow. Lower body weight in the period of 1-5 weeks after radiation and poor survival rate were found after the 6 Gy TBI, as compared with the 3 Gy groups. The median survival time after 6 Gy and 3 Gy TBI for mice given the test compound were 26 and 76 days, respectively, and the corresponding figures were 14 and 70 days, respectively, for mice given the control compound (p < 0.00001. With zinc supplement, the mean body weight in mice which received the same dose of radiation was 7-8 g heavier than in the water-supplement groups during the second and third weeks (p < 0.05. Hence, there was no statistically significant difference in survival rate between zinc and water supplement in mice given the same dose of irradiation. Histopathologically there was less recovery of bone marrow cells in the 6Gy groups compared with the 3Gy groups. In the 3 Gy water-supplement group, the nucleated cells and megakaryocytes were recovered in the fifth week when recovery was still not seen in the 6Gy group. With zinc supplement, these cells were recovered in the third week. In this study, we found that zinc is beneficial to body weight in mice treated with TBI. Histologic examination of bone marrow showed better recovery of bone marrow cells in groups of mice fed with zinc. This study

  19. Report on childhood obesity in China (5) Body weight, body dissatisfaction, and depression symptoms of Chinese children aged 9-10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.P.; Ma, G.S.; Schouten, E.G.; Hu, X.Q.; Cui, Z.H.; Wang, D.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between body weight, body dissatisfaction and depression symptoms among Chinese children. METHODS: The fasting body weight and height of the third and fourth grade students (n = 3886, aged 9 or 10 years) from 20 schools in Beijing, China, were measured, and the

  20. Parental Perceptions of and Concerns About Child's Body Weight in Eight European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regber, Susann; Novak, Masuma; Eiben, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    What is already known about this subject: Parents of children with overweight and obesity tend to underestimate their children's weight. Most studies show no association between parental education level and accurate parental perception of a child's weight category. Studies show no consistent...... relationship between parental weight perception and the child's gender. What this study adds: Parental underestimation of children's weight category for children in the overweight and obesity categories was found across eight European countries. Regional differences indicated a more accurate parental weight...... perception in Northern and Central Europe. A high proportion of parents in Southern Europe were concerned about future underweight or overweight in their children. Objectives: To evaluate parental perceptions of and concern about child's body weight and general health in children in a European cohort. Design...

  1. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E; Gower, Barbara A

    2013-06-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/day deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (75 points per 1000 kcal, n = 29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  2. Alternative Growth Promoters Modulate Broiler Gut Microbiome and Enhance Body Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaheen, Serajus; Kim, Seon-Woo; Haley, Bradd J.; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S.; Biswas, Debabrata

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) are frequently used to enhance weight-gain in poultry production. However, there has been increasing concern over the impact of AGP on the emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic bacterial pathogens in the microbial community of the poultry gut. In this study, we adopted mass-spectrophotometric, phylogenetic, and shotgun-metagenomic approaches to evaluate bioactive phenolic extracts (BPE) from blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) pomaces as AGP alternatives in broilers. We conducted two trials with 100 Cobb-500 broiler chicks (in each trial) in four equal groups that were provided water with no supplementation, supplemented with AGP (tylosin, neomycin sulfate, bacitracin, erythromycin, and oxytetracycline), or supplemented with 0.1 g Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L or 1.0 g GAE/L (during the last 72 h before euthanasia) of BPE for 6 weeks. When compared with the control group (water only), the chickens supplemented with AGP and 0.1 g GAE/L of BPE gained 9.5 and 5.8% more body weight, respectively. The microbiomes of both the AGP- and BPE-treated chickens had higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratios. AGP supplementation appeared to be associated with higher relative abundance of bacteriophages and unique cecal resistomes compared with BPE supplementation or control. Functional characterization of cecal microbiomes revealed significant animal-to-animal variation in the relative abundance of genes involved in energy and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings established a baseline upon which mechanisms of plant-based performance enhancers in regulation of animal growth can be investigated. In addition, the data will aid in designing alternate strategies to improve animal growth performance and consequently production. PMID:29123512

  3. Alternative Growth Promoters Modulate Broiler Gut Microbiome and Enhance Body Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serajus Salaheen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs are frequently used to enhance weight-gain in poultry production. However, there has been increasing concern over the impact of AGP on the emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic bacterial pathogens in the microbial community of the poultry gut. In this study, we adopted mass-spectrophotometric, phylogenetic, and shotgun-metagenomic approaches to evaluate bioactive phenolic extracts (BPE from blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus pomaces as AGP alternatives in broilers. We conducted two trials with 100 Cobb-500 broiler chicks (in each trial in four equal groups that were provided water with no supplementation, supplemented with AGP (tylosin, neomycin sulfate, bacitracin, erythromycin, and oxytetracycline, or supplemented with 0.1 g Gallic acid equivalent (GAE/L or 1.0 g GAE/L (during the last 72 h before euthanasia of BPE for 6 weeks. When compared with the control group (water only, the chickens supplemented with AGP and 0.1 g GAE/L of BPE gained 9.5 and 5.8% more body weight, respectively. The microbiomes of both the AGP- and BPE-treated chickens had higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratios. AGP supplementation appeared to be associated with higher relative abundance of bacteriophages and unique cecal resistomes compared with BPE supplementation or control. Functional characterization of cecal microbiomes revealed significant animal-to-animal variation in the relative abundance of genes involved in energy and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings established a baseline upon which mechanisms of plant-based performance enhancers in regulation of animal growth can be investigated. In addition, the data will aid in designing alternate strategies to improve animal growth performance and consequently production.

