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Sample records for rational numbers increasing

  1. Models for Rational Number Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jean J.; Armbruster, Frank O.

    1975-01-01

    This article extends number bases to negative integers, then to positive rationals and finally to negative rationals. Methods and rules for operations in positive and negative rational bases greater than one or less than negative one are summarized in tables. Sample problems are explained and illustrated. (KM)

  2. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  3. Working Memory Strategies during Rational Number Magnitude Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle; Cordes, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Rational number understanding is a critical building block for success in more advanced mathematics; however, how rational number magnitudes are conceptualized is not fully understood. In the current study, we used a dual-task working memory (WM) interference paradigm to investigate the dominant type of strategy (i.e., requiring verbal WM…

  4. Rational surfaces having only a finite number of exceptional curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahyane, M.

    2001-10-01

    We characterize the rational surfaces X which have a finite number of (-1)-curves under the assumption that - K X is nef (i.e., the intersection number of K X with any effective divisor on X is less than or equal to zero, where K X is a canonical divisor on X) and having self-intersection zero. A (-1)-curve is a smooth rational curve of self-intersection -1. (author)

  5. Rational and irrational numbers from unit resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperski, Maciej; Kłobus, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of constructing a network of unit resistors such that it enables the retrieval of an arbitrary value of equivalent resistance. In particular, we employ the notion of continued fractions to construct a ladder network by which we can easily obtain any fractional value resistance. In addition, since any irrational number is associated with an infinite continued fraction, we discuss the convergence of the equivalent resistance of an infinite resistive ladder and various aspects concerning the approximations of arbitrary numbers attained by adding additional resistors successively to the network. The presented methods can be easily implemented in an educational laboratory and offer an interesting addition to the topic of Ohm’s law. (paper)

  6. Which Type of Rational Numbers Should Students Learn First?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Many children and adults have difficulty gaining a comprehensive understanding of rational numbers. Although fractions are taught before decimals and percentages in many countries, including the USA, a number of researchers have argued that decimals are easier to learn than fractions and therefore teaching them first might mitigate children's…

  7. Reasoning strategies with rational numbers revealed by eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Patrick; DeWolf, Melissa; Bassok, Miriam; Gordon, Peter C; Holyoak, Keith J

    2017-07-01

    Recent research has begun to investigate the impact of different formats for rational numbers on the processes by which people make relational judgments about quantitative relations. DeWolf, Bassok, and Holyoak (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144(1), 127-150, 2015) found that accuracy on a relation identification task was highest when fractions were presented with countable sets, whereas accuracy was relatively low for all conditions where decimals were presented. However, it is unclear what processing strategies underlie these disparities in accuracy. We report an experiment that used eye-tracking methods to externalize the strategies that are evoked by different types of rational numbers for different types of quantities (discrete vs. continuous). Results showed that eye-movement behavior during the task was jointly determined by image and number format. Discrete images elicited a counting strategy for both fractions and decimals, but this strategy led to higher accuracy only for fractions. Continuous images encouraged magnitude estimation and comparison, but to a greater degree for decimals than fractions. This strategy led to decreased accuracy for both number formats. By analyzing participants' eye movements when they viewed a relational context and made decisions, we were able to obtain an externalized representation of the strategic choices evoked by different ontological types of entities and different types of rational numbers. Our findings using eye-tracking measures enable us to go beyond previous studies based on accuracy data alone, demonstrating that quantitative properties of images and the different formats for rational numbers jointly influence strategies that generate eye-movement behavior.

  8. Rational-number comparison across notation: Fractions, decimals, and whole numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle; Cordes, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Although fractions, decimals, and whole numbers can be used to represent the same rational-number values, it is unclear whether adults conceive of these rational-number magnitudes as lying along the same ordered mental continuum. In the current study, we investigated whether adults' processing of rational-number magnitudes in fraction, decimal, and whole-number notation show systematic ratio-dependent responding characteristic of an integrated mental continuum. Both reaction time (RT) and eye-tracking data from a number-magnitude comparison task revealed ratio-dependent performance when adults compared the relative magnitudes of rational numbers, both within the same notation (e.g., fractions vs. fractions) and across different notations (e.g., fractions vs. decimals), pointing to an integrated mental continuum for rational numbers across notation types. In addition, eye-tracking analyses provided evidence of an implicit whole-number bias when we compared values in fraction notation, and individual differences in this whole-number bias were related to the individual's performance on a fraction arithmetic task. Implications of our results for both cognitive development research and math education are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Teaching Rational Number Addition Using Video Games: The Effects of Instructional Variation. CRESST Report 808

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendlinski, Terry P.; Chung, Greg K. W. K.; Binning, Kevin R.; Buschang, Rebecca E.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the meaning of rational numbers and how to perform mathematical operations with those numbers seems to be a perennial problem in the United States for both adults and children. Based on previous work, we hypothesized that giving students more time to practice using rational numbers in an environment that enticed them to apply their…

  10. The natural number bias and its role in rational number understanding in children with dyscalculia. Delay or deficit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Jo; Verschaffel, Lieven; Ghesquière, Pol; Van Dooren, Wim

    2017-12-01

    Previous research indicated that in several cases learners' errors on rational number tasks can be attributed to learners' tendency to (wrongly) apply natural number properties. There exists a large body of literature both on learners' struggle with understanding the rational number system and on the role of the natural number bias in this struggle. However, little is known about this phenomenon in learners with dyscalculia. We investigated the rational number understanding of learners with dyscalculia and compared it with the rational number understanding of learners without dyscalculia. Three groups of learners were included: sixth graders with dyscalculia, a chronological age match group, and an ability match group. The results showed that the rational number understanding of learners with dyscalculia is significantly lower than that of typically developing peers, but not significantly different from younger learners, even after statistically controlling for mathematics achievement. Next to a delay in their mathematics achievement, learners with dyscalculia seem to have an extra delay in their rational number understanding, compared with peers. This is especially the case in those rational number tasks where one has to inhibit natural number knowledge to come to the right answer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Complex dynamics and multistability with increasing rationality in market games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalli, Fausto; Naimzada, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study oligopoly models in which firms adopt decision mechanisms based on best response techniques with different rationality degrees. Firms are also assumed to face resource or financial constraints in adjusting their production levels, so that, from time to time, they can only increase or decrease their strategy by a bounded quantity. We consider different families of oligopolies of generic sizes, characterized by heterogeneous compositions with respect to the rationality degrees of firms. We analytically study the local stability of the equilibrium depending on the oligopoly size and composition and through numerical simulations we investigate the possible dynamics arising when trajectories do not converge toward the equilibrium. We show that in this case complex dynamics can arise, and this is due to both the loss of stability of the equilibrium and to the emergence of multiple attractors, with the stable steady state coexisting with a different, periodic or chaotic, attractor. In particular, we show that multistability phenomena occur when the overall degree of rationality of the oligopoly is increased. Finally, we investigate the effect of non-convergent dynamics on the realized profits.

  12. Developing Essential Understanding of Rational Numbers for Teaching Mathematics in Grades 3-5. Essential Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Carne; Fisher, William; Marks, Rick; Ross, Sharon; Zbiek, Rose Mary

    2010-01-01

    This book focuses on essential knowledge for teachers about rational numbers. It is organized around four big ideas, supported by multiple smaller, interconnected ideas--essential understandings. Taking teachers beyond a simple introduction to rational numbers, the book will broaden and deepen their mathematical understanding of one of the most…

  13. Inaugurating Rationalization: Three Field Studies Find Increased Rationalization When Anticipated Realities Become Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Kristin

    2018-04-01

    People will often rationalize the status quo, reconstruing it in an exaggeratedly positive light. They will even rationalize the status quo they anticipate, emphasizing the upsides and minimizing the downsides of sociopolitical realities they expect to take effect. Drawing on recent findings on the psychological triggers of rationalization, I present results from three field studies, one of which was preregistered, testing the hypothesis that an anticipated reality becoming current triggers an observable boost in people's rationalizations. San Franciscans rationalized a ban on plastic water bottles, Ontarians rationalized a targeted smoking ban, and Americans rationalized the presidency of Donald Trump, more in the days immediately after these realities became current compared with the days immediately before. Additional findings show evidence for a mechanism underlying these behaviors and rule out alternative accounts. These findings carry implications for scholarship on rationalization, for understanding protest behavior, and for policymakers.

  14. The Cognitive Predictors of Computational Skill with Whole versus Rational Numbers: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethaler, Pamela M; Fuchs, Lynn S; Star, Jon R; Bryant, Joan

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the 3(rd)-grade cognitive predictors of 5th-grade computational skill with rational numbers and how those are similar to and different from the cognitive predictors of whole-number computational skill. Students (n = 688) were assessed on incoming whole-number calculation skill, language, nonverbal reasoning, concept formation, processing speed, and working memory in the fall of 3(rd) grade. Students were followed longitudinally and assessed on calculation skill with whole numbers and with rational numbers in the spring of 5(th) grade. The unique predictors of skill with whole-number computation were incoming whole-number calculation skill, nonverbal reasoning, concept formation, and working memory (numerical executive control). In addition to these cognitive abilities, language emerged as a unique predictor of rational-number computational skill.

  15. A systematic investigation of the link between rational number processing and algebra ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle; Cordes, Sara

    2018-02-01

    Recent research suggests that fraction understanding is predictive of algebra ability; however, the relative contributions of various aspects of rational number knowledge are unclear. Furthermore, whether this relationship is notation-dependent or rather relies upon a general understanding of rational numbers (independent of notation) is an open question. In this study, college students completed a rational number magnitude task, procedural arithmetic tasks in fraction and decimal notation, and an algebra assessment. Using these tasks, we measured three different aspects of rational number ability in both fraction and decimal notation: (1) acuity of underlying magnitude representations, (2) fluency with which symbols are mapped to the underlying magnitudes, and (3) fluency with arithmetic procedures. Analyses reveal that when looking at the measures of magnitude understanding, the relationship between adults' rational number magnitude performance and algebra ability is dependent upon notation. However, once performance on arithmetic measures is included in the relationship, individual measures of magnitude understanding are no longer unique predictors of algebra performance. Furthermore, when including all measures simultaneously, results revealed that arithmetic fluency in both fraction and decimal notation each uniquely predicted algebra ability. Findings are the first to demonstrate a relationship between rational number understanding and algebra ability in adults while providing a clearer picture of the nature of this relationship. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  16. The Cognitive Predictors of Computational Skill with Whole versus Rational Numbers: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Star, Jon R.; Bryant, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the 3rd-grade cognitive predictors of 5th-grade computational skill with rational numbers and how those are similar to and different from the cognitive predictors of whole-number computational skill. Students (n=688) were assessed on incoming whole-number calculation skill, language, nonverbal…

  17. Using Bar Representations as a Model for Connecting Concepts of Rational Number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, James A.; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Shew, Julia A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines bar models as graphical representations of rational numbers and presents related real life problems. Concludes that, through pairing the fraction bars with ratio tables and other ways of teaching numbers, numeric strategies become connected with visual strategies that allow students with diverse ways of thinking to share their…

  18. Shifting of wrapped phase maps in the frequency domain using a rational number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdeisat, Munther A; Abushakra, Ahmad; Qaddoura, Maen; Burton, David R; Lilley, Francis; Arevalillo-Herráez, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The number of phase wraps in an image can be either reduced, or completely eliminated, by transforming the image into the frequency domain using a Fourier transform, and then shifting the spectrum towards the origin. After this, the spectrum is transformed back to the spatial domain using the inverse Fourier transform and finally the phase is extracted using the arctangent function. However, it is a common concern that the spectrum can be shifted only by an integer number, meaning that the phase wrap reduction is often not optimal. In this paper we propose an algorithm than enables the spectrum to be frequency shifted by a rational number. The principle of the proposed method is confirmed both by using an initial computer simulation and is subsequently validated experimentally on real fringe patterns. The technique may offer in some cases the prospects of removing the necessity for a phase unwrapping process altogether and/or speeding up the phase unwrapping process. This may be beneficial in terms of potential increases in signal recovery robustness and also for use in time-critical applications. (paper)

  19. From rational numbers to algebra: separable contributions of decimal magnitude and relational understanding of fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolf, Melissa; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J

    2015-05-01

    To understand the development of mathematical cognition and to improve instructional practices, it is critical to identify early predictors of difficulty in learning complex mathematical topics such as algebra. Recent work has shown that performance with fractions on a number line estimation task predicts algebra performance, whereas performance with whole numbers on similar estimation tasks does not. We sought to distinguish more specific precursors to algebra by measuring multiple aspects of knowledge about rational numbers. Because fractions are the first numbers that are relational expressions to which students are exposed, we investigated how understanding the relational bipartite format (a/b) of fractions might connect to later algebra performance. We presented middle school students with a battery of tests designed to measure relational understanding of fractions, procedural knowledge of fractions, and placement of fractions, decimals, and whole numbers onto number lines as well as algebra performance. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the best predictors of algebra performance were measures of relational fraction knowledge and ability to place decimals (not fractions or whole numbers) onto number lines. These findings suggest that at least two specific components of knowledge about rational numbers--relational understanding (best captured by fractions) and grasp of unidimensional magnitude (best captured by decimals)--can be linked to early success with algebraic expressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Limited Rationality and Its Quantification Through the Interval Number Judgments With Permutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Pedrycz, Witold; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2017-12-01

    The relative importance of alternatives expressed in terms of interval numbers in the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process aims to capture the uncertainty experienced by decision makers (DMs) when making a series of comparisons. Under the assumption of full rationality, the judgements of DMs in the typical analytic hierarchy process could be consistent. However, since the uncertainty in articulating the opinions of DMs is unavoidable, the interval number judgements are associated with the limited rationality. In this paper, we investigate the concept of limited rationality by introducing interval multiplicative reciprocal comparison matrices. By analyzing the consistency of interval multiplicative reciprocal comparison matrices, it is observed that the interval number judgements are inconsistent. By considering the permutations of alternatives, the concepts of approximation-consistency and acceptable approximation-consistency of interval multiplicative reciprocal comparison matrices are proposed. The exchange method is designed to generate all the permutations. A novel method of determining the interval weight vector is proposed under the consideration of randomness in comparing alternatives, and a vector of interval weights is determined. A new algorithm of solving decision making problems with interval multiplicative reciprocal preference relations is provided. Two numerical examples are carried out to illustrate the proposed approach and offer a comparison with the methods available in the literature.

  1. Randomised controlled trial of routine individual feedback to improve rationality and reduce numbers of test requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkens, R A; Pop, P; Bugter-Maessen, A M; Grol, R P; Kester, A D; Beusmans, G H; Knottnerus, J A

    1995-02-25

    Feedback can be described as a way to provide information on doctors' performance to enable changes in future behaviour. Feedback is used with the aim of changing test-ordering behaviour. It can lead to reductions in test usage and cost savings. It is not sufficiently clear, however, whether feedback leads to more appropriate test use. Since 1985, the Diagnostic Coordinating Center Maastricht has been giving feedback on diagnostic tests as a routine health care activity to all family doctors in its region. Both quantity and quality of requests are discussed. In a randomised, controlled trial over 2.5 years, discussion of tests not included previously was added to the existing routine feedback. One group of family doctors (n = 39) received feedback on test-group A (electrocardiography, endoscopy, cervical smears, and allergy tests), the other (n = 40) on test-group B (radiographic and ultrasonographic tests). Thus, each group of doctors acted as a control group for the other. Changes in volume and rationality of requests were analysed. The number of requests decreased during the trial (p = 0.036). Request numbers decreased particularly for test-group A (p = 0.04). The proportion of requests that were non-rational decreased more in the intervention than in the control groups (p = 0.009). Rationality improved predominantly for test-group B (p = 0.043). Thus, routine feedback can change the quantity and quality of requests.

  2. 137Cs content in the ration of rural population of regions with increased nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    Considered is the ration of rural population of arctic regions and Byelorussian-Ukrainian woodlands. The peculiarity of the nitrition structure of the population in the North is a relatively large contribution of deer meat in the ration. The main amount of 137 Cs contribution with other food stuffs and drinking water in the ration of population of this area does not exceed 10 %. The main supplier of 137 Cs in the ration of population of woodlands is milk which constitutes 70 %. The second place is taken by potatoes. The role and significance of separate food stuffs as 137 Cs suppliers in the ration in the zones with increased migration can be different; the leading role in this process is played by natural factors

  3. The Comprehensive Evaluation Method of Supervision Risk in Electricity Transaction Based on Unascertained Rational Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haining, Wang; Lei, Wang; Qian, Zhang; Zongqiang, Zheng; Hongyu, Zhou; Chuncheng, Gao

    2018-03-01

    For the uncertain problems in the comprehensive evaluation of supervision risk in electricity transaction, this paper uses the unidentified rational numbers to evaluation the supervision risk, to obtain the possible result and corresponding credibility of evaluation and realize the quantification of risk indexes. The model can draw the risk degree of various indexes, which makes it easier for the electricity transaction supervisors to identify the transaction risk and determine the risk level, assisting the decision-making and realizing the effective supervision of the risk. The results of the case analysis verify the effectiveness of the model.

  4. Conceptual structure and the procedural affordances of rational numbers: relational reasoning with fractions and decimals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolf, Melissa; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J

    2015-02-01

    The standard number system includes several distinct types of notations, which differ conceptually and afford different procedures. Among notations for rational numbers, the bipartite format of fractions (a/b) enables them to represent 2-dimensional relations between sets of discrete (i.e., countable) elements (e.g., red marbles/all marbles). In contrast, the format of decimals is inherently 1-dimensional, expressing a continuous-valued magnitude (i.e., proportion) but not a 2-dimensional relation between sets of countable elements. Experiment 1 showed that college students indeed view these 2-number notations as conceptually distinct. In a task that did not involve mathematical calculations, participants showed a strong preference to represent partitioned displays of discrete objects with fractions and partitioned displays of continuous masses with decimals. Experiment 2 provided evidence that people are better able to identify and evaluate ratio relationships using fractions than decimals, especially for discrete (or discretized) quantities. Experiments 3 and 4 found a similar pattern of performance for a more complex analogical reasoning task. When solving relational reasoning problems based on discrete or discretized quantities, fractions yielded greater accuracy than decimals; in contrast, when quantities were continuous, accuracy was lower for both symbolic notations. Whereas previous research has established that decimals are more effective than fractions in supporting magnitude comparisons, the present study reveals that fractions are relatively advantageous in supporting relational reasoning with discrete (or discretized) concepts. These findings provide an explanation for the effectiveness of natural frequency formats in supporting some types of reasoning, and have implications for teaching of rational numbers.

  5. Number-theoretic properties of hyperelliptic fields and the torsion problem in Jacobians of hyperelliptic curves over the rational number field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platonov, V P

    2014-01-01

    In the past four years a theory has been developed for finding fundamental units in hyperelliptic fields, and on basis of this theory innovative and efficient algorithms for computing them have been constructed and implemented. A new local-global principle was discovered which gives a criterion for the existence of non-trivial units in hyperelliptic fields. The natural connection between the problem of computing fundamental units and the problem of torsion in Jacobian varieties of hyperelliptic curves over the rational number field has led to breakthrough results in the solution of this problem. The main results in the present survey were largely obtained using a symbiosis of deep theory, efficient algorithms, and supercomputing. Such a symbiosis will play an ever increasing role in the mathematics of the 21st century. Bibliography: 27 titles

  6. Interoception drives increased rational decision-making in meditators playing the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Ulrich; Downar, Jonathan; Montague, P Read

    2011-01-01

    Human decision-making is often conceptualized as a competition between cognitive and emotional processes in the brain. Deviations from rational processes are believed to derive from inclusion of emotional factors in decision-making. Here, we investigate whether experienced Buddhist meditators are better equipped to regulate emotional processes compared with controls during economic decision-making in the Ultimatum Game. We show that meditators accept unfair offers on more than half of the trials, whereas controls only accept unfair offers on one-quarter of the trials. By applying fMRI we show that controls recruit the anterior insula during unfair offers. Such responses are powerful predictors of rejecting offers in social interaction. By contrast, meditators display attenuated activity in high-level emotional representations of the anterior insula and increased activity in the low-level interoceptive representations of the posterior insula. In addition we show that a subset of control participants who play rationally (i.e., accepts >85% unfair offers) recruits the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex presumably reflecting increased cognitive demands, whereas rational meditators by contrast display elevated activity in the somatosensory cortex and posterior superior temporal cortex. In summary, when assessing unfairness in the Ultimatum Game, meditators activate a different network of brain areas compared with controls enabling them to uncouple negative emotional reactions from their behavior. These findings highlight the clinically and socially important possibility that sustained training in mindfulness meditation may impact distinct domains of human decision-making.

  7. Interoception drives increased rational decision-making in meditators playing the Ultimatum Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich eKirk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Human decision-making is often framed as a competition between cognitive and emotional processes in the brain. Deviations from rational processes are believed to derive from inclusion of emotional factors in decision-making. Here, we investigate whether a group of experienced Buddhist meditators are better equipped to regulate emotional processes compared with controls during economic decision-making in the Ultimatum Game. We show that meditators accept unfair offers on more than half of the trials, whereas controls only accept unfair offers on one-quarter of the trials. By applying fMRI we show that controls recruit the anterior insula during unfair offers. Such responses are powerful predictors of rejecting offers in social interaction. By contrast, meditators display attenuated activity in high-level emotional representations of the anterior insula and increased activity in the lower-level interoceptive representations of the posterior insula. In addition we show that a subset of control participants who play rationally (i.e. accepts >85% unfair offers recruits the DLPFC reflecting increased cognitive demands to accept unfairness, whereas rational meditators by contrast activates the somatosensory cortex and posterior superior temporal cortex (pSTC. In summary, when assessing unfairness, meditators activate a different network of brain areas compared with controls enabling them to uncouple negative emotional reactions from their behavior. These findings highlight the clinically and socially important possibility that sustained training in mindfulness meditation may impact distinct domains of human decision-making.

  8. Increasing the number of feminist scientists: why feminist aims are not served by the Underdetermination Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intemann, Kristen

    2008-11-01

    Recent feminist philosophers of science have argued that feminist values can contribute to rational decisions about which scientific theories to accept. On this view, increasing the number of feminist scientists is important for ensuring rational and objective theory acceptance. The Underdetermination Thesis has played a key role in arguments for this view [Anderson (1995) Hypatia 10(3), 50 84; Hankinson Nelson (1990) Who knows? From Quine to a feminist empiricism. Temple University Press, Philadelphia; Longino (1990) Science as social knowledge. Princeton University Press, Princeton; Longino (2002) The fate of knowledge. Princeton University Press, Princeton; Kourany (2003) Philosophy of Science 70, 1 14]. This thesis is alleged to open an argumentative “gap” between evidence and theory acceptance and provide a rationale for filling the gap with feminist values. While I agree with the conclusion that feminist values can contribute to rational decisions about which theories to accept, I argue that the Underdetermination Thesis cannot support this claim. First, using earlier arguments [Laudan (1990) in: R. Giere (ed) Minnesota studies in the philosophy of science, vol 14, pp 267 297; Slezak (1991) International Studies in Philosophy of Science 5, 241 256; Pinnick (1994) Philosophy of Science 61, 664 657] I show that Underdetermination cannot, by itself, establish that feminist values should fill the gap in theory acceptance. Secondly, I argue that the very use of the Underdetermination Thesis concedes that feminist values are extra-scientific, a-rational, factors in theory acceptance. This concession denies feminists grounds to explain why their values contribute to rational scientific reasoning. Finally, I propose two alternative ways to explain how feminist values can contribute to rational theory acceptance that do not rely on Underdetermination.

  9. Some remarks on the general theorem of the existence of iterative roots of homeomorphisms with a rational rotation number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solarz Paweł

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We show that the theorem proved in [8] generalises the previous results concerning orientation-preserving iterative roots of homeomorphisms of the circle with a rational rotation number (see [2], [6], [10] and [7]. Nous montrons que le théorème prouvé dans [8] généralise les résultats précédents concernant les racines itérées préservant l’orientation d’homéomorphismes du cercle avec un nombre de rotation rationnel (voir [2], [6], [10] et [7].

  10. The Supplementation of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO in The Ration To Increase Carcass Weight and Decrease Duck Meat Cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Siti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out at Kediri, Tabanan Regency and Animal Nutrition Laboratory to study the effect of the supplementation VCO in the ration to increase carcass weight and decrease duck meat cholesterol. The experiment used a completely randomized design (CRD with five treatments and four replicates. Each of the replicate used five male Balinese ducks with the same weight. The five treatments were diets without VCO as a control (A, ration with 1% VCO (B, ration with 2% VCO (C, ration with 3% VCO (D and ration with 4% VCO (E respectively. Ration and water offered ad libitum. The variables measured were carcass weight, physical carcass composition and meat cholesterol. The result of this experiment showed that the carcass weight, the carcass percentage, the percentage of carcass meat in the B, C, D and E treatments were not significantly (P>0.05 higher than the control, so the percentage of fat carcass subcutan (including skin and carcass bone percentage were not significantly (P>0.05 lower than the control. Triglyceride in treatment 3% VCO in diets (D was significantly (P0.05 higher than the control. The total cholesterol content and LDL in those four treatments were not significantly (P>0.05 lower than the control. From the result of this experiment can be concluded that the supplementation of 1-4% VCO in the ration has not increased to the carcass weight and decreased the duck meat cholesterol.   Keywords : VCO, duck, carcass weight, and  meat cholesterol

  11. Increasing the octane number of gasoline using functionalized carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kish, Sara Safari; Rashidi, Alimorad; Aghabozorg, Hamid Reza; Moradi, Leila

    2010-01-01

    The octane number is one of the characteristics of spark-ignition fuels such as gasoline. Octane number of fuels can be improved by addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), TBF (tertiary butyl formate) and TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) as well as their blends with gasoline that reduce the cost impact of fuels. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are as useful additives for increasing the octane number. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing amide groups have a high reactivity and can react with many chemicals. These compounds can be solubilized in gasoline to increase the octane number. In this study, using octadecylamine and dodecylamine, CNTs were amidated and the amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes were added to gasoline. Research octane number analysis showed that these additives increase octane number of the desired samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetry analyses (TGA) were used for characterization of the prepared functionalized carbon nanotubes.

