WorldWideScience

Sample records for rationale methods results

  1. The Vermont oxford neonatal encephalopathy registry: rationale, methods, and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2006, the Vermont Oxford Network (VON) established the Neonatal Encephalopathy Registry (NER) to characterize infants born with neonatal encephalopathy, describe evaluations and medical treatments, monitor hypothermic therapy (HT) dissemination, define clinical research questions, and identify opportunities for improved care. Methods Eligible infants were ≥ 36 weeks with seizures, altered consciousness (stupor, coma) during the first 72 hours of life, a 5 minute Apgar score of ≤ 3, or receiving HT. Infants with central nervous system birth defects were excluded. Results From 2006–2010, 95 centers registered 4232 infants. Of those, 59% suffered a seizure, 50% had a 5 minute Apgar score of ≤ 3, 38% received HT, and 18% had stupor/coma documented on neurologic exam. Some infants experienced more than one eligibility criterion. Only 53% had a cord gas obtained and only 63% had a blood gas obtained within 24 hours of birth, important components for determining HT eligibility. Sixty-four percent received ventilator support, 65% received anticonvulsants, 66% had a head MRI, 23% had a cranial CT, 67% had a full channel encephalogram (EEG) and 33% amplitude integrated EEG. Of all infants, 87% survived. Conclusions The VON NER describes the heterogeneous population of infants with NE, the subset that received HT, their patterns of care, and outcomes. The optimal routine care of infants with neonatal encephalopathy is unknown. The registry method is well suited to identify opportunities for improvement in the care of infants affected by NE and study interventions such as HT as they are implemented in clinical practice. PMID:22726296

  2. Rationale and methods of the EFCOSUM project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, J.H.; Johansson, L.; Kearney, J.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the rationale and methods for a European project (EFCOSUM) to develop a method for a European food consumption survey that delivers internationally comparable data on a set of policy-relevant nutritional indicators. Rationale and methods: Currently Member States are collecting

  3. Religious versus Conventional Psychotherapy for Major Depression in Patients with Chronic Medical Illness: Rationale, Methods, and Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold G. Koenig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper (1 reviews the physical and religious barriers to CBT that disabled medically ill-depressed patients face, (2 discusses research on the relationship between religion and depression-induced physiological changes, (3 describes an ongoing randomized clinical trial of religious versus secular CBT in chronically ill patients with mild-to-moderate major depression designed to (a overcome physical and religious barriers to CBT and (b compare the efficacy of religious versus secular CBT in relieving depression and improving immune and endocrine functions, and (4 presents preliminary results that illustrate the technical difficulties that have been encountered in implementing this trial. CBT is being delivered remotely via instant messaging, telephone, or Skype, and Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, and Hindu versions of religious CBT are being developed. The preliminary results described here are particular to the technologies employed in this study and are not results from the CBT clinical trial whose findings will be published in the future after the study ends and data are analyzed. The ultimate goal is to determine if a psychotherapy delivered remotely that integrates patients’ religious resources improves depression more quickly than a therapy that ignores them, and whether religious CBT is more effective than conventional CBT in reversing depression-induced physiological changes.

  4. Developing a library of authenticated Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) plants for systematic biological evaluation--rationale, methods and preliminary results from a Sino-American collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, David M; Harris, Eric S J; Littlefield, Bruce A; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A; Scholten, Robert; Bayliss, Peter; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Qiao, Yanjiang; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Chen, Hubiao; Liu, Yong; Kaptchuk, Ted; Hahn, William C; Wang, Xiaoxing; Roberts, Thomas; Shamu, Caroline E; Clardy, Jon

    2011-01-01

    individually and in combinations (i.e., "complex mixtures") consistent with traditional ethnomedical practice. This manuscript summarizes the rationale, methods and preliminary "proof of principle" for the establishment of this prototype, authenticated medicinal plant library. It is hoped that these methods will foster scientific discoveries with therapeutic potential and enhance efforts to systematically evaluate commonly used herbal therapies worldwide. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Building "Applied Linguistic Historiography": Rationale, Scope, and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article I argue for the establishment of "Applied Linguistic Historiography" (ALH), that is, a new domain of enquiry within applied linguistics involving a rigorous, scholarly, and self-reflexive approach to historical research. Considering issues of rationale, scope, and methods in turn, I provide reasons why ALH is needed and…

  6. New knowledge network evaluation method for design rationale management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Shikai; Zhan, Hongfei; Liu, Jihong; Wang, Kuan; Jiang, Hao; Zhou, Jingtao

    2015-01-01

    Current design rationale (DR) systems have not demonstrated the value of the approach in practice since little attention is put to the evaluation method of DR knowledge. To systematize knowledge management process for future computer-aided DR applications, a prerequisite is to provide the measure for the DR knowledge. In this paper, a new knowledge network evaluation method for DR management is presented. The method characterizes the DR knowledge value from four perspectives, namely, the design rationale structure scale, association knowledge and reasoning ability, degree of design justification support and degree of knowledge representation conciseness. The DR knowledge comprehensive value is also measured by the proposed method. To validate the proposed method, different style of DR knowledge network and the performance of the proposed measure are discussed. The evaluation method has been applied in two realistic design cases and compared with the structural measures. The research proposes the DR knowledge evaluation method which can provide object metric and selection basis for the DR knowledge reuse during the product design process. In addition, the method is proved to be more effective guidance and support for the application and management of DR knowledge.

  7. Photometry in the workplace: the rationale for a new method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, B; Soci, G; Zambelli, P L; Pisaniello, D

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of lighting conditions in workplaces has traditionally focused on the measurement of illuminance. The rationale for a new method for the detailed evaluation of natural and artificial light in 'near work' situations, involving the assessment of luminance, is described. The procedure comprises four successive phases: (1) identify object/images observed during work tasks; (2) outline the area of the operator's visual field where gaze is predominantly directed; (3) measure luminances in the visual field, pin-pointing all sources of primary and secondary luminance, and constructing iso-luminance maps; and (4) compare luminance ratios. The procedure was illustrated using the common example of near work in an office environment. Illuminance was found to be inadequate to evaluate the effects of natural and artificial environmental light in the workplace. This is due to the fact that the luxmeter is designed to integrate the light detected over a large angle, whereas in near work the operator's retina is mainly stimulated by light originating from objects/images placed in the occupational visual field. A detailed measurement of luminance within the occupational visual field is consistent with ocular anatomy and physiology, and can be used as part of a risk assessment for visual disturbances and to rationalize lighting at workstations.

  8. Organ Donation in the 50+ Age Demographic: Survey Results on Decision Rationale and Information Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Alexander; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Myer, Kevin A; Mullins, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The rate of organ donation by older potential donors is significantly declining even though recent studies show positive clinical outcomes with organs transplanted from older donors. This study examined the 50+ age demographic to identify the rationale for donation decisions, preferred media methods of donation information delivery, and responsiveness to an age-tailored donation message. Results from 579 surveys, 87% from the 50+ age demographic, found respondents prone to self-select themselves as medically ineligible based on current medication and health status, even though they might be medically suitable donors. Their incentive to pursue additional information on donation is limited except when motivated by personal accounts within their families and communities. In addition, even when computer literate, they continue to favor the printed or spoken word for donation information delivery. The results suggest an opportunity for those working with older adults to develop more personalized, localized donation education programs targeting this age demographic. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Policy Interventions Favouring Small Business: Rationales, Results and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    John Lester

    2017-01-01

    Small business has a well-deserved reputation as the driver of job growth and as a key contributor to innovation. In the 12 years ending in 2013, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) accounted for about 90% of private sector job growth in Canada. What is less well-recognized, however, is that a small fraction of SMEs account for most of the job growth and innovation. As a result, governments have offered broad-based support for small businesses, rather than focusing on high-impact entrep...

  10. Sampling in Qualitative Research: Rationale, Issues, and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    LUBORSKY, MARK R.; RUBINSTEIN, ROBERT L.

    1995-01-01

    In gerontology the most recognized and elaborate discourse about sampling is generally thought to be in quantitative research associated with survey research and medical research. But sampling has long been a central concern in the social and humanistic inquiry, albeit in a different guise suited to the different goals. There is a need for more explicit discussion of qualitative sampling issues. This article will outline the guiding principles and rationales, features, and practices of sampli...

  11. Policy Interventions Favouring Small Business: Rationales, Results and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lester

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Small business has a well-deserved reputation as the driver of job growth and as a key contributor to innovation. In the 12 years ending in 2013, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs accounted for about 90% of private sector job growth in Canada. What is less well-recognized, however, is that a small fraction of SMEs account for most of the job growth and innovation. As a result, governments have offered broad-based support for small businesses, rather than focusing on high-impact entrepreneurs. This approach is wasteful: firms that do not grow or innovate receive most of the benefits. Further, this approach can harm economic performance by promoting the expansion of smaller, lessefficient firms at the expense of larger ones. The federal government elected in 2015 is focussing new initiatives on innovative and growth-oriented businesses. Legislated reductions in the small business tax rate were reversed and targeted support for innovative SMEs was increased. While the change in direction is welcome, almost 85% of the $7 billion yearly funding for small business continues to provide broad-based support. The largest program is the special low rate of tax for small businesses, implemented to improve access to financing for capacity-expanding investment. This measure is harming economic performance because the cost of shifting capital and labour from large to smaller, less-efficient businesses outweighs the benefit from improving access to capital. Large subsidies for small business financing are also provided by the Business Development Bank of Canada (BDC. With access to cheap government funding, the BDC is profitable, but evaluated using a more realistic cost of financing, the bank operates at a substantial loss. This loss exceeds the benefit from improving access to capital, particularly for the bank’s direct-lending program. While there is a solid argument for supporting R&D, subsidies provided to small firms are so generous that they are

  12. Rationale of a quick adjustment method for crystal orientation in oscillation photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, I.H.; Suh, J.M.; Ko, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    The rationale for a convenient crystal orientation method for oscillation photography is presented. The method involves the measurement of the deviations of reflection spots from the equator. These deviations are added or subtracted to give the horizontal and vertical arc corrections. (orig.)

  13. Fresh fractures of the scaphoid : A rationale method of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chari P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Scaphoid, among all carpal bones, is very vulnerable for fracture due to its unique shape and situation with greater articular surface. All scaphoid fractures are being treated with below elbow POP thumb spica casts keeping hand in ball throwing position. A few scaphoid fractures through the waist take longer time to unite, if not end in nonunion. These fractures were found to be displaced unimpacted trans-scaphoid fractures through the waist. Method : The effect of various positions of hand, wrist and forearm over unimpacted displaced scaphoid fractures through the waist were studied on dissected hand specimens and in patients with skiagrams. It was observed that possible radial deviation of hand over neutrally held wrist and forearm would result in anatomical reduction with impaction between the fragments. Added compression effect at site of fracture, necessary for early fracture healing, is produced by passively abducting the first metacarpal bone. Results : Of 68 scaphoid fractures under study, 24 and 41 were displaced and undisplaced ones through the waist respectively. All of them united in eight to ten weeks time as any fracture, when immobilised undisturbed with anatomic reduction and added compression between the fragments except one displaced fracture which took eight more weeks of immobilization for union and revascularilization of proximal fragment. Conclusion : This study showed that all scaphoid fractures in particular those through waist when rigidly immobilized unite as any fracture in eight to ten weeks provided the proximal fragment maintains proper blood supply. Otherwise it would further eight week of immobilization for the proximal fragment to get revascularize following union.

  14. Assessment of diagnostic technology in health care: rationale, methods, problems, and directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sox, Harold C

    1989-01-01

    ... Rationale, Methods, Problems, and Directions Harold Sox, Susan Stern, Douglas Owens, and Herbert L. Abrams Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1989 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from...

  15. Improving metabolic parameters of antipsychotic child treatment (IMPACT) study: rationale, design, and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, Gloria M; Keeton, Courtney; Correll, Christoph U; Johnson, Jacqueline L; Hamer, Robert M; Sikich, Linmarie; Hazzard, Lindsey; Alderman, Cheryl; Scheer, Abigail; Mabe, Micah; Kapoor, Sandeep; Sheridan, Eva; Borner, Irmgard; Bussell, Kristin; Pirmohamed, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Background Youth with serious mental illness may experience improved psychiatric stability with second generation antipsychotic (SGA) medication treatment, but unfortunately may also experience unhealthy weight gain adverse events. Research on weight loss strategies for youth who require ongoing antipsychotic treatment is quite limited. The purpose of this paper is to present the design, methods, and rationale of the Improving Metabolic Parameters in Antipsychotic Child Treatment (IMPACT) stu...

  16. A review of the scientific rationale and methods used in the search for other planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Planetary systems appear to be one of the crucial links in the chain leading from simple molecules to living systems, particularly complex (intelligent?) living systems. Although there is currently no observational proof of the existence of any planetary system other than our own, techniques are now being developed which will permit a comprehensive search for other planetary systems. The scientific rationale for and methods used in such a search effort are reviewed here.

  17. Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS: rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waslick Bruce D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To present the design, methods, and rationale of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS, a recently completed federally-funded, multi-site, randomized placebo-controlled trial that examined the relative efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT, sertraline (SRT, and their combination (COMB against pill placebo (PBO for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD and social phobia (SoP in children and adolescents. Methods Following a brief review of the acute outcomes of the CAMS trial, as well as the psychosocial and pharmacologic treatment literature for pediatric anxiety disorders, the design and methods of the CAMS trial are described. Results CAMS was a six-year, six-site, randomized controlled trial. Four hundred eighty-eight (N = 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of SAD, GAD, or SoP were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: CBT, SRT, COMB, or PBO. Assessments of anxiety symptoms, safety, and functional outcomes, as well as putative mediators and moderators of treatment response were completed in a multi-measure, multi-informant fashion. Manual-based therapies, trained clinicians and independent evaluators were used to ensure treatment and assessment fidelity. A multi-layered administrative structure with representation from all sites facilitated cross-site coordination of the entire trial, study protocols and quality assurance. Conclusions CAMS offers a model for clinical trials methods applicable to psychosocial and psychopharmacological comparative treatment trials by using state-of-the-art methods and rigorous cross-site quality controls. CAMS also provided a large-scale examination of the relative and combined efficacy and safety of the best evidenced-based psychosocial (CBT and pharmacologic (SSRI treatments to date for the most commonly occurring pediatric anxiety disorders. Primary and secondary results

  18. The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) Trial: Rationale, Design, and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Jean H; Jones, Andrew D; Manges, Amee; Mangwadu, Goldberg; Maluccio, John A; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Moulton, Lawrence H; Ntozini, Robert; Prendergast, Andrew J; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Tielsch, James M

    2015-12-15

    among a subgroup of infants enrolled in an EED substudy. This article describes the rationale, design, and methods underlying the SHINE trial. NCT01824940. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  19. A method for extracting design rationale knowledge based on Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Capture design rationale (DR knowledge and presenting it to designers by good form, which have great significance for design reuse and design innovation. Since the 1970s design rationality began to develop, many teams have developed their own design rational system. However, the DR acquisition system is not intelligent enough, and it still requires designers to do a lot of operations. In addition, the existing design documents contain a large number of DR knowledge, but it has not been well excavated. Therefore, a method and system are needed to better extract DR knowledge in design documents. We have proposed a DRKH (design rationale knowledge hierarchy model for DR representation. The DRKH model has three layers, respectively as design intent layer, design decision layer and design basis layer. In this paper, we use text mining method to extract DR from design documents and construct DR model. Finally, the welding robot design specification is taken as an example to demonstrate the system interface.

  20. Conceptual design studies for the European DEMO divertor: Rationale and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, J.H.; Mazzone, G.; Visca, E.; Bachmann, Ch.; Autissier, E.; Barrett, T.; Cocilovo, V.; Crescenzi, F.; Domalapally, P.K.; Dongiovanni, D.; Entler, S.; Federici, G.; Frosi, P.; Fursdon, M.; Greuner, H.; Hancock, D.; Marzullo, D.; McIntosh, S.; Müller, A.V.; Porfiri, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A brief overview is given on the overall R&D activities of the work package Divertor which is a project of the EUROfusion Consortium. • The rationale of the hydraulic, thermal and structural design scheme is described. • The first results obtained for the preliminary DEMO divertor cassette model are presented. - Abstract: In the European fusion roadmap, reliable power handling has been defined as one of the most critical challenges for realizing a commercially viable fusion power. In this context, the divertor is the key in-vessel component, as it is responsible for power exhaust and impurity removal for which divertor target is subjected to very high heat flux loads. To this end, an integrated R&D project was launched in the EUROfusion Consortium in order to deliver a holistic conceptual design solution together with the core technologies for the entire divertor system of a DEMO reactor. The work package ‘Divertor’ consists of two project areas: ‘Cassette design and integration’ and ‘Target development’. The essential mission of the project is to develop and verify advanced design concepts and the required technologies for a divertor system being capable of meeting the physical and system requirements defined for the next-generation European DEMO reactor. In this contribution, a brief overview is presented of the works from the first project year (2014). Focus is put on the loads specification, design boundary conditions, materials requirements, design approaches, and R&D strategy. Initial ideas and first estimates are presented.

  1. Conceptual design studies for the European DEMO divertor: Rationale and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, J.H., E-mail: you@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmann Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Mazzone, G.; Visca, E. [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Bachmann, Ch. [EUROfusion PMU, c/o IPP, Boltzmann Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Autissier, E. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Barrett, T. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Cocilovo, V.; Crescenzi, F. [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Domalapally, P.K. [Research Cnter Rez, Hlavní 130, 250 68 Husinec–Řež (Czech Republic); Dongiovanni, D. [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Entler, S. [Institute of Plasma Physics CAS, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Federici, G. [EUROfusion PMU, c/o IPP, Boltzmann Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Frosi, P. [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Fursdon, M. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Greuner, H. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmann Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Hancock, D. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Marzullo, D. [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); McIntosh, S. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Müller, A.V. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmann Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Porfiri, M.T. [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A brief overview is given on the overall R&D activities of the work package Divertor which is a project of the EUROfusion Consortium. • The rationale of the hydraulic, thermal and structural design scheme is described. • The first results obtained for the preliminary DEMO divertor cassette model are presented. - Abstract: In the European fusion roadmap, reliable power handling has been defined as one of the most critical challenges for realizing a commercially viable fusion power. In this context, the divertor is the key in-vessel component, as it is responsible for power exhaust and impurity removal for which divertor target is subjected to very high heat flux loads. To this end, an integrated R&D project was launched in the EUROfusion Consortium in order to deliver a holistic conceptual design solution together with the core technologies for the entire divertor system of a DEMO reactor. The work package ‘Divertor’ consists of two project areas: ‘Cassette design and integration’ and ‘Target development’. The essential mission of the project is to develop and verify advanced design concepts and the required technologies for a divertor system being capable of meeting the physical and system requirements defined for the next-generation European DEMO reactor. In this contribution, a brief overview is presented of the works from the first project year (2014). Focus is put on the loads specification, design boundary conditions, materials requirements, design approaches, and R&D strategy. Initial ideas and first estimates are presented.

  2. [Experimental rationale for the parameters of a rapid method for oxidase activity determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorina, N N

    2010-01-01

    Experimental rationale is provided for the parameters of a rapid (1-2-min) test to concurrently determine the oxidase activity of all bacteria grown on the membrane filter after water filtration. Oxidase reagents that are the aqueous solutions of tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride and demethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride have been first ascertained to exert no effect on the viability and enzymatic activity of bacteria after one-hour contact. An algorithm has been improved for the rapid oxidase activity test: the allowable time for bacteria to contact oxidase reagents and procedures for minimizing the effect on bacterial biochemical activity following the contact. An accelerated method based on lactose medium with tergitol 7 and Endo agar has been devised to determine coliform bacteria, by applying the rapid oxidase test: the time of a final response is 18-24 hours. The method has been included into GOST 52426-2005.

  3. The Strathclyde Evaluation of Children's Active Travel (SE-CAT: study rationale and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMinn David

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The school commute is a prime opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. However, active commuting has decreased over the past 40 years. Strategies that increase walking to school are therefore needed. Travelling Green (TG is a school-based active travel resource aimed at increasing children's walking to school. The resource consists of a curriculum-based program of lessons and goal setting activities. A previous study found that children who received the TG intervention increased self-reported distance travelled to school by active modes and reduced the distance travelled by inactive modes. This study was limited by self-reported outcome measures, a small sample, and no follow-up measures. A more robust evaluation of TG is required to address these limitations. This paper describes the rationale and methods for such an evaluation of Travelling Green, and describes the piloting of various active commuting measures in primary school children. Methods/Design Measures of active commuting were piloted in a sample of 26 children (aged 8-9 years over one school week. These measures were subsequently used in an 18-month quasi-experimental design to evaluate the effect of TG on commuting behaviour. Participants were 166 children (60% male aged 8-9 years from 5 primary schools. Two schools (n = 79 children received TG in September/October 2009. Three schools (n = 87 children acted as a comparison group, and subsequently received TG at a later date. Physical activity was measured using Actigraph GT1M accelerometers. Personal and environmental determinants of active commuting were measured via parent and child questionnaires, as were factors related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the construct of habit. Measures were taken pre- and post-intervention and at 5 and 12 months follow-up. Discussion The piloted protocol was practical and feasible and piloted measures were reliable and valid. All study data, including

  4. Monitoring rationale, strategy, issues, and methods: UMRR-EMP LTRMP fish component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Brian S.; Sauer, Jennifer S.; Rogala, James T.

    2014-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP), an element of the multiagency partnership Upper Mississippi River Restoration-Environmental Management Program, has been monitoring fishes in the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) for over two decades, using scientific and highly standardized methods. Today, the LTRMP’s data assets represent one of the world’s largest and most extensive datasets on a great river. Methods and procedures used over the past two decades have been documented and have proven a key tool towards gaining data that are (a) scientifically valid, (b) comparable over time, and (c) comparable over space. These procedures manuals coordinate and standardize methods, procedures, and field behaviors in the execution of long-term monitoring, permitting the informed management and control of important sources of error actually under program control. As LTRMP databases have matured in scope and accumulated more years' worth of data, their utility in research and management in the UMRS basin has increased notably. To maximize their utility, data users need not only be aware of “how the data were collected,” as portrayed in the procedures manuals, but also “why the data were collected in the way they were, at the scales they were, and in the manner that they were.” Whereas the procedures manuals contribute information as to the “how” the data were gained, this document seeks to contribute information as to the “why.” As such, this document is intended to be a companion document to the procedures manuals. Herein, we present information on the rationale for monitoring nearly one-fifth of the entire North American freshwater fish fauna (representing the greatest freshwater fish diversity on the planet at temperate latitudes); strategies employed and their reasoning; and discussions on issues associated with the sampling design itself, data arising therefrom, and uses of those data in different contexts.

  5. Pleural manometry-historical background, rationale for use and methods of measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska-Krawczyk, Monika; Krenke, Rafal; Grabczak, Elzbieta M; Light, Richard W

    2018-03-01

    Subatmospheric pleural pressure (Ppl), which is approximately -3 to -5 cmH 2 O at functional residual capacity (FRC) makes pleura a unique organ in the human body. The negative Ppl is critical for maintaining the lungs in a properly inflated state and for proper blood circulation within the thorax. Significant and sudden pleural pressure changes associated with major pleural pathologies, as well as therapeutic interventions may be associated with life-threatening complications. The pleural pressure may show two different values depending on the measurement method applied. These are called pleural liquid pressure and pleural surface pressure. It should also be realized that there are significant differences in pleural pressure distribution in pneumothorax and pleural effusion. In pneumothorax, the pressure is the same throughout the pleural space, while in pleural effusion there is a vertical gradient of approximately 1 cm H 2 O/cm in the pleural pressure associated with the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid column. Currently, two main methods of pleural pressure measurement are used: simple water manometers and electronic systems. The water manometers are conceptually simple, cheap and user-friendly but they only allow the estimation of the mean values of pleural pressure. The electronic systems for pleural pressure measurement are based on pressure transducers. Their major advantages include precise measurements of instantaneous pleural pressure and the ability to display and to store a large amount of data. The paper presents principles and details of pleural pressure measurement as well as the rationale for its use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II: rationale, design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    March John S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the rationale, design, and methods of the Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II (POTS II, which investigates two different cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT augmentation approaches in children and adolescents who have experienced a partial response to pharmacotherapy with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor for OCD. The two CBT approaches test a "single doctor" versus "dual doctor" model of service delivery. A specific goal was to develop and test an easily disseminated protocol whereby child psychiatrists would provide instructions in core CBT procedures recommended for pediatric OCD (e.g., hierarchy development, in vivo exposure homework during routine medical management of OCD (I-CBT. The conventional "dual doctor" CBT protocol consists of 14 visits over 12 weeks involving: (1 psychoeducation, (2, cognitive training, (3 mapping OCD, and (4 exposure with response prevention (EX/RP. I-CBT is a 7-session version of CBT that does not include imaginal exposure or therapist-assisted EX/RP. In this study, we compared 12 weeks of medication management (MM provided by a study psychiatrist (MM only with two types of CBT augmentation: (1 the dual doctor model (MM+CBT; and (2 the single doctor model (MM+I-CBT. The design balanced elements of an efficacy study (e.g., random assignment, independent ratings with effectiveness research aims (e.g., differences in specific SRI medications, dosages, treatment providers. The study is wrapping up recruitment of 140 youth ages 7–17 with a primary diagnosis of OCD. Independent evaluators (IEs rated participants at weeks 0,4,8, and 12 during acute treatment and at 3,6, and 12 month follow-up visits. Trial registration NCT00074815

  7. Development of a Publicly Available, Comprehensive Database of Fiber and Health Outcomes: Rationale and Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara A Livingston

    Full Text Available Dietary fiber is a broad category of compounds historically defined as partially or completely indigestible plant-based carbohydrates and lignin with, more recently, the additional criteria that fibers incorporated into foods as additives should demonstrate functional human health outcomes to receive a fiber classification. Thousands of research studies have been published examining fibers and health outcomes.(1 Develop a database listing studies testing fiber and physiological health outcomes identified by experts at the Ninth Vahouny Conference; (2 Use evidence mapping methodology to summarize this body of literature. This paper summarizes the rationale, methodology, and resulting database. The database will help both scientists and policy-makers to evaluate evidence linking specific fibers with physiological health outcomes, and identify missing information.To build this database, we conducted a systematic literature search for human intervention studies published in English from 1946 to May 2015. Our search strategy included a broad definition of fiber search terms, as well as search terms for nine physiological health outcomes identified at the Ninth Vahouny Fiber Symposium. Abstracts were screened using a priori defined eligibility criteria and a low threshold for inclusion to minimize the likelihood of rejecting articles of interest. Publications then were reviewed in full text, applying additional a priori defined exclusion criteria. The database was built and published on the Systematic Review Data Repository (SRDR™, a web-based, publicly available application.A fiber database was created. This resource will reduce the unnecessary replication of effort in conducting systematic reviews by serving as both a central database archiving PICO (population, intervention, comparator, outcome data on published studies and as a searchable tool through which this data can be extracted and updated.

  8. Methods for a multicenter randomized trial for mixed urinary incontinence: rationale and patient-centeredness of the ESTEEM trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Vivian W.; Borello-France, Diane; Dunivan, Gena; Gantz, Marie; Lukacz, Emily S.; Moalli, Pamela; Newman, Diane K.; Richter, Holly E.; Ridgeway, Beri; Smith, Ariana L.; Weidner, Alison C.; Meikle, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) can be a challenging condition to manage. We describe the protocol design and rationale for the Effects of Surgical Treatment Enhanced with Exercise for Mixed Urinary Incontinence (ESTEEM) trial, designed to compare a combined conservative and surgical treatment approach versus surgery alone for improving patient-centered MUI outcomes at 12 months. Methods ESTEEM is a multi-site, prospective, randomized trial of female participants with MUI randomized to a standardized perioperative behavioral/pelvic floor exercise intervention plus midurethral sling versus midurethral sling alone. We describe our methods and four challenges encountered during the design phase: defining the study population, selecting relevant patient-centered outcomes, determining sample size estimates using a patient-reported outcome measure, and designing an analysis plan that accommodates MUI failure rates. A central theme in the design was patient-centeredness, which guided many key decisions. Our primary outcome is patient-reported MUI symptoms measured using the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI) score at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, sexual function, cost-effectiveness, time to failure and need for additional treatment. Results The final study design was implemented in November 2013 across 8 clinical sites in the Pelvic Floor Disorders Network. As of February 27, 2016, 433 total /472 targeted participants have been randomized. Conclusions We describe the ESTEEM protocol and our methods for reaching consensus for methodological challenges in designing a trial for MUI by maintaining the patient perspective at the core of key decisions. This trial will provide information that can directly impact patient care and clinical decision-making. PMID:27287818

  9. Specialized treatment for Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD): Treatment rationales and preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian

    ½-years of therapy. We focus on how patients change in regards to important outcomes, including both acute symptoms and more personality based problems such as self-reflection, interpersonal problems and ability to describe feelings. Conclusions: Consistency of results with regard to theories about Av...

  10. The Family Spirit trial for American Indian teen mothers and their children: CBPR rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullany, Britta; Barlow, Allison; Neault, Nicole; Billy, Trudy; Jones, Tanya; Tortice, Iralene; Lorenzo, Sherilynn; Powers, Julia; Lake, Kristin; Reid, Raymond; Walkup, John

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale, design, methods and baseline results of the Family Spirit trial. The goal of the trial is to evaluate the impact of the paraprofessional-delivered "Family Spirit" home-visiting intervention to reduce health and behavioral risks for American Indian teen mothers and their children. A community based participatory research (CBPR) process shaped the design of the current randomized controlled trial of the Family Spirit intervention. Between 2006 and 2008, 322 pregnant teens were randomized to receive the Family Spirit intervention plus Optimized Standard Care, or Optimized Standard Care alone. The Family Spirit intervention is a 43-session home-visiting curriculum administered by American Indian paraprofessionals to teen mothers from 28 weeks gestation until the baby's third birthday. A mixed methods assessment administered at nine intervals measures intervention impact on parental competence, mother's and children's social, emotional and behavioral risks for drug use, and maladaptive functioning. Participants are young (mean age = 18.1 years), predominantly primiparous, unmarried, and challenged by poverty, residential instability and low educational attainment. Lifetime and pregnancy drug use were ~2-4 times higher and ~5-6 times higher, respectively, than US All Races. Baseline characteristics were evenly distributed between groups, except for higher lifetime cigarette use and depressive symptoms among intervention mothers. If study aims are achieved, the public health field will have new evidence supporting multi-generational prevention of behavioral health disparities affecting young American Indian families and the utility of indigenous paraprofessional interventionists in under-resourced communities.

  11. State of the art of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: rationale, results and recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomayer, Erich-Franz

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims, results, advantages and possible disadvantages of preoperative chemotherapy (pCHT for breast cancer are discussed in this review. Established chemotherapeutic regimens are described with respect to new drugs that are added to combinations now and in the future. Illustrating the potential of new components, trastuzumab and cytotoxic chemotherapy, were combined in neoadjuvant trials for the first time. This approach yielded impressing and unprecedented high pathological response rates. An overview regarding current neoadjuvant cytostatic and immunotherapy trials is given. Established prognostic factors like axillary lymph-nodal status are altered during pCHT, which causes the need for new prognostic markers. The consequences of these changes for clinical decision making are demonstrated. It seems possible that the advances of gene array and protein expression profile technologies will lead to improved prognostic and predictive statements. Tumor tissue can be analyzed before during and after treatment in this regard recent studies investigating the response to specific, chemotherapeutics in correlation to molecular markers are reviewed. These approaches might enable us to identify chemoresistance of specific tumors. Furthermore pCHT allows testing of chemosensitivity in vivo in an early stage, which might lead to a more individualized cancer therapy. We discuss radiotherapy after neoadjuvant therapy and the risk of local relapse after breast conserving surgery, which was made feasible by pCHT. It is shown how the evaluation of efficacy of new cancer drugs, using the neoadjuvant situation, can be done more rapidly than in the metastatic and adjuvant setting.

  12. Qualitative approaches to use of the RE-AIM framework: rationale and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Rabin, Borsika A; Glasgow, Russell E

    2018-03-13

    There have been over 430 publications using the RE-AIM model for planning and evaluation of health programs and policies, as well as numerous applications of the model in grant proposals and national programs. Full use of the model includes use of qualitative methods to understand why and how results were obtained on different RE-AIM dimensions, however, recent reviews have revealed that qualitative methods have been used infrequently. Having quantitative and qualitative methods and results iteratively inform each other should enhance understanding and lessons learned. Because there have been few published examples of qualitative approaches and methods using RE-AIM for planning or assessment and no guidance on how qualitative approaches can inform these processes, we provide guidance on qualitative methods to address the RE-AIM model and its various dimensions. The intended audience is researchers interested in applying RE-AIM or similar implementation models, but the methods discussed should also be relevant to those in community or clinical settings. We present directions for, examples of, and guidance on how qualitative methods can be used to address each of the five RE-AIM dimensions. Formative qualitative methods can be helpful in planning interventions and designing for dissemination. Summative qualitative methods are useful when used in an iterative, mixed methods approach for understanding how and why different patterns of results occur. In summary, qualitative and mixed methods approaches to RE-AIM help understand complex situations and results, why and how outcomes were obtained, and contextual factors not easily assessed using quantitative measures.

  13. Rationale and methods of discovering hormetins as drugs for healthy ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh I S

    2012-01-01

    hormetins. Areas covered: Almost fifty years of modern biogerontolgical research has established a clear framework regarding the biological basis of aging and longevity, and it is now generally accepted that aging occurs in spite of the presence of complex pathways of maintenance, repair and defence...... development based in the ideas of hormesis and by following the strategy described here is a skin care cosmetic. Expert opinion: As a biomedical issue, the biological process of aging underlies several major diseases, and although the optimal treatment of every disease, irrespective of age, is a social......Introduction: Mild stress-induced hormesis is becoming increasingly attractive as an aging interventional strategy, and is leading to the discovery of hormesis-inducing compounds called homretins. This review gives the background, rationale and approaches for screening, testing and developing novel...

  14. CORONARY DIET INTERVENTION WITH OLIVE OIL AND CARDIOVASCULAR PREVENTION STUDY (THE CORDIOPREV STUDY): RATIONALE, METHODS, AND BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Perez-Caballero, Ana I.; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Fuentes, Francisco; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Ortiz-Morales, Ana M; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Yubero-Serrano, Elena; Camargo, Antonio; Marin, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Gomez-Luna, Purificacion; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) represents a major global health burden. However, despite the well-known influence that dietary habits exert over the progression of this disease, there are no well-established and scientifically sound dietary approaches to prevent the onset of clinical outcomes in secondary prevention. The objective of the CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (CORDIOPREV study, clinical trials number NCT00924937) is to compare the ability of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil versus a low-fat diet to influence the composite incidence of cardiovascular events after 7 years, in subjects with documented CHD at baseline. For this purpose, we enrolled 1002 coronary patients from Spain. Baseline assessment (2009–12) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess dietary, social and biological variables. Results of baseline characteristics: The CORDIOPREV study in Spain describes a population with a high BMI (37.2% overweight and 56.3% obesity), with a median of LDL-cholesterol of 88.5 mg/dL (70.6% of the patients having <100 mg/dL, and 20.3% patients < 70 mg/dL). 9.6% of the participants were active smokers, and 64.4% were former smokers. Metabolic Syndrome was present in 58% of this population. To sum up, we describe here the rationale, methods and baseline characteristics of the CORDIOPREV study, which will test for the first time the efficacy of a Mediterranean Diet rich in extra virgin olive oil as compared with a low-fat diet on the incidence of CHD recurrence in a long term follow-up study. PMID:27297848

  15. Rationale, design and baseline results of the Treatment Optimisation in Primary care of Heart failure in the Utrecht region (TOPHU) study : a cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Mark J.; Hoes, Arno W.; Mosterd, Arend; Landman, Marcel A.; Broekhuizen, Berna D L; Rutten, Frans H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is mainly detected and managed in primary care, but the care is considered suboptimal. We present the rationale, design and baseline results of the Treatment Optimisation in Primary care of Heart failure in the Utrecht region (TOPHU) study. In this study we assess the

  16. Considerations in the rationale, design and methods of the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, Abdel G; Emery, Sean; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Gordin, Fred M; Grund, Birgit; Lundgren, Jens D; Neaton, James D; Pett, Sarah L; Phillips, Andrew; Touloumi, Giota; Vjecha, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Background Untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by progressive depletion of CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4) count leading to the development of opportunistic diseases (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)), and more recent data suggest that HIV is also associated with an increased risk of serious non-AIDS (SNA) diseases including cardiovascular, renal, and liver diseases and non-AIDS-defining cancers. Although combination antiretroviral treatment (ART) has resulted in a substantial decrease in morbidity and mortality in persons with HIV infection, viral eradication is not feasible with currently available drugs. The optimal time to start ART for asymptomatic HIV infection is controversial and remains one of the key unanswered questions in the clinical management of HIV-infected individuals. Purpose In this article, we outline the rationale and methods of the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study, an ongoing multicenter international trial designed to assess the risks and benefits of initiating ART earlier than is currently practiced. We also describe some of the challenges encountered in the design and implementation of the study and how these challenges were addressed. Methods A total of 4000 study participants who are HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infected, ART naïve with CD4 count > 500 cells/μL are to be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to start ART immediately (early ART) or defer treatment until CD4 count is AIDS, SNA, or death. The study had a pilot phase to establish feasibility of accrual, which was set as the enrollment of at least 900 participants in the first year. Results Challenges encountered in the design and implementation of the study included the limited amount of data on the risk of a major component of the primary endpoint (SNA) in the study population, changes in treatment guidelines when the pilot phase was well underway, and the complexities of conducting the trial in a geographically wide

  17. Rationale and methods of the European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL) Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Boer, E. J.; Slimani, N.; van 't Veer, P.

    2011-01-01

    dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) was reprogrammed and adapted according to prioritized specifications, resulting in a software program working under the Windows operating system. In parallel of the EPIC-Soft development...... questionnaire and modeling of usual intake is a suitable method for pan-European surveillance of nutritional adequacy and food safety among healthy adults and maybe in children aged 7 years and older. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2011) 65, S1-S4; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.82...

  18. The rationale for selecting the method of calculation of project products coast (works, services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Molchanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions of management it is necessary to develop a number of recommendations on the introduction of management accounting at state-owned enterprises that carry out revenue-generating activities or based on the right of economic management. It is necessary to apply the correct cost-accounting method for the production of products, works, services for a more rational calculation of the cost price. This will allow management personnel to receive timely objective information about their cost price, identify the feasibility of production and sales, justify the assortment, plan profits. The procedure for determining the cost price of the project products (works, services in the theory and practice of the state enterprise of the Astrakhan region “Kasprybproekt” is investigated in the work. With the existing practice of planning in design organizations, the planned cost price of design and survey works for established cost items is planned in the cost estimate for production by the design organization as a whole and by the types of work: design, survey and others, without subdividing it by orders (projects. According to this, accounting of the actual costs for work in the design organizations is based. The study showed that the state enterprise of the Astrakhan region “Kasprybproyekt” performs different projects with different execution periods; therefore, it is advisable to use one method of calculating the cost price - job (order costing method, and link it to the responsibility centers depending on the department of the performer. Based on the research of the used method to the cost price calculate of the project products (works, services in the state enterprise of the Astrakhan region “Kasprybproekt”, it was proposed to use the job (order costing method that allows to detail all the project costs without distorting the final financial result and optimize the project costs. If the calculation method is correctly determined

  19. A rationale method for evaluating unscrewing torque values of prosthetic screws in dental implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Miguel Saliba

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Previous studies that evaluated the torque needed for removing dental implant screws have not considered the manner of transfer of the occlusal loads in clinical settings. Instead, the torque used for removal was applied directly to the screw, and most of them omitted the possibility that the hexagon could limit the action of the occlusal load in the loosening of the screws. The present study proposes a method for evaluating the screw removal torque in an anti-rotational device independent way, creating an unscrewing load transfer to the entire assembly, not only to the screw. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty hexagonal abutments without the hexagon in their bases were fixed with a screw to 20 dental implants. They were divided into two groups: Group 1 used titanium screws and Group 2 used titanium screws covered with a solid lubricant. A torque of 32 Ncm was applied to the screw and then a custom-made wrench was used for rotating the abutment counterclockwise, to loosen the screw. A digital torque meter recorded the torque required to loosen the abutment. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the means of Group 1 (38.62±6.43 Ncm and Group 2 (48.47±5.04 Ncm, with p=0.001. CONCLUSION: This methodology was effective in comparing unscrewing torque values of the implant-abutment junction even with a limited sample size. It confirmed a previously shown significant difference between two types of screws.

  20. The evaluation of subcutaneous proleukin (interleukin-2) in a randomized international trial: rationale, design, and methods of ESPRIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Sean; Abrams, Donald I; Cooper, David A; Darbyshire, Janet H; Lane, H Clifford; Lundgren, Jens D; Neaton, James D

    2002-04-01

    The Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT) is a large ongoing randomized trial of subcutaneous interleukin-2 (IL-2) plus antiretroviral therapy versus antiretroviral therapy alone in patients with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) disease and CD4 cell counts of at least 300 cells/mm(3). The primary objective is to determine whether the addition of IL-2 to combination antiretroviral therapy improves morbidity and mortality. The aim is to recruit 4000 participants and follow them for an average of 5 years. Eligible subjects will be recruited at 275 investigational sites in 23 countries around the world. Coupled with broad eligibility criteria this will ensure widely applicable results. A range of secondary objectives will also be addressed in this setting that will include the conduct of observational studies and nested substudies with a public health focus. This article describes the rationale supporting the trial in addition to reviewing the study design, coordination, and governance.

  1. Rationale, design, and results of the first screening round of a comprehensive, register-based, Chlamydia screening implementation programme in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koekenbier Rik H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementing Chlamydia trachomatis screening in the Netherlands has been a point of debate for several years. The National Health Council advised against implementing nationwide screening until additional data collected from a pilot project in 2003 suggested that screening by risk profiles could be effective. A continuous increase in infections recorded in the national surveillance database affirmed the need for a more active approach. Here, we describe the rationale, design, and implementation of a Chlamydia screening demonstration programme. Methods A systematic, selective, internet-based Chlamydia screening programme started in April 2008. Letters are sent annually to all 16 to 29-year-old residents of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and selected municipalities of South Limburg. The letters invite sexually active persons to login to http://www.chlamydiatest.nl with a personal code and to request a test kit. In the lower prevalence area of South Limburg, test kits can only be requested if the internet-based risk assessment exceeds a predefined value. Results We sent invitations to 261,025 people in the first round. One-fifth of the invitees requested a test kit, of whom 80% sent in a sample for testing. The overall positivity rate was 4.2%. Conclusions This programme advances Chlamydia control activities in the Netherlands. Insight into the feasibility, effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and impact of this large-scale screening programme will determine whether the programme will be implemented nationally.

  2. Developing a Healthy Web-Based Cookbook for Pediatric Cancer Patients and Survivors: Rationale and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity has been a growing problem among children and adolescents in the United States for a number of decades. Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are more susceptible to the downstream health consequences of obesity such as cardiovascular disease, endocrine issues, and risk of cancer recurrence due to late effects of treatment and suboptimal dietary and physical activity habits. Objective The objective of this study was to document the development of a Web-based cookbook of healthy recipes and nutrition resources to help enable pediatric cancer patients and survivors to lead healthier lifestyles. Methods The Web-based cookbook, named “@TheTable”, was created by a committee of researchers, a registered dietitian, patients and family members, a hospital chef, and community advisors and donors. Recipes were collected from several sources including recipe contests and social media. We incorporated advice from current patients, parents, and CCS. Results Over 400 recipes, searchable by several categories and with accompanying nutritional information, are currently available on the website. In addition to healthy recipes, social media functionality and cooking videos are integrated into the website. The website also features nutrition information resources including nutrition and cooking tip sheets available on several subjects. Conclusions The “@TheTable” website is a unique resource for promoting healthy lifestyles spanning pediatric oncology prevention, treatment, and survivorship. Through evaluations of the website’s current and future use, as well as incorporation into interventions designed to promote energy balance, we will continue to adapt and build this unique resource to serve cancer patients, survivors, and the general public. PMID:25840596

  3. Medical treatment methods, medical indication claims and patentability: A quest into the rationale of the exclusion and patentability in the context of the future of personalised medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bostyn, S.J.R.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution discusses the thorny issue of the rationale of the exclusion from patentability of medical treatment methods and the patentability of medical indications. This quest is the consequence of our earlier findings that medical indication patents present a real life risk for many players

  4. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: Scientific rationale supporting use of freely dissolved concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Adams, Rachel G.

    2014-01-01

    Passive sampling methods (PSMs) allow the quantification of the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree ) of an organic contaminant even in complex matrices such as sediments. Cfree is directly related to a contaminant's chemical activity, which drives spontaneous processes including diffusive upta...

  5. Yield Gap analysis - Rationale, methods and applications - Introduction to the Special Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van M.K.; Cassman, K.G.

    2013-01-01

    Yield gap analysis is an increasingly popular concept. It is a powerful method to reveal and understand the biophysical opportunities to meet the projected increase in demand for agricultural products towards 2050, and to support decision making on research, policies, development and investment that

  6. Texting to increase physical activity among teenagers (TXT Me!): Rationale, design, and methods proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity decreases from childhood through adulthood. Among youth, teenagers (teens) achieve the lowest levels of physical activity, and high school age youth are particularly at risk of inactivity. Effective methods are needed to increase youth physical activity in a way that can be maintai...

  7. Rationale and methods of the European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL) Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de E.J.; Slimani, N.; Boeing, H.; Feinberg, M.; Leclerq, C.; Trolle, E.; Amiano, P.; Andersen, L.F.; Freisling, H.; Geelen, A.; Harttig, U.; Huybrechts, I.; Kaic-Rak, A.; Lafay, L.; Lillegaard, I.T.L.; Ruprich, J.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Ocke, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The overall objective of the European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL) Project was to further develop and validate a trans-European food consumption method to be used for the evaluation of the intake of foods, nutrients and potentially hazardous chemicals within the

  8. The Jamaica asthma and allergies national prevalence survey: rationale and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Nancy C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a significant public health problem in the Caribbean. Prevalence surveys using standardized measures of asthma provide valid prevalence estimates to facilitate regional and international comparisons and monitoring of trends. This paper describes methods used in the Jamaica Asthma and Allergies National Prevalence Survey, challenges associated with this survey and strategies used to overcome these challenges. Methods/Design An island wide, cross-sectional, community-based survey of asthma, asthma symptoms and allergies was done among adults and children using the European Community Respiratory Health Survey Questionnaire for adults and the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children. Stratified multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select 2, 163 adults aged 18 years and older and 2, 017 children aged 2-17 years for the survey. The Kish selection table was used to select one adult and one child per household. Data analysis accounted for sampling design and prevalence estimates were weighted to produce national estimates. Discussion The Jamaica Asthma and Allergies National Prevalence Survey is the first population- based survey in the Caribbean to determine the prevalence of asthma and allergies both in adults and children using standardized methods. With response rates exceeding 80% in both groups, this approach facilitated cost-effective gathering of high quality asthma prevalence data that will facilitate international and regional comparison and monitoring of asthma prevalence trends. Another unique feature of this study was the partnership with the Ministry of Health in Jamaica, which ensured the collection of data relevant for decision-making to facilitate the uptake of research evidence. The findings of this study will provide important data on the burden of asthma and allergies in Jamaica and contribute to evidence-informed planning of comprehensive asthma management and education programs.

  9. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort study: rationale and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Leung, Brenda M Y; Field, Catherine J; Dewey, Deborah; Bell, Rhonda C; Manca, Donna P; O'Beirne, Maeve; Johnston, David W; Pop, Victor J; Singhal, Nalini; Gagnon, Lisa; Bernier, Francois P; Eliasziw, Misha; McCargar, Linda J; Kooistra, Libbe; Farmer, Anna; Cantell, Marja; Goonewardene, Laki; Casey, Linda M; Letourneau, Nicole; Martin, Jonathan W

    2014-01-01

    The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that recruits pregnant women early in pregnancy and, as of 2012, is following up their infants to 3 years of age. It has currently enrolled approximately 5000 Canadians (2000 pregnant women, their offspring and many of their partners). The primary aims of the APrON study were to determine the relationships between maternal nutrient intake and status, before, during and after gestation, and (1) maternal mood; (2) birth and obstetric outcomes; and (3) infant neurodevelopment. We have collected comprehensive maternal nutrition, anthropometric, biological and mental health data at multiple points in the pregnancy and the post-partum period, as well as obstetrical, birth, health and neurodevelopmental outcomes of these pregnancies. The study continues to follow the infants through to 36 months of age. The current report describes the study design and methods, and findings of some pilot work. The APrON study is a significant resource with opportunities for collaboration. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Predicting Appropriate Admission of Bronchiolitis Patients in the Emergency Department: Rationale and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Stone, Bryan L; Johnson, Michael D; Nkoy, Flory L

    2016-03-07

    In young children, bronchiolitis is the most common illness resulting in hospitalization. For children less than age 2, bronchiolitis incurs an annual total inpatient cost of $1.73 billion. Each year in the United States, 287,000 emergency department (ED) visits occur because of bronchiolitis, with a hospital admission rate of 32%-40%. Due to a lack of evidence and objective criteria for managing bronchiolitis, ED disposition decisions (hospital admission or discharge to home) are often made subjectively, resulting in significant practice variation. Studies reviewing admission need suggest that up to 29% of admissions from the ED are unnecessary. About 6% of ED discharges for bronchiolitis result in ED returns with admission. These inappropriate dispositions waste limited health care resources, increase patient and parental distress, expose patients to iatrogenic risks, and worsen outcomes. Existing clinical guidelines for bronchiolitis offer limited improvement in patient outcomes. Methodological shortcomings include that the guidelines provide no specific thresholds for ED decisions to admit or to discharge, have an insufficient level of detail, and do not account for differences in patient and illness characteristics including co-morbidities. Predictive models are frequently used to complement clinical guidelines, reduce practice variation, and improve clinicians' decision making. Used in real time, predictive models can present objective criteria supported by historical data for an individualized disease management plan and guide admission decisions. However, existing predictive models for ED patients with bronchiolitis have limitations, including low accuracy and the assumption that the actual ED disposition decision was appropriate. To date, no operational definition of appropriate admission exists. No model has been built based on appropriate admissions, which include both actual admissions that were necessary and actual ED discharges that were unsafe. The

  11. Children, parents, and pets exercising together (CPET randomised controlled trial: study rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yam Philippa S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objectively measured physical activity is low in British children, and declines as childhood progresses. Observational studies suggest that dog-walking might be a useful approach to physical activity promotion in children and adults, but there are no published public health interventions based on dog-walking with children. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study aims to develop and evaluate a theory driven, generalisable, family-based, dog walking intervention for 9-11 year olds. Methods/design The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study is an exploratory, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial as defined in the UK MRC Framework on the development and evaluation of complex interventions in public health. The trial will follow CONSORT guidance. Approximately 40 dog-owning families will be allocated randomly in a ratio of 1.5:1 to receive a simple behavioural intervention lasting for 10 weeks or to a 'waiting list' control group. The primary outcome is change in objectively measured child physical activity using Actigraph accelerometry. Secondary outcomes in the child, included in part to shape a future more definitive randomised controlled trial, are: total time spent sedentary and patterning of sedentary behaviour (Actigraph accelerometry; body composition and bone health from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; body weight, height and BMI; and finally, health-related quality of life using the PedsQL. Secondary outcomes in parents and dogs are: changes in body weight; changes in Actigraph accelerometry measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Process evaluation will consist of assessment of simultaneous child, parent, and dog accelerometry data and brief interviews with participating families. Discussion The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together trial should be the first randomised controlled study to establish and evaluate an intervention aimed at dog-based physical

  12. Rationale, Design, and Methods for Process Evaluation in the Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sitara; Stevens, Andria M; Ledoux, Tracey; O'Connor, Teresia M; O'Connor, Daniel P; Thompson, Debbe

    2015-01-01

    The cross-site process evaluation plan for the Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project is described here. The CORD project comprises 3 unique demonstration projects designed to integrate multi-level, multi-setting health care and public health interventions over a 4-year funding period. Three different communities in California, Massachusetts, and Texas. All CORD demonstration projects targeted 2-12-year-old children whose families are eligible for benefits under Title XXI (CHIP) or Title XIX (Medicaid). The CORD projects were developed independently and consisted of evidence-based interventions that aim to prevent childhood obesity. The interventions promote healthy behaviors in children by applying strategies in 4 key settings (primary care clinics, early care and education centers, public schools, and community institutions). The CORD process evaluation outlined 3 main outcome measures: reach, dose, and fidelity, on 2 levels (researcher to provider, and provider to participant). The plan described here provides insight into the complex nature of process evaluation for consortia of independently designed multi-level, multi-setting intervention studies. The process evaluation results will provide contextual information about intervention implementation and delivery with which to interpret other aspects of the program. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  13. The personalized reminder information and social management system (PRISM) trial: rationale, methods and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Sara J; Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil; A Rogers, Wendy; Sharit, Joseph; Fisk, Arthur D; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran N

    2015-01-01

    Technology holds promise in terms of providing support to older adults. To date, there have been limited robust systematic efforts to evaluate the psychosocial benefits of technology for older people and identify factors that influence both the usability and uptake of technology systems. In response to these issues, we developed the Personal Reminder Information and Social Management System (PRISM), a software application designed for older adults to support social connectivity, memory, knowledge about topics, leisure activities and access to resources. This trail is evaluating the impact of access to the PRISM system on outcomes such as social isolation, social support and connectivity. This paper reports on the approach used to design the PRISM system, study design, methodology and baseline data for the trial. The trial is multi-site randomized field trial. PRISM is being compared to a Binder condition where participants received a binder that contained content similar to that found on PRISM. The sample includes 300 older adults, aged 65-98 years, who lived alone and at risk for being isolated. The primary outcome measures for the trial include indices of social isolation and support and well-being. Secondary outcomes measures include indices of computer proficiency, technology uptake and attitudes towards technology. Follow-up assessments occurred at 6 and 12 months post-randomization. The results of this study will yield important information about the potential value of technology for older adults. The study also demonstrates how a user-centered iterative design approach can be incorporated into the design and evaluation of an intervention protocol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Memory in Diabetes Study (ACCORD-MIND): rationale, design, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jeff D; Miller, Michael E; Bryan, R Nick; Lazar, Ronald M; Coker, Laura H; Johnson, Janice; Cukierman, Tali; Horowitz, Karen R; Murray, Anne; Launer, Lenore J

    2007-06-18

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairment are 2 of the most common chronic conditions found in persons aged > or = 60 years. Clinical studies have shown a greater prevalence of global cognitive impairment, incidence of cognitive decline, and incidence of Alzheimer disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. To date, there have been no randomized trials of the effects of long-term glycemic control on cognitive function and structural brain changes in patients with type 2 diabetes. The primary aim of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Memory in Diabetes Study (ACCORD-MIND) is to test whether there is a difference in the rate of cognitive decline and structural brain change in patients with diabetes treated with standard-care guidelines compared with those treated with intensive-care guidelines. This comparison will be made in a subsample of 2,977 patients with diabetes participating in the ongoing ACCORD trial, a clinical trial sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) with support from the National Institute on Aging (NIA). Data from this ACCORD substudy on the possible beneficial or adverse effects of intensive treatment on cognitive function will be obtained from a 30-minute test battery, administered at baseline and 20-month and 40-month visits. In addition, full-brain magnetic resonance imaging will be performed on 630 participants at baseline and at 40 months to assess the relation between the ACCORD treatments and structural brain changes. The general aim of ACCORD-MIND is to determine whether the intensive treatment of diabetes, a major risk factor for Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia, can reduce the early decline in cognitive function that could later evolve into more cognitively disabling conditions. This report presents the design, rationale, and methods of the ACCORD-MIND substudy.

  15. Targeted therapies for non-small-cell lung cancer: biology, rationale, and preclinical results from a radiation oncology perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raben, David; Helfrich, Barb; Bunn, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in the majority of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). This presents an opportune target for new treatment strategies designed to selectively interfere with the cancer cell growth cycle. Recent investigations into the biology of the EGFR and its downstream signaling pathways have reminded us of the complexity of cancer cell communications from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Multiple pathways are activated with stimulation of the autocrine and paracrine EGFR loop, from the ras-raf-MEK activation of ERK 1/2 to the P13K-Akt pathway, each playing an important role in cancer cell survival, invasion, and angiogenesis. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that molecules targeting the EGFR, either through extracellular blockade or intracellular interference with the EGFR-associated tyrosine kinase, reversibly or irreversibly, inhibit cancer cell growth. Potent antitumor effects have been observed in human tumor xenograft models. Preclinical studies have also demonstrated cooperative effects when anti-EGFR agents are combined with radiation or chemotherapy. Many of these agents have now entered into advanced human clinical trials with modest dose-related toxicity despite chronic administration. Encouraging response rates with single-agent targeted therapy have been reported in heavily pretreated patients with advanced NSCLC. In addition, agents targeting the angiogenic pathway, which plays a key role in the regulation of angiogenesis, may play an important role in enhancing the efficacy of anti-EGFR agents. This article will focus on the biology, rationale, and preclinical studies with targeted anti-EGFR and antiangiogenic therapies for the management of NSCLC

  16. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.

    2008-01-01

    Owing the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant kinetic energies, it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible to measure astrophysical reaction rates in laboratory. This is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The THM is unique indirect technique allowing one measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to astrophysical relevant energies. The basic principle and a review of the main application of the Trojan Horse Method are presented. The applications aiming at the extraction of the bare S b (E) astrophysical factor and electron screening potentials U e for several two body processes are discussed

  17. Ethical and policy issues in cluster randomized trials: rationale and design of a mixed methods research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhry Shazia H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cluster randomized trials are an increasingly important methodological tool in health research. In cluster randomized trials, intact social units or groups of individuals, such as medical practices, schools, or entire communities – rather than individual themselves – are randomly allocated to intervention or control conditions, while outcomes are then observed on individual cluster members. The substantial methodological differences between cluster randomized trials and conventional randomized trials pose serious challenges to the current conceptual framework for research ethics. The ethical implications of randomizing groups rather than individuals are not addressed in current research ethics guidelines, nor have they even been thoroughly explored. The main objectives of this research are to: (1 identify ethical issues arising in cluster trials and learn how they are currently being addressed; (2 understand how ethics reviews of cluster trials are carried out in different countries (Canada, the USA and the UK; (3 elicit the views and experiences of trial participants and cluster representatives; (4 develop well-grounded guidelines for the ethical conduct and review of cluster trials by conducting an extensive ethical analysis and organizing a consensus process; (5 disseminate the guidelines to researchers, research ethics boards (REBs, journal editors, and research funders. Methods We will use a mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative approach incorporating both empirical and conceptual work. Empirical work will include a systematic review of a random sample of published trials, a survey and in-depth interviews with trialists, a survey of REBs, and in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with trial participants and gatekeepers. The empirical work will inform the concurrent ethical analysis which will lead to a guidance document laying out principles, policy options, and rationale for proposed guidelines. An

  18. The Comparing Options for Management: Patient-centered Results for Uterine Fibroids (COMPARE-UF) Registry: Rationale and Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Elizabeth A; Lytle, Barbara L; Thomas, Laine; Wegienka, Ganesa R; Jacoby, Vanessa; Diamond, Michael P; Nicholson, Wanda K; Anchan, Raymond M; Venable, Sateria; Wallace, Kedra; Marsh, Erica E; Maxwell, George L; Borah, Bijan J; Catherino, William H; Myers, Evan R

    2018-05-08

    procedures. Hysterectomy is the second most common treatment within the registry at 38%. In response to priorities identified by our patient stakeholders, the initial aims within COMPARE-UF will address how different procedures used to treat UF compare in terms of long-lasting symptom relief, potential for recurrence, medical complications, improvement in quality of life and sexual function, age at menopause, and fertility and pregnancy outcomes. COMPARE-UF will generate evidence on the comparative effectiveness of different procedural options for UF, in order to help patients and their caregivers make informed decisions that best meet an individual patient's short- and long-term preferences. Building upon this infrastructure, the COMPARE-UF team of investigators and stakeholders, including patients, collaborate to identify future priorities for expanding the registry, such assessing the efficacy of medical therapies for UF. COMPARE-UF results will be disseminated directly to patients, providers, and other stakeholders using traditional academic pathways, as well as innovative methods, including a variety of social media platforms. Given demographic differences among women undergoing different UF treatments, assessing comparative effectiveness for this disease through clinical trials will remain difficult. Therefore, this registry provides optimized evidence to help patients and their providers better understand the pros and cons of different treatment options so that they can make more informed decisions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Rationale and Methods for Archival Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheric Trace Chemical Contaminants On Board Mir and Recommendations for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; James, J. T.; Cole, H. E.; Limero, T. F.; Beck, S. W.

    1997-01-01

    Collection and analysis of spacecraft cabin air samples are necessary to assess the cabin air quality with respect to crew health. Both toxicology and engineering disciplines work together to achieve an acceptably clean cabin atmosphere. Toxicology is concerned with limiting the risk to crew health from chemical sources, setting exposure limits, and analyzing air samples to determine how well these limits are met. Engineering provides the means for minimizing the contribution of the various contaminant generating sources by providing active contamination control equipment on board spacecraft and adhering to a rigorous material selection and control program during the design and construction of the spacecraft. A review of the rationale and objectives for sampling spacecraft cabin atmospheres is provided. The presently-available sampling equipment and methods are reviewed along with the analytical chemistry methods employed to determine trace contaminant concentrations. These methods are compared and assessed with respect to actual cabin air quality monitoring needs. Recommendations are presented with respect to the basic sampling program necessary to ensure an acceptably clean spacecraft cabin atmosphere. Also, rationale and recommendations for expanding the scope of the basic monitoring program are discussed.