  4. Lean rats gained more body weight than obese ones from a high-fibre diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoting; Zhang, Cheng; Gu, Yingyi; Chen, Long; Ou, Shiyi; Wang, Yong; Peng, Xichun

    2015-10-28

    There is controversy over previous findings that a high ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteriodetes helps obese animals harvest energy from the diet. To further investigate the relationship between microbial composition and energy harvest, microbial adaptation to diet and time should be considered. In this study, lean and obese rats were successfully induced with low-fat and high-fat diets. An 8-week high soyabean fibre (HSF)-containing diet was then fed to investigate the interaction between the diet and the rats' gut microbiota, as well as their influence on rats' growth. Rats' body weight (BW) was recorded weekly; their plasma lipids and their gut microbiota at week 11, 15 and 19 were analysed. After the consumption of the HSF diet, BW of lean rats increased significantly (Pcontent of plasma cholesterol was lowered and that of TAG was upgraded in both the groups when fed the HSF diet. There was no significant difference observed at each period between lean and obese rats. In the group of lean rats, the diversity of gut microbiota was elevated strongly (Pbacterial diversity and composition in obese rats were less altered after the HSF diet control. In conclusion, the increased Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes might relate to lean rats' higher BW gain; 'obese microbiota' could not help the hosts harvest more energy from the HSF diet.

  5. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Willer (Cristen); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); S. Li (Shengxu); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); I.M. Heid (Iris); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); A.L. Elliott (Amanda); A.U. Jackson (Anne); C. Lamina (Claudia); G. Lettre (Guillaume); N. Lim (Noha); H.N. Lyon (Helen); S.A. McCarroll (Steven); K. Papadakis (Konstantinos); L. Qi (Lu); J.C. Randall (Joshua); R.M. Roccasecca; S. Sanna (Serena); P. Scheet (Paul); M.N. Weedon (Michael); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); L.C. Jacobs (Leonie); I. Prokopenko (Inga); N. Soranzo (Nicole); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); P. Almgren (Peter); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S. Bingham (Sheila); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); M.J. Brown (Morris); N.P. Burtt (Noël); P.S. Chines (Peter); L. Coin (Lachlan); F.S. Collins (Francis); J. Connell (John); C. Cooper (Charles); G.D. Smith; E.M. Dennison (Elaine); P. Deodhar (Parimal); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); D.M. Evans (David); L. Gianniny (Lauren); C. Gieger (Christian); C.J. Gillson (Christopher); C. Guiducci (Candace); R. Hackett (Rachel); D. Hadley (David); A.S. Hall (Alistair); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); J. Hebebrand (Johannes); A. Hofman (Albert); B. Isomaa (Bo); T. Johnson (Toby); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); Z. Jovanovic (Zorica); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); P. Kraft (Peter); M. Kuokkanen (Mikko); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); J. Laitinen (Jaana); E. Lakatta (Edward); J. Luan; R.N. Luben (Robert); M. Mangino (Massimo); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); T. Meitinger (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); P. Munroe (Patricia); N. Narisu (Narisu); A.R. Ness (Andrew); K. Northstone (Kate); S. O'Rahilly (Stephen); C. Purmann (Carolin); M.G. Rees (Matthew); M. Ridderstråle (Martin); S.M. Ring (Susan); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A. Ruokonen (Aimo); M.S. Sandhu (Manjinder); J. Saramies (Jouko); L.J. Scott (Laura); A. Scuteri (Angelo); K. Silander (Kaisa); M.A. Sims (Matthew); K. Song (Kijoung); J. Stephens (Jonathan); S. Stevens (Suzanne); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Y.C.L. Tung (Loraine); T.T. Valle (Timo); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); K.S. Vimaleswaran (Karani); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); C. Wallace (Chris); R.M. Watanabe (Richard); D. Waterworth (Dawn); N. Watkins (Nicholas); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); G. Zhai (Guangju); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); D. Altshuler (David); M. Caulfield (Mark); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); I.S. Farooqi (Sadaf); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); J.M. Guralnik (Jack); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); F.B. Hu (Frank); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); M. Laakso (Markku); V. Mooser (Vincent); K.K. Ong (Ken); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); T.D. Spector (Timothy); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); M. Uda (Manuela); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); N.J. Wareham (Nick); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); R.B. Hayes (Richard); D. Hunter (David); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.E. Barroso (Inês); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCommon variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts

  6. Body condition score, morphometric measurements and estimation of body weight in mature Icelandic horses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Danielsen, Signe H.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condi...

  7. The effect of smoking habit changes on body weight: Evidence from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Luca; Salmasi, Luca

    2016-03-01

    This paper evaluates the causal relationship between smoking and body weight through two waves (2004-2006) of the British Household Panel Survey. We model the effect of changes in smoking habits, such as quitting or reducing, and account for the heterogeneous responses of individuals located at different points of the body mass distribution by quantile regression. We test our results by means of a large set of control groups and investigate their robustness by using the changes-in-changes estimator and accounting for different thresholds to define smoking reductions. Our results reveal the positive effect of quitting smoking on weight changes, which is also found to increase in the highest quantiles, whereas the decision to reduce smoking does not affect body weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Telomere Shortening Unrelated to Smoking, Body Weight, Physical Activity, and Alcohol Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross......-year inter-observational tobacco consumption, body weight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary...... disease, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, smoking, increased body weight, and physical inactivity were associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not with telomere length change during 10 years observation, and alcohol intake...