  12. Increasing the octane number of gasoline using functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, Sara Safari [Faculty of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Alimorad, E-mail: rashidiam@ripi.ir [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), West Blvd. Azadi Sport Complex, Tehran 14665-1998 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghabozorg, Hamid Reza [Catalysis Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi, Leila [Faculty of Chemistry, Kashan University, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The octane number is one of the characteristics of spark-ignition fuels such as gasoline. Octane number of fuels can be improved by addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), TBF (tertiary butyl formate) and TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) as well as their blends with gasoline that reduce the cost impact of fuels. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are as useful additives for increasing the octane number. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing amide groups have a high reactivity and can react with many chemicals. These compounds can be solubilized in gasoline to increase the octane number. In this study, using octadecylamine and dodecylamine, CNTs were amidated and the amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes were added to gasoline. Research octane number analysis showed that these additives increase octane number of the desired samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetry analyses (TGA) were used for characterization of the prepared functionalized carbon nanotubes.

  13. [Increase in number of operations for stress urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhout, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of the minimally invasive tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) the number of operations performed for treatment of stress urinary incontinence has increased dramatically from over 1600 in 1999 to more than 4200 in 2003. Both gynaecologists and urologists now perform more TVTs and

  14. In Brief: Refugee numbers could increase due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-05-01

    Climate change could push the number of refugees globally to more than one billion by 2050, according to a new report from the British charity Christian Aid. Currently, there are about 155 million `internally displaced persons' worldwide, driven from their homes due to conflict, ethnic persecution, or natural disasters. The addition of climate change and growing population numbers could exacerbate these ongoing problems. In the report, Mali is presented as a case study where ongoing climate change is forcing farmers to find other ways to feed their families; one result is an increased number of people attempting to migrate to Europe. The report calls on rich nations to devote US$100 billion each year to help poor people adapt to changing weather patterns. The report, ``Human tide: the real migration crisis,'' is available at http://www.christian-aid.org.uk/indepth/705caweekreport/

  15. Patient organizations in Finland: increasing numbers and great variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toiviainen, Hanna K; Vuorenkoski, Lauri H; Hemminki, Elina K

    2010-09-01

    There is very little research on patient organizations (POs), even though their numbers and influence seem to be increasing. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment, membership, size, organization, decision making and basic funding of national POs in Finland. National POs (n = 130) were identified from their umbrella organizations and by Internet searches. Data were collected from POs' web pages (87% of POs had one), Finland's Slot Machine Association (RAY, an important public financier of POs), a relevant survey done by a local TV-company, and interviews and written materials of POs. Some current national POs were established around the turn of the 19(th) century. The rate of establishment of new POs increased from the 1970s and particularly in the 1990s when POs were characterized by increasing specialization. POs focused on different patient groups and diseases and were founded by philanthropists, physicians, patients, parents and the drug industry. Members could be patients, patient relatives, health-care professionals and organizations. POs widely varied in memberships (20-145 000, in 2002) and in number of paid personnel (0-1395, in 2002), organizational structure and decision making. Interest groups and financiers were often represented in decision-making organs. Activities included mutual support and service production, and, increasingly, informing and lobbying. POs had wide domestic and international co-operation and networking. Drug industry marketing was visible on PO web pages. Budget sizes varied (4000-15 million euros, in 2001). The main public financier was RAY. The old national POs were large and part of national social and health care, but newer ones were often established for mutual support and lobbying. National POs are not uniform but characterized by great variation. The number of national POs is increasing suggesting tighter competition for financing and visibility in the future.

  16. Changing the navigator's course: How the increasing rationalization of healthcare influences access for undocumented immigrants under the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sanders, Laura

    2017-04-01

    A number of researchers have shown that brokers (e.g., navigators and street-level bureaucrats) bridge access to healthcare services and information for immigrant patients through rich personal relationships and a mission of ethical care. An open question remains concerning how the increasing rationalization of healthcare over the past few decades influences brokerage for undocumented immigrant patients. Drawing from fieldwork and interviews conducted in California, as the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was implemented, I develop the concept of the "double-embedded-liaison." While other studies treat brokers as acting either as gatekeepers or patient representatives, this study explains how brokers simultaneously operate on multiple planes when new roles are added. I argue that with more formalization and scrutiny at health centers, the impact of brokerage is destabilized and, subsequently, diminished. Two consequences of the double-embedded-liaison brokerage form are: (1) some brokers become disillusioned and exit -resulting in the loss of valuable resources at the health centers, and (2) immigrants move away from the health centers that historically served them. In looking at brokers' simultaneous performance as gatekeepers and representatives, this research extends brokerage typologies and street-level bureaucracy arguments that largely treat brokerage in a mono-planar rather than in a bi-planar mode. Furthermore, in examining the risks and opportunities brokerage brings to addressing health disparities, the study provides insights into the effects of replacing the ACA or repealing it all together in the Post-Obama era. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Increasing the number of spin-outs from Danish universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars-Ulrik Aaen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I describe some of the barriers and motivations involved in the process of creating spin-out companies from Danish universities – based on a study carried out at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Even if procedures are established to support the spin-out process...... in the spin-out process the study reveals some of the barriers of the employees at the universities but also the other stakeholders view on the process. The investigation also reveals the various motivations for starting up a spin-out company and input to what the university/department can do to facilitate......, there are still barriers that hinder the process. In this paper I investigate these barriers and the possible motivations that could increase the number of spin-outs. I also discuss some of the processes and tools that could be implemented to support the process. Based on interviews with a number of stakeholders...

  18. ROPES Learning Model Modification to Increase Proficiency Students of Rational Thingking

    OpenAIRE

    Nizaruddin

    2010-01-01

    Mathematics teachers should have the ability mathematics, mathematical methodology skills, and ability to package the science and methodology of mathematics is a subject matter learning in school. To achieve mathematical skills that students should be equipped with skills of deductive thinking, rational, analytical, and creative. These skills are necessary for students so that they have the skills in understanding and problem-solving perspective to the prospective teacher / mathematics teache...

  19. Interoception Drives Increased Rational Decision-Making in Meditators Playing the Ultimatum Game

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, Ulrich; Downar, Jonathan; Montague, P. Read

    2011-01-01

    Human decision-making is often conceptualized as a competition between cognitive and emotional processes in the brain. Deviations from rational processes are believed to derive from inclusion of emotional factors in decision-making. Here, we investigate whether experienced Buddhist meditators are better equipped to regulate emotional processes compared with controls during economic decision-making in the Ultimatum Game. We show that meditators accept unfair offers on more than half of the tri...

  20. Increased mast cell numbers in a calcaneal tendon overuse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingel, J; Wienecke, J; Kongsgaard, M; Behzad, H; Abraham, T; Langberg, H; Scott, A

    2013-12-01

    Tendinopathy is often discovered late because the initial development of tendon pathology is asymptomatic. The aim of this study was to examine the potential role of mast cell involvement in early tendinopathy using a high-intensity uphill running (HIUR) exercise model. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided in two groups: running group (n = 12); sedentary control group (n = 12). The running-group was exposed to the HIUR exercise protocol for 7 weeks. The calcaneal tendons of both hind limbs were dissected. The right tendon was used for histologic analysis using Bonar score, immunohistochemistry, and second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM). The left tendon was used for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. An increased tendon cell density in the runners were observed compared to the controls (P = 0.05). Further, the intensity of immunostaining of protein kinase B, P = 0.03; 2.75 ± 0.54 vs 1.17 ± 0.53, was increased in the runners. The Bonar score (P = 0.05), and the number of mast cells (P = 0.02) were significantly higher in the runners compared to the controls. Furthermore, SHGM showed focal collagen disorganization in the runners, and reduced collagen density (P = 0.03). IL-3 mRNA levels were correlated with mast cell number in sedentary animals. The qPCR analysis showed no significant differences between the groups in the other analyzed targets. The current study demonstrates that 7-week HIUR causes structural changes in the calcaneal tendon, and further that these changes are associated with an increased mast cell density. © 2013 The Authors. Scand J Med Sci Sports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Increased mast cell numbers in a calcaneal tendon overuse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Wienecke, Jacob; Kongsgaard Madsen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Tendinopathy is often discovered late because the initial development of tendon pathology is asymptomatic. The aim of this study was to examine the potential role of mast cell involvement in early tendinopathy using a high-intensity uphill running (HIUR) exercise model. Twenty-four male Wistar rats...... = 0.03; 2.75 ± 0.54 vs 1.17 ± 0.53, was increased in the runners. The Bonar score (P = 0.05), and the number of mast cells (P = 0.02) were significantly higher in the runners compared to the controls. Furthermore, SHGM showed focal collagen disorganization in the runners, and reduced collagen density...... (P = 0.03). IL-3 mRNA levels were correlated with mast cell number in sedentary animals. The qPCR analysis showed no significant differences between the groups in the other analyzed targets. The current study demonstrates that 7-week HIUR causes structural changes in the calcaneal tendon, and further...

  2. Increasing effective number of neutrinos by decaying particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, K.; Kawasaki, M.; Nakayama, K.; Senami, M. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; Takahashi, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    We present models of decaying particles to increase the effective number of neutrinos N{sub {nu}} after big bang nucleosynthesis but before the structure formation begins. We point out that our scenario not only solves the discrepancy between the constraints on N{sub {nu}} from these two epochs, but also provides a possible answer to deeper inconsistency in the estimation of the matter power spectrum amplitude at small scales, represented by {sigma}{sub 8}, between the WMAP and some small scale matter power measurements such as the Lyman-{alpha} forest and weak lensing. We consider (a) saxion decay into two axions; (b) gravitino decay into axino and axion; (c) Dirac right-handed sneutrino decay into gravitino and right-handed neutrino. (orig.)

  3. Numbers of women faculty in the geosciences increasing, but slowly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, C. J.

    2001-12-01

    Why are there so few women faculty in the geosciences, while there are large numbers of women undergraduate and graduate students? According to National Science Foundation (NSF) estimates for 1995 in the Earth, atmospheric, and oceanic sciences, women made up 34% of the bachelor's degrees awarded, 35% of the graduate students enrolled, and 22% of the doctorates granted. Yet progress has been slower in achieving adequate representation of women geoscientists in academia, where women represent only 12% of the overall faculty. This talk will present the results of a survey I conducted on the status of women faculty at the 20 top-ranked geology programs, which was originally published as a feature article in Eos [Wolfe, 1999]. Data from the 1997 AGI Directory of Geoscience Departments were used to compare the numbers of women faculty at different departments, as well as to consider the distribution of men and women faculty by year of Ph.D. Strong inequities were found to exist between the individual departments. The percentages of women in the departments ranged from 0% to as high as 23%, and 37% of the departments had either one woman faculty member or none. Histograms of the faculty sorted by year of Ph.D. showed that clear generational differences existed between the sets of men and women faculty. Thirty-nine percent of the men obtained their Ph.D. prior to 1970, whereas only 3% of the women obtained their Ph.D. before this date. The majority of women faculty members (64%) received their Ph.D. after 1980, but a minority of men (31%) received their degrees after 1980. In the 1960s and 1970s, the geosciences expanded and departments employed a high percentage of recent Ph.D.s, but hiring of young faculty decreased in the 1980s and 1990s. In contrast, the numbers of women graduate students only began to rise after 1970, and thus the quantity of women Ph.D.s increased as the number of young hires decreased. Two problems appeared evident from this study using 1997 data

  4. Profitability increase of alcohol distilleries by the rational use of sub-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haandel, Adrianus C. van; Catunda, Paula F.C. [Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil

    1993-12-31

    Industrial alcohol production in Brazil is based on fermentation of sugar cane juice. After concentration and distillation, azeotropic alcohol is obtained along with four side streams. The profitability of alcohol distilleries could be improved by a more rational use of side stream products. An alternative for improved energy production is to abandon alcohol fermentation and apply anaerobic digestion directly to vegetal energy source. In that case the useful energy production is much higher and can be obtained using much simpler equipment. More importantly, the source for energy production would no longer be restricted to sugar cane, but other crops, notably those produced in the drier hinterland of Northeast Brazil could also de used for this purpose. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Profitability increase of alcohol distilleries by the rational use of sub-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haandel, Adrianus C. van; Catunda, Paula F.C. [Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil

    1994-12-31

    Industrial alcohol production in Brazil is based on fermentation of sugar cane juice. After concentration and distillation, azeotropic alcohol is obtained along with four side streams. The profitability of alcohol distilleries could be improved by a more rational use of side stream products. An alternative for improved energy production is to abandon alcohol fermentation and apply anaerobic digestion directly to vegetal energy source. In that case the useful energy production is much higher and can be obtained using much simpler equipment. More importantly, the source for energy production would no longer be restricted to sugar cane, but other crops, notably those produced in the drier hinterland of Northeast Brazil could also de used for this purpose. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Increasing living donor kidney transplantation numbers in Budapest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäcker, H; Piros, L; Langer, R M

    2013-01-01

    Living related kidney donations (LRD) have had a significant impact on therapy of kidney diseases. Due to their ease of scheduling in the general surgery program and better half-life of about 21.6 versus 13.8 years for deceased donor kidneys, this approach has revolutionized nephrology and transplantation medicine. Since the first Hungarian LRD which was performed in 1974 in Budapest, Hungary, donations have expanded especially in the last 3 years. This has been followed in 2000 by living unrelated kidney donations (LURD). Since 2000 LURD can be also performed in Hungary. From the 251 LRD in our country in the last 3 years, 79 living donations have accounted for nearly one-third of the cases. In comparison of 2008, and 2011 the absolute numbers of LRD as well as LURD have more than doubled from 9 to 20 and 6 to 14 respectively. Based on international ranking data from the global observatory on donation and transplantation Budapest has improved from 1.20 in 2000 to 6.20 LRD per million persons (p.m.p.) in 2010. The increase in LURD has also led to some side effects: an increase in recipient age from 26 years in 2000 to 46 in 2011 and greater HLA mismatches. In 2010, Budapest ranked higher than Croatia or Portugal but still behind Germany (8.13 LRD p.m.p.) and the leading countries: the Netherlands (28.49 LRD p.m.p.) and Norway (16.94 LRD p.m.p.). Because of the tremendous progress in LRD, the gap between today's leading countries and Budapest is closing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Standardized toxicity testing may underestimate ecotoxicity: Environmentally relevant food rations increase the toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Daphnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Louise M; Krattenmaker, Katherine E; Johnson, Erica; Bowers, Alexandra J; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; McCauley, Edward; Nisbet, Roger M

    2017-11-01

    Daphnia in the natural environment experience fluctuations in algal food supply, with periods when algal populations bloom and seasons when Daphnia have very little algal food. Standardized chronic toxicity tests, used for ecological risk assessment, dictate that Daphnia must be fed up to 400 times more food than they would experience in the natural environment (outside of algal blooms) for a toxicity test to be valid. This disconnect can lead to underestimating the toxicity of a contaminant. We followed the growth, reproduction, and survival of Daphnia exposed to 75 and 200 µg/L silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at 4 food rations for up to 99 d and found that AgNP exposure at low, environmentally relevant food rations increased the toxicity of AgNPs. Exposure to AgNP at low food rations decreased the survival and/or reproduction of individuals, with potential consequences for Daphnia populations (based on calculated specific population growth rates). We also found tentative evidence that a sublethal concentration of AgNPs (75 µg/L) caused Daphnia to alter energy allocation away from reproduction and toward survival and growth. The present findings emphasize the need to consider resource availability, and not just exposure, in the environment when estimating the effect of a toxicant. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3008-3018. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  8. Fast IMRT by increasing the beam number and reducing the number of segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratengeier Klaus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this work is to develop fast deliverable step and shoot IMRT technique. A reduction in the number of segments should theoretically be possible, whilst simultaneously maintaining plan quality, provided that the reduction is accompanied by an increased number of gantry angles. A benefit of this method is that the segment shaping could be performed during gantry motion, thereby reducing the delivery time. The aim was to find classes of such solutions whose plan quality can compete with conventional IMRT. Materials/Methods A planning study was performed. Step and shoot IMRT plans were created using direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO as a reference. DMPO plans were compared to an IMRT variant having only one segment per angle ("2-Step Fast". 2-Step Fast is based on a geometrical analysis of the topology of the planning target volume (PTV and the organs at risk (OAR. A prostate/rectum case, spine metastasis/spinal cord, breast/lung and an artificial PTV/OAR combination of the ESTRO-Quasimodo phantom were used for the study. The composite objective value (COV, a quality score, and plan delivery time were compared. The delivery time for the DMPO reference plan and the 2-Step Fast IMRT technique was measured and calculated for two different linacs, a twelve year old Siemens Primus™ ("old" linac and two Elekta Synergy™ "S" linacs ("new" linacs. Results 2-Step Fast had comparable or better quality than the reference DMPO plan. The number of segments was smaller than for the reference plan, the number of gantry angles was between 23 and 34. For the modern linac the delivery time was always smaller than that for the reference plan. The calculated (measured values showed a mean delivery time reduction of 21% (21% for the new linac, and of 7% (3% for the old linac compared to the respective DMPO reference plans. For the old linac, the data handling time per beam was the limiting factor for the treatment time

  9. Fast IMRT by increasing the beam number and reducing the number of segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratengeier, Klaus; Gainey, Mark B; Flentje, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop fast deliverable step and shoot IMRT technique. A reduction in the number of segments should theoretically be possible, whilst simultaneously maintaining plan quality, provided that the reduction is accompanied by an increased number of gantry angles. A benefit of this method is that the segment shaping could be performed during gantry motion, thereby reducing the delivery time. The aim was to find classes of such solutions whose plan quality can compete with conventional IMRT. A planning study was performed. Step and shoot IMRT plans were created using direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) as a reference. DMPO plans were compared to an IMRT variant having only one segment per angle ('2-Step Fast'). 2-Step Fast is based on a geometrical analysis of the topology of the planning target volume (PTV) and the organs at risk (OAR). A prostate/rectum case, spine metastasis/spinal cord, breast/lung and an artificial PTV/OAR combination of the ESTRO-Quasimodo phantom were used for the study. The composite objective value (COV), a quality score, and plan delivery time were compared. The delivery time for the DMPO reference plan and the 2-Step Fast IMRT technique was measured and calculated for two different linacs, a twelve year old Siemens Primus™ ('old' linac) and two Elekta Synergy™ 'S' linacs ('new' linacs). 2-Step Fast had comparable or better quality than the reference DMPO plan. The number of segments was smaller than for the reference plan, the number of gantry angles was between 23 and 34. For the modern linac the delivery time was always smaller than that for the reference plan. The calculated (measured) values showed a mean delivery time reduction of 21% (21%) for the new linac, and of 7% (3%) for the old linac compared to the respective DMPO reference plans. For the old linac, the data handling time per beam was the limiting factor for the treatment time reduction. 2-Step

  10. The large lungs of elite swimmers: an increased alveolar number?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J; Donnelly, P M; Bye, P T

    1993-02-01

    chest depth, but by developing physically wider chests, containing an increased number of alveoli, rather than alveoli of increased size. However, in this cross-sectional study, hereditary factors cannot be ruled out, although we believe them to be less likely.

  11. Permutations avoiding an increasing number of length-increasing forbidden subsequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Barcucci

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A permutation π is said to be τ-avoiding if it does not contain any subsequence having all the same pairwise comparisons as τ. This paper concerns the characterization and enumeration of permutations which avoid a set F j of subsequences increasing both in number and in length at the same time. Let F j be the set of subsequences of the form σ(j+1(j+2, σ being any permutation on {1,...,j}. For j=1 the only subsequence in F 1 is 123 and the 123-avoiding permutations are enumerated by the Catalan numbers; for j=2 the subsequences in F 2 are 1234 2134 and the (1234,2134 avoiding permutations are enumerated by the Schröder numbers; for each other value of j greater than 2 the subsequences in F j are j! and their length is (j+2 the permutations avoiding these j! subsequences are enumerated by a number sequence {a n } such that C n ≤ a n ≤ n!, C n being the n th Catalan number. For each j we determine the generating function of permutations avoiding the subsequences in F j according to the length, to the number of left minima and of non-inversions.

  12. Carcass and meat traits, and non-carcass components of lambs fed ration containing increasing levels of urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rozanski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcass and meat traits, and the non-carcass components of crossbred Dorper lambs fed diets with increasing levels of urea (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% of dry matter – DM. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments (urea inclusion levels and six replicates per treatment. Lambs were fed ad libitum for 56 days and slaughtered at 37.9 ± 5.1 kg of body weight (BW. The weight and yield of carcass before and after cooling were not influenced by urea levels, with average values of 16.9 kg and 44.6% for cold carcass weight and yield. Urea levels did not affect the morphometric measurements, the fat deposition on the carcass, the weight of carcass cuts and the weight of non-carcass components. There was a quadratic effect of urea levels on the loin yield, which may achieve maximum value of 11.31% with the inclusion of 0.84% DM urea in the feed. The pH and the color coordinates L* (brightness, a* (red intensity and C* (saturation of the meat also showed quadratic response to the urea levels, where in the minimum value of 5.53 for pH, maximum value of 48.67 for L* and minimum values of 14.04 and 16.21 for a* and C* may be obtained by including 0.53 to 0.70% DM urea in the ration. The inclusion of 0.84% DM urea in the ration is recommended to obtain maximum yield of loin and meat with attractive characteristics to the consumer, which is characterized by high red intensity and brightness. If consumers have preference for lamb meat with a more intense red color, the inclusion of 1.5% DM urea should be considered in the ration formulation.

  13. Number of women faculty in the geosciences increasing, but slowly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Cecily J.

    Why are there so few women faculty in the geosciences, while there are large numbers of women undergraduate and graduate students? According to National Science Foundation (NSF) estimates [e.g.,NSF, 1996] for 1995 in the Earth, atmospheric, and oceanic sciences, women made up 34% of the bachelor's degrees awarded, 35% of the graduate students enrolled, and 22% of the doctorates granted. Yet progress has been slower in achieving adequate representation of women geoscientists in academia, where women represent only 12% of the faculty. The barriers confronting the advancement of women scientists are complex and difficult to unravel. Proposed factors include cultural stereotypes, childhood socialization, lack of women mentors and role models, lack of critical mass, family responsibilities, dual-career-couple status, isolation from collegial networks, different research and publishing strategy, and less adequate access to institutional resources [c.f., Widnall, 1988; Zuckerman et al., 1991].

  14. Rational emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshulam, Meir; Winter, Eyal; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon; Aharon, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    We present here the concept of rational emotions: Emotions may be directly controlled and utilized in a conscious, analytic fashion, enabling an individual to size up a situation, to determine that a certain "mental state" is strategically advantageous and adjust accordingly. Building on the growing body of literature recognizing the vital role of emotions in determining decisions, we explore the complementary role of rational choice in choosing emotional states. Participants played the role of "recipient" in the dictator game, in which an anonymous "dictator" decides how to split an amount of money between himself and the recipient. A subset of recipients was given a monetary incentive to be angry at low-split offers. That subset demonstrated increased physiological arousal at low offers relative to high offers as well as more anger than other participants. These results provide a fresh outlook on human decision-making and contribute to the continuing effort to build more complete models of rational behavior.

  15. Rational modification of Corynebacterium glutamicum dihydrodipicolinate reductase to switch the nucleotide-cofactor specificity for increasing l-lysine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Zhong; Yang, Han-Kun; Liu, Li-Ming; Wang, Ying-Yu; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2018-03-25

    l-lysine is an important amino acid in animals and humans and NADPH is a vital cofactor for maximizing the efficiency of l-lysine fermentation. Dihydrodipicolinate reductase (DHDPR), an NAD(P)H-dependent enzyme, shows a variance in nucleotide-cofactor affinity in bacteria. In this study, we rationally engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum DHDPR (CgDHDPR) to switch its nucleotide-cofactor specificity resulting in an increase in final titer (from 82.6 to 117.3 g L -1 ), carbon yield (from 0.35 to 0.44 g [g glucose] -1 ) and productivity (from 2.07 to 2.93 g L -1  hr -1 ) of l-lysine in JL-6 ΔdapB::Ec-dapB C115G,G116C in fed-batch fermentation. To do this, we comparatively analyzed the characteristics of CgDHDPR and Escherichia coli DHDPR (EcDHDPR), indicating that hetero-expression of NADH-dependent EcDHDPR increased l-lysine production. Subsequently, we rationally modified the conserved structure of cofactor-binding motif, and results indicated that introducing the mutation K11A or R13A in CgDHDPR and introducing the mutation R16A or R39A in EcDHDPR modifies the nucleotide-cofactor affinity of DHDPR. Lastly, the effects of these mutated DHDPRs on l-lysine production were investigated. The highest increase (26.2%) in l-lysine production was observed for JL-6 ΔdapB::Ec-dapB C115G,G116C , followed by JL-6 Cg-dapB C37G,G38C (21.4%) and JL-6 ΔdapB::Ec-dapB C46G,G47C (15.2%). This is the first report of a rational modification of DHDPR that enhances the l-lysine production and yield through the modulation of nucleotide-cofactor specificity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Rationalization and Prediction of the Equivalent Alkane Carbon Number (EACN) of Polar Hydrocarbon Oils with COSMO-RS σ-Moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowicz, Thomas; Benazzouz, Adrien; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Aubry, Jean-Marie

    2015-10-20

    The equivalent alkane carbon numbers (EACNs) of 20 polar hydrocarbon oils are determined by the fishtail method. These values supplemented by 43 already reported EACNs of other hydrocarbons are rationalized by using the COSMO-RS σ-moments as descriptors for a QSPR analysis. A reliable model, with only two meaningful physicochemical parameters, namely the surface area (M0(X)) and the overall polarity (M2(X)) of the oil X, is able to predict the EACN values of a large variety of oils including (cyclo)alkanes, (cyclo)alkenes, terpenes, aromatics, alkynes, and chloroalkanes and to rationalize structural effects on EACNs. Furthermore, the dependence of the EACN of homologous oils on the chain length provides some molecular insight into how the different oils penetrate into the interfacial film of surfactants.

  17. Rationality on the rise: Why relative risk aversion increases with stake size

    OpenAIRE

    Fehr-Duda, Helga; Bruhin, Adrian; Epper, Thomas F.; Schubert, Renate

    2008-01-01

    How does risk tolerance vary with stake size? This important question cannot be adequately answered if framing effects, nonlinear probability weighting, and heterogeneity of preference types are neglected. We show that, contrary to gains, no coherent change in relative risk aversion is observed for losses. The increase in relative risk aversion over gains cannot be captured by the curvature of the utility function. It is driven predominantly by a change in probability weighting of a majority ...