  20. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okely Anthony D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods/Design The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. Discussion NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an

  1. Genomewide Association Studies: History, Rationale, and Prospects for Psychiatric Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cichon, S.; Craddock, N.; Daly, M.J.; Faraone, S.V.; Gejman, P.V.; Kelsoe, J.; Lehner, T.; Levinson, D.F.; Moran, A.P.; Sklar, P.; Sullivan, P.F.; Boomsma, D.I.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Posthuma, D.; Willemsen, G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors conducted a review of the history and empirical basis of genomewide association studies (GWAS), the rationale for GWAS of psychiatric disorders, results to date, limitations, and plans for GWAS meta-analyses. Method: A literature review was carried out, power and other issues

  2. Genomewide association studies: history, rationale, and prospects for psychiatric disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Cichon, S.; Craddock, N.; Daly, M.; Faraone, S.V.; Gejman, P.V.; Kelsoe, J.; Lehner, T.; Levinson, D.F.; Moran, A.; Sklar, P.; Sullivan, P.F.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors conducted a review of the history and empirical basis of genomewide association studies (GWAS), the rationale for GWAS of psychiatric disorders, results to date, limitations, and plans for GWAS meta-analyses. METHOD: A literature review was carried out, power and other issues

  3. Rationale for methods of prevention and treatment of toxic infections complications of combined radiation and thermal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodugov, R.S.; Nesterenko, V.S.; Makarov, G.F.; Ul'yanova, L.P.; Khlopovskaya, E.I.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the results of experimental studies on the pathogenesis of combined radiation and thermal injuries (CRTI) helped single out the factors aggravating the outcomes of such injuries. Potentiation of the hepatotoxic effects of bacterial enteroendotoxicosis and early toxemia associated with burns is the principal factor augmenting the disorders in the reactivity of radiosensitive systems in CRTI. The authors' findings evidence the efficacy of enterosorption, of methods enhancing the gastrointestinal motoricity, and of a number of modifiers of biologic reactions and heterologous immunoglobulins for the prevention and treatment of toxic infectious complications of CRTI

  4. Rationale and methods of a randomized controlled trial of immunogenicity, safety and impact on carriage of pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines in infants in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Deborah; Kirarock, Wendy; van den Biggelaar, Anita H J; Passey, Megan; Jacoby, Peter; Saleu, Gerard; Masiria, Geraldine; Nivio, Birunu; Greenhill, Andrew; Orami, Tilda; Francis, Jacinta; Ford, Rebecca; Kirkham, Lea-Ann; Solomon, Vela; Richmond, Peter C; Pomat, William S

    2017-01-01

    Children in third-world settings including Papua New Guinea (PNG) experience early onset of carriage with a broad range of pneumococcal serotypes, resulting in a high incidence of severe pneumococcal disease and deaths in the first 2 years of life. Vaccination trials in high endemicity settings are needed to provide evidence and guidance on optimal strategies to protect children in these settings against pneumococcal infections. This report describes the rationale, objectives, methods, study population, follow-up and specimen collection for a vaccination trial conducted in an endemic and logistically challenging setting in PNG. The trial aimed to determine whether currently available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) are suitable for use under PNG's accelerated immunization schedule, and that a schedule including pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) in later infancy is safe and immunogenic in this high-risk population. This open randomized-controlled trial was conducted between November 2011 and March 2016, enrolling 262 children aged 1 month between November 2011 and April 2014. The participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive 10-valent PCV (10vPCV) or 13-valent PCV (13vPCV) in a 1-2-3-month schedule, with further randomization to receive PPV or no PPV at age 9 months, followed by a 1/5 th PPV challenge at age 23 months. A total of 1229 blood samples were collected to measure humoral and cellular immune responses and 1238 nasopharyngeal swabs to assess upper respiratory tract colonization and carriage load. Serious adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Of the 262 children enrolled, 87% received 3 doses of PCV, 79% were randomized to receive PPV or no PPV at age 9 months, and 67% completed the study at 24 months of age with appropriate immunization and challenge. Laboratory testing of the many samples collected during this trial will determine the impact of the different vaccine schedules and formulations on nasopharyngeal

  5. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls) randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results

    OpenAIRE

    Okely Anthony D; Plotnikoff Ronald C; Collins Clare E; Dewar Deborah; Morgan Philip J; Lubans David R; Batterham Marijka J; Finn Tara; Callister Robin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolesc...

  6. Methods and rationale used in a matched cohort study of the incidence of new primary cancers following prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cronin-Fenton DP

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Deirdre P Cronin-Fenton,1 Sussie Antonsen,1 Karynsa Cetin,2 John Acquavella,2 Andre Daniels,3 Timothy L Lash1,4 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Center for Observational Research, Amgen Incorporated, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA; 3Global Regulatory Affairs and Safety, Amgen Incorporated, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA; 4Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA Objectives: We describe several methodological issues that were addressed in conducting a Danish population-based matched cohort study comparing rates of new primary cancers (NPCs in men with and without prostate cancer (PC. Methods: We matched 30,220 men with PC to 151,100 men without PC (comparators on age (±2 years and PC diagnosis/index date. We focused on several methodological issues: 1 to address survival differences between the cohorts we compared rates with and without censoring comparators on the date their matched PC patient died or was censored; 2 to address diagnostic bias, we excluded men with a history of cancer from the comparator cohort; 3 to address prostate cancer immunity, we graphed the hazard of NPC in both cohorts, with and without prostate cancer as an outcome; 4 we used empirical Bayes methods to explore the effect of adjusting for multiple comparisons. Results: After 18 months of follow-up, cumulative person-time was lower in the PC than comparator cohort due to higher mortality among PC patients. Terminating person-time in comparators at the matched PC patient's death or loss to follow-up resulted in comparable person-time up to 30 months of follow-up and lower person-time among comparators thereafter. The hazard of NPC was lower among men with PC than comparators throughout follow-up. There was little difference in rates beyond the first four years of follow-up after removing PC as an outcome. Empirical Bayes adjustment for multiple comparisons had little effect on the

  7. Blood irradiation: Rationale and technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Upon request by the local American Red Cross, the Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care irradiates whole blood or blood components to prevent post-transfusion graft-versus-host reaction in patients who have severely depressed immune systems. The rationale for blood irradiation, the total absorbed dose, the type of patients who require irradiated blood, and the regulations that apply to irradiated blood are presented. A method of irradiating blood using a linear accelerator is described

  8. The WOMBAT Attack Attribution Method: Some Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacier, Marc; Pham, Van-Hau; Thonnard, Olivier

    In this paper, we present a new attack attribution method that has been developed within the WOMBAT project. We illustrate the method with some real-world results obtained when applying it to almost two years of attack traces collected by low interaction honeypots. This analytical method aims at identifying large scale attack phenomena composed of IP sources that are linked to the same root cause. All malicious sources involved in a same phenomenon constitute what we call a Misbehaving Cloud (MC). The paper offers an overview of the various steps the method goes through to identify these clouds, providing pointers to external references for more detailed information. Four instances of misbehaving clouds are then described in some more depth to demonstrate the meaningfulness of the concept.

  9. Barriers, facilitators and preferences for the physical activity of school children. Rationale and methods of a mixed study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Andrés María

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity interventions in schools environment seem to have shown some effectiveness in the control of the current obesity epidemic in children. However the complexity of behaviors and the diversity of influences related to this problem suggest that we urgently need new lines of insight about how to support comprehensive population strategies of intervention. The aim of this study was to know the perceptions of the children from Cuenca, about their environmental barriers, facilitators and preferences for physical activity. Methods/Design We used a mixed-method design by combining two qualitative methods (analysis of individual drawings and focus groups together with the quantitative measurement of physical activity through accelerometers, in a theoretical sample of 121 children aged 9 and 11 years of schools in the province of Cuenca, Spain. Conclusions Mixed-method study is an appropriate strategy to know the perceptions of children about barriers and facilitators for physical activity, using both qualitative methods for a deeply understanding of their points of view, and quantitative methods for triangulate the discourse of participants with empirical data. We consider that this is an innovative approach that could provide knowledges for the development of more effective interventions to prevent childhood overweight.

  10. Rationale and methods of the multicenter randomised trial of a heart failure management programme among geriatric patients (HF-Geriatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casado Jose

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease management programmes (DMPs have been shown to reduce hospital readmissions and mortality in adults with heart failure (HF, but their effectiveness in elderly patients or in those with major comorbidity is unknown. The Multicenter Randomised Trial of a Heart Failure Management Programme among Geriatric Patients (HF-Geriatrics assesses the effectiveness of a DMP in elderly patients with HF and major comorbidity. Methods/Design Clinical trial in 700 patients aged ≥ 75 years admitted with a primary diagnosis of HF in the acute care unit of eight geriatric services in Spain. Each patient should meet at least one of the following comorbidty criteria: Charlson index ≥ 3, dependence in ≥ 2 activities of daily living, treatment with ≥ 5 drugs, active treatment for ≥ 3 diseases, recent emergency hospitalization, severe visual or hearing loss, cognitive impairment, Parkinson's disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, anaemia, or constitutional syndrome. Half of the patients will be randomly assigned to a 1-year DMP led by a case manager and the other half to usual care. The DMP consists of an educational programme for patients and caregivers on the management of HF, COPD (knowledge of the disease, smoking cessation, immunizations, use of inhaled medication, recognition of exacerbations, diabetes (knowledge of the disease, symptoms of hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia, self-adjustment of insulin, foot care and depression (knowledge of the disease, diagnosis and treatment. It also includes close monitoring of the symptoms of decompensation and optimisation of treatment compliance. The main outcome variables are quality of life, hospital readmissions, and overall mortality during a 12-month follow-up. Discussion The physiological changes, lower life expectancy, comorbidity and low health literacy associated with aging may influence the effectiveness of DMPs in HF. The HF-Geriatrics study

  11. The National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet) Bariatric Study Cohort: Rationale, Methods, and Baseline Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Harmata, Emily E; Pardee, Roy; Saizan, Rosalinde; Malanga, Elisha; Sturtevant, Jessica L; Horgan, Casie E; Anau, Jane; Janning, Cheri D; Wellman, Robert D; Coley, R Yates; Cook, Andrea J; Courcoulas, Anita P; Coleman, Karen J; Williams, Neely A; McTigue, Kathleen M; Arterburn, David; McClay, James

    2017-01-01

    Background Although bariatric procedures are commonly performed in clinical practice, long-term data on the comparative effectiveness and safety of different procedures on sustained weight loss, comorbidities, and adverse effects are limited, especially in important patient subgroups (eg, individuals with diabetes, older patients, adolescents, and minority patients). Objective The objective of this study was to create a population-based cohort of patients who underwent 3 commonly performed bariatric procedures—adjustable gastric band (AGB), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG)—to examine the long-term comparative effectiveness and safety of these procedures in both adults and adolescents. Methods We identified adults (20 to 79 years old) and adolescents (12 to 19 years old) who underwent a primary (first observed) AGB, RYGB, or SG procedure between January 1, 2005 and September 30, 2015 from 42 health systems participating in the Clinical Data Research Networks within the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet). We extracted information on patient demographics, encounters with healthcare providers, diagnoses recorded and procedures performed during these encounters, vital signs, and laboratory test results from patients’ electronic health records (EHRs). The outcomes of interest included weight change, incidence of major surgery-related adverse events, and diabetes remission and relapse, collected for up to 10 years after the initial bariatric procedure. Results A total of 65,093 adults and 777 adolescents met the eligibility criteria of the study. The adult subcohort had a mean age of 45 years and was predominantly female (79.30%, 51,619/65,093). Among adult patients with non-missing race or ethnicity information, 72.08% (41,248/57,227) were White, 21.13% (12,094/57,227) were Black, and 20.58% (13,094/63,637) were Hispanic. The average highest body mass index (BMI) recorded in the year prior to surgery was 49 kg

  12. Mediterranean studies of cardiovascular disease and hyperglycemia: analytical modeling of population socio-economic transitions (MedCHAMPS)--rationale and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziak, Wasim; Critchley, Julia; Zaman, Shahaduz; Unwin, Nigel; Capewell, Simon; Bennett, Kathleen; Unal, Belgin; Husseini, Abdullatif; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Phillimore, Peter

    2013-08-01

    In response to the escalating epidemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Mediterranean Region (MR), an international collaboration aiming at understanding the burden of CVD and evaluating cost-effective strategies to combat it was recently established. This paper describes the rationale and methods of the project MedCHAMPS to disseminate this successful experience. The framework of MedCHAMPS is exceptional in combining multiple disciplines (e.g. epidemiology, anthropology, economics), countries [Turkey, Syria, occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), Tunisia, UK, Ireland], research methods (situational and policy analysis, quantitative and qualitative studies, statistical modeling), and involving local stakeholders at all levels to assess trends of CVD/diabetes in the society and attributes of the local health care systems to provide optimal policy recommendations to reduce the burden of CVD/diabetes. MedCHAMPS provides policy makers in the MR and beyond needed guidance about the burden of CVD, and best cost-effective ways to combat it. Our approach of building developed-developing countries collaboration also provides a roadmap for other researchers seeking to build research base into CVD epidemiology and prevention in developing countries.

  13. Barriers to successful implementation of care in home haemodialysis (BASIC-HHD):1. Study design, methods and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanti, Anuradha; Wearden, Alison J; Morris, Julie; Brenchley, Paul; Abma, Inger; Bayer, Steffen; Barlow, James; Mitra, Sandip

    2013-09-17

    Ten years on from the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence' technology appraisal guideline on haemodialysis in 2002; the clinical community is yet to rise to the challenge of providing home haemodialysis (HHD) to 10-15% of the dialysis cohort. The renal registry report, suggests underutilization of a treatment type that has had a lot of research interest and several publications worldwide on its apparent benefit for both physical and mental health of patients. An understanding of the drivers to introducing and sustaining the modality, from organizational, economic, clinical and patient perspectives is fundamental to realizing the full benefits of the therapy with the potential to provide evidence base for effective care models. Through the BASIC-HHD study, we seek to understand the clinical, patient and carer related psychosocial, economic and organisational determinants of successful uptake and maintenance of home haemodialysis and thereby, engage all major stakeholders in the process. We have adopted an integrated mixed methodology (convergent, parallel design) for this study. The study arms include a. patient; b. organization; c. carer and d. economic evaluation. The three patient study cohorts (n = 500) include pre-dialysis patients (200), hospital haemodialysis (200) and home haemodialysis patients (100) from geographically distinct NHS sites, across the country and with variable prevalence of home haemodialysis. The pre-dialysis patients will also be prospectively followed up for a period of 12 months from study entry to understand their journey to renal replacement therapy and subsequently, before and after studies will be carried out for a select few who do commence dialysis in the study period. The process will entail quantitative methods and ethnographic interviews of all groups in the study. Data collection will involve clinical and biomarkers, psychosocial quantitative assessments and neuropsychometric tests in patients. Organizational

  14. THE RATIONALE OF LAW. THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF THE LOGICAL METHOD OF INTERPRETATION OF LEGAL NORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai BĂDESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of law was and remains an indispensable postulation, inherent and the most significant in the application of the law. Through interpretation the aim is to clarify the obscure text, to rectify the imperfection of the text of the legal norm, to remedy its shortcomings, and in consequence, to specify the exact meaning of the legal norm. Interpretation concerns itself with emphasizing the authentic meaning of the normative texts, finding the spirit of the lawmaker-author, the authentic legal sense of the actions that occurred, of the conduct of the perpetrator, and the significant legal connection of these meanings. The necessity of interpreting legal norms is justified by several considerations, out of which the most important remains the one regarding the act that the lawmaker cannot and need not provide everything in the normative text. The unity between the spirit and the letter of the law, the continuity of interpretation, the useful effect of the legal norm are just a few of the principles that need to be taken into account in interpretation. Be it official (obligatory, or unofficial (doctrinary, interpretation remains an extremely important stage in the application of the law: the literature of specialty consecrates five important methods of interpretation (grammatical, historical, systematical, teleological, and logical. The latter method allows for the formulation by the interpreter of certain rational assessments, done through operations of generalization, of logical analysis of the text, of analogy, through applying formal logic. The present study will mainly deal with this method, analyzing the main logical arguments used in interpretation.

  15. The "BIOmarkers associated with Sarcopenia and PHysical frailty in EldeRly pErsons" (BIOSPHERE) study: Rationale, design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Riccardo; Picca, Anna; Marini, Federico; Biancolillo, Alessandra; Cesari, Matteo; Pesce, Vito; Lezza, Angela Maria Serena; Bossola, Maurizio; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Bernabei, Roberto; Landi, Francesco; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2018-05-10

    Sarcopenia, the progressive and generalised loss of muscle mass and strength/function, is a major health issue in older adults given its high prevalence and burdensome clinical implications. Over the years, this condition has been endorsed as a marker for discriminating biological from chronological age. However, the absence of a unified operational definition has hampered its full appreciation by healthcare providers, researchers and policy-makers. In addition to this unsolved debate, the complexity of musculoskeletal ageing represents a major challenge to the identification of clinically meaningful biomarkers. Here, we illustrate the advantages of biomarker discovery procedures in muscle ageing based on multivariate methodologies as an alternative approach to traditional single-marker strategies. The rationale, design and methods of the "BIOmarkers associated with Sarcopenia and PHysical frailty in EldeRly pErsons" (BIOSPHERE) study are described as an application of a multi-marker strategy for the development of biomarkers for the newly operationalised Physical Frailty & Sarcopenia condition. Copyright © 2018 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing "Personality" Taxonomies: Metatheoretical and Methodological Rationales Underlying Selection Approaches, Methods of Data Generation and Reduction Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana

    2015-12-01

    Taxonomic "personality" models are widely used in research and applied fields. This article applies the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) to scrutinise the three methodological steps that are required for developing comprehensive "personality" taxonomies: 1) the approaches used to select the phenomena and events to be studied, 2) the methods used to generate data about the selected phenomena and events and 3) the reduction principles used to extract the "most important" individual-specific variations for constructing "personality" taxonomies. Analyses of some currently popular taxonomies reveal frequent mismatches between the researchers' explicit and implicit metatheories about "personality" and the abilities of previous methodologies to capture the particular kinds of phenomena toward which they are targeted. Serious deficiencies that preclude scientific quantifications are identified in standardised questionnaires, psychology's established standard method of investigation. These mismatches and deficiencies derive from the lack of an explicit formulation and critical reflection on the philosophical and metatheoretical assumptions being made by scientists and from the established practice of radically matching the methodological tools to researchers' preconceived ideas and to pre-existing statistical theories rather than to the particular phenomena and individuals under study. These findings raise serious doubts about the ability of previous taxonomies to appropriately and comprehensively reflect the phenomena towards which they are targeted and the structures of individual-specificity occurring in them. The article elaborates and illustrates with empirical examples methodological principles that allow researchers to appropriately meet the metatheoretical requirements and that are suitable for comprehensively exploring individuals' "personality".

  17. Teen online problem solving for teens with traumatic brain injury: Rationale, methods, and preliminary feasibility of a teen only intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L; Narad, Megan E; Kingery, Kathleen M; Taylor, H Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Kirkwood, Michael W; Yeates, Keith O

    2017-08-01

    To describe the Teen Online Problem Solving-Teen Only (TOPS-TO) intervention relative to the original Teen Online Problem Solving-Family (TOPS-F) intervention, to describe a randomized controlled trial to assess intervention efficacy, and to report feasibility and acceptability of the TOPS-TO intervention. Research method and design: This is a multisite randomized controlled trial, including 152 teens (49 TOPS-F, 51 TOPS-TO, 52 IRC) between the ages of 11-18 who were hospitalized for a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury in the previous 18 months. Assessments were completed at baseline, 6-months post baseline, and 12-months post baseline. Data discussed include adherence and satisfaction data collected at the 6-month assessment (treatment completion) for TOPS-F and TOPS-TO. Adherence measures (sessions completed, dropout rates, duration of treatment engagement, and rates of program completion) were similar across treatment groups. Overall, teen and parent reported satisfaction was high and similar across groups. Teens spent a similar amount of time on the TOPS website across groups, and parents in the TOPS-F spent more time on the TOPS website than those in the TOPS-TO group (p = .002). Parents in the TOPS-F group rated the TOPS website as more helpful than those in the TOPS-TO group (p = .05). TOPS-TO intervention is a feasible and acceptable intervention approach. Parents may perceive greater benefit from the family based intervention. Further examination is required to understand the comparative efficacy in improving child and family outcomes, and who is likely to benefit from each approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Rationale and methods of the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Daily Practice (EURIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The EURIKA study aims to assess the status of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD across Europe. Specifically, it will determine the degree of control of cardiovascular risk factors in current clinical practice in relation to the European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention. It will also assess physicians' knowledge and attitudes about CVD prevention as well as the barriers impeding effective risk factor management in clinical practice. Methods/Design Cross-sectional study conducted simultaneously in 12 countries across Europe. The study has two components: firstly at the physician level, assessing eight hundred and nine primary care and specialist physicians with a daily practice in CVD prevention. A physician specific questionnaire captures information regarding physician demographics, practice settings, cardiovascular prevention beliefs and management. Secondly at the patient level, including 7641 patients aged 50 years or older, free of clinical CVD and with at least one classical risk factor, enrolled by the participating physicians. A patient-specific questionnaire captures information from clinical records and patient interview regarding sociodemographic data, CVD risk factors, and current medications. Finally, each patient provides a fasting blood sample, which is sent to a central laboratory for measuring serum lipids, apolipoproteins, hemoglobin-A1c, and inflammatory biomarkers. Discussion Primary prevention of CVD is an extremely important clinical issue, with preventable circulatory diseases remaining the leading cause of major disease burden. The EURIKA study will provide key information to assess effectiveness of and attitudes toward primary prevention of CVD in Europe. A transnational study creates opportunities for benchmarking good clinical practice across countries and improving outcomes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00882336.

  19. A cross-sectional study on prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in India: rationale and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Prabu; Pattabi, Kamaraj; Vadivoo, Selvaraj; Bhome, Arvind; Brashier, Bill; Bhattacharya, Prashanta; Mehendale, Sanjay M

    2017-05-29

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common preventable and treatable chronic respiratory disease, which affects 210 million people globally. Global and national guidelines exist for the management of COPD. Although evidence-based, they are inadequate to address the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity in India. Co-existence of other chronic respiratory diseases can adversely influence the prognosis of COPD.India has a huge burden of COPD with various risk factors and comorbid conditions. However, valid prevalence estimates employing spirometry as the diagnostic tool and data on important comorbid conditions are not available. This study protocol is designed to address this knowledge gap and eventually to build a database to undertake long-term cohort studies to describe the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity among COPD patients in India. The primary objective is to estimate the prevalence of COPD among adults aged ≥25 years for each gender in India. The secondary objective is to identify the risk factors for COPD and important comorbid conditions such as asthma and post-tuberculosis sequelae. It is also proposed to validate the currently available definitions for COPD diagnosis in India. A cross-sectional study will be undertaken among the populations of sub-urban areas of Chennai and Shillong cities, which represent the Southern and Northeastern regions of India. We will collect data on sociodemographic variables, economic characteristics, risk factors of COPD and comorbidities. The Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) and Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) definitions will be used for the diagnosis of COPD and asthma. Data will be analysed for estimation of the prevalence of COPD, asthma and associated factors. This study proposal was approved by the respective institutional ethics committees of participating institutions. The results will be disseminated through publications in the peer-reviewed journals and a report

  20. German precursor study: methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoertner, H.; Frey, W.; von Linden, J.; Reichart, G.

    1985-01-01

    This study has been prepared by the GRS by contract of the Federal Minister of Interior. The purpose of the study is to show how the application of system-analytic tools and especially of probabilistic methods on the Licensee Event Reports (LERs) and on other operating experience can support a deeper understanding of the safety-related importance of the events reported in reactor operation, the identification of possible weak points, and further conclusions to be drawn from the events. Additionally, the study aimed at a comparison of its results for the severe core damage frequency with those of the German Risk Study as far as this is possible and useful. The German Precursor Study is a plant-specific study. The reference plant is Biblis NPP with its very similar Units A and B, whereby the latter was also the reference plant for the German Risk Study

  1. Mechanics of Nanostructures: Methods and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rod

    2003-03-01

    We continue to develop and use new tools to measure the mechanics and electromechanics of nanostructures. Here we discuss: (a) methods for making nanoclamps and the resulting: nanoclamp geometry, chemical composition and type of chemical bonding, and nanoclamp strength (effectiveness as a nanoclamp for the mechanics measurements to be made); (b) mechanics of carbon nanocoils. We have received carbon nanocoils from colleagues in Japan [1], measured their spring constants, and have observed extensions exceeding 100% relative to the unloaded length, using our scanning electron microscope nanomanipulator tool; (c) several new devices that are essentially MEMS-based, that allow for improved measurements of the mechanics of psuedo-1D and planar nanostructures. [1] Zhang M., Nakayama Y., Pan L., Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 39, L1242-L1244 (2000).

  2. LCoMotion - Learning, Cognition and Motion; a multicomponent cluster randomized school-based intervention aimed at increasing learning and cognition - rationale, design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugge, Anna; Tarp, Jakob; Østergaard, Lars; Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Andersen, Lars Bo; Froberg, Karsten

    2014-09-18

    The aim of the study; LCoMotion - Learning, Cognition and Motion was to develop, document, and evaluate a multi-component physical activity (PA) intervention in public schools in Denmark. The primary outcome was cognitive function. Secondary outcomes were academic skills, body composition, aerobic fitness and PA. The primary aim of the present paper was to describe the rationale, design and methods of the LCoMotion study. LCoMotion was designed as a cluster-randomized controlled study. Fourteen schools from all five regions in Denmark participated. All students from 6th and 7th grades were invited to participate (n = 869) and consent was obtained for 87% (n = 759). Baseline measurements were obtained in November/December 2013 and follow-up measurements in May/June 2014. The intervention lasted five months and consisted of a "package" of three main components: PA during academic lessons, PA during recess and PA homework. Furthermore a cycling campaign was conducted during the intervention period. Intervention schools should endeavor to ensure that students were physically active for at least 60 min every school day. Cognitive function was measured by a modified Eriksen flanker task and academic skills by a custom made mathematics test. PA was objectively measured by accelerometers (ActiGraph, GT3X and GT3X+) and aerobic fitness assessed by an intermittent shuttle-run test (the Andersen intermittent running test). Furthermore, compliance with the intervention was assessed by short message service (SMS)-tracking and questionnaires were delivered to students, parents and teachers. LCoMotion has ability to provide new insights on the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention on cognitive function and academic skills in 6th and 7th grade students. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02012881 (10/10/2013).

  3. Safe and effective prescription of exercise in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: rationale and methods for an integrated knowledge translation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Pat; Reid, W Darlene; Yamabayashi, Cristiane; Brooks, Dina; Goodridge, Donna; Chung, Frank; Marciniuk, Darcy D; Neufeld, Andrea; Hoens, Alsion

    2013-01-01

    Patients hospitalized with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) engage in low levels of activity, putting them at risk for relapse and future readmissions. There is little direction for health care providers regarding the parameters for safe exercise during an AECOPD that is effective for increasing activity tolerance before discharge from hospital, especially for patients with associated comorbid conditions. To report the rationale for and methods of a study to develop evidence-informed care recommendations that guide health care providers in the assessment, prescription, monitoring and progression of exercise for patients hospitalized with AECOPD. The present study was a multicomponent knowledge translation project incorporating evidence from systematic reviews of exercise involving populations with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and⁄or common comorbidities. A Delphi process was then used to obtain expert opinion from clinicians, academics and patients to identify the parameters of safe and effective exercise for patients with AECOPD. Clinical decision-making tool(s) for patients and practitioners supported by a detailed knowledge dissemination, implementation and evaluation framework. The present study addressed an important knowledge gap: the lack of availability of parameters to guide safe and effective exercise prescription for hospitalized patients with AECOPD, with or without comorbid conditions. In the absence of such parameters, health care professionals may adopt an 'activity as tolerated' approach, which may not improve physical activity levels in their patients. The present study synthesizes the best available evidence and expert opinion, and will generate decision-making tools for use by patients and their health care providers.

  4. The rationale for early intervention in schizophrenia and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone

    2009-01-01

    , adherence to treatment, comorbid drug abuse, relapse and readmission. Some benefits persist after cessation of the intervention. Conclusions: Early intervention in schizophrenia is justified to reduce the negative personal and social impact of prolonged periods of untreated symptoms. Furthermore, phase......Abstract Aim: To examine the rationale and evidence supporting an early intervention approach in schizophrenia. Methods: A selective literature review was conducted. Results: During the onset of schizophrenia, there is often a significant delay between the emergence of psychotic symptoms...

  5. Multiband discrete ordinates method: formalism and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luneville, L.

    1998-06-01

    The multigroup discrete ordinates method is a classical way to solve transport equation (Boltzmann) for neutral particles. Self-shielding effects are not correctly treated due to large variations of cross sections in a group (in the resonance range). To treat the resonance domain, the multiband method is introduced. The main idea is to divide the cross section domain into bands. We obtain the multiband parameters using the moment method; the code CALENDF provides probability tables for these parameters. We present our implementation in an existing discrete ordinates code: SN1D. We study deep penetration benchmarks and show the improvement of the method in the treatment of self-shielding effects. (author)

  6. Effects of Role and Assignment Rationale on Attitudes Formed During Peer Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen Linn; Furman, Wyndol

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of contextual factors, such as assignment rationale, on the attitudinal effects of peer tutoring. Fourth-grade children engaged in brief tutoring experiences as either a tutor or tutee. Subjects received four rationales for being selected as tutor or tutee: (a) a competence rationale, (b) a physical characteristic rationale, (c) a chance rationale, or (d) no rationale. As predicted, tutors had more positive attitudes than tutees when they had been given a competence or physical characteristic rationale but not when the tutors were provided a chance rationale or no rationale. Additionally, the tutors’ and tutees’ attitudes were enhanced when no rationale was provided. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for a role-theory analysis of tutoring and their implications for applied programs. PMID:23946549

  7. Rationale, design and methods for the RIGHT Track Health Study: pathways from childhood self-regulation to cardiovascular risk in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Wideman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors during adolescence—including obesity, elevated lipids, altered glucose metabolism, hypertension, and elevated low-grade inflammation—is cause for serious concern and potentially impacts subsequent morbidity and mortality. Despite the importance of these cardiovascular risk factors, very little is known about their developmental origins in childhood. In addition, since adolescence is a time when individuals are navigating major life changes and gaining increasing autonomy from their parents or parental figures, it is a period when control over their own health behaviors (e.g. drug use, sleep, nutrition also increases. The primary aim of this paper is to describe the rationale, design and methods for the RIGHT Track Health Study. This study examines self-regulation as a key factor in the development of cardiovascular risk, and further explores health behaviors as an explanatory mechanism of this association. We also examine potential moderators (e.g. psychosocial adversities such as harsh parenting of this association. Method/design RIGHT Track is a longitudinal study that investigates social and emotional development. The RIGHT Track Health Study prospectively follows participants from age 2 through young adulthood in an effort to understand how self-regulatory behavior throughout childhood alters the trajectories of various cardiovascular risk factors during late adolescence via health behaviors. Individuals from RIGHT Track were re-contacted and invited to participate in adolescent data collection (~16.5, 17.5 and 18+ years old. Individuals completed assessments of body composition, anthropometric indicators, fitness testing (via peak oxygen consumption, heart rate variability during orthostatic challenge, 7-day accelerometry for physical activity and sleep, 24-h dietary recalls, and blood analysis for biomarkers related to metabolic syndrome, inflammatory status and various hormones and

  8. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls) randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Dewar, Deborah; Collins, Clare E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Okely, Anthony D; Batterham, Marijka J; Finn, Tara; Callister, Robin

    2010-10-28

    Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls) intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA) sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an important contribution to the field. Australian New Zealand Clinical

  9. Generating evidence to narrow the treatment gap for mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa: rationale, overview and methods of AFFIRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, C; Alem, A; Schneider, M; Hanlon, C; Ahrens, J; Bandawe, C; Bass, J; Bhana, A; Burns, J; Chibanda, D; Cowan, F; Davies, T; Dewey, M; Fekadu, A; Freeman, M; Honikman, S; Joska, J; Kagee, A; Mayston, R; Medhin, G; Musisi, S; Myer, L; Ntulo, T; Nyatsanza, M; Ofori-Atta, A; Petersen, I; Phakathi, S; Prince, M; Shibre, T; Stein, D J; Swartz, L; Thornicroft, G; Tomlinson, M; Wissow, L; Susser, E

    2015-06-01

    There is limited evidence on the acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of task-sharing interventions to narrow the treatment gap for mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this article is to describe the rationale, aims and methods of the Africa Focus on Intervention Research for Mental health (AFFIRM) collaborative research hub. AFFIRM is investigating strategies for narrowing the treatment gap for mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa in four areas. First, it is assessing the feasibility, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of task-sharing interventions by conducting randomised controlled trials in Ethiopia and South Africa. The AFFIRM Task-sharing for the Care of Severe mental disorders (TaSCS) trial in Ethiopia aims to determine the acceptability, affordability, effectiveness and sustainability of mental health care for people with severe mental disorder delivered by trained and supervised non-specialist, primary health care workers compared with an existing psychiatric nurse-led service. The AFFIRM trial in South Africa aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of a task-sharing counselling intervention for maternal depression, delivered by non-specialist community health workers, and to examine factors influencing the implementation of the intervention and future scale up. Second, AFFIRM is building individual and institutional capacity for intervention research in sub-Saharan Africa by providing fellowship and mentorship programmes for candidates in Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Each year five Fellowships are awarded (one to each country) to attend the MPhil in Public Mental Health, a joint postgraduate programme at the University of Cape Town and Stellenbosch University. AFFIRM also offers short courses in intervention research, and supports PhD students attached to the trials in Ethiopia and South Africa. Third, AFFIRM is collaborating with other regional National Institute of Mental Health funded hubs in Latin

  10. Rationale, design and methods for the RIGHT Track Health Study: pathways from childhood self-regulation to cardiovascular risk in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, Laurie; Calkins, Susan D; Janssen, James A; Lovelady, Cheryl A; Dollar, Jessica M; Keane, Susan P; Perrin, Eliana M; Shanahan, Lilly

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors during adolescence-including obesity, elevated lipids, altered glucose metabolism, hypertension, and elevated low-grade inflammation-is cause for serious concern and potentially impacts subsequent morbidity and mortality. Despite the importance of these cardiovascular risk factors, very little is known about their developmental origins in childhood. In addition, since adolescence is a time when individuals are navigating major life changes and gaining increasing autonomy from their parents or parental figures, it is a period when control over their own health behaviors (e.g. drug use, sleep, nutrition) also increases. The primary aim of this paper is to describe the rationale, design and methods for the RIGHT Track Health Study. This study examines self-regulation as a key factor in the development of cardiovascular risk, and further explores health behaviors as an explanatory mechanism of this association. We also examine potential moderators (e.g. psychosocial adversities such as harsh parenting) of this association. RIGHT Track is a longitudinal study that investigates social and emotional development. The RIGHT Track Health Study prospectively follows participants from age 2 through young adulthood in an effort to understand how self-regulatory behavior throughout childhood alters the trajectories of various cardiovascular risk factors during late adolescence via health behaviors. Individuals from RIGHT Track were re-contacted and invited to participate in adolescent data collection (~16.5, 17.5 and 18(+) years old). Individuals completed assessments of body composition, anthropometric indicators, fitness testing (via peak oxygen consumption), heart rate variability during orthostatic challenge, 7-day accelerometry for physical activity and sleep, 24-h dietary recalls, and blood analysis for biomarkers related to metabolic syndrome, inflammatory status and various hormones and cytokines. Individuals also completed extensive self

  11. Project Oriented Immersion Learning: Method and Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Icaza, José I.; Heredia, Yolanda; Borch, Ole M.

    2005-01-01

    A pedagogical approach called “project oriented immersion learning” is presented and tested on a graduate online course. The approach combines the Project Oriented Learning method with immersion learning in a virtual enterprise. Students assumed the role of authors hired by a fictitious publishing...... house that develops digital products including e-books, tutorials, web sites and so on. The students defined the problem that their product was to solve; choose the type of product and the content; and built the product following a strict project methodology. A wiki server was used as a platform to hold...

  12. Learning phacoemulsification. Results of different teaching methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennig Albrecht

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the learning curves of three eye surgeons converting from sutureless extracapsular cataract extraction to phacoemulsification using different teaching methods. Posterior capsule rupture (PCR as a per-operative complication and visual outcome of the first 100 operations were analysed. The PCR rate was 4% and 15% in supervised and unsupervised surgery respectively. Likewise, an uncorrected visual acuity of > or = 6/18 on the first postoperative day was seen in 62 (62% of patients and in 22 (22% in supervised and unsupervised surgery respectively.

  13. RESULTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE: ANALYSIS METHODS

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Five-yearly review of employment conditions   Article S V 1.02 of our Staff Rules states that the CERN “Council shall periodically review and determine the financial and social conditions of the members of the personnel. These periodic reviews shall consist of a five-yearly general review of financial and social conditions;” […] “following methods […] specified in § I of Annex A 1”. Then, turning to the relevant part in Annex A 1, we read that “The purpose of the five-yearly review is to ensure that the financial and social conditions offered by the Organization allow it to recruit and retain the staff members required for the execution of its mission from all its Member States. […] these staff members must be of the highest competence and integrity.” And for the menu of such a review we have: “The five-yearly review must include basic salaries and may include any other financial or soc...

  14. Teacher Grading Decisions: Influences, Rationale, and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnath, Joshua P.

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods study applied a decision-making theoretical framework to an investigation of teacher grading in a large urban school district in California. A sample of 251 high school teachers of core subjects were surveyed, and 15 teachers participated in four focus group interviews in order provide data on the influences, rationale, and…

  15. Project PANK: Rationale, study protocol and baseline results of a multidisciplinary school based intervention in children with cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Batalau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Cardiovascular disease risk factors occur more frequently in children with obesity. Project PANK is a multidisciplinary school-based intervention lasting 6 months to improve BMI z-score, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, blood pressure (BP, nutrition, physical activity (PA, sedentary behaviour (SB, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG. Methods/DesignA total of 77 children (7-10 years were recruited from an urban school. The protocol includes PA and SB individual meetings for children/parents; increasing school exercise; PA and SB lessons for children; A goal in the number of steps/day to accomplish in and after school. In nutrition, the protocol includes three individual meetings for children/parents and six lessons for children. ResultsPositive associations were found between the BMI Z-score, WC, and WHtR with TG; the BMI Z-score and WHtR with glucose; the light PA time and HDL-C; the vigorous and moderate-to-vigorous PA with CRF; the caloric intake and lipids with LDL-C, BMI z-score, WC, and WHtR. A negative association was found between CRF and TG. ConclusionBaseline results stress the importance of multidisciplinary school-based interventions. We hypothesized that PANK will improve blood variables, anthropometric measures, and BP, by changing food intake, enhancing PA and CRF, and decreasing SB.

  16. Two different hematocrit detection methods: Different methods, different results?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuepbach Reto A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Less is known about the influence of hematocrit detection methodology on transfusion triggers. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare two different hematocrit-assessing methods. In a total of 50 critically ill patients hematocrit was analyzed using (1 blood gas analyzer (ABLflex 800 and (2 the central laboratory method (ADVIA® 2120 and compared. Findings Bland-Altman analysis for repeated measurements showed a good correlation with a bias of +1.39% and 2 SD of ± 3.12%. The 24%-hematocrit-group showed a correlation of r2 = 0.87. With a kappa of 0.56, 22.7% of the cases would have been transfused differently. In the-28%-hematocrit group with a similar correlation (r2 = 0.8 and a kappa of 0.58, 21% of the cases would have been transfused differently. Conclusions Despite a good agreement between the two methods used to determine hematocrit in clinical routine, the calculated difference of 1.4% might substantially influence transfusion triggers depending on the employed method.

  17. Rationale for a 'Male Lumpectomy,' a Prostate Cancer Targeted Approach Using Cryoablation: Results in 21 Patients with at Least 2 Years of Follow-Up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onik, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Background. Prostate cancer in men raises many of the same issues that breast cancer does in women. Complications of prostate cancer treatment, including impotence and incontinence, affect the self-image and psyche of a man no less than does the loss of a breast in a woman. We present a pilot study in which 21 patients were treated with a focal cryoablation procedure. Methods. Focal cryoablation was performed using biplane transrectal ultrasound if the tumor was confined to only one prostate lobe. Preoperative PSA values were recorded. Cryoablation was planned to encompass the area of known tumor. PSA values were obtained every 3 months for 2 years and every 6 months thereafter. Potency and continence status was obtained at the same intervals. Routine biopsy was obtained at 1 year. Results. Twenty-one patients had focal cryoablation. Follow-up ranged from 24 to 105 months with a mean of 50 months. Twenty of 21 (95%) patients have stable PSA values with no evidence for cancer, despite 10 patients being at medium to high risk for recurrence. All patients biopsied (n = 19) were negative for tumor. Potency was maintained in 17 of 21 patients (80%). No other complications, including incontinence or fistula formation, were noted. Conclusion. These preliminary results indicate a 'male lumpectomy,' in which the prostate tumor region itself is destroyed, appears to preserve potency in a majority of patients and limits other complications, without compromising cancer control. If these results are confirmed by further studies and long-term follow-up, this treatment approach could have a profound effect on prostate cancer management

  18. Rationale, design and pilot feasibility results of a smartphone-assisted, mindfulness-based intervention for smokers with mood disorders: Project mSMART MIND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Haruka; Brinkman, Hannah R; Nahvi, Shadi; Arnsten, Julia H; Rivera-Mindt, Monica; Wetter, David W; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Price, Lawrence H; Vieira, Carlos; Donnelly, Remington; McClain, Lauren M; Kennedy, Katherine A; D'Aquila, Erica; Fine, Micki; McCarthy, Danielle E; Graham Thomas, J; Hecht, Jacki; Brown, Richard A

    2018-03-01

    Although individuals with psychiatric disorders are disproportionately affected by cigarette smoking, few outpatient mental health treatment facilities offer smoking cessation services. In this paper, we describe the development of a smartphone-assisted mindfulness smoking cessation intervention with contingency management (SMI-CM), as well as the design and methods of an ongoing pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) targeting smokers receiving outpatient psychiatric treatment. We also report the results of an open-label pilot feasibility study. In phase 1, we developed and pilot-tested SMI-CM, which includes a smartphone intervention app that prompts participants to practice mindfulness, complete ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reports 5 times per day, and submit carbon monoxide (CO) videos twice per day. Participants earned incentives if submitted videos showed CO≤6ppm. In phase 2, smokers receiving outpatient treatment for mood disorders are randomized to receive SMI-CM or enhanced standard treatment plus non-contingent CM (EST). The results from the pilot feasibility study (N=8) showed that participants practiced mindfulness an average of 3.4times/day (≥3min), completed 72.3% of prompted EMA reports, and submitted 68.0% of requested CO videos. Participants reported that the program was helpful overall (M=4.85/5) and that daily mindfulness practice was helpful for both managing mood and quitting smoking (Ms=4.50/5). The results from the feasibility study indicated high levels of acceptability and satisfaction with SMI-CM. The ongoing RCT will allow evaluation of the efficacy and mechanisms of action underlying SMI-CM for improving cessation rates among smokers with mood disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. DOE LLW classification rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, A.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This report was about the rationale which the US Department of Energy had with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) classification. It is based on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's classification system. DOE site operators met to review the qualifications and characteristics of the classification systems. They evaluated performance objectives, developed waste classification tables, and compiled dose limits on the waste. A goal of the LLW classification system was to allow each disposal site the freedom to develop limits to radionuclide inventories and concentrations according to its own site-specific characteristics. This goal was achieved with the adoption of a performance objectives system based on a performance assessment, with site-specific environmental conditions and engineered disposal systems

  20. Enhancing field GP engagement in hospital-based studies. Rationale, design, main results and participation in the diagest 3-GP motivation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkhout Christophe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagest 3 was a study aimed at lowering the risk of developing type 2 diabetes within 3 years after childbirth. Women with gestational diabetes were enrolled in the study. After childbirth, the subjects showed little interest in the structured education programme and did not attend workshops. Their general practitioners (GPs were approached to help motivate the subjects to participate in Diagest 3, but the GPs were reluctant. The present study aimed to understand field GPs’ attitudes towards hospital-based studies, and to develop strategies to enhance their involvement and reduce subject drop-out rates. Methods We used a three-step process: step one used a phenomenological approach exploring the beliefs, attitudes, motivations and environmental factors contributing to the GPs’ level of interest in the study. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews and coded by hand and with hermeneutic software to develop distinct GP profiles. Step two was a cross-sectional survey by questionnaire to determine the distribution of the profiles in the GP study population and whether completion of an attached case report form (CRF was associated with a particular GP profile. In step three, we assessed the impact of the motivation study on participation rates in the main study. Results Fifteen interviews were conducted to achieve data saturation. Theorisation led to the definition of 4 distinct GP profiles. The response rate to the questionnaire was 73%, but dropped to 52% when a CRF was attached. The link between GP profiles and the rate of CRF completion remains to be verified. The GPs provided data on the CRF that was of comparable quality to those collected in the main trial. Our analysis showed that the motivation study increased overall participation in the main study by 23%, accounting for 16% (24/152 of all final visits for 536 patients who were initially enrolled in the Diagest 3 study. Conclusions When a hospital-led study

  1. Rationale, design and methods of the Study of Work and Pain (SWAP): a cluster randomised controlled trial testing the addition of a vocational advice service to best current primary care for patients with musculoskeletal pain (ISRCTN 52269669).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Annette; Wynne-Jones, Gwenllian; Lawton, Sarah A; van der Windt, Danielle; Main, Chris; Sowden, Gail; Burton, A Kim; Lewis, Martyn; Jowett, Sue; Sanders, Tom; Hay, Elaine M; Foster, Nadine E

    2014-07-10

    Musculoskeletal pain is a major contributor to short and long term work absence. Patients seek care from their general practitioner (GP) and yet GPs often feel ill-equipped to deal with work issues. Providing a vocational case management service in primary care, to support patients with musculoskeletal problems to remain at or return to work, is one potential solution but requires robust evaluation to test clinical and cost-effectiveness. This protocol describes a cluster randomised controlled trial, with linked qualitative interviews, to investigate the effect of introducing a vocational advice service into general practice, to provide a structured approach to managing work related issues in primary care patients with musculoskeletal pain who are absent from work or struggling to remain in work. General practices (n = 6) will be randomised to offer best current care or best current care plus a vocational advice service. Adults of working age who are absent from or struggling to remain in work due to a musculoskeletal pain problem will be invited to participate and 330 participants will be recruited. Data collection will be through patient completed questionnaires at baseline, 4 and 12 months. The primary outcome is self-reported work absence at 4 months. Incremental cost-utility analysis will be undertaken to calculate the cost per additional QALY gained and incremental net benefits. A linked interview study will explore the experiences of the vocational advice service from the perspectives of GPs, nurse practitioners (NPs), patients and vocational advisors. This paper presents the rationale, design, and methods of the Study of Work And Pain (SWAP) trial. The results of this trial will provide evidence to inform primary care practice and guide the development of services to provide support for musculoskeletal pain patients with work-related issues. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52269669.

  2. Radiosensitizers: rationale and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews agents that are capable of sensitizing hypoxic cells to radiation and chemotherapeutic agents. The first part is a synopsis of the development of hypoxic radiosensitizers, which concludes that misonidazole can be effective against human tumors. Unfortunately, neurotoxicity limits its effectiveness in humans because the dose that can be given in conjunction with daily fractionated radiation is five to ten times lower than is required for full radiosensitization of the hypoxic cells. The second part covers our recent efforts to develop a drug that does not produce such limiting neurotoxicity. The primary rationale of our program was to synthesize a drug with a short plasma half-life that was too hydrophilic to cross the blood-brain barrier but was able to penetrate tumors and radiosensitize hypoxic cells. From this program, a new drug, SR-2508, has been found that is as efficient as misonidazole in its radiosensitizing ability, but is four to ten times less toxic. Finally, the potential of radiosensitizers not only as agents that can sensitize tumor cells to radiation, but also as agents that can specifically sensitize tumors to chemotherapeutic agents, is discussed. In addition, these drugs may be potential cytotoxic agents that produce toxicity only in solid tumors

  3. Guidelines for Reporting Quantitative Methods and Results in Primary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, John M.; Plonsky, Luke; Ross, Steven J.; Schoonen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Adequate reporting of quantitative research about language learning involves careful consideration of the logic, rationale, and actions underlying both study designs and the ways in which data are analyzed. These guidelines, commissioned and vetted by the board of directors of "Language Learning," outline the basic expectations for…

  4. Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Denollet, Johan; Verhey, Frans R J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strong longitudinal evidence exists that psychological distress is associated with a high morbidity and mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may explain this association. Moreover, the role of personality traits...... in these associations is still unclear. In this paper, we first describe the design of the psychological part of The Maastricht Study that aims to elucidate these mechanisms. Next, we present exploratory results on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and personality traits in type 2 diabetes. Finally, we briefly....... Personality traits were measured by the DS14 and Big Five personality questionnaires. Type 2 diabetes was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of depression, anxiety and personality with type 2 diabetes, adjusted for age, sex...

  5. A smart-phone application and a companion website for the improvement of the communication skills of children with autism: clinical rationale, technical development and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leo, Gianluca; Gonzales, Carol H; Battagiri, Padmaja; Leroy, Gondy

    2011-08-01

    Autism is a complex neurobiological disorder that is part of a group of disorders known as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Today, one in 150 individuals is diagnosed with autism. Lack of social interaction and problems with communication are the main characteristics displayed by children with ASD. The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a communication system where children exchange visual symbols as a form of communication. The visual symbols are laminated pictures stored in a binder. We have designed, developed and are currently testing a software application, called PixTalk which works on any Windows Mobile Smart-phone. Teachers and caregivers can access a web site and select from an online library the images to be downloaded on to the Smart-phone. Children can browse and select images to express their intentions, desires, and emotions using PixTalk. Case study results indicate that PixTalk can be used as part of ongoing therapy.

  6. Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Denollet, Johan; Verhey, Frans R J; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Sep, Simone J S; Henry, Ronald M A; Kremers, Stef P J; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Schaper, Nicolaas C; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Koster, Annemarie; Pouwer, Frans; Schram, Miranda T

    2016-01-27

    Strong longitudinal evidence exists that psychological distress is associated with a high morbidity and mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may explain this association. Moreover, the role of personality traits in these associations is still unclear. In this paper, we first describe the design of the psychological part of The Maastricht Study that aims to elucidate these mechanisms. Next, we present exploratory results on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and personality traits in type 2 diabetes. Finally, we briefly discuss the importance of these findings for clinical research and practice. We measured psychological distress and depression using the MINI diagnostic interview, the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 questionnaires in the first 864 participants of The Maastricht Study, a large, population-based cohort study. Personality traits were measured by the DS14 and Big Five personality questionnaires. Type 2 diabetes was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of depression, anxiety and personality with type 2 diabetes, adjusted for age, sex and education level. Individuals with type 2 diabetes had higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms, odds ratios (95 % CI) were 3.15 (1.49; 6.67), 1.73 (0.83-3.60), 1.50 (0.72-3.12), for PHQ-9 ≥ 10, current depressive disorder and GAD-7 ≥ 10, respectively. Type D personality, social inhibition and negative affectivity were more prevalent in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios were 1.95 (1.23-3.10), 1.35 (0.93-1.94) and 1.70 (1.14-2.51), respectively. Individuals with type 2 diabetes were less extraverted, less conscientious, less agreeable and less emotionally stable, and similar in openness to individuals without type 2 diabetes, although effect sizes were small. Individuals with type 2 diabetes experience more psychological distress and have different personality traits compared to individuals

  7. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C.; Fetters, Michael D.; Creswell, John W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. METHODS We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. RESULTS The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. CONCLUSIONS Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. PMID:26553895

  8. Rapid arc - clinical rationale and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, Lucca

    2008-01-01

    The presentation will focus on the background of Intensity modulation volumetric arc therapy Rapid Arc from Varian Medical Systems aiming to highlight the technical and clinical rational also from an historical perspective to the founding pillars of fast delivery with a minimum number of arcs and a minimum number of monitor units

  9. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Fetters, Michael D; Creswell, John W

    2015-11-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  10. Appendix C: safety design rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, S.

    1985-01-01

    A brief discussion of the rationale for safety design of fusion plants is presented in the main text. Further detail safety considerations are presented in this appendix in the form of charts and tables. The author present some of the major safety criteria and other criteria used in blanket selection here

  11. The estimation of the measurement results with using statistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukrmetrteststandard, 4, Metrologichna Str., 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine))" data-affiliation=" (State Enterprise Ukrmetrteststandard, 4, Metrologichna Str., 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine))" >Velychko, O; UkrNDIspirtbioprod, 3, Babushkina Lane, 03190, Kyiv (Ukraine))" data-affiliation=" (State Scientific Institution UkrNDIspirtbioprod, 3, Babushkina Lane, 03190, Kyiv (Ukraine))" >Gordiyenko, T

    2015-01-01

    The row of international standards and guides describe various statistical methods that apply for a management, control and improvement of processes with the purpose of realization of analysis of the technical measurement results. The analysis of international standards and guides on statistical methods estimation of the measurement results recommendations for those applications in laboratories is described. For realization of analysis of standards and guides the cause-and-effect Ishikawa diagrams concerting to application of statistical methods for estimation of the measurement results are constructed

  12. The estimation of the measurement results with using statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velychko, O.; Gordiyenko, T.

    2015-02-01

    The row of international standards and guides describe various statistical methods that apply for a management, control and improvement of processes with the purpose of realization of analysis of the technical measurement results. The analysis of international standards and guides on statistical methods estimation of the measurement results recommendations for those applications in laboratories is described. For realization of analysis of standards and guides the cause-and-effect Ishikawa diagrams concerting to application of statistical methods for estimation of the measurement results are constructed.

  13. Rationales for Commonly "Challenged" Taught Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugert, Diane P., Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Intended for teachers, this focused journal issue contains separate rationales for teaching books that have been challenged as appropriate instructional materials. Following a discussion of the purpose for rationales and suggestions for using them, the journal presents rationales for teaching the following books: "To Kill a Mockingbird,""The Diary…

  14. EQUITY SHARES EQUATING THE RESULTS OF FCFF AND FCFE METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Cegłowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present the method of establishing equity shares in weight average cost of capital (WACC, in which the value of loan capital results from the fixed assumptions accepted in the financial plan (for example a schedule of loan repayment and own equity is evaluated by means of a discount method. The described method causes that, regardless of whether cash flows are calculated as FCFF or FCFE, the result of the company valuation will be identical.

  15. A randomized controlled trial of tai chi for long-term low back pain (TAI CHI: Study rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Amanda M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain persisting for longer than 3 months is a common and costly condition for which many current treatments have low-moderate success rates at best. Exercise is among the more successful treatments for this condition, however, the type and dosage of exercise that elicits the best results is not clearly defined. Tai chi is a gentle form of low intensity exercise that uses controlled movements in combination with relaxation techniques and is currently used as a safe form of exercise for people suffering from other chronic pain conditions such as arthritis. To date, there has been no scientific evaluation of tai chi as an intervention for people with back pain. Thus the aim of this study will be to examine the effects of a tai chi exercise program on pain and disability in people with long-term low back pain. Methods and design The study will recruit 160 healthy individuals from the community setting to be randomised to either a tai chi intervention group or a wait-list control group. Individuals in the tai chi group will attend 2 tai chi sessions (40 minutes/week for 8 weeks followed by 1 tai chi session/week for 2 weeks. The wait-list control will continue their usual health care practices and have the opportunity to participate in the tai chi program once they have completed the follow-up assessments. The primary outcome will be bothersomeness of back symptoms measured with a 0–10 numerical rating scale. Secondary outcomes include, self-reports of pain-related disability, health-related quality of life and global perceived effect of treatment. Statistical analysis of primary and secondary outcomes will be based on the intention to treat principle. Linear mixed models will be used to test for the effect of treatment on outcome at 10 weeks follow up. This trial has received ethics approval from The University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee. HREC Approval No.10452 Discussion This study will be the first

  16. Predictive models for suicidal thoughts and behaviors among Spanish University students: rationale and methods of the UNIVERSAL (University & mental health) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Maria Jesús; Castellví, Pere; Almenara, José; Lagares, Carolina; Roca, Miquel; Sesé, Albert; Piqueras, José Antonio; Soto-Sanz, Victoria; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús; Echeburúa, Enrique; Gabilondo, Andrea; Cebrià, Ana Isabel; Miranda-Mendizábal, Andrea; Vilagut, Gemma; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Auerbach, Randy P; Kessler, Ronald C; Alonso, Jordi

    2016-05-04

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among young people. While suicide prevention is considered a research and intervention priority, longitudinal data is needed to identify risk and protective factors associate with suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Here we describe the UNIVERSAL (University and Mental Health) project which aims are to: (1) test prevalence and 36-month incidence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors; and (2) identify relevant risk and protective factors associated with the incidence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among university students in Spain. An ongoing multicenter, observational, prospective cohort study of first year university students in 5 Spanish universities. Students will be assessed annually during a 36 month follow-up. The surveys will be administered through an online, secure web-based platform. A clinical reappraisal will be completed among a subsample of respondents. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors will be assess with the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview (SITBI) and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Risk and protective factors will include: mental disorders, measured with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) and Screening Scales (CIDI-SC), and the Epi-Q Screening Survey (EPI-Q-SS), socio-demographic variables, self-perceived health status, health behaviors, well-being, substance use disorders, service use and treatment. The UNIVERSAL project is part of the International College Surveys initiative, which is a core project within the World Mental Health consortium. Lifetime and the 12-month prevalence will be calculated for suicide ideation, plans and attempts. Cumulative incidence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, and mental disorders will be measured using the actuarial method. Risk and protective factors of suicidal thoughts and behaviors will be analyzed by Cox proportional hazard models. The study will provide valid, innovative and useful data for developing

  17. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial to evaluate "Animal Fun" - a program designed to enhance physical and mental health in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLaren Sue

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with poor motor ability have been found to engage less in physical activities than other children, and a lack of physical activity has been linked to problems such as obesity, lowered bone mineral density and cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, if children are confident with their fine and gross motor skills, they are more likely to engage in physical activities such as sports, crafts, dancing and other physical activity programs outside of the school curriculum which are important activities for psychosocial development. The primary objective of this project is to comprehensively evaluate a whole of class physical activity program called Animal Fun designed for Pre-Primary children. This program was designed to improve the child's movement skills, both fine and gross, and their perceptions of their movement ability, promote appropriate social skills and improve social-emotional development. Methods The proposed randomized and controlled trial uses a multivariate nested cohort design to examine the physical (motor coordination and psychosocial (self perceptions, anxiety, social competence outcomes of the program. The Animal Fun program is a teacher delivered universal program incorporating animal actions to facilitate motor skill and social skill acquisition and practice. Pre-intervention scores on motor and psychosocial variables for six control schools and six intervention schools will be compared with post-intervention scores (end of Pre-Primary year and scores taken 12 months later after the children's transition to primary school Year 1. 520 children aged 4.5 to 6 years will be recruited and it is anticipated that 360 children will be retained to the 1 year follow-up. There will be equal numbers of boys and girls. Discussion If this program is found to improve the child's motor and psychosocial skills, this will assist in the child's transition into the first year of school. As a result of these changes

  18. New method of scoliosis assessment: preliminary results using computerized photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroeira, Rozilene Maria Cota; Leal, Jefferson Soares; de Melo Pertence, Antônio Eustáquio

    2011-09-01

    A new method for nonradiographic evaluation of scoliosis was independently compared with the Cobb radiographic method, for the quantification of scoliotic curvature. To develop a protocol for computerized photogrammetry, as a nonradiographic method, for the quantification of scoliosis, and to mathematically relate this proposed method with the Cobb radiographic method. Repeated exposure to radiation of children can be harmful to their health. Nevertheless, no nonradiographic method until now proposed has gained popularity as a routine method for evaluation, mainly due to a low correspondence to the Cobb radiographic method. Patients undergoing standing posteroanterior full-length spine radiographs, who were willing to participate in this study, were submitted to dorsal digital photography in the orthostatic position with special surface markers over the spinous process, specifically the vertebrae C7 to L5. The radiographic and photographic images were sent separately for independent analysis to two examiners, trained in quantification of scoliosis for the types of images received. The scoliosis curvature angles obtained through computerized photogrammetry (the new method) were compared to those obtained through the Cobb radiographic method. Sixteen individuals were evaluated (14 female and 2 male). All presented idiopathic scoliosis, and were between 21.4 ± 6.1 years of age; 52.9 ± 5.8 kg in weight; 1.63 ± 0.05 m in height, with a body mass index of 19.8 ± 0.2. There was no statistically significant difference between the scoliosis angle measurements obtained in the comparative analysis of both methods, and a mathematical relationship was formulated between both methods. The preliminary results presented demonstrate equivalence between the two methods. More studies are needed to firmly assess the potential of this new method as a coadjuvant tool in the routine following of scoliosis treatment.