  9. Antihyperglycemic effect of Persea duthieion blood glucose levels and body weight in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Khushbakht; Zakir, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Khan, Ihsaan Ullah; Ayaz, Sultan; Khan, Iqbal; Khan, Jafar; Khan, Murad Ali

    2016-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of Persea duthieion blood glucose concentration and body weight in alloxan induced diabetic hyperglycemic rabbits. The results illustrated significant antihyperglycemic activity of crude extract with 17.44% and 28.02% amelioration at 25 and 50mg/kg p.o. respectively after 24th day of drug treatment; equally supported by body weight recovery. Upon fractionation, most dominant antihyperglycemic effect was displayed by aqueous fraction with 22.12% and 34.43% effect followed by ethyl acetate fraction with 24.32% and 32.05% effect at 25 and 50mg/kg p.o. respectively after 24th day of drug treatment. The effect on blood glucose was also reflected on body weight of animals. In conclusion, our study documented marked antihyperglycemic activity of extract/fractions of P. duthiei.

  10. Nuts Improve Diet Quality Compared to Other Energy-Dense Snacks While Maintaining Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ling Tey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD risk and does not promote weight gain despite the fact that nuts are energy-dense. However, no studies have investigated the body composition of those regularly consuming nuts compared to similar intakes of other snacks of equal energy density. This parallel study (n = 118 examined the effects of providing daily portions (~1100 kJ/d of hazelnuts, chocolate, or potato crisps compared to a control group receiving no snacks for twelve weeks. Effects on body weight and composition, blood lipids and lipoproteins, resting metabolic rate (RMR, appetite indices, and dietary quality were compared. At week 12, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measurements between the groups except for dietary quality, which improved significantly in the nut group. Nuts can be incorporated into the diet without adversely affecting body weight and can improve diet quality.

  11. Pancreatic polypeptide is involved in the regulation of body weight in pima Indian male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koska, Juraj; DelParigi, Angelo; de Courten, Barbora

    2004-01-01

    Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is released from the pancreas in response to a meal. In humans, low-circulating PP levels have been observed in obesity, and administration of pharmacological doses of PP has been shown to decrease food intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether low...... circulating PP is associated with weight gain in Pima Indians. Plasma PP concentrations were measured after an overnight fast and 30 min after a standardized mixed meal in 33 nondiabetic male subjects who had a follow-up visit 4.9 +/- 2.5 years later. Cross-sectionally, fasting and postprandial PP levels were...... negatively associated with body size and adiposity. Prospectively, the change in PP response to the meal was negatively associated with the change in body weight (r = -0.53, P = 0.002). In contrast, a high fasting PP level was positively associated with change in body weight (r = 0.45, P = 0...

  12. Body weight as a predictor of antidepressant efficacy in the GENDEP project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uher, Rudolf; Mors, Ole; Hauser, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    Background: Being overweight or obese may be associated with poor response to antidepressants. The present report explores the moderation of antidepressant response by body weight to establish the specificity to antidepressant mode of action, type of depressive symptoms and gender. Methods: Height....... The relationship between body weight and change in neurovegetative symptoms was moderated by gender with obese men responding less to nortriptyline and obese women having poorer response to both antidepressants. Limitations: As no placebo arm was included, the specificity of findings to antidepressants is relative...... and weight were measured in 797 men and women with major depression treated with escitalopram or nortriptyline for twelve weeks as part of the Genome Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) project. Body mass index (BMI) and obesity (BMI > 30) were tested as predictors of change in depressive...

  13. Parent–Child Discrepancy on Children’s Body Weight Perception: The Role of Attachment Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo Uccula

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancies between parents and their children on the description of the behavior and representations of their children have been shown in various studies. Other researchers have reported the parents’ difficulty in correctly identifying the weight status of their children. The purpose of our study was to investigate the parent’s attributional accuracy on their children’s body weight perception in relation to the children attachment security. It was hypothesized that insecure children’s parents have a greater discrepancy with their children compared to secure children with their parents. The research participants were 217 children, aged between 5 and 11 years of both genders, and their parents. The attachment pattern was measured by the SAT of Klagsbrun and Bowlby, with the Italian version of Attili. The children were also shown a set of figure body-drawings with which to measure the perception of their weight status. Parents answered a questionnaire to find out the parental attribution of their children’s perception. The results show that the body weight perception of insecure children’s parents have a greater discrepancy with their children’s body weight perception compared with parentally secure children. In particular, parents of insecure children tend to underestimate the perception of their children. This result is most evident in disorganized children. In addition, the perception of insecure children’s parents show a greater correlation with children’s actual weight rather than with their children’s perception. These results suggest that the discrepancies on the perception of children’s body weight between parents and children may be influenced by the poor parental attunement to their children’s internal states, which characterizes the insecure parent–child attachment relationship.