  18. Competent Reasoning with Rational Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John P. III

    1995-01-01

    Analyzed students' reasoning with fractions. Found that skilled students applied strategies specifically tailored to restricted classes of fractions and produced reliable solutions with a minimum of computation effort. Results suggest that competent reasoning depends on a knowledge base that includes numerically specific and invented strategies,…

  19. Rational Design of High-Number dsDNA Fragments Based on Thermodynamics for the Construction of Full-Length Genes in a Single Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birla, Bhagyashree S; Chou, Hui-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Gene synthesis is frequently used in modern molecular biology research either to create novel genes or to obtain natural genes when the synthesis approach is more flexible and reliable than cloning. DNA chemical synthesis has limits on both its length and yield, thus full-length genes have to be hierarchically constructed from synthesized DNA fragments. Gibson Assembly and its derivatives are the simplest methods to assemble multiple double-stranded DNA fragments. Currently, up to 12 dsDNA fragments can be assembled at once with Gibson Assembly according to its vendor. In practice, the number of dsDNA fragments that can be assembled in a single reaction are much lower. We have developed a rational design method for gene construction that allows high-number dsDNA fragments to be assembled into full-length genes in a single reaction. Using this new design method and a modified version of the Gibson Assembly protocol, we have assembled 3 different genes from up to 45 dsDNA fragments at once. Our design method uses the thermodynamic analysis software Picky that identifies all unique junctions in a gene where consecutive DNA fragments are specifically made to connect to each other. Our novel method is generally applicable to most gene sequences, and can improve both the efficiency and cost of gene assembly.

  20. Rational Design of High-Number dsDNA Fragments Based on Thermodynamics for the Construction of Full-Length Genes in a Single Reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyashree S Birla

    Full Text Available Gene synthesis is frequently used in modern molecular biology research either to create novel genes or to obtain natural genes when the synthesis approach is more flexible and reliable than cloning. DNA chemical synthesis has limits on both its length and yield, thus full-length genes have to be hierarchically constructed from synthesized DNA fragments. Gibson Assembly and its derivatives are the simplest methods to assemble multiple double-stranded DNA fragments. Currently, up to 12 dsDNA fragments can be assembled at once with Gibson Assembly according to its vendor. In practice, the number of dsDNA fragments that can be assembled in a single reaction are much lower. We have developed a rational design method for gene construction that allows high-number dsDNA fragments to be assembled into full-length genes in a single reaction. Using this new design method and a modified version of the Gibson Assembly protocol, we have assembled 3 different genes from up to 45 dsDNA fragments at once. Our design method uses the thermodynamic analysis software Picky that identifies all unique junctions in a gene where consecutive DNA fragments are specifically made to connect to each other. Our novel method is generally applicable to most gene sequences, and can improve both the efficiency and cost of gene assembly.

  1. Pragmatics & rationality.

    OpenAIRE

    Allott, N. E.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is about the reconciliation of realistic views of rationality with inferential-intentional theories of communication. Grice (1957 1975) argued that working out what a speaker meant by an utterance is a matter of inferring the speaker's intentions on the presumption that she is acting rationally. This is abductive inference: inference to the best explanation for the utterance. Thus an utterance both rationalises and causes the interpretation the hearer constructs. Human rationality...

  2. When increasing distraction helps learning: Distractor number and content interact in their effects on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussenbaum, Kate; Amso, Dima; Markant, Julie

    2017-11-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that increasing the number of distractors in a search array can reduce interference from distractor content during target processing. However, it is unclear how this reduced interference influences learning of target information. Here, we investigated how varying the amount and content of distraction present in a learning environment affects visual search and subsequent memory for target items. In two experiments, we demonstrate that the number and content of competing distractors interact in their influence on target selection and memory. Specifically, while increasing the number of distractors present in a search array made target detection more effortful, it did not impair learning and memory for target content. Instead, when the distractors contained category information that conflicted with the target, increasing the number of distractors from one to three actually benefitted learning and memory. These data suggest that increasing numbers of distractors may reduce interference from conflicting conceptual information during encoding.

  3. Capital Requirements and Credit Rationing

    OpenAIRE

    Itai Agur

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trade-off between financial stability and credit rationing that arises when increasing capital requirements. It extends the Stiglitz-Weiss model of credit rationing to allow for bank default. Bank capital structure then matters for lending incentives. With default and rationing endogenous, optimal capital requirements can be analyzed. Introducing bank financiers, the paper also shows that uninsured funding raises the sensitivity of rationing to capital requirements. In...

  4. Effects of increased vertebral number on carcass weight in PIC pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jieping; Zhang, Mingming; Ye, Runqing; Ma, Yun; Lei, Chuzhao

    2017-12-01

    Variation of the vertebral number is associated with carcass traits in pigs. However, results from different populations do not match well with others, especially for carcass weight. Therefore, effects of increased vertebral number on carcass weight were investigated by analyzing the relationship between two loci multi-vertebra causal loci (NR6A1 g.748 C > T and VRTN g.20311_20312ins291) and carcass weight in PIC pigs. Results from the association study between vertebral number and carcass weight showed that increased thoracic number had negative effects on carcass weight, but the results were not statistically significant. Further, VRTN Ins/Ins genotype increased more than one thoracic than that of Wt/Wt genotype on average in this PIC population. Meanwhile, there was a significant negative effect of VRTN Ins on carcass weight (P carcass weight in PIC pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Baseline rationing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...... the family is associated with a standard rule and we show that if the latter obeys some properties reflecting principles of impartiality, priority and solidarity, the former obeys them too....

  6. Adolescent rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshman, David

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are commonly seen as irrational, a position supported to varying degrees by many developmentalists, who often appeal to recent research on adolescent brains. Careful review of relevant evidence, however, shows that (1) adults are less rational than is generally assumed, (2) adolescents (and adults) are categorically different from children with respect to the attainment of advanced levels of rationality and psychological functioning, and (3) adolescents and adults do not differ categorically from each other with respect to any rational competencies, irrational tendencies, brain structures, or neurological functioning. Development often continues in adolescence and beyond but categorical claims about adolescents as distinct from adults cannot be justified. A review of U.S. Supreme Court decisions concerning intellectual freedom, reproductive freedom, and criminal responsibility shows ongoing ambivalence and confusion about the rationality of adolescents. Developmental theory and research suggest that adolescents should be conceptualized as young adults, not immature brains, with important implications for their roles, rights, and responsibilities.

  7. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble) and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices) within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valuation of gambles. We explored age-related preferences for two types of uncertainty, risk, and ambiguity. Additionally, we explored how aging may alter what information participants utilize to make their choices by comparing the relative utilization of maximizing and satisficing information types through a choice strategy metric. Maximizing information was the ratio of the expected value of the two options, while satisficing information was the probability of winning. We found age-related alterations of economic preferences within the losses domain, but no alterations within the gains domain. Older adults (OA; 61-80 years old) were significantly more uncertainty averse for both risky and ambiguous choices. OA also exhibited choice strategies with decreased use of maximizing information. Within OA, we found a significant correlation between risk preferences and choice strategy. This linkage between preferences and strategy appears to derive from a convergence to risk neutrality driven by greater use of the effortful maximizing strategy. As utility maximization and value maximization intersect at risk neutrality, this result suggests that OA are exhibiting a relationship between enhanced rationality and enhanced value maximization. While there was variability in economic decision-making measures within OA, these individual differences were unrelated to variability within examined measures of cognitive ability. Our results demonstrate that aging alters economic decision-making for

  8. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoanna Arlina Kurnianingsih

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valuation of gambles. We explored age-related preferences for two types of uncertainty, risk and ambiguity. Additionally, we explored how aging may alter what information participants utilize to make their choices by comparing the relative utilization of maximizing and satisficing information types through a choice strategy metric. Maximizing information was the ratio of the expected value of the two options, while satisficing information was the probability of winning.We found age-related alterations of economic preferences within the losses domain, but no alterations within the gains domain. Older adults (OA; 61 to 80 years old were significantly more uncertainty averse for both risky and ambiguous choices. OA also exhibited choice strategies with decreased use of maximizing information. Within OA, we found a significant correlation between risk preferences and choice strategy. This linkage between preferences and strategy appears to derive from a convergence to risk neutrality driven by greater use of the effortful maximizing strategy. As utility maximization and value maximization intersect at risk neutrality, this result suggests that OA are exhibiting a relationship between enhanced rationality and enhanced value maximization. While there was variability in economic decision-making measures within OA, these individual differences were unrelated to variability within examined measures of cognitive ability. Our results demonstrate that aging alters economic

  9. Supplementation of increasing amounts of linseed oil to dairy cows fed total mixed rations: effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Romero-Pérez, G A; Chouinard, P Y; Hassanat, F; Eugene, M; Petit, H V; Côrtes, C

    2012-08-01

    The effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, forage (i.e., timothy hay) in sacco ruminal degradation, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, milk production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows was investigated. Four ruminally cannulated, primiparous lactating cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (28-d periods). They were fed a total mixed ration (50:50 forage:concentrate (F:C) ratio [dry matter (DM) basis] without supplementation (control, CTL), or supplemented (wt/wt; DM basis) with LO at 2, 3, or 4%. Supplementation with LO had no effect on DM intake (19 kg/d) and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, starch, and gross energy). Ruminal pH, ammonia, and total volatile FA concentrations were not changed by LO supplementation to diets. Extent of changes in volatile FA pattern and effective ruminal degradability of DM of timothy hay were minor. Neither the total numbers nor the genera distribution of protozoa was changed by the addition of increasing amounts of LO to the diet. Milk yield increased linearly (26.1, 27.3, 27.4, and 28.4 kg/d for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO added to the diet increased. Milk fat content was not affected by LO supplementation, whereas milk protein content decreased linearly with increasing amounts of LO in the diet. Milk fat proportions of several intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated FA (i.e., trans-10 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11,cis-15 18:2, and cis-9,trans-11,cis-15 18:3) increased linearly with LO addition to the diet. The proportion of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 decreased linearly (2.06, 1.99, 1.91, and 1.83% for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO in the diet increased. Milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased as the level of LO in the diet increased up to 3% but no further increase was observed when 4% of LO

  10. Increased Flap Weight and Decreased Perforator Number Predict Fat Necrosis in DIEP Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn L. Mulvey, BS

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: Flaps with increasing weight have increased risk of fat necrosis. These data suggest that inclusion of more than 1 perforator may decrease odds of fat necrosis in large flaps. Perforator flap breast reconstruction can be performed safely; however, considerations concerning race, body mass index, staging with tissue expanders, perforator number, and flap weight may optimize outcomes.

  11. Embodying rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Mastrogiorgio, Antonio; Petracca, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The current notions of bounded rationality in economics share distinctive features with Simon’s original notion, which still influences the theoretical and experimental research in the fields of choice, judgment, decision making, problem solving, and social cognition. All these notions of bounded rationality are in fact equally rooted in the information-processing approach to human cognition, expressing the view that reasoning is disembodied and that it can be reduced to the processing of abs...

  12. Lamotrigine increases the number of BrdU-labeled cellsinthe rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Strandberg, Joakim; Lindquist, Catarina

    2010-01-01

    Antidepressant medication and electroconvulsive therapy stabilize mood symptoms and increase hippocampal neurogenesis. We examined whether lamotrigine, suggested to give rise to mood-stabilizing and antidepressant effects in addition to its antiepileptic properties, also increases the number of n...... in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus showed an increased number of newborn cells in rats receiving lamotrigine (42.6±3.5 cells/slice) compared with valproate (31.6±2.8) and controls (32.2±3.1; P...

  13. Lamotrigine increases the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Strandberg, Joakim; Lindquist, Catarina

    2011-01-01

    Antidepressant medication and electroconvulsive therapy stabilize mood symptoms and increase hippocampal neurogenesis. We examined whether lamotrigine, suggested to give rise to mood-stabilizing and antidepressant effects in addition to its antiepileptic properties, also increases the number of n...... in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus showed an increased number of newborn cells in rats receiving lamotrigine (42.6 ± 3.5 cells/slice) compared with valproate (31.6 ± 2.8) and controls (32.2 ± 3.1; P...

  14. Increase of the blocking temperature of Fe–Ag granular multilayers with increasing number of the layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balogh, Judit [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Kaptás, Dénes, E-mail: kaptas.denes@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Kiss, László F. [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Dézsi, István [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Nakanishi, Akio [Department of Physics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Devlin, Eamonn; Vasilakaki, Marianna; Margaris, George; Trohidou, Kalliopi N. [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR “Demokritos”, Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece)

    2016-03-01

    Multilayers of 0.4 nm Fe and 5 nm Ag with repetition number, n=1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 were prepared by vacuum evaporation onto Si wafer. The blocking temperature was determined by measuring the field cooled and zero field cooled magnetization curves with a SQUID magnetometer and it was found to increase by almost an order of magnitude from around 20 K for the single Fe layer sample up to around 160 K for n=20. Significant increase of the average size of the superparamagnetic Fe grains by increasing the number of the Fe layers was excluded by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements of the paramagnetic state. The role of the dipole–dipole interactions and their interplay with the out-of-plain magnetic anisotropy in the variation of the blocking temperature has been investigated by Monte-Carlo simulations. - Highlights: • Multilayers of [0.4 nm Fe/5 nm Ag]{sub n} (n=1,2,5,10, and 20) were grown over Si. • Large increase of the superparamagnetic blocking temperature up to n=10 is observed. • The average Fe grain size does not change in the subsequent layers. • Perpendicular anisotropy enhances the dipolar coupling and the blocking temperature.

  15. Rational use of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racoveanu, N.T.; Volodin, V.

    1992-01-01

    The escalating number of radiodiagnostic investigations has, as a consequence, an increase in medical irradiation of patients and of cost of radiological services. Radiologists in USA and UK have since early 1970 questioned the efficacy of various radiological investigations and produced substantial evidence that more rational approaches are necessary. WHO initiated, in 1977, a programme in this direction which has issued four technical reports which give practical recommendations on how to rationalize the use of radiological examinations. Three main directions are considered: (1) Abandonment of routine radiological examinations, as procedures with no clinical or epidemiologic significance and which represent a waste of resources and patient dose. (2) Patient selection for various radiological investigations based on clinical criteria (high, intermediate, low yield). Selected patients have an increased prevalence of the given disease and the predictive value of radiological investigation is much higher. (3) Use of diagnostic algorithms with higher cost/efficiency and risk/benefit ratios, improving the outcome of radiological examinations

  16. [Increasing number of child abuse cases in Sweden--in accordance with reality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, C; Horgby, K; Borres, M P

    2001-05-09

    The number of police reports on child assault shows an increasing trend during the last two decades in Sweden. The purpose of this article is to present possible explanations. Increased awareness of child abuse, legislative reforms, changes in attitudes toward corporal punishment and violence in general, and changed routines within schools can explain the increasing trend in police reporting. An actual increase in the rate of child abuse is possible but less likely. Reports of increasingly violent behavior among young people must be taken seriously.

  17. The abnormal increase of the leukocyte number observed in the inhabitants of Nishiyama area, Nagasaki Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Koya

    2013-01-01

    The Nishiyama area, Nagasaki Prefecture has been known by that the black rain fell after dropping atomic bomb. The abnormal increase of the leukocyte number was measured in the inhabitants of Nishiyama area, Nagasaki Prefecture after dropping atomic bomb. This phenomenon differs from the general knowledge that the leukocyte number decreases by the radiation exposure. This has been noticed as a rare record confirmed by the residual radiation effect to the human body using the group data. (M.H.)

  18. Rational selection and engineering of exogenous principal sigma factor (σ(HrdB)) to increase teicoplanin production in an industrial strain of Actinoplanes teichomyceticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyong; Yang, Liu; Wu, Kuo; Li, Guanghui

    2014-01-16

    Transcriptional engineering has presented a strong ability of phenotypic improvement in microorganisms. However, it could not be directly applied to Actinoplanes teichomyceticus L-27 because of the paucity of endogenous transcription factors in the strain. In this study, exogenous transcription factors were rationally selected and transcriptional engineering was carried out to increase the productivity of teicoplanin in L-27. It was illuminated that the σ(HrdB) molecules shared strong similarity of amino acid sequences among some genera of actinomycetes. Combining this advantage with the ability of transcriptional engineering, exogenous sigma factor σ(HrdB) molecules were rationally selected and engineered to improve L-27. hrdB genes from Actinoplanes missouriensis 431, Micromonospora aurantiaca ATCC 27029 and Salinispora arenicola CNS-205 were selected based on molecular evolutionary analysis. Random mutagenesis, DNA shuffling and point mutation were subsequently performed to generate diversified mutants. A recombinant was identified through screening program, yielding 5.3 mg/ml of teicoplanin, over 2-fold compared to that of L-27. More significantly, the engineered strain presented a good performance in 500-l pilot scale fermentation, which meant its valuable potential application in industry. Through rational selection and engineering of exogenous transcriptional factor, we have extended the application of transcriptional engineering. To our knowledge, it is the first time to focus on the related issue. In addition, possessing the advantage of efficient metabolic perturbation in transcription level, this strategy could be useful in analyzing metabolic and physiological mechanisms of strains, especially those with the only information on taxonomy.

  19. The number of Japanese radiologic technologists will be increased in 40 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araseki, Miwa; Yokooka, Yuki; Ishikawa, Tomoki; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2013-07-01

    It is essential to predict the long-term supply and demand for the number of radiologic technologists as medical resources. However, it is difficult to predict the number of Japanese radiologic technologists due to complex and intertwining factors. Our purpose in this study was to predict the future number of radiologic technologists using the concept of system dynamics (SD), and to clarify the effects of relevant factors. In order to estimate the number of Japanese radiologic technologists, we constructed a flow diagram using the concept of SD. We simulated the number of radiologic technologists for the following 4 cases: maintaining the status quo, a change in the pass rate for the national examination, a change in the post-graduate employment rate, and a change in the rate of continuing education. The result for the predicted number of radiologic technologists was 50,509 in 20 years, which is 4,394 (9.5%) more than the present number, and 50,166 in 40 years, which is 4,051 (8.8%) more than the present number. For the factors influencing the number of technologists, the influence of the pass rate on the national examination and that of the rate for post-graduate employment was larger than that of the rate of continuing education in graduate school. The number of Japanese radiologic technologists will increase until 2033 and decrease until 2042, and it does not change after 2042 in case of maintaining the status quo. Implementing the concept of SD allowed us easily to clarify the factors influencing the predicted number of radiologic technologists.

  20. Increasing The Number of Embryos Transferred from Two to Three, Does not Increase Pregnancy Rates in Good Prognosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ashrafi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare the pregnancy outcomes after two embryos versus three embryos transfers (ETs in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed on three hundred eighty seven women with primary infertility and with at least one fresh embryo in good quality in order to transfer at each IVF/ICSI cycle, from September 2006 to June 2010. Patients were categorized into two groups according to the number of ET as follows: ET2 and ET3 groups, indicating two and three embryos were respectively transferred. Pregnancy outcomes were compared between ET2 and ET3 groups. Chi square and student t tests were used for data analysis. Results: Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were similar between two groups. The rates of multiple pregnancies were 27 and 45.2% in ET2 and ET3 groups, respectively. The rate of multiple pregnancies in young women was significantly increased when triple instead of double embryos were transferred. Logistic regression analysis indicated two significant prognostic variables for live birth that included number and quality of transferred embryos; it means that the chance of live birth following ICSI treatment increased 3.2-fold when the embryo with top quality (grade A was transferred, but the number of ET had an inverse relationship with live birth rate; it means that probability of live birth in women with transfer of two embryos was three times greater than those who had three ET. Conclusion: Due to the difficulty of implementation of the elective single-ET technique in some infertility centers in the world, we suggest transfer of double instead of triple embryos when at least one good quality embryo is available for transfer in women aged 39 years or younger. However, to reduce the rate of multiple pregnancies, it is recommended to consider the elective single ET strategy.

  1. Rational BRDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacanowski, Romain; Salazar Celis, Oliver; Schlick, Christophe; Granier, Xavier; Poulin, Pierre; Cuyt, Annie

    2012-11-01

    Over the last two decades, much effort has been devoted to accurately measuring Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) of real-world materials and to use efficiently the resulting data for rendering. Because of their large size, it is difficult to use directly measured BRDFs for real-time applications, and fitting the most sophisticated analytical BRDF models is still a complex task. In this paper, we introduce Rational BRDF, a general-purpose and efficient representation for arbitrary BRDFs, based on Rational Functions (RFs). Using an adapted parametrization, we demonstrate how Rational BRDFs offer 1) a more compact and efficient representation using low-degree RFs, 2) an accurate fitting of measured materials with guaranteed control of the residual error, and 3) efficient importance sampling by applying the same fitting process to determine the inverse of the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) generated from the BRDF for use in Monte-Carlo rendering.

  2. Low AMY1 Gene Copy Number Is Associated with Increased Body Mass Index in Prepubertal Boys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Loredana Marcovecchio

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 60 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with Body Mass Index (BMI. Additional genetic variants, such as copy number variations (CNV, have also been investigated in relation to BMI. Recently, the highly polymorphic CNV in the salivary amylase (AMY1 gene, encoding an enzyme implicated in the first step of starch digestion, has been associated with obesity in adults and children. We assessed the potential association between AMY1 copy number and a wide range of BMI in a population of Italian school-children.744 children (354 boys, 390 girls, mean age (±SD: 8.4±1.4years underwent anthropometric assessments (height, weight and collection of saliva samples for DNA extraction. AMY1 copies were evaluated by quantitative PCR.A significant increase of BMI z-score by decreasing AMY1 copy number was observed in boys (β: -0.117, p = 0.033, but not in girls. Similarly, waist circumference (β: -0.155, p = 0.003, adjusted for age was negatively influenced by AMY1 copy number in boys. Boys with 8 or more AMY1 copy numbers presented a significant lower BMI z-score (p = 0.04 and waist circumference (p = 0.01 when compared to boys with less than 8 copy numbers.In this pediatric-only, population-based study, a lower AMY1 copy number emerged to be associated with increased BMI in boys. These data confirm previous findings from adult studies and support a potential role of a higher copy number of the salivary AMY1 gene in protecting from excess weight gain.

  3. Are economic evaluations and health technology assessments increasingly demanded in times of rationing health services? The case of the Argentine financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Adolfo; Belizán, María; Discacciati, Vilda

    2007-01-01

    After 4 years of deepening recession, Argentina's economy plummeted after default in 2002. This crisis critically affected health expenditures and triggered acute rationing. Our objective was to explore health decision-makers' knowledge and attitudes about economic evaluations (EE) and whether health technology assessment (HTA) were increasingly used for decision making. A qualitative design based on semistructured interviews and focus groups was used to explore how decision makers belonging to different health sectors implement resource allocation decisions. Informants were mostly unaware of EE. The most important criteria mentioned to adopt a treatment were evidence of effectiveness, social/stakeholder demand, or resource availability. Despite general positive attitudes about EE, knowledge was rather limited. Although cost considerations were widely accepted by purchasers and managers, clinicians argued about these issues as interfering with the doctor-patient relationship. Other important perceived barriers to HTA use were lack of confidence in the transferability of studies conducted in developed countries and institutional fragmentation of the Argentine healthcare system. The new macroeconomic context was cited as a justification of implicit rationing measures. Although explicit priority setting was implemented by many purchasers and managers, HTA was not used to improve technical and/or allocative efficiency. The crisis seems to be a strong incentive to extend the use of HTA in Argentina, provided decision makers are aware as well as involved in the generation of local studies.

  4. Confucian Rationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, there is still a widely held view that the Chinese and Western modes of thought are quite distinct from each other. In particular, the Chinese mode of thought derived from Confucianism is considered as comparatively less rational than the Western one. In this article, I first argue that although the analogical mode of argumentation,…

  5. A METHOD OF INCREASING THE NUMBER OF TOURISTS IN ROMANIA: SIBIU – EUROPEAN CAPITAL OF CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cecilia STĂNCIULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The title of European Capital of Culture could help immensely a city and its surrounding region from cultural, social and economic pointd of view. Cultural activity in the city is gaining momentum and new categories of tourists are attracted here. To determine if being a cultural capital influenced or not the growth and/or decrease trend as regards the number of tourists that came to Sibiu in a consecutive period of 23 years, the starting point was that this event had a major impact on tourists. The present paper is a quantitative research based on the number of Romanian and foreign tourists accommodated in structures of tourist receptions with functions of tourist accommodation. The conclusions of this article respond to these questions: Being a European Capital of Culture attracts or not more tourists than usual? The increase in the number of tourists was proportional with the effort of the authorities involved in the project?