  19. A serious video game to increase fruit and vegetable consumption among elementary aged youth (Squire's Quest! II): Rationale, design, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youths eat fewer fruits and vegetables than recommended. Effective methods are needed to increase and maintain their fruit and vegetable consumption. Goal setting has been an effective behavior change procedure among adults, but has had limited effectiveness among youths. Implementation intentions a...

  20. Convergence results for a class of abstract continuous descent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Aizicovici

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We study continuous descent methods for the minimization of Lipschitzian functions defined on a general Banach space. We establish convergence theorems for those methods which are generated by approximate solutions to evolution equations governed by regular vector fields. Since the complement of the set of regular vector fields is $sigma$-porous, we conclude that our results apply to most vector fields in the sense of Baire's categories.

  1. Visual Display of Scientific Studies, Methods, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R. W.; Fedi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The need for efficient and effective communication of scientific ideas becomes more urgent each year.A growing number of societal and economic issues are tied to matters of science - e.g., climate change, natural resource availability, and public health. Societal and political debate should be grounded in a general understanding of scientific work in relevant fields. It is difficult for many participants in these debates to access science directly because the formal method for scientific documentation and dissemination is the journal paper, generally written for a highly technical and specialized audience. Journal papers are very effective and important for documentation of scientific results and are essential to the requirements of science to produce citable and repeatable results. However, journal papers are not effective at providing a quick and intuitive summary useful for public debate. Just as quantitative data are generally best viewed in graphic form, we propose that scientific studies also can benefit from visual summary and display. We explore the use of existing methods for diagramming logical connections and dependencies, such as Venn diagrams, mind maps, flow charts, etc., for rapidly and intuitively communicating the methods and results of scientific studies. We also discuss a method, specifically tailored to summarizing scientific papers that we introduced last year at AGU. Our method diagrams the relative importance and connections between data, methods/models, results/ideas, and implications/importance using a single-page format with connected elements in these four categories. Within each category (e.g., data) the spatial location of individual elements (e.g., seismic, topographic, gravity) indicates relative novelty (e.g., are these new data?) and importance (e.g., how critical are these data to the results of the paper?). The goal is to find ways to rapidly and intuitively share both the results and the process of science, both for communication

  2. Life cycle analysis of electricity systems: Methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Marheineke, T.

    1996-01-01

    The two methods for full energy chain analysis, process analysis and input/output analysis, are discussed. A combination of these two methods provides the most accurate results. Such a hybrid analysis of the full energy chains of six different power plants is presented and discussed. The results of such analyses depend on time, site and technique of each process step and, therefore have no general validity. For renewable energy systems the emissions form the generation of a back-up system should be added. (author). 7 figs, 1 fig

  3. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  4. An intervention strategy for improving residential environment and positive mental health among public housing tenants: rationale, design and methods of Flash on my neighborhood!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janie Houle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, public housing programs are an important part of governmental strategies to fight poverty and public exclusion. The Flash on my neighborhood! project is a four-year multiphase community-based participatory action research strategy currently implemented in six public housing developments (n = 1009 households across the province of Québec, Canada. The goal is to reduce the mental health disparities faced by these public housing tenants compared to the general population, while identifying which environmental and policy changes are needed to turn public housing settings into healthier environments. Methods The protocol involves three successive, interconnected phases: 1 Strengths and needs assessment, including community outreach and recruitment of tenants to collaborate as peer researchers, an exploratory qualitative component (photovoice, a systematic neighborhood observation, and a household survey; 2 Action plan development, including a community forum and interactive capacity-building and discussion sessions; 3 Action plan implementation and monitoring. The entire intervention is evaluated using a mixed-method design, framed within a multiple case study perspective. Throughout the project and particularly in the evaluation phase, data will be collected to record a contextual factors (tenants’ previous experience of participation, history of public housing development, etc.; b activities that took place and elements from the action plan that were implemented; and c short- and medium-term outcomes (objective and perceived improvements in the quality of the residential setting, both physically and in terms of mental health and social capital. Discussion The study will provide unprecedented evidence-based information on the key ingredients of a collective intervention process associated with the increased collective empowerment and positive mental health of public housing tenants.

  5. Rationale, design, and methods for Canadian alliance for healthy hearts and minds cohort study (CAHHM – a Pan Canadian cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia S. Anand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds (CAHHM is a pan-Canadian, prospective, multi-ethnic cohort study being conducted in Canada. The overarching objective of the CAHHM is to understand the association of socio-environmental and contextual factors (such as societal structure, activity, nutrition, social and tobacco environments, and access to health services with cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical vascular disease, and cardiovascular and other chronic disease outcomes. Methods/Design Participants between 35 and 69 years of age are being recruited from existing cohorts and a new First Nations Cohort to undergo a detailed assessment of health behaviours (including diet and physical activity, cognitive function, assessment of their local home and workplace environments, and their health services access and utilization. Physical measures including weight, height, waist/hip circumference, body fat percentage, and blood pressure are collected. In addition, eligible participants undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain, heart, carotid artery and abdomen to detect early subclinical vascular disease and ectopic fat deposition. Discussion CAHHM is a prospective cohort study designed to investigate the impact of community level factors, individual health behaviours, and access to health services, on cognitive function, subclinical vascular disease, fat distribution, and the development of chronic diseases among adults living in Canada.

  6. A Fuzzy Logic Based Method for Analysing Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Xuan Vinh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Network operators must perform many tasks to ensure smooth operation of the network, such as planning, monitoring, etc. Among those tasks, regular testing of network performance, network errors and troubleshooting is very important. Meaningful test results will allow the operators to evaluate network performanceof any shortcomings and to better plan for network upgrade. Due to the diverse and mainly unquantifiable nature of network testing results, there is a needs to develop a method for systematically and rigorously analysing these results. In this paper, we present STAM (System Test-result Analysis Method which employs a bottom-up hierarchical processing approach using Fuzzy logic. STAM is capable of combining all test results into a quantitative description of the network performance in terms of network stability, the significance of various network erros, performance of each function blocks within the network. The validity of this method has been successfully demonstrated in assisting the testing of a VoIP system at the Research Instiute of Post and Telecoms in Vietnam. The paper is organized as follows. The first section gives an overview of fuzzy logic theory the concepts of which will be used in the development of STAM. The next section describes STAM. The last section, demonstrating STAM’s capability, presents a success story in which STAM is successfully applied.

  7. An intervention strategy for improving residential environment and positive mental health among public housing tenants: rationale, design and methods of Flash on my neighborhood!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Janie; Coulombe, Simon; Radziszewski, Stephanie; Leloup, Xavier; Saïas, Thomas; Torres, Juan; Morin, Paul

    2017-09-25

    In Canada, public housing programs are an important part of governmental strategies to fight poverty and public exclusion. The Flash on my neighborhood! project is a four-year multiphase community-based participatory action research strategy currently implemented in six public housing developments (n = 1009 households) across the province of Québec, Canada. The goal is to reduce the mental health disparities faced by these public housing tenants compared to the general population, while identifying which environmental and policy changes are needed to turn public housing settings into healthier environments. The protocol involves three successive, interconnected phases: 1) Strengths and needs assessment, including community outreach and recruitment of tenants to collaborate as peer researchers, an exploratory qualitative component (photovoice), a systematic neighborhood observation, and a household survey; 2) Action plan development, including a community forum and interactive capacity-building and discussion sessions; 3) Action plan implementation and monitoring. The entire intervention is evaluated using a mixed-method design, framed within a multiple case study perspective. Throughout the project and particularly in the evaluation phase, data will be collected to record a) contextual factors (tenants' previous experience of participation, history of public housing development, etc.); b) activities that took place and elements from the action plan that were implemented; and c) short- and medium-term outcomes (objective and perceived improvements in the quality of the residential setting, both physically and in terms of mental health and social capital). The study will provide unprecedented evidence-based information on the key ingredients of a collective intervention process associated with the increased collective empowerment and positive mental health of public housing tenants.

  8. A Serious Video Game to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Elementary Aged Youth (Squire's Quest! II): Rationale, Design, and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe; Bhatt, Riddhi; Lazarus, Melanie; Cullen, Karen; Baranowski, Janice; Baranowski, Tom

    2012-11-21

    Youths eat fewer fruits and vegetables than recommended. Effective methods are needed to increase and maintain their fruit and vegetable consumption. Goal setting has been an effective behavior change procedure among adults, but has had limited effectiveness among youths. Implementation intentions are specific plans to facilitate goal attainment. Redefining goal setting to include implementation intentions may be an effective way to increase effectiveness. Video games offer a controlled venue for conducting behavioral research and testing hypotheses to identify mechanisms of effect. This report describes the protocol that guided the design and evaluation of Squire's Quest! II, a video game aimed to increase child fruit and vegetable consumption. Squire's Quest! II is a 10-episode videogame promoting fruit and vegetable consumption to 4th and 5th grade children (approximately 9-11 year old youths). A four group randomized design (n=400 parent/child dyads) was used to systematically test the effect of two types of implementation intentions (action, coping) on fruit and vegetable goal attainment and consumption of 4th and 5th graders. Data collection occurred at baseline, immediately post game-play, and 3 months later. Child was the unit of assignment. Three dietary recalls were collected at each data collection period by trained interviewers using the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR 2009). Psychosocial and process data were also collected. To our knowledge, this is the first research to explore the effect of implementation intentions on child fruit and vegetable goal attainment and consumption. This intervention will contribute valuable information regarding whether implementation intentions are effective with elementary age children. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01004094.

  9. The Development of a Community-Based, Pharmacist-Provided Falls Prevention MTM Intervention for Older Adults: Relationship Building, Methods, and Rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Mott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this article are to discuss the process of community engagement experienced to plan and implement a pilot study of a pharmacist-provided MTM intervention focused on reducing the use of medications associated with falling, and to present the research methods that emerged from the community engagement process to evaluate the feasibility, acceptance, and preliminary impact of the intervention. Key lessons learned from the community engagement process also are presented and discussed. The relationship building and planning process took twelve months. The RE-AIM framework broadly guided the planning process since an overarching goal for the community partners was developing a program that could be implemented and sustained in the future. The planning phase focused on identifying research questions that were of most interest to the community partners, the population to study, the capacity of partners to perform activities, and process evaluation. Much of the planning phase was accomplished with face-to-face meetings. After all study processes, study materials, and data collection tools were developed, a focus group of older adults who represented the likely targets of the MTM intervention provided feedback related to the concept and process of the intervention. Nine key lessons were identified from the community engagement process. One key to successful community engagement is partners taking the time to educate each other about experiences, processes, and successes and failures. Additionally, partners must actively listen to each other to better understand barriers and facilitators that likely will impact the planning and implementation processes. Successful community engagement will be important to develop both formative and summative evaluation processes that will help to produce valid evidence about the effectiveness of pharmacists in modifying drug therapy and preventing falls as well as to promote the adoption and

  10. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents: rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games –i.e. active games- may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active games to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors in youth. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the design of a study evaluating the effects of a family oriented active game intervention, incorporating several motivational elements, on anthropometrics and health behaviors in adolescents. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with non-active gaming adolescents aged 12 – 16 years old randomly allocated to a ten month intervention (receiving active games, as well as an encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (receiving active games after the intervention period). Primary outcomes are adolescents’ measured BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds. Secondary outcomes are adolescents’ self-reported time spent playing active and non-active games, other sedentary activities and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In addition, a process evaluation is conducted, assessing the sustainability of the active games, enjoyment, perceived competence, perceived barriers for active game play, game context, injuries from active game play, activity replacement and intention to continue playing the active games. Discussion This is the first adequately powered RCT including normal weight adolescents, evaluating a reasonably long period of provision of and exposure to active games. Next, strong elements are the incorporating motivational elements for active game play and a comprehensive process evaluation. This trial will provide evidence regarding the potential contribution of active games in prevention of excessive weight gain in

  11. Evaluating rehabilitation methods - some practical results from Rum Jungle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, P.

    1987-01-01

    Research and analysis of the following aspects of rehabilitation have been conducted at the Rum Jungle mine site over the past three years: drainage structure stability; rock batter stability; soil fauna; tree growth in compacted soils; rehabilitation costs. The results show that, for future rehabilitation projects adopting refined methods, attention to final construction detail and biospheric influences is most important. The mine site offers a unique opportunity to evaluate the success of a variety of rehabilitation methods to the benefit of the industry in Australia overseas. It is intended that practical, economic, research will continue for some considerable time

  12. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 'BeweegKuur', a combined lifestyle intervention in the Netherlands: Rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremers Stef PJ

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the lifestyle of overweight and obese adults is of increasing interest in view of its role in several chronic diseases. Interventions aiming at overweight or weight-related chronic diseases suffer from high drop-out rates. It has been suggested that Motivational Interviewing and more frequent and more patient-specific coaching could decrease the drop-out rate. 'BeweegKuur' is a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention which offers three programmes for overweight persons. The effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of intensively guided programmes, such as the 'supervised exercise programme' of 'BeweegKuur', for patients with high weight-related health risk, remain to be assessed. Our randomized controlled trial compares the expenses and effects of the 'supervised exercise programme' with those of the less intensively supervised 'start-up exercise programme'. Methods/Design The one-year intervention period involves coaching by a lifestyle advisor, a physiotherapist and a dietician, coordinated by general practitioners (GPs. The participating GP practices have been allocated to the interventions, which differ only in terms of the amount of coaching offered by the physiotherapist. Whereas the 'start-up exercise programme' includes several consultations with physiotherapists to identify barriers hampering independent exercising, the 'supervised exercise programme' includes more sessions with a physiotherapist, involving exercise under supervision. The main goal is transfer to local exercise facilities. The main outcome of the study will be the participants' physical activity at the end of the one-year intervention period and after one year of follow-up. Secondary outcomes are dietary habits, health risk, physical fitness and functional capacity. The economic evaluation will consist of a cost-effectiveness analysis and a cost-utility analysis. The primary outcome measures for the economic evaluation will be the physical

  13. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial to investigate whether home access to electronic games decreases children's physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piek Jan P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children are reported to have insufficient physical activity (PA placing them at greater risk of poor health outcomes. Participating in sedentary activities such as playing electronic games is widely believed to contribute to less PA. However there is no experimental evidence that playing electronic games reduces PA. There is also no evidence regarding the effect of different types of electronic games (traditional sedentary electronic games versus new active input electronic games on PA. Further, there is a poor understanding about how characteristics of children may moderate the impact of electronic game access on PA and about what leisure activities are displaced when children play electronic games. Given that many children play electronic games, a better understanding of the effect of electronic game use on PA is critical to inform child health policy and intervention. Methods This randomised and controlled trial will examine whether PA is decreased by access to electronic games and whether any effect is dependent on the type of game input or the child's characteristics. Children aged 10–12 years (N = 72, 36 females will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no electronic games', 'traditional' electronic games and 'active' electronic games. Each child will participate in each condition for 8 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is PA, assessed by Actical accelerometers worn for 7 days on the wrist and hip. Energy expenditure will be assessed by the doubly labelled water technique and motor coordination, adiposity, self-confidence, attitudes to technology and PA and leisure activities will also be assessed. A sample of 72 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 15 mins difference in PA (sd = 30 mins. Discussion This is the first such trial and will provide critical information to understand whether access to electronic games affects

  14. Rationale and methods for a randomized controlled trial of a movement-to-music video program for decreasing sedentary time among mother-child pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Pipsa P A; Husu, Pauliina; Raitanen, Jani; Luoto, Riitta M

    2015-10-05

    Sciences. The study will yield information on the effectiveness of movement-to-music video exercise in reducing sedentary behavior. Intervention-based methods have proven effective in increasing physical activity in home environments. Music may improve exercise adherence, which creates a possibility of achieving long-term health benefits. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, as NCT02270138. It was registered on October 2, 2014.

  15. The MATCH cohort study in the Netherlands: rationale, objectives, methods and baseline characteristics of patients with (long-term) common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekkoek, Bauke; Manders, Willeke; Tendolkar, Indira; Hutschemaekers, Giel; Tiemens, Bea

    2017-03-01

    Research in the last decades shows that common mental disorders may be long-term and severely disabling, resulting in severe mental illness (SMI). The percentage of Dutch SMI-patients with common mental disorders receiving mental health services is estimated at 65-70%. However, it is unclear which patients in fact become SMI-patients. We need to know more about the possible course of common mental disorders, understand the origins of chronicity in more detail, and have more insight in related care processes and care use of patients with common mental disorders. The MATCH cohort study is a four-year multicentre naturalistic cohort study, with yearly assessments in primary, secondary, and tertiary services in three large Dutch mental health services. Socio-demographics, mental disorders, course and severity of psychopathology, physiological health indicators, neurocognitive functioning, past and present life events, health care use and contact with mental health services, social functioning and quality of life, and recovery and well-being are assessed. Baseline findings of 283 participating individuals and their key clinicians are described. The sample appears to appropriately represent the distribution of individuals across diagnostic categories in services, and level of care (outpatient, day treatment, inpatient) in the Netherlands and other developed nations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. A Patient Advocate to facilitate access and improve communication, care, and outcomes in adults with moderate or severe asthma: Rationale, design, and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apter, Andrea J.; Morales, Knashawn H.; Han, Xiaoyan; Perez, Luzmercy; Huang, Jingru; Ndicu, Grace; Localio, Anna; Nardi, Alyssa; Klusaritz, Heather; Rogers, Marisa; Phillips, Alexis; Cidav, Zuleyha; Schwartz, J. Sanford

    2017-01-01

    Few interventions to improve asthma outcomes have targeted low-income minority adults. Even fewer have focused on the real-world practice where care is delivered. We adapted a patient navigator, here called a Patient Advocate (PA), a term preferred by patients, to facilitate and maintain access to chronic care for adults with moderate or severe asthma and prevalent co-morbidities recruited from clinics serving low-income urban neighborhoods. We describe the planning, design, methodology (informed by patient and provider focus groups), baseline results, and challenges of an ongoing randomized controlled trial of 312 adults of a PA intervention implemented in a variety of practices. The PA coaches, models, and assists participants with preparations for a visit with the asthma clinician; attends the visit with permission of participant and provider; and confirms participants’ understanding of what transpired at the visit. The PA facilitates scheduling, obtaining insurance coverage, overcoming patients’ unique social and administrative barriers to carrying out medical advice and transfer of information between providers and patients. PA activities are individualized, take account of comorbidities, and are generalizable to other chronic diseases. PAs are recent college graduates interested in health-related careers, research experience, working with patients, and generally have the same race/ethnicity distribution as potential participants. We test whether the PA intervention, compared to usual care, is associated with improved and sustained asthma control and other asthma outcomes (prednisone bursts, ED visits, hospitalizations, quality of life, FEV1) relative to baseline. Mediators and moderators of the PA-asthma outcome relationship are examined along with the intervention’s cost-effectiveness. PMID:28315481

  17. Rationale and methods of the Prospective Study of Biomarkers, Symptom Improvement, and Ventricular Remodeling During Sacubitril/Valsartan Therapy for Heart Failure (PROVE-HF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januzzi, James L; Butler, Javed; Fombu, Emmanuel; Maisel, Alan; McCague, Kevin; Piña, Ileana L; Prescott, Margaret F; Riebman, Jerome B; Solomon, Scott

    2018-05-01

    Sacubitril/valsartan is an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor indicated for the treatment of patients with chronic heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction; however, its mechanism of benefit remains unclear. Biomarkers that are linked to ventricular remodeling, myocardial injury, and fibrosis may provide mechanistic insight and important clinical guidance regarding sacubitril/valsartan use. This 52-week, multicenter, open-label, single-arm study is designed to (1) correlate biomarker changes with cardiac remodeling parameters, cardiovascular outcomes, and patient-reported outcome data and (2) determine short- and long-term changes in concentrations of biomarkers related to potential mechanisms of action and effects of sacubitril/valsartan therapy. Approximately 830 patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction will be initiated and titrated on sacubitril/valsartan according to United States prescribing information. Primary efficacy end points include the changes in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations and cardiac remodeling from baseline to 1 year. Secondary end points include changes in concentrations of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and remodeling to 6 months, and changes in patient-reported outcomes using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire-23 from baseline to 1 year. In addition, several other relevant biomarkers will be measured. Biomarker changes relative to the number of cardiovascular events in 12 months will also be assessed as exploratory end points. Results from the Prospective Study of Biomarkers, Symptom Improvement, and Ventricular Remodeling During Sacubitril/Valsartan Therapy for Heart Failure (PROVE-HF) will help establish a mechanistic understanding of angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor therapeutic benefits and provide clinicians with clarity on how to interpret information on biomarkers during treatment (PROVE-HF ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02887183). Copyright © 2018 The

  18. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of combined progressive exercise on metabolic syndrome in breast cancer survivors: rationale, design, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Mortimer, Joanne E; Schroeder, E Todd; Courneya, Kerry; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Buchanan, Thomas A; Tripathy, Debu; Bernstein, Leslie

    2014-04-03

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasingly present in breast cancer survivors, possibly worsened by cancer-related treatments, such as chemotherapy. MetS greatly increases risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, co-morbidities that could impair the survivorship experience, and possibly lead to cancer recurrence. Exercise has been shown to positively influence quality of life (QOL), physical function, muscular strength and endurance, reduce fatigue, and improve emotional well-being; however, the impact on MetS components (visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension) remains largely unknown. In this trial, we aim to assess the effects of combined (aerobic and resistance) exercise on components of MetS, as well as on physical fitness and QOL, in breast cancer survivors soon after completing cancer-related treatments. This study is a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating the effects of a 16-week supervised progressive aerobic and resistance exercise training intervention on MetS in 100 breast cancer survivors. Main inclusion criteria are histologically-confirmed breast cancer stage I-III, completion of chemotherapy and/or radiation within 6 months prior to initiation of the study, sedentary, and free from musculoskeletal disorders. The primary endpoint is MetS; secondary endpoints include: muscle strength, shoulder function, cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, bone mineral density, and QOL. Participants randomized to the Exercise group participate in 3 supervised weekly exercise sessions for 16 weeks. Participants randomized to the Control group are offered the same intervention after the 16-week period of observation. This is the one of few RCTs examining the effects of exercise on MetS in breast cancer survivors. Results will contribute a better understanding of metabolic disease-related effects of resistance and aerobic exercise training and inform

  19. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of combined progressive exercise on metabolic syndrome in breast cancer survivors: rationale, design, and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Mortimer, Joanne E; Schroeder, E Todd; Courneya, Kerry; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Buchanan, Thomas A; Tripathy, Debu; Bernstein, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasingly present in breast cancer survivors, possibly worsened by cancer-related treatments, such as chemotherapy. MetS greatly increases risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, co-morbidities that could impair the survivorship experience, and possibly lead to cancer recurrence. Exercise has been shown to positively influence quality of life (QOL), physical function, muscular strength and endurance, reduce fatigue, and improve emotional well-being; however, the impact on MetS components (visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension) remains largely unknown. In this trial, we aim to assess the effects of combined (aerobic and resistance) exercise on components of MetS, as well as on physical fitness and QOL, in breast cancer survivors soon after completing cancer-related treatments. This study is a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating the effects of a 16-week supervised progressive aerobic and resistance exercise training intervention on MetS in 100 breast cancer survivors. Main inclusion criteria are histologically-confirmed breast cancer stage I-III, completion of chemotherapy and/or radiation within 6 months prior to initiation of the study, sedentary, and free from musculoskeletal disorders. The primary endpoint is MetS; secondary endpoints include: muscle strength, shoulder function, cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, bone mineral density, and QOL. Participants randomized to the Exercise group participate in 3 supervised weekly exercise sessions for 16 weeks. Participants randomized to the Control group are offered the same intervention after the 16-week period of observation. This is the one of few RCTs examining the effects of exercise on MetS in breast cancer survivors. Results will contribute a better understanding of metabolic disease-related effects of resistance and aerobic exercise training and inform

  20. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis: Example results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storlie, Curtis B.; Helton, Jon C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described in the first part of this presentation: (i) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (ii) additive models, (iii) projection pursuit regression, and (iv) recursive partitioning regression. In this, the second and concluding part of the presentation, the indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present

  1. Quantifying the measurement uncertainty of results from environmental analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, J; Wegscheider, W; Sperka-Gottlieb, C

    2001-07-01

    The Eurachem-CITAC Guide Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement was put into practice in a public laboratory devoted to environmental analytical measurements. In doing so due regard was given to the provisions of ISO 17025 and an attempt was made to base the entire estimation of measurement uncertainty on available data from the literature or from previously performed validation studies. Most environmental analytical procedures laid down in national or international standards are the result of cooperative efforts and put into effect as part of a compromise between all parties involved, public and private, that also encompasses environmental standards and statutory limits. Central to many procedures is the focus on the measurement of environmental effects rather than on individual chemical species. In this situation it is particularly important to understand the measurement process well enough to produce a realistic uncertainty statement. Environmental analytical methods will be examined as far as necessary, but reference will also be made to analytical methods in general and to physical measurement methods where appropriate. This paper describes ways and means of quantifying uncertainty for frequently practised methods of environmental analysis. It will be shown that operationally defined measurands are no obstacle to the estimation process as described in the Eurachem/CITAC Guide if it is accepted that the dominating component of uncertainty comes from the actual practice of the method as a reproducibility standard deviation.

  2. Rationale for the Cultural Construction of School Mental Health Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Prerna G.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Leff, Stephen S.

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of evidence-based psychological programming to meet the needs of a global population has been impeded by the translation of theories and research findings across populations and settings without due consideration of cultural factors. The purpose of this article is to discuss the rationale for use of partnership-based methods in…

  3. Rationales behind the choice of administration form with fentanyl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Møldrup, Claus; Christrup, Lona

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the rationale behind the choice of fentanyl administration forms among Danish general practitioners (GPs). METHODS: Thirty-eight Danish GPs were contacted via an Internet survey system to perform a Delphi survey. In the brainstorming phase...

  4. Science Teaching Methods: A Rationale for Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This article is a version of the talk given by Jonathan Osborne as the Association for Science Education (ASE) invited lecturer at the National Science Teachers' Association Annual Convention in San Francisco, USA, in April 2011. The article provides an explanatory justification for teaching about the practices of science in school science that…

  5. [Adverse events management. Methods and results of a development project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabøl, Louise Isager; Jensen, Elisabeth Brøgger; Hellebek, Annemarie H; Pedersen, Beth Lilja

    2006-11-27

    This article describes the methods and results of a project in the Copenhagen Hospital Corporation (H:S) on preventing adverse events. The aim of the project was to raise awareness about patients' safety, test a reporting system for adverse events, develop and test methods of analysis of events and propagate ideas about how to prevent adverse events. H:S developed an action plan and a reporting system for adverse events, founded an organization and developed an educational program on theories and methods of learning from adverse events for both leaders and employees. During the three-year period from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2004, the H:S staff reported 6011 adverse events. In the same period, the organization completed 92 root cause analyses. More than half of these dealt with events that had been optional to report, the other half events that had been mandatory to report. The number of reports and the front-line staff's attitude towards reporting shows that the H:S succeeded in founding a safety culture. Future work should be centred on developing and testing methods that will prevent adverse events from happening. The objective is to suggest and complete preventive initiatives which will help increase patient safety.

  6. Processing method and results of meteor shower radar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkovich, O.I.; Suleimanov, N.I.; Tokhtasjev, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of meteor showers permit the solving of some principal problems of meteor astronomy: to obtain the structure of a stream in cross section and along its orbits; to retrace the evolution of particle orbits of the stream taking into account gravitational and nongravitational forces and to discover the orbital elements of its parent body; to find out the total mass of solid particles ejected from the parent body taking into account physical and chemical evolution of meteor bodies; and to use meteor streams as natural probes for investigation of the average characteristics of the meteor complex in the solar system. A simple and effective method of determining the flux density and mass exponent parameter was worked out. This method and its results are discussed

  7. Method of vacuum correlation functions: Results and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalian, A. M.; Simonov, Yu. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2006-01-01

    Basic results obtained within the QCD method of vacuum correlation functions over the past 20 years in the context of investigations into strong-interaction physics at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP, Moscow) are formulated Emphasis is placed primarily on the prospects of the general theory developed within QCD by employing both nonperturbative and perturbative methods. On the basis of ab initio arguments, it is shown that the lowest two field correlation functions play a dominant role in QCD dynamics. A quantitative theory of confinement and deconfinement, as well as of the spectra of light and heavy quarkonia, glueballs, and hybrids, is given in terms of these two correlation functions. Perturbation theory in a nonperturbative vacuum (background perturbation theory) plays a significant role, not possessing drawbacks of conventional perturbation theory and leading to the infrared freezing of the coupling constant α s

  8. Application of NUREG-1150 methods and results to accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingman, S.; Sype, T.; Camp, A.; Maloney, K.

    1991-01-01

    The use of NUREG-1150 and similar probabilistic risk assessments in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and industry risk management programs is discussed. Risk management is more comprehensive than the commonly used term accident management. Accident management includes strategies to prevent vessel breach, mitigate radionuclide releases from the reactor coolant system, and mitigate radionuclide releases to the environment. Risk management also addresses prevention of accident initiators, prevention of core damage, and implementation of effective emergency response procedures. The methods and results produced in NUREG-1150 provide a framework within which current risk management strategies can be evaluated, and future risk management programs can be developed and assessed. Examples of the use of the NUREG-1150 framework for identifying and evaluating risk management options are presented. All phases of risk management are discussed, with particular attention given to the early phases of accidents. Plans and methods for evaluating accident management strategies that have been identified in the NRC accident management program are discussed

  9. Application of NUREG-1150 methods and results to accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingman, S.; Sype, T.; Camp, A.; Maloney, K.

    1990-01-01

    The use of NUREG-1150 and similar Probabilistic Risk Assessments in NRC and industry risk management programs is discussed. ''Risk management'' is more comprehensive than the commonly used term ''accident management.'' Accident management includes strategies to prevent vessel breach, mitigate radionuclide releases from the reactor coolant system, and mitigate radionuclide releases to the environment. Risk management also addresses prevention of accident initiators, prevention of core damage, and implementation of effective emergency response procedures. The methods and results produced in NUREG-1150 provide a framework within which current risk management strategies can be evaluated, and future risk management programs can be developed and assessed. Examples of the use of the NUREG-1150 framework for identifying and evaluating risk management options are presented. All phases of risk management are discussed, with particular attention given to the early phases of accidents. Plans and methods for evaluating accident management strategies that have been identified in the NRC accident management program are discussed. 2 refs., 3 figs

  10. PALEOEARTHQUAKES IN THE PRIBAIKALIE: METHODS AND RESULTS OF DATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg P. Smekalin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Pribaikalie and adjacent territories, seismogeological studies have been underway for almost a half of the century and resulted in discovery of more than 70 dislocations of seismic or presumably seismic origin. With commencement of paleoseismic studies, dating of paleo-earthquakes was focused on as an indicator useful for long-term prediction of strong earthquakes. V.P. Solonenko [Solonenko, 1977] distinguished five methods for dating paleoseismogenic deformations, i.e. geological, engineering geological, historico-archeological, dendrochronological and radiocarbon methods. However, ages of the majority of seismic deformations, which were subject to studies at the initial stage of development of seismogeology in Siberia, were defined by methods of relative or correlation age determination.Since the 1980s, studies of seismogenic deformation in the Pribaikalie have been widely conducted with trenching. Mass sampling, followed with radiocarbon analyses and definition of absolute ages of paleo-earthquakes, provided new data on seismic regimes of the territory and rates of and recent displacements along active faults, and enhanced validity of methods of relative dating, in particular morphometry. Capacities of the morphometry method has significantly increased with introduction of laser techniques in surveys and digital processing of 3D relief models.Comprehensive seismogeological studies conducted in the Pribaikalie revealed 43 paleo-events within 16 seismogenic structures. Absolute ages of 18 paleo-events were defined by the radiocarbon age determination method. Judging by their ages, a number of dislocations were related with historical earthquakes which occurred in the 18th and 19th centuries, yet any reliable data on epicenters of such events are not available. The absolute and relative dating methods allowed us to identify sections in some paleoseismogenic structures by differences in ages of activation and thus provided new data for

  11. Performance of various mathematical methods for calculation of radioimmunoassay results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandel, P.; Vogt, W.

    1977-01-01

    Interpolation and regression methods are available for computer aided determination of radioimmunological end results. We compared the performance of eight algorithms (weighted and unweighted linear logit-log regression, quadratic logit-log regression, Rodbards logistic model in the weighted and unweighted form, smoothing spline interpolation with a large and small smoothing factor and polygonal interpolation) on the basis of three radioimmunoassays with different reference curve characteristics (digoxin, estriol, human chorionic somatomammotropin = HCS). Great store was set by the accuracy of the approximation at the intermediate points on the curve, ie. those points that lie midway between two standard concentrations. These concentrations were obtained by weighing and inserted as unknown samples. In the case of digoxin and estriol the polygonal interpolation provided the best results while the weighted logit-log regression proved superior in the case of HCS. (orig.) [de

  12. Soft Power as a Policy Rationale for International Education in the UK: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomer, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a textual analysis conducted on policy discourses on international students in the UK between 1999 and 2013. A number of rationales for and against increasing their numbers have been made, which have largely remained consistent over changing political administrations. One key rationale is that international…

  13. Methodics of computing the results of monitoring the exploratory gallery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krúpa Víazoslav

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available At building site of motorway tunnel Višòové-Dubná skala , the priority is given to driving of exploration galley that secures in detail: geologic, engineering geology, hydrogeology and geotechnics research. This research is based on gathering information for a supposed use of the full profile driving machine that would drive the motorway tunnel. From a part of the exploration gallery which is driven by the TBM method, a fulfilling information is gathered about the parameters of the driving process , those are gathered by a computer monitoring system. The system is mounted on a driving machine. This monitoring system is based on the industrial computer PC 104. It records 4 basic values of the driving process: the electromotor performance of the driving machine Voest-Alpine ATB 35HA, the speed of driving advance, the rotation speed of the disintegrating head TBM and the total head pressure. The pressure force is evaluated from the pressure in the hydraulic cylinders of the machine. Out of these values, the strength of rock mass, the angle of inner friction, etc. are mathematically calculated. These values characterize rock mass properties as their changes. To define the effectivity of the driving process, the value of specific energy and the working ability of driving head is used. The article defines the methodics of computing the gathered monitoring information, that is prepared for the driving machine Voest – Alpine ATB 35H at the Institute of Geotechnics SAS. It describes the input forms (protocols of the developed method created by an EXCEL program and shows selected samples of the graphical elaboration of the first monitoring results obtained from exploratory gallery driving process in the Višòové – Dubná skala motorway tunnel.

  14. Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector-A qualitative content analysis of the political rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During the preparatory work, the rationales of diversity on the market and entrepreneurship were added, while the original rationales of efficiency, price pressure, and better usage of medicines were abandoned. The reform can be seen as a typical New Public Management reform influenced by the notion that private actors are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radioimmunological determination of plasma progesterone. Methods - Results - Indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonon-Estrangin, Chantal.

    1978-10-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the radioimmunological determination of plasma progesterone carried out at the hormonology Laboratory of the Grenoble University Hospital Centre (Professor E. Chambaz), to compare our results with those of the literature and to present the main clinical indications of this analysis. The measurement method has proved reproducible, specific (the steroid purification stage is unnecessary) and sensitive (detection: 10 picograms of progesterone per tube). In seven normally menstruating women our results agree with published values: (in nanograms per millilitre: ng/ml) 0.07 ng/ml to 0.9 ng/ml in the follicular phase, from the start of menstruation until ovulation, then rapid increase at ovulation with a maximum in the middle of the luteal phase (our values for this maximum range from 7.9 ng/ml to 21.7 ng/ml) and gradual drop in progesterone secretion until the next menstrual period. In gynecology the radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone is valuable for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes: - to diagnosis the absence of corpus luteum, - to judge the effectiveness of an ovulation induction treatment [fr

  16. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  17. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia, E-mail: mccollough.cynthia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  18. Rationale for energy research and development programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-04-01

    This paper describes the rationale for the expenditure of government money on energy research and development. The Committee, organized in 1974, established the following order of project priorities: projects to determine current and future energy demand; projects concerned with the conservation and more efficient use of energy; projects concerned with the assessment of indigenous energy resources; projects concerned with the assessment of the human, financial, and organizational resources for energy production and use; and projects concerned with economic, technological, social, and environmental aspects of energy use and production over the next 15 years and beyond the next 15 years. Significant factors affecting the national energy economy, the strategy for energy research and development, and the results of committee activities are summarized. An energy scenario research is laid out. (MCW)

  19. A novel method for assessing elbow pain resulting from epicondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorn, Bradley S.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe a novel orthopedic test (Polk's test) which can assist the clinician in differentiating between me- dial and lateral epicondylitis, 2 of the most common causes of elbow pain. This test has not been previously described in the literature. Clinical Features The testing procedure described in this paper is easy to learn, simple to perform and may provide the clinician with a quick and effective method of differentiating between lateral and medial epicondylitis. The test also helps to elucidate normal activities of daily living that the patient may unknowingly be performing on a repetitive basis that are hindering recovery. The results of this simple test allow the clinician to make immediate lifestyle recommendations to the patient that should improve and hasten the response to subsequent treatment. It may be used in conjunction with other orthopedic testing procedures, as it correlates well with other clinical tests for assessing epicondylitis. Conclusion The use of Polk's Test may help the clinician to diagnostically differentiate between lateral and medial epicondylitis, as well as supply information relative to choosing proper instructions for the patient to follow as part of their treatment program. Further research, performed in an academic setting, should prove helpful in more thoroughly evaluating the merits of this test. In the meantime, clinical experience over the years suggests that the practicing physician should find a great deal of clinical utility in utilizing this simple, yet effective, diagnostic procedure. PMID:19674572

  20. Rationale and methods of a cluster-randomized controlled trial to promote active and healthy lifestyles among Brazilian students: the "Fortaleça sua Saúde" program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Lima, Antônio Barroso; de Souza, Evanice Avelino; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; Silva, Kelly Samara; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha; Trompieri Filho, Nicolino; de Araújo, Thábyta Silva; de Bruin, Pedro Felipe Carvalhedo; Mota, Jorge

    2015-12-07

    Interventions on adolescents' lifestyle are important, but the main mechanisms that explain the changes (mediating variables) on lifestyle are unclear. This paper presents the rationale and methods of an intervention program focused on promoting active and healthy lifestyles (especially physical activity [PA] practice and reducing screen time) among Brazilian students-the Fortaleça sua Saúde program (Portuguese for "strengthen your health"). This is a school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial. Three intervention and three control (no intervention) full-time public schools were randomly selected in Fortaleza, northeastern Brazil. Students (n = 1,272) from classes in Grades 7-9 were eligible, and 1,085 (548 in the intervention and 537 in control schools) completed the baseline and follow-up measures. The program duration was approximately four months and took place in 2014. Intervention strategies focused on teacher training, activities on health in the curriculum, active opportunities in the school environment (the availability of equipment for PA), and health education (health materials for students and parents). Data collection was undertaken before and immediately after the intervention. The primary variables included the practice of PA (weekly PA volume, PA behavior change stage and preference for PA during leisure-time) and screen time (TV and computer/video games). Potential intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental mediators of PA and screen time were evaluated by a standardized questionnaire. Other lifestyle components (e.g., eating habits, substance use), psychological (e.g., self-rated health, body satisfaction) and biological (general and abdominal obesity) aspects, as well as academic performance were also evaluated in the total sample. Depressive symptoms, eating disorders, sleep quality, objectively-measured PA, and sedentary time were evaluated in obese students. If effective, this program will contribute to the development of public

  1. Comparison of microstickies measurement methods. Part II, Results and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra R. Doshi; Angeles Blanco; Carlos Negro; Concepcion Monte; Gilles M. Dorris; Carlos C. Castro; Axel Hamann; R. Daniel Haynes; Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Hans-Joachim Putz; Hans Johansson; R. A. Venditti; K. Copeland; H.-M. Chang

    2003-01-01

    In part I of the article we discussed sample preparation procedure and described various methods used for the measurement of microstickies. Some of the important features of different methods are highlighted in Table 1. Temperatures used in the measurement methods vary from room temperature in some cases, 45 °C to 65 °C in other cases. Sample size ranges from as low as...

  2. The review and results of different methods for facial recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Yifan

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, facial recognition draws much attention due to its wide potential applications. As a unique technology in Biometric Identification, facial recognition represents a significant improvement since it could be operated without cooperation of people under detection. Hence, facial recognition will be taken into defense system, medical detection, human behavior understanding, etc. Several theories and methods have been established to make progress in facial recognition: (1) A novel two-stage facial landmark localization method is proposed which has more accurate facial localization effect under specific database; (2) A statistical face frontalization method is proposed which outperforms state-of-the-art methods for face landmark localization; (3) It proposes a general facial landmark detection algorithm to handle images with severe occlusion and images with large head poses; (4) There are three methods proposed on Face Alignment including shape augmented regression method, pose-indexed based multi-view method and a learning based method via regressing local binary features. The aim of this paper is to analyze previous work of different aspects in facial recognition, focusing on concrete method and performance under various databases. In addition, some improvement measures and suggestions in potential applications will be put forward.

  3. Resource costing for multinational neurologic clinical trials: methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, K; Burke, J; Drummond, M; Davies, L; Carlsson, P; Gruger, J; Harris, A; Lucioni, C; Gisbert, R; Llana, T; Tom, E; Bloom, B; Willke, R; Glick, H

    1998-11-01

    We present the results of a multinational resource costing study for a prospective economic evaluation of a new medical technology for treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage within a clinical trial. The study describes a framework for the collection and analysis of international resource cost data that can contribute to a consistent and accurate intercountry estimation of cost. Of the 15 countries that participated in the clinical trial, we collected cost information in the following seven: Australia, France, Germany, the UK, Italy, Spain, and Sweden. The collection of cost data in these countries was structured through the use of worksheets to provide accurate and efficient cost reporting. We converted total average costs to average variable costs and then aggregated the data to develop study unit costs. When unit costs were unavailable, we developed an index table, based on a market-basket approach, to estimate unit costs. To estimate the cost of a given procedure, the market-basket estimation process required that cost information be available for at least one country. When cost information was unavailable in all countries for a given procedure, we estimated costs using a method based on physician-work and practice-expense resource-based relative value units. Finally, we converted study unit costs to a common currency using purchasing power parity measures. Through this costing exercise we developed a set of unit costs for patient services and per diem hospital services. We conclude by discussing the implications of our costing exercise and suggest guidelines to facilitate more effective multinational costing exercises.

  4. Results and current trends of nuclear methods used in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1983-01-01

    The significance is evaluated of nuclear methods for agricultural research. The number of breeds induced by radiation mutations is increasing. The main importance of radiation mutation breeding consists in obtaining sources of the desired genetic properties for further hybridization. Radiostimulation is conducted with the aim of increasing yields. The irradiation of foods has not substantially increased worldwide. Very important is the irradiation of excrements and sludges which after such inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms may be used as humus-forming manure or as feed additives. In some countries the method is successfully being used of sexual sterilization for eradication of insect pests. The application of labelled compounds in the nutrition, physiology and protection of plants, farm animals and in food hygiene makes it possible to acquire new and accurate knowledge very quickly. Radioimmunoassay is a highly promising method in this respect. Labelling compounds with the stable 15 N isotope is used for the research of nitrogen metabolism. (M.D.)

  5. Results from the Application of Uncertainty Methods in the CSNI Uncertainty Methods Study (UMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, H.

    2008-01-01

    Within licensing procedures there is the incentive to replace the conservative requirements for code application by a - best estimate - concept supplemented by an uncertainty analysis to account for predictive uncertainties of code results. Methods have been developed to quantify these uncertainties. The Uncertainty Methods Study (UMS) Group, following a mandate from CSNI, has compared five methods for calculating the uncertainty in the predictions of advanced -best estimate- thermal-hydraulic codes. Most of the methods identify and combine input uncertainties. The major differences between the predictions of the methods came from the choice of uncertain parameters and the quantification of the input uncertainties, i.e. the wideness of the uncertainty ranges. Therefore, suitable experimental and analytical information has to be selected to specify these uncertainty ranges or distributions. After the closure of the Uncertainty Method Study (UMS) and after the report was issued comparison calculations of experiment LSTF-SB-CL-18 were performed by University of Pisa using different versions of the RELAP 5 code. It turned out that the version used by two of the participants calculated a 170 K higher peak clad temperature compared with other versions using the same input deck. This may contribute to the differences of the upper limit of the uncertainty ranges.

  6. Application of NDE methods to green ceramics: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Karplus, H.B.; Poeppel, R.B.; Ellingson, W.A.; Berger, H.; Robbins, C.; Fuller, E.

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes a preliminary investigation to assess the effectiveness of microradiography, ultrasonic methods, nuclear magnetic resonance, and neutron radiography for the nondestructive evaluation of green (unfired), ceramics. Objective is to obtain useful information on defects, cracking, delaminations, agglomerates, inclusions, regions of high porosity, and anisotropy

  7. Model films of cellulose. I. Method development and initial results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnars, S.; Wågberg, L.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new method for the preparation of thin cellulose films. NMMO (N- methylmorpholine- N-oxide) was used to dissolve cellulose and addition of DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) was used to control viscosity of the cellulose solution. A thin layer of the cellulose solution is spin- coated

  8. Using design rationale to improve SPL traceability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvao, I.; Aksit, Mehmet; van den Broek, P.M.; Hendriks, M.F.H.; Rashid, Awais; Royer, Jean-Claude; Rummler, Andreas

    In order to improve SPL traceability by using design rationale, this chapter introduces the traceability analysis framework (TAF), which, when combined with the AMPLE Traceability Framework, provides extra traceability capabilities for variability management. The TAF is a programmable and extensible

  9. Bioethics: A Rationale and a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.; Rusch, John J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for and development of an undergraduate bioethics course. Based on experiences with the course, general suggestions are offered to instructors planning to add bioethics to existing curricula. (MA)

  10. New Rationales for Women on Boards

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, B.

    2014-01-01

    Should measures promoting women to corporate boards be solely justified in terms of economic arguments? Traditionally, such measures have tended to rely on utilitarian arguments, despite the fact that the most prominent of these arguments—the relationship between women’s presence on boards and firm financial performance—is equivocal. Conversely, this article argues that rationales for increasing women on boards should be based on both equality and economics grounds. An equality rationale is n...

  11. Wide Binaries in TGAS: Search Method and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jeff J.; Chanamé, Julio; Agüeros, Marcel A.

    2018-04-01

    Half of all stars reside in binary systems, many of which have orbital separations in excess of 1000 AU. Such binaries are typically identified in astrometric catalogs by matching the proper motions vectors of close stellar pairs. We present a fully Bayesian method that properly takes into account positions, proper motions, parallaxes, and their correlated uncertainties to identify widely separated stellar binaries. After applying our method to the >2 × 106 stars in the Tycho-Gaia astrometric solution from Gaia DR1, we identify over 6000 candidate wide binaries. For those pairs with separations less than 40,000 AU, we determine the contamination rate to be ~5%. This sample has an orbital separation (a) distribution that is roughly flat in log space for separations less than ~5000 AU and follows a power law of a -1.6 at larger separations.

  12. Viscous wing theory development. Volume 1: Analysis, method and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, R. R.; Melnik, R. E.; Marconi, F.; Steinhoff, J.

    1986-01-01

    Viscous transonic flows at large Reynolds numbers over 3-D wings were analyzed using a zonal viscid-inviscid interaction approach. A new numerical AFZ scheme was developed in conjunction with the finite volume formulation for the solution of the inviscid full-potential equation. A special far-field asymptotic boundary condition was developed and a second-order artificial viscosity included for an improved inviscid solution methodology. The integral method was used for the laminar/turbulent boundary layer and 3-D viscous wake calculation. The interaction calculation included the coupling conditions of the source flux due to the wing surface boundary layer, the flux jump due to the viscous wake, and the wake curvature effect. A method was also devised incorporating the 2-D trailing edge strong interaction solution for the normal pressure correction near the trailing edge region. A fully automated computer program was developed to perform the proposed method with one scalar version to be used on an IBM-3081 and two vectorized versions on Cray-1 and Cyber-205 computers.

  13. Algorithms for monitoring warfarin use: Results from Delphi Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Eunice Kazue; Borges, Jessica Bassani; Scomparini, Erika Burim; Curi, Ana Paula; Ribeiro, Eliane

    2017-10-01

    Warfarin stands as the most prescribed oral anticoagulant. New oral anticoagulants have been approved recently; however, their use is limited and the reversibility techniques of the anticoagulation effect are little known. Thus, our study's purpose was to develop algorithms for therapeutic monitoring of patients taking warfarin based on the opinion of physicians who prescribe this medicine in their clinical practice. The development of the algorithm was performed in two stages, namely: (i) literature review and (ii) algorithm evaluation by physicians using a Delphi Method. Based on the articles analyzed, two algorithms were developed: "Recommendations for the use of warfarin in anticoagulation therapy" and "Recommendations for the use of warfarin in anticoagulation therapy: dose adjustment and bleeding control." Later, these algorithms were analyzed by 19 medical doctors that responded to the invitation and agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 16 responded to the first round, 11 to the second and eight to the third round. A 70% consensus or higher was reached for most issues and at least 50% for six questions. We were able to develop algorithms to monitor the use of warfarin by physicians using a Delphi Method. The proposed method is inexpensive and involves the participation of specialists, and it has proved adequate for the intended purpose. Further studies are needed to validate these algorithms, enabling them to be used in clinical practice.

  14. Further results for crack-edge mappings by ray methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, A.N.; Achenbach, J.D.; Ahlberg, L.; Tittman, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses further extensions of the local edge mapping method to the pulse-echo case and to configurations of water-immersed specimens and transducers. Crack edges are mapped by the use of arrival times of edge-diffracted signals. Topics considered include local edge mapping in a homogeneous medium, local edge mapping algorithms, local edge mapping through an interface, and edge mapping through an interface using synthetic data. Local edge mapping is iterative, with two or three iterations required for convergence

  15. Method of fabricating nested shells and resulting product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Kool, Lawrence B.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple shell structure and a method of manufacturing such structure wherein a hollow glass microsphere is surface treated in an organosilane solution so as to render the shell outer surface hydrophobic. The surface treated glass shell is then suspended in the oil phase of an oil-aqueous phase dispersion. The oil phase includes an organic film-forming monomer, a polymerization initiator and a blowing agent. A polymeric film forms at each phase boundary of the dispersion and is then expanded in a blowing operation so as to form an outer homogeneously integral monocellular substantially spherical thermoplastic shell encapsulating an inner glass shell of lesser diameter.

  16. The Accident Sequence Precursor program: Methods improvements and current results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minarick, J.W.; Manning, F.M.; Harris, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in the US NRC Accident Sequence Precursor program methods since the initial program evaluations of 1969-81 operational events are described, along with insights from the review of 1984-85 events. For 1984-85, the number of significant precursors was consistent with the number observed in 1980-81, dominant sequences associated with significant events were reasonably consistent with PRA estimates for BWRs, but lacked the contribution due to small-break LOCAs previously observed and predicted in PWRs, and the frequency of initiating events and non-recoverable system failures exhibited some reduction compared to 1980-81. Operational events which provide information concerning additional PRA modeling needs are also described

  17. Use of results from microscopic methods in optical model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrange, C.

    1985-11-01

    A concept of vectorization for coupled-channel programs based upon conventional methods is first presented. This has been implanted in our program for its use on the CRAY-1 computer. In a second part we investigate the capabilities of a semi-microscopic optical model involving fewer adjustable parameters than phenomenological ones. The two main ingredients of our calculations are, for spherical or well-deformed nuclei, the microscopic optical-model calculations of Jeukenne, Lejeune and Mahaux and nuclear densities from Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations using the density-dependent force D1. For transitional nuclei deformation-dependent nuclear structure wave functions are employed to weigh the scattering potentials for different shapes and channels [fr

  18. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    phantom in terms of Hounsfield unit and high-contrast resolution. For the validation of the lesion realism, lesions of various types were successfully inserted, including well circumscribed and invasive lesions, homogeneous and heterogeneous lesions, high-contrast and low-contrast lesions, isolated and vessel-attached lesions, and small and large lesions. The two experienced radiologists who reviewed the original and inserted lesions could not identify the lesions that were inserted. The same lesion, when inserted into the projection domain and reconstructed with different parameters, demonstrated a parameter-dependent appearance. A framework has been developed for projection-domain insertion of lesions into commercial CT images, which can be potentially expanded to all geometries of CT scanners. Compared to conventional image-domain methods, the authors' method reflected the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance. Compared to prior projection-domain methods, the authors' method has the potential to achieve higher anatomical complexity by employing clinical patient projections and real patient lesions.

  19. Assessment of South African uranium resources: methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camisani-Calzolari, F.A.G.M.; De Klerk, W.J.; Van der Merwe, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper deals primarily with the methods used by the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa, in arriving at the assessment of the South African uranium resources. The Resource Evaluation Group is responsible for this task, which is carried out on a continuous basis. The evaluation is done on a property-by-property basis and relies upon data submitted to the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa by the various companies involved in uranium mining and prospecting in South Africa. Resources are classified into Reasonably Assured (RAR), Estimated Additional (EAR) and Speculative (SR) categories as defined by the NEA/IAEA Steering Group on Uranium Resources. Each category is divided into three categories, viz, resources exploitable at less than $80/kg uranium, at $80-130/kg uranium and at $130-260/kg uranium. Resources are reported in quantities of uranium metal that could be recovered after mining and metallurgical losses have been taken into consideration. Resources in the RAR and EAR categories exploitable at costs of less than $130/kg uranium are now estimated at 460 000 t uranium which represents some 14 per cent of WOCA's (World Outside the Centrally Planned Economies Area) resources. The evaluation of a uranium venture is carried out in various steps, of which the most important, in order of implementation, are: geological interpretation, assessment of in situ resources using techniques varying from manual contouring of values, geostatistics, feasibility studies and estimation of recoverable resources. Because the choice of an evaluation method is, to some extent, dictated by statistical consderations, frequency distribution curves of the uranium grade variable are illustrated and discussed for characteristic deposits

  20. UV spectroscopy applied to stratospheric chemistry, methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsen, K.

    1996-03-01

    The publication from the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) deals with an investigation done on stratospheric chemistry by UV spectroscopy. The scientific goals are briefly discussed, and it gives the results from the measuring and analysing techniques used in the investigation. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Creep in rock salt with temperature. Testing methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, J.P.; Berest, P.

    1985-01-01

    The growing interest shown in the delayed behaviour of rocks at elevated temperature has led the Solid Mechanics Laboratory to develop specific equipment designed for creep tests. The design and dimensioning of these units offer the possibility of investigating a wide range of materials. The article describes the test facilities used (uni-axial and tri-axial creep units) and presents the experimental results obtained on samples of Bresse salt [fr

  2. TMI-2 core debris analytical methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Cook, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    A series of six grab samples was taken from the debris bed of the TMI-2 core in early September 1983. Five of these samples were sent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for analysis. Presented is the analysis strategy for the samples and some of the data obtained from the early stages of examination of the samples (i.e., particle size-analysis, gamma spectrometry results, and fissile/fertile material analysis)

  3. Studies of LMFBR: method of analysis and some results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Y.; Dias, A.F.; Nascimento, J.A. do.

    1983-01-01

    Some results of recent studies of LMFBR characteristics are summarized. A two-dimensional model of the LMFBR is taken from a publication and used as the base model for the analysis. Axial structures are added to the base model and a three-dimensional (Δ - Z) calculation has been done. Two dimensional (Δ and RZ) calculations are compared with the three-dimensional and published results. The eigenvalue, flux and power distributions, breeding characteristics, control rod worth, sodium-void and Doppler reactivities are analysed. Calculations are done by CITATION using six-group cross sections collapsed regionwise by EXPANDA in one-dimensional geometries from the 70-group JFS library. Burnup calculations of a simplified thorium-cycle LMFBR have also been done in the RZ geometry. Principal results of the studies are: (1) the JFS library appears adequate for predicting overall characteristics of an LMFBR, (2) the sodium void reactivity is negative within - 25 cm from the outer boundary of the core, (3) the halflife of Pa-233 must be considered explicitly in burnup analyses, and (4) two-dimensional (RZ and Δ) calculations can be used iteratively to analyze three-dimensional reactor systems. (Author) [pt

  4. Mineralized Collagen: Rationale, Current Status, and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ye Qiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the rationale for the in vitro mineralization process, preparation methods, and clinical applications of mineralized collagen. The rationale for natural mineralized collagen and the related mineralization process has been investigated for decades. Based on the understanding of natural mineralized collagen and its formation process, many attempts have been made to prepare biomimetic materials that resemble natural mineralized collagen in both composition and structure. To date, a number of bone substitute materials have been developed based on the principles of mineralized collagen, and some of them have been commercialized and approved by regulatory agencies. The clinical outcomes of mineralized collagen are of significance to advance the evaluation and improvement of related medical device products. Some representative clinical cases have been reported, and there are more clinical applications and long-term follow-ups that currently being performed by many research groups.

  5. Methods and results of radiotherapy in case of medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberg, M.; Sauerwein, W.; Scherer, E.

    1982-01-01

    The prognosis of the medulloblastoma with its marked tendency towards early formation of metastases by way of liquor circulation can be decisively improved by post-surgical homogenous irradiation. A successful radiotherapy is only possible by means of new irradiation methods which have been developed for high-voltage units during recent years and which require great experience and skill on the part of the radiotherapeutist. At the Radiological Centre of Essen, 26 patients with medulloblastoma have been submitted to such a specially developed post-surgical radiotherapy since 1974. After a follow-up period of at most seven years, 16 patients have survived (two of them with recurrences) and 10 patients died because of a local recurrence. In dependence on the patient's state of health after surgery and before irradiation, the neurologic state and physical condition of these patients seem favorable after unique post-operative radiotherapy. New therapeutic possibilities are provided by radiosensitizing substances. The actually most effective radiosensitizer Misonidazol, however, could not respond hitherto to clinical expectances. (orig.) [de

  6. Application of NDE methods to green ceramics: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Karplus, H.B.; Poeppel, R.B.; Ellingson, W.A.; Berger, H.; Robbins, C.; Fuller, E.

    1983-01-01

    The effectiveness of microradiography, ultrasonic methods, unclear magnetic resonance, and neutron radiography was assessed for the nondestructive evaluation of green (unfired) ceramics. The application of microradiography to ceramics is reviewed, and preliminary experiments with a commercial microradiography unit are described. Conventional ultrasonic techniques are difficult to apply to flaw detection green ceramics because of the high attenuation, fragility, and couplant-absorbing properties of these materials. However, velocity, attenuation, and spectral data were obtained with pressure-coupled transducers and provided useful informaion related to density variations and the presence of agglomerates. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging techniques and neutron radiography were considered for detection of anomalies in the distribution of porosity. With NMR, areas of high porosity might be detected after the samples are doped with water. In the case of neutron radiography, although imaging the binder distribution throughout the sample may not be feasible because of the low overall concentration of binder, regions of high binder concentration (thus high porosity) should be detectable

  7. New test methods for BIPV. Results from IP performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jol, J.C.; Van Kampen, B.J.M.; De Boer, B.J.; Reil, F.; Geyer, D.

    2009-11-01

    Within the Performance project new test procedures for PV building products and the building performance as a whole when PV is applied in buildings have been drafted. It has resulted in a first draft of new test procedures for PV building products and proposals for tests for novel BIPV technology like thin film. The test proposed are a module breakage test for BIPV products, a fire safety test for BIPV products and a dynamic load test for BIPV products. Furthermore first proposals of how flexible PV modules could be tested in an appropriate way to ensure long time quality and safety of these new products are presented.

  8. Diamagnetic measurements on ISX-B: method and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, G.H.

    1983-10-01

    A diamagnetic loop is used on the ISX-B tokamak to measure the change in toroidal magnetic flux, sigma phi, caused by finite plasma current and perpendicular pressure. From this measurement, the perpendicular poloidal beta β/sub I perpendicular to/ is determined. The principal difficulty encountered is in identifying and making corrections for various noise components which appear in the measured flux. These result from coupling between the measuring loops and the toroidal and poloidal field windings, both directly and through currents induced in the vacuum vessel and coils themselves. An analysis of these couplings is made and techniques for correcting them developed. Results from the diamagnetic measurement, employing some of these correction techniques, are presented and compared with other data. The obtained values of β/sub I perpendicular to/ agree with those obtained from the equilibrium magnetic analysis (β/sub IΔ/) in ohmically heated plasmas, indicating no anisotropy. However, with 0.3 to 2.0 MW of tangential neutral beam injection, β/sub IΔ/ is consistently greater than β/sub I pependicular to/ and qualitatively consistent with the formation of an anisotropic ion velocity distribution and with toroidal rotation. Quantitatively, the difference between β/sub IΔ/ and β/sub I perpendicular to/ is more than can be accounted for on the basis of the usual classical fast ion calculations and spectroscopic rotation measurements

  9. [Integrated intensive treatment of tinnitus: method and initial results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, B; Georgiewa, P; Seydel, C; Haupt, H; Scherer, H; Klapp, B F; Reisshauer, A

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, no major advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of tinnitus. Hence, the present therapeutic strategies aim at decoupling the subconscious from the perception of tinnitus. Mindful of the lessons drawn from existing tinnitus retraining and desensitisation therapies, a new integrated day hospital strategy of treatment lasting 7-14 days has been developed at the Charité Hospital and is presented in the present paper. The strategy for treating tinnitus in the proximity of patient domicile is designed for patients who feel disturbed in their world of perception and their efficiency due to tinnitus and give evidence of mental and physical strain. In view of the etiologically non-uniform and multiple events connected with tinnitus, consideration was also given to the fact that somatic and psychosocial factors are equally involved. Therefore, therapy should aim at diagnosing and therapeutically influencing those psychosocial factors that reduce the hearing impression to such an extent that the affected persons suffer from strain. The first results of therapy-dependent changes of 46 patients suffering from chronic tinnitus are presented. The data were evaluated before and after 7 days of treatment and 6 months after the end of treatment. Immediately after the treatment, the scores of both the tinnitus questionnaire (Goebel and Hiller) and the subscales improved significantly. These results were maintained during the 6-month post-treatment period and even improved.