  14. Parent-Child Discrepancy on Children's Body Weight Perception: The Role of Attachment Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Nuvoli, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    The discrepancies between parents and their children on the description of the behavior and representations of their children have been shown in various studies. Other researchers have reported the parents' difficulty in correctly identifying the weight status of their children. The purpose of our study was to investigate the parent's attributional accuracy on their children's body weight perception in relation to the children attachment security. It was hypothesized that insecure children's parents have a greater discrepancy with their children compared to secure children with their parents. The research participants were 217 children, aged between 5 and 11 years of both genders, and their parents. The attachment pattern was measured by the SAT of Klagsbrun and Bowlby, with the Italian version of Attili. The children were also shown a set of figure body-drawings with which to measure the perception of their weight status. Parents answered a questionnaire to find out the parental attribution of their children's perception. The results show that the body weight perception of insecure children's parents have a greater discrepancy with their children's body weight perception compared with parentally secure children. In particular, parents of insecure children tend to underestimate the perception of their children. This result is most evident in disorganized children. In addition, the perception of insecure children's parents show a greater correlation with children's actual weight rather than with their children's perception. These results suggest that the discrepancies on the perception of children's body weight between parents and children may be influenced by the poor parental attunement to their children's internal states, which characterizes the insecure parent-child attachment relationship.

  15. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effect of body weight manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W

    2004-02-27

    As body weight increases, the excitatory strength of a stimulus signaling an opportunity to run should weaken to a greater degree than that of a stimulus signaling an opportunity to eat. To test this hypothesis, six male albino Wistar rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed interval 30-s schedule that produced either a drop of 15% sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for 15s as reinforcing consequences for lever pressing. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. The effect of varying body weight on responding maintained by these two reinforcers was investigated by systematically increasing and decreasing post-session food amounts. The initial body weight was 335 g. Body weights were increased to approximately 445 g and subsequently returned to 335 g. As body weight increased, overall and local lever-pressing rates decreased while post-reinforcement pauses lengthened. Analysis of post-reinforcement pauses and local lever-pressing rates in terms of transitions between successive reinforcers revealed that local response rates in the presence of stimuli signaling upcoming wheel and sucrose reinforcers were similarly affected. However, pausing in the presence of the stimulus signaling a wheel-running reinforcer lengthened to a greater extent than did pausing in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. This result suggests that as body weight approaches ad-lib levels, the likelihood of initiation of responding to obtain an opportunity to run approaches zero and the animal "rejects" the opportunity to run in a manner similar to the rejection of less preferred food items in studies of food selectivity.

  16. Liver volume in thalassaemia major: relationship with body weight, serum ferritin, and liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan Yuleung; Law Manyee; Howard, Robert [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Li Chikong; Chik Kiwai [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Paediatrics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    It is not known whether body weight alone can adjust for the volume of liver in the calculation of the chelating dose in {beta}-thalassaemia major patients, who frequently have iron overload and hepatitis. The hypothesis is that liver volume in children and adolescents suffering from {beta}-thalassaemia major is affected by ferritin level and liver function. Thirty-five {beta}-thalassaemia major patients aged 7-18 years and 35 age- and sex-matched controls had liver volume measured by MRI. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ferritin levels were obtained in the thalassaemia major patients. Body weight explained 65 and 86% of the change in liver volume in {beta}-thalassaemia major patients and age-matched control subjects, respectively. Liver volume/kilogram body weight was significantly higher (P<0.001) in thalassaemia major patients than in control subjects. There was a significant correlation between ALT level and liver volume/kilogram body weight (r=0.55, P=0.001). Patients with elevated ALT had significantly higher liver volume/kilogram body weight (mean 42.9{+-}12 cm{sup 3}/kg) than control subjects (mean 23.4{+-}3.6 cm{sup 3}/kg) and patients with normal ALT levels (mean 27.4{+-}3.6 cm{sup 3}/kg). Body weight is the most important single factor for liver-volume changes in thalassaemia major patients, but elevated ALT also has a significant role. Direct liver volume measurement for chelation dose adjustment may be advantageous in patients with elevated ALT. (orig.)

  17. Excess body weight in children may increase the length of hospital stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Bechere Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of excess body weight in the pediatric ward of University Hospital and to test both the association between initial nutritional diagnosis and the length of stay and the in-hospital variation in nutritional status. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study based on information entered in clinical records from University Hospital. The data were collected from a convenience sample of 91 cases among children aged one to 10 years admitted to the hospital in 2009. The data that characterize the sample are presented in a descriptive manner. Additionally, we performed a multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for age and gender. RESULTS: Nutritional classification at baseline showed that 87.8% of the children had a normal weight and that 8.9% had excess weight. The linear regression models showed that the average weight loss z-score of the children with excess weight compared with the group with normal weight was −0.48 (p = 0.018 and that their length of stay was 2.37 days longer on average compared with that of the normal-weight group (p = 0.047. CONCLUSIONS: The length of stay and loss of weight at the hospital may be greater among children with excess weight than among children with normal weight.

  18. Changes in weight and body fat after use of tetracycline and Lactobacillus gasseri in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge José Marciano; Fernando de Sá Del Fiol; Alessandra Cristina Marciano Tardelli Ferreira; Maria Cláudia Marques; Luciane Lopes Santana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown a role of intestinal microbiota in obesity. The consumption of antibiotics in the last 70 years has led to changes in intestinal microbiota, which has led to weight gain and body fat accumulation. To evaluate the possibility of weight gain induced by antibiotics and the possible protective effect of probiotics, we divided 45 animals (Rattus norvegicus) into groups and administered the following treatments over two weeks: tetracycline, tetracycline + Lactobac...