  6. Periodontal Dressing-containing Green Tea Epigallocathechin gallate Increases Fibroblasts Number in Gingival Artifical Wound Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardisa U. Pradita

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Green tea leaf (Camellia sinensis is one of herbal plants that is used for traditional medicine. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG in green tea is the most potential polyphenol component and has the strongest biological activity. It is known that EGCG has potential effect on wound healing. Objective: This study aimed to determine the effect of adding green tea EGCG into periodontal dressing on the number of fibroblasts after gingival artificial wound in animal model. Methods: Gingival artifical wound model was performed using 2mm punch biopsy on 24 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The animals were divided into two groups. Periodontal dressing with EGCG and without EGCG was applied to the experimental and control group, respectively. Decapitation period was scheduled at day 3, 5, and 7 after treatment. Histological analysis to count the number of fibroblasts was performed. Results: Number of fibroblasts was significantly increased in time over the experimental group treated with EGCG periodontal dressing compared to control (p<0.05. Conclusion: EGCG periodontal dressing could increase the number of fibroblast, therefore having role in wound healing after periodontal surgery in animal model.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i3.197

  7. Mefloquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum and increased pfmdr1 gene copy number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Ric N; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Brockman, Alan; McGready, Rose; Ashley, Elizabeth; Phaipun, Lucy; Patel, Rina; Laing, Kenneth; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; White, Nicholas J; Nosten, François; Krishna, Sanjeev

    The borders of Thailand harbour the world's most multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites. In 1984 mefloquine was introduced as treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria, but substantial resistance developed within 6 years. A combination of artesunate with mefloquine now cures more than 95% of acute infections. For both treatment regimens, the underlying mechanisms of resistance are not known. The relation between polymorphisms in the P falciparum multidrug resistant gene 1 (pfmdr1) and the in-vitro and in-vivo responses to mefloquine were assessed in 618 samples from patients with falciparum malaria studied prospectively over 12 years. pfmdr1 copy number was assessed by a robust real-time PCR assay. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of pfmdr1, P falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt) and P falciparum Ca2+ ATPase gene (pfATP6) were assessed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Increased copy number of pfmdr1 was the most important determinant of in-vitro and in-vivo resistance to mefloquine, and also to reduced artesunate sensitivity in vitro. In a Cox regression model with control for known confounders, increased pfmdr1 copy number was associated with an attributable hazard ratio (AHR) for treatment failure of 6.3 (95% CI 2.9-13.8, p<0.001) after mefloquine monotherapy and 5.4 (2.0-14.6, p=0.001) after artesunate-mefloquine therapy. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in pfmdr1 were associated with increased mefloquine susceptibility in vitro, but not in vivo. Amplification in pfmdr1 is the main cause of resistance to mefloquine in falciparum malaria. Multidrug resistant P falciparum malaria is common in southeast Asia, but difficult to identify and treat. Genes that encode parasite transport proteins maybe involved in export of drugs and so cause resistance. In this study we show that increase in copy number of pfmdr1, a gene encoding a parasite transport protein, is the best overall predictor of treatment failure with

  8. Increased numbers of spleen colony forming units in B cell deficient CBA/N mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Krupienicz, A.; Scher, I.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of exogenous and endogenous spleen colonies was studied in immune-defective mice expressing the CBA/N X-linked xid gene. Bone marrow and spleen cells of immune deficient mice formed increased numbers of eight-day exogenous spleen colonies when transferred to either normal or B cell deficient lethally irradiated recipients. Moreover, defective mice showed increased formation of five-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from transient endogenous colony forming units; T-CFU) and of ten-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from CFU-S). Among the possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects, the most probable appears the one in which decreased numbers of B cell precursors stimulate stem cell pools through a feedback mechanism. (orig.) [de

  9. Understanding the increase in the number of childbirth-related leave beneficiaries in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanić Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past number of years, the public expenditures for childbirth-related leave benefits have more than doubled – in 2015 amounted to 0.7% GDP in relation to 0.3% GDP in 2002. This increase can mainly be attributed to the increased number of beneficiaries that grew consistently from 24 thousand in 2002 up to 40 thousand in 2015, despite the fact that the annual number of live births has been almost continually decreasing and the registered employment has dropped by almost 20 per cent in the observed period. One of the clear reasons explaining part of this increase is the extension of 3+ order of birth leaves in 2006, from one to two years, which can explain the increase of around 3.5 thousand of beneficiaries. Another reason is high number of beneficiaries using special child-care leave meant for parents with children with disabilities, but which, in reality, is very often used simply as the extension of parental leave. The average number of special child-care leave beneficiaries in the second half of 2015 amounted to 2.8 thousand. When these two effects are taken into account, we still notice significant increase of beneficiaries of around 10 thousand in the observed period. Fictitious employment during the pregnancy can explain this increase to some extent. Available data unambiguously show that a number of women formally employing during the second and third trimester of pregnancy has increased from 800 in 2002 to almost 3.5 thousand monthly average in the second half of 2015. There are two flaws of the childbirth-related leave programme in Serbia, which together lead to the constant increase of the number of beneficiaries. First is the lack of flexibility of the programme, both in terms of eligibility for acquiring the right as well as in terms of flexibility in use. Maternity/parental leave benefit may acquire only those in „standard employment” i.e. employed under employment contract (and entrepreneurs while other type of

  10. Rational Design of Disulfide Bonds Increases Thermostability of a Mesophilic 1,3-1,4-β-Glucanase from Bacillus terquilensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengtuo Niu

    Full Text Available 1,3-1,4-β-glucanase is an important biocatalyst in brewing industry and animal feed industry, while its low thermostability often reduces its application performance. In this study, the thermostability of a mesophilic β-glucanase from Bacillus terquilensis was enhanced by rational design and engineering of disulfide bonds in the protein structure. Protein spatial configuration was analyzed to pre-exclude the residues pairs which negatively conflicted with the protein structure and ensure the contact of catalytic center. The changes in protein overall and local flexibility among the wild-type enzyme and the designated mutants were predicted to select the potential disulfide bonds for enhancement of thermostability. Two residue pairs (N31C-T187C and P102C-N125C were chosen as engineering targets and both of them were proved to significantly enhance the protein thermostability. After combinational mutagenesis, the double mutant N31C-T187C/P102C-N125C showed a 48.3% increase in half-life value at 60°C and a 4.1°C rise in melting temperature (Tm compared to wild-type enzyme. The catalytic property of N31C-T187C/P102C-N125C mutant was similar to that of wild-type enzyme. Interestingly, the optimal pH of double mutant was shifted from pH6.5 to pH6.0, which could also increase its industrial application. By comparison with mutants with single-Cys substitutions, the introduction of disulfide bonds and the induced new hydrogen bonds were proved to result in both local and overall rigidification and should be responsible for the improved thermostability. Therefore, the introduction of disulfide bonds for thermostability improvement could be rationally and highly-effectively designed by combination with spatial configuration analysis and molecular dynamics simulation.

  11. Bounded rationality and voting decisions over 160 years: voter behavior and increasing complexity in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, David; Torgler, Benno

    2013-01-01

    Using a quasi-natural voting experiment encompassing a 160-year period (1848-2009) in Switzerland, we investigate whether a higher level of complexity leads to increased reliance on trusted parliamentary representatives. We find that when more referenda are held on the same day, constituents are more likely to refer to parliamentary recommendations when making their decisions. This finding holds true even when we narrow our focus to referenda with a relatively lower voter turnout on days on which more than one referendum is held. We also demonstrate that when constituents face a higher level of complexity, they follow the parliamentary recommendations rather than those of interest groups. "Viewed as a geometric figure, the ant's path is irregular, complex, hard to describe. But its complexity is really a complexity in the surface of the beach, not a complexity in the ant." ( [1] p. 51).

  12. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy ePortillo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB and main (MOB olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 days after females control (paced the sexual interaction an increase in the number of cells is observed in the AOB. No changes are observed in the number of cells when females are not allowed to control the sexual interaction. In the present study we investigated if in male rats sexual behavior increases the number of new cells in the OB. Male rats were divided in five groups: 1 males that did not receive any sexual stimulation, 2 males that were exposed to female odors, 3 males that mated for 1 h and could not pace their sexual interaction, 4 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 1 time and 5 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 3 times. All males received three injections of the DNA synthesis marker bromodeoxyuridine at 1h intervals, starting 1h before the beginning of the behavioral test. Fifteen days later, males were sacrificed and the brains were processed to identify new cells and to evaluate if they differentiated into neurons. The number of newborn cells increased in the granular cell layer (also known as the internal cell layer of the AOB in males that ejaculated one or three times controlling (paced the rate of the sexual interaction. Some of these new cells were identified as neurons. In contrast, no significant differences were found in the mitral cell layer (also known as the external cell layer and glomerular cell layer of the AOB. In addition, no significant differences were found between groups in the MOB in

  13. Copy number increase of ACTN4 is a prognostic indicator in salivary gland carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Yukio; Mori, Taisuke; Yoshimoto, Seiichi; Nomura, Takeshi; Shibahara, Takahiko; Yamada, Tesshi; Honda, Kazufumi

    2014-01-01

    Copy number increase (CNI) of ACTN4 has been associated with poor prognosis and metastatic phenotypes in various human carcinomas. To identify a novel prognostic factor for salivary gland carcinoma, we investigated the copy number of ACTN4. We evaluated DNA copy number of ACTN4 in 58 patients with salivary gland carcinoma by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). CNI of ACTN4 was recognized in 14 of 58 patients (24.1%) with salivary gland carcinoma. The cases with CNI of ACTN4 were closely associated with histological grade (P = 0.047) and vascular invasion (P = 0.033). The patients with CNI of ACTN4 had a significantly worse prognosis than the patients with normal copy number of ACTN4 (P = 0.0005 log-rank test). Univariate analysis by the Cox proportional hazards model showed that histological grade, vascular invasion, and CNI of ACTN4 were independent risk factors for cancer death. Vascular invasion (hazard ratio [HR]: 7.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.98–28.06) and CNI of ACTN4 (HR: 3.23; 95% CI: 1.08–9.68) remained as risk factors for cancer death in multivariate analysis. Thus, CNI of ACTN4 is a novel indicator for an unfavorable outcome in patients with salivary gland carcinoma

  14. Cases requiring increased number of repositioning maneuvers in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadder Korkmaz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is a clinical syndrome that is proposed to be caused by dislocated utricular debris into semicircular canals. Although the majority of patients are treated by one or two repositioning maneuvers, some of the patients need repeated maneuvers for relief. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the factors associated with patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo who required multiple repositioning procedures for treatment. METHODS: Data were obtained from the clinical records of 153 patients diagnosed with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Patients were treated by repositioning maneuvers. Demographic data and the factors including age, sex, canal type, duration of symptoms, comorbidities and number of repositioning maneuvers for relief were documented for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Age, sex, canal type and the duration of symptoms had no impact on the number of maneuvers. The most common comorbidity was spine problems. Hypertension was the only comorbidity that significantly associated with increased number of maneuvers. CONCLUSION: The presence of hypertension is a risk factor for repeated maneuvers in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo treatment. Physicians should be aware of the increased probability of repeated repositioning maneuvers in these group of patients. The role of comorbidities and vascular factors need to be further clarified in the course of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

  15. Cases requiring increased number of repositioning maneuvers in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Mukadder; Korkmaz, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a clinical syndrome that is proposed to be caused by dislocated utricular debris into semicircular canals. Although the majority of patients are treated by one or two repositioning maneuvers, some of the patients need repeated maneuvers for relief. The goal of this study was to investigate the factors associated with patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo who required multiple repositioning procedures for treatment. Data were obtained from the clinical records of 153 patients diagnosed with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Patients were treated by repositioning maneuvers. Demographic data and the factors including age, sex, canal type, duration of symptoms, comorbidities and number of repositioning maneuvers for relief were documented for statistical analysis. Age, sex, canal type and the duration of symptoms had no impact on the number of maneuvers. The most common comorbidity was spine problems. Hypertension was the only comorbidity that significantly associated with increased number of maneuvers. The presence of hypertension is a risk factor for repeated maneuvers in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo treatment. Physicians should be aware of the increased probability of repeated repositioning maneuvers in these group of patients. The role of comorbidities and vascular factors need to be further clarified in the course of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Extreme Wildlife Declines and Concurrent Increase in Livestock Numbers in Kenya: What Are the Causes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O Ogutu

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence of escalating wildlife losses worldwide. Extreme wildlife losses have recently been documented for large parts of Africa, including western, Central and Eastern Africa. Here, we report extreme declines in wildlife and contemporaneous increase in livestock numbers in Kenya rangelands between 1977 and 2016. Our analysis uses systematic aerial monitoring survey data collected in rangelands that collectively cover 88% of Kenya's land surface. Our results show that wildlife numbers declined on average by 68% between 1977 and 2016. The magnitude of decline varied among species but was most extreme (72-88% and now severely threatens the population viability and persistence of warthog, lesser kudu, Thomson's gazelle, eland, oryx, topi, hartebeest, impala, Grevy's zebra and waterbuck in Kenya's rangelands. The declines were widespread and occurred in most of the 21 rangeland counties. Likewise to wildlife, cattle numbers decreased (25.2% but numbers of sheep and goats (76.3%, camels (13.1% and donkeys (6.7% evidently increased in the same period. As a result, livestock biomass was 8.1 times greater than that of wildlife in 2011-2013 compared to 3.5 times in 1977-1980. Most of Kenya's wildlife (ca. 30% occurred in Narok County alone. The proportion of the total "national" wildlife population found in each county increased between 1977 and 2016 substantially only in Taita Taveta and Laikipia but marginally in Garissa and Wajir counties, largely reflecting greater wildlife losses elsewhere. The declines raise very grave concerns about the future of wildlife, the effectiveness of wildlife conservation policies, strategies and practices in Kenya. Causes of the wildlife declines include exponential human population growth, increasing livestock numbers, declining rainfall and a striking rise in temperatures but the fundamental cause seems to be policy, institutional and market failures. Accordingly, we thoroughly evaluate wildlife

  17. Extreme Wildlife Declines and Concurrent Increase in Livestock Numbers in Kenya: What Are the Causes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Joseph O.; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Said, Mohamed Y.; Ojwang, Gordon O.; Njino, Lucy W.; Kifugo, Shem C.; Wargute, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence of escalating wildlife losses worldwide. Extreme wildlife losses have recently been documented for large parts of Africa, including western, Central and Eastern Africa. Here, we report extreme declines in wildlife and contemporaneous increase in livestock numbers in Kenya rangelands between 1977 and 2016. Our analysis uses systematic aerial monitoring survey data collected in rangelands that collectively cover 88% of Kenya’s land surface. Our results show that wildlife numbers declined on average by 68% between 1977 and 2016. The magnitude of decline varied among species but was most extreme (72–88%) and now severely threatens the population viability and persistence of warthog, lesser kudu, Thomson’s gazelle, eland, oryx, topi, hartebeest, impala, Grevy’s zebra and waterbuck in Kenya’s rangelands. The declines were widespread and occurred in most of the 21 rangeland counties. Likewise to wildlife, cattle numbers decreased (25.2%) but numbers of sheep and goats (76.3%), camels (13.1%) and donkeys (6.7%) evidently increased in the same period. As a result, livestock biomass was 8.1 times greater than that of wildlife in 2011–2013 compared to 3.5 times in 1977–1980. Most of Kenya’s wildlife (ca. 30%) occurred in Narok County alone. The proportion of the total “national” wildlife population found in each county increased between 1977 and 2016 substantially only in Taita Taveta and Laikipia but marginally in Garissa and Wajir counties, largely reflecting greater wildlife losses elsewhere. The declines raise very grave concerns about the future of wildlife, the effectiveness of wildlife conservation policies, strategies and practices in Kenya. Causes of the wildlife declines include exponential human population growth, increasing livestock numbers, declining rainfall and a striking rise in temperatures but the fundamental cause seems to be policy, institutional and market failures. Accordingly, we thoroughly evaluate

  18. Rational valuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Spielthenner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuations are ubiquitous. We may be for or against genetically modified food; we find some politicians irresponsible; we prefer Beethoven to rock ‘n’ roll or vice versa; some enjoy bird-watching while others find it boring; and we may think that we have to tighten up on green-house gas emissions. Valuing is pervasive and often we are not even aware that we are valuing. However, many of ourvaluations are ill grounded and rationally defective. They are frequently based on misinformation, sloppy thinking, prejudice, and are biased in many ways as psychological research shows. For this reason there is widespread agreement among phi-losophers that we need an account of substantive valuational rationality, both for the theory of practical reasoning and for ethics as well. My main objectin this paper is to outline such an account and to present a principle that allows a non-technical rational criticism of valuations

  19. Increased numbers of Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsin-Hung; Tseng, Guan-Ying; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Wang, Hung-Jung; Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Wang, Wen-Ching

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in gastric mucosa of patients with gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of gastric antrum biopsy specimens from healthy controls (n = 22) and patients with gastritis (n = 30), peptic ulcer (n = 83), or gastric cancer (n = 32). Expression of CD4, CD25 and Foxp3 was determined by immunohistochemistry in three consecutive sections per sample. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, there was an increased number of CD25+ and Foxp3+ cells in patients with gastritis (P = 0.004 and P = 0.008), peptic ulcer (P gastritis (P gastritis and peptic ulcer groups. PMID:22228968

  20. Potential host number in cuckoo bees (Psithyrus subgen. increases toward higher elevations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Nicolas Pradervand

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In severe and variable conditions, specialized resource selection strategies should be less frequent because extinction risks increase for species that depend on a single and unstable resource. Psithyrus (Bombus subgenus Psithyrus are bumblebee parasites that usurp Bombus nests and display inter‐specific variation in the number of hosts they parasitize. Using a phylogenetic comparative framework, we show that Psithyrus species at higher elevations display a higher number of hosts species compared with species restricted to lower elevations. Species inhabiting high elevations also cover a larger temperature range, suggesting that species able to occur in colder conditions may benefit from recruitment from populations occurring in warmer conditions. Our results provide evidence for an ‘altitudinal niche breadth hypothesis’ in parasitic species, showing a decrease in the parasites’ specialization along the elevational gradient, and also suggesting that Rapoport’s rule might apply to Psithyrus. 

  1. Human Traumatic Brain Injury Results in Oligodendrocyte Death and Increases the Number of Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flygt, Johanna; Gumucio, Astrid; Ingelsson, Martin; Skoglund, Karin; Holm, Jonatan; Alafuzoff, Irina; Marklund, Niklas

    2016-06-01

    Oligodendrocyte (OL) death may contribute to white matter pathology, a common cause of network dysfunction and persistent cognitive problems in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) persist throughout the adult CNS and may replace dead OLs. OL death and OPCs were analyzed by immunohistochemistry of human brain tissue samples, surgically removed due to life-threatening contusions and/or focal brain swelling at 60.6 ± 75 hours (range 4-192 hours) postinjury in 10 severe TBI patients (age 51.7 ± 18.5 years). Control brain tissue was obtained postmortem from 5 age-matched patients without CNS disorders. TUNEL and CC1 co-labeling was used to analyze apoptotic OLs, which were increased in injured brain tissue (p The OPC markers Olig2, A2B5, NG2, and PDGFR-α were used. In contrast to the number of single-labeled Olig2, A2B5, NG2, and PDGFR-α-positive cells, numbers of Olig2 and A2B5 co-labeled cells were increased in TBI samples (p human TBI results in OL death and increases in OPCs postinjury, which may influence white matter function following TBI. © 2016 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased Mach Number Capability for the NASA Glenn 10x10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, J. W.; Saunders, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations and wind tunnel testing were conducted to explore the operation of the Abe Silverstein Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center at test section Mach numbers above the current limit of Mach 3.5. An increased Mach number would enhance the capability for testing of supersonic and hypersonic propulsion systems. The focus of the explorations was on understanding the flow within the second throat of the tunnel, which is downstream of the test section and is where the supersonic flow decelerates to subsonic flow. Methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were applied to provide details of the shock boundary layer structure and to estimate losses in total pressure. The CFD simulations indicated that the tunnel could be operated up to Mach 4.0 if the minimum width of the second throat was made smaller than that used for previous operation of the tunnel. Wind tunnel testing was able to confirm such operation of the tunnel at Mach 3.6 and 3.7 before a hydraulic failure caused a stop to the testing. CFD simulations performed after the wind tunnel testing showed good agreement with test data consisting of static pressures along the ceiling of the second throat. The CFD analyses showed increased shockwave boundary layer interactions, which was also observed as increased unsteadiness of dynamic pressures collected in the wind tunnel testing.

  3. Wire number doubling in plasma-shell regime increases z-accelerator x-ray power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Spielman, R.B.; Chandler, G.A. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Doubling the number of tungsten wires from 120 to 240, keeping the mass fixed, increased the radiated x-ray power relative to the electrical power at the insulator stack of the z accelerator by (40{+-}20)% for 8.75- and 20-mm-radii z-pinch wire arrays. Radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic calculations suggest that the arrays were operating in the {open_quotes}plasma shell{close_quotes} regime, where the plasmas generated by the individual wires merge prior to the inward implosion of the entire array.

  4. Wire number doubling in plasma-shell regime increases z-accelerator x-ray power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Spielman, R.B.; Chandler, G.A.

    1997-11-01

    Doubling the number of tungsten wires from 120 to 240, keeping the mass fixed, increased the radiated x-ray power relative to the electrical power at the insulator stack of the z accelerator by (40±20)% for 8.75- and 20-mm-radii z-pinch wire arrays. Radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic calculations suggest that the arrays were operating in the 'plasma shell' regime, where the plasmas generated by the individual wires merge prior to the inward implosion of the entire array

  5. Wire number doubling in plasma-shell regime increases Z-accelerator X-ray power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Spielman, R.B.; Chandler, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Doubling the number of tungsten wires from 120 to 240, keeping the mass fixed, increased the radiated x-ray power relative to the electrical power at the insulator stack of the z accelerator by (40 ± 20)% for 8.75- and 20-mm-radii z-pinch wire arrays. Radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic calculations suggest that the arrays were operating in the plasma shell regime, where the plasma generated by the individual wires merge prior to the inward implosion of the entire array

  6. Wire number doubling in plasma-shell regime increases Z-accelerator X-ray power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Spielman, R.B.; Chandler, G.A. [and others

    1997-12-01

    Doubling the number of tungsten wires from 120 to 240, keeping the mass fixed, increased the radiated x-ray power relative to the electrical power at the insulator stack of the z accelerator by (40 {+-} 20)% for 8.75- and 20-mm-radii z-pinch wire arrays. Radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic calculations suggest that the arrays were operating in the plasma shell regime, where the plasma generated by the individual wires merge prior to the inward implosion of the entire array.

  7. Increase in number of helminth species from Dutch red foxes over a 35-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Frits; Nijsse, Rolf; Mulder, Jaap; Cremers, Herman; Dam, Cecile; Takumi, Katsuhisa; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-04-03

    The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is host to a community of zoonotic and other helminth species. Tracking their community structure and dynamics over decades is one way to monitor the long term risk of parasitic infectious diseases relevant to public and veterinary health. We identified 17 helminth species from 136 foxes by mucosal scraping, centrifugal sedimentation/flotation and the washing and sieving technique. We applied rarefaction analysis to our samples and compared the resulting curve to the helminth community reported in literature 35 years ago. Fox helminth species significantly increased in number in the last 35 years (p-value <0.025). Toxascaris leonina, Mesocestoides litteratus, Trichuris vulpis and Angiostrongylus vasorum are four new veterinary-relevant species. The zoonotic fox tapeworm (E. multilocularis) was found outside the previously described endemic regions in the Netherlands. Helminth fauna in Dutch red foxes increased in biodiversity over the last three decades.

  8. Bats Increase the Number of Cultivable Airborne Fungi in the "Nietoperek" Bat Reserve in Western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokurewicz, Tomasz; Ogórek, Rafał; Pusz, Wojciech; Matkowski, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    The "Nietoperek" bat reserve located in Western Poland is one of the largest bat hibernation sites in the European Union with nearly 38,000 bats from 12 species. Nietoperek is part of a built underground fortification system from WWII. The aims of the study were (1) to determine the fungal species composition and changes during hibernation season in relation to bat number and microclimatic conditions and (2) evaluate the potential threat of fungi for bat assemblages and humans visiting the complex. Airborne fungi were collected in the beginning, middle and end of hibernation period (9 November 2013 and 17 January and 15 March 2014) in 12 study sites, one outside and 11 inside the complex. Ambient temperature (T a) and relative humidity (RH) were measured by the use of data loggers, and species composition of bats was recorded from the study sites. The collision method (Air Ideal 3P) sampler was used to detect 34 species of airborne fungi including Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). The density of airborne fungi isolated from the outdoor air samples varied from 102 to 242 CFU/1 m(3) of air and from 12 to 1198 CFU in the underground air samples. There was a positive relationship between number of bats and the concentration of fungi. The concentration of airborne fungi increased with the increase of bats number. Analysis of other possible ways of spore transport to the underground indicated that the number of bats was the primary factor determining the number of fungal spores in that hibernation site. Microclimatic conditions where Pd was found (median 8.7 °C, min-max 6.1-9.9 °C and 100 %, min-max 77.5-100.0 %) were preferred by hibernating Myotis myotis and Myotis daubentonii; therefore, these species are most probably especially prone to infection by this fungi species. The spores of fungi found in the underground can be pathogenic for humans and animals, especially for immunocompromised persons, even though their concentrations did not exceed limits and

  9. Meaningful Share Generation for Increased Number of Secrets in Visual Secret-Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ulutas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new scheme for hiding two halftone secret images into two meaningful shares created from halftone cover images. Meaningful shares are more desirable than noise-like (meaningless shares in Visual Secret Sharing because they look natural and do not attract eavesdroppers' attention. Previous works in the field focus on either increasing number of secrets or creating meaningful shares for one secret image. The method outlined in this paper both increases the number of secrets and creates meaningful shares at the same time. While the contrast ratio of shares is equal to that of Extended Visual Cryptography, two secrets are encoded into two shares as opposed to one secret in the Extended Visual Cryptography. Any two natural-looking images can be used as cover unlike the Halftone Visual Cryptography method where one cover should be the negative of the other cover image and can only encode one secret. Effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by an experiment.