  10. The rationale for energy efficiency policy: Assessing the recognition of the multiple benefits of energy efficiency retrofit policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, Niall; Gouldson, Andy; Barrett, John

    2017-01-01

    The rationale for energy efficiency policy can be framed in terms of a variety of different benefits. This paper considers how different benefits have been used within the overall rationale for energy efficient retrofit policy in different contexts. We posit that different rationales may be used for the same policy response, and that the form of rationale used may affect the design, delivery or the level of policy support, with different rationales making it easier to account for different results. Considering retrofit policy in the contexts of the UK, Germany, New Zealand and Ireland, we characterise policy rationale in each case, assessing what the key perceived benefits have been, and whether they have changed over time. The analysis identifies some marked differences between cases with the recognition of benefits and the ensuing policy rationale resulting from a complex mix of political, social and economic influences. We find that recognition of multiple benefits may not equate with multiplied policy support, and instead it is more likely that different rationales will have relevance at different times, for different audiences. The findings highlight that, alongside evidence for policy, it is important to also consider how the overall rationale for policy is eventually framed. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency as a policy issue with perceived multiple benefits. • Assessment of the influence of different benefits on rationale for energy efficient retrofit policy. • How does the rationale for retrofit policy differ in different national policy contexts. • To what extent are the perceived multiple benefits of policy recognised. • What influence does eventual rationale for policy have on the policy implemented.

  11. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coroama, Vlad C., E-mail: vcoroama@gmail.com [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Hilty, Lorenz M. [Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Binzmühlestrasse 14, 8050 Zurich (Switzerland); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Centre for Sustainable Communications, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedtsvägen 5, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-02-15

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices

  12. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coroama, Vlad C.; Hilty, Lorenz M.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices

  13. Ilmenite exploration on the Senegal continental shelf. Methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, R.; Le Lann, F.; Scolari, G.; Tixeront, M.

    1975-01-01

    From the results of a study based on geomorphology, geophysics and sedimentology, it has been possible to point out, South of Dakar, the existence of a fossil lagoon (peat dated 8400 years BP) partly isolated from the open sea by a littoral sand bar at -25m and strongly eroded. To the North of Dakar, the unconsolidated sediments, with a thickness over 40m, are thinning out seawards and from North of Dakar, the unconsolidated sediments, with a thickness over 40m, are thinning out seawards and from North to South. This pattern reflect the action of the longshore current which overstates the drainage effect to the Cayar canyon. The distribution of ilmenites in the sediments is studied in terms of a possible exploitation however, the grades are too low in the present economic conditions [fr

  14. Supporting awareness in creative group work by exposing design rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Farooq

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When creativity is taken as a long-term, complex, and collaborative activity, support for awareness is required for group members to monitor the development of ideas, track how these ideas became narrowed, and understand how alternatives are being implemented and integrated by colleagues. In this paper, we investigate the effects of exposing design rationale to convey awareness, specifically activity awareness, in group creativity. Through evaluating a prototype, we investigate status updates that convey design rationale, and to what consequences, in small groups in fully distributed collaboration. We found that status updates are used for a variety of purposes and that participants’ comments on their collaborators’ status updates provided feedback. Overall, results suggest that participants’ awareness about their collaborators’ future plans increased over time. Majority of participants found the status updates useful, particularly those with higher metacognitive knowledge. Based on our results, two design strategies for activity awareness are proposed.

  15. Climate Action Gaming Experiment: Methods and Example Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford Singer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An exercise has been prepared and executed to simulate international interactions on policies related to greenhouse gases and global albedo management. Simulation participants are each assigned one of six regions that together contain all of the countries in the world. Participants make quinquennial policy decisions on greenhouse gas emissions, recapture of CO2 from the atmosphere, and/or modification of the global albedo. Costs of climate change and of implementing policy decisions impact each region’s gross domestic product. Participants are tasked with maximizing economic benefits to their region while nearly stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations by the end of the simulation in Julian year 2195. Results are shown where regions most adversely affected by effects of greenhouse gas emissions resort to increases in the earth’s albedo to reduce net solar insolation. These actions induce temperate region countries to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. An example outcome is a trajectory to the year 2195 of atmospheric greenhouse emissions and concentrations, sea level, and global average temperature.

  16. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF DUST IN GALAXIES: METHODS AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the redshift (z) evolution of dust mass and abundance, their dependences on initial conditions of galaxy formation, and physical correlations between dust, gas, and stellar contents at different z based on our original chemodynamical simulations of galaxy formation with dust growth and destruction. In this preliminary investigation, we first determine the reasonable ranges of the most important two parameters for dust evolution, i.e., the timescales of dust growth and destruction, by comparing the observed and simulated dust mass and abundances and molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) content of the Galaxy. We then investigate the z-evolution of dust-to-gas ratios (D), H 2 gas fraction (f H 2 ), and gas-phase chemical abundances (e.g., A O = 12 + log (O/H)) in the simulated disk and dwarf galaxies. The principal results are as follows. Both D and f H 2 can rapidly increase during the early dissipative formation of galactic disks (z ∼ 2-3), and the z-evolution of these depends on initial mass densities, spin parameters, and masses of galaxies. The observed A O -D relation can be qualitatively reproduced, but the simulated dispersion of D at a given A O is smaller. The simulated galaxies with larger total dust masses show larger H 2 and stellar masses and higher f H 2 . Disk galaxies show negative radial gradients of D and the gradients are steeper for more massive galaxies. The observed evolution of dust masses and dust-to-stellar-mass ratios between z = 0 and 0.4 cannot be reproduced so well by the simulated disks. Very extended dusty gaseous halos can be formed during hierarchical buildup of disk galaxies. Dust-to-metal ratios (i.e., dust-depletion levels) are different within a single galaxy and between different galaxies at different z

  17. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF DUST IN GALAXIES: METHODS AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the redshift (z) evolution of dust mass and abundance, their dependences on initial conditions of galaxy formation, and physical correlations between dust, gas, and stellar contents at different z based on our original chemodynamical simulations of galaxy formation with dust growth and destruction. In this preliminary investigation, we first determine the reasonable ranges of the most important two parameters for dust evolution, i.e., the timescales of dust growth and destruction, by comparing the observed and simulated dust mass and abundances and molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) content of the Galaxy. We then investigate the z-evolution of dust-to-gas ratios (D), H{sub 2} gas fraction (f{sub H{sub 2}}), and gas-phase chemical abundances (e.g., A {sub O} = 12 + log (O/H)) in the simulated disk and dwarf galaxies. The principal results are as follows. Both D and f{sub H{sub 2}} can rapidly increase during the early dissipative formation of galactic disks (z ∼ 2-3), and the z-evolution of these depends on initial mass densities, spin parameters, and masses of galaxies. The observed A {sub O}-D relation can be qualitatively reproduced, but the simulated dispersion of D at a given A {sub O} is smaller. The simulated galaxies with larger total dust masses show larger H{sub 2} and stellar masses and higher f{sub H{sub 2}}. Disk galaxies show negative radial gradients of D and the gradients are steeper for more massive galaxies. The observed evolution of dust masses and dust-to-stellar-mass ratios between z = 0 and 0.4 cannot be reproduced so well by the simulated disks. Very extended dusty gaseous halos can be formed during hierarchical buildup of disk galaxies. Dust-to-metal ratios (i.e., dust-depletion levels) are different within a single galaxy and between different galaxies at different z.

  18. Theoretical rationale for music selection in oncology intervention research: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Debra S

    2012-01-01

    Music-based interventions have helped patients with cancer improve their quality of life, decrease treatment related distress, and manage pain. However, quantitative findings from music intervention studies are inconsistent. The purpose of this review was to explore the theoretical underpinnings for the selection of the music stimuli used to influence targeted outcomes. It was hypothesized that disparate findings were due in part to the atheoretical nature of music selection and the resulting diversity in music stimuli between and within studies. A systematic research synthesis including a comprehensive database and reference list search resulted in 22 studies. Included studies were compiled into two tables cataloging intervention theory, intervention content, and outcomes. A majority of studies did not provide a rationale or intervention theory for the delivery of music or choice of outcomes. Recorded music was the most common delivery method, but the specific music was rarely included within the report. Only two studies that included a theoretical framework reported null results on at least some of the outcomes. Null results are partially explained by an incomplete or mismatch in intervention theory and music selection and delivery. While the inclusion of an intervention theory does not guarantee positive results, including a theoretical rationale for the use of music, particular therapeutic processes or mechanisms, and the specifics of how music is selected and delivered increases scientific rigor and the probability of clinical translation.

  19. Educational Rationale Metadata for Learning Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Carey

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Instructors searching for learning objects in online repositories will be guided in their choices by the content of the object, the characteristics of the learners addressed, and the learning process embodied in the object. We report here on a feasibility study for metadata to record process-oriented information about instructional approaches for learning objects, though a set of Educational Rationale [ER] tags which would allow authors to describe the critical elements in their design intent. The prototype ER tags describe activities which have been demonstrated to be of value in learning, and authors select the activities whose support was critical in their design decisions. The prototype ER tag set consists descriptors of the instructional approach used in the design, plus optional sub-elements for Comments, Importance and Features which implement the design intent. The tag set was tested by creators of four learning object modules, three intended for post-secondary learners and one for K-12 students and their families. In each case the creators reported that the ER tag set allowed them to express succinctly the key instructional approaches embedded in their designs. These results confirmed the overall feasibility of the ER tag approach as a means of capturing design intent from creators of learning objects. Much work remains to be done before a usable ER tag set could be specified, including evaluating the impact of ER tags during design to improve instructional quality of learning objects.

  20. Data book: Space station/base food system study. Book 3: Study selection rationale sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    The supporting rationale sheets are presented which were utilized in the selection and support of the concepts considered in the final phase of the study. Each concept, conceived to fulfill a specific function of the food system, was assessed in terms of the eight critical factors depicted on the rationale sheet. When weighted and totaled, the resulting selection factor was used as a guide in making the final decision.

  1. A preliminary report of music-based training for adult cochlear implant users: rationales and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Guthe, Emily; Driscoll, Virginia; Brown, Carolyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper provides a preliminary report of a music-based training program for adult cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Included in this report are descriptions of the rationale for music-based training, factors influencing program development, and the resulting program components. Methods Prior studies describing experience-based plasticity in response to music training, auditory training for persons with hearing impairment, and music training for cochlear implant recipients were reviewed. These sources revealed rationales for using music to enhance speech, factors associated with successful auditory training, relevant aspects of electric hearing and music perception, and extant evidence regarding limitations and advantages associated with parameters for music training with CI users. This information formed the development of a computer-based music training program designed specifically for adult CI users. Results Principles and parameters for perceptual training of music, such as stimulus choice, rehabilitation approach, and motivational concerns were developed in relation to the unique auditory characteristics of adults with electric hearing. An outline of the resulting program components and the outcome measures for evaluating program effectiveness are presented. Conclusions Music training can enhance the perceptual accuracy of music, but is also hypothesized to enhance several features of speech with similar processing requirements as music (e.g., pitch and timbre). However, additional evaluation of specific training parameters and the impact of music-based training on speech perception of CI users are required. PMID:26561884

  2. Rationales for the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, John C. (Editor); Merceret, Francis J. (Editor); Krider, E. Philip; O'Brien, T. Paul; Dye, James E.; Walterscheid, Richard L.; Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Cummins, Kenneth; Christian, Hugh J.; Madura, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Since natural and triggered lightning are demonstrated hazards to launch vehicles, payloads, and spacecraft, NASA and the Department of Defense (DoD) follow the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) for launches from Federal Ranges. The LLCC were developed to prevent future instances of a rocket intercepting natural lightning or triggering a lightning flash during launch from a Federal Range. NASA and DoD utilize the Lightning Advisory Panel (LAP) to establish and develop robust rationale from which the criteria originate. The rationale document also contains appendices that provide additional scientific background, including detailed descriptions of the theory and observations behind the rationales. The LLCC in whole or part are used across the globe due to the rigor of the documented criteria and associated rationale. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) adopted the LLCC in 2006 for commercial space transportation and the criteria were codified in the FAA's Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for Safety of an Expendable Launch Vehicle (Appendix G to 14 CFR Part 417, (G417)) and renamed Lightning Flight Commit Criteria in G417.

  3. Multiband discrete ordinates method: formalism and results; Methode multibande aux ordonnees discretes: formalisme et resultats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luneville, L

    1998-06-01

    The multigroup discrete ordinates method is a classical way to solve transport equation (Boltzmann) for neutral particles. Self-shielding effects are not correctly treated due to large variations of cross sections in a group (in the resonance range). To treat the resonance domain, the multiband method is introduced. The main idea is to divide the cross section domain into bands. We obtain the multiband parameters using the moment method; the code CALENDF provides probability tables for these parameters. We present our implementation in an existing discrete ordinates code: SN1D. We study deep penetration benchmarks and show the improvement of the method in the treatment of self-shielding effects. (author) 15 refs.

  4. Operationalizing "trance". I: Rationale and research using a psychophenomenological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekala, R J; Kumar, V K

    2000-10-01

    Despite the popularity of the term "trance" among clinicians to describe the subjective effects associated with being hypnotized, heretofore there has been no means to operationalize that definition. The authors present a rationale and psychophenomenological method to operationalize the term "trance" in terms of (a) hypnotic depth, a quantitative measure of subjective trance assessed via a pHGS (predicted Harvard Group Scale) score, derived from regression analysis, and (b) "trance typology profiles," a qualitative differentiation of empirically derived (via cluster and discriminant analyses) categories of subjective trance experiences. The authors then discuss theoretical and clinical implications of this psychophenomenological approach for developing an operational definition of the concept of trance.

  5. A rationale for continuing mass antibiotic distributions for trachoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    House Jenafir

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends periodic mass antibiotic distributions to reduce the ocular strains of chlamydia that cause trachoma, the world's leading cause of infectious blindness. Their stated goal is to control infection, not to completely eliminate it. A single mass distribution can dramatically reduce the prevalence of infection. However, if infection is not eliminated in every individual in the community, it may gradually return back into the community, so often repeated treatments are necessary. Since public health groups are reluctant to distribute antibiotics indefinitely, we are still in need of a proven long-term rationale. Here we use mathematical models to demonstrate that repeated antibiotic distributions can eliminate infection in a reasonable time period. Methods We fit parameters of a stochastic epidemiological transmission model to data collected before and 6 months after a mass antibiotic distribution in a region of Ethiopia that is one of the most severely affected areas in the world. We validate the model by comparing our predicted results to Ethiopian data which was collected biannually for two years past the initial mass antibiotic distribution. We use the model to simulate the effect of different treatment programs in terms of local elimination of infection. Results Simulations show that the average prevalence of infection across all villages progressively decreases after each treatment, as long as the frequency and coverage of antibiotics are high enough. Infection can be eliminated in more villages with each round of treatment. However, in the communities where infection is not eliminated, it returns to the same average level, forming the same stationary distribution. This phenomenon is also seen in subsequent epidemiological data from Ethiopia. Simulations suggest that a biannual treatment plan implemented for 5 years will lead to elimination in 95% of all villages. Conclusion Local

  6. Interval estimation methods of the mean in small sample situation and the results' comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Changli; Guo Chunying; Jiang Meng; Lin Yuangen

    2009-01-01

    The methods of the sample mean's interval estimation, namely the classical method, the Bootstrap method, the Bayesian Bootstrap method, the Jackknife method and the spread method of the Empirical Characteristic distribution function are described. Numerical calculation on the samples' mean intervals is carried out where the numbers of the samples are 4, 5, 6 respectively. The results indicate the Bootstrap method and the Bayesian Bootstrap method are much more appropriate than others in small sample situation. (authors)

  7. Specialization in i* strategic rationale diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    López Cuesta, Lidia; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier; Marco Gómez, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    ER 2012 Best Student Paper Award The specialization relationship is offered by the i* modeling language through the is-a construct defined over actors (a subactor is-a superactor). Although the overall meaning of this construct is highly intuitive, its semantics when it comes to the fine-grained level of strategic rationale (SR) diagrams is not defined, hampering seriously its appropriate use. In this paper we provide a formal definition of the specialization relationship at the lev...

  8. Exploration in Ways and Rationales of Designing A Desirable Webquest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃靓

    2017-01-01

    WebQuest is an advanced tool which could provide the significant scaffolding to support instructors through incorpo-rating learning objects within systematic designs of learning activities. The focus of this article is to explore how a Webquest is designed reasonably and what rationales are implied in such a design through a case study of Webquest design for a group of ESL/EFL learners in Grade 12. The result indicates that a Webquest which is guided by the principles of constructivist problem solving, social interaction and scaffolding learning can be regarded as a desirable Webquest.

  9. Scientific methods and cultural heritage an introduction to the application of materials science to archaeometry and conservation science

    CERN Document Server

    Artioli, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    Artioli provides an introduction to the methods and rationales of the scientific investigation of cultural heritage materials, with an emphasis placed on the analytical strategies, modes of operation and resulting information rather than on technicalities.

  10. Practices and rationales of community engagement with wind farms: awareness raising, consultation, empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aitken, Mhairi; Haggett, Claire; Rudolph, David Philipp

    2016-01-01

    In light of the growing emphasis on community engagement in the literature on renewable energy planning, and given the acknowledgement of the complexity of community engagement as a concept, we conducted an empirical review of practice relating to community engagement with onshore wind farms...... in the UK, exploring what is actually happening in terms of community engagement relating to onshore wind farms, and examining the rationales underpinning approaches to community engagement. We found that a wide range of engagement methods are being used in relation to onshore wind farms across the UK......-hierarchical classification of community engagement approaches: awareness raising; consultation and empowerment. This provides a useful tool for reflecting on practices and rationales of community engagement. By considering the three approaches non-hierarchically, this model allows for an examination of how such rationales...

  11. Steady-state transport equation resolution by particle methods, and numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, B.

    1985-10-01

    A method to solve steady-state transport equation has been given. Principles of the method are given. The method is studied in two different cases; estimations given by the theory are compared to numerical results. Results got in 1-D (spherical geometry) and in 2-D (axisymmetric geometry) are given [fr

  12. Rationale for reduced tornado design bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, P.D.; Ho, H.W.; Hartung, J.A.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper provides a rationale for relaxing the present NRC tornado design requirements, which are based on a design basis tornado (DBT) whose frequency of exceedance is 10 -7 per year. It is proposed that a reduced DBT frequency of 10 -5 to 10 -6 per year is acceptable. This change in the tornado design bases for LMFBRs (and possibly all types of nuclear plants) is justified based on (1) existing NRC regulations and guidelines, (2) probabilistic arguments, (3) consistency with NRC trial safety goals, and (4) cost-benefit analysis

  13. The Use of Data Mining Methods to Predict the Result of Infertility Treatment Using the IVF ET Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowski Paweł

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The IVF ET method is a scientifically recognized infertility treat- ment method. The problem, however, is this method’s unsatisfactory efficiency. This calls for a more thorough analysis of the information available in the treat- ment process, in order to detect the factors that have an effect on the results, as well as to effectively predict result of treatment. Classical statistical methods have proven to be inadequate in this issue. Only the use of modern methods of data mining gives hope for a more effective analysis of the collected data. This work provides an overview of the new methods used for the analysis of data on infertility treatment, and formulates a proposal for further directions for research into increasing the efficiency of the predicted result of the treatment process.

  14. Astigmatism treatment during phacoemulsification: a review of current surgical strategies and their rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano de Oliveira Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Preexisting corneal astigmatism, present at the time of cataract surgery, is reviewed in detail throughout this article on its most important aspects such as occurrence rates, clinical relevance and current treatment options. Special emphasis is given to the latter aspect. Each method's rationale, advantage and limitation ishigh lightened. Comparisons between treatment options, whenever possible, are also provided.

  15. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of simvastatin in children with familial hypercholesterolaemia - Rationale, design and baseline characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, S.; Stalenhoef, A. F. H.; Tuohy, M. B.; Mercuri, M.; Bakker, H. D.; Kastelein, J. J. P.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the rationale, design and baseline data of a study conducted to determine the efficacy, safety and tolerability of simvastatin in children and adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (heFH). Methods: Patients were recruited from nine lipid clinics

  16. Description and Rationale for the Planning, Monitoring, and Implementation (PMI) Model: Rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, H. Russell

    The rationale for the Planning, Monitoring, and Implementation Model (PMI) is the subject of this paper. The Superintendent of the District of Columbia Public Schools requested a model for systematic evaluation of educational programs to determine their effectiveness. The school system's emphasis on objective-referenced instruction and testing,…

  17. Comparison results on preconditioned SOR-type iterative method for Z-matrices linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Zhong; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Fu, Ying-Ding

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we present some comparison theorems on preconditioned iterative method for solving Z-matrices linear systems, Comparison results show that the rate of convergence of the Gauss-Seidel-type method is faster than the rate of convergence of the SOR-type iterative method.

  18. Image restoration by the method of convex projections: part 2 applications and numerical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezan, M I; Stark, H

    1982-01-01

    The image restoration theory discussed in a previous paper by Youla and Webb [1] is applied to a simulated image and the results compared with the well-known method known as the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm. The results show that the method of image restoration by projection onto convex sets, by providing a convenient technique for utilizing a priori information, performs significantly better than the Gerchberg-Papoulis method.

  19. Tracing the Rationale Behind UML Model Change Through Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jureta, Ivan J.; Faulkner, Stéphane

    Neglecting traceability—i.e., the ability to describe and follow the life of a requirement—is known to entail misunderstanding and miscommunication, leading to the engineering of poor quality systems. Following the simple principles that (a) changes to UML model instances ought be justified to the stakeholders, (b) justification should proceed in a structured manner to ensure rigor in discussions, critique, and revisions of model instances, and (c) the concept of argument instantiated in a justification process ought to be well defined and understood, the present paper introduces the UML Traceability through Argumentation Method (UML-TAM) to enable the traceability of design rationale in UML while allowing the appropriateness of model changes to be checked by analysis of the structure of the arguments provided to justify such changes.

  20. Comparison of multiple-criteria decision-making methods - results of simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Adamczak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, both researchers and practitioners have many methods for supporting the decision-making process. Due to the conditions in which supply chains function, the most interesting are multi-criteria methods. The use of sophisticated methods for supporting decisions requires the parameterization and execution of calculations that are often complex. So is it efficient to use sophisticated methods? Methods: The authors of the publication compared two popular multi-criteria decision-making methods: the  Weighted Sum Model (WSM and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. A simulation study reflects these two decision-making methods. Input data for this study was a set of criteria weights and the value of each in terms of each criterion. Results: The iGrafx Process for Six Sigma simulation software recreated how both multiple-criteria decision-making methods (WSM and AHP function. The result of the simulation was a numerical value defining the preference of each of the alternatives according to the WSM and AHP methods. The alternative producing a result of higher numerical value  was considered preferred, according to the selected method. In the analysis of the results, the relationship between the values of the parameters and the difference in the results presented by both methods was investigated. Statistical methods, including hypothesis testing, were used for this purpose. Conclusions: The simulation study findings prove that the results obtained with the use of two multiple-criteria decision-making methods are very similar. Differences occurred more frequently in lower-value parameters from the "value of each alternative" group and higher-value parameters from the "weight of criteria" group.

  1. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  2. The anchors of steel wire ropes, testing methods and their results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krešák

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces an application of the acoustic and thermographic method in the defectoscopic testing of immobile steel wire ropes at the most critical point, the anchor. First measurements and their results by these new defectoscopic methods are shown. In defectoscopic tests at the anchor, the widely used magnetic method gives unreliable results, and therefore presents a problem for steel wire defectoscopy. Application of the two new methods in the steel wire defectoscopy at the anchor point will enable increased safety measures at the anchor of steel wire ropes in bridge, roof, tower and aerial cable lift constructions.

  3. "Socialized Music": Historical Formations of Community Music through Social Rationales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerichuk, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article traces the formation of community music through professional and scholarly articles over the last century in North America, and argues that community music has been discursively formed through social rationales, although the specific rationales have shifted. The author employs an archaeological framework inspired by Michel Foucault to…

  4. Using Rationale To Assist Student Cognitive And Intellectual Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet E. Burge

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the questions posed at the National Science Foundation (NSF-sponsored workshop on Creativity and Rationale in Software Design was on the role of rationale in supporting idea generation in the classroom. College students often struggle with problems where more than one possible solution exists. Part of the difficulty lies in the need for students to progress through different levels of development cognitively and intellectually before they can tackle creative problem solving. Argumentation-based rationale provides a natural mechanism for representing problems, candidate solutions, criteria, and arguments relating those criteria to the candidate solutions. Explicitly expressing rationale for their work encourages students to reflect on why they made their choices, and to actively consider multiple alternatives. We report on an experiment performed during a Data Structures course where students captured rationale.

  5. Tensile strength of concrete under static and intermediate strain rates: Correlated results from different testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shengxing; Chen Xudong; Zhou Jikai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Tensile strength of concrete increases with increase in strain rate. ► Strain rate sensitivity of tensile strength of concrete depends on test method. ► High stressed volume method can correlate results from various test methods. - Abstract: This paper presents a comparative experiment and analysis of three different methods (direct tension, splitting tension and four-point loading flexural tests) for determination of the tensile strength of concrete under low and intermediate strain rates. In addition, the objective of this investigation is to analyze the suitability of the high stressed volume approach and Weibull effective volume method to the correlation of the results of different tensile tests of concrete. The test results show that the strain rate sensitivity of tensile strength depends on the type of test, splitting tensile strength of concrete is more sensitive to an increase in the strain rate than flexural and direct tensile strength. The high stressed volume method could be used to obtain a tensile strength value of concrete, free from the influence of the characteristics of tests and specimens. However, the Weibull effective volume method is an inadequate method for describing failure of concrete specimens determined by different testing methods.

  6. Non-Destructive Evaluation Method Based On Dynamic Invariant Stress Resultants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Junchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the vibration based damage detection methods are based on changes in frequencies, mode shapes, mode shape curvature, and flexibilities. These methods are limited and typically can only detect the presence and location of damage. Current methods seldom can identify the exact severity of damage to structures. This paper will present research in the development of a new non-destructive evaluation method to identify the existence, location, and severity of damage for structural systems. The method utilizes the concept of invariant stress resultants (ISR. The basic concept of ISR is that at any given cross section the resultant internal force distribution in a structural member is not affected by the inflicted damage. The method utilizes dynamic analysis of the structure to simulate direct measurements of acceleration, velocity and displacement simultaneously. The proposed dynamic ISR method is developed and utilized to detect the damage of corresponding changes in mass, damping and stiffness. The objectives of this research are to develop the basic theory of the dynamic ISR method, apply it to the specific types of structures, and verify the accuracy of the developed theory. Numerical results that demonstrate the application of the method will reflect the advanced sensitivity and accuracy in characterizing multiple damage locations.

  7. Monitoring ambient ozone with a passive measurement technique method, field results and strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, BA; Adema, EH

    1996-01-01

    A low-cost, accurate and sensitive passive measurement method for ozone has been developed and tested. The method is based on the reaction of ozone with indigo carmine which results in colourless reaction products which are detected spectrophotometrically after exposure. Coated glass filters are

  8. Nondestructive methods for the structural evaluation of wood floor systems in historic buildings : preliminary results : [abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai; Michael O. Hunt; Robert J. Ross; Lawrence A. Soltis

    1999-01-01

    To date, there is no standard method for evaluating the structural integrity of wood floor systems using nondestructive techniques. Current methods of examination and assessment are often subjective and therefore tend to yield imprecise or variable results. For this reason, estimates of allowable wood floor loads are often conservative. The assignment of conservatively...

  9. Comparison Of Simulation Results When Using Two Different Methods For Mold Creation In Moldflow Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushikbhai C. Parmar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulation gives different results when using different methods for the same simulation. Autodesk Moldflow Simulation software provide two different facilities for creating mold for the simulation of injection molding process. Mold can be created inside the Moldflow or it can be imported as CAD file. The aim of this paper is to study the difference in the simulation results like mold temperature part temperature deflection in different direction time for the simulation and coolant temperature for this two different methods.

  10. Experimental Results and Numerical Simulation of the Target RCS using Gaussian Beam Summation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanmi Helmi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical and experimental study of Radar Cross Section (RCS of radar targets using Gaussian Beam Summation (GBS method. The purpose GBS method has several advantages over ray method, mainly on the caustic problem. To evaluate the performance of the chosen method, we started the analysis of the RCS using Gaussian Beam Summation (GBS and Gaussian Beam Launching (GBL, the asymptotic models Physical Optic (PO, Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD and the rigorous Method of Moment (MoM. Then, we showed the experimental validation of the numerical results using experimental measurements which have been executed in the anechoic chamber of Lab-STICC at ENSTA Bretagne. The numerical and experimental results of the RCS are studied and given as a function of various parameters: polarization type, target size, Gaussian beams number and Gaussian beams width.

  11. SPACE CHARGE SIMULATION METHODS INCORPORATED IN SOME MULTI - PARTICLE TRACKING CODES AND THEIR RESULTS COMPARISON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEEBE - WANG, J.; LUCCIO, A.U.; D IMPERIO, N.; MACHIDA, S.

    2002-01-01

    Space charge in high intensity beams is an important issue in accelerator physics. Due to the complicity of the problems, the most effective way of investigating its effect is by computer simulations. In the resent years, many space charge simulation methods have been developed and incorporated in various 2D or 3D multi-particle-tracking codes. It has becoming necessary to benchmark these methods against each other, and against experimental results. As a part of global effort, we present our initial comparison of the space charge methods incorporated in simulation codes ORBIT++, ORBIT and SIMPSONS. In this paper, the methods included in these codes are overviewed. The simulation results are presented and compared. Finally, from this study, the advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed

  12. Application of the DSA preconditioned GMRES formalism to the method of characteristics - First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tellier, R.; Hebert, A.

    2004-01-01

    The method of characteristics is well known for its slow convergence; consequently, as it is often done for SN methods, the Generalized Minimal Residual approach (GMRES) has been investigated for its practical implementation and its high reliability. GMRES is one of the most effective Krylov iterative methods to solve large linear systems. Moreover, the system has been 'left preconditioned' with the Algebraic Collapsing Acceleration (ACA) a variant of the Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA) based on I. Suslov's former works. This paper presents the first numerical results of these methods in 2D geometries with material discontinuities. Indeed, previous investigations have shown a degraded effectiveness of Diffusion Synthetic Accelerations with this kind of geometries. Results are presented for 9 x 9 Cartesian assemblies in terms of the speed of convergence of the inner iterations (fixed source) of the method of characteristics. It shows a significant improvement on the convergence rate. (authors)

  13. SPACE CHARGE SIMULATION METHODS INCORPORATED IN SOME MULTI - PARTICLE TRACKING CODES AND THEIR RESULTS COMPARISON.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEEBE - WANG,J.; LUCCIO,A.U.; D IMPERIO,N.; MACHIDA,S.

    2002-06-03

    Space charge in high intensity beams is an important issue in accelerator physics. Due to the complicity of the problems, the most effective way of investigating its effect is by computer simulations. In the resent years, many space charge simulation methods have been developed and incorporated in various 2D or 3D multi-particle-tracking codes. It has becoming necessary to benchmark these methods against each other, and against experimental results. As a part of global effort, we present our initial comparison of the space charge methods incorporated in simulation codes ORBIT++, ORBIT and SIMPSONS. In this paper, the methods included in these codes are overviewed. The simulation results are presented and compared. Finally, from this study, the advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

  14. A result-driven minimum blocking method for PageRank parallel computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wan; Liu, Tao; Yu, Wei; Huang, Gan

    2017-01-01

    Matrix blocking is a common method for improving computational efficiency of PageRank, but the blocking rules are hard to be determined, and the following calculation is complicated. In tackling these problems, we propose a minimum blocking method driven by result needs to accomplish a parallel implementation of PageRank algorithm. The minimum blocking just stores the element which is necessary for the result matrix. In return, the following calculation becomes simple and the consumption of the I/O transmission is cut down. We do experiments on several matrixes of different data size and different sparsity degree. The results show that the proposed method has better computational efficiency than traditional blocking methods.

  15. A Pragmatic Smoothing Method for Improving the Quality of the Results in Atomic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennun, Leonardo

    2017-07-01

    A new smoothing method for the improvement on the identification and quantification of spectral functions based on the previous knowledge of the signals that are expected to be quantified, is presented. These signals are used as weighted coefficients in the smoothing algorithm. This smoothing method was conceived to be applied in atomic and nuclear spectroscopies preferably to these techniques where net counts are proportional to acquisition time, such as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and other X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic methods, etc. This algorithm, when properly applied, does not distort the form nor the intensity of the signal, so it is well suited for all kind of spectroscopic techniques. This method is extremely effective at reducing high-frequency noise in the signal much more efficient than a single rectangular smooth of the same width. As all of smoothing techniques, the proposed method improves the precision of the results, but in this case we found also a systematic improvement on the accuracy of the results. We still have to evaluate the improvement on the quality of the results when this method is applied over real experimental results. We expect better characterization of the net area quantification of the peaks, and smaller Detection and Quantification Limits. We have applied this method to signals that obey Poisson statistics, but with the same ideas and criteria, it could be applied to time series. In a general case, when this algorithm is applied over experimental results, also it would be required that the sought characteristic functions, required for this weighted smoothing method, should be obtained from a system with strong stability. If the sought signals are not perfectly clean, this method should be carefully applied

  16. Randomised clinical trial of cryoballoon versus irrigated radio frequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation-the effect of double short versus standard exposure cryoablation duration during pulmonary vein isolation (CIRCA-DOSE): methods and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jason G; Deyell, Marc W; Badra, Mariano; Champagne, Jean; Dubuc, Marc; Leong-Sit, Peter; Macle, Laurent; Novak, Paul; Roux, Jean-Francois; Sapp, John; Tang, Anthony; Verma, Atul; Wells, George A; Khairy, Paul

    2017-10-05

    Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is an effective therapy for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF), but it has limitations. The two most significant recent advances have centred on the integration of real-time quantitative assessment of catheter contact force into focal radio frequency (RF) ablation catheters and the development of dedicated ablation tools capable of achieving PVI with a single ablation lesion (Arctic Front cryoballoon, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA). Although each of these holds promise for improving the clinical success of catheter ablation of AF, there has not been a rigorous comparison of these advanced ablation technologies. Moreover, the optimal duration of cryoablation (freezing time) has not been determined. Patients undergoing an initial PVI procedure for paroxysmal AF will be recruited. Patients will be randomised 1:1:1 between contact-force irrigated RF ablation, short duration cryoballoon ablation (2 min applications) and standard duration cryoballoon ablation (4 min applications). The primary outcome is time to first documented AF recurrence on implantable loop recorder. With a sample size of 111 per group and a two-sided 0.025 significance level (to account for the two main comparisons), the study will have 80% power (using a log-rank test) to detect a difference of 20% between contact force RF catheter ablation and either of the two cryoballoon ablation groups. Factoring in a 4% loss to follow-up, 116 patients per group should be randomised and followed for a year (total study population of 348). The study was approved by the University of British Columbia Office of Research (Services) Ethics Clinical Research Ethics Board. Results of the study will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. NCT01913522; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. A multi-level intervention in subsidized housing sites to increase fruit and vegetable access and intake: Rationale, design and methods of the ‘Live Well, Viva Bien’ cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M. Gans

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate fruit and vegetable (F&V intake is important for disease prevention. Yet, most Americans, especially low-income and racial/ethnic minorities, do not eat adequate amounts. These disparities are partly attributable to food environments in low-income neighborhoods where residents often have limited access to affordable, healthful food and easy access to inexpensive, unhealthful foods. Increasing access to affordable healthful food in underserved neighborhoods through mobile markets is a promising, year-round strategy for improving dietary behaviors and reducing F&V intake disparities. However, to date, there have been no randomized controlled trials studying their effectiveness. The objective of the ‘Live Well, Viva Bien’ (LWVB cluster randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the efficacy of a multicomponent mobile market intervention at increasing F&V intake among residents of subsidized housing complexes. Methods/Design One housing complex served as a pilot site for the intervention group and the remaining 14 demographically-matched sites were randomized into either the intervention or control group. The intervention group received bimonthly, discount, mobile, fresh F&V markets in conjunction with a nutrition education intervention (two F&V campaigns, newsletters, DVDs and cooking demonstrations for 12 months. The control group received physical activity and stress reduction interventions. Outcome measures include F&V intake (measured by two validated F&V screeners at baseline, six-month and twelve-months along with potential psychosocial mediating variables. Extensive quantitative and qualitative process evaluation was also conducted throughout the study. Discussion Modifying neighborhood food environments in ways that increase access to affordable, healthful food is a promising strategy for improving dietary behaviors among low-income, racial and ethnic minority groups at increased risk for obesity and other

  18. Communication style and exercise compliance in physiotherapy (CONNECT. A cluster randomized controlled trial to test a theory-based intervention to increase chronic low back pain patients’ adherence to physiotherapists’ recommendations: study rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonsdale Chris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity and exercise therapy are among the accepted clinical rehabilitation guidelines and are recommended self-management strategies for chronic low back pain. However, many back pain sufferers do not adhere to their physiotherapist’s recommendations. Poor patient adherence may decrease the effectiveness of advice and home-based rehabilitation exercises. According to self-determination theory, support from health care practitioners can promote patients’ autonomous motivation and greater long-term behavioral persistence (e.g., adherence to physiotherapists’ recommendations. The aim of this trial is to assess the effect of an intervention designed to increase physiotherapists’ autonomy-supportive communication on low back pain patients’ adherence to physical activity and exercise therapy recommendations. Methods/Design This study will be a single-blinded cluster randomized controlled trial. Outpatient physiotherapy centers (N =12 in Dublin, Ireland (population = 1.25 million will be randomly assigned using a computer-generated algorithm to either the experimental or control arm. Physiotherapists in the experimental arm (two hospitals and four primary care clinics will attend eight hours of communication skills training. Training will include handouts, workbooks, video examples, role-play, and discussion designed to teach physiotherapists how to communicate in a manner that promotes autonomous patient motivation. Physiotherapists in the waitlist control arm (two hospitals and four primary care clinics will not receive this training. Participants (N = 292 with chronic low back pain will complete assessments at baseline, as well as 1 week, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after their first physiotherapy appointment. Primary outcomes will include adherence to physiotherapy recommendations, as well as low back pain, function, and well-being. Participants will be blinded to treatment allocation, as

  19. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial of the impact of virtual reality games on motor competence, physical activity, and mental health in children with developmental coordination disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straker Leon M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A healthy start to life requires adequate motor development and physical activity participation. Currently 5-15% of children have impaired motor development without any obvious disorder. These children are at greater risk of obesity, musculoskeletal disorders, low social confidence and poor mental health. Traditional electronic game use may impact on motor development and physical activity creating a vicious cycle. However new virtual reality (VR game interfaces may provide motor experiences that enhance motor development and lead to an increase in motor coordination and better physical activity and mental health outcomes. VR games are beginning to be used for rehabilitation, however there is no reported trial of the impact of these games on motor coordination in children with developmental coordination disorder. Methods This cross-over randomised and controlled trial will examine whether motor coordination is enhanced by access to active electronic games and whether daily activity, attitudes to physical activity and mental health are also enhanced. Thirty children aged 10-12 years with poor motor coordination (≤ 15th percentile will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no active electronic games' and 'active electronic games'. Each child will participate in both conditions for 16 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is motor coordination, assessed by kinematic and kinetic motion analysis laboratory measures. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour will be assessed by accelerometry, coordination in daily life by parent report questionnaire and attitudes to physical activity, self-confidence, anxiety and depressed mood will be assessed by self report questionnaire. A sample of 30 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 5 point difference in motor coordination on the MABC-2 TIS scale (mean 17, sd = 5. Discussion This is the first trial to

  20. Interpreting Statistical Significance Test Results: A Proposed New "What If" Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Kevin M.; Thompson, Bruce

    As the 1994 publication manual of the American Psychological Association emphasized, "p" values are affected by sample size. As a result, it can be helpful to interpret the results of statistical significant tests in a sample size context by conducting so-called "what if" analyses. However, these methods can be inaccurate…

  1. A method for data handling numerical results in parallel OpenFOAM simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    nd Vasile Pârvan Ave., 300223, TM Timişoara, Romania, alin.anton@cs.upt.ro (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Faculty of Automatic Control and Computing, Politehnica University of Timişoara, 2nd Vasile Pârvan Ave., 300223, TM Timişoara, Romania, alin.anton@cs.upt.ro (Romania))" >Anton, Alin; th Mihai Viteazu Ave., 300221, TM Timişoara (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Center for Advanced Research in Engineering Science, Romanian Academy – Timişoara Branch, 24th Mihai Viteazu Ave., 300221, TM Timişoara (Romania))" >Muntean, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Parallel computational fluid dynamics simulations produce vast amount of numerical result data. This paper introduces a method for reducing the size of the data by replaying the interprocessor traffic. The results are recovered only in certain regions of interest configured by the user. A known test case is used for several mesh partitioning scenarios using the OpenFOAM toolkit ® [1]. The space savings obtained with classic algorithms remain constant for more than 60 Gb of floating point data. Our method is most efficient on large simulation meshes and is much better suited for compressing large scale simulation results than the regular algorithms

  2. A method for data handling numerical results in parallel OpenFOAM simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, Alin [Faculty of Automatic Control and Computing, Politehnica University of Timişoara, 2" n" d Vasile Pârvan Ave., 300223, TM Timişoara, Romania, alin.anton@cs.upt.ro (Romania); Muntean, Sebastian [Center for Advanced Research in Engineering Science, Romanian Academy – Timişoara Branch, 24" t" h Mihai Viteazu Ave., 300221, TM Timişoara (Romania)

    2015-12-31

    Parallel computational fluid dynamics simulations produce vast amount of numerical result data. This paper introduces a method for reducing the size of the data by replaying the interprocessor traffic. The results are recovered only in certain regions of interest configured by the user. A known test case is used for several mesh partitioning scenarios using the OpenFOAM toolkit{sup ®}[1]. The space savings obtained with classic algorithms remain constant for more than 60 Gb of floating point data. Our method is most efficient on large simulation meshes and is much better suited for compressing large scale simulation results than the regular algorithms.

  3. Soil Particle Size Analysis by Laser Diffractometry: Result Comparison with Pipette Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šinkovičová, Miroslava; Igaz, Dušan; Kondrlová, Elena; Jarošová, Miriam

    2017-10-01

    Soil texture as the basic soil physical property provides a basic information on the soil grain size distribution as well as grain size fraction representation. Currently, there are several methods of particle dimension measurement available that are based on different physical principles. Pipette method based on the different sedimentation velocity of particles with different diameter is considered to be one of the standard methods of individual grain size fraction distribution determination. Following the technical advancement, optical methods such as laser diffraction can be also used nowadays for grain size distribution determination in the soil. According to the literature review of domestic as well as international sources related to this topic, it is obvious that the results obtained by laser diffractometry do not correspond with the results obtained by pipette method. The main aim of this paper was to analyse 132 samples of medium fine soil, taken from the Nitra River catchment in Slovakia, from depths of 15-20 cm and 40-45 cm, respectively, using laser analysers: ANALYSETTE 22 MicroTec plus (Fritsch GmbH) and Mastersizer 2000 (Malvern Instruments Ltd). The results obtained by laser diffractometry were compared with pipette method and the regression relationships using linear, exponential, power and polynomial trend were derived. Regressions with the three highest regression coefficients (R2) were further investigated. The fit with the highest tightness was observed for the polynomial regression. In view of the results obtained, we recommend using the estimate of the representation of the clay fraction (analysis is done according to laser diffractometry. The advantages of laser diffraction method comprise the short analysis time, usage of small sample amount, application for the various grain size fraction and soil type classification systems, and a wide range of determined fractions. Therefore, it is necessary to focus on this issue further to address the

  4. Qualitative and quantitative methods for human factor analysis and assessment in NPP. Investigations and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova, R.; Kalchev, B.; Atanasov, D.

    2005-01-01

    We consider here two basic groups of methods for analysis and assessment of the human factor in the NPP area and give some results from performed analyses as well. The human factor is the human interaction with the design equipment, with the working environment and takes into account the human capabilities and limits. In the frame of the qualitative methods for analysis of the human factor are considered concepts and structural methods for classifying of the information, connected with the human factor. Emphasize is given to the HPES method for human factor analysis in NPP. Methods for quantitative assessment of the human reliability are considered. These methods allow assigning of probabilities to the elements of the already structured information about human performance. This part includes overview of classical methods for human reliability assessment (HRA, THERP), and methods taking into account specific information about human capabilities and limits and about the man-machine interface (CHR, HEART, ATHEANA). Quantitative and qualitative results concerning human factor influence in the initiating events occurrences in the Kozloduy NPP are presented. (authors)

  5. Results of an interlaboratory comparison of analytical methods for contaminants of emerging concern in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderford, Brett J; Drewes, Jörg E; Eaton, Andrew; Guo, Yingbo C; Haghani, Ali; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Schluesener, Michael P; Snyder, Shane A; Ternes, Thomas; Wood, Curtis J

    2014-01-07

    An evaluation of existing analytical methods used to measure contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) was performed through an interlaboratory comparison involving 25 research and commercial laboratories. In total, 52 methods were used in the single-blind study to determine method accuracy and comparability for 22 target compounds, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and steroid hormones, all at ng/L levels in surface and drinking water. Method biases ranged from caffeine, NP, OP, and triclosan had false positive rates >15%. In addition, some methods reported false positives for 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethynylestradiol in unspiked drinking water and deionized water, respectively, at levels higher than published predicted no-effect concentrations for these compounds in the environment. False negative rates were also generally contamination, misinterpretation of background interferences, and/or inappropriate setting of detection/quantification levels for analysis at low ng/L levels. The results of both comparisons were collectively assessed to identify parameters that resulted in the best overall method performance. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with the calibration technique of isotope dilution were able to accurately quantify most compounds with an average bias of <10% for both matrixes. These findings suggest that this method of analysis is suitable at environmentally relevant levels for most of the compounds studied. This work underscores the need for robust, standardized analytical methods for CECs to improve data quality, increase comparability between studies, and help reduce false positive and false negative rates.

  6. Effectiveness of a nutrition education package in improving feeding practices, dietary adequacy and growth of infants and young children in rural Tanzania: rationale, design and methods of a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulwa, Kissa B M; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Bouckaert, Kimberley P; Mamiro, Peter S; Kolsteren, Patrick W; Lachat, Carl

    2014-10-16

    intervention and context at 8 and 15 months. Results of the trial will provide evidence of the effectiveness of the nutrition education package in community settings of rural Tanzania. They will provide recommendations for strengthening the nutrition component of health education in child health services. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02249754, September 25, 2014.

  7. Application of Statistical Methods to Activation Analytical Results near the Limit of Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Wanscher, B.

    1978-01-01

    Reporting actual numbers instead of upper limits for analytical results at or below the detection limit may produce reliable data when these numbers are subjected to appropriate statistical processing. Particularly in radiometric methods, such as activation analysis, where individual standard...... deviations of analytical results may be estimated, improved discrimination may be based on the Analysis of Precision. Actual experimental results from a study of the concentrations of arsenic in human skin demonstrate the power of this principle....

  8. How the RNA isolation method can affect microRNA microarray results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolska, Agnieszka; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Litman, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    RNA microarray analysis on porcine brain tissue. One method is a phenol-guanidine isothiocyanate-based procedure that permits isolation of total RNA. The second method, miRVana™ microRNA isolation, is column based and recovers the small RNA fraction alone. We found that microarray analyses give different results...... that depend on the RNA fraction used, in particular because some microRNAs appear very sensitive to the RNA isolation method. We conclude that precautions need to be taken when comparing microarray studies based on RNA isolated with different methods.......The quality of RNA is crucial in gene expression experiments. RNA degradation interferes in the measurement of gene expression, and in this context, microRNA quantification can lead to an incorrect estimation. In the present study, two different RNA isolation methods were used to perform micro...

  9. Three magnetic particles solid phase radioimmunoassay for T4: Comparison of their results with established methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, T.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of solid phase separation techniques is an important improvement in radioimmunoassays and immunoradiometric assays. Magnetic particle solid phase method has additional advantages over others, as the separation is rapid and centrifugation is not required. Three types of magnetic particles have been studied in T 4 RIA and the results have been compared with commercial kits and other established methods. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Numerical proceessing of radioimmunoassay results using logit-log transformation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Textoris, R.

    1983-01-01

    The mathematical model and algorithm are described of the numerical processing of the results of a radioimmunoassay by the logit-log transformation method and by linear regression with weight factors. The limiting value of the curve for zero concentration is optimized with regard to the residual sum by the iterative method by multiple repeats of the linear regression. Typical examples are presented of the approximation of calibration curves. The method proved suitable for all hitherto used RIA sets and is well suited for small computers with internal memory of min. 8 Kbyte. (author)

  11. A comparison of short-term dispersion estimates resulting from various atmospheric stability classification methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, A.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Four methods of classifying atmospheric stability class are applied at four sites to make short-term (1-h) dispersion estimates from a ground-level source based on a model consistent with U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission practice. The classification methods include vertical temperature gradient, standard deviation of horizontal wind direction fluctuations (sigma theta), Pasquill-Turner, and modified sigma theta which accounts for meander. Results indicate that modified sigma theta yields reasonable dispersion estimates compared to those produced using methods of vertical temperature gradient and Pasquill-Turner, and can be considered as a potential economic alternative in establishing onsite monitoring programs. (author)

  12. LOGICAL CONDITIONS ANALYSIS METHOD FOR DIAGNOSTIC TEST RESULTS DECODING APPLIED TO COMPETENCE ELEMENTS PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Freyman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.Representation features of education results for competence-based educational programs are analyzed. Solution importance of decoding and proficiency estimation for elements and components of discipline parts of competences is shown. The purpose and objectives of research are formulated. Methods. The paper deals with methods of mathematical logic, Boolean algebra, and parametrical analysis of complex diagnostic test results, that controls proficiency of some discipline competence elements. Results. The method of logical conditions analysis is created. It will give the possibility to formulate logical conditions for proficiency determination of each discipline competence element, controlled by complex diagnostic test. Normalized test result is divided into noncrossing zones; a logical condition about controlled elements proficiency is formulated for each of them. Summarized characteristics for test result zones are imposed. An example of logical conditions forming for diagnostic test with preset features is provided. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of logical conditions analysis is applied in the decoding algorithm of proficiency test diagnosis for discipline competence elements. It will give the possibility to automate the search procedure for elements with insufficient proficiency, and is also usable for estimation of education results of a discipline or a component of competence-based educational program.

  13. Short overview of PSA quantification methods, pitfalls on the road from approximate to exact results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banov, Reni; Simic, Zdenko; Sterc, Davor

    2014-01-01

    Over time the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) models have become an invaluable companion in the identification and understanding of key nuclear power plant (NPP) vulnerabilities. PSA is an effective tool for this purpose as it assists plant management to target resources where the largest benefit for plant safety can be obtained. PSA has quickly become an established technique to numerically quantify risk measures in nuclear power plants. As complexity of PSA models increases, the computational approaches become more or less feasible. The various computational approaches can be basically classified in two major groups: approximate and exact (BDD based) methods. In recent time modern commercially available PSA tools started to provide both methods for PSA model quantification. Besides availability of both methods in proven PSA tools the usage must still be taken carefully since there are many pitfalls which can drive to wrong conclusions and prevent efficient usage of PSA tool. For example, typical pitfalls involve the usage of higher precision approximation methods and getting a less precise result, or mixing minimal cuts and prime implicants in the exact computation method. The exact methods are sensitive to selected computational paths in which case a simple human assisted rearrangement may help and even switch from computationally non-feasible to feasible methods. Further improvements to exact method are possible and desirable which opens space for a new research. In this paper we will show how these pitfalls may be detected and how carefully actions must be done especially when working with large PSA models. (authors)

  14. Tangential breast irradiation - rationale and methods for improving dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neal, A.J.; Mayles, W.P.M.; Yarnold, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    In recent years there have been great advances and innovations in all technical aspects of radiotherapy, including three dimensional (3D) computer planning, patient immobilization, radiation delivery and treatment verification. Despite this progress, the technique of tangential breast irradiation has changed little over this period and has not exploited these advances. There is increasing evidence that dose inhomogeneity within the breast is greater than at other anatomical sites, especially in women with large breasts. This paper is a review of the factors contributing to poor dosimetry in the breast, the clinical consequences of an inhomogeneous dose distribution, and how breast dosimetry could be improved by considering each of the stages from planning to accurate treatment delivery. It also highlights the particular problem of women with large breasts who may be more likely to have a poorer outcome after a fractionated course of radiotherapy than women with small/medium-sized breasts, and supports the clinical impression that such women are also more likely to have greater inhomogenicity when 3D treatment plans are examined. Preliminary data from our current computed tomography (CT) planning study are presented to support these observations. (author)

  15. Methods uncovering usability issues in medication-related alerting functions: results from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilly, Romaric; Vasseur, Francis; Ammenwerth, Elske; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at listing the methods used to evaluate the usability of medication-related alerting functions and at knowing what type of usability issues those methods allow to detect. A sub-analysis of data from this systematic review has been performed. Methods applied in the included papers were collected. Then, included papers were sorted in four types of evaluation: "expert evaluation", "user- testing/simulation", "on site observation" and "impact studies". The types of usability issues (usability flaws, usage problems and negative outcomes) uncovered by those evaluations were analyzed. Results show that a large set of methods are used. The largest proportion of papers uses "on site observation" evaluation. This is the only evaluation type for which every kind of usability flaws, usage problems and outcomes are detected. It is somehow surprising that, in a usability systematic review, most of the papers included use a method that is not often presented as a usability method. Results are discussed about the opportunity to provide usability information collected after the implementation of the technology during their design process, i.e. before their implementation.

  16. Comparative study of methods on outlying data detection in experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P.M.S.; Munita, C.S.; Hazenfratz, R.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of experimental results through multivariate statistical methods might reveal the outliers existence, which is rarely taken into account by the analysts. However, their presence can influence the results interpretation, generating false conclusions. This paper shows the importance of the outliers determination for one data base of 89 samples of ceramic fragments, analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The results were submitted to five procedures to detect outliers: Mahalanobis distance, cluster analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis, and standardized residual. The results showed that although cluster analysis is one of the procedures most used to identify outliers, it can fail by not showing the samples that are easily identified as outliers by other methods. In general, the statistical procedures for the identification of the outliers are little known by the analysts. (author)

  17. Hermeneutics framework: integration of design rationale and optimizing software modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksit, Mehmet; Malakuti Khah Olun Abadi, Somayeh

    To tackle the evolution challenges of adaptive systems, this paper argues on the necessity of hermeneutic approaches that help to avoid too early elimination of design alternatives. This visionary paper proposes the Hermeneutics Framework, which computationally integrates a design rationale

  18. A holographic method for investigating cylindrical symmetry plasmas resulting from electric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosu, N.; Ralea, M.; Foca, M.; Iova, I.

    1992-01-01

    A new method based on holographic interferometry in real time with reference fringes for diagnosing gas electric discharges in cylindrical symmetry tubes is presented. A method for obtaining and quantitatively investigating interferograms obtained with a video camera is described. By studying the resulting images frame by frame and introducing the measurements into an adequate computer programme one gets a graphical recording of the radial distribution of the charged particle concentration in the plasma in any region of the tube at a given time, as well as their axial distribution. The real time evolution of certain phenomena occurring in the discharge tube can also be determined by this non-destructive method. The method is used for electric discharges in Ar at average pressures in a discharge tube with hollow cathode effect. (Author)

  19. MULTICRITERIA METHODS IN PERFORMING COMPANIES’ RESULTS USING ELECTRONIC RECRUITING, CORPORATE COMMUNICATION AND FINANCIAL RATIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bilić

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human resources represent one of the most important companies’ resources responsible in creation of companies’ competitive advantage. In search for the most valuable resources, companies use different methods. Lately, one of the growing methods is electronic recruiting, not only as a recruitment tool, but also as a mean of external communication. Additionally, in the process of corporate communication, companies nowadays use the electronic corporate communication as the easiest, the cheapest and the simplest form of business communication. The aim of this paper is to investigate relationship between three groups of different criteria; including main characteristics of performed electronic recruiting, corporate communication and selected financial performances. Selected companies were ranked separately by each group of criteria by usage of multicriteria decision making method PROMETHEE II. The main idea is to research whether companies which are the highest performers by certain group of criteria obtain the similar results regarding other group of criteria or performing results.

  20. Tank 48H Waste Composition and Results of Investigation of Analytical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker , D.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-02

    This report serves two purposes. First, it documents the analytical results of Tank 48H samples taken between April and August 1996. Second, it describes investigations of the precision of the sampling and analytical methods used on the Tank 48H samples.

  1. [Do different interpretative methods used for evaluation of checkerboard synergy test affect the results?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozseven, Ayşe Gül; Sesli Çetin, Emel; Ozseven, Levent

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, owing to the presence of multi-drug resistant nosocomial bacteria, combination therapies are more frequently applied. Thus there is more need to investigate the in vitro activity of drug combinations against multi-drug resistant bacteria. Checkerboard synergy testing is among the most widely used standard technique to determine the activity of antibiotic combinations. It is based on microdilution susceptibility testing of antibiotic combinations. Although this test has a standardised procedure, there are many different methods for interpreting the results. In many previous studies carried out with multi-drug resistant bacteria, different rates of synergy have been reported with various antibiotic combinations using checkerboard technique. These differences might be attributed to the different features of the strains. However, different synergy rates detected by checkerboard method have also been reported in other studies using the same drug combinations and same types of bacteria. It was thought that these differences in synergy rates might be due to the different methods of interpretation of synergy test results. In recent years, multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has been the most commonly encountered nosocomial pathogen especially in intensive-care units. For this reason, multidrug resistant A.baumannii has been the subject of a considerable amount of research about antimicrobial combinations. In the present study, the in vitro activities of frequently preferred combinations in A.baumannii infections like imipenem plus ampicillin/sulbactam, and meropenem plus ampicillin/sulbactam were tested by checkerboard synergy method against 34 multi-drug resistant A.baumannii isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for imipenem, meropenem and ampicillin/sulbactam were determined by the broth microdilution method. Subsequently the activity of two different combinations were tested in the dilution range of 4 x MIC and 0.03 x MIC in

  2. A semantics-based method for clustering of Chinese web search results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Deqing; Wang, Li; Bi, Zhuming; Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Information explosion is a critical challenge to the development of modern information systems. In particular, when the application of an information system is over the Internet, the amount of information over the web has been increasing exponentially and rapidly. Search engines, such as Google and Baidu, are essential tools for people to find the information from the Internet. Valuable information, however, is still likely submerged in the ocean of search results from those tools. By clustering the results into different groups based on subjects automatically, a search engine with the clustering feature allows users to select most relevant results quickly. In this paper, we propose an online semantics-based method to cluster Chinese web search results. First, we employ the generalised suffix tree to extract the longest common substrings (LCSs) from search snippets. Second, we use the HowNet to calculate the similarities of the words derived from the LCSs, and extract the most representative features by constructing the vocabulary chain. Third, we construct a vector of text features and calculate snippets' semantic similarities. Finally, we improve the Chameleon algorithm to cluster snippets. Extensive experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm has outperformed over the suffix tree clustering method and other traditional clustering methods.

  3. Aircrew Exposure To Cosmic Radiation Evaluated By Means Of Several Methods; Results Obtained In 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, Ondrej; Spurny, Frantisek; Jadrnickova, Iva; Turek, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Routine evaluation of aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation in the Czech Republic is performed by means of calculation method. Measurements onboard aircraft work as a control tool of the routine method, as well as a possibility of comparison of results measured by means of several methods. The following methods were used in 2006: (1) mobile dosimetry unit (MDU) type Liulin--a spectrometer of energy deposited in Si-detector; (2) two types of LET spectrometers based on the chemically etched track detectors (TED); (3) two types of thermoluminescent detectors; and (4) two calculation methods. MDU represents currently one of the most reliable equipments for evaluation of the aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation. It is an active device which measures total energy depositions (E dep ) in the semiconductor unit, and, after appropriate calibration, is able to give a separate estimation for non-neutron and neutron-like components of H*(10). This contribution consists mostly of results acquired by means of this equipment; measurements with passive detectors and calculations are mentioned because of comparison. Reasonably good agreement of all data sets could be stated

  4. Comments on Brodsky's statistical methods for evaluating epidemiological results, and reply by Brodsky, A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frome, E.L.; Khare, M.