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Different Macronutrient Profiles on Weight, Body Composition and Metabolic Parameters in Obese Adolescents Seeking Weight Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Truby

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity is difficult to treat and the optimal dietary pattern, particularly in relation to macronutrient composition, remains controversial. This study tested the effect of two structured diets with differing macronutrient composition versus control, on weight, body composition and metabolic parameters in obese adolescents.A randomized controlled trial conducted in a children's hospital.Eighty seven obese youth (means: age 13.6 years, BMI z-score 2.2, waist: height ratio 0.65, 69% female completed a psychological preparedness program and were then randomized to a short term 'structured modified carbohydrate' (SMC, 35% carbohydrate; 30% protein; 35% fat, n = 37 or a 'structured low fat' (SLF, 55% carbohydrate; 20% protein; 25% fat, n = 36 or a wait listed control group (n = 14. Anthropometric, body composition and biochemical parameters were measured at randomization and after 12 weeks, and analyzed under the intention to treat principle using analysis of variance models.After 12 weeks, data was collected from 79 (91% participants. BMI z-scores were significantly lower in both intervention groups compared to control after adjusting for baseline values, SLF vs. control, mean difference = -0.13 (95%CI = -0.18, -0.07, P<0.001; SMC vs. control, -0.14 (-0.19, -0.09, P<0.001, but there was no difference between the two intervention diet groups: SLF vs. SMC, 0.00 (-0.05, 0.04, P = 0.83.Both dietary patterns resulted in similar changes in weight, body composition and metabolic improvements compared to control. The use of a structured eating system which allows flexibility but limited choices can assist in weight change and the rigid application of a low fat eating pattern is not exclusive in its efficacy.International Clinical Trials Registry ISRCTN49438757.

  20. Thioacetamide-induced changes in the body weight, kidney weight and the total nucleic acids content of kidney of mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakoori, Abdul Rauf; Ashraf, Fauzia.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of thioacetamide (TAA) on the body weight, kidney weight and the total nucleic acids content of kidney of mouse were studied. TAA 1% and 2% solutions were injected intraperitoneally, twice with an interval of 24 hours in two different batches of male mice. In this way one batch received a total dose of 100 mg TAA/Kg body wt. while the other got a total dose of 200 mg TAA/Kg. Both the body as well as kidney weights decrease after TAA treatment. A total dose of 200 mg/Kg is a stronger inhibitor of growth as compared with that of 100 mg/Kg. The nucleic acids content show an increase after the drug treatment. The ribonucleic acid content of kidney increased from an average value of 4.30+0.14 mg/g kidney to 4.60+-0.22 mg/g kidney after 1% TAA treatment. The increase in 2% TAA treated mice is slightly more prominent. The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content of kidney are likewise affected. After an initial increase in 1% TAA-treated animals, the DNA content gradually fall down to normal control values. Administration of 2% TAA solution causes an average increase of 21% i.e. from 1.93+-0.19 mg/g kidney wt to 2.26+-0.23 mg/g kidney wt. The size of cell, nucleus and nucleolus also increased after drug treatment, which mainly occurred during the first 24 hours of the post-treatment period

  1. A short note on economic development and socioeconomic inequality in female body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuchert, Eva; Cabus, Sofie; Tafreschi, Darjusch

    2014-07-01

    The origin of the obesity epidemic in developing countries is still poorly understood. It has been prominently argued that economic development provides a natural interpretation of the growth in obesity. This paper tests the main aggregated predictions of the theoretical framework to analyze obesity. Average body weight and health inequality should be associated with economic development. Both hypotheses are confirmed: we find higher average female body weight in economically more advanced countries. In relatively nondeveloped countries, obesity is a phenomenon of the socioeconomic elite. With economic development, obesity shifts toward individuals with lower socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Perceived Racial Discrimination in the Workplace and Body Weight among the Unemployed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the association between body weight and the likelihood that people perceive that they have been the victims of racial discrimination in the workplace among the unemployed. I find that unemployed obese men and women are 8.4 percentage points and 7.7 percentage points, respectively, more likely to have experienced racial discrimination before becoming unemployed than their non-obese counterparts. For unemployed men, the relationship between body weight and perceived racial discrimination does not seem to be associated with race. For unemployed women, being black and obese significantly increases the likelihood of perceiving racial discrimination.

  3. Plasma phospholipid long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen Margrete

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers.......We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers....

  4. Responses to selection for body weight in descendants of x-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianola, D.; Chapman, A.B.; Rutledge, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    Th effectiveness of selection for high and low body weight at six weeks of age was studied in descendants of x-irradiated (R) and nonirradiated (C) inbred rats. There were two replicates of each of the direction of selection--irradiation treatments. In C lines, there were no consistent responses to selection, probably due to a low level of genetic variability. In R rats, selection was effective only for decreased body weight. The results of this experiment do not suggest the use of irradiation combined with selection as a means of enhancing responses to selection in animals

  5. Investigating Changes in Weight and Body Composition Among Women in Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Delmar, Charlotte; Lörincz, Tamás

    2018-01-01

    for attention on younger premenopausal women given chemotherapy. Weight need to be monitored for at least 2 years as short-term changes may be caused by increased body water, whereas long-term changes seem to be related with increased fat mass essential for risking recurrence and early death. IMPLICATIONS...... as free text, 19 articles were selected for further investigation. RESULTS: The scoping review illustrates how findings in weight and body composition changes fluctuate over time as illustrated in 4 measure points: short term, 1 year, 18 months/2 years, and long term. The studies displayed differences...