  10. Increased number of mast cells in the dermis in actinic keratosis lesions effectively treated with imiquimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Satomi; Funasaka, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Shin-Ichi; Kawana, Seiji; Saeki, Hidehisa

    2017-08-01

    Actinic keratosis (AK) is a cutaneous cancer in situ which develops as a result of excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV). Toll-like receptor (TLR)7 agonist imiquimod is a topical immune response modifier and is effective for the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancers. Recently, the diagnostic role of the dermatoscope has been reported in the course of treatment of AK. In addition, mast cells are now considered to contribute to both the innate and adaptive immune systems in topical imiquimod therapy. We assessed the effect of imiquimod treatment by dermatoscopic and immunohistochemical findings in 14 patients with a total of 21 AK lesions. With the dermatoscope, though the mean erythema score was not significantly different between the cured lesions and the unresponsive lesions, the erythema/red pseudo-network ("strawberry") pattern was decreased significantly in the cured lesions. By immunohistochemistry, the number of Ki-67-positive proliferative cells in the epidermis was decreased and that of CD117-positive mast cells in the dermis was increased in the responding lesions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that the number of mast cells in the dermis was increased in AK lesions effectively treated with imiquimod. Our present result suggests that mast cells may contribute an antitumor effect in human skin treated with topical imiquimod. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  11. Maternal undernutrition significantly impacts ovarian follicle number and increases ovarian oxidative stress in adult rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica B Bernal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have shown recently that maternal undernutrition (UN advanced female pubertal onset in a manner that is dependent upon the timing of UN. The long-term consequence of this accelerated puberty on ovarian function is unknown. Recent findings suggest that oxidative stress may be one mechanism whereby early life events impact on later physiological functioning. Therefore, using an established rodent model of maternal UN at critical windows of development, we examined maternal UN-induced changes in offspring ovarian function and determined whether these changes were underpinned by ovarian oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our study is the first to show that maternal UN significantly reduced primordial and secondary follicle number in offspring in a manner that was dependent upon the timing of maternal UN. Specifically, a reduction in these early stage follicles was observed in offspring born to mothers undernourished throughout both pregnancy and lactation. Additionally, antral follicle number was reduced in offspring born to all mothers that were UN regardless of whether the period of UN was restricted to pregnancy or lactation or both. These reductions were associated with decreased mRNA levels of genes critical for follicle maturation and ovulation. Increased ovarian protein carbonyls were observed in offspring born to mothers UN during pregnancy and/or lactation and this was associated with peroxiredoxin 3 hyperoxidation and reduced mRNA levels; suggesting compromised antioxidant defence. This was not observed in offspring of mothers UN during lactation alone. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that maternal UN, particularly at a time-point that includes pregnancy, results in reduced offspring ovarian follicle numbers and mRNA levels of regulatory genes and may be mediated by increased ovarian oxidative stress coupled with a decreased ability to repair the resultant oxidative damage. Together these data are suggestive of

  12. The impact of the 2008 economic crisis on the increasing number of young psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medel-Herrero, Alvaro; Gomez-Beneyto, Manuel

    2017-11-21

    Little is published about the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on mental health services in Spain. An interrupted time series analysis was conducted to investigate a potential short-term association between the 2008 economic crisis and the number of psychiatric hospital admissions. The timing of the intervention (April 2008) was based on observed changes in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Data on 1,152,880 psychiatric inpatients from the national Hospital Morbidity Survey, 69 months before and after the onset of the economic crisis (April 2008), were analyzed. Age-adjusted psychiatric (ICD9 290-319) hospital discharge rates significantly increased from April 2008, matching the onset of the crisis, especially for inpatients aged 15-24 years old and to a less extend for inpatients aged 25-34 years old. Other age groups were not affected. There was a significant increase in diagnoses for disturbance of conduct and emotions, depression, neurotic and personality disorders and alcohol and drug disorders; however, diagnoses for mental retardation and organic psychosis for 15-34 years old inpatients were unaffected. Psychiatric hospital admissions abruptly increased in April 2008, coinciding with the onset of the economic crisis. We identified age groups and diagnoses affected. Increased hospitalizations were found only at the age-ranges most affected by the rise in unemployment. The diagnoses affected were those most sensitive to environmental changes. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Rational decisions

    CERN Document Server

    Binmore, Ken

    2008-01-01

    It is widely held that Bayesian decision theory is the final word on how a rational person should make decisions. However, Leonard Savage--the inventor of Bayesian decision theory--argued that it would be ridiculous to use his theory outside the kind of small world in which it is always possible to ""look before you leap."" If taken seriously, this view makes Bayesian decision theory inappropriate for the large worlds of scientific discovery and macroeconomic enterprise. When is it correct to use Bayesian decision theory--and when does it need to be modified? Using a minimum of mathematics,

  14. Rationalization: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Rationalization was studied by Sigmund Freud and was specifically labeled by Ernest Jones. Rationalization ought to be differentiated from rational, rationality, logical analysis, etc. On the one hand, rationalization is considered a defense mechanism, on the other hand, rationality is not. Haan has done much work with self-report inventories and…

  15. Increased Number of Langerhans Cells in the Epidermis of Diabetic Foot Ulcers Correlates with Healing Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojadinovic, Olivera; Yin, Natalie; Lehmann, Janin; Pastar, Irena; Kirsner, Robert S.; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are a specialized subset of epidermal dendritic cells. They represent one of the first cells of immunological barrier and play an important role during the inflammatory phase of acute wound healing. Despite considerable progress in our understanding of the immunopathology of diabetes mellitus and its associated co-morbidities such as diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), considerable gaps in our knowledge exist. In this study, we utilized the human ex vivo wound model and confirmed the increased epidermal LCs at wound edges during early phases of wound healing. Next, we aimed to determine differences in quantity of LCs between normal human and diabetic foot skin and to learn if the presence of LCs correlates with the healing outcome in DFUs. We utilized immunofluorescence to detect CD207+ LCs in specimens from normal and diabetic foot skin and DFU wound edges. Specimens from DFUs were collected at the initial visit and 4 weeks at the time when the healing outcome was determined. DFUs that decreased in size by >50% were considered to be healing, while DFUs with a size reduction of healing. Quantitative assessment of LCs showed a higher number of LCs in healing when compared to non–healing DFU’s. Our findings provide evidence that LCs are present in higher number in diabetic feet than normal foot skin. Healing DFUs show a higher number of LCs compared to non-healing DFUs. These findings indicate that the epidermal immune barrier plays an important role in the DFU healing outcome and may offer new therapeutic avenues targeting LC in non-healing DFUs. PMID:24277309

  16. Medical Student Summer Externship Program: Increasing the Number Matching in Family Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Cronau

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. The number of US allopathic medical school graduates choosing a residency in family medicine has fallen from 13.4% in 1999 to 10.5% in 2002. Concern about declining numbers has led to the development of programs to provide medical students exposure to family medicine outside the clerkship. This paper reports on the development and longitudinal achievements of a clinical summer externship program 1993 to 1999. Methods. The program description, practice settings, students’ experiences, and department commitment are described. The purpose of this prospective study is to determine the percentage of family medicine summer externship participants (n=115 who match into family medicine. Results. During the six years studied, 49 (43.4% of the participants matched into family medicine. Program participants viewed the program favorably, mean = 5.82 out of 6. Conclusions. The Ohio State University Department of Family Medicine Medical Student Summer Externship Program demonstrates an effective educational experience that can increase and/or attain the proportion of students going into family medicine at the time of graduation

  17. Increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Keiko; Kimura, Yurika; Matsuda, Yoko; Takahashi, Masatoki; Honjyou, Motomu; Arai, Tomio; Tsutsumi, Takeshi

    2017-02-01

    High levels of IgG4-positive plasma cells were observed in tissue samples from ∼30% of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis who satisfied the comprehensive diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease. Detection of increased numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses might not be sufficient to make a diagnosis of IgG4-related rhinosinusitis, and a comprehensive evaluation is required. This study aimed to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of IgG4-positive plasma cells in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. This study examined nasal mucosal specimens from 35 patients and assigned them to high-IgG4 and low-IgG4 groups based on infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells. It compared the pathological characteristics of the two groups, including the presence of fibrosis, phlebitis, hyperplasia of the nasal glands and infiltration of inflammatory cells. No cases of chronic rhinosinusitis showed storiform fibrosis or obliterative phlebitis. The mean number of IgG4-positive plasma cells in samples from all patients was 29.8 ± 40.3/high-power field. Eleven of the 35 cases (31.4%) were classified as high-IgG4. Hyperplasia of the nasal glands was observed significantly more frequently in the high-IgG4 group than in the low-IgG4 group (p = .03).

  18. Hybrid PV/wind system with quinary asymmetric inverter without increasing DC-link number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Baghbany Oskouei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests quinary asymmetric inverter with coupled inductors and transformer, and uses it in hybrid system including photovoltaic (PV and wind. This inverter produces twenty-five-level voltage in addition to merits of multilevel inverter, has only one DC source. Then, it is adequate for hybrid systems, which prevents increasing DC-link and makes control of system easy. Proposed structure also provides isolation in the system and the switch numbers are reduced in this topology compared with other multilevel structures. In this system, battery is used as backup, where PV and wind have complementary nature. The performance of proposed inverter and hybrid system is validated with simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK software and experimental results based PCI-1716 data acquisition system.

  19. The increasing number of women with postgraduate qualifications in physics in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitarra, Silvana; Niebeskikwiat, Dario; Paredes, Cecilia; Ayala, Paola

    2013-03-01

    Although the social reality in Ecuador is similar to that in most Latin American countries, support for research in fundamental and applied sciences has gained in importance in the last few years. An Ecuadorian team participated for the first time in the IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics in 2005, when no woman in the country had yet earned a postgraduate degree. By the 2011 ICWIP Conference, the number of women with PhD degrees had increased five times, whereas the trend for men remained the same. This paper gives an overview on how the Ecuadorian research community has started to work together on a national initiative to improve the human and infrastructure capacity to develop science and technology, with support from the government and the science-related ministries.

  20. Increased levels of mitochondrial DNA copy number in patients with vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseghi, H; Houshmand, M; Jadali, Z

    2017-10-01

    Oxidative stress is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as vitiligo. Evidence suggests that the human mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) is vulnerable to damage mediated by oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare peripheral blood mtDNAcn and oxidative DNA damage byproducts (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine; 8-OHdG) in patients with vitiligo and healthy controls (HCs). The relative mtDNAcn and the oxidative damage (formation of 8-OHdG in mtDNA) of each sample were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Blood samples were obtained from 56 patients with vitiligo and 46 HCs. The mean mtDNAcn and the degree of mtDNA damage were higher in patients with vitiligo than in HCs. These data suggest that increase in mtDNAcn and oxidative DNA damage may be involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Shiun Tsai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome. Adiponectin is an important adipokine that regulates energy homeostasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and frailty in elders. METHODS: The demographic data, body weight, metabolic and inflammatory parameters, including plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, c-reactive protein (CRP and adiponectin levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed using the Fried Frailty Index (FFI. RESULTS: The mean (SD age of the 168 participants [83 (49.4% men and 85 (50.6% women] was 76.86 (6.10 years. Judged by the FFI score, 42 (25% elders were robust, 92 (54.7% were pre-frail, and 34 (20.3% were frail. The mean body mass index was 25.19 (3.42 kg/m(2. The log-transformed mean (SD plasma adiponectin (µg/mL level was 1.00 (0.26. The log-transformed mean plasma adiponectin (µg/mL levels were 0.93 (0.23 in the robust elders, 1.00 (0.27 in the pre-frail elders, and 1.10 (0.22 in the frail elders, and the differences between these values were statistically significant (p  = 0.012. Further analysis showed that plasma adiponectin levels rose progressively with an increasing number of components of frailty in all participants as a whole (p for trend  = 0.024 and males (p for trend  = 0.037, but not in females (p for trend  = 0.223. CONCLUSION: Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders. The difference between the sexes suggests that certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between adiponectin levels and frailty.

  2. The Different “Personalities” of the Rational Number Approached through Problem-solving As Diferentes “Personalidades” do Número Racional Trabalhadas através da Resolução de Problemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes de la Rosa Onuchic

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We address the different “personalities” of the rational number and the concept of proportionality, analyzing the possibilities for using the Mathematics Teaching and Learning through Problem-solving Method. This method is based on the principle that knowledge can be constructed through the use of problems that generate new concepts and new contents. The different meanings of rational numberrational point, quotient, fraction, ratio, and operator – are constructs that depend on mathematical theories in which they are imbedded and the situations that evoke them in problem-solving. Some data will be presented from continuing education courses for teachers, aiming to contribute to understanding regarding the different “personalities” of the rational number. In general, these “personalities” are not easily identified by teachers and students, which is the reason for the many difficulties encountered during problem-solving involving rational numbers. One of these “personalities”, the ratio, provides the basis for the concept of proportionality, which is relevant because it is a unifying idea in mathematics. Key-words: Rational Numbers and Proportionality. Problem Solving. Teacher Education.Neste artigo, pretende-se abordar as diferentes “personalidades” do número racional e o conceito de proporcionalidade, analisando as possibilidades de utilizar a Metodologia de Ensino-Aprendizagem de Matemática através da Resolução de Problemas. Essa metodologia parte do princípio de que a construção do conhecimento pode ser realizada a partir de problemas geradores de novos conceitos e novos conteúdos. Os diferentes significados do número racional: ponto racional, quociente, fração, razão e operador são construtos que dependem das teorias matemáticas em que se inserem e das situações a que se referem na resolução de problemas. Serão apresentados alguns dados que foram desenvolvidos em cursos de formação continuada

  3. Rational inattention or rational overreaction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Smed, Sinne

    We investigate differences in how consumers of fish react to health information in the mass media. We specify a dynamic empirical model that allows for heterogeneity in all basic parameters of consumer behavior as well as in how consumers react to information. We estimate the model using a unique...... houshold panel tracking consumption, prices, news stories and media habits over 24 quarters. We fi nd that the consumers most likely to be ’rationally ignorant’ of health effects react more dramatically to health news than the consumers who most likely are well informed....

  4. Rationality of limited rationality : some aggregate implications

    OpenAIRE

    Uri M. Possen; Mikko Puhakka

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we let economic agents choose whether to become fully rational or stay boundedly rational. Boundedly rational agents are less sophisticated in their information processing abilities. It is costly to acquire information needed to become fully rational, and thus not all agents are willing to incur those costs. We then explore the aggregate effects of endogenizing the decision whether the agent should or should not become fully rational in handling information. Since fully and boun...

  5. Maximal exercise increases mucosal associated invariant T cell frequency and number in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Erik D; Danson, Eli; Nguyen-Robertson, Catriona V; Fyfe, Jackson J; Stepto, Nigel K; Bartlett, David B; Sakkal, Samy

    2017-11-01

    Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have properties of the innate and acquired immune systems. While the response to vigorous exercise has been established for most leukocytes, MAIT cells have not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose was to determine if MAIT cell lymphocytosis occurs with acute maximal aerobic exercise and if this response is influenced by exercise duration, cardiovascular fitness, or body composition. Twenty healthy young males with moderate fitness levels performed an extended graded exercise test until volitional fatigue. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from venous blood obtained prior and immediately after exercise and were labeled to identify specific T cell populations using flow cytometry. The percentage of MAIT cells relative to total T cells significantly increased from 3.0 to 3.8% and absolute MAIT cell counts increased by 2.2-fold following maximal exercise. MAIT cell subpopulation proportions were unchanged with exercise. Within cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), MAIT cells consisted of 8% of these cells and this remained constant after exercise. MAIT cell counts and changes with exercise were not affected by body composition, VO 2peak , or exercise duration. Maximal exercise doubled MAIT cell numbers and showed preferential mobilization within total T cells but the response was not influenced by fitness levels, exercise duration, or body composition. These results suggest that acute exercise could be used to offset MAIT cell deficiencies observed with certain pathologies. MAIT cells also make up a substantial proportion of CTLs, which may have implications for cytotoxicity assays using these cells.

  6. Hospital costs fell as numbers of LVADs were increasing: experiences from Oslo University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Vinod

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study was undertaken to examine total hospital costs per patient of a consecutive implantation series of two 3rd generation Left Ventricle Assist Devices (LVAD. Further we analyzed if increased clinical experience would reduce total hospital costs and the gap between costs and the diagnosis related grouped (DRG-reimbursement. Method Cost data of 20 LVAD implantations (VentrAssist™ from 2005-2009 (period 1 were analyzed together with costs from nine patients using another LVAD (HeartWare™ from 2009-June 2011 (period 2. For each patient, total costs were calculated for three phases - the pre-LVAD implantation phase, the LVAD implantation phase and the post LVAD implant phase. Patient specific costs were obtained prospectively from patient records and included personnel resources, medication, blood products, blood chemistry and microbiology, imaging and procedure costs including operating room costs. Overhead costs were registered retrospectively and allocated to the specific patient by predefined allocation keys. Finally, patient specific costs and overhead costs were aggregated into total hospital costs for each patient. All costs were calculated in 2011-prices. We used regression analyses to analyze cost variations over time and between the different devices. Results The average total hospital cost per patient for the pre-LVAD, LVAD and post-LVAD for period 1 was $ 585, 513 (range 132, 640- 1 247, 299, and the corresponding DRG- reimbursement (2009 was $ 143, 192 . The mean LOS was 54 days (range 12- 127. For period 2 the total hospital cost per patient was $ 413, 185 (range 314, 540- 622, 664 and the corresponding DRG- reimbursement (2010 was $ 136, 963. The mean LOS was 49 days (range 31- 93. The estimates from the regression analysis showed that the total hospital costs, excluding device costs, per patient were falling as the number of treated patients increased. The estimate from the trend variable was -14

  7. Incremental Value of Increasing Number of Arterial Grafts: The Effect of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwann, Thomas A; El Hage Sleiman, Abdul Karim M; Yammine, Maroun B; Tranbaugh, Robert F; Engoren, Milo; Bonnell, Mark R; Habib, Robert H

    2018-06-01

    Multiarterial coronary grafting with two arterial grafts leads to improved survival compared with conventional single artery based on left internal thoracic artery to left anterior descending artery and saphenous vein grafts. We investigated whether extending arterial grafting to three or more arterial grafts further improves survival, and whether such a benefit is modified by diabetes mellitus. We analyzed 15-year coronary artery bypass graft surgery mortality data in 11,931 patients (age 64.3 ± 10.5 years; 3,484 women [29.2%]; 4,377 [36.7%] with diabetes mellitus) derived from three US institutions (1994 to 2011). All underwent primary isolated left internal thoracic artery to left anterior descending artery grafting with at least two grafts: one artery (n = 6,782; 56.9%); two arteries (n = 3,678; 30.8%); or three or more arteries (n = 1,471; 12.3%). Long-term survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods. Propensity score matching and comprehensive covariate adjustment (Cox regression) were used to derive long-term risk-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for increasing number of arterial grafts in the overall cohort and for diabetes and no-diabetes cohorts. Radial artery (94%) and right internal thoracic artery (6%) were used as additional arterial grafts. Multivariate analysis in all patients showed that diabetes was associated with decreased survival (HR 1.43, 95% CI: 1.34 to 53), whereas increasing number of arterial grafts was associated with decreased mortality (one artery HR 1.0 [reference]; two arteries HR 0.87, 95% CI: 0.80 to 0.95; and three arteries HR 0.83, 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.95). Pairwise comparisons also showed an incremental benefit of additional arterial grafts: two arteries versus one artery, HR 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80 to 0.98); and three arteries versus one artery, HR 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68 to 0.94). A three-artery versus two-artery survival advantage trend was also noted, but was not significant in either the overall study

  8. Carbon monoxide improves neuronal differentiation and yield by increasing the functioning and number of mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ana S; Sonnewald, Ursula; Alves, Paula M; Vieira, Helena L A

    2016-08-01

    The process of cell differentiation goes hand-in-hand with metabolic adaptations, which are needed to provide energy and new metabolites. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous cytoprotective molecule able to inhibit cell death and improve mitochondrial metabolism. Neuronal differentiation processes were studied using the NT2 cell line, which is derived from human testicular embryonic teratocarcinoma and differentiates into post-mitotic neurons upon retinoic acid treatment. CO-releasing molecule A1 (CORM-A1) was used do deliver CO into cell culture. CO treatment improved NT2 neuronal differentiation and yield, since there were more neurons and the total cell number increased following the differentiation process. CO supplementation enhanced the mitochondrial population in post-mitotic neurons derived from NT2 cells, as indicated by an increase in mitochondrial DNA. CO treatment during neuronal differentiation increased the extent of the classical metabolic change that occurs during neuronal differentiation, from glycolytic to more oxidative metabolism, by decreasing the ratio of lactate production and glucose consumption. The expression of pyruvate and lactate dehydrogenases was higher, indicating an augmented oxidative metabolism. Moreover, these findings were corroborated by an increased percentage of (13) C incorporation from [U-(13) C]glucose into the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites malate and citrate, and also glutamate and aspartate in CO-treated cells. Finally, under low levels of oxygen (5%), which enhances glycolytic metabolism, some of the enhancing effects of CO on mitochondria were not observed. In conclusion, our data show that CO improves neuronal and mitochondrial yield by stimulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, and thus oxidative metabolism of NT2 cells during the process of neuronal differentiation. The process of cell differentiation is coupled with metabolic adaptations. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous cytoprotective

  9. Increased mitochondrial DNA deletions and copy number in transfusion-dependent thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloway, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Iron overload is the primary cause of morbidity in transfusion-dependent thalassemia. Increase in iron causes mitochondrial dysfunction under experimental conditions, but the occurrence and significance of mitochondrial damage is not understood in patients with thalassemia. METHODS. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to nuclear DNA copy number (Mt/N) and frequency of the common 4977-bp mitochondrial deletion (ΔmtDNA4977) were quantified using a quantitative PCR assay on whole blood samples from 38 subjects with thalassemia who were receiving regular transfusions. RESULTS. Compared with healthy controls, Mt/N and ΔmtDNA4977 frequency were elevated in thalassemia (P = 0.038 and P 15 mg/g dry-weight or splenectomy, with the highest levels observed in subjects who had both risk factors (P = 0.003). Myocardial iron (MRI T2* 40/1 × 107 mtDNA, respectively (P = 0.025). Subjects with Mt/N values below the group median had significantly lower Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (5.76 ± 0.53) compared with the high Mt/N group (9.11 ± 0.95, P = 0.008). CONCLUSION. Individuals with transfusion-dependent thalassemia demonstrate age-related increase in mtDNA damage in leukocytes. These changes are markedly amplified by splenectomy and are associated with extrahepatic iron deposition. Elevated mtDNA damage in blood cells may predict the risk of iron-associated organ damage in thalassemia. FUNDING. This project was supported by Children’s Hospital & Research Center Oakland Institutional Research Award and by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, NIH, through UCSF-CTSI grant UL1 TR000004. PMID:27583305

  10. Familiarity increases the number of remembered Pokémon in visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2017-05-01

    Long-term memory (LTM) can influence many aspects of short-term memory (STM), including increased STM span. However, it is unclear whether LTM enhances the quantitative or qualitative aspect of STM. That is, do we retain a larger number of representations or more precise representations in STM for familiar stimuli than unfamiliar stimuli? This study took advantage of participants' prior rich multimedia experience with Pokémon, without investing on laboratory training to examine how prior LTM influenced visual STM. In a Pokémon visual STM change detection task, participants remembered more first-generation Pokémon characters that they were more familiar with than recent-generation Pokémon characters that they were less familiar with. No significant difference in memory quality was found when quantitative and qualitative effects of LTM were isolated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Critically, these effects were absent in participants who were unfamiliar with first-generation Pokémon. Furthermore, several alternative interpretations were ruled out, including general video-gaming experience, subjective Pokémon preference, and verbal encoding. Together, these results demonstrated a strong link between prior stimulus familiarity in LTM and visual STM storage capacity.

  11. An increase in the number of admitted patients with exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalborg, Christian; Rød-Larsen, Cecilie; Leiro, Ingjerd; Aasebø, Willy

    2016-10-01

    Rhabdomyolysis may lead to serious complications, and treatment is both time-consuming and costly. The condition can be caused by many factors, including intense exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the number of hospitalisations due to exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis has changed in recent years. We describe the disease course in hospitalised patients, and compare disease course in individuals with exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis and rhabdomyolysis due to other causes. The study is a systematic review of medical records from Akershus University Hospital for the years 2008 and 2011 – 14. All hospitalised patients with diagnostic codes M62.8, M62.9 and T79.6 and creatine kinase levels > 5 000 IU/l were included. The cause of the rhabdomyolysis was recorded in addition to patient characteristics and the results of various laboratory tests. Of 161 patients who were hospitalised with rhabdomyolysis during the study period, 44 cases (27  %) were classified as exercise-induced. In 2008 there were no admissions due to exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis; in 2011 and 2012 there were six and four admissions respectively, while in 2014 there were 22. This gives an estimated incidence of 0.8/100 000 in 2012 and 4.6/100 000 in 2014. Strength-training was the cause of hospitalisation in 35 patients (80  % of the exercise-induced cases). Three patients (7  % of the exercise-induced cases) had transient stage 1 kidney injury, but there were no cases with stage 2 or stage 3 injury. By comparison, 52  % of patients with rhabdomyolysis due to another cause had kidney injury, of which 28  % was stage 2 or 3. The number of persons hospitalised with exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis has increased four-fold from 2011 to 2014, possibly due to changes in exercise habits in the population. None of the patients with exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis had serological signs of kidney injury upon hospital discharge.

  12. A new construction of rational electromagnetic knots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Zhilin, Gleb

    2018-06-01

    We set up a correspondence between solutions of the Yang-Mills equations on R ×S3 and in Minkowski spacetime via de Sitter space. Some known Abelian and non-Abelian exact solutions are rederived. For the Maxwell case we present a straightforward algorithm to generate an infinite number of explicit solutions, with fields and potentials in Minkowski coordinates given by rational functions of increasing complexity. We illustrate our method with a nontrivial example.

  13. Increasing the Number of Canadian Indigenous Students in STEM at the University of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jacques, J. M.; McGee, S.; Janze, R.; Longman, M.; Pete, S.; Starblanket, N.

    2016-12-01

    Canadian Indigenous people are an extremely poorly represented group in STEM today due to major barriers in obtaining a high school and then a university education. Approximately 10% of the undergraduate student population out of a total 12,600 students at the University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, is First Nations, Métis or Inuit. The university is located in a catchment region where 30% of the population is First Nations or Métis. Approximately 100 students majoring in the sciences, mathematics and engineering have self-declared themselves to be Indigenous. For the past two years, we have been running a pilot project, the Initiative to Support and Increase the Number of Indigenous Students in the Sciences, Mathematics and Engineering at the Aboriginal Student Centre, with financial support from the Deans of Science and Engineering. We provide student networking lunches, Indigenous scientist and engineer speakers and mentors and supplemental tutoring. Our program is actively supported and guided by Elder Noel Starblanket, former president of the National Indian Brotherhood (now the Assembly of First Nations). Our students are greatly interested in the health and environmental sciences (particularly water quality), with a sprinkling of physics, mathematics and engineering majors. Our students have gone on to graduate work with prestigious scholarships and a paid internship in engineering. We report here on various lessons learned: the involvement of elders is key, as is the acceptance of non-traditional academic paths, and any STEM support program must respect Indigenous culture. There is great interest in science and engineering on the part of these students, if scientists and engineers are willing to listen and learn to talk with these students on their own terms.

  14. An empirical study to detect effective factors to increase number of moviegoers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Giyahi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an empirical study to detect important factors, which could increase the number of moviegoers. The study distributes a questionnaire among different people at four age groups including 35.2% (men, and 64.8% (women, most of them are single (between 21 to 30 years living at 3- to 4-member families, holding BA degree with 4 to 7 million Rials monthly salary. Inferential statistics tests, including Kolmogorov–Smirnov, binominal or ratio, Chi Square and Friedman, show that type of story, genre and artists, casts are considered as the most important factors in selection of film while quality of sound, seat comfort, ventilation of cinema hall are regarded as the most important factors in selection of cinema. In addition, cinema is not predominant pastime or hobby of individuals during holidays and existence of more attractive pastimes than cinema is the most important factor, which hinders individuals from going to cinema. Individuals go to cinema fewer than three times a year, primarily during the afternoon of holidays at the weekend. TV teasers and word of mouth advertisements are the most significant publicity tools for those individuals who intend to go to cinema halls. These two factors, i.e. TV teasers and word of mouth advertisements, are the most significant sources of studying individuals for the selection of film. Individuals almost select their favorite movies before going to cinema and if ticket is finished at the box office of cinema, they suspend watching film in another time and finally, they re-plan watching film. It should be noted that satisfaction of individuals from cinema is much more effective than their satisfaction from film.