    1980-01-01

    Brodsky's paper 'A Statistical Method for Testing Epidemiological Results, as applied to the Hanford Worker Population', (Health Phys., 36, 611-628, 1979) proposed two test statistics for use in comparing the survival experience of a group of employees and controls. This letter states that both of the test statistics were computed using incorrect formulas and concludes that the results obtained using these statistics may also be incorrect. In his reply Brodsky concurs with the comments on the proper formulation of estimates of pooled standard errors in constructing test statistics but believes that the erroneous formulation does not invalidate the major points, results and discussions of his paper. (author)

  5. On Calculation Methods and Results for Straight Cylindrical Roller Bearing Deflection, Stiffness, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess some calculation methods for quantifying the relationships of bearing geometry, material properties, load, deflection, stiffness, and stress. The scope of the work was limited to two-dimensional modeling of straight cylindrical roller bearings. Preparations for studies of dynamic response of bearings with damaged surfaces motivated this work. Studies were selected to exercise and build confidence in the numerical tools. Three calculation methods were used in this work. Two of the methods were numerical solutions of the Hertz contact approach. The third method used was a combined finite element surface integral method. Example calculations were done for a single roller loaded between an inner and outer raceway for code verification. Next, a bearing with 13 rollers and all-steel construction was used as an example to do additional code verification, including an assessment of the leading order of accuracy of the finite element and surface integral method. Results from that study show that the method is at least first-order accurate. Those results also show that the contact grid refinement has a more significant influence on precision as compared to the finite element grid refinement. To explore the influence of material properties, the 13-roller bearing was modeled as made from Nitinol 60, a material with very different properties from steel and showing some potential for bearing applications. The codes were exercised to compare contact areas and stress levels for steel and Nitinol 60 bearings operating at equivalent power density. As a step toward modeling the dynamic response of bearings having surface damage, static analyses were completed to simulate a bearing with a spall or similar damage.

  6. Development and application of a new deterministic method for calculating computer model result uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerker, R.E.; Worley, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Interest in research into the field of uncertainty analysis has recently been stimulated as a result of a need in high-level waste repository design assessment for uncertainty information in the form of response complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) to show compliance with regulatory requirements. The solution to this problem must obviously rely on the analysis of computer code models, which, however, employ parameters that can have large uncertainties. The motivation for the research presented in this paper is a search for a method involving a deterministic uncertainty analysis approach that could serve as an improvement over those methods that make exclusive use of statistical techniques. A deterministic uncertainty analysis (DUA) approach based on the use of first derivative information is the method studied in the present procedure. The present method has been applied to a high-level nuclear waste repository problem involving use of the codes ORIGEN2, SAS, and BRINETEMP in series, and the resulting CDF of a BRINETEMP result of interest is compared with that obtained through a completely statistical analysis

  7. Analytical method and result of radiation exposure for depressurization accident of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawa, K.; Shiozawa, S.; Mikami, H.

    1990-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is now proceeding with the construction design of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Since the HTTR has some characteristics different from LWRs, analytical method of radiation exposure in accidents provided for LWRs can not be applied directly. This paper describes the analytical method of radiation exposure developed by JAERI for the depressurization accident, which is the severest accident in respect to radiation exposure among the design basis accidents of the HTTR. The result is also described in this paper

  8. Methods and optical fibers that decrease pulse degradation resulting from random chromatic dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertkov, Michael; Gabitov, Ildar

    2004-03-02

    The present invention provides methods and optical fibers for periodically pinning an actual (random) accumulated chromatic dispersion of an optical fiber to a predicted accumulated dispersion of the fiber through relatively simple modifications of fiber-optic manufacturing methods or retrofitting of existing fibers. If the pinning occurs with sufficient frequency (at a distance less than or are equal to a correlation scale), pulse degradation resulting from random chromatic dispersion is minimized. Alternatively, pinning may occur quasi-periodically, i.e., the pinning distance is distributed between approximately zero and approximately two to three times the correlation scale.

  9. Rationale in diagnosis and screening of atrophic gastritis with stomach-specific plasma biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agréus, Lars; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kupcinskas, Limas; Malfertheiner, Peter; Di Mario, Francesco; Leja, Marcis; Mahachai, Varocha; Yaron, Niv; Van Oijen, Martijn; Perez, Guillermo Perez; Rugge, Massimo; Ronkainen, Jukka; Salaspuro, Mikko; Sipponen, Pentti; Sugano, Kentaro; Sung, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Atrophic gastritis (AG) results most often from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. AG is the most important single risk condition for gastric cancer that often leads to an acid-free or hypochlorhydric stomach. In the present paper, we suggest a rationale for noninvasive screening of AG with stomach-specific biomarkers. Methods The paper summarizes a set of data on application of the biomarkers and describes how the test results could be interpreted in practice. Results In AG of the gastric corpus and fundus, the plasma levels of pepsinogen I and/or the pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio are always low. The fasting level of gastrin-17 is high in AG limited to the corpus and fundus, but low or non-elevated if the AG occurs in both antrum and corpus. A low fasting level of G-17 is a sign of antral AG or indicates high intragastric acidity. Differentiation between antral AG and high intragastric acidity can be done by assaying the plasma G-17 before and after protein stimulation, or before and after administration of the proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Amidated G-17 will rise if the antral mucosa is normal in structure. H. pylori antibodies are a reliable indicator of helicobacter infection, even in patients with AG and hypochlorhydria. Conclusions Stomach-specific biomarkers provide information about the stomach health and about the function of stomach mucosa and are a noninvasive tool for diagnosis and screening of AG and acid-free stomach. PMID:22242613

  10. Testing the ISP method with the PARIO device: Accuracy of results and influence of homogenization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, Wolfgang; Huber, Magdalena; Yangxu, Li; Steins, Andi; Pertassek, Thomas; Göttlein, Axel; Iden, Sascha C.; von Unold, Georg

    2017-04-01

    The particle-size distribution (PSD) is one of the main properties of soils. To determine the proportions of the fine fractions silt and clay, sedimentation experiments are used. Most common are the Pipette and Hydrometer method. Both need manual sampling at specific times. Both are thus time-demanding and rely on experienced operators. Durner et al. (Durner, W., S.C. Iden, and G. von Unold (2017): The integral suspension pressure method (ISP) for precise particle-size analysis by gravitational sedimentation, Water Resources Research, doi:10.1002/2016WR019830) recently developed the integral suspension method (ISP) method, which is implemented in the METER Group device PARIOTM. This new method estimates continuous PSD's from sedimentation experiments by recording the temporal evolution of the suspension pressure at a certain measurement depth in a sedimentation cylinder. It requires no manual interaction after start and thus no specialized training of the lab personnel. The aim of this study was to test the precision and accuracy of new method with a variety of materials, to answer the following research questions: (1) Are the results obtained by PARIO reliable and stable? (2) Are the results affected by the initial mixing technique to homogenize the suspension, or by the presence of sand in the experiment? (3) Are the results identical to the one that are obtained with the Pipette method as reference method? The experiments were performed with a pure quartz silt material and four real soil materials. PARIO measurements were done repetitively on the same samples in a temperature-controlled lab to characterize the repeatability of the measurements. Subsequently, the samples were investigated by the pipette method to validate the results. We found that the statistical error for silt fraction from replicate and repetitive measurements was in the range of 1% for the quartz material to 3% for soil materials. Since the sand fractions, as in any sedimentation method, must

  11. Influence of Specimen Preparation and Test Methods on the Flexural Strength Results of Monolithic Zirconia Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Christine; Strickstrock, Monika; Roos, Malgorzata; Edelhoff, Daniel; Eichberger, Marlis; Zylla, Isabella-Maria; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-03-09

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of specimen preparation and test method on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia. Different monolithic zirconia materials (Ceramill Zolid (Amann Girrbach, Koblach, Austria), Zenostar ZrTranslucent (Wieland Dental, Pforzheim, Germany), and DD Bio zx² (Dental Direkt, Spenge, Germany)) were tested with three different methods: 3-point, 4-point, and biaxial flexural strength. Additionally, different specimen preparation methods were applied: either dry polishing before sintering or wet polishing after sintering. Each subgroup included 40 specimens. The surface roughness was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a profilometer whereas monoclinic phase transformation was investigated with X-ray diffraction. The data were analyzed using a three-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with respect to the three factors: zirconia, specimen preparation, and test method. One-way ANOVA was conducted for the test method and zirconia factors within the combination of two other factors. A 2-parameter Weibull distribution assumption was applied to analyze the reliability under different testing conditions. In general, values measured using the 4-point test method presented the lowest flexural strength values. The flexural strength findings can be grouped in the following order: 4-point strength values than prepared before sintering. The Weibull moduli ranged from 5.1 to 16.5. Specimens polished before sintering showed higher surface roughness values than specimens polished after sintering. In contrast, no strong impact of the polishing procedures on the monoclinic surface layer was observed. No impact of zirconia material on flexural strength was found. The test method and the preparation method significantly influenced the flexural strength values.

  12. Improved Method of Detection Falsification Results the Digital Image in Conditions of Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobozeva A.A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The modern level of information technologies development has led to unheard ease embodiments hitherto unauthorized modifications of digital content. At the moment, very important question is the effective expert examination of authenticity of digital images, video, audio, development of the methods for identification and localization of violations of their integrity using these contents for purposes other than entertainment. Present paper deals with the improvement of the detection method of the cloning results in digital images - one of the most frequently used in the software tools falsification realized in all modern graphics editors. The method is intended for clone detection areas and pre-image in terms of additional disturbing influences in the image after the cloning operation for "masking" of the results, which complicates the search process. The improvement is aimed at reducing the number of "false alarms", when the area of the clone / pre-image detected in the original image or the localization of the identified areas do not correspond to the real clone and pre-image. The proposed improvement, based on analysis of different sizes per-pixel image blocks with the least difference from each other, has made it possible efficient functioning of the method, regardless of the specificity of the analyzed digital image.

  13. A statistical method for testing epidemiological results, as applied to the Hanford worker population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.

    1979-01-01

    Some recent reports of Mancuso, Stewart and Kneale claim findings of radiation-produced cancer in the Hanford worker population. These claims are based on statistical computations that use small differences in accumulated exposures between groups dying of cancer and groups dying of other causes; actual mortality and longevity were not reported. This paper presents a statistical method for evaluation of actual mortality and longevity longitudinally over time, as applied in a primary analysis of the mortality experience of the Hanford worker population. Although available, this method was not utilized in the Mancuso-Stewart-Kneale paper. The author's preliminary longitudinal analysis shows that the gross mortality experience of persons employed at Hanford during 1943-70 interval did not differ significantly from that of certain controls, when both employees and controls were selected from families with two or more offspring and comparison were matched by age, sex, race and year of entry into employment. This result is consistent with findings reported by Sanders (Health Phys. vol.35, 521-538, 1978). The method utilizes an approximate chi-square (1 D.F.) statistic for testing population subgroup comparisons, as well as the cumulation of chi-squares (1 D.F.) for testing the overall result of a particular type of comparison. The method is available for computer testing of the Hanford mortality data, and could also be adapted to morbidity or other population studies. (author)

  14. No Results? No Problem! Why We Are Publishing Methods of a Landmark Study With Results Still Pending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Brian E; Spiegel, Brennan

    2017-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in both men and women in the United States, and screening for CRC is a national health-care priority. In this issue, investigators from the CONFIRM study group report on the aims and study design of a large, multicenter, randomized prospective study of whether screening colonoscopy is superior to an annual fecal immunochemical test (FIT). CONFRIM hopes to enroll 50,000 individuals, aged 50-75 years, from 46 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers and monitor them for 10 years. This article is unique in that no results are presented as the study is not yet complete. We have taken this unusual step as we believe the topic of CRC screening is critically important for our readers and that the results of this massive study have the potential to change clinical practice throughout all fields of medicine.

  15. Development of methods to measure hemoglobin adducts by gel electrophoresis - Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.D.; McBride, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical adducts formed on blood hemoglobin may be a useful biomarker for assessing human exposures to these compounds. This paper reports preliminary results in the development of methods to measure such adducts that may be generally applicable for a wide variety of chemicals. Male F344/N rats were intraperitoneally injected with 14 C-BaP dissolved in corn oil. Twenty-four hours later, the rats were sacrificed. Blood samples were collected and globin was isolated. Globin protein was then cleaved into peptide fragments using cyanogen bromide and the fragments separated using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the adducted 14 C-globin fragments migrated to different areas of the gel than did unadducted fragments. Further research is being conducted to develop methods that will allow quantitation of separated adducted globin fragments from human blood samples without the use of a radiolabel. (author)

  16. Method and equipment for treating waste water resulting from the technological testing processes of NPP equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulescu, M. C.; Valeca, S.; Iorga, C.

    2016-01-01

    Modern methods and technologies coupled together with advanced equipment for treating residual substances resulted from technological processes are mandatory measures for all industrial facilities. The correct management of the used working agents and of the all wastes resulted from the different technological process (preparation, use, collection, neutralization, discharge) is intended to reduce up to removal of their potential negative impact on the environment. The high pressure and temperature testing stands from INR intended for functional testing of nuclear components (fuel bundles, fuelling machines, etc.) were included in these measures since the use of oils, demineralized water chemically treated, greases, etc. This paper is focused on the method and equipment used at INR Pitesti in the chemical treatment of demineralized waters, as well as the equipment for collecting, neutralizing and discharging them after use. (authors)

  17. [Results of treatment of milk teeth pulp by modified formocresol method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wochna-Sobańska, M

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was evaluation of the results of treatment of molar pulp diseases by the formocresol method from the standpoint of the development of inflammatory complications in periapical tissues, disturbances of physiological resorption of roots, disturbances of mineralization of crowns of homologous permanent teeth. For the treatment milk molars were qualified with the diagnosis of grade II pulpopathy in children aged from 3 to 9 years. The treatment was done using formocresol by a modified method of pulp amputation according to Buckley after previous devitalization with parapaste. The status of 143 teeth was examined again 1 to 4 years after completion of treatment. The proportion of positive results after one year was 94%, after two years it was 90%, after three years 87% and after four years 80%. The cause of premature loss of most teeth was root resorption acceleration by 18-24 months. No harmful action of formocresol on the buds of permanent teeth was noted.

  18. Comparison of the analysis result between two laboratories using different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Murniasih; Agus Taftazani

    2017-01-01

    Comparison of the analysis result of volcano ash sample between two laboratories using different analysis methods. The research aims to improve the testing laboratory quality and cooperate with the testing laboratory from other country. Samples were tested at the Center for Accelerator of Science and Technology (CAST)-NAA laboratory using NAA, while at the University of Texas (UT) USA using ICP-MS and ENAA method. From 12 elements of target, CAST-NAA able to present 11 elements of data analysis. The comparison results shows that the analysis of the K, Mn, Ti and Fe elements from both laboratories have a very good comparison and close one to other. It is known from RSD values and correlation coefficients of the both laboratories analysis results. While observed of the results difference known that the analysis results of Al, Na, K, Fe, V, Mn, Ti, Cr and As elements from both laboratories is not significantly different. From 11 elements were reported, only Zn which have significantly different values for both laboratories. (author)

  19. THE RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF THE STUDENTS’ BODY COMPOSITION BY BIOIMPEDANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry S. Blinov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tissues of the human body can conduct electricity. Liquid medium (water, blood, the contents of hollow bodies, have a low impedance, i.e. good conductors, while denser tissue (muscle, nerves, etc. resistance is significantly higher. The biggest impedance have fat and bone tissues. The bioimpendancemetry – a method which allows to determine the composition of the human body by measuring electrical resistance (impedance of its tissues. Relevance. This technique is indispensable to dieticians and fitness trainers. In addition, the results of the study can provide invaluable assistance in the appointment of effective treatment physicians, gynecologists, orthopedists, and other specialists. The bioimpedance method helps to determine the risks of developing diabetes type 2, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diseases of the musculoskeletal system, disorders of the endocrine system, gall-stone disease and etc. Materials and Methods. In the list of parameters of body composition assessed by bioimpedance analysis method, included absolute and relative indicators. Depending on the method of measurement of the absolute rates were determined for the whole body. To absolute performance were: fat and skinny body mass index, active cell and skeletal muscle mass, total body water, cellular and extracellular fluid. Along with them were calculated relatively (normalized to body weight, lean mass, or other variables indicators of body composition. Results. In the result of the comparison of anthropometric and bioimpedance method found that growth performance, vital capacity, weight, waist circumference, circumfer¬ence of waist and hip, basal metabolism, body fat mass, normalized on growth, lean mass, percentage skeletal muscle mass in boys and girls with normal and excessive body weight had statistically significant differences. Discussion and Conclusions. In the present study physical development with consideration of body composition in students

  20. Design and rationale for examining neuroimaging genetics in ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Anne-Katrin; Schirmer, Markus D.; Donahue, Kathleen L.; Cloonan, Lisa; Irie, Robert; Winzeck, Stefan; Bouts, Mark J.R.J.; McIntosh, Elissa C.; Mocking, Steven J.; Dalca, Adrian V.; Sridharan, Ramesh; Xu, Huichun; Frid, Petrea; Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Holmegaard, Lukas; Roquer, Jaume; Wasselius, Johan; Cole, John W.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Broderick, Joseph P.; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Jern, Christina; Kissela, Brett M.; Kleindorfer, Dawn O.; Lemmens, Robin; Lindgren, Arne; Meschia, James F.; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Sharma, Pankaj; Slowik, Agnieszka; Thijs, Vincent; Woo, Daniel; Worrall, Bradford B.; Kittner, Steven J.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Rosand, Jonathan; Golland, Polina; Wu, Ona

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the design and rationale for the genetic analysis of acute and chronic cerebrovascular neuroimaging phenotypes detected on clinical MRI in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) within the scope of the MRI–GENetics Interface Exploration (MRI-GENIE) study. Methods: MRI-GENIE capitalizes on the existing infrastructure of the Stroke Genetics Network (SiGN). In total, 12 international SiGN sites contributed MRIs of 3,301 patients with AIS. Detailed clinical phenotyping with the web-based Causative Classification of Stroke (CCS) system and genome-wide genotyping data were available for all participants. Neuroimaging analyses include the manual and automated assessments of established MRI markers. A high-throughput MRI analysis pipeline for the automated assessment of cerebrovascular lesions on clinical scans will be developed in a subset of scans for both acute and chronic lesions, validated against gold standard, and applied to all available scans. The extracted neuroimaging phenotypes will improve characterization of acute and chronic cerebrovascular lesions in ischemic stroke, including CCS subtypes, and their effect on functional outcomes after stroke. Moreover, genetic testing will uncover variants associated with acute and chronic MRI manifestations of cerebrovascular disease. Conclusions: The MRI-GENIE study aims to develop, validate, and distribute the MRI analysis platform for scans acquired as part of clinical care for patients with AIS, which will lead to (1) novel genetic discoveries in ischemic stroke, (2) strategies for personalized stroke risk assessment, and (3) personalized stroke outcome assessment. PMID:28852707

  1. Rationale for a natural products approach to herbicide discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Franck E; Owens, Daniel K; Duke, Stephen O

    2012-04-01

    Weeds continue to evolve resistance to all the known modes of herbicidal action, but no herbicide with a new target site has been commercialized in nearly 20 years. The so-called 'new chemistries' are simply molecules belonging to new chemical classes that have the same mechanisms of action as older herbicides (e.g. the protoporphyrinogen-oxidase-inhibiting pyrimidinedione saflufenacil or the very-long-chain fatty acid elongase targeting sulfonylisoxazoline herbicide pyroxasulfone). Therefore, the number of tools to manage weeds, and in particular those that can control herbicide-resistant weeds, is diminishing rapidly. There is an imminent need for truly innovative classes of herbicides that explore chemical spaces and interact with target sites not previously exploited by older active ingredients. This review proposes a rationale for a natural-products-centered approach to herbicide discovery that capitalizes on the structural diversity and ingenuity afforded by these biologically active compounds. The natural process of extended-throughput screening (high number of compounds tested on many potential target sites over long periods of times) that has shaped the evolution of natural products tends to generate molecules tailored to interact with specific target sites. As this review shows, there is generally little overlap between the mode of action of natural and synthetic phytotoxins, and more emphasis should be placed on applying methods that have proved beneficial to the pharmaceutical industry to solve problems in the agrochemical industry. Published 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Inpatients' attitudes towards the rationale use of drugs at a cardiology ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Ugrak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This descriptive survey purposed to evaluate inpatients' attitudes towards the rationale use of drugs at a cardiology ward in GATA. METHODS: Rational Drug Use Questionnaire designed by T.C. Health Ministry was performed. The patients hospitalized during the research period were tried to be reached and 121 inpatients completed the questionnaire. SPSS 15.0 program was used for data evaluation. Descriptive statistics were indicated with mean, standard deviation, frequency. Pearsons Chi-Square Test was used for comparison of groups. Statistical significance at p<0.05 was adopted. RESULTS: Mean age of patient surveyed was 29.3+/-16.4 year and 68.6% of the patients were male. It was seen that 49.6% of the patients reserved residual drugs of a treatment at home to reuse, 87.6% of the patients applied to a physician when drug side effect was seen. 42.1% of female and 36.2% of married participants were seen to use painkiller without prescription. Additionally, significant relationship was observed between attitude of using painkiller without prescription and gender, marital status. CONCLUSION: Our research participants' attitudes towards rational drug use found more positive than previous researches performed in Turkey. It is assessed this difference resulted from participant's high education level and participants' obligation to use drugs for long time because most of them had chronic or congenital heart disease. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 137-144

  3. A method of estimating conceptus doses resulting from multidetector CT examinations during all stages of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damilakis, John; Tzedakis, Antonis; Perisinakis, Kostas; Papadakis, Antonios E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Current methods for the estimation of conceptus dose from multidetector CT (MDCT) examinations performed on the mother provide dose data for typical protocols with a fixed scan length. However, modified low-dose imaging protocols are frequently used during pregnancy. The purpose of the current study was to develop a method for the estimation of conceptus dose from any MDCT examination of the trunk performed during all stages of gestation. Methods: The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code was employed in this study to model the Siemens Sensation 16 and Sensation 64 MDCT scanners. Four mathematical phantoms were used, simulating women at 0, 3, 6, and 9 months of gestation. The contribution to the conceptus dose from single simulated scans was obtained at various positions across the phantoms. To investigate the effect of maternal body size and conceptus depth on conceptus dose, phantoms of different sizes were produced by adding layers of adipose tissue around the trunk of the mathematical phantoms. To verify MCNP results, conceptus dose measurements were carried out by means of three physical anthropomorphic phantoms, simulating pregnancy at 0, 3, and 6 months of gestation and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) crystals. Results: The results consist of Monte Carlo-generated normalized conceptus dose coefficients for single scans across the four mathematical phantoms. These coefficients were defined as the conceptus dose contribution from a single scan divided by the CTDI free-in-air measured with identical scanning parameters. Data have been produced to take into account the effect of maternal body size and conceptus position variations on conceptus dose. Conceptus doses measured with TLD crystals showed a difference of up to 19% compared to those estimated by mathematical simulations. Conclusions: Estimation of conceptus doses from MDCT examinations of the trunk performed on pregnant patients during all stages of gestation can be made

  4. A method for modeling laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelover, Edgar; Wang, Dongxu; Flynn, Ryan T.; Hyer, Daniel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Hill, Patrick M. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Gao, Mingcheng; Laub, Steve; Pankuch, Mark [Division of Medical Physics, CDH Proton Center, 4455 Weaver Parkway, Warrenville, Illinois 60555 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To introduce a method to model the 3D dose distribution of laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation. The model enables rapid beamlet calculation for spot scanning (SS) delivery using a novel penumbra-reducing dynamic collimation system (DCS) with two pairs of trimmers oriented perpendicular to each other. Methods: Trimmed beamlet dose distributions in water were simulated with MCNPX and the collimating effects noted in the simulations were validated by experimental measurement. The simulated beamlets were modeled analytically using integral depth dose curves along with an asymmetric Gaussian function to represent fluence in the beam’s eye view (BEV). The BEV parameters consisted of Gaussian standard deviations (sigmas) along each primary axis (σ{sub x1},σ{sub x2},σ{sub y1},σ{sub y2}) together with the spatial location of the maximum dose (μ{sub x},μ{sub y}). Percent depth dose variation with trimmer position was accounted for with a depth-dependent correction function. Beamlet growth with depth was accounted for by combining the in-air divergence with Hong’s fit of the Highland approximation along each axis in the BEV. Results: The beamlet model showed excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation data used as a benchmark. The overall passing rate for a 3D gamma test with 3%/3 mm passing criteria was 96.1% between the analytical model and Monte Carlo data in an example treatment plan. Conclusions: The analytical model is capable of accurately representing individual asymmetric beamlets resulting from use of the DCS. This method enables integration of the DCS into a treatment planning system to perform dose computation in patient datasets. The method could be generalized for use with any SS collimation system in which blades, leaves, or trimmers are used to laterally sharpen beamlets.

  5. A method for modeling laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelover, Edgar; Wang, Dongxu; Flynn, Ryan T.; Hyer, Daniel E.; Hill, Patrick M.; Gao, Mingcheng; Laub, Steve; Pankuch, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce a method to model the 3D dose distribution of laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation. The model enables rapid beamlet calculation for spot scanning (SS) delivery using a novel penumbra-reducing dynamic collimation system (DCS) with two pairs of trimmers oriented perpendicular to each other. Methods: Trimmed beamlet dose distributions in water were simulated with MCNPX and the collimating effects noted in the simulations were validated by experimental measurement. The simulated beamlets were modeled analytically using integral depth dose curves along with an asymmetric Gaussian function to represent fluence in the beam’s eye view (BEV). The BEV parameters consisted of Gaussian standard deviations (sigmas) along each primary axis (σ x1 ,σ x2 ,σ y1 ,σ y2 ) together with the spatial location of the maximum dose (μ x ,μ y ). Percent depth dose variation with trimmer position was accounted for with a depth-dependent correction function. Beamlet growth with depth was accounted for by combining the in-air divergence with Hong’s fit of the Highland approximation along each axis in the BEV. Results: The beamlet model showed excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation data used as a benchmark. The overall passing rate for a 3D gamma test with 3%/3 mm passing criteria was 96.1% between the analytical model and Monte Carlo data in an example treatment plan. Conclusions: The analytical model is capable of accurately representing individual asymmetric beamlets resulting from use of the DCS. This method enables integration of the DCS into a treatment planning system to perform dose computation in patient datasets. The method could be generalized for use with any SS collimation system in which blades, leaves, or trimmers are used to laterally sharpen beamlets

  6. A method for modeling laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelover, Edgar; Wang, Dongxu; Hill, Patrick M.; Flynn, Ryan T.; Gao, Mingcheng; Laub, Steve; Pankuch, Mark; Hyer, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce a method to model the 3D dose distribution of laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation. The model enables rapid beamlet calculation for spot scanning (SS) delivery using a novel penumbra-reducing dynamic collimation system (DCS) with two pairs of trimmers oriented perpendicular to each other. Methods: Trimmed beamlet dose distributions in water were simulated with MCNPX and the collimating effects noted in the simulations were validated by experimental measurement. The simulated beamlets were modeled analytically using integral depth dose curves along with an asymmetric Gaussian function to represent fluence in the beam’s eye view (BEV). The BEV parameters consisted of Gaussian standard deviations (sigmas) along each primary axis (σx1,σx2,σy1,σy2) together with the spatial location of the maximum dose (μx,μy). Percent depth dose variation with trimmer position was accounted for with a depth-dependent correction function. Beamlet growth with depth was accounted for by combining the in-air divergence with Hong’s fit of the Highland approximation along each axis in the BEV. Results: The beamlet model showed excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation data used as a benchmark. The overall passing rate for a 3D gamma test with 3%/3 mm passing criteria was 96.1% between the analytical model and Monte Carlo data in an example treatment plan. Conclusions: The analytical model is capable of accurately representing individual asymmetric beamlets resulting from use of the DCS. This method enables integration of the DCS into a treatment planning system to perform dose computation in patient datasets. The method could be generalized for use with any SS collimation system in which blades, leaves, or trimmers are used to laterally sharpen beamlets. PMID:25735287

  7. Decision making with consonant belief functions: Discrepancy resulting with the probability transformation method used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinicioglu Esma Nur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dempster−Shafer belief function theory can address a wider class of uncertainty than the standard probability theory does, and this fact appeals the researchers in operations research society for potential application areas. However, the lack of a decision theory of belief functions gives rise to the need to use the probability transformation methods for decision making. For representation of statistical evidence, the class of consonant belief functions is used which is not closed under Dempster’s rule of combination but is closed under Walley’s rule of combination. In this research, it is shown that the outcomes obtained using both Dempster’s and Walley’s rules do result in different probability distributions when pignistic transformation is used. However, when plausibility transformation is used, they do result in the same probability distribution. This result shows that the choice of the combination rule and probability transformation method may have a significant effect on decision making since it may change the choice of the decision alternative selected. This result is illustrated via an example of missile type identification.

  8. Maxillary advancement for mandibular prognathism: indications and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, H M

    1991-05-01

    The surgical correction of mandibular prognathism has traditionally involved posterior repositioning of the mandibular body. This treatment approach corrects the skeletal disproportion at the expense of reducing facial skeletal volume and can unpredictably result in inadequately supported soft tissues with loss of skeletal definition. In an effort to avoid these sequelae of mandibular reduction, 18 patients diagnosed as having mandibular prognathism were treated with maxillary advancement surgery at the Le Fort I level. Mean patient SNB angle was 85.2 degrees, as compared with a normal 79 +/- 3 degrees. Maxillae were documented to be in normal position relative to both cranial base and Frankfort horizontal. The mean maxillary advancement was 6.9 mm, with a range of 4.5 to 8.8 mm. All patients required genioplasty to reduce vertical chin height and/or to laterally shift the chin. At the time of follow-up (mean 16.2 months), all patients retained cephalometric data suggestive of enlarged mandibles and excessive anterior facial divergence. However, maxillomandibular harmony and facial convexity had been restored without sacrificing skeletal volume. Treatment results demonstrated these faces to be skeletally well proportioned despite lower face protrusion that was beyond "normal." Postoperative appearances were characterized by a well-supported soft-tissue envelope and a highlighted skeletal foundation, creating angular, well-defined lower faces. These findings support the credibility of maxillary advancement as the procedure of choice in selected individuals with mandibular prognathism. Indications and an aesthetic rationale for this surgical approach are presented.

  9. Results of the determination of He in cenozoic aquifers using the GC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowski, Tomasz; Najman, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    Applications of the Helium (He) method known so far consisted mainly of 4He measurements using a special mass spectrometer. 4He measurements for groundwater dating purposes can be replaced by total He (3He+4He) concentration measurements because the content of 3He can be ignored. The concentrations of 3He are very low and 3He/4 He ratios do not exceed 1.0·10(-5) in most cases. In this study, the total He concentrations in groundwater were determined using the gas chromatographic (GC) method as an alternative to methods based on spectrometry measurement. He concentrations in groundwater were used for the determination of residence time and groundwater circulation. Additionally, the radiocarbon method was used to determine the value of the external He flux (JHe) in the study area. Obtained low He concentrations and their small variation within the ca. 65 km long section along which groundwater flows indicate that it is likely there is relatively short residence time and a strong hydraulic connection between the aquifers. The estimated residence time (ca. 3000 years) is heavily dependent on the great uncertainty of the He concentration resulting from the low concentrations of He, the external 4He flux value adopted for calculation purposes and the 14C ages used to estimate the external 4He flux. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  10. CT-guided percutaneous neurolysis methods. State of the art and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.; Richter, G.M.; Roeren, T.; Kauffmann, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    We used 21G or 22G fine needles. All CT-guided percutaneous neurolysis methods require a proper blood coagulation. Most common CT scanners are suitable for neurolysis if there is enough room for maintaining sterile conditions. All neurolysis methods involve sterile puncture of the ganglia under local anesthesia, a test block with anesthetic and contrast agent to assess the clinical effect and the definitive block with a mixture of 96% ethanol and local anesthetic. This allows us to correct the position of the needle if we see improper distribution of the test block or unwanted side effects. Though inflammatory complications of the peritoneum due to puncture are rarely seen, we prefer the dorsal approach whenever possible. Results: Seven of 20 legs showed at least transient clinical improvement after CT-guided lumbar sympathectomies; 13 legs had to be amputated. Results of the methods in the literature differ. For lumbar sympathectomy, improved perfusion is reported in 39-89%, depending on the pre-selection of the patient group. Discussion: It was recently proved that sympathectomy not only improves perfusion of the skin but also of the muscle. The hypothesis of a steal effect after sympathectomy towards skin perfusion was disproved. Modern aggressive surgical and interventional treatment often leaves patients to sympathectomy whose reservers of collateralization are nearly exhausted. We presume this is the reason for the different results we found in our patient group. For thoracic sympathectomy the clinical treatment depends very much on the indications. Whereas palmar hyperhidrosis offers nearly 100% success, only 60-70% of patients with disturbance of perfusion have benefited. Results in celiac ganglia block also differ. Patients with carcinoma of the pancreas and other organs of the upper abdomen benefit in 80-100% of all cases, patients with chronic pancreatitis in 60-80%. (orig./VHE) [de

  11. A method for purifying air containing radioactive substances resulting from the disintegration of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, C.W.

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to the extraction of radioactive isotopes from air. It refers to a method for withdrawing the radioactive substances resulting from the disintegration of radon from air, said method of the type comprising filtrating the air contaminated by the radon daughter products in a filter wetted with water in order to trap said substances in water. It is characterized in that it comprises the steps of causing the water contaminated by the radon daughter products to flow through a filtrating substance containing a non hydrosoluble granular substrate, the outer surface of which has been dried then wetted by a normally-liquid hydrocarbon, and of returning then wetted by a normally-liquid hydrocarbon, and of returning the thus filtrated water so that it wets again the air filter and entraps further radon daughter products. This can be applied to the purification of the air in uranium mines [fr

  12. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results for direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumino, A.; Gulino, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S.; Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Lamia, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Trojan Horse method is a powerful indirect technique to determine the astrophysical factor for binary rearrangement processes A+x→b+B at astrophysical energies by measuring the cross section for the Trojan Horse (TH) reaction A+a→B+b+s in quasi free kinematics. The Trojan Horse Method has been successfully applied to many reactions of astrophysical interest, both direct and resonant. In this paper, we will focus on direct sub-processes. The theory of the THM for direct binary reactions will be shortly presented based on a few-body approach that takes into account the off-energy-shell effects and initial and final state interactions. Examples of recent results will be presented to demonstrate how THM works experimentally

  13. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results for direct reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumino, A.; Gulino, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, Italy and Università degli Studi di Enna Kore, Enna (Italy); Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2014-05-09

    The Trojan Horse method is a powerful indirect technique to determine the astrophysical factor for binary rearrangement processes A+x→b+B at astrophysical energies by measuring the cross section for the Trojan Horse (TH) reaction A+a→B+b+s in quasi free kinematics. The Trojan Horse Method has been successfully applied to many reactions of astrophysical interest, both direct and resonant. In this paper, we will focus on direct sub-processes. The theory of the THM for direct binary reactions will be shortly presented based on a few-body approach that takes into account the off-energy-shell effects and initial and final state interactions. Examples of recent results will be presented to demonstrate how THM works experimentally.

  14. Methods used by Elsam for monitoring precision and accuracy of analytical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinnerskov Jensen, J [Soenderjyllands Hoejspaendingsvaerk, Faelleskemikerne, Aabenraa (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    Performing round robins at regular intervals is the primary method used by ELsam for monitoring precision and accuracy of analytical results. The firs round robin was started in 1974, and today 5 round robins are running. These are focused on: boiler water and steam, lubricating oils, coal, ion chromatography and dissolved gases in transformer oils. Besides the power plant laboratories in Elsam, the participants are power plant laboratories from the rest of Denmark, industrial and commercial laboratories in Denmark, and finally foreign laboratories. The calculated standard deviations or reproducibilities are compared with acceptable values. These values originate from ISO, ASTM and the like, or from own experiences. Besides providing the laboratories with a tool to check their momentary performance, the round robins are vary suitable for evaluating systematic developments on a long term basis. By splitting up the uncertainty according to methods, sample preparation/analysis, etc., knowledge can be extracted from the round robins for use in many other situations. (au)

  15. Effective methods of protection of the intellectual activity results in infosphere of global telematics networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lovtsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is perfection of using metodology of technological and organization and legal protect of intellectual activity results and related intellectual rights in information sphere of Global Telematics Networks (such as of «Internet», «Relkom», «Sitek», «Sedab», «Remart», and others. On the conduct analysis base of the peculiarities and possibilities of using of different technological, organization and legal methods and ways protection of information objects the offers of perfection of corresponding organization and legal safeguarding are formulated. The effectiveness of the protection is provided on the basis of rational aggregation technological, organization and legal methods and ways possible in a particular situation.

  16. Raw material consumption of the European Union--concept, calculation method, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoer, Karl; Weinzettel, Jan; Kovanda, Jan; Giegrich, Jürgen; Lauwigi, Christoph

    2012-08-21

    This article presents the concept, calculation method, and first results of the "Raw Material Consumption" (RMC) economy-wide material flow indicator for the European Union (EU). The RMC measures the final domestic consumption of products in terms of raw material equivalents (RME), i.e. raw materials used in the complete production chain of consumed products. We employed the hybrid input-output life cycle assessment method to calculate RMC. We first developed a highly disaggregated environmentally extended mixed unit input output table and then applied life cycle inventory data for imported products without appropriate representation of production within the domestic economy. Lastly, we treated capital formation as intermediate consumption. Our results show that services, often considered as a solution for dematerialization, account for a significant part of EU raw material consumption, which emphasizes the need to focus on the full production chains and dematerialization of services. Comparison of the EU's RMC with its domestic extraction shows that the EU is nearly self-sufficient in biomass and nonmetallic minerals but extremely dependent on direct and indirect imports of fossil energy carriers and metal ores. This implies an export of environmental burden related to extraction and primary processing of these materials to the rest of the world. Our results demonstrate that internalizing capital formation has significant influence on the calculated RMC.

  17. Some results about the dating of pre hispanic mexican ceramics by the thermoluminescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez M, P.; Mendoza A, D.; Ramirez L, A.; Schaaf, P.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most frequently recurring questions in Archaeometry concerns the age of the studied objects. The some first dating methods were based in historical narrations, style of buildings manufacture techniques. However, has been observed that as consequence the continuous irradiation from naturally occurring radioisotopes and from cosmic rays some materials, such as archaeological ceramic, accumulate certain quantity of energy. These types of material can, in principle, be dated through the analysis of these accumulate energy. In that case, ceramic dating can be realized by thermoluminescence (TL) dating. In this work, results obtained by our research group about TL dating of ceramic belonging to several archaeological zones like to Edzna (Campeche), Calixtlahuaca and Teotenango (Mexico State) and Hervideros (Durango) are presented. The analysis was realized using the fine grained mode in a Daybreak model 1100 reader TL system. The radioisotopes that contribute in the accumulate annual dose in ceramic samples ( 40 K, 238 U, 232 Th) were determined by means of techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (AAN). Our results are agree with results obtained through other methods. (Author) 7 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  18. Influence of Meibomian Gland Expression Methods on Human Lipid Analysis Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnen, Carolina M E; Brown, Simon H J; Lazon de la Jara, Percy; Holden, Brien A; Blanksby, Stephen J; Mitchell, Todd W; Papas, Eric B

    2016-01-01

    To compare the lipid composition of human meibum across three different meibum expression techniques. Meibum was collected from five healthy non-contact lens wearers (aged 20-35 years) after cleaning the eyelid margin using three meibum expression methods: cotton buds (CB), meibomian gland evaluator (MGE) and meibomian gland forceps (MGF). Meibum was also collected using cotton buds without cleaning the eyelid margin (CBn). Lipids were analyzed by chip-based, nano-electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Comparisons were made using linear mixed models. Tandem MS enabled identification and quantification of over 200 lipid species across ten lipid classes. There were significant differences between collection techniques in the relative quantities of polar lipids obtained (P<.05). The MGE method returned smaller polar lipid quantities than the CB approaches. No significant differences were found between techniques for nonpolar lipids. No significant differences were found between cleaned and non-cleaned eyelids for polar or nonpolar lipids. Meibum expression technique influences the relative amount of phospholipids in the resulting sample. The highest amounts of phospholipids were detected with the CB approaches and the lowest with the MGE technique. Cleaning the eyelid margin prior to expression was not found to affect the lipid composition of the sample. This may be a consequence of the more forceful expression resulting in cell membrane contamination or higher risk of tear lipid contamination as a result of reflex tearing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Daily radiotoxicological supervision of personnel at the Pierrelatte industrial complex. Methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalabreysse, Jacques.

    1978-05-01

    A 13 year experience gained from daily radiotoxicological supervision of personnel at the PIERRELATTE industrial complex is presented. This study is divided into two parts: part one is theoretical: bibliographical synthesis of all scattered documents and publications; a homogeneous survey of all literature on the subject is thus available. Part two reviews the experience gained in professional surroundings: laboratory measurements and analyses (development of methods and daily applications); mathematical formulae to answer the first questions which arise before an individual liable to be contaminated; results obtained at PIERRELATTE [fr

  20. Human exposure to bisphenol A by biomonitoring: Methods, results and assessment of environmental exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Voelkel, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A is controversially discussed. This review critically assesses methods for biomonitoring of bisphenol A exposures and reported concentrations of bisphenol A in blood and urine of non-occupationally ('environmentally') exposed humans. From the many methods published to assess bisphenol A concentrations in biological media, mass spectrometry-based methods are considered most appropriate due to high sensitivity, selectivity and precision. In human blood, based on the known toxicokinetics of bisphenol A in humans, the expected very low concentrations of bisphenol A due to rapid biotransformation and the very rapid excretion result in severe limitations in the use of reported blood levels of bisphenol A for exposure assessment. Due to the rapid and complete excretion of orally administered bisphenol A, urine samples are considered as the appropriate body fluid for bisphenol A exposure assessment. In urine samples from several cohorts, bisphenol A (as glucuronide) was present in average concentrations in the range of 1-3 μg/L suggesting that daily human exposure to bisphenol A is below 6 μg per person (< 0.1 μg/kg bw/day) for the majority of the population

  1. Application of Semiempirical Methods to Transition Metal Complexes: Fast Results but Hard-to-Predict Accuracy.

    KAUST Repository

    Minenkov, Yury

    2018-05-22

    A series of semiempirical PM6* and PM7 methods has been tested in reproducing of relative conformational energies of 27 realistic-size complexes of 16 different transition metals (TMs). An analysis of relative energies derived from single-point energy evaluations on density functional theory (DFT) optimized conformers revealed pronounced deviations between semiempirical and DFT methods indicating fundamental difference in potential energy surfaces (PES). To identify the origin of the deviation, we compared fully optimized PM7 and respective DFT conformers. For many complexes, differences in PM7 and DFT conformational energies have been confirmed often manifesting themselves in false coordination of some atoms (H, O) to TMs and chemical transformations/distortion of coordination center geometry in PM7 structures. Despite geometry optimization with fixed coordination center geometry leads to some improvements in conformational energies, the resulting accuracy is still too low to recommend explored semiempirical methods for out-of-the-box conformational search/sampling: careful testing is always needed.

  2. Application of X-ray methods to assess grain vulnerability to damage resulting from multiple loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlobecki, A.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the work is to describe wheat grain behavior under multiple dynamic loads with various multipliers. The experiments were conducted on Almari variety grain. Grain moisture was 11, 16, 21 and 28%. A special ram stand was used for loading the grain. The experiments were carried out using an 8 g weight, equivalent to impact energy of 4,6 x 10 -3 [J]. The X-ray method was used to assess damage. The exposure time was 8 minutes with X-ray lamp voltage equal to 15 kV. The position index was used as the measure of the damage. The investigation results were elaborated statistically. Based on the results of analysis of variance, regression analysis, the d-Duncan test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the damage number was shown to depend greatly on the number of impacts for the whole range of moisture of the grain loaded. (author)

  3. (Re)interpreting LHC New Physics Search Results : Tools and Methods, 3rd Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    The quest for new physics beyond the SM is arguably the driving topic for LHC Run2. LHC collaborations are pursuing searches for new physics in a vast variety of channels. Although collaborations provide various interpretations for their search results, the full understanding of these results requires a much wider interpretation scope involving all kinds of theoretical models. This is a very active field, with close theory-experiment interaction. In particular, development of dedicated methodologies and tools is crucial for such scale of interpretation. Recently, a Forum was initiated to host discussions among LHC experimentalists and theorists on topics related to the BSM (re)interpretation of LHC data, and especially on the development of relevant interpretation tools and infrastructure: https://twiki.cern.ch/twiki/bin/view/LHCPhysics/InterpretingLHCresults Two meetings were held at CERN, where active discussions and concrete work on (re)interpretation methods and tools took place, with valuable cont...

  4. GRS Method for Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation of Code Results and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, H.

    2008-01-01

    During the recent years, an increasing interest in computational reactor safety analysis is to replace the conservative evaluation model calculations by best estimate calculations supplemented by uncertainty analysis of the code results. The evaluation of the margin to acceptance criteria, for example, the maximum fuel rod clad temperature, should be based on the upper limit of the calculated uncertainty range. Uncertainty analysis is needed if useful conclusions are to be obtained from best estimate thermal-hydraulic code calculations, otherwise single values of unknown accuracy would be presented for comparison with regulatory acceptance limits. Methods have been developed and presented to quantify the uncertainty of computer code results. The basic techniques proposed by GRS are presented together with applications to a large break loss of coolant accident on a reference reactor as well as on an experiment simulating containment behaviour

  5. Changes of forest stands vulnerability to future wind damage resulting from different management methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panferov, O.; Sogachev, Andrey; Ahrends, B.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of forests stands changes continuously as a result of forest growth and both natural and anthropogenic disturbances like windthrow or management activities – planting/cutting of trees. These structure changes can stabilize or destabilize forest stands in terms of their resistance...... to wind damage. The driving force behind the damage is the climate, but the magnitude and sign of resulting effect depend on tree species, management method and soil conditions. The projected increasing frequency of weather extremes in the whole and severe storms in particular might produce wide area...... damage in European forest ecosystems during the 21st century. To assess the possible wind damage and stabilization/destabilization effects of forest management a number of numeric experiments are carried out for the region of Solling, Germany. The coupled small-scale process-based model combining Brook90...

  6. Long-term results of forearm lengthening and deformity correction by the Ilizarov method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowski, Wiktor; Morasiewicz, Leszek; Krawczyk, Artur; Dragan, Szymon; Czapiński, Jacek

    2002-06-30

    Background. Shortening and deformity of the forearm is most frequently caused by congenital disorders or posttraumatic injury. Given its complex anatomy and biomechanics, the forearm is clearly the most difficult segment for lengthening and deformity correction. Material and methods. We analyzed 16 patients with shortening and deformity of the forearm, treated surgically, using the Ilizarov method in our Department from 1989 to 2001. in 9 cases 1-stage surgery was sufficient, while the remaining 7 patients underwent 2-5 stages of treatment. At total of 31 surgical operations were performed. The extent of forearm shortening ranged from 1,5 to 14,5 cm (5-70%). We development a new fixator based on Schanz half-pins. Results. The length of forearm lengthening per operative stage averaged 2,35 cm. the proportion of lengthening ranged from 6% to 48% with an average of 18,3%. The mean lengthening index was 48,15 days/cm. the per-patient rate of complications was 88% compared 45% per stage of treatment, mostly limited rotational mobility and abnormal consolidation of regenerated bone. Conclusions. Despite the high complication rate, the Ilizarov method is the method of choice for patients with forearm shortenings and deformities. Treatment is particularly indicated in patients with shortening caused by disproportionate length of the ulnar and forearm bones. Treatment should be managed so as cause the least possible damage to arm function, even at the cost of limited lengthening. Our new stabilizer based on Schanz half-pins makes it possible to preserve forearm rotation.

  7. Ultrasonic Digital Communication System for a Steel Wall Multipath Channel: Methods and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Timothy L. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2005-12-01

    As of the development of this thesis, no commercially available products have been identified for the digital communication of instrumented data across a thick ({approx} 6 n.) steel wall using ultrasound. The specific goal of the current research is to investigate the application of methods for digital communication of instrumented data (i.e., temperature, voltage, etc.) across the wall of a steel pressure vessel. The acoustic transmission of data using ultrasonic transducers prevents the need to breach the wall of such a pressure vessel which could ultimately affect its safety or lifespan, or void the homogeneity of an experiment under test. Actual digital communication paradigms are introduced and implemented for the successful dissemination of data across such a wall utilizing solely an acoustic ultrasonic link. The first, dubbed the ''single-hop'' configuration, can communicate bursts of digital data one-way across the wall using the Differential Binary Phase-Shift Keying (DBPSK) modulation technique as fast as 500 bps. The second, dubbed the ''double-hop'' configuration, transmits a carrier into the vessel, modulates it, and retransmits it externally. Using a pulsed carrier with Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), this technique can communicate digital data as fast as 500 bps. Using a CW carrier, Least Mean-Squared (LMS) adaptive interference suppression, and DBPSK, this method can communicate data as fast as 5 kbps. A third technique, dubbed the ''reflected-power'' configuration, communicates digital data by modulating a pulsed carrier by varying the acoustic impedance at the internal transducer-wall interface. The paradigms of the latter two configurations are believed to be unique. All modulation methods are based on the premise that the wall cannot be breached in any way and can therefore be viably implemented with power delivered wirelessly through the acoustic channel using ultrasound. Methods

  8. When Regional Innovation Policies Meet Policy Rationales and Evidence:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Jordana, Jacint

    regions, and to understand how rationales and evidence can be translated into policy-making. To this purpose, this paper develops a framework to study the extent to which regional innovation policies have changed during the past few years. Since the mid-2000s there has been an important development......In spite of recent advancements regarding regional innovation policy rationales and evidence, there are few analyses about the actual features of existing regional innovation policies. Nevertheless, a policy analysis perspective is important in order to recognise their distinctive patterns across...... of innovation policy rationales, advocating for more specialisation; likewise, greater data availability at the regional level has allowed more sophisticated assessment of innovation performance. Finally, the crisis since 2008 has had ravaging effects in some regions, with job losses and severe economic...

  9. When Regional Innovation Policies Meet Policy Rationales and Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Jordana, Jacint

    2016-01-01

    regions, and to understand how rationales and evidence can be translated into policy-making. To this purpose, this paper develops a framework to study the extent to which regional innovation policies have changed during the past few years. Since the mid-2000s, there has been an important development......In spite of recent advancements regarding regional innovation policy rationales and evidence, there are few analyses about the actual features of existing regional innovation policies. Nevertheless, a policy analysis perspective is important in order to recognize their distinctive patterns across...... of innovation policy rationales, advocating for more specialization; likewise, greater data availability at the regional level has allowed more sophisticated assessment of innovation performance. Finally, the crisis since 2008 has had ravaging effects in some regions, with job losses and severe economic...

  10. Improving the accuracy of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy results by machine learning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groselj, C.; Kukar, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Machine learning (ML) as rapidly growing artificial intelligence subfield has already proven in last decade to be a useful tool in many fields of decision making, also in some fields of medicine. Its decision accuracy usually exceeds the human one. To assess applicability of ML in interpretation the results of stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy for CAD diagnosis. The 327 patient's data of planar stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy were reevaluated in usual way. Comparing them with the results of coronary angiography the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the investigation was computed. The data were digitized and the decision procedure repeated by ML program 'Naive Bayesian classifier'. As the ML is able to simultaneously manipulate of whatever number of data, all reachable disease connected data (regarding history, habitus, risk factors, stress results) were added. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for scintigraphy were expressed in this way. The results of both decision procedures were compared. With ML method 19 patients more out of 327 (5.8 %) were correctly diagnosed by stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. ML could be an important tool for decision making in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. (author)

  11. Comparative analyses reveal discrepancies among results of commonly used methods for Anopheles gambiaemolecular form identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto João

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms, the major malaria vectors in the Afro-tropical region, are ongoing a process of ecological diversification and adaptive lineage splitting, which is affecting malaria transmission and vector control strategies in West Africa. These two incipient species are defined on the basis of single nucleotide differences in the IGS and ITS regions of multicopy rDNA located on the X-chromosome. A number of PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches based on form-specific SNPs in the IGS region are used for M and S identification. Moreover, a PCR-method to detect the M-specific insertion of a short interspersed transposable element (SINE200 has recently been introduced as an alternative identification approach. However, a large-scale comparative analysis of four widely used PCR or PCR-RFLP genotyping methods for M and S identification was never carried out to evaluate whether they could be used interchangeably, as commonly assumed. Results The genotyping of more than 400 A. gambiae specimens from nine African countries, and the sequencing of the IGS-amplicon of 115 of them, highlighted discrepancies among results obtained by the different approaches due to different kinds of biases, which may result in an overestimation of MS putative hybrids, as follows: i incorrect match of M and S specific primers used in the allele specific-PCR approach; ii presence of polymorphisms in the recognition sequence of restriction enzymes used in the PCR-RFLP approaches; iii incomplete cleavage during the restriction reactions; iv presence of different copy numbers of M and S-specific IGS-arrays in single individuals in areas of secondary contact between the two forms. Conclusions The results reveal that the PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches most commonly utilized to identify A. gambiae M and S forms are not fully interchangeable as usually assumed, and highlight limits of the actual definition of the two molecular forms, which might

  12. Differences in quantitative methods for measuring subjective cognitive decline - results from a prospective memory clinic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Asmus; Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive complaints occur frequently in elderly people and may be a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline. Results from studies on subjective cognitive decline are difficult to compare due to variability in assessment methods, and little is known about how different methods influence reports of cognitive decline. The Subjective Memory Complaints Scale (SMC) and The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) were applied in 121 mixed memory clinic patients with mild cognitive symptoms (mean MMSE = 26.8, SD 2.7). The scales were applied independently and raters were blinded to results from the other scale. Scales were not used for diagnostic classification. Cognitive performances and depressive symptoms were also rated. We studied the association between the two measures and investigated the scales' relation to depressive symptoms, age, and cognitive status. SMC and MAC-Q were significantly associated (r = 0.44, N = 121, p = 0.015) and both scales had a wide range of scores. In this mixed cohort of patients, younger age was associated with higher SMC scores. There were no significant correlations between cognitive test performances and scales measuring subjective decline. Depression scores were significantly correlated to both scales measuring subjective decline. Linear regression models showed that age did not have a significant contribution to the variance in subjective memory beyond that of depressive symptoms. Measures for subjective cognitive decline are not interchangeable when used in memory clinics and the application of different scales in previous studies is an important factor as to why studies show variability in the association between subjective cognitive decline and background data and/or clinical results. Careful consideration should be taken as to which questions are relevant and have validity when operationalizing subjective cognitive decline.

  13. 3D ultrasound computer tomography: Hardware setup, reconstruction methods and first clinical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmeke, Hartmut; Hopp, Torsten; Zapf, Michael; Kaiser, Clemens; Ruiter, Nicole V.

    2017-11-01

    A promising candidate for improved imaging of breast cancer is ultrasound computer tomography (USCT). Current experimental USCT systems are still focused in elevation dimension resulting in a large slice thickness, limited depth of field, loss of out-of-plane reflections, and a large number of movement steps to acquire a stack of images. 3D USCT emitting and receiving spherical wave fronts overcomes these limitations. We built an optimized 3D USCT, realizing for the first time the full benefits of a 3D system. The point spread function could be shown to be nearly isotropic in 3D, to have very low spatial variability and fit the predicted values. The contrast of the phantom images is very satisfactory in spite of imaging with a sparse aperture. The resolution and imaged details of the reflectivity reconstruction are comparable to a 3 T MRI volume. Important for the obtained resolution are the simultaneously obtained results of the transmission tomography. The KIT 3D USCT was then tested in a pilot study on ten patients. The primary goals of the pilot study were to test the USCT device, the data acquisition protocols, the image reconstruction methods and the image fusion techniques in a clinical environment. The study was conducted successfully; the data acquisition could be carried out for all patients with an average imaging time of six minutes per breast. The reconstructions provide promising images. Overlaid volumes of the modalities show qualitative and quantitative information at a glance. This paper gives a summary of the involved techniques, methods, and first results.

  14. Impact of Costing and Cost Analysis Methods on the Result of the Period: Methods Based on Full Cost Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Maria

    2017-01-01

    In light of the above, in the present paper we have proposed that objectives, to approach the methods of calculating full costs (economic or traditional, and comparing them to determine the effect they have on the outcome of the period.

  15. Feasibility to implement the radioisotopic method of nasal mucociliary transport measurement getting reliable results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troncoso, M.; Opazo, C.; Quilodran, C.; Lizama, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Our goal was to implement the radioisotopic method to measure the nasal mucociliary velocity of transport (NMVT) in a feasible way in order to make it easily available as well as to validate the accuracy of the results. Such a method is needed when primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is suspected, a disorder characterized for low NMVT, non-specific chronic respiratory symptoms that needs to be confirmed by electronic microscopic cilia biopsy. Methods: We performed one hundred studies from February 2000 until February 2002. Patients aged 2 months to 39 years, mean 9 years. All of them were referred from the Respiratory Disease Department. Ninety had upper or lower respiratory symptoms, ten were healthy controls. The procedure, done be the Nuclear Medicine Technologist, consists to put a 20 μl drop of 99mTc-MAA (0,1 mCi, 4 MBq) behind the head of the inferior turbinate in one nostril using a frontal light, a nasal speculum and a teflon catheter attached to a tuberculin syringe. The drop movement was acquired in a gamma camera-computer system and the velocity was expressed in mm/min. As there is need for the patient not to move during the procedure, sedation has to be used in non-cooperative children. Abnormal NMVT values cases were referred for nasal biopsy. Patients were classified in three groups. Normal controls (NC), PCD confirmed by biopsy (PCDB) and cases with respiratory symptoms without biopsy (RSNB). In all patients with NMVT less than 2.4 mm/min PCD was confirmed by biopsy. There was a clear-cut separation between normal and abnormal values and interestingly even the highest NMVT in PCDB cases was lower than the lowest NMVT in NC. The procedure is not as easy as is generally described in the literature because the operator has to get some skill as well as for the need of sedation in some cases. Conclusion: The procedure gives reliable, reproducible and objective results. It is safe, not expensive and quick in cooperative patients. Although, sometimes

  16. Rainfall assimilation in RAMS by means of the Kuo parameterisation inversion: method and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, A.; Ortolani, A.; Meneguzzo, F.; Levizzani, V.; Torricella, F.; Turk, F. J.

    2004-03-01

    In order to improve high-resolution forecasts, a specific method for assimilating rainfall rates into the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System model has been developed. It is based on the inversion of the Kuo convective parameterisation scheme. A nudging technique is applied to 'gently' increase with time the weight of the estimated precipitation in the assimilation process. A rough but manageable technique is explained to estimate the partition of convective precipitation from stratiform one, without requiring any ancillary measurement. The method is general purpose, but it is tuned for geostationary satellite rainfall estimation assimilation. Preliminary results are presented and discussed, both through totally simulated experiments and through experiments assimilating real satellite-based precipitation observations. For every case study, Rainfall data are computed with a rapid update satellite precipitation estimation algorithm based on IR and MW satellite observations. This research was carried out in the framework of the EURAINSAT project (an EC research project co-funded by the Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development Programme within the topic 'Development of generic Earth observation technologies', Contract number EVG1-2000-00030).

  17. Implantable central venous chemoport: camparision of results according to approach routes and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Byung Suck; Ahn, Moon Sang

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the results and complications of placement of implantable port according to approach routes and methods. Between April 2001 and October 2002, a total of 103 implantable chemoport was placed in 95 patients for chemotherapy using preconnected type (n=39) and attachable type (n=64). Puncture sites were left subclavian vein (n=35), right subclavian vein (n=5), left internal jugular vein (n=9), right internal jugular vein (n=54). We evaluated duration of catheterization days, complications according to approach routes and methods. Implantable chemoport was placed successfully in all cases. Duration of catheterization ranged from 8 to 554 days(mean 159, total 17,872 catheter days). Procedure related complications occurred transient pulmonary air embolism (n=1), small hematoma (n=1) and malposition in using preconnected type (n=2). Late complications occurred catheter migration (n=5), catheter malfunction (n=3), occlusion (n=1) and infection (n=11). Among them 15 chemoport was removed (14.5%). Catheter migration was occured via subclavian vein in all cases (13%, p=.008). Infection developed in 10.7% of patients(0.61 per 1000 catheter days). There were no catheter-related central vein thrombosis. Implantation of chemoport is a safe procedure. Choice of right internal jugular vein than subclavian vain vein for puncture site has less complications. And selection of attachable type of chemoport is convenient than preconnected type. Adequate care of chemoport is essential for long patency

  18. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results on resonance reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania, Italy and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Gulino, M.; Tumino, A. [Kore University, Enna, Italy and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2014-05-09

    Nuclear astrophysics aims to measure nuclear-reaction cross sections of astrophysical interest to be included into models to study stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Low energies, < 1 MeV or even < 10 keV, are requested for this is the window where these processes are more effective. Two effects have prevented to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes, namely, the Coulomb barrier exponentially suppressing the cross section and the presence of atomic electrons. These difficulties have triggered theoretical and experimental investigations to extend our knowledge down to astrophysical energies. For instance, indirect techniques such as the Trojan Horse Method have been devised yielding new cutting-edge results. In particular, I will focus on the application of this indirect method to resonance reactions. Resonances might dramatically enhance the astrophysical S(E)-factor so, when they occur right at astrophysical energies, their measurement is crucial to pin down the astrophysical scenario. Unknown or unpredicted resonances might introduce large systematic errors in nucleosynthesis models. These considerations apply to low-energy resonances and to sub-threshold resonances as well, as they may produce sizable modifications of the S-factor due to, for instance, destructive interference with another resonance.