  6. The potential association between fruit intake and body weight - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinia, Sevil; Tetens, Inge; Hels, Ole

    2009-01-01

    intake reduced body weight, five of the prospective observational studies showed that fruit consumption reduced the risk of developing overweight and obesity, and four of the cross-sectional studies found an inverse association between fruit intake and body weight. Important methodological differences......Both national and international bodies recommend an increased intake of fruits and vegetables in order to decrease the risk of overweight and obesity. However, there is a rationale to investigate the separate role of fruits. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and analyse published...... and limitations in the studies make it difficult to compare results. However, the majority of the evidence points towards a possible inverse association between fruit intake and overweight. Future intervention and prospective observational studies examining the direct and independent role of fruit in body...

  7. Obesity: locus of control, body image, weight loss, and age-at-onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wineman, N M

    1980-01-01

    In a retrospective investigation designed to measure locus of control, body image, and weight loss in Overeaters Anonymous members who had childhood, adolescence, or adulthood onset of obesity, 116 subjects were grouped according to age at onset of obesity and the year they joined OA. A convenience, volunteer sample of OA members completed a demographic data questionnaire, Rotter's Social Reaction. Inventory, and Secord and Jourard's Body Cathexis Scale. Significant overweight percentage differences were not found when the three age-at-onset groups were compared. Significant differences emerged, however, for adolescent-onset group persons who were categorized as "old" members; they had a larger weight loss and were more satisfied with their body image. A positive linear relationship between greater perception of internal control and a good body image was found in the entire adulthood-onset group. Weight loss and good body image of the oldest adolescent-onset group probably was the outcome of their association with a self-help group i.e., OA. Assessment of developmental issues related to the time of initial weight gain may indicate which treatment regime would be most effective.

  8. Complex association between body weight and fracture risk in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpalaris, V; Anagnostis, P; Goulis, D G; Iakovou, I

    2015-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a common disease, characterized by low bone mass with micro-architectural disruption and skeletal fragility, resulting in an increased risk of fracture. A substantial number of studies has examined the possible relationship between body weight, bone mineral density and fracture risk in post-menopausal women, with the majority of them concluding that low body weight correlates with increased risk of fracture, especially hip fracture. Controversies about the potential protective effect of obesity on osteoporosis and consequent fracture risk still exist. Several recent studies question the concept that obesity exerts a protective effect against fractures, suggesting that it stands as a risk factor for fractures at specific skeletal sites, such as upper arm. The association between body weight and fracture risk is complex, differs across skeletal sites and body mass index, and is modified by the interaction between body weight and bone mineral density. Some potential explanations that link obesity with increased fracture risk may be the pattern of falls and impaired mobility in obese individuals, comorbidities, such as asthma, diabetes and early menopause, as well as, increased parathyroid hormone and reduced 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations. © 2015 World Obesity.

  9. Lateral hypothalamic GLP-1 receptors are critical for the control of food reinforcement, ingestive behavior and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ferreras, L; Richard, J E; Noble, E E; Eerola, K; Anderberg, R H; Olandersson, K; Taing, L; Kanoski, S E; Hayes, M R; Skibicka, K P

    2017-09-12

    Increased motivation for highly rewarding food is a major contributing factor to obesity. Most of the literature focuses on the mesolimbic nuclei as the core of reward behavior regulation. However, the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is also a key reward-control locus in the brain. Here we hypothesize that manipulating glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activity selectively in the LH can profoundly affect food reward behavior, ultimately leading to obesity. Progressive ratio operant responding for sucrose was examined in male and female rats, following GLP-1R activation and pharmacological or genetic GLP-1R blockade in the LH. Ingestive behavior and metabolic parameters, as well as molecular and efferent targets, of the LH GLP-1R activation were also evaluated. Food motivation was reduced by activation of LH GLP-1R. Conversely, acute pharmacological blockade of LH GLP-1R increased food motivation but only in male rats. GLP-1R activation also induced a robust reduction in food intake and body weight. Chronic knockdown of LH GLP-1R induced by intraparenchymal delivery of an adeno-associated virus-short hairpin RNA construct was sufficient to markedly and persistently elevate ingestive behavior and body weight and ultimately resulted in a doubling of fat mass in males and females. Interestingly, increased food reinforcement was again found only in males. Our data identify the LH GLP-1R as an indispensable element of normal food reinforcement, food intake and body weight regulation. These findings also show, for we believe the first time, that brain GLP-1R manipulation can result in a robust and chronic body weight gain. The broader implications of these findings are that the LH differs between females and males in its ability to control motivated and ingestive behaviors.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 12 September 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.187.

  10. The impact of aging, hearing loss, and body weight on mouse hippocampal redox state, measured in brain slices using fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbings, Kevin A; Choi, Hyun W; Ravindra, Aditya; Llano, Daniel Adolfo

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between oxidative stress in the hippocampus and other aging-related changes such as hearing loss, cortical thinning, or changes in body weight are not yet known. We measured the redox ratio in a number of neural structures in brain slices taken from young and aged mice. Hearing thresholds, body weight, and cortical thickness were also measured. We found striking aging-related increases in the redox ratio that were isolated to the stratum pyramidale, while such changes were not observed in thalamus or cortex. These changes were driven primarily by changes in flavin adenine dinucleotide, not nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride. Multiple regression analysis suggested that neither hearing threshold nor cortical thickness independently contributed to this change in hippocampal redox ratio. However, body weight did independently contribute to predicted changes in hippocampal redox ratio. These data suggest that aging-related changes in hippocampal redox ratio are not a general reflection of overall brain oxidative state but are highly localized, while still being related to at least one marker of late aging, weight loss at the end of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy Density, Energy Intake, and Body Weight Regulation in Adults12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J. Philip; Roberts, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. PMID:25398750