  15. Researches on Nutritional Behaviour in Romanian Black and White Primiparous Cows. Interruptions Number and their Duration in the Ration Consumption Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 9 Romanian Black and White primiparous cows. The aim of this study was todetermine some aspect of nutritional behaviour of the cows. During the experiments, the following behaviour aspectswere determined: interruption number and their duration in the feed consumption time. Results showed that theadministration order of forages had an influence on the interruptions number, which was 0.74 less for hay in fibroussucculentorder (O1. For silage, the interruption number was 0.42 higher in fibrous-succulent order (O1. Betweenportion 1 (P1 and portion 3 (P3, the significant difference (p<0.05 was for interruptions duration, duringconsumption silage, in favour portion P1. Distinct significant differences (p<0.01 was observed for the interruptionnumber during consumption silage (0.95 sec. higher in P1 than in P3, for interruption duration (5.96 sec. higher inP1 than in P3. Between P2 and P3, significant difference (p<0.05 was observed for interruptions number duringconsumption silage and for average interruptions duration during consumption beet in favour to portion P2.Regarding the number of feedings per portion, always the differences were higher in the second feeding F1 than inthe first feeding F2.

  16. Rational kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Angeles, Jorge

    1988-01-01

    A rational study of kinematics is a treatment of the subject based on invariants, i.e., quantities that remain essentially unchanged under a change of observer. An observer is understood to be a reference frame supplied with a clock (Truesdell 1966). This study will therefore include an introduction to invariants. The language of these is tensor analysis and multilinear algebra, both of which share many isomorphic relations, These subjects are treated in full detail in Ericksen (1960) and Bowen and Wang (1976), and hence will not be included here. Only a short account of notation and definitions will be presented. Moreover, definitions and basic concepts pertaining to the kinematics of rigid bodies will be also included. Although the kinematics of rigid bodies can be regarded as a particular case of the kinematics of continua, the former deserves attention on its own merits for several reasons. One of these is that it describes locally the motions undergone by continua. Another reason is that a whole area of ...

  17. Increasing number of authors per paper in Korean science and technology papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunju Jang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined changes in the number of authors per paper for science and technology papers (agricultural sciences, engineering and technologies, medical sciences, and natural sciences in Korea. We employed the Scopus database to examine the change in the number of authors in papers, which were published from 2000 to 2015 in the 234 Korean academic journals indexed on Scopus. We found that the global trend of growth in the number of authors per paper is evident in Korea as well. While there was little evidence of a correlation with the citation per paper, a positive correlation was found between with the field-weighted citation impact, another measure of a paper’s impact, in medical and natural science papers. In terms of the type of collaboration, we found that international collaboration papers had the highest number of authors, followed by national and institutional collaborations. The number of authors per paper was highest for those published in the top 10% journals by Source Normalized Impact per Paper, followed by Scopus-indexed journals, while papers published in Korea Citation Index had the lowest number of authors per paper. We propose that the rise in the number of authors per paper in Korean papers may be ascribed to many Korean research programs encouraging group research and the widespread availability of the internet, which has stimulated joint research efforts and encouraged international collaboration.

  18. Can the developer be the user? A possible explanation for the increasing number of customer complaints in consumer electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyk - de Visser, I.M.; Lu, Y.; Brombacher, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Different business trends within consumer electronics industry have resulted in an increasing number of customer complaints in the after-market. Research into this increasing number by Den Ouden indicates that 85% of the complaints can be traced back to decisions made in the product creation process

  19. Increasing gland number and red pigments in St. John's wort in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... casein, mannitol and sucrose. The highest percentage of calli containing red pigments was observed in the culture medium which had 500 or 0.0 mg l-1 hydrolyzed casein and 20 g l-1 sucrose, without mannitol. Glands were observed on all the produced leaves. Number of glands and percentage of leaves.

  20. TOP1 gene copy numbers are increased in cancers of the bile duct and pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Mie; Calatayud, Dan; Schultz, Nicolai Aa.

    2015-01-01

    ) poison. Top1 protein, TOP1 gene copy number and mRNA expression, respectively, have been proposed as predictive biomarkers of response to irinotecan in other cancers. Here we investigate the occurrence of TOP1 gene aberrations in cancers of the bile ducts and pancreas. Material and methods. TOP1...

  1. Protected Time for Research During Orthopaedic Residency Correlates with an Increased Number of Resident Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin R; Agel, Julie A; Van Heest, Ann E

    2017-07-05

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires orthopaedic residency programs to promote scholarship and research, which manifest differently among programs. We assess the impact of protected research time during orthopaedic residency on the number of resident publications. Rotation schedules and resident names were collected from 125 ACGME-accredited U.S. orthopaedic residency programs. Protected research time was classified as 1 of 3 types: (1) block time, (2) longitudinal time, or (3) no dedicated time. In April 2016, we searched residents in postgraduate year (PGY)-3 to PGY-5 on pubmed.gov to generate all orthopaedic publications with a PubMed identifier published during residency. Each publication's 2015 Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports 5-Year Journal Impact Factor and resident first authorship were noted. The number of PubMed identifiers for each program was summed and was divided by the number of residents in PGY-3 to PGY-5, giving a mean number of publications per resident. The relationship between output and program research time was compared using t tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). A total of 1,690 residents were included, with an overall mean number (and standard deviation) of 1.2 ± 2.4 publications per resident. Eighty-seven programs reported block time, 14 programs reported longitudinal time, and 24 programs reported no time. There was a significant difference (p = 0.02) in the mean number of publications per resident when compared between programs with protected time (1.1 ± 1.2 publications) and programs with no protected time (0.6 ± 0.5 publication). One-way ANOVA demonstrated a significant mean difference across the 3 groups (p publications than block time at 1.0 ± 1.0 publication or no time at 0.6 ± 0.5 publication, a difference that persisted when adjusted to include only impact factors of >0 and exclude case reports (p = 0.0015). Both the presence of and the type of dedicated research time correlate

  2. Electronic pairing mechanism due to band modification with increasing pair number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizia, J.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that a shift of an electron band with electron occupation number n, which is changing during the transition to the superconducting state, can lower the total energy of the system. In fact it will bring a negative contribution to the pairing potential, which is proportional to the product of the electron band shift with occupation number and the charge transfer during the transition to the superconducting state. The shift of the electron band comes from the change of stresses and the change of correlation effects in the CuO 2 plane with n, that in turn is caused by the changing oxygen concentration. This model explains the phenomenological success of Hirsch's model, which gives no explanation how the band shift in energy can give rise to superconductivity. (orig.)

  3. Increased progesterone receptor expression in uterine leiomyoma: correlation with age, number of leiomyomas, and clinical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigkou, Anastasia; Reis, Fernando M; Lee, Meng H; Jiang, Bingjie; Tosti, Claudia; Centini, Gabriele; Shen, Fang-Rong; Chen, You-Guo; Petraglia, Felice

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the possible correlation between progesterone receptor (PR) expression in uterine leiomyoma or adjacent myometrium and patient's age, size/number of leiomyomas, or clinical symptoms such as dysmenorrhea, acyclic pelvic pain, or menstrual and intermenstrual uterine bleeding. Cross-sectional study. Referral center. Sixty-two Chinese women undergoing elective hysterectomy for uterine leiomyomata. None. Evaluation of PR-total and PR-B mRNA with real-time polymerase chain reaction; PR-A and PR-B proteins quantified by Western blot in leiomyoma tissue and myometrium; symptoms rated by the patients using visual analog scores. The PR-B mRNA and PR-A and PR-B proteins were more concentrated in leiomyomas than in matched myometrium. A direct correlation between PR-B mRNA levels in leiomyoma and age (r = 0.347) and number of tumors (r = 0.295) was found. Conversely, there was an inverse correlation between PR-B mRNA levels in leiomyoma and dysmenorrhea (r = -0.260) and intermenstrual bleeding (r = -0.266). Multiple regression analysis indicated that age (β = 0.363) and the number of myomas (β = 0.296) were independently associated with PR-B mRNA levels in leiomyoma tissue. The levels of PR-B mRNA in leiomyoma tissue are directly associated with the number of tumors and inversely correlated with the intensity of intermenstrual bleeding and dysmenorrhea, suggesting that PR signaling may favor leiomyoma growth while attenuating clinical symptoms. This duality should be taken into account in the clinical management of patients with symptomatic uterine leiomyoma. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Increasing fetal ovine number per gestation alters fetal plasma clinical chemistry values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywicki, Micaela; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Magness, Ronald R; Segar, Jeffrey L; Kling, Pamela J

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is interconnected with developmental programming of lifelong pathophysiology. IUGR is seen in human multifetal pregnancies, with stepwise rises in fetal numbers interfering with placental nutrient delivery. It remains unknown whether fetal blood analyses would reflect fetal nutrition, liver, and excretory function in the last trimester of human or ovine IUGR In an ovine model, we hypothesized that fetal plasma biochemical values would reflect progressive placental, fetal liver, and fetal kidney dysfunction as the number of fetuses per gestation rose. To determine fetal plasma biochemical values in singleton, twin, triplet, and quadruplet/quintuplet ovine gestation, we investigated morphometric measures and comprehensive metabolic panels with nutritional measures, liver enzymes, and placental and fetal kidney excretory measures at gestational day (GD) 130 (90% gestation). As anticipated, placental dysfunction was supported by a stepwise fall in fetal weight, fetal plasma glucose, and triglyceride levels as fetal number per ewe rose. Fetal glucose and triglycerides were directly related to fetal weight. Plasma creatinine, reflecting fetal renal excretory function, and plasma cholesterol, reflecting placental excretory function, were inversely correlated with fetal weight. Progressive biochemical disturbances and growth restriction accompanied the rise in fetal number. Understanding the compensatory and adaptive responses of growth-restricted fetuses at the biochemical level may help explain how metabolic pathways in growth restriction can be predetermined at birth. This physiological understanding is important for clinical care and generating interventional strategies to prevent altered developmental programming in multifetal gestation. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  5. Glucocorticoid receptor number predicts increase in amygdala activity after severe stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, Elbert; van Wingen, Guido A.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Rademaker, Arthur R.; Vermetten, Eric; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Fernández, Guillén; Heijnen, Cobi J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals who are exposed to a traumatic event are at increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies have shown that increased amygdala activity is frequently found in patients with PTSD. In addition, pre-trauma glucocorticoid

  6. Probability and rational choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Botting

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2014v18n1p1 In this paper I will discuss the rationality of reasoning about the future. There are two things that we might like to know about the future: which hypotheses are true and what will happen next. To put it in philosophical language, I aim to show that there are methods by which inferring to a generalization (selecting a hypothesis and inferring to the next instance (singular predictive inference can be shown to be normative and the method itself shown to be rational, where this is due in part to being based on evidence (although not in the same way and in part on a prior rational choice. I will also argue that these two inferences have been confused, being distinct not only conceptually (as nobody disputes but also in their results (the value given to the probability of the hypothesis being not in general that given to the next instance and that methods that are adequate for one are not by themselves adequate for the other. A number of debates over method founder on this confusion and do not show what the debaters think they show.

  7. The slaughter of increased numbers of pregnant cows in Tanga abattoir, Tanzania: A cause for concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel S. Swai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Information on the level of foetal wastage in slaughtered cattle in Tanzania is limited. A three-month observational study (April – June 2014 of animals slaughtered at the Tanga abattoir in Tanga region, Tanzania was carried out to determine the number of pregnant cows slaughtered. The total number of cattle slaughtered during the study period was 3643, representing a monthly kill average of 1214 and a daily kill average of 40. Over 98% of the cattle presented to the abattoir for slaughter were local breed (Tanzania shorthorn zebu and most were above 3 years of age. Improved breeds of cattle represented only 1.3% of all slaughters. Of the cattle slaughtered, 2256 (61.9% were female and 1387 (38.1% were male. A total of 655 slaughtered cows were pregnant, representing a foetal wastage of 29.1%. Of the 655 recovered foetuses, 333 (50.8% were male and 322 (49.2% were female. Of the recovered foetuses, 25.8% were recovered in the first, 42.7% in the second and 31.6% in the third trimester. This study indicates cases of significant foetal losses, negatively impacting future replacement stock as a result of the slaughter of pregnant animals. The indiscriminate slaughter of pregnant cows suggests that existing animal welfare legislation is not sufficiently enforced and routine veterinary ante-mortem inspection of trade animals is failing to prevent the high level of foetal wastage.

  8. Reduced probability of smoking cessation in men with increasing number of job losses and partnership breakdowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Larsen, Anne Mette; Christensen, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    and to study joint exposure to both. Methods Birth cohort study of smoking cessation of 6232 Danish men born in 1953 with a follow-up at age 51 (response rate 66.2%). History of unemployment and cohabitation was measured annually using register data. Information on smoking cessation was obtained...... by a questionnaire. Results The probability of smoking cessation decreased with the number of job losses (ranging from 1 OR 0.54 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.64) to 3+ OR 0.41 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.55)) and of broken partnerships (ranging from 1 OR 0.74 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.85) to 3+ OR 0.50 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.63)). Furthermore......–23 years (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.52)). Those who never cohabited and experienced one or more job losses had a particular low chance of smoking cessation (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.30). Conclusion The numbers of job losses and of broken partnerships were both inversely associated with probability...

  9. Rationality in Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Dijkstra, Jacob; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary theories of rational behavior in human society augment the orthodox model of rationality both by adding various forms of bounded rationality and relaxing the assumptions of self-interest and materialistic preferences. This entry discusses how these extensions of the theory of rational

  10. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  11. Confidence in Nuclear Weapons as Numbers Decrease and Time Since Testing Increases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marvin

    2011-04-01

    As numbers and types of nuclear weapons are reduced, the U.S. objective is to maintain a safe, secure and effective nuclear deterrent without nuclear-explosive testing. A host of issues combine to make this a challenge. An evolving threat environment may prompt changes to security systems. Aging of weapons has led to ``life extension programs'' that produce weapons that differ in some ways from the originals. Outdated and changing facilities pose difficulties for life-extension, surveillance, and dismantlement efforts. A variety of factors can make it a challenge to recruit, develop, and retain outstanding people with the skills and experience that are needed to form the foundation of a credible deterrent. These and other issues will be discussed in the framework of proposals to reduce and perhaps eliminate nuclear weapons.

  12. Increased number of anaerobic bacteria in the infected root canal in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Akihiro; Morimoto, Taisuke; Tsuji, Masahito; Nakamura, Koki; Higuchi, Naoya; Imaizumi, Ichiro; Shibata, Naoki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus and anaerobic bacteria detected in infected root canals. Normal Wistar rats (control) received a standard laboratory diet with water (group A), and GK rats (type 2 diabetes mellitus rats) a normal laboratory diet with water (group B) or a 30% sucrose solution (group C). Chemotaxis assay was conducted on polymorphonuclear leukocytes from the 3 groups, and the numbers of anaerobic bacteria in infected root canals were determined. In the chemotaxis assay on the polymorphonuclear leukocytes, the chemotactic response of cells in group C was lower than that for groups A and B (P obligate anaerobic bacteria which stained gram negative, were significantly more numerous in group C (P < .01) than in groups A and B. The metabolic condition produced by type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats might lower the general host resistance against bacterial infection.

  13. [High-level expression of heterologous protein based on increased copy number in Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinjie; He, Peng; Tao, Yong; Yang, Yi

    2013-11-04

    High-level expression system of heterologous protein mediated by internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was constructed, which could be used for other applications of S. cerevisiae in metabolic engineering. We constructed co-expression cassette (promoter-mCherry-TIF4631 IRES-URA3) containing promoters Pilv5, Padh2 and Ptdh3 and recombined the co-expression cassette into the genome of W303-1B-A. The URA3+ transformants were selected. By comparing the difference in the mean florescence value of mCherry in transformants, the effect of three promoters was detected in the co-expression cassette. The copy numbers of the interested genes in the genome were determined by Real-Time PCR. We analyzed genetic stability by continuous subculturing transformants in the absence of selection pressure. To verify the application of co-expression cassette, the ORF of mCherry was replaced by beta-galactosidase (LACZ) and xylose reductase (XYL1). The enzyme activities and production of beta-galactosidase and xylose reductase were detected. mCherry has been expressed in the highest-level in transformants with co-expression cassette containing Pilv5 promoter. The highest copy number of DNA fragment integrating in the genome was 47 in transformants containing Pilv5. The engineering strains showed good genetic stability. Xylose reductase was successfully expressed in the co-expression cassette containing Pilv5 promoter and TIF4631 IRES. The highest enzyme activity was 0. 209 U/mg crude protein in the transformants WIX-10. Beta-galactosidase was also expressed successfully. The transformants that had the highest enzyme activity was WIL-1 and the enzyme activity was 12.58 U/mg crude protein. The system mediated by Pilv5 promoter and TIF4631 IRES could express heterologous protein efficiently in S. cerevisiae. This study offered a new strategy for expression of heterologous protein in S. cerevisiae and provided sufficient experimental evidence for metabolic engineering

  14. Extracurricular Activities Targeted towards Increasing the Number of Engineers Working in the Field of Precision Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Leon Bonde; Stark Olsen, Kent; Ahrenkiel, Linda

    SERVICE ROBOTS in precision agriculture have the potential to ensure a more competitive and sustainable production, but the lack of skilled engineers within this area is limiting the industry’s ability to develop new and innovative agricultural technology products. Part of the reason...... is that engineers and scientists have little knowledge about agricultural technology, and they therefore choose to work in other domains. It is hypothesised that introducing engineering students to precision agriculture through practical work with small-scale service robots will increase their interest...... in agriculture and agricultural technology. This article presents the results of an interdisciplinary extracurricular activity for first year engineering students carried out in the Fall 2012 at the University of Southern Denmark. The case was based on practical group-work centered around an agricultural mobile...

  15. Increased numbers of orexin/hypocretin neurons in a genetic rat depression model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikrouli, Elli; Wörtwein, Gitta; Soylu, Rana

    2011-01-01

    The Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rat is a genetic animal model of depression that displays characteristics similar to those of depressed patients including lower body weight, decreased appetite and reduced REM sleep latency. Hypothalamic neuropeptides such as orexin/hypocretin, melanin......-concentrating hormone (MCH) and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), that are involved in the regulation of both energy metabolism and sleep, have recently been implicated also in depression. We therefore hypothesized that alterations in these neuropeptide systems may play a role in the development...... of the FSL phenotype with both depressive like behavior, metabolic abnormalities and sleep disturbances. In this study, we first confirmed that the FSL rats displayed increased immobility in the Porsolt forced swim test compared to their control strain, the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL), which is indicative...

  16. Does use of a PACS increase the number of images per study? A case study in ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Steven; Nisenbaum, Harvey; Farn, James; Coleman, Beverly; Rowling, Susan; Langer, Jill; Jacobs, Jill; Arger, Peter; Pinheiro, Lisa; Klein, Wendy; Reber, Michele; Iyoob, Christopher

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) in ultrasonography increased the number of images acquired per examination. The hypothesis that such an increase does occur was based on anecdotal information; this study sought to test the hypothesis. A random sample of all ultrasound examination types was drawn from the period 1998 through 1999. The ultrasound PACS in use (ACCESS; Kodak Health Information Systems, Dallas, TX) records the number of grayscale and color images saved as part of each study. Each examination in the sample was checked in the ultrasound PACS database,.and the number of grayscale and color images was recorded. The comparison film-based sample was drawn from the period 1994 through 1995. The number of examinations of each type selected was based on the overall statistics of the section; that is, the sample was designed to represent the approximate frequency with which the various examination types are done. For film-based image counts, the jackets were retrieved, and the number of grayscale and color images were counted. The number of images obtained per examination (for most examinations) in ultrasound increased with PACS use. This was more evident with some examination types (eg, pelvis). This result, however, has to be examined for possible systematic biases because ultrasound practice has changed over the time since the authors stopped using film routinely. The use of PACS in ultrasonography was not associated with an increase in the number of images per examination based solely on the use of PACS, with the exception of neonatal head studies. Increases in the number of images per study was otherwise associated with examinations for which changes in protocols resulted in the increased image counts.

  17. Marshak Lectureship: Women in Physics: Increasing in Number, and What Else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Montes, Lilia

    2013-03-01

    Latin America is a region with high contrasts. With abundant natural resources and home of several celebrities among the wealthiest in the world, the zone has elevated indexes of poverty. In spite of this, and mostly thanks to the continuing intense efforts of the scientific community, it has been possible to create many excellence research centers. In contrast, illiteracy and lack of access to information and communication technologies are widely spread across our countries. Attitudes toward women have even coined a term, machismo. The situation of female physicists in this scenario is analyzed. We present a statistical overview of the participation of women as students or researchers in physics and related areas, for countries where data are available. Initiatives and ongoing programs to support and promote participation of women in science are discussed. Beyond statistics, some comments are given, as expressed by colleagues about work environment and gender issues in general, which have been collected through several years of exchanging concerns on the topic. Mexico and Brazil are discussed in more detail. Finally, we propose some joint actions to increase and improve the participation of women in our scientific field, which will give rise to better conditions for us but will also contribute to building a more equitable and developed region. Member of IUPAP Working Group on Women in Physics.

  18. Rare Copy Number Variants in NRXN1 and CNTN6 Increase Risk for Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Alden Y; Yu, Dongmei; Davis, Lea K; Sul, Jae Hoon; Tsetsos, Fotis; Ramensky, Vasily; Zelaya, Ivette; Ramos, Eliana Marisa; Osiecki, Lisa; Chen, Jason A; McGrath, Lauren M; Illmann, Cornelia; Sandor, Paul; Barr, Cathy L; Grados, Marco; Singer, Harvey S; Nöthen, Markus M; Hebebrand, Johannes; King, Robert A; Dion, Yves; Rouleau, Guy; Budman, Cathy L; Depienne, Christel; Worbe, Yulia; Hartmann, Andreas; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Stuhrmann, Manfred; Aschauer, Harald; Stamenkovic, Mara; Schloegelhofer, Monika; Konstantinidis, Anastasios; Lyon, Gholson J; McMahon, William M; Barta, Csaba; Tarnok, Zsanett; Nagy, Peter; Batterson, James R; Rizzo, Renata; Cath, Danielle C; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Berlin, Cheston; Malaty, Irene A; Okun, Michael S; Woods, Douglas W; Rees, Elliott; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; Knowles, James A; Posthuma, Danielle; Pauls, David L; Cox, Nancy J; Neale, Benjamin M; Freimer, Nelson B; Paschou, Peristera; Mathews, Carol A; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Coppola, Giovanni

    2017-06-21

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a model neuropsychiatric disorder thought to arise from abnormal development and/or maintenance of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. TS is highly heritable, but its underlying genetic causes are still elusive, and no genome-wide significant loci have been discovered to date. We analyzed a European ancestry sample of 2,434 TS cases and 4,093 ancestry-matched controls for rare ( 1 Mb), singleton events (OR = 2.28, 95% CI [1.39-3.79], p = 1.2 × 10 -3 ) and known, pathogenic CNVs (OR = 3.03 [1.85-5.07], p = 1.5 × 10 -5 ). We also identified two individual, genome-wide significant loci, each conferring a substantial increase in TS risk (NRXN1 deletions, OR = 20.3, 95% CI [2.6-156.2]; CNTN6 duplications, OR = 10.1, 95% CI [2.3-45.4]). Approximately 1% of TS cases carry one of these CNVs, indicating that rare structural variation contributes significantly to the genetic architecture of TS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. On rationally supported surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Juttler, B.; Sir, Z.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the class of surfaces which are equipped with rational support functions. Any rational support function can be decomposed into a symmetric (even) and an antisymmetric (odd) part. We analyze certain geometric properties of surfaces with odd and even rational support functions....... In particular it is shown that odd rational support functions correspond to those rational surfaces which can be equipped with a linear field of normal vectors, which were discussed by Sampoli et al. (Sampoli, M.L., Peternell, M., Juttler, B., 2006. Rational surfaces with linear normals and their convolutions...... with rational surfaces. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 23, 179-192). As shown recently, this class of surfaces includes non-developable quadratic triangular Bezier surface patches (Lavicka, M., Bastl, B., 2007. Rational hypersurfaces with rational convolutions. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 24, 410426; Peternell, M...