  19. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results on resonance reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S.; Gulino, M.; Tumino, A.; Lamia, L.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics aims to measure nuclear-reaction cross sections of astrophysical interest to be included into models to study stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Low energies, < 1 MeV or even < 10 keV, are requested for this is the window where these processes are more effective. Two effects have prevented to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes, namely, the Coulomb barrier exponentially suppressing the cross section and the presence of atomic electrons. These difficulties have triggered theoretical and experimental investigations to extend our knowledge down to astrophysical energies. For instance, indirect techniques such as the Trojan Horse Method have been devised yielding new cutting-edge results. In particular, I will focus on the application of this indirect method to resonance reactions. Resonances might dramatically enhance the astrophysical S(E)-factor so, when they occur right at astrophysical energies, their measurement is crucial to pin down the astrophysical scenario. Unknown or unpredicted resonances might introduce large systematic errors in nucleosynthesis models. These considerations apply to low-energy resonances and to sub-threshold resonances as well, as they may produce sizable modifications of the S-factor due to, for instance, destructive interference with another resonance

  20. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D. [and others

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  1. Differences in quantitative methods for measuring subjective cognitive decline - results from a prospective memory clinic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo

    2016-01-01

    influence reports of cognitive decline. METHODS: The Subjective Memory Complaints Scale (SMC) and The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) were applied in 121 mixed memory clinic patients with mild cognitive symptoms (mean MMSE = 26.8, SD 2.7). The scales were applied independently and raters were blinded...... decline. Depression scores were significantly correlated to both scales measuring subjective decline. Linear regression models showed that age did not have a significant contribution to the variance in subjective memory beyond that of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Measures for subjective cognitive...... decline are not interchangeable when used in memory clinics and the application of different scales in previous studies is an important factor as to why studies show variability in the association between subjective cognitive decline and background data and/or clinical results. Careful consideration...

  2. Results of a survey on accident and safety analysis codes, benchmarks, verification and validation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.; Wilkin, G.B.

    1996-03-01

    During the 'Workshop on R and D needs' at the 3rd Meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors (IGORR-III), the participants agreed that it would be useful to compile a survey of the computer codes and nuclear data libraries used in accident and safety analyses for research reactors and the methods various organizations use to verify and validate their codes and libraries. Five organizations, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL, Canada), China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE, People's Republic of China), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI, Japan), Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL, USA), and Siemens (Germany) responded to the survey. The results of the survey are compiled in this report. (author) 36 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Radioactive indium labelling of the figured elements of blood. Method, results, applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducassou, D.; Nouel, J.P.

    Following the work of Thakur et al. the authors became interested in red corpuscle, leucocyte and platelet labelling with indium 111 or 113m (8 hydroxyquinolein-indium). For easier labelling of the figured elements of blood the technique described was modified. The chelate is prepared by simple contact at room temperature of indium 111 or 113m chloride and water-soluble 8 hydroxyquinolein sulphate, in the presence of 0.2M TRIS buffer. The figured element chosen suspended in physiological serum is added directly to the solution obtained, the platelets and leucocytes being separated out beforehand by differential centrifugation. While it gives results similar to those of Thabur et al. the method proposed avoids the chloroform extraction of the radioactive chelate and the use of alcohol, liable to impair the platelet regation capacity [fr

  4. Hydrogen storage in single-walled carbon nanotubes: methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, E.; Chahine, R.; Tessier, A.; Cossement, D.; Lafi, L.; Bose, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    We present high sensitivity gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen sorption measurement systems adapted for in situ conditioning under high temperature and high vacuum. These systems, which allow for precise measurements on small samples and thorough degassing, are used for sorption measurements on carbon nanostructures. We developed one volumetric system for the pressure range 0-1 bar, and two gravimetric systems for 0-1 bar and 0-100 bars. The use of both gravimetric and volumetric methods allows for the cross-checking of the results. The accuracy of the systems has been determined from hydrogen absorption measurements on palladium. The accuracies of the 0-1 bar volumetric and gravimetric systems are about 10 μg and 20 μg respectively. The accuracy of the 0-100 bars gravimetric system is about 20 μg. Hydrogen sorption measurements on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and metal-incorporated- SWNTs are presented. (author)

  5. Method validation in plasma source optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) - From samples to results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilon, Fabien; Vielle, Karine; Birolleau, Jean-Claude; Vigneau, Olivier; Labet, Alexandre; Arnal, Nadege; Adam, Christelle; Camilleri, Virginie; Amiel, Jeanine; Granier, Guy; Faure, Joel; Arnaud, Regine; Beres, Andre; Blanchard, Jean-Marc; Boyer-Deslys, Valerie; Broudic, Veronique; Marques, Caroline; Augeray, Celine; Bellefleur, Alexandre; Bienvenu, Philippe; Delteil, Nicole; Boulet, Beatrice; Bourgarit, David; Brennetot, Rene; Fichet, Pascal; Celier, Magali; Chevillotte, Rene; Klelifa, Aline; Fuchs, Gilbert; Le Coq, Gilles; Mermet, Jean-Michel

    2017-01-01

    Even though ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy) is now a routine analysis technique, requirements for measuring processes impose a complete control and mastering of the operating process and of the associated quality management system. The aim of this (collective) book is to guide the analyst during all the measurement validation procedure and to help him to guarantee the mastering of its different steps: administrative and physical management of samples in the laboratory, preparation and treatment of the samples before measuring, qualification and monitoring of the apparatus, instrument setting and calibration strategy, exploitation of results in terms of accuracy, reliability, data covariance (with the practical determination of the accuracy profile). The most recent terminology is used in the book, and numerous examples and illustrations are given in order to a better understanding and to help the elaboration of method validation documents

  6. Labelling of blood cells with radioactive indium-201: method, results, indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducassou, D.; Brendel, A.; Nouel, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A modification of the method of Thakur et al. for labelling polynuclear cells with 8-hydroxyquinolein-indium-complexe utilising the water soluble sulfate of the substance was applied. The labelling procedure gave a yield over 98% with erthrocytes and over 80% with platelets and polynuclear cells using at least 1 x 10 8 plasma free cells. Functional capacity of the labelled cells remained unaltered. Injection double labelled ( 111 In, 51 Cr) red cells correlation of values for the red cell volume amounted to r = 0,98 (n=20); red cell life-spane measurements gave comparable results in 5 patients. After injecting labelled platelets a life-spane between 6,5 and 11 days was measured. Scintigraphic visualisation of pulmonary embolism was obtained 30 minutes after injecting labelled platelets. Injection of labelled polynuclear cells allows life-spane measurements as well as detection of abscesses. (author)

  7. Pion emission from the T2K replica target: method, results and application

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N.; Anticic, T.; Antoniou, N.; Argyriades, J.; Baatar, B.; Blondel, A.; Blumer, J.; Bogomilov, M.; Bravar, A.; Brooks, W.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Busygina, O.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Czopowicz, T.; Davis, N.; Debieux, S.; Di Luise, S.; Dominik, W.; Dumarchez, J.; Dynowski, K.; Engel, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Feofilov, G.A.; Fodor, Z.; Ferrero, A.; Fulop, A.; Gazdzicki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grabez, B.; Grebieszkow, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Haesler, A.; Hakobyan, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Idczak, R.; Igolkin, S.; Ivanov, Y.; Ivashkin, A.; Kadija, K.; Kapoyannis, A.; Katrynska, N.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikola, D.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kiss, T.; Kleinfelder, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kochebina, O.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V.P.; Korzenev, A.; Kowalski, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kuleshov, S.; Kurepin, A.; Lacey, R.; Larsen, D.; Laszlo, A.; Lyubushkin, V.V.; Mackowiak-Pawlowska, M.; Majka, Z.; Maksiak, B.; Malakhov, A.I.; Maletic, D.; Marchionni, A.; Marcinek, A.; Maris, I.; Marin, V.; Marton, K.; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G.L.; Messina, M.; Mrowczynski, St.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Palczewski, T.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Paul, T.; Peryt, W.; Petukhov, O.; Planeta, R.; Pluta, J.; Popov, B.A.; Posiadala, M.; Pulawski, S.; Puzovic, J.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Renfordt, R.; Robert, A.; Rohrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Rossi, B.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczynski, M.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Savic, M.; Sekiguchi, T.; Seyboth, P.; Shibata, M.; Sipos, M.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Strabel, C.; Strobele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Tada, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tolyhi, T.; Tsenov, R.; Turko, L.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vassiliou, M.; Veberic, D.; Vechernin, V.V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Wilczek, A.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.; Wyszynski, O.; Zambelli, L.; Zipper, W.; Hartz, M.; Ichikawa, A.K.; Kubo, H.; Marino, A.D.; Matsuoka, K.; Murakami, A.; Nakaya, T.; Suzuki, K.; Yuan, T.; Zimmerman, E.D.

    2013-01-01

    The T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in Japan needs precise predictions of the initial neutrino flux. The highest precision can be reached based on detailed measurements of hadron emission from the same target as used by T2K exposed to a proton beam of the same kinetic energy of 30 GeV. The corresponding data were recorded in 2007-2010 by the NA61/SHINE experiment at the CERN SPS using a replica of the T2K graphite target. In this paper details of the experiment, data taking, data analysis method and results from the 2007 pilot run are presented. Furthermore, the application of the NA61/SHINE measurements to the predictions of the T2K initial neutrino flux is described and discussed.

  8. MLFMA-accelerated Nyström method for ultrasonic scattering - Numerical results and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrala, Praveen; Downs, Andrew; Chen, Kun; Song, Jiming; Roberts, Ron

    2018-04-01

    Full wave scattering models for ultrasonic waves are necessary for the accurate prediction of voltage signals received from complex defects/flaws in practical nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurements. We propose the high-order Nyström method accelerated by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) as an improvement to the state-of-the-art full-wave scattering models that are based on boundary integral equations. We present numerical results demonstrating improvements in simulation time and memory requirement. Particularly, we demonstrate the need for higher order geom-etry and field approximation in modeling NDE measurements. Also, we illustrate the importance of full-wave scattering models using experimental pulse-echo data from a spherical inclusion in a solid, which cannot be modeled accurately by approximation-based scattering models such as the Kirchhoff approximation.

  9. Lagrangian methods for blood damage estimation in cardiovascular devices--How numerical implementation affects the results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Gil; Bluestein, Danny

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluated the influence of various numerical implementation assumptions on predicting blood damage in cardiovascular devices using Lagrangian methods with Eulerian computational fluid dynamics. The implementation assumptions that were tested included various seeding patterns, stochastic walk model, and simplified trajectory calculations with pathlines. Post processing implementation options that were evaluated included single passage and repeated passages stress accumulation and time averaging. This study demonstrated that the implementation assumptions can significantly affect the resulting stress accumulation, i.e., the blood damage model predictions. Careful considerations should be taken in the use of Lagrangian models. Ultimately, the appropriate assumptions should be considered based the physics of the specific case and sensitivity analysis, similar to the ones presented here, should be employed.

  10. Comparison of Results according to the treatment Method in Maxillary Sinus Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Woong Ki; Jo, Jae Sik; Ahn, Sung Ja; Nam, Taek Keun; Nah, Byung Sik [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Jin [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-03-15

    Purpose : A retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the proper management of maxillary sinus carcinoma. Materials and Methods : Authors analysed 33 patients of squamous cell carcinoma of maxillary sinus treated at Chonnam University Hospital from January 1986 to December 1992. There were 24 men and 9 women with median age of 55 years. According to AJCC TNM system of 1988, a patient of T2, 10 patients of T3 and 22 patients of T4 were available, respectively. Cervical lymph node metastases was observed in 5 patients(N1;4/33, N2b;1/33). Patients were classified as 3 groups according to management method. The first group, named as 'FAR' (16 patients), was consisted of preoperative intra-arterial chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil(5-FU;mean of total dosage;3078mg) through the superficial temporal artery with concurrent radiation(mean dose delivered;3433cGy, daily 180-200cGy) and vitamin A(50,000 IU daily), and followed by total maxillectomy and postoperative radiation therapy(mean dose;2351cGy). The second group, named as 'SR'(7 patients), was consisted of total maxillectomy followed by postoperative radiation therapy(mean dose 5920 cGy). Her third group, named as 'R'(6 patients), was treated with radiation alone(mean dose;7164cGy). Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used for survival analysis and Mantel-Cox test was performed for significance of survival difference between two groups. Results : Local recurrence free survival rate in the end of 2 year was 100%, 5-% and 0% in FAR, SR and R group, respectively. Disease free survival rate in 2 years was 88.9%, 40% and 50% in Far, SR and R group, respectively. There were statistically significant difference between FAR and SR or FAR and R group in their local recurrence free, disease free and overall survival rates. But difference of each survival rate between SR and R group was not significant. Conclusion : In this study FAR group revealed better results that SR or R group. In the

  11. INTERDISCIPLINARITY IN PUBLIC SPACE PARTICIPATIVE PROJECTS: METHODS AND RESULTS IN PRACTICE AND TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Brandão

    2015-06-01

    • In the development of design practice and studio teaching methods We shall see in this paper how interdisciplinary approaches correspond to new and complex urban transformations, focusing on the importance of actors’ interaction processes, combining professional and non-professional knowledge and theory-practice relations. Therefore, we aim at a deepening in public space area of knowledge under the growing complexity of urban life. We see it as a base for further development of collaborative projects and their implications on community empowerment and urban governance at local level. Motivations of this line of work are persistent in several ongoing research projects, aiming to: - Understand public space as a cohesion factor both in urban life and urban form - Manage processes and strategies as elements of urban transformation, - Stimulate the understanding of actors’ roles in urban design practices. - Favoring the questioning of emerging aspects of urban space production… The paper presents and analyses processes, methods and results from civic participation projects developed in the neighbourhood of Barò de Viver (Barcelona and in the District of Marvila (Lisbon. In the first case, a long process initiated in 2004 and partially completed in 2011, neighbours developed the projects "Memory Wall" and Ciutat d'Asuncion Promenade as part of identity construction in public space, in collaboration  with a team of facilitators from CrPolis group. In the second case, different participatory processes dated from 2001 and 2003 have resulted in the implementation of a specific identity urban brand and communication system with an ongoing project of "maps" construction according to the neighbours perception and representation systems. We may conclude that processes of urban governance require more active participation of citizens in projects regarding the improvement of quality of life. At the same time, the implementation of these processes requires a clear

  12. Comparison of Results according to the treatment Method in Maxillary Sinus Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Woong Ki; Jo, Jae Sik; Ahn, Sung Ja; Nam, Taek Keun; Nah, Byung Sik; Park, Seung Jin

    1995-01-01

    Purpose : A retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the proper management of maxillary sinus carcinoma. Materials and Methods : Authors analysed 33 patients of squamous cell carcinoma of maxillary sinus treated at Chonnam University Hospital from January 1986 to December 1992. There were 24 men and 9 women with median age of 55 years. According to AJCC TNM system of 1988, a patient of T2, 10 patients of T3 and 22 patients of T4 were available, respectively. Cervical lymph node metastases was observed in 5 patients(N1;4/33, N2b;1/33). Patients were classified as 3 groups according to management method. The first group, named as 'FAR' (16 patients), was consisted of preoperative intra-arterial chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil(5-FU;mean of total dosage;3078mg) through the superficial temporal artery with concurrent radiation(mean dose delivered;3433cGy, daily 180-200cGy) and vitamin A(50,000 IU daily), and followed by total maxillectomy and postoperative radiation therapy(mean dose;2351cGy). The second group, named as 'SR'(7 patients), was consisted of total maxillectomy followed by postoperative radiation therapy(mean dose 5920 cGy). Her third group, named as 'R'(6 patients), was treated with radiation alone(mean dose;7164cGy). Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used for survival analysis and Mantel-Cox test was performed for significance of survival difference between two groups. Results : Local recurrence free survival rate in the end of 2 year was 100%, 5-% and 0% in FAR, SR and R group, respectively. Disease free survival rate in 2 years was 88.9%, 40% and 50% in Far, SR and R group, respectively. There were statistically significant difference between FAR and SR or FAR and R group in their local recurrence free, disease free and overall survival rates. But difference of each survival rate between SR and R group was not significant. Conclusion : In this study FAR group revealed better results that SR or R group. In the future prospective randomized

  13. Quantifying viruses and bacteria in wastewater—Results, interpretation methods, and quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Mailot, Brian E.; Spencer, Susan K.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Elber, Ashley G.; Riddell, Kimberly R.; Gellner, Terry M.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR), used for wastewater treatment in Ohio and elsewhere in the United States, have pore sizes small enough to theoretically reduce concentrations of protozoa and bacteria, but not viruses. Sampling for viruses in wastewater is seldom done and not required. Instead, the bacterial indicators Escherichia coli (E. coli) and fecal coliforms are the required microbial measures of effluents for wastewater-discharge permits. Information is needed on the effectiveness of MBRs in removing human enteric viruses from wastewaters, particularly as compared to conventional wastewater treatment before and after disinfection. A total of 73 regular and 28 quality-control (QC) samples were collected at three MBR and two conventional wastewater plants in Ohio during 23 regular and 3 QC sampling trips in 2008-10. Samples were collected at various stages in the treatment processes and analyzed for bacterial indicators E. coli, fecal coliforms, and enterococci by membrane filtration; somatic and F-specific coliphage by the single agar layer (SAL) method; adenovirus, enterovirus, norovirus GI and GII, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus by molecular methods; and viruses by cell culture. While addressing the main objective of the study-comparing removal of viruses and bacterial indicators in MBR and conventional plants-it was realized that work was needed to identify data analysis and quantification methods for interpreting enteric virus and QC data. Therefore, methods for quantifying viruses, qualifying results, and applying QC data to interpretations are described in this report. During each regular sampling trip, samples were collected (1) before conventional or MBR treatment (post-preliminary), (2) after secondary or MBR treatment (post-secondary or post-MBR), (3) after tertiary treatment (one conventional plant only), and (4) after disinfection (post-disinfection). Glass-wool fiber filtration was used to concentrate enteric viruses from large volumes, and small

  14. Rationale for the development of radioimmunoassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulston, J E; Adam, T [Charing Cross Group of Hospitals, London (UK)

    1978-02-01

    A theoretical study of the principles of radioimmunoassay and allied techniques is presented with a view to the application in practical developmental research. Both equilibrium and sequential saturation methods are discussed and their respective advantages noted. Simple methods for the estimation of the affinity constant by saturation techniques and use of the Scatchard plot are outlined.

  15. Impact of Costing and Cost Analysis Methods on the Result of the Period: Methods Based on Partial Cost Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Maria

    2017-01-01

    Looking from this perspective, in the present paper we have proposed that objectives, to approach the full cost calculation methods based on partial costs (direct-costing on the product or direct-costing evolved, and comparing them to determine the effect they have on the outcome of the period.

  16. Content validity of methods to assess malnutrition in cancer patients: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sealy, Martine; Nijholt, Willemke; Stuiver, M.M.; van der Berg, M.M.; Ottery, Faith D.; van der Schans, Cees; Roodenburg, Jan L N; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët

    Content validity of methods to assess malnutrition in cancer patients: A systematic review Rationale: Inadequate operationalisation of the multidimensial concept of malnutrition may result in inadequate evaluation of nutritional status. In this review we aimed to assess content validity of methods

  17. A New Method for a Virtue-Based Responsible Conduct of Research Curriculum: Pilot Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berling, Eric; McLeskey, Chet; O'Rourke, Michael; Pennock, Robert T

    2018-02-03

    Drawing on Pennock's theory of scientific virtues, we are developing an alternative curriculum for training scientists in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) that emphasizes internal values rather than externally imposed rules. This approach focuses on the virtuous characteristics of scientists that lead to responsible and exemplary behavior. We have been pilot-testing one element of such a virtue-based approach to RCR training by conducting dialogue sessions, modeled upon the approach developed by Toolbox Dialogue Initiative, that focus on a specific virtue, e.g., curiosity and objectivity. During these structured discussions, small groups of scientists explore the roles they think the focus virtue plays and should play in the practice of science. Preliminary results have shown that participants strongly prefer this virtue-based model over traditional methods of RCR training. While we cannot yet definitively say that participation in these RCR sessions contributes to responsible conduct, these pilot results are encouraging and warrant continued development of this virtue-based approach to RCR training.

  18. First characterization of the expiratory flow increase technique: method development and results analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maréchal, L; Barthod, C; Jeulin, J C

    2009-01-01

    This study provides an important contribution to the definition of the expiratory flow increase technique (EFIT). So far, no measuring means were suited to assess the manual EFIT performed on infants. The proposed method aims at objectively defining the EFIT based on the quantification of pertinent cognitive parameters used by physiotherapists when practicing. We designed and realized customized instrumented gloves endowed with pressure and displacement sensors, and the associated electronics and software. This new system is specific to the manoeuvre, to the user and innocuous for the patient. Data were collected and analysed on infants with bronchiolitis managed by an expert physiotherapist. The analysis presented is realized on a group of seven subjects (mean age: 6.1 months, SD: 1.1; mean chest circumference: 44.8 cm, SD: 1.9). The results are consistent with the physiotherapist's tactility. In spite of inevitable variability due to measurements on infants, repeatable quantitative data could be reported regarding the manoeuvre characteristics: the magnitudes of displacements do not exceed 10 mm on both hands; the movement of the thoracic hand is more vertical than the movement of the abdominal hand; the maximum applied pressure with the thoracic hand is about twice higher than with the abdominal hand; the thrust of the manual compression lasts (590 ± 62) ms. Inter-operators measurements are in progress in order to generalize these results

  19. Enhancing activated-peroxide formulations for porous materials: Test methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, Paula [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tucker, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tezak, Matthew S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boucher, Raymond [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-12-01

    During an urban wide-area incident involving the release of a biological warfare agent, the recovery/restoration effort will require extensive resources and will tax the current capabilities of the government and private contractors. In fact, resources may be so limited that decontamination by facility owners/occupants may become necessary and a simple decontamination process and material should be available for this use. One potential process for use by facility owners/occupants would be a liquid sporicidal decontaminant, such as pHamended bleach or activated-peroxide, and simple application devices. While pH-amended bleach is currently the recommended low-tech decontamination solution, a less corrosive and toxic decontaminant is desirable. The objective of this project is to provide an operational assessment of an alternative to chlorine bleach for low-tech decontamination applications activated hydrogen peroxide. This report provides the methods and results for activatedperoxide evaluation experiments. The results suggest that the efficacy of an activated-peroxide decontaminant is similar to pH-amended bleach on many common materials.

  20. Energy Conservation Program Evaluation : Practical Methods, Useful Results : Proceedings of the 1987 Conference.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argonne National Laboratory; International Conference on Energy Conservation Program Evaluation (3rd : 1987 : Chicago, ILL.)

    1987-01-01

    The success of cutting-edge evaluation methodologies depends on our ability to merge, manage, and maintain huge amounts of data. Equally important is presenting results of the subsequent analysis in a meaningful way. These topics are addressed at this session. The considerable amounts of data that have been collected about energy conservation programs are rarely used by other researchers, either because they are not available in computerized form or, if they are, because of the difficulties of interpreting someone else's data, format inconsistencies, incompatibility of computers, lack of documentation, data entry errors, and obtaining data use agreements. Even census, RECS, and AHS data can be best used only by a researcher who is intimately familiar with them. Once the data have been accessed and analyzed, the results need to be put in a format that can be readily understood by others. This is a particularly difficult task when submetered data is the basis of the analysis. Stoops and Gilbride will demonstrate their methods of using off-the-shelf graphics software to illustrate complex hourly data from nonresidential buildings.

  1. Automatically classifying sentences in full-text biomedical articles into Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shashank; Yu, Hong

    2009-12-01

    Biomedical texts can be typically represented by four rhetorical categories: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion (IMRAD). Classifying sentences into these categories can benefit many other text-mining tasks. Although many studies have applied different approaches for automatically classifying sentences in MEDLINE abstracts into the IMRAD categories, few have explored the classification of sentences that appear in full-text biomedical articles. We first evaluated whether sentences in full-text biomedical articles could be reliably annotated into the IMRAD format and then explored different approaches for automatically classifying these sentences into the IMRAD categories. Our results show an overall annotation agreement of 82.14% with a Kappa score of 0.756. The best classification system is a multinomial naïve Bayes classifier trained on manually annotated data that achieved 91.95% accuracy and an average F-score of 91.55%, which is significantly higher than baseline systems. A web version of this system is available online at-http://wood.ims.uwm.edu/full_text_classifier/.

  2. Dosimetry methods and results for the former residents of Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.

    1979-01-01

    The US Government utilized Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands of Micronesia for atomspheric tests of nuclear explosives in the 1940's and 1950's. The original inhabitants of these atolls were relocated prior to the tests. During the early 1970's, a small but growing population of Marshallese people reinhabited Bikini. Environmental and personnel radiological monitoring programs were begun in 1974 to ensure that doses and dose commitments received by Bikini residents remained within US Federal Radiation Council guidelines. Dramatic increases in 137 Cs body burdens among the inhabitants between April 1977 and 1978 may have played a significant role in the government decision to move the 140 Bikinians in residence off of the atoll in August 1978. The average 137 Cs body burden for the population was 2.3 μCi in April 1978. Several individuals, however, exceeded the maximum permissible body burden of 3 μCi, and some approached 6 μCi. The resultant total dose commitment was less than 200 mrem for the average resident. The average total dose for the mean residence interval of approx. 4.5 years was about 1 rem. The sources of exposure, the probable cause of the unexpected increase in 137 Cs body burdens, and the methods for calculating radionuclide intake and resultant doses are discussed. Suggestions are offered as to the implications of the most significant exposure pathways for the future inhabitation of Bikini and Enewetak

  3. Major Results of the OECD BEMUSE (Best Estimate Methods; Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation) Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reventos, F.

    2008-01-01

    One of the goals of computer code models of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) is to demonstrate that these are designed to respond safely at postulated accidents. Models and codes are an approximation of the real physical behaviour occurring during a hypothetical transient and the data used to build these models are also known with certain accuracy. Therefore code predictions are uncertain. The BEMUSE programme is focussed on the application of uncertainty methodologies to large break LOCAs. The programme intends to evaluate the practicability, quality and reliability of best-estimate methods including uncertainty evaluations in applications relevant to nuclear reactor safety, to develop common understanding and to promote/facilitate their use by the regulator bodies and the industry. In order to fulfil its objectives BEMUSE is organized in to steps and six phases. The first step is devoted to the complete analysis of a LB-LOCA (L2-5) in an experimental facility (LOFT) while the second step refers to an actual Nuclear Power Plant. Both steps provide results on thermalhydraulic Best Estimate simulation as well as Uncertainty and sensitivity evaluation. At the time this paper is prepared, phases I, II and III are fully completed and the corresponding reports have been issued. Phase IV draft report is by now being reviewed while participants are working on Phase V developments. Phase VI consists in preparing the final status report which will summarizes the most relevant results of the whole programme.

  4. Danish pain specialists' rationales behind the choice of fentanyl transdermal patches and oral transmucosal systems-A Delphi study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Møldrup, Claus; Christrup, Lona

    2009-01-01

    survey. Response rates were 45% in the brainstorming and 88% in the rating phases, respectively. Statistical analysis with SPSS for Windows 15.00 included descriptive statistics and factor analysis. Results. The most important rationale to choose fentanyl patches was that patients' clinical condition did...

  5. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as an adjuvant method in the treatment of depression: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a method of brain stimulation which is increasingly used in both clinical practice and research. Up-to-date studies have pointed out a potential antidepressive effect of rTMS, but definitive superiority over placebo has not yet been confirmed. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of rTMS as an adjuvant treatment with antidepressants during 18 weeks of evaluation starting from the initial application of the protocol. Methods. Four patients with the diagnosis of moderate/severe major depression were included in the study. The protocol involved 2000 stimuli per day (rTMS frequency of 10 Hz, intensity of 120% motor threshold administered over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC for 15 days. Subjective and objective depressive symptoms were measured before the initiation of rTMS and repeatedly evaluated at week 3, 6, 12 and 18 from the beginning of the stimulation. Results. After completion of rTMS protocol two patients demonstrated a reduction of depressive symptoms that was sustained throughout the 15-week follow-up period. One patient showed a tendency of remission during the first 12 weeks of the study, but relapsed in week 18. One patient showed no significant symptom reduction at any point of follow-up. Conclusion. Preliminary findings suggest that rTMS has a good tolerability and can be efficient in accelerating the effect of antidepressants, particularly in individuals with shorter duration of depressive episodes and moderate symptom severity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41029 i br. ON175090

  6. HAMMLAB 1999 experimental control room: design - design rationale - experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerdestroemmen, N. T.; Meyer, B. D.; Saarni, R.

    1999-01-01

    A presentation of HAMMLAB 1999 experimental control room, and the accumulated experiences gathered in the areas of design and design rationale as well as user experiences. It is concluded that HAMMLAB 1999 experimental control room is a realistic, compact and efficient control room well suited as an Advanced NPP Control Room (ml)

  7. Learning Rationales and Virtual Reality Technology in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Guey-Fa

    1995-01-01

    Defines and describes virtual reality technology and differentiates between virtual learning environment, learning material, and learning tools. Links learning rationales to virtual reality technology to pave conceptual foundations for application of virtual reality technology education. Constructivism, case-based learning, problem-based learning,…

  8. Rationale of Early Adopters of Fossil Fuel Divestment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Christopher Todd

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This research uses the social science perspectives of institutions, ecological modernization and social movements to analyze the rationale used by the early-adopting universities of fossil fuel divestment in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Through analysis of qualitative data from interviews with key actors at the universities that…

  9. Karl Popper and Jean Piaget: A Rationale for Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Steve; Cummings, Rhoda; Aberasturi, Suzanne M.

    2006-01-01

    The current faddish use of the term constructivism has taken on as many different definitions as the number of people attempting to define it. This essay clarifies the meaning of constructivism through an examination of Karl Popper's and Jean Piaget's theories. The authors provide a rationale for the use of Popper's paradigm of "Three Worlds" and…

  10. Oral Health Promotion in Schools: Rationale and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizito, Alex; Caitlin, Meredith; Wang, Yili; Kasangaki, Arabat; Macnab, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale and potential for the WHO health promoting schools (HPS) to improve children's oral health, and describe validated quantitative methodologies and qualitative approaches to measure program impact. Design/Methodology/Approach: Critical discussion of the impact of poor oral health and…

  11. "ComPost": A Writing Program Newsletter and Its Rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dennis R.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the development and rationale of "ComPost," a weekly newsletter of the Composition Program at the University of Louisville. Suggests that a vehicle like ComPost can promote the communications that contribute to accomplishing collegiality and genuine program consensus. (RS)

  12. Invitation to the Birthday Party: Rationale and Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Herbert P.; Pappas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Educators in many countries around the world have a strong interest in improving early childhood mathematics education, one component of which is formative assessment. Unlike summative assessment, this approach can provide teachers with information useful for understanding and teaching individual children. This paper describes the rationale for…

  13. The rationale of scored tablets as dosage form.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenhuis, N.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Barends, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to get insight into the rationale of scored tablets. This was pursued by studying patient's reasons for subdividing ("breaking") scored and unscored tablets. Patients who picked up their prescriptions in 5 community pharmacies in The Netherlands were questioned. Two-hundred

  14. Meeting a Moral Imperative: A Rationale for Teaching the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.

    2011-01-01

    A primary rationale for studying the Holocaust (Shoah) involves the opportunity to consider the moral implications that can be drawn from examining the event. Studying the Shoah forces students to consider what it means to be human and humane by examining the full continuum of individual behavior, from "ultimate evil" to "ultimate good". This…

  15. Chemical abundances of fast-rotating massive stars. I. Description of the methods and individual results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorla, Constantin; Morel, Thierry; Nazé, Yaël; Rauw, Gregor; Semaan, Thierry; Daflon, Simone; Oey, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: Recent observations have challenged our understanding of rotational mixing in massive stars by revealing a population of fast-rotating objects with apparently normal surface nitrogen abundances. However, several questions have arisen because of a number of issues, which have rendered a reinvestigation necessary; these issues include the presence of numerous upper limits for the nitrogen abundance, unknown multiplicity status, and a mix of stars with different physical properties, such as their mass and evolutionary state, which are known to control the amount of rotational mixing. Methods: We have carefully selected a large sample of bright, fast-rotating early-type stars of our Galaxy (40 objects with spectral types between B0.5 and O4). Their high-quality, high-resolution optical spectra were then analysed with the stellar atmosphere modelling codes DETAIL/SURFACE or CMFGEN, depending on the temperature of the target. Several internal and external checks were performed to validate our methods; notably, we compared our results with literature data for some well-known objects, studied the effect of gravity darkening, or confronted the results provided by the two codes for stars amenable to both analyses. Furthermore, we studied the radial velocities of the stars to assess their binarity. Results: This first part of our study presents our methods and provides the derived stellar parameters, He, CNO abundances, and the multiplicity status of every star of the sample. It is the first time that He and CNO abundances of such a large number of Galactic massive fast rotators are determined in a homogeneous way. Based on observations obtained with the Heidelberg Extended Range Optical Spectrograph (HEROS) at the Telescopio Internacional de Guanajuato (TIGRE) with the SOPHIE échelle spectrograph at the Haute-Provence Observatory (OHP; Institut Pytheas; CNRS, France), and with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph at the Magellan II Clay telescope

  16. Learning Method and Its Influence on Nutrition Study Results Throwing the Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin; Nugraha, Bayu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to know the difference between playing and learning methods of exploratory learning methods to learning outcomes throwing the ball. In addition, this study also aimed to determine the effect of nutritional status of these two learning methods mentioned above. This research was conducted at SDN Cipinang Besar Selatan 16 Pagi East…

  17. Finite elements volumes methods: applications to the Navier-Stokes equations and convergence results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emonot, P.

    1992-01-01

    In the first chapter are described the equations modeling incompressible fluid flow and a quick presentation of finite volumes method. The second chapter is an introduction to the finite elements volumes method. The box model is described and a method adapted to Navier-Stokes problems is proposed. The third chapter shows a fault analysis of the finite elements volumes method for the Laplacian problem and some examples in one, two, three dimensional calculations. The fourth chapter is an extension of the error analysis of the method for the Navier-Stokes problem

  18. Preliminary results from the application of risk matrix method for safety assessment in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez G, A.; Cruz, D.; Truppa, W.; Aravena, M.; Tamayo, B.

    2015-09-01

    Although the uses of ionizing radiation in industry are subject to procedures that provide a high level of safety, experience has shown that equipment failure, human errors, or the combination of both that can trigger accidental exposures may occur. Traditionally, the radiation safety checks whether these industrial practices (industrial radiography, industrial irradiators, among others) are sufficiently safe to prevent similar accidental exposures already occurred, so that becomes dependent on the published information and not always answers questions like: What other events can occur, or what other risks are present? Taking into account the results achieved by the Foro Iberoamericano de Organismos Reguladores Radiologicos y Nucleares, its leading position in the use of techniques of risk analysis in radioactive facilities and the need to develop a proactive approach to the prevention of accidents arising from the use of ionizing radiations in the industry, it intends to apply the risk analysis technique known as Risk Matrix to a hypothetical reference entity for the region in which industrial radiography is performed. In this paper the results of the first stage of this study are shown, that is the identification of initiating events (IE) and barriers that help mitigate the consequences of such IE, so that can appreciate the applicability of this method to industrial radiography services, to reduce the risk to acceptable levels. The fundamental advantage associated with the application of this methodology is that can be applied by the professionals working in the service and identifies specific weaknesses that from the point of view of safety there, so they can be prioritized resources depending on risk reduction. (Author)

  19. Methods and results for stress analyses on 14-ton, thin-wall depleted UF6 cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Chung, C.K.; Frazier, J.L.; Kelley, D.K.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium enrichment operations at the three US gaseous diffusion plants produce depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) as a residential product. At the present time, the inventory of DUF 6 in this country is more than half a million tons. The inventory of DUF 6 is contained in metal storage cylinders, most of which are located at the gaseous diffusion plants. The principal objective of the project is to ensure the integrity of the cylinders to prevent causing an environmental hazard by releasing the contents of the cylinders into the atmosphere. Another objective is to maintain the cylinders in such a manner that the DUF 6 may eventually be converted to a less hazardous material for final disposition. An important task in the DUF 6 cylinders management project is determining how much corrosion of the walls can be tolerated before the cylinders are in danger of being damaged during routine handling and shipping operations. Another task is determining how to handle cylinders that have already been damaged in a manner that will minimize the chance that a breach will occur or that the size of an existing breach will be significantly increased. A number of finite element stress analysis (FESA) calculations have been done to analyze the stresses for three conditions: (1) while the cylinder is being lifted, (2) when a cylinder is resting on two cylinders under it in the customary two-tier stacking array, and (3) when a cylinder is resting on tis chocks on the ground. Various documents describe some of the results and discuss some of the methods whereby they have been obtained. The objective of the present report is to document as many of the FESA cases done at Oak Ridge for 14-ton thin-wall cylinders as possible, giving results and a description of the calculations in some detail

  20. Methods and introductory results of the Greek national health and nutrition survey - HYDRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Martimianaki

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:  According to a large prospective cohort study (with baseline examination in the 1990s and smaller studies that followed, the population in Greece has been gradually deprived of the favorable morbidity and mortality indices recorded in the 1960s. The HYDRIA survey conducted in 2013-14 is the first nationally representative survey, which collected data related to the health and nutrition of the population in Greece. Methods: The survey sample consists of 4011 males (47% and females aged 18 years and over. Data collection included interviewer-administered questionnaires on personal characteristics, lifestyle choices, dietary habits and medical history; measurements of somatometry and blood pressure; and, blood drawing. Weighting factors were applied to ensure national representativeness of results. Results: Three out of five adults in Greece reported suffering of a chronic disease, with diabetes mellitus and chronic depression being the more frequent ones among older individuals. The population is also experiencing an overweight/obesity epidemic, since seven out of 10 adults are either overweight or obese. In addition, 40% of the population bears indications of hypertension. Smoking is still common and among women the prevalence was higher in younger age groups. Social disparities were observed in the prevalence of chronic diseases and mortality risk factors (hypertension, obesity, impaired lipid profile and high blood glucose levels. Conclusion: Excess body weight, hypertension, the smoking habit and the population’s limited physical activity are the predominant challenges that public health officials have to deal with in formulating policies and designing actions for the population in Greece.

  1. Methods used by accredited dental specialty programs to advertise faculty positions: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Richard W; Hagan, Joseph L; Armbruster, Paul C; Gallo, John R

    2011-01-01

    The various reasons for the current and projected shortages of dental faculty members in the United States have received much attention. Dental school deans have reported that the top three factors impacting their ability to fill faculty positions are meeting the requirements of the position, lack of response to position announcement, and salary/budget limitations. An electronic survey sent to program directors of specialty programs at all accredited U.S. dental schools inquired about the number of vacant positions, advertised vacant positions, reasons for not advertising, selection of advertising medium, results of advertising, and assistance from professional dental organizations. A total of seventy-three permanently funded full-time faculty positions were reported vacant, with 89.0 percent of these positions having been advertised in nationally recognized professional journals and newsletters. Networking or word-of-mouth was reported as the most successful method for advertising. The majority of those responding reported that professional dental organizations did not help with filling vacant faculty positions, but that they would utilize the American Dental Association's website or their specialty organization's website to post faculty positions if they were easy to use and update.

  2. Methods for improving mechanical properties of partially stabilized zirconia and the resulting product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronov, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    A method for improving mechanical surface properties of a rigid body comprising partially stabilized zirconia as a constituent is described comprising the following steps: (i) providing a rigid body having an exposed surface and an interior volume; (ii) subjecting the exposed surface region of partially stabilized zirconia to external heating to heat the exposed surface region to 1100 0 C-1600 0 C without heating the interior volume above 500 0 C-800 0 C; and (iii) cooling the rigid body to a temperature of less than 500 0 C to cause a portion of the exposed surface region to transform from the tetragonal lattice modification to the monoclinic lattice modification, thereby creating a compressive stress field in the exposed surface region and improving the mechanical surface properties of the exposed surface region. In a ceramic body comprising a first exposed region of a partially stabilized zirconia, and a second region of a partially stabilized zirconia at an interior portion of the ceramic body, the improvement is described comprising the ceramic body having in the first, exposed region a greater percentage of the monoclinic lattice modification than in the second region; having in the first, exposed region 5 percent to 100 percent in the monoclinic lattice modification; and having a molded surface finish in the first, exposed region; the first, exposed region being subjected to a compressive field resulting from the greater percentage of the monoclinic lattice modification

  3. New results to BDD truncation method for efficient top event probability calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Yuchang; Zhong, Farong; Zhao, Xiangfu; Yang, Quansheng; Cui, Gang

    2012-01-01

    A Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) is a graph-based data structure that calculates an exact top event probability (TEP). It has been a very difficult task to develop an efficient BDD algorithm that can solve a large problem since its memory consumption is very high. Recently, in order to solve a large reliability problem within limited computational resources, Jung presented an efficient method to maintain a small BDD size by a BDD truncation during a BDD calculation. In this paper, it is first identified that Jung's BDD truncation algorithm can be improved for a more practical use. Then, a more efficient truncation algorithm is proposed in this paper, which can generate truncated BDD with smaller size and approximate TEP with smaller truncation error. Empirical results showed this new algorithm uses slightly less running time and slightly more storage usage than Jung's algorithm. It was also found, that designing a truncation algorithm with ideal features for every possible fault tree is very difficult, if not impossible. The so-called ideal features of this paper would be that with the decrease of truncation limits, the size of truncated BDD converges to the size of exact BDD, but should never be larger than exact BDD.

  4. Evaluating Behaviorally Oriented Aviation Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) Training and Programs: Methods, Results, and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James C.; Thomas, Robert L., III

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of Aviation Resource Management Programs on aviation culture and performance has compelled a considerable body of research (Taylor & Robertson, 1995; Taylor, 1998; Taylor & Patankar, 2001). In recent years new methods have been applied to the problem of maintenance error precipitated by factors such as the need for self-assessment of communication and trust. The present study - 2002 -- is an extension of that past work. This research project was designed as the conclusion of a larger effort to help understand, evaluate and validate the impact of Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) training programs, and other MRM interventions on participant attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and ultimately on enhanced safety performance. It includes research and development of evaluation methodology as well as examination of psychological constructs and correlates of maintainer performance. In particular, during 2002, three issues were addressed. First, the evaluation of two (independent & different) MRM programs for changing behaviors was undertaken. In one case we were able to further apply the approach to measuring written communication developed during 2001 (Taylor, 2002; Taylor & Thomas, 2003). Second, the MRM/TOQ surveys were made available for completion on the internet. The responses from these on-line surveys were automatically linked to a results calculator (like the one developed and described in Taylor, 2002) to aid industry users in analyzing and evaluating their local survey data on the internet. Third, the main trends and themes from our research about MRM programs over the past dozen years were reviewed.

  5. The relationship between team climate and interprofessional collaboration: Preliminary results of a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agreli, Heloise F; Peduzzi, Marina; Bailey, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Relational and organisational factors are key elements of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and team climate. Few studies have explored the relationship between IPC and team climate. This article presents a study that aimed to explore IPC in primary healthcare teams and understand how the assessment of team climate may provide insights into IPC. A mixed methods study design was adopted. In Stage 1 of the study, team climate was assessed using the Team Climate Inventory with 159 professionals in 18 interprofessional teams based in São Paulo, Brazil. In Stage 2, data were collected through in-depth interviews with a sample of team members who participated in the first stage of the study. Results from Stage 1 provided an overview of factors relevant to teamwork, which in turn informed our exploration of the relationship between team climate and IPC. Preliminary findings from Stage 2 indicated that teams with a more positive team climate (in particular, greater participative safety) also reported more effective communication and mutual support. In conclusion, team climate provided insights into IPC, especially regarding aspects of communication and interaction in teams. Further research will provide a better understanding of differences and areas of overlap between team climate and IPC. It will potentially contribute for an innovative theoretical approach to explore interprofessional work in primary care settings.

  6. Methods for detecting and correcting inaccurate results in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, George C. Y. [Bloomington, IN; Hieftje, Gary M [Bloomington, IN

    2010-08-03

    A method for detecting and correcting inaccurate results in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). ICP-AES analysis is performed across a plurality of selected locations in the plasma on an unknown sample, collecting the light intensity at one or more selected wavelengths of one or more sought-for analytes, creating a first dataset. The first dataset is then calibrated with a calibration dataset creating a calibrated first dataset curve. If the calibrated first dataset curve has a variability along the location within the plasma for a selected wavelength, errors are present. Plasma-related errors are then corrected by diluting the unknown sample and performing the same ICP-AES analysis on the diluted unknown sample creating a calibrated second dataset curve (accounting for the dilution) for the one or more sought-for analytes. The cross-over point of the calibrated dataset curves yields the corrected value (free from plasma related errors) for each sought-for analyte.

  7. 3D MRI of the colon: methods and first results of 5 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luboldt, W.; Bauerfeind, P.; Pelkonen, P.; Steiner, P.; Krestin, G.P.; Debatin, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: 'Exoscopic' and endoscopic identification of colorectal pathologies via MRI. Methods: 5 patients (36-88 years), two normal and three with different colorectal pathologies (diverticular disease, polyps and carcinoma of the colon), were examined by MRI after colonoscopy. Subsequent to filling of the colon with a gadolinium-water mixture under MRI-monitoring, 3D-data sets of the colon were acquired in prone and supine positions over a 28 sec breathold interval. Subsequently multiplanar T 1 -weighted 2D-sequences were acquired before and following i.v. administration of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg BW). All imaging was performed in the coronal orientation. The 3D-data were interactively analysed based on various displays: Maximum intensity projection (MIP), surface shadowed display (SSD), multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), virtual colonoscopy (VC). Results: All of the colorectal pathologies could be interactively diagnosed by MPR. On MIP images some pathologies were missed. VC presented the morphology of colon haustra as well as of all endoluminally growing lesions in a manner similar to endoscopy. The colon masses showed uptake of contrast media and could thus be differentiated from air or faeces. (orig./AJ) [de

  8. Integrate life-cycle assessment and risk analysis results, not methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Trump, Benjamin D; Wender, Ben A; Seager, Thomas P; Kennedy, Alan J; Keisler, Jeffrey M

    2017-08-04

    Two analytic perspectives on environmental assessment dominate environmental policy and decision-making: risk analysis (RA) and life-cycle assessment (LCA). RA focuses on management of a toxicological hazard in a specific exposure scenario, while LCA seeks a holistic estimation of impacts of thousands of substances across multiple media, including non-toxicological and non-chemically deleterious effects. While recommendations to integrate the two approaches have remained a consistent feature of environmental scholarship for at least 15 years, the current perception is that progress is slow largely because of practical obstacles, such as a lack of data, rather than insurmountable theoretical difficulties. Nonetheless, the emergence of nanotechnology presents a serious challenge to both perspectives. Because the pace of nanomaterial innovation far outstrips acquisition of environmentally relevant data, it is now clear that a further integration of RA and LCA based on dataset completion will remain futile. In fact, the two approaches are suited for different purposes and answer different questions. A more pragmatic approach to providing better guidance to decision-makers is to apply the two methods in parallel, integrating only after obtaining separate results.

  9. Seismic hazard of American Samoa and neighboring South Pacific Islands--methods, data, parameters, and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Mueller, Charles S.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Luco, Nicolas; Walling, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    American Samoa and the neighboring islands of the South Pacific lie near active tectonic-plate boundaries that host many large earthquakes which can result in strong earthquake shaking and tsunamis. To mitigate earthquake risks from future ground shaking, the Federal Emergency Management Agency requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare seismic hazard maps that can be applied in building-design criteria. This Open-File Report describes the data, methods, and parameters used to calculate the seismic shaking hazard as well as the output hazard maps, curves, and deaggregation (disaggregation) information needed for building design. Spectral acceleration hazard for 1 Hertz having a 2-percent probability of exceedance on a firm rock site condition (Vs30=760 meters per second) is 0.12 acceleration of gravity (1 second, 1 Hertz) and 0.32 acceleration of gravity (0.2 seconds, 5 Hertz) on American Samoa, 0.72 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.54 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Tonga, 0.15 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 0.55 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Fiji, and 0.89 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.77 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on the Vanuatu Islands.

  10. Method for Developing Descriptions of Hard-to-Price Products: Results of the Telecommunications Product Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, F.; Tonn, B.

    1999-05-01

    This report presents the results of a study to test a new method for developing descriptions of hard-to-price products. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is responsible for collecting data to estimate price indices such as the Consumers Price Index (BLS) is responsible for collecting data to estimate price indices such as the Consumers Price Index (CPI). BLS accomplishes this task by sending field staff to places of business to price actual products. The field staff are given product checklists to help them determine whether products found today are comparable to products priced the previous month. Prices for non-comparable products are not included in the current month's price index calculations. A serious problem facing BLS is developing product checklists for dynamic product areas, new industries, and the service sector. It is difficult to keep checklists up-to-date and quite often simply to develop checklists for service industry products. Some people estimates that upwards of 50 % of US economic activity is not accounted for in the CPI

  11. A method for calculating Bayesian uncertainties on internal doses resulting from complex occupational exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puncher, M.; Birchall, A.; Bull, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Estimating uncertainties on doses from bioassay data is of interest in epidemiology studies that estimate cancer risk from occupational exposures to radionuclides. Bayesian methods provide a logical framework to calculate these uncertainties. However, occupational exposures often consist of many intakes, and this can make the Bayesian calculation computationally intractable. This paper describes a novel strategy for increasing the computational speed of the calculation by simplifying the intake pattern to a single composite intake, termed as complex intake regime (CIR). In order to assess whether this approximation is accurate and fast enough for practical purposes, the method is implemented by the Weighted Likelihood Monte Carlo Sampling (WeLMoS) method and evaluated by comparing its performance with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. The MCMC method gives the full solution (all intakes are independent), but is very computationally intensive to apply routinely. Posterior distributions of model parameter values, intakes and doses are calculated for a representative sample of plutonium workers from the United Kingdom Atomic Energy cohort using the WeLMoS method with the CIR and the MCMC method. The distributions are in good agreement: posterior means and Q 0.025 and Q 0.975 quantiles are typically within 20 %. Furthermore, the WeLMoS method using the CIR converges quickly: a typical case history takes around 10-20 min on a fast workstation, whereas the MCMC method took around 12-hr. The advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed. (authors)

  12. China’s electric vehicle subsidy scheme: Rationale and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Ou, Xunmin; Du, Jiuyu; Wang, Hewu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2014-01-01

    To promote the market penetration of electric vehicles (EV), China launched the Electric Vehicle Subsidy Scheme (EVSS) in Jan 2009, followed by an update in Sep 2013, which we named phase I and phase II EVSS, respectively. In this paper, we presented the rationale of China’s two-phase EVSS and estimated their impacts on EV market penetration, with a focus on the ownership cost analysis of battery electric passenger vehicles (BEPV). Based on the ownership cost comparison of five defining BEPV models and their counterpart conventional passenger vehicle (CPV) models, we concluded that in the short term, especially before 2015, China’s EVSS is very necessary for BEPVs to be cost competitive compared with CPVs. The transition from phase I to phase II EVSS will generally reduce subsidy intensity, thus resulting in temporary rise of BEPV ownership cost. However, with the decrease of BEPV manufacturing cost, the ownership cost of BEPV is projected to decrease despite of the phase-out mechanism under phase II EVSS. In the mid term of around 2015–2020, BEPV could become less or not reliant on subsidy to maintain cost competitiveness. However, given the performance disadvantages of BEPV, especially the limited electric range, China’s current EVSS is not sufficient for the BEPV market to take off. Technology improvement associated with battery cost reduction has to play an essential role in starting up China’s BEPV market. - Highlights: • China’s phase I and phase II electric vehicle subsidy schemes were reviewed. • Major electric vehicle models in China’s vehicle market were reviewed. • The ownership costs of five defining electric passenger vehicle models were compared. • Policies to promote electric vehicle deployment in China were discussed

  13. Checkpoint inhibitors in endometrial cancer: preclinical rationale and clinical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittica, Gloria; Ghisoni, Eleonora; Giannone, Gaia; Aglietta, Massimo; Genta, Sofia; Valabrega, Giorgio

    2017-10-27

    Treatment of advanced and recurrent endometrial cancer (EC) is still an unmet need for oncologists and gynecologic oncologists. The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network (TCGA) recently provided a new genomic classification, dividing EC in four subgroups. Two types of EC, the polymerase epsilon (POLE)-ultra-mutated and the microsatellite instability-hyper-mutated (MSI-H), are characterized by a high mutation rate providing the rationale for a potential activity of checkpoint inhibitors. We analyzed all available evidence supporting the role of tumor microenvironment (TME) in EC development and the therapeutic implications offered by immune checkpoint inhibitors in this setting. We performed a review on Pubmed with Mesh keywords 'endometrial cancer' and the name of each checkpoint inhibitor discussed in the article. The same search was operated on clinicaltrial.gov to identify ongoing clinical trials exploring PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 axis in EC, particularly focusing on POLE-ultra-muted and MSI-H cancer types. POLE-ultra-mutated and MSI-H ECs showed an active TME expressing high number of neo-antigens and an elevated amount of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Preliminary results from a phase-1 clinical trial (KEYNOTE-028) demonstrated antitumor activity of Pembrolizumab in EC. Moreover, both Pembrolizumab and Nivolumab reported durable clinical responses in POLE-ultra-mutated patients. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are an attractive option in POLE-ultra-mutated and MSI-H ECs. Future investigations in these subgroups include combinations of checkpoints inhibitors with chemotherapy and small tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to enhance a more robust intra-tumoral immune response.

  14. A rationale for continuing mass antibiotic distributions for trachoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Kathryn J; Porco, Travis C; Hong, Kevin C; Lee, David C; Alemayehu, Wondu; Melese, Muluken; Lakew, Takele; Yi, Elizabeth; House, Jenafir; Chidambaram, Jaya D; Whitcher, John P; Gaynor, Bruce D; Lietman, Thomas M

    2007-08-07

    The World Health Organization recommends periodic mass antibiotic distributions to reduce the ocular strains of chlamydia that cause trachoma, the world's leading cause of infectious blindness. Their stated goal is to control infection, not to completely eliminate it. A single mass distribution can dramatically reduce the prevalence of infection. However, if infection is not eliminated in every individual in the community, it may gradually return back into the community, so often repeated treatments are necessary. Since public health groups are reluctant to distribute antibiotics indefinitely, we are still in need of a proven long-term rationale. Here we use mathematical models to demonstrate that repeated antibiotic distributions can eliminate infection in a reasonable time period. We fit parameters of a stochastic epidemiological transmission model to data collected before and 6 months after a mass antibiotic distribution in a region of Ethiopia that is one of the most severely affected areas in the world. We validate the model by comparing our predicted results to Ethiopian data which was collected biannually for two years past the initial mass antibiotic distribution. We use the model to simulate the effect of different treatment programs in terms of local elimination of infection. Simulations show that the average prevalence of infection across all villages progressively decreases after each treatment, as long as the frequency and coverage of antibiotics are high enough. Infection can be eliminated in more villages with each round of treatment. However, in the communities where infection is not eliminated, it returns to the same average level, forming the same stationary distribution. This phenomenon is also seen in subsequent epidemiological data from Ethiopia. Simulations suggest that a biannual treatment plan implemented for 5 years will lead to elimination in 95% of all villages. Local elimination from a community is theoretically possible, even in the

  15. The Method for Assessing and Forecasting Value of Knowledge in SMEs – Research Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Patalas-Maliszewska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Decisions by SMEs regarding knowledge development are made at a strategic level (Haas-Edersheim, 2007. Related to knowledge management are approaches to "measure" knowledge, where literature distinguishes between qualitative and quantitative methods of valuating intellectual capital. Although there is a quite range of such methods to build an intellectual capital reporting system, none of them is really widely recognized. This work presents a method enabling assessing the effectiveness of investing in human resources, taking into consideration existing methods. The method presented is focusing on SMEs (taking into consideration their importance for, especially, regional development. It consists of four parts: an SME reference model, an indicator matrix to assess investments into knowledge, innovation indicators, and the GMDH algorithm for decision making. The method presented is exemplified by a case study including 10 companies.

  16. A Review of Spectral Methods for Variable Amplitude Fatigue Prediction and New Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Curtis E.; Irvine, Tom

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the available methods for estimating fatigue damage from variable amplitude loading is presented. The dependence of fatigue damage accumulation on power spectral density (psd) is investigated for random processes relevant to real structures such as in offshore or aerospace applications. Beginning with the Rayleigh (or narrow band) approximation, attempts at improved approximations or corrections to the Rayleigh approximation are examined by comparison to rainflow analysis of time histories simulated from psd functions representative of simple theoretical and real world applications. Spectral methods investigated include corrections by Wirsching and Light, Ortiz and Chen, the Dirlik formula, and the Single-Moment method, among other more recent proposed methods. Good agreement is obtained between the spectral methods and the time-domain rainflow identification for most cases, with some limitations. Guidelines are given for using the several spectral methods to increase confidence in the damage estimate.

  17. The Reversal Intervention for Metabolic Syndrome (TRIMS study: rationale, design, and baseline data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troughton Jacqui

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent attention has focused on strategies to combat the forecast epidemic of type-2 diabetes (T2DM and its major vascular sequelae. Metabolic syndrome (MetS comprises a constellation of factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and T2DM. Our study aims to develop a structured self-management education programme for people with MetS, which includes management of cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors, and to determine its impact. This paper describes the rationale and design of the TRIMS study, including intervention development, and presents baseline data. Methods Subjects recruited from a mixed-ethnic population with MetS were randomised to intervention or control arms. The intervention arm received structured group education based on robust psychological theories and current evidence. The control group received routine care. Follow-up data will be collected at 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome measure will be reversal of metabolic syndrome in the intervention group subjects compared to controls at 12 months follow-up. Results 82 participants (44% male, 22% South Asian were recruited between November 2009 and July 2010. Baseline characteristics were similar for both the intervention (n = 42 and control groups (n = 40. Median age was 63 years (IQR 57 - 67, mean waist size 106 cm (SD ± 11, and prescribing of statins and anti-hypertensives was 51% in each case. Conclusion Results will provide information on changes in diabetes and CVD risk factors and help to inform primary prevention strategies in people with MetS from varied ethnic backgrounds who are at high risk of developing T2DM and CVD. Information gathered in relation to the programme's acceptability and effectiveness in a multi-ethnic population would ensure that our results are widely applicable. Trial registration The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, study identifier: NCT01043770.

  18. Evaluation of the effects of green taxes in the Nordic countries. Results and method question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skou Andersen, M.; Dengsoee, N.; Branth Pedersen, A.

    2000-01-01

    Green taxes have over the past 10 years become a significant part of environmental regulation in the Nordic countries. The present report is a literature study of the effects of green taxes with regard to CO 2 and pesticides. The authors have identified 68 studies of CO 2 -taxes and 20 studies of the pesticide taxes. The report presents a summary of the results from these studies and assesses the methodologies employed for examining the effects of the green taxes. The majority of the reviewed studies are ex-ante studies, which have been carried out in advance of the implementation of the taxes, and which are often based on simplified economic models. Ex-post studies, which are based on the actual historical data for the adjustment to the taxes, are relatively few. 20 ex-post studies of the CO 2 -taxes have been identified, while there are not any ex-post studies of the pesticide taxes. With regard to the environmental effects of green taxes, the ex-post studies can be relied on for the procurement of the most reliable data. The completed ex-post studies of the CO 2 -taxes do not present unambiguous results, because focus and methodology differ. Most studies are partial in their focus and relate to one or more sectors of the economy. Some studies have been carried out few tears after the introduction of the taxes, and do not present an updated assessment of the effects of the taxes. To the extent that it is possible to summarise the present knowledge about the effects of the CO 2 -taxes, there seems to be indications for relatively marked effects in Denmark as compared to the other Nordic countries, since Denmark is the only country whose taxed CO 2 -emissions have been reduced in absolute figures. With regard to Norway and Sweden, effects of the CO 2 -taxes can be identified in particular sectors in relation to business-as-usual scenarios. Finland's CO 2 -tax has not been comprehensively evaluated ex-post, but has reached a tax level which gives expectations of

  19. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies survey (SLUGGS): sample definition, methods, and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Pota, Vincenzo; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C.; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pastorello, Nicola; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R., E-mail: jbrodie@ucsc.edu [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2014-11-20

    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin{sup 2} field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR Ca II triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ∼8 R {sub e}, and to ∼15 R {sub e} in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (∼2-3 R {sub e}) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional (2D) velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial extent, and multiple halo tracers. We describe the sample of 25 nearby ETGs, the selection criteria for galaxies and GCs, the observing strategies, the data reduction techniques, and modeling methods. The survey observations are nearly complete and more than 30 papers have so far been published using SLUGGS data. Here we summarize some initial results, including signatures of two-phase galaxy assembly, evidence for GC metallicity bimodality, and a novel framework for the formation of extended star clusters and ultracompact dwarfs. An integrated overview of current chemodynamical constraints on GC systems points to separate, in situ formation modes at high redshifts for metal-poor and metal-rich GCs.