  12. Nutraceuticals for body-weight management: The role of green tea catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-08-01

    Green tea catechins mixed with caffeine have been proposed as adjuvants for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation, in the context of prevention and treatment of obesity. These catechins-caffeine mixtures seem to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that occurs during weight loss. Their effects are of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Other metabolic targets may be fat absorption and the gut microbiota composition, but these effects still need further investigation in combination with weight loss. Limitations for the effects of green tea catechins are moderating factors such as genetic predisposition related to COMT-activity, habitual caffeine intake, and ingestion combined with dietary protein. In conclusion, a mixture of green tea catechins and caffeine has a beneficial effect on body-weight management, especially by sustained energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and preservation of fat free body-mass, after energy restriction induced body-weight loss, when taking the limitations into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of micronized corn fiber on body weight, glycemia, and lipid metabolism in rats fed cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Barbosa de Moraes THOMPSON

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During corn industrial dry milling, a residue rich in dietary fibers is generated. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of micronized corn fiber (MCF as part of a cafeteria diet in the macronutrient metabolism and body weight. Wistar male rats, with initial body weight of 249 ± 14 g (n = 13, received AIN-93M diet (Group 1 or cafeteria diet (Groups 2, 3 and 4, composed of commercial ration, cookies, fried potato sticks, milk chocolate, bacon and chicken liver pâté. Groups 3 and 4 received MCF to replace 100 and 50% of the cellulose from the AIN-93M diet, respectively. After 35 days, blood, tissues and feces were collected. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey test (p < 0.10. The weight gain of the animals increased by 25.9%, 20.8% and 22.0%, when fed cafeteria diet or 100 and 50% of MCF respectively, compared to the control group, although food consumption did not differ between them. Body weight and food efficiency ratio did not differ between the groups fed cafeteria diet with or without MCF. The addition of MCF to the cafeteria diet did not alter the animal lipid profile and glycemia, however, the accumulation of lipids in their livers was similar to the control group. The intake of 100% MCF resulted in higher fecal weight and fecal excretion of lipids, and lower fecal nitrogen, lipid absorption and lipid deposition in the liver than the cafeteria diet. In conclusion, MCF has a potential to improve intestinal transit and lipid excretion, but showed no benefit on blood lipid and glucose levels.

  14. Psychosocial differences associated with body weight among female adolescents: the importance of body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesa, J A; Syre, T R; Jones, E

    2000-05-01

    To determine whether overweight female adolescents differ from normal and underweight female adolescents with respect to a set of psychosocial factors, while controlling for body image. Female participants of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 3197) were selected for analysis. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to test whether overweight subjects differed from normal and underweight subjects with respect to measures of depression, self-esteem, trouble in school, school connectedness, family connectedness, sense of community, autonomy, protective factors, and grades. Stepdown F-tests and discriminant function coefficients provided information regarding the strength of specific factors in contributing to overall differences. MANOVA revealed significant differences between groups on the combined set of psychosocial factors. Self-esteem defined the difference in a positive direction while grades defined the difference inversely. When controlling for body image, multidimensional group differences were still evident; however, self-esteem was no longer a significant contributing variable. While overweight female adolescents seem to suffer from low self-esteem, it may be explained by body image. Efforts should be directed toward encouraging and supporting healthy eating patterns and physical activity while encouraging students to recognize personal strengths not related to physique.

  15. Comparison of nodal staging with lean body mass based and with total body weight based in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. Y.; Chung, J. K.; Kang, W. J.; So, Y.; Lee, D. S.; Lee, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    The standardized uptake (SUV) is semiquantitative evaluation parameter in positron emission tomography (PET). But there is no consensus about the application or process of SUV measurement. In this study, we used measured lean body mass (LBM) and total weight for application in SUV measurement. Also we compared the each nodal staging with SUV between measured LBM, and total weight, in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Total 21 patients with lung cancer were enrolled (M:F=17:4, age 45[+-]8 years). PET-CT was done before operation with Gemini (Philips, Milpitas, U.S.). Each image was reconstructed twice with measured weight and lean body mass. Maximum SUVs of 103 dissected lymph nodes were measured and compared with histological result. For the deciding on the cut off value, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was done. 14 lymph nodes in the 103 dissected lymph nodes were metastatic lesions. From the ROC analysis, the cut off value of SUV was 1.7 with measured LBM and 2.3 with total weight. With measured LBM, Sensitivity and specificity were 92.5%. 78.2% and area under curve was 0.881. With total weight, sensitivity and specificity was 92.5% and 77%, Area under curve was 0.859. The normalization of SUV could be done with measured LBM. With the normalization of SUV with LBM, the nodal staging of NSCLC using SUV could be more accurate than using total weight in the reconstruction and measurement of SUV for lymph node lesions