  20. Increasing the number of steps walked each day improves physical fitness in Japanese community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, N; Nakatani, T; Okamoto, Y; Iwamoto, J; Saeki, K; Kurumatani, N

    2010-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of increasing the number of steps each day on physical fitness, and the change in physical fitness according to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotype. A total of 174 participants were randomly assigned to two groups. Subjects in group A were instructed for 24-week trial to increase the number of steps walked each day, while subjects in group B were instructed to engage in brisk walking, at a target heart rate, for 20 min or more a day on two or more days a week. The values of the 3-min shuttle stamina walk test (SSWT) and the 30-s chair-stand test (CS-30) significantly increased, but no differences in increase were found between the groups. A significant relationship was found between the percentage increase in SSWT values and the increase in the number of steps walked by 1 500 steps or more per day over their baseline values. Our results suggest that increasing the number of steps walked daily improves physical fitness. No significant relationships were observed between the change in physical fitness and ACE genotypes. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  1. A Rational Approach to Rational Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Describes suicide as reaction to internal and external sources of stress and the impact of life events. Notes that, in the elderly, these situations are prevalent in many who are not suicidal. Contends that much more is written about rational suicide than its alternative (rational nonsuicide). Reviews reasons for this and suggests rational…

  2. [Rationalization, rationing, prioritization: terminology and ethical approaches to the allocation of limited resources in hematology/oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The field of oncology with its numerous high-priced innovations contributes considerably to the fact that medical progress is expensive. Additionally, due to the demographic changes and the increasing life expectancy, a growing number of cancer patients want to profit from this progress. Since resources are limited also in the health system, the fair distribution of the available resources urgently needs to be addressed. Dealing with scarcity is a typical problem in the domain of justice theory; therefore, this article first discusses different strategies to manage limited resources: rationalization, rationing, and prioritization. It then presents substantive as well as procedural criteria that assist in the just distribution of effective health benefits. There are various strategies to reduce the utilization of limited resources: Rationalization means that efficiency reserves are being exhausted; by means of rationing, effective health benefits are withheld due to cost considerations. Rationing can occur implicitly and thus covertly, e.g. through budgeting or the implementation of waiting periods, or explicitly, through transparent rules or policies about healthcare coverage. Ranking medical treatments according to their importance (prioritization) is often a prerequisite for rationing decisions. In terms of requirements of justice, both procedural and substantive criteria (e.g. equality, urgency, benefit) are relevant for the acceptance and quality of a decision to limit access to effective health benefits. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. DUF1220 copy number is linearly associated with increased cognitive function as measured by total IQ and mathematical aptitude scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jonathon M.; Searles, Veronica B.; Anderson, Nathan; Keeney, Jonathon; Raznahan, Armin; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.; Kennedy, Martin A.; Giedd, Jay

    2014-01-01

    DUF1220 protein domains exhibit the greatest human lineage-specific copy number expansion of any protein-coding sequence in the genome, and variation in DUF1220 copy number has been linked to both brain size in humans and brain evolution among primates. Given these findings, we examined associations between DUF1220 subtypes CON1 and CON2 and cognitive aptitude. We identified a linear association between CON2 copy number and cognitive function in two independent populations of European descent. In North American males, an increase in CON2 copy number corresponded with an increase in WISC IQ (R2 = 0.13, p = 0.02), which may be driven by males aged 6–11 (R2 = 0.42, p = 0.003). We utilized ddPCR in a subset as a confirmatory measurement. This group had 26–33 copies of CON2 with a mean of 29, and each copy increase of CON2 was associated with a 3.3-point increase in WISC IQ (R2 = 0.22, p = 0.045). In individuals from New Zealand, an increase in CON2 copy number was associated with an increase in math aptitude ability (R2 = 0.10 p = 0.018). These were not confounded by brain size. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report a replicated association between copy number of a gene coding sequence and cognitive aptitude. Remarkably, dosage variations involving DUF1220 sequences have now been linked to human brain expansion, autism severity and cognitive aptitude, suggesting that such processes may be genetically and mechanistically inter-related. The findings presented here warrant expanded investigations in larger, well-characterized cohorts. PMID:25287832

  4. Ozone synthesis improves by increasing number density of plasma channels and lower voltage in a nonthermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif Malik, Muhammad; Hughes, David

    2016-04-01

    Improvements in ozone synthesis from air and oxygen by increasing the number density of plasma channels and lower voltage for the same specific input energy (SIE) were explored in a nonthermal plasma based on a sliding discharge. The number of plasma channels and energy per pulse increased in direct proportion to the increase in the effective length of the anode (the high voltage electrode). Decreasing the discharge gap increased the energy per pulse for the same length and allowed the installation of more electrode pairs in the same space. It allowed the increase of the number of plasma channels in the same space to achieve the same SIE at a lower peak voltage with less energy per plasma channel. The ozone concentration gradually increased to ~1500 ppmv (140 to 50 g kWh-1) from air and to ~6000 ppmv (400 to 200 g kWh-1) from oxygen with a gradual increase in the SIE to ~200 J L-1, irrespective of the variations in electrode geometry, applied voltage or flow rate of the feed gas. A gradual increase in SIE beyond 200 J L-1 gradually increased the ozone concentration to a certain maximum value followed by a decline, but the rate of increase and the maximum value was higher for the greater number of plasma channels and lower peak voltage combination. The maximum ozone concentration was ~5000 ppmv (~30 g kWh-1) from air and ~22 000 ppmv (~80 g kWh-1) from oxygen. The results are explained on the basis of characteristics of the plasma and ozone synthesis mechanism.

  5. The QTL GNP1 Encodes GA20ox1, Which Increases Grain Number and Yield by Increasing Cytokinin Activity in Rice Panicle Meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuan; Wang, Yun; Mi, Xue-Fei; Shan, Jun-Xiang; Li, Xin-Min; Xu, Jian-Long; Lin, Hong-Xuan

    2016-10-01

    Cytokinins and gibberellins (GAs) play antagonistic roles in regulating reproductive meristem activity. Cytokinins have positive effects on meristem activity and maintenance. During inflorescence meristem development, cytokinin biosynthesis is activated via a KNOX-mediated pathway. Increased cytokinin activity leads to higher grain number, whereas GAs negatively affect meristem activity. The GA biosynthesis genes GA20oxs are negatively regulated by KNOX proteins. KNOX proteins function as modulators, balancing cytokinin and GA activity in the meristem. However, little is known about the crosstalk among cytokinin and GA regulators together with KNOX proteins and how KNOX-mediated dynamic balancing of hormonal activity functions. Through map-based cloning of QTLs, we cloned a GA biosynthesis gene, Grain Number per Panicle1 (GNP1), which encodes rice GA20ox1. The grain number and yield of NIL-GNP1TQ were significantly higher than those of isogenic control (Lemont). Sequence variations in its promoter region increased the levels of GNP1 transcripts, which were enriched in the apical regions of inflorescence meristems in NIL-GNP1TQ. We propose that cytokinin activity increased due to a KNOX-mediated transcriptional feedback loop resulting from the higher GNP1 transcript levels, in turn leading to increased expression of the GA catabolism genes GA2oxs and reduced GA1 and GA3 accumulation. This rebalancing process increased cytokinin activity, thereby increasing grain number and grain yield in rice. These findings uncover important, novel roles of GAs in rice florescence meristem development and provide new insights into the crosstalk between cytokinin and GA underlying development process.

  6. Rationing medical education.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different ... Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. ... state-of-the-art resources, technology and tutors con-.

  7. High Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress Increases the Copy Number of Mitochondrial DNA in Human Mesangial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Al-Kafaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has been linked to the pathogenicity of diabetic nephropathy. We tested the hypothesis that mtDNA copy number may be increased in human mesangial cells in response to high glucose-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS to compensate for damaged mtDNA. The effect of manganese superoxide dismutase mimetic (MnTBAP on glucose-induced mtDNA copy number was also examined. The copy number of mtDNA was determined by real-time PCR in human mesangial cells cultured in 5 mM glucose, 25 mM glucose, and mannitol (osmotic control, as well as in cells cultured in 25 mM glucose in the presence and absence of 200 μM MnTBAP. Intracellular ROS was assessed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry in human mesangial cells. The copy number of mtDNA was significantly increased when human mesangial cells were incubated with 25 mM glucose compared to 5 mM glucose and mannitol. In addition, 25 mM glucose rapidly generated ROS in the cells, which was not detected in 5 mM glucose. Furthermore, mtDNA copy number was significantly decreased and maintained to normal following treatment of cells with 25 mM glucose and MnTBAP compared to 25 mM glucose alone. Inclusion of MnTBAP during 25 mM glucose incubation inhibited mitochondrial superoxide in human mesangial cells. Increased mtDNA copy number in human mesangial cells by high glucose could contribute to increased mitochondrial superoxide, and prevention of mtDNA copy number could have potential in retarding the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  8. Love and rationality: on some possible rational effects of love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ortiz-Millán

    Full Text Available In this paper I defend the idea that rather than disrupting rationality, as the common-sense conception has done it, love may actually help us to develop rational ways of thinking and acting. I make the case for romantic or erotic love, since this is the kind of love that is more frequently associated with irrationality in acting and thinking. I argue that this kind of love may make us develop epistemic and practical forms of rationality. Based on an analysis of its characteristic action tendencies, I argue that love may help us to develop an instrumental form of rationality in determining the best means to achieve the object of love. It may also narrow down the number of practical considerations that may help us to achieve our goals. Finally, love may generate rational ways of belief-formation by framing the parameters taken into account in perception and attention, and by bringing into light only a small portion of the epistemic information available. Love may make us perceive reality more acutely.

  9. Rationing with baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....

  10. CONTRIBUTIONS TO RATIONAL APPROXIMATION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the key results of linear Chebyshev approximation theory are extended to generalized rational functions. Prominent among these is Haar’s...linear theorem which yields necessary and sufficient conditions for uniqueness. Some new results in the classic field of rational function Chebyshev...Furthermore a Weierstrass type theorem is proven for rational Chebyshev approximation. A characterization theorem for rational trigonometric Chebyshev approximation in terms of sign alternation is developed. (Author)

  11. The number of preproghrelin mRNA expressing cells is increased in mice with activity-based anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Marie; Barde, Swapnali; Achamrah, Najate; Breton, Jonathan; do Rego, Jean-Claude; Coëffier, Moïse; Hökfelt, Tomas; Déchelotte, Pierre; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2015-06-01

    Plasma levels of ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, are increased during conditions of chronic starvation, such as in patients with anorexia nervosa. However, it is not known whether such increase can be related to the number of preproghrelin mRNA-expressing cells in the stomach, and if chronic starvation may activate a tentative central ghrelin production. In this work, in situ hybridization technique was used to analyze the presence and number of preproghrelin mRNA-expressing cells in the stomach and the hypothalamus of mice with activity-based anorexia (ABA) induced by the combination of running wheel activity with progressive, during 10 days, feeding-time restriction (FTR) and compared with sedentary FTR, ABA pair-fed (PF) and ad libitum-fed control mice. All food-restricted mice lost more than 20% of body weight. Body weight loss was similar in ABA and PF mice, but it was more pronounced than in FTR mice. Food intake was also lower in ABA than in FTR mice. Preproghrelin mRNA-expressing cells in the stomach were increased proportionally to the body weight loss in all food-restricted groups with the highest number in ABA mice. No preproghrelin mRNA-producing cells were detectable in the hypothalamus of either control or food-restricted mice. Thus, the increased number of gastric preproghrelin mRNA-producing cells during chronic starvation proportionally to the body weight loss and reduced food intake may underlie increased plasma ghrelin. Hyperactivity-induced anorexia appears to further increase the number of preproghrelin mRNA-producing cells in the stomach. No evidence was found for ghrelin expression in the hypothalamus, not even in any of the present experimental models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The increasing number of surgical procedures for female genital fistula in England: analysis of Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, S I M F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the number and trend of surgical procedures for female genital fistula in England. An online search of Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data was carried out. Data were available for the 4-year period from 2002-03 until 2005-06. The total number of surgical procedures carried out for female genital fistula steadily increased by 28.7% from 616 in 2002-03 to 793 in 2005-06. The number of surgical procedures performed for rectovaginal fistula exceeded the total number of surgical procedures carried out for vesicovaginal and urethrovaginal fistula in each year of the study period. This pattern needs to be monitored and investigated further.

  13. Implications for Equity and Diversity of Increasing International Student Numbers in European Universities: Policies and Practice in Four National Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapakoski, Jani; Pashby, Karen

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the main rationales for and possible implications of the policy of increasing international student numbers in higher education (HE). Drawing on critical discourse analysis, we map key themes emerging from two sets of data--university strategy documents and interviews with staff--collected at eight universities in four national…

  14. Chemotherapy alters the increased numbers of myeloid-derived suppressor and regulatory T cells in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed Labib; El-Shanshory, Mohamed R; Abdou, Said H; Attia, Mohamed S; Sobhy, Shymaa M; Zidan, Mona F; Zidan, Abdel-Aziz A

    2018-04-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer diagnosed in children. The precise mechanism behind the relapse in this disease is not clearly known. One possible mechanism could be the accumulation of immunosuppressive cells, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and T regulatory cells (T regs ) which we and others have reported to mediate suppression of anti-tumor immune responses. In this study, we aimed to analyze the numbers of these cells in a population of B-ALL pediatric patients. Peripheral blood samples withdrawn from B-ALL pediatric patients (n = 45 before, during and after the induction phase of chemotherapy. Using multi parametric flow cytometric analysis. MDSCs were identified as Lin - HLA-DR - CD33 + CD11b + ; and T reg cells were defined as CD4 + CD25 + CD127 -/low . Early diagnosed B-ALL patients showed significant increases in the numbers of MDSCs and T regs as compared to healthy volunteers. During induction of chemotherapy, however, the patients showed higher and lower numbers of MDSCs and T reg cells, respectively as compared to early diagnosed patients (i.e., before chemotherapy). After induction of chemotherapy, the numbers of MDSCs and T reg cells showed higher increases and decreases, respectively as compared to the numbers in patients during chemotherapy. Our results indicate that B-ALL patients harbor high numbers of both MDSCs and T regs cells. This pilot study opens a new avenue to investigate the mechanism mediating the emergence of these cells on larger number of B-ALL patients at different treatment stages.

  15. An automatic braking system that stabilizes leukocyte rolling by an increase in selectin bond number with shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Springer, T A

    1999-01-11

    Wall shear stress in postcapillary venules varies widely within and between tissues and in response to inflammation and exercise. However, the speed at which leukocytes roll in vivo has been shown to be almost constant within a wide range of wall shear stress, i.e., force on the cell. Similarly, rolling velocities on purified selectins and their ligands in vitro tend to plateau. This may be important to enable rolling leukocytes to be exposed uniformly to activating stimuli on endothelium, independent of local hemodynamic conditions. Wall shear stress increases the rate of dissociation of individual selectin-ligand tether bonds exponentially (, ) thereby destabilizing rolling. We find that this is compensated by a shear-dependent increase in the number of bonds per rolling step. We also find an increase in the number of microvillous tethers to the substrate. This explains (a) the lack of firm adhesion through selectins at low shear stress or high ligand density, and (b) the stability of rolling on selectins to wide variation in wall shear stress and ligand density, in contrast to rolling on antibodies (). Furthermore, our data successfully predict the threshold wall shear stress below which rolling does not occur. This is a special case of the more general regulation by shear of the number of bonds, in which the number of bonds falls below one.

  16. Intensive removal of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) from rivers increases numbers and taxon richness of macroinvertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, Tom P; Poole, Alison E; Evans, Laura C; Bradley, David C; Macdonald, David W

    2014-02-01

    Invasive species are a major cause of species extinction in freshwater ecosystems, and crayfish species are particularly pervasive. The invasive American signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus has impacts over a range of trophic levels, but particularly on benthic aquatic macroinvertebrates. Our study examined the effect on the macroinvertebrate community of removal trapping of signal crayfish from UK rivers. Crayfish were intensively trapped and removed from two tributaries of the River Thames to test the hypothesis that lowering signal crayfish densities would result in increases in macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness. We removed 6181 crayfish over four sessions, resulting in crayfish densities that decreased toward the center of the removal sections. Conversely in control sections (where crayfish were trapped and returned), crayfish density increased toward the center of the section. Macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness were inversely correlated with crayfish densities. Multivariate analysis of the abundance of each taxon yielded similar results and indicated that crayfish removals had positive impacts on macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness but did not alter the composition of the wider macroinvertebrate community. Synthesis and applications: Our results demonstrate that non-eradication-oriented crayfish removal programmes may lead to increases in the total number of macroinvertebrates living in the benthos. This represents the first evidence that removing signal crayfish from riparian systems, at intensities feasible during control attempts or commercial crayfishing, may be beneficial for a range of sympatric aquatic macroinvertebrates.

  17. Exhaustive physical exercise increases the number of colonic preneoplastic lesions in untrained rats treated with a chemical carcinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Garcia, Sérgio Britto

    2004-12-08

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) have been used for early detection of factors that influence colorectal carcinogenesis in rats. It has been observed that exhaustive exercise increases free radical DNA oxidative damage and depresses immune function, events also related to the increased risk for cancer development. Fifteen days after a single exhaustive swimming bout in untrained rats treated with a colon carcinogen, we observed a statistically significant increased number of ACF when compared to the non-exercised group. Thus, we concluded that exhaustive exercise increased the susceptibility for colon cancer in rats. From our finding and literature data, we hypothesize that, similarly to the suggested relationship between exercise and infections, exercise could be protective against cancer or it could increase the risk for this disease depending on its type, dose and duration.

  18. Hybrid Brain–Computer Interface Techniques for Improved Classification Accuracy and Increased Number of Commands: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Keum-Shik; Khan, Muhammad Jawad

    2017-01-01

    In this article, non-invasive hybrid brain–computer interface (hBCI) technologies for improving classification accuracy and increasing the number of commands are reviewed. Hybridization combining more than two modalities is a new trend in brain imaging and prosthesis control. Electroencephalography (EEG), due to its easy use and fast temporal resolution, is most widely utilized in combination with other brain/non-brain signal acquisition modalities, for instance, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), electromyography (EMG), electrooculography (EOG), and eye tracker. Three main purposes of hybridization are to increase the number of control commands, improve classification accuracy and reduce the signal detection time. Currently, such combinations of EEG + fNIRS and EEG + EOG are most commonly employed. Four principal components (i.e., hardware, paradigm, classifiers, and features) relevant to accuracy improvement are discussed. In the case of brain signals, motor imagination/movement tasks are combined with cognitive tasks to increase active brain–computer interface (BCI) accuracy. Active and reactive tasks sometimes are combined: motor imagination with steady-state evoked visual potentials (SSVEP) and motor imagination with P300. In the case of reactive tasks, SSVEP is most widely combined with P300 to increase the number of commands. Passive BCIs, however, are rare. After discussing the hardware and strategies involved in the development of hBCI, the second part examines the approaches used to increase the number of control commands and to enhance classification accuracy. The future prospects and the extension of hBCI in real-time applications for daily life scenarios are provided. PMID:28790910

  19. Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface Techniques for Improved Classification Accuracy and Increased Number of Commands: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Keum-Shik; Khan, Muhammad Jawad

    2017-01-01

    In this article, non-invasive hybrid brain-computer interface (hBCI) technologies for improving classification accuracy and increasing the number of commands are reviewed. Hybridization combining more than two modalities is a new trend in brain imaging and prosthesis control. Electroencephalography (EEG), due to its easy use and fast temporal resolution, is most widely utilized in combination with other brain/non-brain signal acquisition modalities, for instance, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), electromyography (EMG), electrooculography (EOG), and eye tracker. Three main purposes of hybridization are to increase the number of control commands, improve classification accuracy and reduce the signal detection time. Currently, such combinations of EEG + fNIRS and EEG + EOG are most commonly employed. Four principal components (i.e., hardware, paradigm, classifiers, and features) relevant to accuracy improvement are discussed. In the case of brain signals, motor imagination/movement tasks are combined with cognitive tasks to increase active brain-computer interface (BCI) accuracy. Active and reactive tasks sometimes are combined: motor imagination with steady-state evoked visual potentials (SSVEP) and motor imagination with P300. In the case of reactive tasks, SSVEP is most widely combined with P300 to increase the number of commands. Passive BCIs, however, are rare. After discussing the hardware and strategies involved in the development of hBCI, the second part examines the approaches used to increase the number of control commands and to enhance classification accuracy. The future prospects and the extension of hBCI in real-time applications for daily life scenarios are provided.

  20. Hybrid Brain–Computer Interface Techniques for Improved Classification Accuracy and Increased Number of Commands: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keum-Shik Hong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, non-invasive hybrid brain–computer interface (hBCI technologies for improving classification accuracy and increasing the number of commands are reviewed. Hybridization combining more than two modalities is a new trend in brain imaging and prosthesis control. Electroencephalography (EEG, due to its easy use and fast temporal resolution, is most widely utilized in combination with other brain/non-brain signal acquisition modalities, for instance, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS, electromyography (EMG, electrooculography (EOG, and eye tracker. Three main purposes of hybridization are to increase the number of control commands, improve classification accuracy and reduce the signal detection time. Currently, such combinations of EEG + fNIRS and EEG + EOG are most commonly employed. Four principal components (i.e., hardware, paradigm, classifiers, and features relevant to accuracy improvement are discussed. In the case of brain signals, motor imagination/movement tasks are combined with cognitive tasks to increase active brain–computer interface (BCI accuracy. Active and reactive tasks sometimes are combined: motor imagination with steady-state evoked visual potentials (SSVEP and motor imagination with P300. In the case of reactive tasks, SSVEP is most widely combined with P300 to increase the number of commands. Passive BCIs, however, are rare. After discussing the hardware and strategies involved in the development of hBCI, the second part examines the approaches used to increase the number of control commands and to enhance classification accuracy. The future prospects and the extension of hBCI in real-time applications for daily life scenarios are provided.

  1. The Effect of Increasing Numbers of Horses of Undefined Breed on Horse Breeding in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Bihuncová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyse the numbers and division of horses of undefined breed. At the present time this group is the most numerous in the entire population of horses. Horses of undefined breed do not come under any breeder union which would provide reports about these horses; these horses are only registered and breeders are informed only about their numbers. Our study is the first to deal with the problem of increasing numbers of horses of undefined breed. The database contained 22 211 horses not entered registered in any of the stud books. In the database we filed approved horses born between 1972 and 1 September 2012 and horses registered from 1987. The data were processed in the Excel programme and results were evaluated in graphs. The most frequent horse in this group was the warm-blood type (n = 9 303, pony type (n = 6 285, cold-blooded type (n = 2 663 and unlisted horses (n = 2 278. Since 2001 the number of registered horses of undefined breed has increased. The most numerous dams of horses of undefined breed is the Czech warm-blood with 1 912 offspring; dams of the English Thoroughbred with 552 offspring and mares of the utility Huzule horse with 492 offspring. In the group of registered horses of undefined breed the Czech warm-blood appears in the pedigree of 507 colts and the American Paint Horse in the pedigree of sires of 506 colts. Why the numbers of horses of undefined breed are increasing is the boom of leisure horsemanship and unqualified horse breeding.

  2. The increasing of odontoblast-like cell number on direct pulp capping of Rattus norvegicus using chitosan

    OpenAIRE

    Prananingrum, Widyasri

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pulpal perforation care with direct pulp capping in the case of reversible pulpitis due to mechanical trauma was performed with chitosan which has the ability to facilitate migration, proliferation, and progenitor cell differentiation. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the increasing number of odontoblast-like cells in direct pulp capping dental care of Rattus norvegicus using chitosan for seven and fourteen days. Methods: Samples were molars of male Rattus norve...

  3. Increasing the number of inter-arch contacts improves mastication in adults with Down syndrome: a prospective controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennequin, Martine; Mazille, Marie-Noëlle; Cousson, Pierre-Yves; Nicolas, Emmanuel

    2015-06-01

    Feeding difficulties due to their condition have been widely described for babies, children and adults with Down syndrome (DS). A previous study demonstrated that, compared with wearing a placebo appliance, wearing an occlusal appliance increased inter-arch dental contacts, improved the oral health status of adults with DS and normalised their mandibular rest position. This longitudinal prospective controlled trial aimed to evaluate whether increasing inter-arch contacts in adults with DS would lead to improved masticatory efficiency. Fourteen subjects with DS (mean age±SD: 28.5±9.3years) and twelve controls without DS (24.6±1.0years) were video recorded while chewing samples of carrot and peanuts with and without an oral appliance that was designed to equalise the number of posterior functional units (PFUs) in both groups. Three parameters were collected during mastication for 15cycles and until swallowing: food refusals, food bolus granulometry (D50) and kinematic parameters of the chewing process (number of cycles, chewing duration and cycle frequency within the chewing sequence). In the DS group, increasing the number of PFUs led to a decrease in bolus particle size, to fewer masticatory cycles needed to produce a bolus ready for swallowing and to a decrease in the occurrence of food refusal, while mean chewing frequency did not vary. In the control group, bolus granulometry and chewing time increased with appliance wear while mean chewing frequency decreased. These changes clearly indicate a functional improvement in subjects with DS. This study also demonstrated a causal relationship between the number of functional pairs of posterior teeth and improved mastication. Any evaluation of feeding behaviour in persons with DS should consider inter-arch dental contacts as an explicative variable for feeding problems and their nutritional and respiratory consequences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hybrid Brain–Computer Interface Techniques for Improved Classification Accuracy and Increased Number of Commands: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Keum-Shik; Khan, Muhammad Jawad

    2017-01-01

    In this article, non-invasive hybrid brain–computer interface (hBCI) technologies for improving classification accuracy and increasing the number of commands are reviewed. Hybridization combining more than two modalities is a new trend in brain imaging and prosthesis control. Electroencephalography (EEG), due to its easy use and fast temporal resolution, is most widely utilized in combination with other brain/non-brain signal acquisition modalities, for instance, functional near infrared spec...

  5. Increased number of sex chromosomes affects height in a nonlinear fashion: a study of 305 patients with sex chromosome aneuploidy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Anne-Marie; Aksglaede, Lise; Garn, Inger

    2010-01-01

    Tall stature and eunuchoid body proportions characterize patients with 47,XXY Klinefelter syndrome, whereas patients with 45,X Turner syndrome are characterized by impaired growth. Growth is relatively well characterized in these two syndromes, while few studies describe the growth of patients wi......,XXXX (n = 13), and -1.0 (-3.5 to -0.8) in 49,XXXXX (n = 3). Height increased with an increasing number of extra X or Y chromosomes, except in males with five, and in females with four or five sex chromosomes, consistent with a nonlinear effect on height....

  6. Acupuncture attenuates cognitive deficits and increases pyramidal neuron number in hippocampal CA1 area of vascular dementia rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Yan, Chao-Qun; Lin, Li-Ting; Li, Hui; Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Liu, Yi; Du, Si-Qi; Zhu, Wen; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-04-28

    Decreased cognition is recognized as one of the most severe and consistent behavioral impairments in dementia. Experimental studies have reported that acupuncture may improve cognitive deficits, relieve vascular dementia (VD) symptoms, and increase cerebral perfusion and electrical activity. Multi-infarction dementia was modeled in rats with 3% microemboli saline suspension. Two weeks after acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36), all rats were subjected to a hidden platform trial to test their 3-day spatial memory using the Morris water maze test. To estimate the numbers of pyramidal neuron, astrocytes, and synaptic boutons in hippocampal CA1 area, we adopted an unbiased stereology method to accurately sample and measure the size of cells. We found that acupuncture at ST36 significantly decreased the escape latency of VD rats. In addition, acupuncture significantly increased the pyramidal neuron number in hippocampal CA1 area (P area in any of the groups (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that acupuncture may improve cognitive deficits and increase pyramidal neuron number of hippocampal CA1 area in VD rats.