  20. Establishing Upper Limits for Item Ratings for the Angoff Method: Are Resulting Standards More 'Realistic'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jerry B.

    This report investigates an area of uncertainty in using the Angoff method for setting standards, namely whether or not a judge's conceptualizations of borderline group performance are realistic. Ratings are usually made with reference to the performance of this hypothetical group, therefore the Angoff method's success is dependent on this point.…

  1. Some new results on correlation-preserving factor scores prediction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Berge, J.M.F.; Krijnen, W.P.; Wansbeek, T.J.; Shapiro, A.

    1999-01-01

    Anderson and Rubin and McDonald have proposed a correlation-preserving method of factor scores prediction which minimizes the trace of a residual covariance matrix for variables. Green has proposed a correlation-preserving method which minimizes the trace of a residual covariance matrix for factors.

  2. Communicating patient-reported outcome scores using graphic formats: results from a mixed-methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Michael D; Smith, Katherine C; Little, Emily A; Bantug, Elissa T; Snyder, Claire F

    2015-10-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) promote patient-centered care by using PRO research results ("group-level data") to inform decision making and by monitoring individual patient's PROs ("individual-level data") to inform care. We investigated the interpretability of current PRO data presentation formats. This cross-sectional mixed-methods study randomized purposively sampled cancer patients and clinicians to evaluate six group-data or four individual-data formats. A self-directed exercise assessed participants' interpretation accuracy and ratings of ease-of-understanding and usefulness (0 = least to 10 = most) of each format. Semi-structured qualitative interviews explored helpful and confusing format attributes. We reached thematic saturation with 50 patients (44 % < college graduate) and 20 clinicians. For group-level data, patients rated simple line graphs highest for ease-of-understanding and usefulness (median 8.0; 33 % selected for easiest to understand/most useful) and clinicians rated simple line graphs highest for ease-of-understanding and usefulness (median 9.0, 8.5) but most often selected line graphs with confidence limits or norms (30 % for each format for easiest to understand/most useful). Qualitative results support that clinicians value confidence intervals, norms, and p values, but patients find them confusing. For individual-level data, both patients and clinicians rated line graphs highest for ease-of-understanding (median 8.0 patients, 8.5 clinicians) and usefulness (median 8.0, 9.0) and selected them as easiest to understand (50, 70 %) and most useful (62, 80 %). The qualitative interviews supported highlighting scores requiring clinical attention and providing reference values. This study has identified preferences and opportunities for improving on current formats for PRO presentation and will inform development of best practices for PRO presentation. Both patients and clinicians prefer line graphs across group-level data and individual

  3. Survey of sterile admixture practices in canadian hospital pharmacies: part 1. Methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Travis; Nishi, Cesilia; Checkowski, Ryan; Hall, Kevin W

    2009-03-01

    The 1996 Guidelines for Preparation of Sterile Products in Pharmacies of the Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists (CSHP) represent the current standard of practice for sterile compounding in Canada. However, these guidelines are practice recommendations, not enforceable standards. Previous surveys of sterile compounding practices have shown that actual practice deviates markedly from voluntary practice recommendations. In 2004, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) published its "General Chapter Pharmaceutical Compounding-Sterile Preparations", which set a more rigorous and enforceable standard for sterile compounding in the United States. To assess sterile compounding practices in Canadian hospital pharmacies and to compare them with current CSHP recommendations and USP chapter standards. An online survey, based on previous studies of sterile compounding practices, the CSHP guidelines, and the chapter standards, was created and distributed to 193 Canadian hospital pharmacies. A total of 133 pharmacies completed at least part of the survey, for a response rate of 68.9%. All respondents reported the preparation of sterile products. Various degrees of deviation from the practice recommendations were noted for virtually all areas of the CSHP guidelines and the USP standards. Low levels of compliance were most notable in the areas of facilities and equipment, process validation, and product testing. Availability in the central pharmacy of a clean room facility meeting or exceeding the criteria of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 8 is a requirement of the chapter standards, but more than 40% of responding pharmacies reported that they did not have such a facility. Higher levels of compliance were noted for policies and procedures, garbing requirements, aseptic technique, and handling of hazardous products. Part 1 of this series reports the survey methods and results relating to policies, personnel, raw materials, storage and handling

  4. Sensitivity of Spaceborne and Ground Radar Comparison Results to Data Analysis Methods and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kenneth R.; Schwaller, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    With the availability of active weather radar observations from space from the Precipitation Radar (PR) on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TR.MM) satellite, numerous studies have been performed comparing PR reflectivity and derived rain rates to similar observations from ground-based weather radars (GR). These studies have used a variety of algorithms to compute matching PR and GR volumes for comparison. Most studies have used a fixed 3-dimensional Cartesian grid centered on the ground radar, onto which the PR and GR data are interpolated using a proprietary approach and/or commonly available GR analysis software (e.g., SPRINT, REORDER). Other studies have focused on the intersection of the PR and GR viewing geometries either explicitly or using a hybrid of the fixed grid and PR/GR common fields of view. For the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) of the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, a prototype DPR/GR comparison algorithm based on similar TRMM PR data has been developed that defines the common volumes in terms of the geometric intersection of PR and GR rays, where smoothing of the PR and GR data are minimized and no interpolation is performed. The PR and GR volume-averaged reflectivity values of each sample volume are accompanied by descriptive metadata, for attributes including the variability and maximum of the reflectivity within the sample volume, and the fraction of range gates in the sample average having reflectivity values above an adjustable detection threshold (typically taken to be 18 dBZ for the PR). Sample volumes are further characterized by rain type (Stratiform or Convective), proximity to the melting layer, underlying surface (land/water/mixed), and the time difference between the PR and GR observations. The mean reflectivity differences between the PR and GR can differ between data sets produced by the different analysis methods; and for the GPM prototype, by the type of constraints and

  5. Could Daylight Glare Be Defined Mathematically?Results of Testing the DGIN Method in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzal, Ali; Oki, Masato

    Discomfort glare from daylight is a common problem without valid prediction methods so far. A new mathematical DGIN (New Daylight Glare Index) method tries to respond the challenge. This paper reports on experiments carried out in daylit office environment in Japan to test applicability of the method. Slight positive correlation was found between the DGIN and the subjective evaluation. Additionally, a high Ladaptation value together with the small ratio of Lwindow to Ladaptation was obviously experienced sufficient to neutralize the effect of glare discomfort. However, subjective assessments are poor glare indicators and not reliable in testing glare prediction methods. DGIN is a good indicator of daylight glare, and when the DGIN value is analyzed together with the measured illuminance ratios, discomfort glare from daylight can be analyzed in a quantitative manner. The DGIN method could serve architects and lighting designers in testing daylighting systems, and also guide the action of daylight responsive lighting controls.

  6. Project Deep Drilling KLX02 - Phase 2. Methods, scope of activities and results. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekman, L.

    2001-04-01

    Geoscientific investigations performed by SKB, including those at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, have so far comprised the bedrock horizon down to about 1000 m. The primary purposes with the c. 1700 m deep, φ76 mm, sub vertical core borehole KLX02, drilled during the autumn 1992 at Laxemar, Oskarshamn, was to test core drilling technique at large depths and with a relatively large diameter and to enable geoscientific investigations beyond 1000 m. Drilling of borehole KLX02 was fulfilled very successfully. Results of the drilling commission and the borehole investigations conducted in conjunction with drilling have been reported earlier. The present report provides a summary of the investigations made during a five year period after completion of drilling. Results as well as methods applied are described. A variety of geoscientific investigations to depths exceeding 1600 m were successfully performed. However, the investigations were not entirely problem-free. For example, borehole equipment got stuck in the borehole at several occasions. Special investigations, among them a fracture study, were initiated in order to reveal the mechanisms behind this problem. Different explanations seem possible, e.g. breakouts from the borehole wall, which may be a specific problem related to the stress situation in deep boreholes. The investigation approach for borehole KLX02 followed, in general outline, the SKB model for site investigations, where a number of key issues for site characterization are studied. For each of those, a number of geoscientific parameters are investigated and determined. One important aim is to erect a lithological-structural model of the site, which constitutes the basic requirement for modelling mechanical stability, thermal properties, groundwater flow, groundwater chemistry and transport of solutes. The investigations in borehole KLX02 resulted in a thorough lithological-structural characterization of the rock volume near the borehole. In order to

  7. Project Deep Drilling KLX02 - Phase 2. Methods, scope of activities and results. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekman, L. [GEOSIGMA AB/LE Geokonsult AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-04-01

    Geoscientific investigations performed by SKB, including those at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, have so far comprised the bedrock horizon down to about 1000 m. The primary purposes with the c. 1700 m deep, {phi}76 mm, sub vertical core borehole KLX02, drilled during the autumn 1992 at Laxemar, Oskarshamn, was to test core drilling technique at large depths and with a relatively large diameter and to enable geoscientific investigations beyond 1000 m. Drilling of borehole KLX02 was fulfilled very successfully. Results of the drilling commission and the borehole investigations conducted in conjunction with drilling have been reported earlier. The present report provides a summary of the investigations made during a five year period after completion of drilling. Results as well as methods applied are described. A variety of geoscientific investigations to depths exceeding 1600 m were successfully performed. However, the investigations were not entirely problem-free. For example, borehole equipment got stuck in the borehole at several occasions. Special investigations, among them a fracture study, were initiated in order to reveal the mechanisms behind this problem. Different explanations seem possible, e.g. breakouts from the borehole wall, which may be a specific problem related to the stress situation in deep boreholes. The investigation approach for borehole KLX02 followed, in general outline, the SKB model for site investigations, where a number of key issues for site characterization are studied. For each of those, a number of geoscientific parameters are investigated and determined. One important aim is to erect a lithological-structural model of the site, which constitutes the basic requirement for modelling mechanical stability, thermal properties, groundwater flow, groundwater chemistry and transport of solutes. The investigations in borehole KLX02 resulted in a thorough lithological-structural characterization of the rock volume near the borehole. In order

  8. Investigation of error estimation method of observational data and comparison method between numerical and observational results toward V and V of seismic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Kawakami, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Norihiro

    2017-01-01

    The method to estimate errors included in observational data and the method to compare numerical results with observational results are investigated toward the verification and validation (V and V) of a seismic simulation. For the method to estimate errors, 144 literatures for the past 5 years (from the year 2010 to 2014) in the structure engineering field and earthquake engineering field where the description about acceleration data is frequent are surveyed. As a result, it is found that some processes to remove components regarded as errors from observational data are used in about 30% of those literatures. Errors are caused by the resolution, the linearity, the temperature coefficient for sensitivity, the temperature coefficient for zero shift, the transverse sensitivity, the seismometer property, the aliasing, and so on. Those processes can be exploited to estimate errors individually. For the method to compare numerical results with observational results, public materials of ASME V and V Symposium 2012-2015, their references, and above 144 literatures are surveyed. As a result, it is found that six methods have been mainly proposed in existing researches. Evaluating those methods using nine items, advantages and disadvantages for those methods are arranged. The method is not well established so that it is necessary to employ those methods by compensating disadvantages and/or to search for a solution to a novel method. (author)

  9. Results of a study assessing teaching methods of faculty after measuring student learning style preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Bridget V

    2017-08-01

    Learning style preference impacts how well groups of students respond to their curricula. Faculty have many choices in the methods for delivering nursing content, as well as assessing students. The purpose was to develop knowledge around how faculty delivered curricula content, and then considering these findings in the context of the students learning style preference. Following an in-service on teaching and learning styles, faculty completed surveys on their methods of teaching and the proportion of time teaching, using each learning style (visual, aural, read/write and kinesthetic). This study took place at the College of Nursing a large all-female university in Saudi Arabia. 24 female nursing faculty volunteered to participate in the project. A cross-sectional design was used. Faculty reported teaching using mostly methods that were kinesthetic and visual, although lecture was also popular (aural). Students preferred kinesthetic and aural learning methods. Read/write was the least preferred by students and the least used method of teaching by faculty. Faculty used visual methods about one third of the time, although they were not preferred by the students. Students' preferred learning style (kinesthetic) was the method most used by faculty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. On a new iterative method for solving linear systems and comparison results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yan-Fei; Huang, Ting-Zhu

    2008-10-01

    In Ujevic [A new iterative method for solving linear systems, Appl. Math. Comput. 179 (2006) 725-730], the author obtained a new iterative method for solving linear systems, which can be considered as a modification of the Gauss-Seidel method. In this paper, we show that this is a special case from a point of view of projection techniques. And a different approach is established, which is both theoretically and numerically proven to be better than (at least the same as) Ujevic's. As the presented numerical examples show, in most cases, the convergence rate is more than one and a half that of Ujevic.

  11. Monitoring intakes of radionuclides by nuclear power plants workers in France: materials, methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonin, M.; Le Guen, B.; Bailloeuil, C.; Gerondal, M. [Electricite De France (France)

    2000-05-01

    for 72 hours of counting, 4. Beta and alpha total counts (ZnS scintillators) on nose blows used for monitoring alpha risks. 5. Quality assurance programs are applied for measurements and also for dose assessments. For the measurements, especially for low activities of alpha emmiters, yearly comparison exercises are organized by PROCORAD association (CEA and COGEMA laboratories). More than 50 European and American laboratories have participated in recent years. By another way, OPRI, the radiation protection office of the Ministry of Health, organises intercomparison measurements of laboratories. For the quality control on dose assessment, the EDF laboratory participates in the comparison exercises planned by EURADOS-CENDOS Working Group 6. Routine, operational and special monitoring programs are carried out. The results are given with the dominant radionuclides indicated. These results shows that the collective effective dose is extremely low: 257 man-mSv for 90 cases over 16 years. The protection methods used appear to be effective. Nethertheless, in some special cases, adding effective dose to external exposure doses could lead to a total dose higher than the regulatory limits. (author)

  12. Monitoring intakes of radionuclides by nuclear power plants workers in France: materials, methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonin, M.; Le Guen, B.; Bailloeuil, C.; Gerondal, M.

    2000-01-01

    hours of counting, 4. Beta and alpha total counts (ZnS scintillators) on nose blows used for monitoring alpha risks. 5. Quality assurance programs are applied for measurements and also for dose assessments. For the measurements, especially for low activities of alpha emmiters, yearly comparison exercises are organized by PROCORAD association (CEA and COGEMA laboratories). More than 50 European and American laboratories have participated in recent years. By another way, OPRI, the radiation protection office of the Ministry of Health, organises intercomparison measurements of laboratories. For the quality control on dose assessment, the EDF laboratory participates in the comparison exercises planned by EURADOS-CENDOS Working Group 6. Routine, operational and special monitoring programs are carried out. The results are given with the dominant radionuclides indicated. These results shows that the collective effective dose is extremely low: 257 man-mSv for 90 cases over 16 years. The protection methods used appear to be effective. Nethertheless, in some special cases, adding effective dose to external exposure doses could lead to a total dose higher than the regulatory limits. (author)

  13. Finding ultracool brown dwarfs with MegaCam on CFHT: method and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, P.; Willott, C. J.; Forveille, T.; Delfosse, X.; Reylé, C.; Bertin, E.; Albert, L.; Artigau, E.; Robin, A. C.; Allard, F.; Doyon, R.; Hill, G. J.

    2008-06-01

    Aims: We present the first results of a wide field survey for cool brown dwarfs with the MegaCam camera on the CFHT telescope, the Canada-France Brown Dwarf Survey, hereafter CFBDS. Our objectives are to find ultracool brown dwarfs and to constrain the field-brown dwarf mass function thanks to a larger sample of L and T dwarfs. Methods: We identify candidates in CFHT/MegaCam i' and z' images using optimised psf-fitting within Source Extractor, and follow them up with pointed near-infrared imaging on several telescopes. Results: We have so far analysed over 350 square degrees and found 770 brown dwarf candidates brighter than z'_AB=22.5. We currently have J-band photometry for 220 of these candidates, which confirms 37% as potential L or T dwarfs. Some are among the reddest and farthest brown dwarfs currently known, including an independent identification of the recently published ULAS J003402.77-005206.7 and the discovery of a second brown dwarf later than T8, CFBDS J005910.83-011401.3. Infrared spectra of three T dwarf candidates confirm their nature, and validate the selection process. Conclusions: The completed survey will discover ~100 T dwarfs and ~500 L dwarfs or M dwarfs later than M8, approximately doubling the number of currently known brown dwarfs. The resulting sample will have a very well-defined selection function, and will therefore produce a very clean luminosity function. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on observations made

  14. Investigation of sol-gel transition by rheological methods. Part II. Results and discussion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work rheological studies of the gelling process were carried out. We have developed a measuring system for studying the rheology of the gelation process. It consisted of several measuring cells of the Weiler-Rebinder type, system for automatic regulation of the composition of the medium and thermostabilization system. This complex is designed to measure the dependence of the value of the ultimate shear stress as a function of time, from the start of the sol-gel transition to the complete conversion of the sol to the gel. The developed device has a wide range of measured values of critical shear stresses τ0 = (0,05÷50000 Dyne/cm2. Using the developed instrument, it was possible to establish the shape of the initial section of the curve τ0 = f(t and develop a methodology for more accurate determination of gelation time. The developed method proved that the classical method for determining the start time of the sol-gel transition using the point of intersection of the tangent to the linear part of the rheological curve τ0 = f(t, gives significantly distorted results. A new phenomenon has been discovered: the kinetic curves in the coordinates of the Avrami-Erofeev-Bogolyubov equation have an inflection point which separates the kinetic curve into two parts, the initial and the final. It was found that the constant k in the Avrami–Erofeev–Bogolyubov equation does not depend on the temperature and is the same for both the initial and final parts of the kinetic curve. It depends only on the chemical nature of the reacting system. It was found that for the initial section of the kinetic curves, the value of the parameter n in the Avrami-Erofeev-Bogolyubov equation was n = 23,4±2,8 and, unlike the final section of the rheological curve, does not depend on temperature. A large value of this parameter can be interpreted as the average number of directions of growth of a fractal aggregate during its growth. The value of this parameter

  15. Narrative reconstruction therapy for prolonged grief disorder—rationale and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuvia Peri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged grief disorder (PGD is a potentially disabling condition affecting approximately 10% of bereaved people. It has been suggested that the impaired integration of the loss memory, as expressed in recurrent memories of the loss and disorganization of memory, is involved in the development of PGD. Narrative reconstruction (NR, originally designed for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in an integrative therapy module, and consisting of exposure to the loss memory, detailed written reconstruction of the loss memory narrative and an elaboration of the personal significance of that memory for the bereaved, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of intrusion symptoms. Objective: In light of findings that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT, including cognitive restructuring and exposure, is effective in the treatment of PGD, we suggest the implementation of a somewhat novel therapy module, NR, for the treatment of intrusive phenomena in bereaved patients. Method: The rationale for the implementation of NR for PGD and a case study of the treatment of a woman suffering from PGD after the death of her father are presented. Therapy took place in a university outpatient training clinic. Results: Evaluations conducted before and after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up demonstrated the effectiveness of NR in reducing symptoms of PGD and depression. The analysis of spontaneous narratives recorded before and after treatment showed an increased organization of the narratives. Conclusions: This case report demonstrates an adaptation of NR for the treatment of PGD. The results provide preliminary support for the effectiveness of NR for PGD. The significance of the study and its limitations are discussed.

  16. Application of Semiempirical Methods to Transition Metal Complexes: Fast Results but Hard-to-Predict Accuracy.

    KAUST Repository

    Minenkov, Yury; Sharapa, Dmitry I.; Cavallo, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    -point energy evaluations on density functional theory (DFT) optimized conformers revealed pronounced deviations between semiempirical and DFT methods indicating fundamental difference in potential energy surfaces (PES). To identify the origin of the deviation

  17. Multiple daily fractionation in radiotherapy: biological rationale and preliminary clinical experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcangeli, G [Instituto Medico Scientifico, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Oncology; Mauro, F; Morelli, D; Nervi, C

    1979-09-01

    The biological bases of radiation dose fractionation are reviewed and discussed with special emphasis on reassortment. Experimental data on animal model systems are presented to clarify that reassortment has to be added to sublethal damage repair and reoxygenation in the rationale for an optimized radiotherapy course according to tumor cell kinetics. Clinical results on several human tumors treated with twice or thrice daily fractions are described. These results show that some clinically radioresistant tumors (especially if not characterized by a relatively long clinical doubling line) can be satisfactorily dealt with using multiple daily fractionation. Clinical observations indicate that a relatively high cumulative daily dose (200 + 150 + 150 rad) can be safely administered.

  18. Biological dosimetry intercomparison exercise: an evaluation of Triage and routine mode results by robust methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Radl, A.; Taja, M.R.; Barquinero, J.F.; Seoane, A.; De Luca, J.; Guerrero Carvajal, Y.C.; Stuck Oliveira, M.S.; Valdivia, P.; García Lima, O.; Lamadrid, A.; González Mesa, J.; Romero Aguilera, I.; Mandina Cardoso, T.; Arceo Maldonado, C.; Espinoza, M.E.; Martínez López, W.; Lloyd, D.C.; Méndez Acuña, L.; Di Tomaso, M.V.; Roy, L.; Lindholm, C.; Romm, H.; Güçlü, I.

    2011-01-01

    Well-defined protocols and quality management standards are indispensable for biological dosimetry laboratories. Participation in periodic proficiency testing by interlaboratory comparisons is also required. This harmonization is essential if a cooperative network is used to respond to a mass casualty event. Here we present an international intercomparison based on dicentric chromosome analysis for dose assessment performed in the framework of the IAEA Regional Latin American RLA/9/054 Project. The exercise involved 14 laboratories, 8 from Latin America and 6 from Europe. The performance of each laboratory and the reproducibility of the exercise were evaluated using robust methods described in ISO standards. The study was based on the analysis of slides from samples irradiated with 0.75 (DI) and 2.5 Gy (DII). Laboratories were required to score the frequency of dicentrics and convert them to estimated doses, using their own dose-effect curves, after the analysis of 50 or 100 cells (triage mode) and after conventional scoring of 500 cells or 100 dicentrics. In the conventional scoring, at both doses, all reported frequencies were considered as satisfactory, and two reported doses were considered as questionable. The analysis of the data dispersion among the dicentric frequencies and among doses indicated a better reproducibility for estimated doses (15.6% for DI and 8.8% for DII) than for frequencies (24.4% for DI and 11.4% for DII), expressed by the coefficient of variation. In the two triage modes, although robust analysis classified some reported frequencies or doses as unsatisfactory or questionable, all estimated doses were in agreement with the accepted error of ±0.5 Gy. However, at the DI dose and for 50 scored cells, 5 out of the 14 reported confidence intervals that included zero dose and could be interpreted as false negatives. This improved with 100 cells, where only one confidence interval included zero dose. At the DII dose, all estimations fell within

  19. Medical humanities: lineage, excursionary sketch and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Brian

    2013-11-01

    Medical Humanities the journal started life in 2000 as a special edition of the JME. However, the intellectual taproots of the medical humanities as a field of enquiry can be traced to two developments: calls made in the 1920s for the development of multidisciplinary perspectives on the sciences that shed historical light on their assumptions, methods and practices; refusals to assimilate all medical phenomena to a biomedical worldview. Medical humanities the term stems from a desire to situate the significance of medicine as a product of culture. But despite growing usage over half a century the term defies a unifying encapsulation and continues to conjure up a multitude of discourse communities, including scholars working at the interfaces of health and humanities, arts and health, and medical education and bioethics. The field is intellectually capacious and polymorphous, forming and reforming around critical new research questions and teaching tasks spanning disciplines.

  20. Rationale and Design of the 'MITOCARE' Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    resonance). The study is being financed under an EU-FP7 grant and conducted under the auspices of the MITOCARE research consortium, which includes experts from clinical and basic research centers, as well as commercial enterprises, throughout Europe. Results from this study will contribute to a better...

  1. COMPARISON OF CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS RESULTS FROM TWO METHODS OF PROCESSING SITE METEOROLOGICAL DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , D

    2007-01-01

    Consequence analysis to support documented safety analysis requires the use of one or more years of representative meteorological data for atmospheric transport and dispersion calculations. At minimum, the needed meteorological data for most atmospheric transport and dispersion models consist of hourly samples of wind speed and atmospheric stability class. Atmospheric stability is inferred from measured and/or observed meteorological data. Several methods exist to convert measured and observed meteorological data into atmospheric stability class data. In this paper, one year of meteorological data from a western Department of Energy (DOE) site is processed to determine atmospheric stability class using two methods. The method that is prescribed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for supporting licensing of nuclear power plants makes use of measurements of vertical temperature difference to determine atmospheric stability. Another method that is preferred by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) relies upon measurements of incoming solar radiation, vertical temperature gradient, and wind speed. Consequences are calculated and compared using the two sets of processed meteorological data from these two methods as input data into the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2 (MACCS2) code

  2. Using Google Earth to Assess Shade for Sun Protection in Urban Recreation Spaces: Methods and Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, R; Wilson, N; Signal, L; Barr, M; Mackay, C; Reeder, A; Thomson, G

    2018-05-16

    Shade in public spaces can lower the risk of and sun burning and skin cancer. However, existing methods of auditing shade require travel between sites, and sunny weather conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of free computer software-Google Earth-for assessing shade in urban open spaces. A shade projection method was developed that uses Google Earth street view and aerial images to estimate shade at solar noon on the summer solstice, irrespective of the date of image capture. Three researchers used the method to separately estimate shade cover over pre-defined activity areas in a sample of 45 New Zealand urban open spaces, including 24 playgrounds, 12 beaches and 9 outdoor pools. Outcome measures included method accuracy (assessed by comparison with a subsample of field observations of 10 of the settings) and inter-rater reliability. Of the 164 activity areas identified in the 45 settings, most (83%) had no shade cover. The method identified most activity areas in playgrounds (85%) and beaches (93%) and was accurate for assessing shade over these areas (predictive values of 100%). Only 8% of activity areas at outdoor pools were identified, due to a lack of street view images. Reliability for shade cover estimates was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.97, 95% CI 0.97-0.98). Google Earth appears to be a reasonably accurate and reliable and shade audit tool for playgrounds and beaches. The findings are relevant for programmes focused on supporting the development of healthy urban open spaces.

  3. Automatic Tree Data Removal Method for Topography Measurement Result Using Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, H.; Chikatsu, H.

    2017-02-01

    Recently, laser scanning has been receiving greater attention as a useful tool for real-time 3D data acquisition, and various applications such as city modelling, DTM generation and 3D modelling of cultural heritage sites have been proposed. And, former digital data processing were demanded in the past digital archive techniques for cultural heritage sites. However, robust filtering method for distinguishing on- and off-terrain points by terrestrial laser scanner still have many issues. In the past investigation, former digital data processing using air-bone laser scanner were reported. Though, efficient tree removal methods from terrain points for the cultural heritage are not considered. In this paper, authors describe a new robust filtering method for cultural heritage using terrestrial laser scanner with "the echo digital processing technology" as latest data processing techniques of terrestrial laser scanner.

  4. Review of solution approach, methods, and recent results of the TRAC-PF1 system code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffy, J.H.; Liles, D.R.; Knight, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    The current version of the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-PF1) was created to improve on the capabilities of its predecessor (TRAC-PD2) for analyzing slow reactor transients such as small-break loss-of-coolant accidents. TRAC-PF1 continues to use a semi-implicit finite-difference method for modeling three-dimensional flows in the reactor vessel. However, it contains a new stability-enhancing two-step (SETS) finite-difference tecnique for one-dimensional flow calculations. This method is not restricted by a material Courant stability condition, allowing much larger time-step sizes during slow transients than would a semi-implicit method. These have been successfully applied to the analysis of a variety of experiments and hypothetical plant transients covering a full range of two-phase flow regimes

  5. Characterization of the Darwin direct implicit particle-in-cell method and resulting guidelines for operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, M.R.; Hewett, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the linear dispersion and other properties of the Darwin Direct Implicit Particle-in-cell (DADIPIC) method in order to deduce guidelines for its use in the simulation of long time-scale, kinetic phenomena in plasmas. The Darwin part of this algorithm eliminates the Courant constraint for light propagation across a grid cell in a time step and divides the field solution into several elliptic equations. The direct implicit method is only applied to the electrostatic field relieving the need to resolve plasma oscillations. Linear theory and simulations verifying the theory are used to generate the desired guidelines as well as show the utility of DADIPIC for a wide range of low frequency, electromagnetic phenomena. We find that separation of the fields has made the task of predicting algorithm behavior easier and produced a robust method without restrictive constraints. 20 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Comparison of evaluation results of piping thermal fatigue evaluation method based on equivalent stress amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takafumi; Kasahara, Naoto

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, reports have increased about failure cases caused by high cycle thermal fatigue both at light water reactors and fast breeder reactors. One of the reasons of the cases is a turbulent mixing at a Tee-junction, where hot and cold temperature fluids are mixed, in a coolant system. In order to prevent thermal fatigue failures at Tee-junctions. The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers published the guideline which is an evaluation method of high cycle thermal fatigue damage at nuclear pipes. In order to justify safety margin and make the procedure of the guideline concise, this paper proposes a new evaluation method of thermal fatigue damage with use of the 'equivalent stress amplitude.' Because this new method makes procedure of evaluation clear and concise, it will contribute to improving the guideline for thermal fatigue evaluation. (author)

  7. Semiautomatic volume of interest drawing for 18F-FDG image analysis - method and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.J.; Baig, S.; Begent, R.H.J.; Francis, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Functional imaging of cancer adds important information to the conventional measurements in monitoring response. Serial 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), which indicates changes in glucose metabolism in tumours, shows great promise for this. However, there is a need for a method to quantitate alterations in uptake of FDG, which accounts for changes in tumour volume and intensity of FDG uptake. Selection of regions or volumes [ROI or volumes of interest (VOI)] by hand drawing, or simple thresholding, suffers from operator-dependent drawbacks. We present a simple, robust VOI growing method for this application. The method requires a single seed point within the visualised tumour and another in relevant normal tissue. The drawn tumour VOI is insensitive to the operator inconsistency and is, thus, a suitable basis for comparative measurements. The method is validated using a software phantom. We demonstrate the use of the method in the assessment of tumour response in 31 patients receiving chemotherapy for various carcinomas. Valid assessment of tumour response could be made 2-4 weeks after starting chemotherapy, giving information for clinical decision making which would otherwise have taken 9-12 weeks. Survival was predicted from FDG-PET 2-4 weeks after starting chemotherapy (p = 0.04) and after 9-12 weeks FDG-PET gave a better prediction of survival (p = 0.002) than CT or MRI (p = 0.015). FDG-PET using this method of analysis has potential as a routine tool for optimising use of chemotherapy and improving its cost effectiveness. It also has potential for increasing the accuracy of response assessment in clinical trials of novel therapies. (orig.)

  8. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  9. Noninvasive MRI thermometry with the proton resonance frequency (PRF) method: in vivo results in human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Poorter, J; De Wagter, C; De Deene, Y

    1995-01-01

    The noninvasive thermometry method is based on the temperature dependence of the proton resonance frequency (PRF). High-quality temperature images can be obtained from phase information of standard gradient-echo sequences with an accuracy of 0.2 degrees C in phantoms. This work was focused on the...

  10. Review of quantum Monte Carlo methods and results for Coulombic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceperley, D.

    1983-01-01

    The various Monte Carlo methods for calculating ground state energies are briefly reviewed. Then a summary of the charged systems that have been studied with Monte Carlo is given. These include the electron gas, small molecules, a metal slab and many-body hydrogen

  11. Remote Determination of Cloud Temperature and Transmittance from Spectral Radiance Measurements: Method and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    atmospherics temperatura and humidity profiles. Validation tests performed on experimental spectra demonstrate the occuracy of the method with typical...indicated as with the title.) Passive Remota Sensing Infrared Spectra Cloud Temperatura Cloud Transmittance FTIR Spectrometer Icing Hazard Detection (DCD03E.IFO - 95.02.22) UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF FORM

  12. Rationale for single molecule detection by means of Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaponenko, S.V.; Guzatov, D.V.

    2009-01-01

    A consistent quantum electrodynamical description is proposed of Raman scattering of light by a molecule in a medium with a modified photon density of states. Enhanced local density of states near a metal nanobody is shown to increase a scattering rate by several orders of magnitude, thus providing a rationale for experimental detection of single molecules by means of Raman spectroscopy. For an ellipsoidal particle 10 14 -fold enhancement of the Raman scattering cross-section is obtained. (authors)

  13. Physics rationale for the engineering specifications for ZTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimarco, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the physics rationale that established the engineering design of ZTH. The physics criteria are given and the implications regarding the engineering design are presented. Experimental and theoretical background evidence is given in support of the criteria but the justification is left to other reports and peer reviews. The physics criteria discussed here are limited to the ones deemed to be of highest engineering priority. 32 refs., 9 figs

  14. A predictable Java profile - rationale and implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Bøgholm, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    A Java profile suitable for development of high integrity embedded systems is presented. It is based on event handlers which are grouped in missions and equipped with respectively private handler memory and shared mission memory. This is a result of our previous work on developing a Java profile......, and is directly inspired by interactions with the Open Group on their on-going work on a safety critical Java profile (JSR-302). The main contribution is an arrangement of the class hierarchy such that the proposal is a generalization of Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). A further contribution...

  15. Rationale for using Peltophorum africanum (Fabaceae extracts in veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Bizimenyera

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Peltophorum africanum (Fabaceae is a deciduous tree widespread in southern Africa. The plant has many ethnomedical and ethnoveterinary uses. Root and bark decoctions are used to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, sore throat, wounds, back and joint pains, HIV-AIDS, venereal diseases and infertility. Pastoralists and rural farmers use the root and bark extracts to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, infertility, and to promote well-being and resistance to diseases in cattle. To evaluate these ethnobotanical leads, dried leaves, stem bark and root bark were extracted with ethanol, acetone, dichloromethane and hexane. Polyphenols in the extract were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method with gallic acid as standard. Qualitative antioxidant activity was screened by spraying thin layer chromatograms (TLC of the extracts with 0.2 % 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, and quantified with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and total antibacterial activity (TAA were determined by serial microplate dilution for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis, with gentamicin as standard and tetrazolium violet as growth indicator. Acetone and ethanol extracted the largest quantity of material. Polyphenols concentration was 49.2% in acetone extract of the root and 3.8 % in dichloromethane extract of the leaf. Antioxidant activity of at least 5 antioxidant compounds as measured by TEAC ranged from 1.34 (ethanol extract of the root to 0.01 (hexane extract of the leaf. The total antibacterial activity (volume to which active compounds present in 1 g plant material can be diluted and still inhibit bacterial growth was 1263 mℓ/g for ethanol extract of the root against S. aureus, and 800 mℓ/g for acetone extract of the root against P. aeruginosa. There was substantial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with MIC values of 0.08 mg/mℓ for S

  16. Vehicle Speed Determination in Case of Road Accident by Software Method and Comparing of Results with the Mathematical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hoxha Gezim; Shala Ahmet; Likaj Rame

    2017-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem to vehicle speed calculation at road accidents. To determine the speed are used the PC Crash software and Virtual Crash. With both methods are analysed concrete cases of road accidents. Calculation methods and comparing results are present for analyse. These methods consider several factors such are: the front part of the vehicle, the technical feature of the vehicle, car angle, remote relocation after the crash, road conditions etc. Expected results with PC Cr...

  17. Petrosal sinus sampling: technique and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D L; Doppman, J L

    1991-01-01

    Bilateral simultaneous sampling of the inferior petrosal sinuses is an extremely sensitive, specific, and accurate test for diagnosing Cushing disease and distinguishing between that entity and the ectopic ACTH syndrome. It is also valuable for lateralizing small hormone-producing adenomas within the pituitary gland. The inferior petrosal sinuses connect the cavernous sinuses with the ipsilateral internal jugular veins. The anatomy of the anastomoses between the inferior petrosal sinus, the internal jugular vein, and the venous plexuses at the base of the skull varies, but it is almost always possible to catheterize the inferior petrosal sinus. In addition, variations in size and anatomy are often present between the two inferior petrosal sinuses in a patient. Advance preparation is required for petrosal sinus sampling. Teamwork is a critical element, and each member of the staff should know what he or she will be doing during the procedure. The samples must be properly labeled, processed, and stored. Specific needles, guide wires, and catheters are recommended for this procedure. The procedure is performed with specific attention to the three areas of potential technical difficulty: catheterization of the common femoral veins, crossing the valve at the base of the left internal jugular vein, and selective catheterization of the inferior petrosal sinuses. There are specific methods for dealing with each of these areas. The sine qua non of correct catheter position in the inferior petrosal sinus is demonstration of reflux of contrast material into the ipsilateral cavernous sinus. Images must always be obtained to document correct catheter position. Special attention must be paid to two points to prevent potential complications: The patient must be given an adequate dose of heparin, and injection of contrast material into the inferior petrosal sinuses and surrounding veins must be done gently and carefully. When the procedure is performed as outlined, both inferior

  18. A new method for processing INAA results without the necessity of standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemon, G.; Philippot, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    When neutron activation analysis is used for elemental determinations in samples taken from environment, and quite different in origin, certain questions arise: is the method absolute or relative, precise or accurate? How should objects be chosen to represent the subject studied? How should the conclusions of the measurement be used? How are the quality and intensity of the flux to be controlled? What corrections are needed for the effects of perturbing elements, uranium and boron? How sensitive is the method or - which amounts to the same thing - what is the best time to analyse an element in a given matrix? The authors attempt to answer these questions and illustrate the subject by way of a few specific examples: mineral and river water, sea and river sediments, aerosols, quartz tools, hair, nodules and Mn deposits, diamonds, wines, PWR effluents. (author)

  19. Health effects estimation: Methods and results for uranium mill tailings contaminated properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Cross, F.T.; Soldat, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes methods for estimating potential health effects from exposure to uranium mill tailings and presents a summary of risk projections for 50 contaminated properties (residences, schools, churches, and businesses) in the US. The methods provide realistic estimates of cancer risk to exposed individuals based on property-specific occupancy and contamination patterns. External exposure to gamma radiation, inhalation of radon daughters, and consumption of food products grown in radium-contaminated soil are considered. Most of the projected risk was from indoor exposure to radon daughters; however, for some properties the risk from consumption of locally grown food products is similar to that from radon daughters. In all cases, the projected number of lifetime cancer deaths for specific properties is less than one, but for some properties the increase in risk over that normally expected is greater than 100%

  20. Method of eliminating undesirable gaseous products resulting in underground uranium ore leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizek, J.; Dedic, K.; Johann, J.; Haas, F.; Sokola, K.

    1980-01-01

    The method described is characteristic of the fact that gases being formed or dissolved are oxidized using a combined oxidation-reduction system consisting of airborne oxygen, oxygen carriers and a strong irreversible oxidant. The oxygen carrier system consists of a mixture of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ cations or of Cu + and Cu 2+ cations introduced in solutions in form of iron salts at a concentration of 0.0001 to 0.003 M, or copper salts maximally of 0.0003 M. The irreversible oxidant shows a standard redox potential of at least +1.0 V. In addition to undesirable product elimination, the method allows increasing the leaching process yield. (J.B.)

  1. Strengthening of limestone by the impregnation - gamma irradiation method. Results of tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramiere, R.; Tassigny, C. de

    1975-04-01

    The method developed by the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble (France) strengthens the stones by impregnation with a styrene resin/liquid polystyrene mixture followed by polymerization under gamma irradiation. This method is applicable to stones which can be taken into the laboratory for treatment. The increase in strength of 6 different species of French limestone has been quantitatively recorded. The following parameters were studied: possibility of water migration inside the stones, improvements of the mechanical properties of the impregnated stone, standing up to freeze-thaw conditions and artificial ageing of the stones which causes only minor changes in the appearance of the stone and a negligible decrease in weight [fr

  2. The Ramsey method in high-precision mass spectrometry with Penning traps Experimental results

    CERN Document Server

    George, S; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kretzschmar, M; Nagy, S; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L; Yazidjian, C

    2007-01-01

    The highest precision in direct mass measurements is obtained with Penning trap mass spectrometry. Most experiments use the interconversion of the magnetron and cyclotron motional modes of the stored ion due to excitation by external radiofrequency-quadrupole fields. In this work a new excitation scheme, Ramsey's method of time-separated oscillatory fields, has been successfully tested. It has been shown to reduce significantly the uncertainty in the determination of the cyclotron frequency and thus of the ion mass of interest. The theoretical description of the ion motion excited with Ramsey's method in a Penning trap and subsequently the calculation of the resonance line shapes for different excitation times, pulse structures, and detunings of the quadrupole field has been carried out in a quantum mechanical framework and is discussed in detail in the preceding article in this journal by M. Kretzschmar. Here, the new excitation technique has been applied with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN fo...

  3. Method for covering a spme fibre with carbon nanotubes and resulting spme fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrán, Enric; Jover Comas, Eric; García Céspedes, Jordi; Bayona Termens, Josep María

    2010-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a method for covering solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibres with carbon nanotubes (CNT), comprising the following operations: (i) depositing a layer of a metal material on the SPME fibre; (ii) applying a heat treatment in order to form catalytic metal nanoparticles in a reducing atmosphere; and (iii) applying carbon using chemical deposition techniques, thereby forming CNT on top ofthe metal nanoparticles. The invention also relates to a fibre obtain...

  4. A Simple Method for Closure of Urethrocutaneous Fistula after Tubularized Incised Plate Repair: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mehdi; Ariafar, Ali; Babaei, Amir Hossein; Ashrafzadeh, Abdosamad; Adib, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF) is the most prevalent complication after hypospadias repair surgery. Many methods have been developed for UCF correction, and the best technique for UCF repair is determined based on the size, location, and number of fistulas, as well as the status of the surrounding skin. In this study, we introduced and evaluated a simple method for UCF correction after tubularized incised plate (TIP) repair. This clinical study was conducted on children with UCFs ≤ 4 mm that developed after TIP surgery for hypospadias repair. The skin was incised around the fistula and the tract was released from the surrounding tissues and the dartos fascia, then ligated with 5 - 0 polydioxanone (PDS) sutures. The dartos fascia, as the second layer, was covered on the fistula tract with PDS thread (gauge 5 - 0) by the continuous suture method. The skin was closed with 6 - 0 Vicryl sutures. After six months of follow-up, surgical outcomes were evaluated based on fistula relapse and other complications. After six months, relapse occurred in only one patient, a six-year-old boy with a single 4-mm distal opening, who had undergone no previous fistula repairs. Therefore, in 97.5% of the cases, relapse was non-existent. Other complications, such as urethral stenosis, intraurethral obstruction, and epidermal inclusion cysts, were not seen in the other patients during the six-month follow-up period. This repair method, which is simple, rapid, and easily learned, is highly applicable, with a high success rate for the closure of UCFs measuring up to 4 mm in any location.

  5. "Rehabilitation schools for scoliosis" thematic series: describing the methods and results

    OpenAIRE

    Rigo, Manuel D; Grivas, Theodoros B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Scoliosis Rehabilitation model begins with the correct diagnosis and evaluation of the patient, to make treatment decisions oriented to the patient. The treatment is based on observation, education, scoliosis specific exercises, and bracing. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient. There is some evidence supporting scoliosis specific exercises as a part of the rehabilitation treatment, however, the evidence is poor and the different methods ar...

  6. The relationship between team climate and interprofessional collaboration: preliminary results of a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Christopher; Agreli, Heloise F.; Peduzzi, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Relational and organisational factors are key elements of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and team climate. Few studies have explored the relationship between IPC and team climate. This article presents a study that 10 aimed to explore IPC in primary healthcare teams and understand how the assessment of team climate may provide insights into IPC. A mixed methods study design was adopted. In Stage 1 of the study, team climate was assessed using the Team Climate Inventory with 159 profess...

  7. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 results: cross-correlation redshifts - methods and systematics characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, M.; Vielzeuf, P.; Davis, C.; Cawthon, R.; Rau, M. M.; DeRose, J.; De Vicente, J.; Alarcon, A.; Rozo, E.; Gaztanaga, E.; Hoyle, B.; Miquel, R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Castander, F. J.; Chang, C.; da Costa, L. N.; Gruen, D.; Gschwend, J.; Hartley, W. G.; Lin, H.; MacCrann, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Roodman, A.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Troxel, M. A.; Wechsler, R. H.; Asorey, J.; Davis, T. M.; Glazebrook, K.; Hinton, S. R.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Möller, A.; O'Neill, C. R.; Sommer, N. E.; Uddin, S. A.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carollo, D.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Hoormann, J. K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Jeltema, T.; Johnson, M. W. G.; Johnson, M. D.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, B. E.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.; Wolf, R. C.

    2018-06-01

    We use numerical simulations to characterize the performance of a clustering-based method to calibrate photometric redshift biases. In particular, we cross-correlate the weak lensing source galaxies from the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 sample with redMaGiC galaxies (luminous red galaxies with secure photometric redshifts) to estimate the redshift distribution of the former sample. The recovered redshift distributions are used to calibrate the photometric redshift bias of standard photo-z methods applied to the same source galaxy sample. We apply the method to two photo-z codes run in our simulated data: Bayesian Photometric Redshift and Directional Neighbourhood Fitting. We characterize the systematic uncertainties of our calibration procedure, and find that these systematic uncertainties dominate our error budget. The dominant systematics are due to our assumption of unevolving bias and clustering across each redshift bin, and to differences between the shapes of the redshift distributions derived by clustering versus photo-zs. The systematic uncertainty in the mean redshift bias of the source galaxy sample is Δz ≲ 0.02, though the precise value depends on the redshift bin under consideration. We discuss possible ways to mitigate the impact of our dominant systematics in future analyses.

  8. Experimental results and validation of a method to reconstruct forces on the ITER test blanket modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeile, Christian; Maione, Ivan A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An in operation force measurement system for the ITER EU HCPB TBM has been developed. • The force reconstruction methods are based on strain measurements on the attachment system. • An experimental setup and a corresponding mock-up have been built. • A set of test cases representing ITER relevant excitations has been used for validation. • The influence of modeling errors on the force reconstruction has been investigated. - Abstract: In order to reconstruct forces on the test blanket modules in ITER, two force reconstruction methods, the augmented Kalman filter and a model predictive controller, have been selected and developed to estimate the forces based on strain measurements on the attachment system. A dedicated experimental setup with a corresponding mock-up has been designed and built to validate these methods. A set of test cases has been defined to represent possible excitation of the system. It has been shown that the errors in the estimated forces mainly depend on the accuracy of the identified model used by the algorithms. Furthermore, it has been found that a minimum of 10 strain gauges is necessary to allow for a low error in the reconstructed forces.

  9. Different methods to define utility functions yield similar results but engage different neural processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Heldmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the concept of utility is fundamental to many economic theories, up to now a generally accepted method determining a subject’s utility function is not available. We investigated two methods that are used in economic sciences for describing utility functions by using response-locked event-related potentials in order to assess their neural underpinnings. For defining the certainty equivalent (CE, we used a lottery game with probabilities to win p=0.5, for identifying the subjects’ utility functions directly a standard bisection task was applied. Although the lottery tasks’ payoffs were only hypothetical, a pronounced negativity was observed resembling the error related negativity (ERN previously described in action monitoring research, but this occurred only for choices far away from the indifference point between money and lottery. By contrast, the bisection task failed to evoke an ERN irrespective of the responses’ correctness. Based on these findings we are reasoning that only decisions made in the lottery task achieved a level of subjective relevance that activates cognitive-emotional monitoring. In terms of economic sciences, our findings support the view that the bisection method is unaffected by any kind of probability valuation or other parameters related to risk and in combination with the lottery task can, therefore, be used to differentiate between payoff and probability valuation.

  10. Pedagogical and didactical rationale of phonemic stimulation process in pre-school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, Yudenia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main results of a regional research problem dealing with education in pre-school age. It examines the effectiveness of the didactic conception of the process of phonemic stimulation in children from 3 to 5 years old. The pedagogical and didactic rationale of the process, viewed from the evolutionary, ontogeny, systemic perspective is explained. Likewise, possible scaffolding is illustrated. The suggested procedures focus the provision of support on a systematic and purposely practice which involve first the discrimination of non-verbal sounds and the discrimi-nation of verbal sound later, aiming to the creation of a phonological consciousness.

  11. Comparison and qualification of FFTF calorimetric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, T.B.; Nutt, W.T.; Zimmerman, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility achieved full power operation on December 21, 1981. During the power ascent, the reactor thermal power (calorimetric) was computed by three methods as follows: the plant main data handling computer, Plant Data System (PDS); a second computer, the Experimenter's Data System (EDS); and a manual method requiring human operator activities and a programmable calculator. It is the purpose of this paper to explain the rationale for employing the three methods, describe how each works in a schematic fashion, compare the results, and demonstrate that all methods have met stringent goals based on a statistical analysis of the results

  12. An improved method for interpreting API filter press hydraulic conductivity test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heslin, G.M.; Baxter, D.Y.; Filz, G.M.; Davidson, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    The American Petroleum Institute (API) filter press is frequently used to measure the hydraulic conductivity of soil-bentonite backfill during the mix design process and as part of construction quality controls. However, interpretation of the test results is complicated by the fact that the seepage-induced consolidation pressure varies from zero at the top of the specimen to a maximum value at the bottom of the specimen. An analytical solution is available which relates the stress, compressibility, and hydraulic conductivity in soil consolidated by seepage forces. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation undertaken to support application of this theory to API hydraulic conductivity tests. When the API test results are interpreted using seepage consolidation theory, they are in good agreement with the results of consolidometer permeameter tests. Limitations of the API test are also discussed

  13. Quantitative functional scintigraphy of the salivary glands: A new method of interpreting and clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Trauring, G.; Haas, J.P.; Noodt, A.; Draf, W.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-99m pertechnetate is injected i.v. and the kinetics of the tracer in the salivary glands is analyzed using a gamma camera and a computer system. To visualize regional gland function, phase images as well as socalled gradient images are generated, which reflect the rate of tracer inflow and outflow. The time activity curves for the individual glands which are obtained with the ROI technique show an initial rise which reflects the pertechnetate uptake potential of the gland and is superimposed by background activity. After a standardized lemon juice dose the curve drops steeply, with the slope depending on the outflow potential of the gland and the background activity. In the past, attempts at quantifying the uptake and elimination functions have failed because of problems in allowing for the variable background component of the time activity curves, which normally amounts of about 60%. In 25 patients in whom one gland had been removed surgically the background activity was examined in terms of the time course and the regional pattern and a patient and gland-specific subtraction method was developed for visualizing the time activity curves of isolated glands devoid of any background activity and describing the uptake and elimination potentials in quantitative terms. Using this new method we evaluated 305 salivary gland scans. Normal ranges for the quantitative parameters were established and their reproducibility was examined. Unlike qualitative functional images of the salivary glands the new quantitative method offers accurate evidence of the extent of gland function and thus helps to decide wether a gland should be salvaged or not (conservative versus surgical treatment). However, quantitation does not furnish any clues on the benign or malignant nature of a tumor. (Author)

  14. Some elaborating methods of gamma scanning results on irradiated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternini, E.

    1979-01-01

    Gamma scanning, as a post-irradiation examination, is a technique which provides a large number of informations on irradiated nuclear fuels. Power profile, fission products distribution, average and local burn-up of single elements structural and nuclear behaviour of fuel materials are examples of the obtained informations. In the present work experimental methods and theoretical calculations used at the CNEN hot cell laboratory for the mentioned purposes are described. Errors arising from the application of the gamma scanning technique are also discussed

  15. Qualitative and quantitative methods for human factor analysis and assessment in NPP. Investigations and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova, R.; Kalchev, B.; Atanasov, D.

    2005-01-01

    A description of the most frequently used approaches for human reliability assesment is given. The relation between different human factor causes for human induced events in Kozloduy NPP during the period 2000 - 2003 is discussed. A comparison between the contribution of the casual factors for events occurrences in Kozloduy NPP and an Japanese NPP is presented. It can be concluded that for both NPPs the most important casual factors are: 1) written procedures and documents; 2) man-machine interface; 3) environmental working conditions; 4) working practice; 5) training and qualification; 6) supervising methods

  16. Results of a survey on accident and safety analysis codes, benchmarks, verification and validation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.; Wilkin, G.B.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the information submitted by AECL, CIAE, JAERI, ORNL and Siemens in response to a need identified at the 'Workshop on R and D Needs' at the IGORR-3 meeting. The survey compiled information on the national standards applied to the Safety Quality Assurance (SQA) programs undertaken by the participants. Information was assembled for the computer codes and nuclear data libraries used in accident and safety analyses for research reactors and the methods used to verify and validate the codes and libraries. Although the survey was not comprehensive, it provides a basis for exchanging information of common interest to the research reactor community

  17. Vehicle Speed Determination in Case of Road Accident by Software Method and Comparing of Results with the Mathematical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoxha Gezim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem to vehicle speed calculation at road accidents. To determine the speed are used the PC Crash software and Virtual Crash. With both methods are analysed concrete cases of road accidents. Calculation methods and comparing results are present for analyse. These methods consider several factors such are: the front part of the vehicle, the technical feature of the vehicle, car angle, remote relocation after the crash, road conditions etc. Expected results with PC Crash software and Virtual Crash are shown in tabular graphics and compared in mathematical methods.

  18. Evolution of different reaction methods resulting in the formation of AgI125 for use in brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, C.D.; Peleias Jr, F.S.; Rostelato, M.E.C.M.; Zeituni, C.A.; Benega, M.A.G.; Tiezzi, R.; Mattos, F.R.; Rodrigues, B.T.; Oliveira, T.B.; Feher, A.; Moura, J.A.; Costa, O.L.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer represents about 10% of all cases of cancer in the world. Brachytherapy has been extensively used in the early and intermediate stages of the illness. The radiotherapy method reduces the damage probability to surrounding healthy tissues. The present study compares several deposition methods of iodine-125 on silver substrate (seed core), in order to choose the most suitable one to be implemented at IPEN. Four methods were selected: method 1 (assay based on electrodeposition) which presented efficiency of 65.16%; method 2 (assay based on chemical reactions, developed by David Kubiatowicz) which presented efficiency of 70.80%; method 3 (chemical reaction based on the methodology developed by Dr. Maria Elisa Rostelato) which presented efficiency of 55.80%; new method developed by IPEN with 90.5% efficiency. Based on the results, the new method is the suggested one to be implemented. (authors)

  19. A method to derive fixed budget results from expected optimisation times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Jansen, Thomas; Witt, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    At last year's GECCO a novel perspective for theoretical performance analysis of evolutionary algorithms and other randomised search heuristics was introduced that concentrates on the expected function value after a pre-defined number of steps, called budget. This is significantly different from...... the common perspective where the expected optimisation time is analysed. While there is a huge body of work and a large collection of tools for the analysis of the expected optimisation time the new fixed budget perspective introduces new analytical challenges. Here it is shown how results on the expected...... optimisation time that are strengthened by deviation bounds can be systematically turned into fixed budget results. We demonstrate our approach by considering the (1+1) EA on LeadingOnes and significantly improving previous results. We prove that deviating from the expected time by an additive term of ω(n3...

  20. First in-flight results of Pleiades 1A innovative methods for optical calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Philippe; Lebègue, Laurent; Fourest, Sébastien; Delvit, Jean-Marc; de Lussy, Françoise; Greslou, Daniel; Blanchet, Gwendoline

    2017-11-01

    The PLEIADES program is a space Earth Observation system led by France, under the leadership of the French Space Agency (CNES). Since it was successfully launched on December 17th, 2011, Pleiades 1A high resolution optical satellite has been thoroughly tested and validated during the commissioning phase led by CNES. The whole system has been designed to deliver submetric optical images to users whose needs were taken into account very early in the design process. This satellite opens a new era in Europe since its off-nadir viewing capability delivers a worldwide 2- days access, and its great agility will make possible to image numerous targets, strips and stereo coverage from the same orbit. Its imaging capability of more than 450 images of 20 km x 20 km per day can fulfill a broad spectrum of applications for both civilian and defence users. For an earth observing satellite with no on-board calibration source, the commissioning phase is a critical quest of wellcharacterized earth landscapes and ground patterns that have to be imaged by the camera in order to compute or fit the parameters of the viewing models. It may take a long time to get the required scenes with no cloud, whilst atmosphere corrections need simultaneous measurements that are not always possible. The paper focuses on new in-flight calibration methods that were prepared before the launch in the framework of the PLEIADES program : they take advantage of the satellite agility that can deeply relax the operational constraints and may improve calibration accuracy. Many performances of the camera were assessed thanks to a dedicated innovative method that was successfully validated during the commissioning period : Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), refocusing, absolute calibration, line of sight stability were estimated on stars and on the Moon. Detectors normalization and radiometric noise were computed on specific pictures on Earth with a dedicated guidance profile. Geometric viewing frame was

  1. "Rehabilitation schools for scoliosis" thematic series: describing the methods and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivas Theodoros B

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Scoliosis Rehabilitation model begins with the correct diagnosis and evaluation of the patient, to make treatment decisions oriented to the patient. The treatment is based on observation, education, scoliosis specific exercises, and bracing. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient. There is some evidence supporting scoliosis specific exercises as a part of the rehabilitation treatment, however, the evidence is poor and the different methods are not known by most of the scientific community. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of the different physiotherapy methodologies (specific exercises, integrated into the whole rehabilitation program, is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about it. This is what the SCOLIOSIS Journal is going to do through the "Rehabilitation Schools for Scoliosis" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published.

  2. Dosimetric methods and results of measurement for total body electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Ningyuan; Yu Geng; Yu Zihao

    1987-01-01

    A modified 'STANFORD TSEI TECHNIQUE' e.g. dual angled gantry, 6 turntable angles and 12 fields was developed on PHILIPS SL 75-20 linear accelerator to treat mycosis fungoides. A plastic scatter screen, 5 mm in thickness was used to reduce the primary electron energy to 4 MeV in order to control treatment depth (d 80 approx.= 1.2 cm) and skin dose up to 89%. The X-ray contamination was at an acceptable level of 2%. This measurement which involved multiple dosimetric methods, showed that the distance between the scattor screen and the patient, within 10-30 cm, had no influence on PDD and the dose distribution on the body surface was reasonably homogeneous, but strongly dependent on the anatomic positions. For those sites which were located in the electron beam shadows, boosting irradiation might be necessary. The preliminary clinical trials indicated that this technique is valid and feasible

  3. A new method for deriving rigorous results on ππ scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, I.; Dita, P.

    1979-06-01

    We develop a new approach to the problem of constraining the ππ scattering amplitudes by means of the axiomatically proved properties of unitarity, analyticity and crossing symmetry. The method is based on the solution of an extremal problem on a convex set of analytic functions and provides a global description of the domain of values taken by any finite number of partial waves at an arbitrary set of unphysical energies, compatible with unitarity, the bounds at complex energies derived from generalized dispersion relations and the crossing integral relations. From this doma domain we obtain new absolute bounds for the amplitudes as well as rigorous correlations between the values of various partial waves. (author)

  4. Radioimmunoassay for human myoglobin: methods and results in patients with skeletal muscle or myocardial disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Saito, S.; Kawai, H.; Kondo, A.; Iwasa, M.; Hayashi, T.; Yagita, M.

    1978-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay has been developed for the measurement of serum Mb. Immunization of rabbit with human Mb yielded anti-Mb antibody which was purified by affinity chromatography. Human hemoglobin, CK, and the component of serum per se did not appear to cross-react with the antibody. Mb was radiolabeled by the chloramine T method. The radioimmunoassay method could detect as little as 0.3 ng of Mb and was not affected by hemolysis. Information is also given on precision, recovery, and specimen preservation. Mb levels could be detected in all of 120 normal adults, and the values ranged between 1 and 28 ng/ml (mean, 13.1 +- 6.1). No sex difference was observed. Levels were markedly elevated in all the patients with progressive muscular dystrophy, especially in the Duchenne type at the level of 40 to 1700 ng/ml. It was also noticed that about 70% of female gene carriers of Duchenne type had a slightly increased Mb level. An elevated serum Mb was also noted in polymyositis. In every case of acute myocardial infarction, serum Mb levels were increased, peak values ranging from 175 to 4400 ng/ml and averaging 1162 +- 287.9 Mb levels were elevated faster and peaked earlier (within 6 to 12 hr after the attack) than serum CK activity and returned to nearly normal range within 3 to 4 days. The increase in serum Mb was also noticed in shock and surgery. These data indicate that radioimmunoassay of Mb is a useful test for judging the myolytic state of myogenic myopathies and for early detection of myocardial infarction

  5. Indications and organisational methods for autologous blood transfusion procedures in Italy: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Liviana; Campolongo, Alessandra; Caponera, Maurizio; Berzuini, Alessandra; Bontadini, Andrea; Furlò, Giuseppe; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M

    2014-10-01

    Pre-operative donation of autologous blood is a practice that is now being abandoned. Alternative methods of transfusing autologous blood, other than predeposited blood, do however play a role in limiting the need for transfusion of allogeneic blood. This survey of autologous blood transfusion practices, promoted by the Italian Society of Transfusion Medicine and Immunohaematology more than 2 years after the publication of national recommendations on the subject, was intended to acquire information on the indications for predeposit in Italy and on some organisational aspects of the alternative techniques of autotransfusion. A structured questionnaire consisting of 22 questions on the indications and organisational methods of autologous blood transfusion was made available on a web platform from 15 January to 15 March, 2013. The 232 Transfusion Services in Italy were invited by e-mail to complete the online survey. Of the 232 transfusion structures contacted, 160 (69%) responded to the survey, with the response rate decreasing from the North towards the South and the Islands. The use of predeposit has decreased considerably in Italy and about 50% of the units collected are discarded because of lack of use. Alternative techniques (acute isovolaemic haemodilution and peri-operative blood salvage) are used at different frequencies across the country. The data collected in this survey can be considered representative of national practice; they show that the already very limited indications for predeposit autologous blood transfusion must be adhered to even more scrupulously, also to avoid the notable waste of resources due to unused units.Users of alternative autotransfusion techniques must be involved in order to gain a full picture of the degree of use of such techniques; multidisciplinary agreement on the indications for their use is essential in order for these indications to have an effective role in "patient blood management" programmes.