  16. Assessment of radiation dermatitis using objective analysis for patients with breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Influence of body weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Kobayashi, Kana; Tsubokura, Takuji; Kodani, Naohiro; Aibe, Norihiro; Ikeno, Hiroyasu; Nishimura, Takuya; Yoshida, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of patient factors on radiation dermatitis for patients with breast cancer who underwent postoperative radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery. The study population comprised 87 patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery followed by 50 Gy/25 fractions (median) of radiotherapy with or without boost radiation (10 Gy/5 fractions). We examined their treated and contralateral breast skin color by use of an objective analyzer, and expressed findings as L*, a*, b* ratios by dividing by pre-radiotherapy (RT) values. Next, we examined correlation between patient factors (age, height, body weight, and body mass index, BMI) and change of L* and a* values by use of correlation coefficients. Radiation therapy caused changes in a* and L* ratios (p<0.0001) but not in b* ratio. The a* ratio (reddish) increased 1.4-fold and peaked after radiotherapy. The L* ratio (darkening) decreased by 10% and reached a minimum value between completion of radiotherapy and 1 month after treatment. Although, age and height did not affect Δ value, body weight and BMI correlated significantly with Δa* value (p=0.0012 and 0.0017) not with ΔL* value. Body weight and BMI predict degree of radiation dermatitis, and more reddish dermatitis was observed for heavier patients than for their lighter counterparts. (author)

  17. Modeling of Body Weight Metrics for Effective and Cost-Efficient Conventional Factor VIII Dosing in Hemophilia A Prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanna McEneny-King

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The total body weight-based dosing strategy currently used in the prophylactic treatment of hemophilia A may not be appropriate for all populations. The assumptions that guide weight-based dosing are not valid in overweight and obese populations, resulting in overdosing and ineffective resource utilization. We explored different weight metrics including lean body weight, ideal body weight, and adjusted body weight to determine an alternative dosing strategy that is both safe and resource-efficient in normal and overweight/obese adult patients. Using a validated population pharmacokinetic model, we simulated a variety of dosing regimens using different doses, weight metrics, and frequencies; we also investigated the implications of assuming various levels of endogenous factor production. Ideal body weight performed the best across all of the regimens explored, maintaining safety while moderating resource consumption for overweight and obese patients.

  18. High-resolution computed tomography evaluation of the bronchial lumen to vertebral body diameter and pulmonary artery to vertebral body diameter ratios in anesthetized ventilated normal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Cole, Robert C; Dillon, A Ray; Tillson, D Michael; Garbarino, Rachel; Barney, Sharron

    2017-10-01

    Objectives Bronchial lumen to pulmonary artery diameter (BA) ratio has been utilized to investigate pulmonary pathology on high-resolution CT images. Diseases affecting both the bronchi and pulmonary arteries render the BA ratio less useful. The purpose of the study was to establish bronchial lumen diameter to vertebral body diameter (BV) and pulmonary artery diameter to vertebral body diameter (AV) ratios in normal cats. Methods Using high-resolution CT images, 16 sets of measurements (sixth thoracic vertebral body [mid-body], each lobar bronchi and companion pulmonary artery diameter) were acquired from young adult female cats and 41 sets from pubertal female cats. Results Young adult and pubertal cat BV ratios were not statistically different from each other in any lung lobe. Significant differences between individual lung lobe BV ratios were noted on combined age group analysis. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different between young adult and pubertal cats. All other lung lobe AV ratios were not significantly different. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different from all other lung lobes but not from each other in both the young adult and pubertal cats. Conclusions and relevance BV ratio reference intervals determined for individual lung lobes could be applied to both young adult and pubertal cats. Separate AV ratios for individual lung lobes would be required for young adult and pubertal cats. These ratios should allow more accurate evaluation of cats with concurrent bronchial and pulmonary arterial disease.

  19. Longitudinal body composition of children born to mothers with normal weight, overweight, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Aline; Hull, Holly R; Shankar, Kartik; Casey, Patrick H; Cleves, Mario A; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-06-01

    The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to mothers with normal weight, overweight, and obesity have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal prepregnancy BMI and offspring body composition trajectories during the first 6 years of life. Healthy infants (N = 325) were assessed longitudinally (at ages 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 years) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Mixed-effects regression for repeated measures was used to model each continuous outcome as a function of maternal BMI and covariates (race, gestational age, birth weight, and mode of infant feeding). Maternal obesity differentially impacted body fat, but not bone mineral content or density, of girls and boys. Boys born to mothers with obesity have higher body fat from ages 2-6 years compared to boys born to normal-weight and overweight mothers (P obesity was not different across groups during the first 6 years of life (P > 0.05). This clinical observational study demonstrates a sexual dimorphism in offspring body composition until age 6 years based on maternal BMI, with a greater effect of maternal adiposity seen in boys than in girls. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  20. Relationship between paraspinal muscle cross-sectional area and relative proprioceptive weighting ratio of older persons with lumbar spondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tadashi; Sakai, Yoshihito; Nakamura, Eishi; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Yamada, Ayaka; Sato, Noritaka; Morita, Yoshifumi

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the paraspinal muscle cross-sectional area and the relative proprioceptive weighting ratio during local vibratory stimulation of older persons with lumbar spondylosis in an upright position. [Subjects] In all, 74 older persons hospitalized for lumbar spondylosis were included. [Methods] We measured the relative proprioceptive weighting ratio of postural sway using a Wii board while vibratory stimulations of 30, 60, or 240 Hz were applied to the subjects' paraspinal or gastrocnemius muscles. Back strength, abdominal muscle strength, and erector spinae muscle (L1/L2, L4/L5) and lumbar multifidus (L1/L2, L4/L5) cross-sectional areas were evaluated. [Results] The erector spinae muscle (L1/L2) cross-sectional area was associated with the relative proprioceptive weighting ratio during 60Hz stimulation. [Conclusion] These findings show that the relative proprioceptive weighting ratio compared to the erector spinae muscle (L1/L2) cross-sectional area under 60Hz proprioceptive stimulation might be a good indicator of trunk proprioceptive sensitivity.