  6. Evaluation and perceived results of moral case deliberation: A mixed methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.; van Zadelhoff, E.; van Loo, G.; Widdershoven, G.A.; Molewijk, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Moral case deliberation is increasingly becoming part of various Dutch healthcare organizations. Although some evaluation studies of moral case deliberation have been carried out, research into the results of moral case deliberation within aged care is scarce. Research questions: How did

  7. Does It Matter? Analyzing the Results of Three Different Learning Delivery Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernish, William N.; DeFranco, Agnes L.; Lindner, James R.; Dooley, Kim E.

    2005-01-01

    The increasing diversity of learners and their preferences coupled with increasing usage of the computer and Internet prompted the need for testing and verifying the ways that knowledge can be delivered and learned effectively. This research addresses these concerns by comparing the results of a college course, hospitality human resource…

  8. Active Learning with Rationales for Identifying Operationally Significant Anomalies in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manali; Das, Kamalika; Bilgic, Mustafa; Matthews, Bryan; Nielsen, David Lynn; Oza, Nikunj C.

    2016-01-01

    A major focus of the commercial aviation community is discovery of unknown safety events in flight operations data. Data-driven unsupervised anomaly detection methods are better at capturing unknown safety events compared to rule-based methods which only look for known violations. However, not all statistical anomalies that are discovered by these unsupervised anomaly detection methods are operationally significant (e.g., represent a safety concern). Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) have to spend significant time reviewing these statistical anomalies individually to identify a few operationally significant ones. In this paper we propose an active learning algorithm that incorporates SME feedback in the form of rationales to build a classifier that can distinguish between uninteresting and operationally significant anomalies. Experimental evaluation on real aviation data shows that our approach improves detection of operationally significant events by as much as 75% compared to the state-of-the-art. The learnt classifier also generalizes well to additional validation data sets.

  9. Measuring age differences among globular clusters having similar metallicities - A new method and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, D.A.; Bolte, M.; Stetson, P.B.

    1990-01-01

    A color-difference technique for estimating the relative ages of globular clusters with similar chemical compositions on the basis of their CM diagrams is described and demonstrated. The theoretical basis and implementation of the procedure are explained, and results for groups of globular clusters with m/H = about -2, -1.6, and -1.3, and for two special cases (Palomar 12 and NGC 5139) are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed in detail. It is found that the more metal-deficient globular clusters are nearly coeval (differences less than 0.5 Gyr), whereas the most metal-rich globular clusters exhibit significant age differences (about 2 Gyr). This result is shown to contradict Galactic evolution models postulating halo collapse in less than a few times 100 Myr. 77 refs

  10. Review of solution approach, methods, and recent results of the RELAP5 system code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapp, J.A.; Ransom, V.H.

    1983-01-01

    The present RELAP5 code is based on a semi-implicit numerical scheme for the hydrodynamic model. The basic guidelines employed in the development of the semi-implicit numerical scheme are discussed and the numerical features of the scheme are illustrated by analysis for a simple, but analogous, single-equation model. The basic numerical scheme is recorded and results from several simulations are presented. The experimental results and code simulations are used in a complementary fashion to develop insights into nuclear-plant response that would not be obtained if either tool were used alone. Further analysis using the simple single-equation model is carried out to yield insights that are presently being used to implement a more-implicit multi-step scheme in the experimental version of RELAP5. The multi-step implicit scheme is also described

  11. Performance of various mathematical methods for computer-aided processing of radioimmunoassay results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, W.; Sandel, P.; Langfelder, Ch.; Knedel, M.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of 6 algorithms were compared for computer aided determination of radioimmunological end results. These were weighted and unweighted linear logit log regression; quadratic logit log regression, smoothing spline interpolation with a large and small smoothing factor, respectively, and polygonal interpolation and the manual curve fitting on the basis of three radioimmunoassays with different reference curve characteristics (digoxin, estriol, human chorionic somatomammotrophin (HCS)). Great store was set by the accuracy of the approximation at the intermediate points on the curve, i.e. those points that lie midway between two standard concentrations. These concentrations were obtained by weighing and inserted as unknown samples. In the case of digoxin and estriol the polygonal interpolation provided the best results, while the weighted logit log regression proved superior in the case of HCS. (Auth.)

  12. Conversion Method of the Balance Test Results in Open Jet Tunnel on the Free Flow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Bui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem of sizing a model and converting the balance test results in the low speed open-jet wind tunnel to free-flow conditions. The ANSYS Fluent commercial code performs flow model calculations in the test section and in the free flow, and the ANSYS ICEM CFD module is used to provide grid generation. A structured grid is generated in the free flow and an unstructured one is provided in the test section. The changes of aerodynamic coefficients are determined at the different values of the blockage factor for the segmental-conical and hemisphere cylinder-cone shapes of the model. The blockage factor values are found at which the interference of the test section – model is neglected. The paper presents a technique to convert the wind tunnel test results to the free flow conditions.

  13. Comparison of Different Methods for Transverse Emittance Measurement and Recent Results from LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Bovet, Claude; Jung, R

    1997-01-01

    The knowledge of its position and angular transverse distributions is of utmost interest to assess the good behaviour of a beam within an accelerator. After a short reminder of beam "emittance" definitions, a review is made of various measurement techniques used so far both in single pass machines and colliders. Results of measurements made at CERN in the future LHC injection complex and in LEP are presented and discussed.

  14. USA/FBR program fast flux test facility startup physics and reactor characterization methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.A.; Harris, R.A.; Daughtry, J.W.

    1981-09-01

    Final confirmation of much of the engineering mockup work has been achieved in FTR zero-power experiments in February, 1980, and in power demonstration performed in December, 1980, and March, 1981. Final in-core low-power and high-power irradiation of spatially distributed radioactivants will be completed late in 1981. This paper describes physics experiments and present summaries of the extensive results accumulated to date. 53 figures

  15. Methods and results of a probabilistic risk assessment for radioactive waste transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, F.; Gruendler, D.; Schwarz, G.

    1993-01-01

    The radiological risk from accidents has been analyzed for the expected annual transport volume (3400 shipping units) of low and partially intermediate level radioactive wastes to be shipped to a final repository. In order to take account of these variable quantities and conditions a computer code was developed to simulate a wide spectrum of waste transport and accident configurations using Monte Carlo sampling techniques. Typically some 10.000 source terms were generated to represent possible releases of radionuclides from transport accidents. Accident events in which the integrity of waste packagings is retained and consequently no releases occur are included. Potential radiological consequences are then calculated for each of the release categories by using an accident consequence code which takes into account atmospheric dispersion statistics. Finally cumulative complementary frequency distributions of radiological consequences are generated by superposing the results for all release categories. Radiological consequences are primarily expressed as potential effective individual doses resulting from airborne and deposited radionuclides. The results of the risk analysis show that expected frequencies of effective doses comparable to the natural radiation exposure of one year are quite low and very low for potential radiation exposures in the range of 50 mSv. (J.P.N.)

  16. Method for purification of environmental objects, contaminated with radioactive substancesas a result of natural disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammadov, Kh.; Shiraliyeva, Kh.; Mirzayev, N.; Garibov, R.; Allahverdiyev, G.; Aliyeva, U.; Farajova, A.

    2017-01-01

    , centrifugation and evaporation/ and vegetation /firing, treatment with nitric acid and distilled water/ taken from all regions of the republic were carried out. Mineral compositions have been studied by X-ray fluorescence, γ, α, β spectroscopy, electron microscopy and chemical methods. Four times washing /stirring and extraction/ by distilled water were used to clean the soil samples. It is possible to re-wash the soil for achieve complete cleaning of deeply contaminated soils. Methods sedimentation, centrifugation, mass spectroscopy and adsorption on activated carbon or on organic porous adsorbents /copolymers of maleic anhydride with styrene hardened by polyethylene polyamines/ were used for purification (separation of heavy elements, radioactive isotopes) of water samples and water extracts of soil.

  17. Pharmaceutical companies' policies on access to trial data, results, and methods: audit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldacre, Ben; Lane, Síle; Mahtani, Kamal R; Heneghan, Carl; Onakpoya, Igho; Bushfield, Ian; Smeeth, Liam

    2017-07-26

    Objectives  To identify the policies of major pharmaceutical companies on transparency of trials, to extract structured data detailing each companies' commitments, and to assess concordance with ethical and professional guidance. Design  Structured audit. Setting  Pharmaceutical companies, worldwide. Participants  42 pharmaceutical companies. Main outcome measures  Companies' commitments on sharing summary results, clinical study reports (CSRs), individual patient data (IPD), and trial registration, for prospective and retrospective trials. Results  Policies were highly variable. Of 23 companies eligible from the top 25 companies by revenue, 21 (91%) committed to register all trials and 22 (96%) committed to share summary results; however, policies commonly lacked timelines for disclosure, and trials on unlicensed medicines and off-label uses were only included in six (26%). 17 companies (74%) committed to share the summary results of past trials. The median start date for this commitment was 2005. 22 companies (96%) had a policy on sharing CSRs, mostly on request: two committed to share only synopses and only two policies included unlicensed treatments. 22 companies (96%) had a policy to share IPD; 14 included phase IV trials (one included trials on unlicensed medicines and off-label uses). Policies in the exploratory group of smaller companies made fewer transparency commitments. Two companies fell short of industry body commitments on registration, three on summary results. Examples of contradictory and ambiguous language were documented and summarised by theme. 23/42 companies (55%) responded to feedback; 7/1806 scored policy elements were revised in light of feedback from companies (0.4%). Several companies committed to changing policy; some made changes immediately. Conclusions  The commitments made by companies to transparency of trials were highly variable. Other than journal submission for all trials within 12 months, all elements of best practice

  18. False positive results using calcitonin as a screening method for medullary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Loch Batista

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of serum calcitonin as part of the evaluation of thyroid nodules has been widely discussed in literature. However there still is no consensus of measurement of calcitonin in the initial evaluation of a patient with thyroid nodule. Problems concerning cost-benefit, lab methods, false positive and low prevalence of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC are factors that limit this approach. We have illustrated two cases where serum calcitonin was used in the evaluation of thyroid nodule and rates proved to be high. A stimulation test was performed, using calcium as secretagogue, and calcitonin hyper-stimulation was confirmed, but anatomopathologic examination did not evidence medullar neoplasia. Anatomopathologic diagnosis detected Hashimoto thyroiditis in one case and adenomatous goiter plus an occult papillary thyroid carcinoma in the other one. Recommendation for routine use of serum calcitonin in the initial diagnostic evaluation of a thyroid nodule, followed by a confirming stimulation test if basal serum calcitonin is showed to be high, is the most currently recommended approach, but questions concerning cost-benefit and possibility of diagnosis error make the validity of this recommendation discussible.

  19. Accelerated life-test methods and results for implantable electronic devices with adhesive encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuechen; Denprasert, Petcharat May; Zhou, Li; Vest, Adriana Nicholson; Kohan, Sam; Loeb, Gerald E

    2017-09-01

    We have developed and applied new methods to estimate the functional life of miniature, implantable, wireless electronic devices that rely on non-hermetic, adhesive encapsulants such as epoxy. A comb pattern board with a high density of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) could be used to detect incipient failure from water vapor condensation. Inductive coupling of an RF magnetic field was used to provide DC bias and to detect deterioration of an encapsulated comb pattern. Diodes in the implant converted part of the received energy into DC bias on the comb pattern. The capacitance of the comb pattern forms a resonant circuit with the inductor by which the implant receives power. Any moisture affects both the resonant frequency and the Q-factor of the resonance of the circuitry, which was detected wirelessly by its effects on the coupling between two orthogonal RF coils placed around the device. Various defects were introduced into the comb pattern devices to demonstrate sensitivity to failures and to correlate these signals with visual inspection of failures. Optimized encapsulation procedures were validated in accelerated life tests of both comb patterns and a functional neuromuscular stimulator under development. Strong adhesive bonding between epoxy and electronic circuitry proved to be necessary and sufficient to predict 1 year packaging reliability of 99.97% for the neuromuscular stimulator.

  20. Generalist palliative care in hospital - Cultural and organisational interactions. Results of a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenholtz, Heidi; Jarlbaek, Lene; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2016-06-01

    It can be challenging to provide generalist palliative care in hospitals, owing to difficulties in integrating disease-oriented treatment with palliative care and the influences of cultural and organisational conditions. However, knowledge on the interactions that occur is sparse. To investigate the interactions between organisation and culture as conditions for integrated palliative care in hospital and, if possible, to suggest workable solutions for the provision of generalist palliative care. A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was chosen using two independent studies: a quantitative study, in which three independent datasets were triangulated to study the organisation and evaluation of generalist palliative care, and a qualitative, ethnographic study exploring the culture of generalist palliative nursing care in medical departments. A Danish regional hospital with 29 department managements and one hospital management. Two overall themes emerged: (1) 'generalist palliative care as a priority at the hospital', suggesting contrasting issues regarding prioritisation of palliative care at different organisational levels, and (2) 'knowledge and use of generalist palliative care clinical guideline', suggesting that the guideline had not reached all levels of the organisation. Contrasting issues in the hospital's provision of generalist palliative care at different organisational levels seem to hamper the interactions between organisation and culture - interactions that appear to be necessary for the provision of integrated palliative care in the hospital. The implementation of palliative care is also hindered by the main focus being on disease-oriented treatment, which is reflected at all the organisational levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Accelerated stress testing of thin film solar cells: Development of test methods and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    If thin film cells are to be considered a viable option for terrestrial power generation their reliability attributes will need to be explored and confidence in their stability obtained through accelerated testing. Development of a thin film accelerated test program will be more difficult than was the case for crystalline cells because of the monolithic construction nature of the cells. Specially constructed test samples will need to be fabricated, requiring committment to the concept of accelerated testing by the manufacturers. A new test schedule appropriate to thin film cells will need to be developed which will be different from that used in connection with crystalline cells. Preliminary work has been started to seek thin film schedule variations to two of the simplest tests: unbiased temperature and unbiased temperature humidity. Still to be examined are tests which involve the passage of current during temperature and/or humidity stress, either by biasing in the forward (or reverse) directions or by the application of light during stress. Investigation of these current (voltage) accelerated tests will involve development of methods of reliably contacting the thin conductive films during stress.

  2. Joint hyperlaxity prevents relapses in clubfeet treated by Ponseti method-preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, Dan Ionuţ; Corbu, Andrei; Nistor, Dan Viorel; Todor, Adrian; Valeanu, Madalina; Morcuende, Jose; Man, Sorin

    2018-05-07

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of joint hyperlaxity (by Beighton score) as a protective factor for clubfoot relapse. Patients with idiopathic clubfoot treated with the Ponseti method between January 2004 and December 2012, without other congenital foot deformity, and not previously treated by open surgery were included in either the Relapse group (n = 23) if it was a clubfoot relapse or the Control group (n = 19) if no relapse was noted. Joint laxity was evaluated using the Beighton score at the latest follow-up against the Normal group (n = 22, children matched by sex and age without clubfoot deformity). We found a significantly higher joint laxity in the Control group (4.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1-7.06) as compared to the Relapse (3.17, 95% CI: 1.53-4.81, p = 0.032) and Normal (3.14, 95% CI: 1.78-4.5, p = 0.03) groups. The univariate logistic regression showed a 5.28-times increase in the risk of relapse for a Beighton score lower than 4/9 points (odds ratio = 5.28; 95% CI = 1.29-21.5; p = 0.018). Joint hyperlaxity could be a protective factor for clubfoot relapse.

  3. Preliminary results of oxygen isotope ratio measurement with a particle-gamma coincidence method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borysiuk, Maciek, E-mail: maciek.borysiuk@pixe.lth.se; Kristiansson, Per; Ros, Linus; Abdel, Nassem S.; Elfman, Mikael; Nilsson, Charlotta; Pallon, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The possibility to study variations in the oxygen isotopic ratio with photon tagged nuclear reaction analysis (pNRA) is evaluated in the current work. The experiment described in the article was performed at Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF) with a 2 MeV deuteron beam. Isotopic fractionation of light elements such as carbon, oxygen and nitrogen is the basis of many analytical tools in hydrology, geology, paleobiology and paleogeology. IBA methods provide one possible tool for measurement of isotopic content. During this experimental run we focused on measurement of the oxygen isotopic ratio. The measurement of stable isotopes of oxygen has a number of applications; the particular one driving the current investigation belongs to the field of astrogeology and specifically evaluation of fossil extraterrestrial material. There are three stable isotopes of oxygen: {sup 16}O, {sup 17}O and {sup 18}O. We procured samples highly enriched with all three isotopes. Isotopes {sup 16}O and {sup 18}O were easily detected in the enriched samples, but no significant signal from {sup 17}O was detected in the same samples. The measured yield was too low to detect {sup 18}O in a sample with natural abundances of oxygen isotopes, at least in the current experimental setup, but the spectral line from the reaction with {sup 16}O was clearly visible.

  4. Variation in Results of Volume Measurements of Stumps of Lower-Limb Amputees : A Comparison of 4 Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer-Wilzing, Vera G.; Bolt, Arjen; Geertzen, Jan H.; Emmelot, Cornelis H.; Baars, Erwin C.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    de Boer-Wilzing VG, Bolt A, Geertzen JH, Emmelot CH, Baars EC, Dijkstra PU. Variation in results of volume measurements of stumps of lower-limb amputees: a comparison of 4 methods. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92:941-6. Objective: To analyze the reliability of 4 methods (water immersion,

  5. Studies on the comparability of the results from different methods for the radioimmunological determination of digoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwenger, A.; Trautschold, I.

    1978-01-01

    Three iodine-125-digoxin radioimmunoassay kits (A Amersham Buchler; B Boehringer Mannheim; C Schwarz Mann/Becton Dickinson) were evaluated with respect to assay quality and comparability of the results. Intra- and interassay variances were calculated for the following types of samples: Three media (a pool serum; b artificial human serum; c buffer solution with albumin and globulin) containing pure digoxin, sera from a pharmacokinetic study, sera with different concentrations of proteins, a hemolytic serum and sera with digitoxin and metabolites of spironolactone. The intra-assay precision depended on the medium of the sample and was higher for samples with identical digoxin concentrations in an identical medium (e.g. CV for 2 μg/l in medium a for kit A: 4.3% for kit B: 7.0%; for kit C: 2.2%) than for samples with identical antigen concentrations in different media (CV for 2 μg/l in media a, b and c for kit A: 6.4%; for kit B: 9.1%; for kit C: 4.3%). The mean recovery in the range 0.5-4 μg/l depended on the kind of medium (a, b or c) and varied for kit A from 84.4% to 100.8%, for kit B from 112.0% to 119.6%, and for kit C from 98.0% to 104.5%. Decreasing serum protein concentrations to less than one half of the physiological concentration gave false negative results for kit A and fals positive results for kit C; for kit B this dependency was not be observed, but there was a decrease of reproducibility. (orig./AJ) [de

  6. Assessing incentive contracts for reducing residential electricity consumption: new experimental methods for new results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frachet, Laure

    2013-01-01

    Facing economic, political and environmental stakes, electricity providers are nowadays developing incentive tools, in order to reduce consumer's demand, particularly during peak demand periods. For residential customers, these tools can be tariffs (dynamic pricing of time-of-use tariffs), or informative devices or services (feedbacks on historical or real-time consumption, given on various media). They might go along with automation systems that can help cutting of some electric devices when needed. In order to evaluate the capacity of these settings among their customers, electricity utilities are developing quite a few studies, which are mainly field experiment often called pilots. During these pilots, demand response tools are implemented on a population sample. These long and expensive studies lid to quantitative and qualitative analysis. We have compiled about 40 of them and extract from this survey some generalizable teachings. We have shown what these results were and highlighted pilot programs' methodological limits. In order to propose a substitute to these heavy experimentations, we assessed the capacity or experimental economics. This relatively new discipline's objective is to evaluation the efficiency of institutions, like markets, but also to study what animate economic agents' behaviour, e.g. preferences, beliefs, cognitive biases, willingness to pay... We were also able to elaborate an experimental protocol dedicated to the evaluation of some demand response contracts' acceptability. The results collected during 14 experimental sessions gave us some innovative clues and insight on these contracts acceptability. But, beyond these results, we have demonstrated that even if experimental economics can't obviously be a substitute for field experiments, it can represent an interesting exploratory methodology. To sum up the experimental economics can take part of residential customers' behaviour understanding, performing

  7. A Survey for hot Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae I. Methods and First Results

    OpenAIRE

    Kanarek, Graham C.; Shara, Michael M.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Zurek, David; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of initial spectrographic followup with the Very Large Telescope (UT3, Melipal) for $K_s \\ge 14$ Galactic plane CIV emission-line candidates in the near-infrared (NIR). These 7 faint stars all display prominent HeI and CIV emission lines characteristic of a carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet star. They have NIR colours which are much too blue to be those of distant, classical WR stars. The magnitudes and colours are compatible with those expected for central stars of planetary nebu...

  8. Study on some factors affecting the results in the use of MIP method in concrete research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Bhattacharjee, B.

    2003-01-01

    Effects of rate of pressure application and forms and type of sample on porosity and pore size distribution of concrete estimated through mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) are presented in this experimental work. Two different forms of concrete sample, namely, crushed chunks of concrete and small core drilled out from the concrete beam specimens, were used for this study. The results exhibit that the rate of pressure application in mercury porosimetry has little effect on porosity and pore size distribution of concrete. It is also demonstrated that small cores drilled out from large concrete specimens are preferable as samples for performing porosimetry test on concrete

  9. Revalidation and rationale for high pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrow J Donald

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our prior solvent partition analysis, published in 1992, yielded pKa values for unconjugated bilirubin of about 8.1 and 8.4, but these results have been challenged and studies by other methods have suggested pKa values below 5.0. Methods We repeated our published solvent partition studies, using 14C-unconjugated bilirubin highly purified by extraction of residual labeled impurities from CHCl3 into an aqueous buffer, pH 7.0. Partition ratios at six pH values from 5.0 to 9.0 were determined by radioassay and compared with our prior values obtained by diazo assay. Results At pH values ranging from 4.8 to 9.2, stable aqueous/chloroform 14C-partition ratios did not differ significantly from our published partition ratios based on diazo assay. Conclusion These results support the high pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin, above 8.0, derived from our earlier solvent partition study. In both studies, our measurements were based on the rapid analysis of clearly under-saturated solutions of highly-purified bilirubin over a wide pH range, using properly purified and preserved solvents. No previous direct estimate of the aqueous pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin meets all these preconditions. Three theoretical factors acting in combination, each related to the unique, extensive internal H-bonding of the -COOH groups, are proposed to support high pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin in water: a donation of an H-bond from the -OH moiety of the -COOH group, which is broken on ionization; b hindered solvation of the -COO- group after ionization; and c restricted rotation of the -COO- and -COOH groups. Our findings and rationale rebut methodological and theoretical criticisms leveled against our prior work. High pKa values for unconjugated bilirubin dictate that: a bilirubin diacid, which readily diffuses across membranes and can cause neurotoxicity, is the dominant unbound bilirubin species of unconjugated bilirubin in plasma at

  10. Longitudinal bunch diagnostics using coherent transition radiation spectroscopy. Physical principles, multichannel spectrometer, experimental results, mathematical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Bernhard; Wesch, Stephan; Behrens, Christopher; Koevener, Toke; Hass, Eugen; Casalbuoni, Sara

    2018-03-01

    The generation and properties of transition radiation (TR) are thoroughly treated. The spectral energy density, as described by the Ginzburg-Frank formula, is computed analytically, and the modifications caused by the finite size of the TR screen and by near-field diffraction effects are carefully analyzed. The principles of electron bunch shape reconstruction using coherent transition radiation are outlined. Spectroscopic measurements yield only the magnitude of the longitudinal form factor but not its phase. Two phase retrieval methods are investigated and illustrated with model calculations: analytic phase computation by means of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation, and iterative phase retrieval. Particular attention is paid to the ambiguities which are unavoidable in the reconstruction of longitudinal charge density profiles from spectroscopic data. The origin of these ambiguities has been identified and a thorough mathematical analysis is presented. The experimental part of the paper comprises a description of our multichannel infrared and THz spectrometer and a selection of measurements at FLASH, comparing the bunch profiles derived from spectroscopic data with those determined with a transversely deflecting microwave structure. A rigorous derivation of the Kramers-Kronig phase formula is presented in Appendix A. Numerous analytic model calculations can be found in Appendix B. The differences between normal and truncated Gaussians are discussed in Appendix C. Finally, Appendix D contains a short description of the propagation of an electromagnetic wave front by two-dimensional fast Fourier transformation. This is the basis of a powerful numerical Mathematica trademark code THzTransport, which permits the propagation of electromagnetic wave fronts through a beam line consisting of drift spaces, lenses, mirrors and apertures.

  11. Postgraduate Education in Quality Improvement Methods: Initial Results of the Fellows' Applied Quality Training (FAQT) Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, David E; Burkart, Thomas A; Choi, Calvin Y; McKillop, Matthew S; Beyth, Rebecca J; Dahm, Phillipp

    2016-06-01

    Training in quality improvement (QI) is a pillar of the next accreditation system of the Accreditation Committee on Graduate Medical Education and a growing expectation of physicians for maintenance of certification. Despite this, many postgraduate medical trainees are not receiving training in QI methods. We created the Fellows Applied Quality Training (FAQT) curriculum for cardiology fellows using both didactic and applied components with the goal of increasing confidence to participate in future QI projects. Fellows completed didactic training from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Open School and then designed and completed a project to improve quality of care or patient safety. Self-assessments were completed by the fellows before, during, and after the first year of the curriculum. The primary outcome for our curriculum was the median score reported by the fellows regarding their self-confidence to complete QI activities. Self-assessments were completed by 23 fellows. The majority of fellows (15 of 23, 65.2%) reported no prior formal QI training. Median score on baseline self-assessment was 3.0 (range, 1.85-4), which was significantly increased to 3.27 (range, 2.23-4; P = 0.004) on the final assessment. The distribution of scores reported by the fellows indicates that 30% were slightly confident at conducting QI activities on their own, which was reduced to 5% after completing the FAQT curriculum. An interim assessment was conducted after the fellows completed didactic training only; median scores were not different from the baseline (mean, 3.0; P = 0.51). After completion of the FAQT, cardiology fellows reported higher self-confidence to complete QI activities. The increase in self-confidence seemed to be limited to the applied component of the curriculum, with no significant change after the didactic component.

  12. Machine learning methods for the classification of gliomas: Initial results using features extracted from MR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith, G; Parvathy, R; Vikas, V; Chandrasekharan, Kesavadas; Nair, Suresh

    2015-04-01

    With the advent of new imaging modalities, radiologists are faced with handling increasing volumes of data for diagnosis and treatment planning. The use of automated and intelligent systems is becoming essential in such a scenario. Machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence, is increasingly being used in medical image analysis applications such as image segmentation, registration and computer-aided diagnosis and detection. Histopathological analysis is currently the gold standard for classification of brain tumors. The use of machine learning algorithms along with extraction of relevant features from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) holds promise of replacing conventional invasive methods of tumor classification. The aim of the study is to classify gliomas into benign and malignant types using MRI data. Retrospective data from 28 patients who were diagnosed with glioma were used for the analysis. WHO Grade II (low-grade astrocytoma) was classified as benign while Grade III (anaplastic astrocytoma) and Grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) were classified as malignant. Features were extracted from MR spectroscopy. The classification was done using four machine learning algorithms: multilayer perceptrons, support vector machine, random forest and locally weighted learning. Three of the four machine learning algorithms gave an area under ROC curve in excess of 0.80. Random forest gave the best performance in terms of AUC (0.911) while sensitivity was best for locally weighted learning (86.1%). The performance of different machine learning algorithms in the classification of gliomas is promising. An even better performance may be expected by integrating features extracted from other MR sequences. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Longitudinal bunch diagnostics using coherent transition radiation spectroscopy. Physical principles, multichannel spectrometer, experimental results, mathematical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Bernhard; Wesch, Stephan; Behrens, Christopher [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Koevener, Toke [Hamburg Univ. (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hass, Eugen [Hamburg Univ. (Germany); Casalbuoni, Sara [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Beam Physics and Technology; Schmueser, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany)

    2018-03-15

    The generation and properties of transition radiation (TR) are thoroughly treated. The spectral energy density, as described by the Ginzburg-Frank formula, is computed analytically, and the modifications caused by the finite size of the TR screen and by near-field diffraction effects are carefully analyzed. The principles of electron bunch shape reconstruction using coherent transition radiation are outlined. Spectroscopic measurements yield only the magnitude of the longitudinal form factor but not its phase. Two phase retrieval methods are investigated and illustrated with model calculations: analytic phase computation by means of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation, and iterative phase retrieval. Particular attention is paid to the ambiguities which are unavoidable in the reconstruction of longitudinal charge density profiles from spectroscopic data. The origin of these ambiguities has been identified and a thorough mathematical analysis is presented. The experimental part of the paper comprises a description of our multichannel infrared and THz spectrometer and a selection of measurements at FLASH, comparing the bunch profiles derived from spectroscopic data with those determined with a transversely deflecting microwave structure. A rigorous derivation of the Kramers-Kronig phase formula is presented in Appendix A. Numerous analytic model calculations can be found in Appendix B. The differences between normal and truncated Gaussians are discussed in Appendix C. Finally, Appendix D contains a short description of the propagation of an electromagnetic wave front by two-dimensional fast Fourier transformation. This is the basis of a powerful numerical Mathematica trademark code THzTransport, which permits the propagation of electromagnetic wave fronts through a beam line consisting of drift spaces, lenses, mirrors and apertures.

  14. Evaluation of the results of treatment of morbid obesity by the endoscopic intragastric balloon implantation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żurawiński, Wojciech; Sokołowski, Dariusz; Krupa-Kotara, Karolina; Czech, Elżbieta; Sosada, Krystyn

    2017-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are ranked in the fifth place among the risk factors responsible for the greatest number of deaths in the world. To assess the effects of treatment of patients with morbid obesity using endoscopic intragastric balloon (IGB) implantation. Two hundred and seventy-two patients with obesity were treated using endoscopic intragastric balloon implantation. Upon analysis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the study covered a group of 63 patients with morbid obesity. The patients were implanted with the LexBal balloon. Reduction of excess body mass, changes to BMI values and ailments and complications divided into mild and severe were assessed. Before intragastric balloon treatment, the average body mass index (BMI) value was 58.3 ±10.5 kg/m 2 , whereas after 6 months of treatment it decreased to 49.5 ±8.7 kg/m 2 . The patients with postoperative BMI equal to or greater than 50.0 kg/m 2 reported nausea (69.7%), vomiting (51.5%), flatulence (45.5%), upper abdominal pain (36.4%) and general discomfort (424%) more frequently. Dehydration (9.1%) was also more frequent in this group, whereas frequency of occurrence of such ailments and complications as heartburn (23.3%) and oesophageal candidiasis (10.0%) was higher in the patients with postoperative BMI below 50.0 kg/m 2 . Endoscopic intragastric balloon implantation is an effective and safe method of excess body mass reduction in patients with morbid obesity before a planned bariatric surgical procedure. Pre-operative excess body mass and BMI value and post-operative excess weight loss in patients with morbid obesity have no impact on frequency of occurrence of ailments and complications in IGB treatment.

  15. Application of a PCR method for the diagnosis of ulcerative enteritis: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Agnoletti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative enteritis or “quail disease” is an acute clostridial infection of young birds reported in many avian species, chicken and turkey included. Clostridium colinum is the causative agent of ulcerative enteritis and because of the difficulties bound to the isolation and identification of this bacterium by means of classic bacteriological techniques, its detection appears very hard and the prevalence of this disease could be underestimated. To investigate the diffusion of C. colinum in enteric disease of birds, a recently developed PCR protocol was applied to 42 cultural broths previously inoculated with organs and intestinal samples collected from diseased subjects. PCR-positive broths were cultivated to attempt the isolation of C. colinum. Samples collected from positive birds were subjected to histological examinations. 4 birds (3 broilers chickens and 1 pigeon resulted PCR-positive and, in one case, C. colinum was isolated. Gross and histological lesions of positive birds were compatible with those described in other ulcerative enteritis outbreaks. These preliminary results demonstrates that C. colinum is sporadically implicated in enteric diseases of broiler chickens (14.2%. In addition, the PCR assay proved to be an useful and reliable instrument to support the diagnosis of ulcerative enteritis and to facilitate the isolation of C. colinum.

  16. UV-VIS Spectroscopy Applied to Stratospheric Chemistry, Methods and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsen, K.

    1996-03-01

    This paper was read at the workshop ``The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme`` held on 11-12 March 1996. Numerous observations and modeling have shown with a very high degree of certainty that the man-made emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and halons are responsible for the Antarctica ozone hole. It is also evident that the ozone layer of the Northern Hemisphere has suffered a certain decline over the last 10-15 years, possibly because of CFC and halons. 20-30% of the observed reduction is ascribed to coupled chlorine and bromine chemistry via a catalytic cycle resulting in the net conversion of 2O{sub 3} to 3O{sub 2}. But the details are not fully understood. The author plans to assemble a UV-VIS spectrometer for measuring the species OClO and BrO and to compare and discuss measured diurnal variations of OClO and BrO with model calculations. The use of Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) is discussed and some results from late 1995 presented. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Challenges of E-learning in medicine: methods and results of a systematical exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spreckelsen, Cord

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available E-learning in medicine traditionally concentrates on case oriented or problem oriented learning scenarios, the development of multimedia courseware or the implementation of simulators. This paper aims at a systematic exploration of actual and new challenges for E-learning in the medical domain. The exploration is based on the analysis of the scientific discourse in the field of Medical Education. The analysis starts from text based sources: the concept hierarchy of the Medical Subject Headings, the profiles of the relevant scientific associations, and the scientific program of scientific conferences or annual meetings. These sources are subjected to conceptual analysis, supported by network visualization tools and supplemented by network theoretic indices (Betweeness Centrality. As a result, the main concerns of the Medical Education community and their modifications during the last six years can be identified. The analysis discovers new challenges, which result from central issues of Medical Education, namely from e.g. curricular and faculty development or the sustainable integration of postgraduate education and continuing medial education. The main challenges are: 1 the implementation of integrative conceptions of the application of learning management systems (LMS and 2 the necessity of combining aspects of organizational development, knowledge management and learning management within the scope of a comprehensive learning life cycle management.

  18. Evaluating web-based cognitive-affective remediation in recent trauma survivors: study rationale and protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Naomi B; Achituv, Michal; Etkin, Amit; Merin, Ofer; Shalev, Arieh Y

    2018-01-01

    Background : The immediate aftermath of traumatic events is a period of enhanced neural plasticity, following which some survivors remain with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) whereas others recover. Evidence points to impairments in emotional reactivity, emotion regulation, and broader executive functions as critically contributing to PTSD. Emerging evidence further suggests that the neural mechanisms underlying these functions remain plastic in adulthood and that targeted retraining of these systems may enhance their efficiency and could reduce the likelihood of developing PTSD. Administering targeted neurocognitive training shortly after trauma exposure is a daunting challenge. This work describes a study design addressing that challenge. The study evaluated the direct effects of cognitive remediation training on neurocognitive mechanisms that hypothetically underlay PTSD, and the indirect effect of this intervention on emerging PTSD symptoms. Method : We describe a study rationale, design, and methodological choices involving: (a) participants' enrolment; (b) implementation and management of a daily self-administered, web-based intervention; (c) reliable, timely screening and assessment of treatment of eligible survivors; and (d) defining control conditions and outcome measures. We outline the rationale of choices made regarding study sample, timing of intervention, measurements, monitoring participants' adherence, and ways to harmonize and retain interviewers' fidelity and mitigate eventual burnout by repeated contacts with recently traumatized survivors. Conclusion : Early web-based interventions targeting causative mechanisms of PTSD can be informed by the model presented in this paper.

  19. Polarimetry at 1.3 mm using MILLIPOL - methods and preliminary results for Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvainis, R.; Clemens, D.P.; Leach, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a polarimeter for use at wavelengths near 1 mm, designed to be self-contained and portable. Only minor modifications should be required to adapt this instrument for use on any of several millimeter and submillimeter telescopes. The polarimeter system and data-taking techniques are described, and a preliminary measurement is reported of the polarized dust emission from the Orion KL region at 1.3 mm using the NRAO 12 m telescope. The results are similar to previous polarization measurements of Orion at far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. The magnetic field direction implied by the polarization position angle is parallel to that found in the surrounding Orion region using optical and near- to midinfrared polarimetric techniques. 17 references

  20. Preliminary results for the detection method of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs residues in pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-kuo Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs residues, which come from environmental pollution, tend to accumulate in the food chain (EFSA, 2008; Guerranti et al., 2013. 17 chemicals of PFASs family were selected for this study. Fresh pork samples were extracted by Waters® WAX SPE (solid phase extraction cartridges. All extracted samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The results of calibration curves of each PFAS were good, the R2 values ranging from 0.9901 to 0.9993. The Recoveries were in the range 80%-119%. The protocol of extraction by Waters® WAX SPE cartridge will be applied in future studies.

  1. The value of evaluating parenting groups: a new researcher's perspective on methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Judy

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this research project was to evaluate the impact of the Solihull Approach Understanding Your Child's Behaviour (UYCB) parenting groups on the participants' parenting practice and their reported behaviour of their children. Validated tools that met both the Solihull Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) and academic requirements were used to establish what changes, if any, in parenting practice and children's behaviour (as perceived by the parent) occur following attendance of a UYCB parenting group. Independent evidence of the efficacy of the Solihull Approach UYCB programme was collated. Results indicated significant increases in self-esteem and parenting sense of competence; improvement in the parental locus of control; a decrease in hyperactivity and conduct problems and an increase in pro-social behaviour, as measured by the 'Strength and Difficulties' questionnaire. The qualitative and quantitative findings corroborated each other, demonstrating the impact and effectiveness of the programme and supporting anecdotal feedback on the success of UYCB parenting groups.

  2. PV Performance Modeling Methods and Practices: Results from the 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, the IEA PVPS Task 13 added the PVPMC as a formal activity to its technical work plan for 2014-2017. The goal of this activity is to expand the reach of the PVPMC to a broader international audience and help to reduce PV performance modeling uncertainties worldwide. One of the main deliverables of this activity is to host one or more PVPMC workshops outside the US to foster more international participation within this collaborative group. This report reviews the results of the first in a series of these joint IEA PVPS Task 13/PVPMC workshops. The 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop was held in Cologne, Germany at the headquarters of TÜV Rheinland on October 22-23, 2015.

  3. Evaluation and perceived results of moral case deliberation: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Rien M J P A; van Zadelhoff, Ezra; van Loo, Ger; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Molewijk, Bert A C

    2015-12-01

    Moral case deliberation is increasingly becoming part of various Dutch healthcare organizations. Although some evaluation studies of moral case deliberation have been carried out, research into the results of moral case deliberation within aged care is scarce. How did participants evaluate moral case deliberation? What has moral case deliberation brought to them? What has moral case deliberation contributed to care practice? Should moral case deliberation be further implemented and, if so, how? Quantitative analysis of a questionnaire study among participants of moral case deliberation, both caregivers and team leaders. Qualitative analysis of written answers to open questions, interview study and focus group meetings among caregivers and team leaders. Caregivers and team leaders in a large organization for aged care in the Netherlands. A total of 61 moral case deliberation sessions, carried out on 16 care locations belonging to the organization, were evaluated and perceived results were assessed. Participants gave informed consent and anonymity was guaranteed. In the Netherlands, the law does not prescribe independent ethical review by an Institutional Review Board for this kind of research among healthcare professionals. Moral case deliberation was evaluated positively by the participants. Content and atmosphere of moral case deliberation received high scores, while organizational issues regarding the moral case deliberation sessions scored lower and merit further attention. Respondents indicated that moral case deliberation has the potential to contribute to care practice as relationships among team members improve, more openness is experienced and more understanding for different perspectives is fostered. If moral case deliberation is to be successfully implemented, top-down approaches should go hand in hand with bottom-up approaches. The relevance of moral case deliberation for care practice received wide acknowledgement from the respondents. It can contribute

  4. Detection of leaks in underground storage tanks using electrical resistance methods: 1996 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Daily, W.

    1996-10-01

    This document provides a summary of a field experiment performed under a 15m diameter steel tank mockup located at the Hanford Reservation, Washington. The purpose of this test was to image a contaminant plume as it develops in soil under a tank already contaminated by previous leakage and to determine whether contaminant plumes can be detected without the benefit of background data. Measurements of electrical resistance were made before and during a salt water release. These measurements were made in soil which contained the remnants of salt water plumes released during previous tests in 1994 and in 1995. About 11,150 liters of saline solution were released along a portion of the tank's edge in 1996. Changes in electrical resistivity due to release of salt water conducted in 1996 were determined in two ways: (1) changes relative to the 1996 pre-spill data, and (2) changes relative to data collected near the middle of the 1996 spill after the release flow rate was increased. In both cases, the observed resistivity changes show clearly defined anomalies caused by the salt water release. These results indicate that when a plume develops over an existing plume and in a geologic environment similar to the test site environment, the resulting resistivity changes are easily detectable. Three dimensional tomographs of the resistivity of the soil under the tank show that the salt water release caused a region of low soil resistivity which can be observed directly without the benefit of comparing the tomograph to tomographs or data collected before the spill started. This means that it may be possible to infer the presence of pre-existing plumes if there is other data showing that the regions of low resistivity are correlated with the presence of contaminated soil. However, this approach does not appear reliable in defining the total extent of the plume due to the confounding effect that natural heterogeneity has on our ability to define the margins of the anomaly

  5. Changes in School Food Preparation Methods Result in Healthier Cafeteria Lunches in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Timothy K; Liebert, Mina L; Peterson, Hannah J; Howard Smith, Jennifer; Sutliffe, Jay T; Day, Aubrey; Mack, Jodi

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of a districtwide food best practices and preparation changes in elementary schools lunches, implemented as part of the LiveWell@School childhood obesity program, funded by LiveWell Colorado/Kaiser Permanente Community Health Initiative. Longitudinal study examining how school changes in best practices for food preparation impacted the types of side items offered from 2009 to 2015 in elementary school cafeterias in a high-need school district in southern Colorado. Specifically, this study examined changes in side items (fruits, vegetables, potatoes, breads, and desserts). In Phase 1 (2009-2010), baseline data were collected. During Phase 2 (2010-2011), breaded and processed foods (e.g., frozen nuggets, pre-packaged pizza) were removed and school chefs were trained on scratch cooking methods. Phase 3 (2011-2012) saw an increased use of fresh/frozen fruits and vegetables after a new commodity order. During Phase 4 (2013-2015), chef consulting and training took place. The frequency of side offerings was tracked across phases. Analyses were completed in Fall 2016. Because of limited sample sizes, data from Phases 2 to 4 (intervention phases) were combined for potatoes and desserts. Descriptive statistics were calculated. After adjusting for length of time for each phase, Pearson chi-square tests were conducted to examine changes in offerings of side items by phase. Fresh fruit offerings increased and canned fruit decreased in Phases 1-4 (p=0.001). A significant difference was observed for vegetables (p=0.001), with raw and steamed vegetables increasing and canned vegetables decreasing from Phase 1 to 4. Fresh potatoes (low in sodium) increased and fried potatoes (high in sodium) decreased from Phase 1 to Phases 2-4 (p=0.001). Breads were eliminated entirely in Phase 2, and dessert changes were not significant (p=0.927). This approach to promoting healthier lunch sides is a promising paradigm for improving elementary

  6. New archeointensity results from the reconstructed ancient kiln by the Tsunakawa-Shaw method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Hatakeyama, T.; Kitahara, Y.; Saito, T.

    2017-12-01

    Yamamoto et al. (2015) reported that baked clay samples from the floor of a reconstructed ancient kiln provided a reliable Tsunakawa-Shaw (LTD-DHT Shaw) archeointensity (AI) estimate of 47.3 +/- 2.2 microT which is fairly consistent with the in situ geomagnetic field of 46.4 microT at the time of the reconstruction. The reconstruction was conducted to reproduce an excavated kiln of the seventh century in Japan and Sue-type potteries of contemporary style were also fired (Nakajima et al., 1974). Two of the potteries with reddish color were recently subjected to the Tsunakawa-Shaw archeointensity determinations, resulting in reliable AI estimates of 45.4 +/- 2.3 (N=6) and 48.2 +/- 2.7 microT (N=15) when specimens were heated in air in laboratory (Yamamoto et al., 2017 JpGU-AGU Joint Meeting). We have had another opportunity to take samples from a new reconstructed ancient kiln in Japan which was fired in autumn 2016. The samples were two Sue-type potteries with grayish color (bowl-type and plate-type) and some blocks collected from inner wall of the kiln body. They were cut into mini specimens and then subjected to the Tsunakawa-Shaw experiment. Heating in laboratory was done either in air or vacuum.For the bowl-type pottery, AIs of 46.9 +/- 2.8 (N=6, air) and 45.3 +/- 2.3 microT (N=6, vacuum) are obtained. They are indistinguishable each other and consistent with the IGRF field of 47.4 microT at the reconstructed location in 2016. For the plate-type pottery, AIs result in 41.8 +/- 1.3 (N=4, air) and 43.9 +/- 3.9 microT (N=4, vacuum). They are also indistinguishable each other but the former AI is slightly lower than the IGRF field.For the inner wall, AIs of 45.0 (N=1, air) and 46.8 microT (N=1, vacuum) are obtained from a right-side wall, and those of 45.5 +/- 2.5 (N=2, air) and 47.7 +/- 3.0 microT (N=2, vacuum) are observed from a left-side wall. They are all indistinguishable and consistent with the IGRF field.

  7. TREC 2010 legal track: method and results of the ELK collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spearing, Shelly [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roman, Jorge [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Kay, Bain [KAYVIUM; Lindquist, Eric [EWA-IIT

    2010-10-25

    The ELK team ([E]WA-IIT, [L]os Alamos National laboratory (LANL), and [K]ayvium Corporation (ELK)) used the legal Track task 302 as an opportunity to compare and integrate advanced semantic-automation strategies. The team members believe that enabling parties to discover, consume, analyze, and make decisions in a noisy and information-overloaded environment requires new tools. Together, as well as independently, they are actively developing these tools and view the TREC exercise as an opportunity to test, compare, and complement tools and approaches. Our collaboration is new to TREC, brought together by a shared interest in document relevance, concept-in-context identification and annotation, and the recognition that words out-of-context do not a match make. The team's intent was to lay the foundation for automating the mining and analysis of large volumes of electronic information by litigants and their lawyers, not only in the context of document discovery, but also to support litigation strategy, motion practice, deposition, trial tactics, etc. The premise was that a Subject Matter Expert- (SME-) built model can be automatically mapped onto various search engines for document retrieval, organization, relevance scoring, analysis and decision support. In the end, we ran nearly a dozen models, mostly, but not exclusively, with Kayvium Corporation's knowledge automation technology. The Sal Database Search Engine we used had a bug in its proximity feature, requiring that we develop a workaround. While the work-around was successful, it left us with insufficient time to converge the models to achieve expected quality. However, with optimized proximity processing in place, we would be able to run the model many more times, and believe repeatable quality would be a matter of working through a few requests to get the approach right. We believe that with more time, the results we would achieve might point towards a new way of processing documents for litigation

  8. Test results for cables used in nuclear power plants by a new environmental testing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handa, Katsue; Fujimura, Shun-ichi; Hayashi, Toshiyasu; Takano, Keiji; Oya, Shingo

    1982-12-01

    In the nuclear power plants using PWRs or BWRs in Japan, environmental tests are provided, in which simulated LOCA conditions are considered so as to conform with Japanese conditions, and many cables which passed these tests are presently employed. Lately, the new environmental testing, in which a credible accident called MSLB (main steam line breakage) is taken into account, is investigated in PWR nuclear power plants, besides LOCA. This paper reports on the results of evaluating some PWR cables for this new environmental testing conditions. The several cables tested were selected out of PH cables (fire-retardant, ethylene propylene rubber insulated, chlorosulfonated polyethylene sheathed cables) as the cables for safety protecting circuits and to be used in containment vessels where the cables are to be exposed to severe environmental test conditions of 2 x 10/sup 8/ Rad ..gamma..-irradiation and simulated LOCA. All these cables have been accepted after the vertical tray burning test provided in the IEEE Standard 383. The new testing was carried out by sequentially applying thermal deterioration, ..gamma..-irradiation, and the exposure to steam (twice 300 s exposures to 190 deg C superheated steam). After completing each step, tensile strength, elongation, insulation resistance and breakdown voltage were measured, respectively. Every cable tested showed satisfactory breakdown voltage after the exposure to steam, thus it was decided to be acceptable. In future, it is required to investigate the influence of the rate of temperature rise on the cable to be tested in MSLB simulation.

  9. Estimating the uncertainty of damage costs of pollution: A simple transparent method and typical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadaro, Joseph V.; Rabl, Ari

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the uncertainty of environmental impacts and damage costs is usually estimated by means of a Monte Carlo calculation, this paper shows that most (and in many cases all) of the uncertainty calculation involves products and/or sums of products and can be accomplished with an analytic solution which is simple and transparent. We present our own assessment of the component uncertainties and calculate the total uncertainty for the impacts and damage costs of the classical air pollutants; results for a Monte Carlo calculation for the dispersion part are also shown. The distribution of the damage costs is approximately lognormal and can be characterized in terms of geometric mean μ g and geometric standard deviation σ g , implying that the confidence interval is multiplicative. We find that for the classical air pollutants σ g is approximately 3 and the 68% confidence interval is [μ g / σ g , μ g σ g ]. Because the lognormal distribution is highly skewed for large σ g , the median is significantly smaller than the mean. We also consider the case where several lognormally distributed damage costs are added, for example to obtain the total damage cost due to all the air pollutants emitted by a power plant, and we find that the relative error of the sum can be significantly smaller than the relative errors of the summands. Even though the distribution for such sums is not exactly lognormal, we present a simple lognormal approximation that is quite adequate for most applications

  10. Test results for cables used in nuclear power plants by a new environmental testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handa, Katsue; Fujimura, Shun-ichi; Hayashi, Toshiyasu; Takano, Keiji; Oya, Shingo

    1982-01-01

    In the nuclear power plants using PWRs or BWRs in Japan, environmental tests are provided, in which simulated LOCA conditions are considered so as to conform with Japanese conditions, and many cables which passed these tests are presently employed. Lately, the new environmental testing, in which a credible accident called MSLB (main steam line breakage) is taken into account, is investigated in PWR nuclear power plants, besides LOCA. This paper reports on the results of evaluating some PWR cables for this new environmental testing conditions. The several cables tested were selected out of PH cables (fire-retardant, ethylene propylene rubber insulated, chlorosulfonated polyethylene sheathed cables) as the cables for safety protecting circuits and to be used in containment vessels where the cables are to be exposed to severe environmental test conditions of 2 x 10 8 Rad γ-irradiation and simulated LOCA. All these cables have been accepted after the vertical tray burning test provided in the IEEE Standard 383. The new testing was carried out by sequentially applying thermal deterioration, γ-irradiation, and the exposure to steam (twice 300 s exposures to 190 deg C superheated steam). After completing each step, tensile strength, elongation, insulation resistance and breakdown voltage were measured, respectively. Every cable tested showed satisfactory breakdown voltage after the exposure to steam, thus it was decided to be acceptable. In future, it is required to investigate the influence of the rate of temperature rise on the cable to be tested in MSLB simulation. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Mean Blood Pressure Assessment during Post-Exercise: Result from Two Different Methods of Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmarco Sainas, Raffaele Milia, Girolamo Palazzolo, Gianfranco Ibba, Elisabetta Marongiu, Silvana Roberto, Virginia Pinna, Giovanna Ghiani, Filippo Tocco, Antonio Crisafulli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available At rest the proportion between systolic and diastolic periods of the cardiac cycle is about 1/3 and 2/3 respectively. Therefore, mean blood pressure (MBP is usually calculated with a standard formula (SF as follows: MBP = diastolic blood pressure (DBP + 1/3 [systolic blood pressure (SBP – DBP]. However, during exercise this proportion is lost because of tachycardia, which shortens diastole more than systole. We analysed the difference in MBP calculation between the SF and a corrected formula (CF which takes into account changes in the diastolic and systolic periods caused by exercise-induced tachycardia. Our hypothesis was that the SF potentially induce a systematic error in MBP assessment during recovery after exercise. Ten healthy males underwent two exercise-recovery tests on a cycle-ergometer at mild-moderate and moderate-heavy workloads. Hemodynamics and MBP were monitored for 30 minutes after exercise bouts. The main result was that the SF on average underestimated MBP by –4.1 mmHg with respect to the CF. Moreover, in the period immediately after exercise, when sustained tachycardia occurred, the difference between SF and CF was large (in the order of -20-30 mmHg. Likewise, a systematic error in systemic vascular resistance assessment was present. It was concluded that the SF introduces a substantial error in MBP estimation in the period immediately following effort. This equation should not be used in this situation.

  12. Estimation of the Radon-induced Dose for Russia's Population: Methods and Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marenny, A.M.; Savkin, M.N.; Shinkarev, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    A model is proposed for inferring the radon-induced annual average collective and personal doses, as well as the dose distribution of the population, all over Russia from selective radon monitoring in some regions of Russia. The model assumptions and the selective radon monitoring results that underlie the numerical estimates obtained for different population groups are presented. The current estimate of the collective radon-induced dose received by the population of Russia (148,100,000 as of 1996) is about 130,000 man Sv, of which 55,000 man Sv is for the rural population (27% of the total population) and 75,000 man Sv for the urban population (73% of the total). The average radon-induced personal dose in Russia is estimated to be about 0.87 mSv. About 1,000,000 people receive annual doses above 10 mSv, including some 200,000 people who receive doses above 20 mSv annually. The ways of making the current estimates more accurate are outlined. (author)

  13. A Literature Study of Matrix Element Influenced to the Result of Analysis Using Absorption Atomic Spectroscopy Method (AAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyas-Djuhariningrum

    2004-01-01

    The gold sample analysis can be deviated more than >10% to those thrue value caused by the matrix element. So that the matrix element character need to be study in order to reduce the deviation. In rock samples, the matrix elements can cause self quenching, self absorption and ionization process, so there is a result analysis error. In the rock geochemical process, the elements of the same group at the periodic system have the tendency to be together because of their same characteristic. In absorption Atomic Spectroscopy analysis, the elements associate can absorb primer energy with similar wave length so that it can cause deviation in the result interpretation. The aim of study is to predict matrix element influences from rock sample with application standard method for reducing deviation. In quantitative way, assessment of primer light intensity that will be absorbed is proportional to the concentration atom in the sample that relationship between photon intensity with concentration in part per million is linier (ppm). These methods for eliminating matrix elements influence consist of three methods : external standard method, internal standard method, and addition standard method. External standard method for all matrix element, internal standard method for elimination matrix element that have similar characteristics, addition standard methods for elimination matrix elements in Au, Pt samples. The third of standard posess here accuracy are about 95-97%. (author)

  14. Effect of Chemistry Triangle Oriented Learning Media on Cooperative, Individual and Conventional Method on Chemistry Learning Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latisma D, L.; Kurniawan, W.; Seprima, S.; Nirbayani, E. S.; Ellizar, E.; Hardeli, H.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to see which method are well used with the Chemistry Triangle-oriented learning media. This quasi experimental research involves first grade of senior high school students in six schools namely each two SMA N in Solok city, in Pasaman and two SMKN in Pariaman. The sampling technique was done by Cluster Random Sampling. Data were collected by test and analyzed by one-way anova and Kruskall Wallish test. The results showed that the high school students in Solok learning taught by cooperative method is better than the results of student learning taught by conventional and Individual methods, both for students who have high initial ability and low-ability. Research in SMK showed that the overall student learning outcomes taught by conventional method is better than the student learning outcomes taught by cooperative and individual methods. Student learning outcomes that have high initial ability taught by individual method is better than student learning outcomes that are taught by cooperative method and for students who have low initial ability, there is no difference in student learning outcomes taught by cooperative, individual and conventional methods. Learning in high school in Pasaman showed no significant difference in learning outcomes of the three methods undertaken.

  15. [Methods in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS): results of a nationwide survey in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchinger, S; Sapetschnig, I; Danda, M; Sommer, C; Resch, B; Urlesberger, B; Raith, W

    2015-08-01

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) occurs in neonates whose mothers have taken addictive drugs or were under substitution therapy during pregnancy. Incidence numbers of NAS are on the rise globally, even in Austria NAS is not rare anymore. The aim of our survey was to reveal the status quo of dealing with NAS in Austria. A questionnaire was sent to 20 neonatology departments all over Austria, items included questions on scoring, therapy, breast-feeding and follow-up procedures. The response rate was 95%, of which 94.7% had written guidelines concerning NAS. The median number of children being treated per year for NAS was 4. Finnegan scoring system is used in 100% of the responding departments. Morphine is being used most often, in opiate abuse (100%) as well as in multiple substance abuse (44.4%). The most frequent forms of morphine preparation are morphine and diluted tincture of opium. Frequency as well as dosage of medication vary broadly. 61.1% of the departments supported breast-feeding, regulations concerned participation in a substitution programme and general contraindications (HIV, HCV, HBV). Our results revealed that there is a big west-east gradient in patients being treated per year. NAS is not a rare entity anymore in Austria (up to 50 cases per year in Vienna). Our survey showed that most neonatology departments in Austria treat their patients following written guidelines. Although all of them base these guidelines on international recommendations there is no national consensus. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. The new Inventory of Italian Glaciers: Present knowledge, applied methods and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina; D'Agata, Carlo; Maragno, Davide; Baroni, Carlo; Mortara, Gianni; Perotti, Luigi; Bondesan, Aldino; Salvatore, Cristina; Vagliasindi, Marco; Vuillermoz, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    A new Glacier Inventory is an indispensable requirement in Italy due to the importance of evaluating the present glacier coverage and the recent changes driven by climate. Furthermore Alpine glaciers represent a not negligible water and touristic resource then to manage and promote them is needed to know their distribution, size and features. The first Italian Glacier Inventory dates back to 1959-1962. It was compiled by the Italian Glaciological Committee (CGI) in cooperation with the National Research Council (CNR); this first inventory was mainly based on field data coupled with photographs (acquired on the field) and high resolution maps. The Italian glaciation resulted to be spread into 754 ice bodies which altogether were covering 525 km2. Moreover in the Eighties a new inventory was compiled to insert Italian data into the World Glacier Inventory (WGI); aerial photos taken at the end of the Seventies (and in some cases affected by a high and not negligible snow coverage) were used as the main source of data. No other national inventory were compiled after that period. Nevertheless during the last decade the largest part of the Italian Alpine regions have produced regional and local glacier inventories which in several cases are also available and queried through web sites and web GIS application. The actual need is now to obtain a complete, homogeneous and contemporary picture of the Italian Glaciation which encompasses the already available regional and local data and all the new updated information coming from new sources of data (e.g.: orthophotos, satellite imagines, etc..). The challenge was accepted by the University of Milan, the EvK2CNR Committee and the Italian Glaciological Committee who, with the sponsorship of Levissima Spa, are presently working to compile the new updated Italian Glacier Inventory. The first project step is to produce a unique homogeneous glacier database including glacier boundary and surface area and the main fundamental

  17. Plato's Cosmic Theology: A Rationale for a Polytheistic Astrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, André

    2015-05-01

    Plato's cosmology influenced classical astronomy and religion, but was in turn influenced by the polytheistic context of its time. Throughout his texts, including the cosmological treatise Timaeus, and the discussions on the soul in the Phaedrus, Plato (c.428-c.348 BC) established what can be generalised as Platonic cosmological thought. An understanding of the philosophical and mythical levels of Platonic thought can provide a rationale for polytheistic and astrological worldviews, pointing to some cosmological continuity, alongside major shifts, from ancient Greek religion to the astrological thought of ancient astronomers such as Claudius Ptolemy.

  18. Rationale of physical rehabilitation of patients with violation coronary circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar Morad Pour Heidari Roudberi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to examine the risk factors that lead to the violation of the coronary circulation. Rationale for the use of physical rehabilitation to restore optimal hemodynamics in the myocardium. Considered views on the causes of the high mortality rate of the population of Ukraine of cardiovascular disease. It is shown that the main cause of death is coronary heart disease. Suggested that the major risk factors for coronary heart disease is high cholesterol, hypertension and obesity. Proposed to use exercise therapy, dosage walking, psychotherapy, autogenic training and diet therapy in rehabilitation program patients with impaired coronary circulation.

  19. Critique of rationale for transmutation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1980-07-01

    It has been suggested that nuclear