  7. Strategy selection as rational metareasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieder, Falk; Griffiths, Thomas L

    2017-11-01

    Many contemporary accounts of human reasoning assume that the mind is equipped with multiple heuristics that could be deployed to perform a given task. This raises the question of how the mind determines when to use which heuristic. To answer this question, we developed a rational model of strategy selection, based on the theory of rational metareasoning developed in the artificial intelligence literature. According to our model people learn to efficiently choose the strategy with the best cost-benefit tradeoff by learning a predictive model of each strategy's performance. We found that our model can provide a unifying explanation for classic findings from domains ranging from decision-making to arithmetic by capturing the variability of people's strategy choices, their dependence on task and context, and their development over time. Systematic model comparisons supported our theory, and 4 new experiments confirmed its distinctive predictions. Our findings suggest that people gradually learn to make increasingly more rational use of fallible heuristics. This perspective reconciles the 2 poles of the debate about human rationality by integrating heuristics and biases with learning and rationality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Increasing numbers of nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the last 15 years: antithrombotic medication as reason and prognostic factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konczalla, Juergen; Kashefiolasl, Sepide; Brawanski, Nina; Senft, Christian; Seifert, Volker; Platz, Johannes

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is usually caused by a ruptured intracranial aneurysm, but in some patients no source of hemorrhage can be detected. More recent data showed increasing numbers of cases of spontaneous nonaneurysmal SAH (NASAH). The aim of this study was to analyze factors, especially the use of antithrombotic medications such as systemic anticoagulation or antiplatelet agents (aCPs), influencing the increasing numbers of cases of NASAH and the clinical outcome. METHODS Between 1999 and 2013, 214 patients who were admitted to the authors' institution suffered from NASAH, 14% of all patients with SAH. Outcome was assessed according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 6 months. Risk factors were identified based on the outcome. RESULTS The number of patients with NASAH increased significantly in the last 15 years of the study period. There was a statistically significant increase in the rate of nonperimesencephalic (NPM)-SAH occurrence and aCP use, while the proportion of elderly patients remained stable. Favorable outcome (mRS 0-2) was achieved in 85% of cases, but patients treated with aCPs had a significantly higher risk for an unfavorable outcome. Further analysis showed that elderly patients, and especially the subgroup with a Fisher Grade 3 bleeding pattern, had a high risk for an unfavorable outcome, whereas the subgroup of NPM-SAH without a Fisher Grade 3 bleeding pattern had a favorable outcome, similar to perimesencephalic (PM)-SAH. CONCLUSIONS Over the years, a significant increase in the number of patients with NASAH has been observed. Also, the rate of aCP use has increased significantly. Risk factors for an unfavorable outcome were age > 65 years, Fisher Grade 3 bleeding pattern, and aCP use. Both "PM-SAH" and "NPM-SAH without a Fisher Grade 3 bleeding pattern" had excellent outcomes. Patients with NASAH and a Fisher Grade 3 bleeding pattern had a significantly higher risk for an unfavorable outcome and death. Therefore, for further

  9. The number of Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells is increased in Helicobacter pylori gastritis and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Tae Jung

    2010-01-15

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization induces vigorous innate and specific immune responses; however, the infection is not removed, a state of chronic active gastritis persists for life if untreated. Recent studies have shown that CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress the immune response to H. pylori. Persistent H. pylori-associated gastritis is closely associated with gastric carcinogenesis. We investigated the number of Tregs in the context of H. pylori colonization in chronic gastritis, examined the relationship between it and histopathological findings and compared it with that of gastric dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. This study was based on the analysis of gastric biopsy specimens from 126 cases of H. pylori-associated gastritis, 16 cases of H. pylori-negative gastritis, 17 cases of gastric dysplasia, and 25 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma. The number of Tregs was elevated in H. pylori-associated gastritis, where it was positively correlated with the grade of chronic inflammation and the number of lymphoid follicles. It was significantly elevated in adenocarcinomas compared to chronic gastritis and gastric dysplasia. In summary, the number of Tregs is increased in H. pylori-associated gastritis and gastric cancer. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Chronically reinforced, operant olfactory conditioning increases the number of newborn GABAergic olfactory periglomerular neurons in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Rodríguez, Miguel; Esquivelzeta-Rabell, José F; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel

    2012-12-01

    The mammalian brain preserves the ability to replace olfactory periglomerular cells (PGC) throughout life. Even though we have detailed a great deal the mechanisms underlying stem and amplifying cells maintenance and proliferation, as well as those modulating migration and differentiation, our knowledge on PGC phenotypic plasticity is at best fragmented and controversial. Here we explored whether chronically reinforced olfactory conditioning influences the phenotype of newborn PGC. Accordingly, olfactory conditioned rats showed increased numbers of GAD 65/67 positive PGC. Because such phenotypic change was not accompanied neither by increments in the total number of PGC, or periglomerular cell nuclei labeled with bromodeoxyuridine, nor by reductions in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), calbindin (CB) or calretinin (CR) immunoreactive PGC, we speculate that increments in the number of GABAergic PGC occur at the expense of other PGC phenotypes. In any event, these results support that adult newborn PGC phenotype may be subjected to phenotypic plasticity influenced by sensory stimulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bounded Rationality and Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mukdad

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the theory of bounded rationality which had been introduced by Herbert Simon in the 1950s. Simon introduced the notion of bounded rationality stating that while decision-makers strive for rationality, they are limited by the effect of the environment, their information process capacity and by the constraints on their information storage and retrieval capabilities. Moreover, this article tries to specifically blend this notion into budgeting, using the foundations of inc...

  12. Rational Multiparty Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Wallrabenstein, John Ross

    2014-01-01

    The field of rational cryptography considers the design of cryptographic protocols in the presence of rational agents seeking to maximize local utility functions. This departs from the standard secure multiparty computation setting, where players are assumed to be either honest or malicious. ^ We detail the construction of both a two-party and a multiparty game theoretic framework for constructing rational cryptographic protocols. Our framework specifies the utility function assumptions neces...

  13. Determinants of Actor Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer-supplier...... relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse...

  14. Luteal-phase ovarian stimulation increases the number of mature oocytes in older women with severe diminished ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashtian, Justin; Zhang, John

    2018-03-22

    In older women with severe diminished ovarian response (DOR), in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is much less successful due to the low number of mature oocytes collected. The objective of this study was to assess whether follicular-phase stimulation (FPS) and luteal-phase stimulation (LPS) in the same menstrual cycle (double ovarian stimulation) in older women with severe DOR will produce a higher number of oocytes compared to FPS alone. Women with DOR (n = 69; mean age = 42.4) who underwent double ovarian stimulation for IVF were included. Women underwent ovarian stimulation in FPS using clomiphene citrate, letrozole, and gonadotropins followed by oocyte retrieval. The next day following oocyte retrieval, women underwent a second ovarian stimulation (LPS) using the same medications followed by a second oocyte retrieval. T-test was performed in order to compare the clinical characteristics and outcome in the same participant between FPS and LPS. Although antral follicle count at the start of FPS tended to be higher than at the start of the LPS cycle, there was no statistically significant difference between the duration of ovarian stimulation, peak estradiol levels, number of small (FPS alone. The addition of LPS to the conventional FPS increases the number of mature oocytes retrieved in the same IVF cycle, thus potentially increasing the chances of pregnancy in older women with severe DOR. AFC: antral follicle count; BMI: body mass index; DOR: diminished ovarian reserve; E2: estradiol; FPS: follicular-phase stimulation; FSH: follicle stimulating hormone; GnRH: gonadotropin-releasing hormone; HCG: human chorionic gonadotropin; IRB: institutional review board; IVF: in vitro fertilization; LH: luteinizing hormone; LPS: luteal-phase stimulation; MII: metaphase II.

  15. The increased number of osteoblasts and capillaries in orthodontic tooth movement post-administration of Robusta coffee extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Herniyati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The application of orthodontic forces subjects blood capillaries to considerable pressure, resulting in hypoxia on the pressure side. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, expressed in osteoblasts represents an important mitogen that induces angiogenesis. Osteoblasts and blood capillaries play an important role in bone formation. Robusta coffee contains chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid both of which produce antioxidant effects capable of reducing oxidative stress in osteoblasts. Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of Robusta coffee extract on the number of osteoblasts and blood capillaries in orthodontic tooth movement. Methods: This research constituted a laboratory-based experimental study involving the use of sixteen male rodents divided into two groups, namely; control group (C consisting of eight mice given orthodontic mechanical force (OMF and a treatment group (T containing eight mice administered OMF and dried Robusta coffee extract at a dose of 20mg/ 100 g BW. The OMF was performed by installing a ligature wire on the maxillary right first molar and both maxillary incisors. In the following stage, the maxillary right first molar was moved to the mesial using Tension Gauze with a Nickel Titanium Orthodontic closed coil spring. Observation was subsequently undertaken on the 15th day by extracting the maxillary right first and second molar with their periodontal tissues. Thereafter, histological examination was performed using hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining technique to measure the number of osteoblasts and blood capillaries on the mesial and distal periodontal ligaments of the maxillary right first molar. Results: The administration of Robusta coffee extract increases the number of blood capillaries and osteoblasts on both the pressure and tension sides were found to be significantly higher in the T group compared to the C group (p<0,05. Conclusion: Robusta coffee extract increase the number of

  16. An analysis of psychotropic drug sales. Increasing sales of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are closely related to number of products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Margrethe; Gøtzsche, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Prescribing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has increased dramatically. To compare the sales of benzodiazepines and SSRIs within the primary care sector in Denmark and relate changes in usage to number of indications and products on the market. We used data from various sources to establish the sales curves of psychotropic drugs in the period 1970 to 2007, based on the Anatomic Therapeutic Classification system and Defined Daily Doses. Fluctuations in sales of psychotropic drugs that cannot be explained by disease prevalence were caused by changes in sales of the benzodiazepines and SSRIs. We found a decline in the sales of benzodiazepines after a peak in 1986, likely due to the recognition that they cause dependence. From a low level in 1992, we found that the sales of SSRIs increased almost linearly by a factor of 18, up to 44 DDD per 1000 inhabitants, which was closely related to the number of products on the market that increased by a factor of 16. Sales of antidepressant drugs are mainly determined by market availability of products indicating that marketing pressures are playing an important role. Thus the current level of use of SSRIs may not be evidence-based, which is supported by studies showing that the effect of SSRIs has been overestimated.

  17. Rational maps, monopoles and skyrmions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, C.J.; Manton, N.S.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the similarities between BPS monopoles and skyrmions, and point to an underlying connection in terms of rational maps between Riemann spheres. This involves the introduction of a new ansatz for Skyrme fields. We use this to construct good approximations to several known skyrmions, including all the minimal energy configurations up to baryon number nine, and some new solutions such as a baryon number seventeen Skyrme field with the truncated icosahedron structure of a buckyball. The new approach is also used to understand the low-lying vibrational modes of skyrmions, which are required for quantization. Along the way we discover an interesting Morse function on the space of rational maps which may be of use in understanding the Sen forms on the monopole moduli spaces. (orig.)

  18. Rational approximations for tomographic reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Matthew; Beylkin, Gregory; Monzón, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    We use optimal rational approximations of projection data collected in x-ray tomography to improve image resolution. Under the assumption that the object of interest is described by functions with jump discontinuities, for each projection we construct its rational approximation with a small (near optimal) number of terms for a given accuracy threshold. This allows us to augment the measured data, i.e., double the number of available samples in each projection or, equivalently, extend (double) the domain of their Fourier transform. We also develop a new, fast, polar coordinate Fourier domain algorithm which uses our nonlinear approximation of projection data in a natural way. Using augmented projections of the Shepp–Logan phantom, we provide a comparison between the new algorithm and the standard filtered back-projection algorithm. We demonstrate that the reconstructed image has improved resolution without additional artifacts near sharp transitions in the image. (paper)

  19. Determination of increased mean drag coefficients for a cylinder vibrating at low values of Keulegan-Carpenter number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Riveros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for the development of a reliable technology for wind turbines in deepwaters.Therefore, offshore wind turbine technology is receiving great amount of attention by the research community. Nevertheless, the dynamic response prediction of the support system for offshore wind turbines is still challenging due to the nonlinear and self-regulated nature of the Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV process. In this paper, the numerical implementation of a computational fluid dynamics-based approach for determination of increased mean drag coefficient is presented. The numerical study is conducted at low values of Keulegan-Carpenter number in order to predict the increment of drag force due to cross-flow motion. The simulation results are then compared with previously developed empirical formulations. Good agreement is observed in these comparisons.

  20. Higher Education in Brazil and the policies for increasing the number of vacancies from Reuni: advances and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Borges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a discussion on the policies to expand Higher Education, stating the influences of neoliberalism and explaining the contradictions in legislation and reforms at this level of education in Brazil after the 1990s. It questions the model of the New University with regard to the Brazilian reality and the poor investments available for such a reform. It calls attention to the danger of prioritizing the increase in the number of vacancies instead of the quality of teaching, something which would represent the scrapping of the public university. It highlights the contradictions of Reuni, with improvised actions and conditioning of funds, through the achievement of goals. On one hand, it recognizes the increasing number of vacancies in Higher Education and, on the other, it reaffirms that democratization of access requires universities with financial autonomy, well-structured courses with innovative curricula, qualified professors, adequate infrastructure, and high quality teaching, with research aiming the production of new knowledge, as well as university extension.

  1. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)

  2. Two Concepts of Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dominant tradition in Western philosophy sees rationality as dictating. Thus rationality may require that we believe the best explanation and simple conceptual truths and that we infer in accordance with evident rules of inference. I argue that, given what we know about the growth of knowledge, this authoritarian concept of rationality leads to absurdities and should be abandoned. I then outline a libertarian concept of rationality, derived from Popper, which eschews the dictates and which sees a rational agent as one who questions, criticises, conjectures and experiments. I argue that, while the libertarian approach escapes the absurdities of the authoritarian, it requires two significant developments and an important clarification to be made fully consistent with itself.

  3. Exploring rationality in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Meth...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality.......Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...

  4. Irrational Rationality of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nalbandov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with the ontological problem of applying the rational choice frameworks to the study of terrorism. It testing the application of the rational choice to the “old” (before the end of the Cold War and the “new” (after the end of the Cold War terrorisms. It starts with analyzing the fundamentals of rationality and applies it at two levels: the individual (actors and group (collective via two outlooks: tactical (short-term and strategic (long-term. The main argument of the article is that while the “old” terrorism can be explained by the rational choice theory its “new” version represents a substantial departure from rationality.

  5. Respect for rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca L

    2009-12-01

    The standard notion of autonomy in medical ethics does not require that autonomous choices not be irrational. The paper gives three examples of seemingly irrational patient choices and discusses how a rational autonomy analysis differs from the standard view. It then considers whether a switch to the rational autonomy view would lead to overriding more patient decisions but concludes that this should not be the case. Rather, a determination of whether individual patient decisions are autonomous is much less relevant than usually considered in determining whether health care providers must abide by these decisions. Furthermore, respect for rational autonomy entails strong positive requirements of respect for the autonomy of the person as a rational decision maker. The rationality view of autonomy is conceptually stronger than the standard view, allows for a more nuanced understanding of the practical moral calculus involved in respecting patient autonomy, and promotes positive respect for patient autonomy.

  6. Decreased number of interneurons and increased seizures in neuropilin 2 deficient mice: implications for autism and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gant, John C; Thibault, Oliver; Blalock, Eric M; Yang, Jun; Bachstetter, Adam; Kotick, James; Schauwecker, Paula E; Hauser, Kurt F; Smith, George M; Mervis, Ron; Li, YanFang; Barnes, Gregory N

    2009-04-01

    Clinically, perturbations in the semaphorin signaling system have been associated with autism and epilepsy. The semaphorins have been implicated in guidance, migration, differentiation, and synaptic plasticity of neurons. The semaphorin 3F (Sema3F) ligand and its receptor, neuropilin 2 (NPN2) are highly expressed within limbic areas. NPN2 signaling may intimately direct the apposition of presynaptic and postsynaptic locations, facilitating the development and maturity of hippocampal synaptic function. To further understand the role of NPN2 signaling in central nevous system (CNS) plasticity, structural and functional alterations were assessed in NPN2 deficient mice. In NPN2 deficient mice, we measured seizure susceptibility after kainic acid or pentylenetetrazol, neuronal excitability and synaptic throughput in slice preparations, principal and interneuron cell counts with immunocytochemical protocols, synaptosomal protein levels with immunoblots, and dendritic morphology with Golgi-staining. NPN2 deficient mice had shorter seizure latencies, increased vulnerability to seizure-related death, were more likely to develop spontaneous recurrent seizure activity after chemical challenge, and had an increased slope on input/output curves. Principal cell counts were unchanged, but GABA, parvalbumin, and neuropeptide Y interneuron cell counts were significantly reduced. Synaptosomal NPN2 protein levels and total number of GABAergic synapses were decreased in a gene dose-dependent fashion. CA1 pyramidal cells showed reduced dendritic length and complexity, as well as an increased number of dendritic spines. These data suggest the novel hypothesis that the Sema 3F signaling system's role in appropriate placement of subsets of hippocampal interneurons has critical downstream consequences for hippocampal function, resulting in a more seizure susceptible phenotype.

  7. Maillard reaction products from highly heated food prevent mast cell number increase and inflammation in a mouse model of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Amir, Issam; Dubayle, David; Héron, Anne; Delayre-Orthez, Carine; Anton, Pauline M

    2017-12-01

    Links between food and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are often suggested, but the role of food processing has not been extensively studied. Heat treatment is known to cause the loss of nutrients and the appearance of neoformed compounds such as Maillard reaction products. Their involvement in gut inflammation is equivocal, as some may have proinflammatory effects, whereas other seem to be protective. As IBDs are associated with the recruitment of immune cells, including mast cells, we raised the hypothesis that dietary Maillard reaction products generated through heat treatment of food may limit the colitic response and its associated recruitment of mast cells. An experimental model of colitis was used in mice submitted to mildly and highly heated rodent food. Adult male mice were divided in 3 groups and received nonheated, mildly heated, or highly heated chow during 21 days. In the last week of the study, each group was split into 2 subgroups, submitted or not (controls) to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis. Weight variations, macroscopic lesions, colonic myeloperoxidase activity, and mucosal mast cell number were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Only highly heated chow significantly prevented DSS-induced weight loss, myeloperoxidase activity, and mast cell number increase in the colonic mucosa of DSS-colitic mice. We suggest that Maillard reaction products from highly heated food may limit the occurrence of inflammatory phases in IBD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Increasing Student’s Character Values by Utilizing Combination of Team Accelerated Instruction (TAI and Numbered Heads Together (NHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ita Nuryana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to obtain empirical evidence of the effectiveness of combining Team Accelerated Instruction (TAI and Numbered Heads Together (NHT learning strategies in teaching Investments to improve students’ discipline, creativity, diligence, and participation. Population was students who enrolled in Intermediate Financial Accounting 2 course in Economics Education Department; Economics Faculty of Universitas Negeri Semarang The sample of the research consists of 48 students. Data were collected by using observations, interviews, and documentation. The stages of the research include planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation, analysis, and reflection. Findings show that the combination of TAI and NHT does not improve students’ learning outcomes even thought it manages to increase students’ pre-test score in learning Investments as well as their participation in classroom.

  9. Many faces of rationality: Implications of the great rationality debate for clinical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Elqayam, Shira

    2017-10-01

    Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models. Rationality is typically classified under umbrella of normative (addressing the question how people "should" or "ought to" make their decisions) and descriptive theories of decision-making (which portray how people actually make their decisions). Normative theories of rational thought of relevance to medicine include epistemic theories that direct practice of evidence-based medicine and expected utility theory, which provides the basis for widely used clinical decision analyses. Descriptive theories of rationality of direct relevance to medical decision-making include bounded rationality, argumentative theory of reasoning, adaptive rationality, dual processing model of rationality, regret-based rationality, pragmatic/substantive rationality, and meta-rationality. For the first time, we provide a review of wide range of theories and models of rationality. We showed that what is "rational" behaviour under one rationality theory may be irrational under the other theory. We also showed that context is of paramount importance to rationality and that no one model of rationality can possibly fit all contexts. We suggest that in context-poor situations, such as policy decision-making, normative theories based on expected utility informed by best research evidence may provide the optimal approach to medical decision-making, whereas in the context

  10. Rational Water and Nitrogen Management Improves Root Growth, Increases Yield and Maintains Water Use Efficiency of Cotton under Mulch Drip Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to optimize water-nitrogen (N applications to increase seed cotton yield and water use efficiency (WUE under a mulch drip irrigation system. This study evaluated the effects of four water regimes [moderate drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the boll-opening stage (W1, deficit drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the flowering stage and sufficient drip irrigation thereafter (W2, pre-sowing and moderate drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the boll-opening stage (W3, pre-sowing and deficit drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the flowering stage and sufficient drip irrigation thereafter (W4] and N fertilizer at a rate of 520 kg ha-1 in two dressing ratios [7:3 (N1, 2:8 (N2] on cotton root morpho-physiological attributes, yield, WUE and the relationship between root distribution and dry matter production. Previous investigations have shown a strong correlation between root activity and water consumption in the 40–120 cm soil layer. The W3 and especially W4 treatments significantly increased root length density (RLD, root volume density (RVD, root mass density (RMD, and root activity in the 40–120 cm soil layer. Cotton RLD, RVD, RMD was decreased by 13.1, 13.3, and 20.8%, respectively, in N2 compared with N1 at 70 days after planting (DAP in the 0–40 cm soil layer. However, root activity in the 40–120 cm soil layer at 140 DAP was 31.6% higher in N2 than that in N1. Total RMD, RLD and root activity in the 40–120 cm soil were significantly and positively correlated with shoot dry weight. RLD and root activity in the 40–120 cm soil layer was highest in the W4N2 treatments. Therefore increased water consumption in the deep soil layers resulted in increased shoot dry weight, seed cotton yield and WUE. Our data can be used to develop a water-N management strategy for optimal cotton yield and high WUE.

  11. Rational points on varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Poonen, Bjorn

    2017-01-01

    This book is motivated by the problem of determining the set of rational points on a variety, but its true goal is to equip readers with a broad range of tools essential for current research in algebraic geometry and number theory. The book is unconventional in that it provides concise accounts of many topics instead of a comprehensive account of just one-this is intentionally designed to bring readers up to speed rapidly. Among the topics included are Brauer groups, faithfully flat descent, algebraic groups, torsors, étale and fppf cohomology, the Weil conjectures, and the Brauer-Manin and descent obstructions. A final chapter applies all these to study the arithmetic of surfaces. The down-to-earth explanations and the over 100 exercises make the book suitable for use as a graduate-level textbook, but even experts will appreciate having a single source covering many aspects of geometry over an unrestricted ground field and containing some material that cannot be found elsewhere. The origins of arithmetic (o...

  12. Signatures derived from increase in SHARPIN gene copy number are associated with poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Ojo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We report three signatures produced from SHARPIN gene copy number increase (GCN-Increase and their effects on patients with breast cancer (BC. In the Metabric dataset (n = 2059, cBioPortal, SHARPIN GCN-Increase occurs preferentially or mutual exclusively with mutations in TP53, PIK3CA, and CDH1. These genomic alterations constitute a signature (SigMut that significantly correlates with reductions in overall survival (OS in BC patients (n = 1980; p = 1.081e−6. Additionally, SHARPIN GCN-Increase is associated with 4220 differentially expressed genes (DEGs. These DEGs are enriched in activation of the pathways regulating cell cycle progression, RNA transport, ribosome biosynthesis, DNA replication, and in downregulation of the pathways related to extracellular matrix. These DEGs are thus likely to facilitate the proliferation and metastasis of BC cells. Additionally, through forward (FWD and backward (BWD stepwise variate selections among the top 160 downregulated and top 200 upregulated DEGs using the Cox regression model, a 6-gene (SigFWD and a 50-gene (SigBWD signature were derived. Both signatures robustly associate with decreases in OS in BC patients within the Curtis (n = 1980; p = 6.16e−11 for SigFWD; p = 1.06e−10, for SigBWD and TCGA cohort (n = 817; p = 4.53e−4 for SigFWD and p = 0.00525 for SigBWD. After adjusting for known clinical factors, SigMut (HR 1.21, p = 0.0297, SigBWD (HR 1.25, p = 0.0263, and likely SigFWD (HR 1.17, p = 0.062 remain independent risk factors of BC deaths. Furthermore, the proportion of patients positive for these signatures is significantly increased in ER−, Her2-enriched, basal-like, and claudin-low BCs compared to ER+ and luminal BCs. Collectively, these SHARPIN GCN-Increase-derived signatures may have clinical applications in management of patients with BC.

  13. Job losses and accumulated number of broken partnerships increase risk of premature mortality in Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how accumulation of job losses and broken partnerships affect the risk of premature mortality, and to study joint exposure to both events. METHODS: Birth cohort study of 9789 Danish men born in 1953 with follow-up of events between the ages of 40 and 51. RESULTS: The adj......OBJECTIVE: To investigate how accumulation of job losses and broken partnerships affect the risk of premature mortality, and to study joint exposure to both events. METHODS: Birth cohort study of 9789 Danish men born in 1953 with follow-up of events between the ages of 40 and 51. RESULTS......: The adjusted hazard rates for premature mortality was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.15 to 1.80) for individuals with one job loss, 1.55 (1.13 to 2.13) for individuals with one broken partnership, and 2.15 (95% CI = 1.49 to 3.10) for individuals with two or more broken partnerships. CONCLUSIONS: Experience of at least one...... job loss increased the risk of premature mortality. The risk of premature mortality increased with the number of broken partnerships. There was no statistical interaction between job losses and broken partnerships....

  14. Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris lectin stimulation increases the number of enterochromaffin cells in the small intestine of suckling piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharko-Siembida Anna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantities and distribution patterns of serotonin-immunoreactive (serotonin-IR enterochromaffin cells (EC were studied immunohistochemically in the small intestine of suckling piglets stimulated with red kidney bean lectin, and in nonstimulated, control animals. The co-expression patterns of serotonin with somatostatin (SOM or corticotropin releasing-factor (CRF were also studied. After the lectin treatment, the increased numbers of EC were noted in the duodenum of experimental animals. Lectin stimulation did not change the proportions of EC in the jejunum and ileum. In the duodenal epithelium of the lectin-stimulated piglets, the vast majority of serotonin-IR EC were distributed at the basis of crypts. After the lectin administration, the proportions of serotonin-IR/SOM-IR EC were statistically similar in all sections of the small intestine. No upregulation of CRF was found in duodenal, jejunal, and ileal EC of lectin-treated animals. The findings demonstrated that red kidney bean lectin increased the serotonin reservoir in the duodenum, and thus may be an effective stimulant of the gut maturation in suckling mammals.

  15. Increased certification of semi-device independent random numbers using many inputs and more post-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironowicz, Piotr; Tavakoli, Armin; Hameedi, Alley; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed; Pawłowski, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Quantum communication with systems of dimension larger than two provides advantages in information processing tasks. Examples include higher rates of key distribution and random number generation. The main disadvantage of using such multi-dimensional quantum systems is the increased complexity of the experimental setup. Here, we analyze a not-so-obvious problem: the relation between randomness certification and computational requirements of the post-processing of experimental data. In particular, we consider semi-device independent randomness certification from an experiment using a four dimensional quantum system to violate the classical bound of a random access code. Using state-of-the-art techniques, a smaller quantum violation requires more computational power to demonstrate randomness, which at some point becomes impossible with today’s computers although the randomness is (probably) still there. We show that by dedicating more input settings of the experiment to randomness certification, then by more computational postprocessing of the experimental data which corresponds to a quantum violation, one may increase the amount of certified randomness. Furthermore, we introduce a method that significantly lowers the computational complexity of randomness certification. Our results show how more randomness can be generated without altering the hardware and indicate a path for future semi-device independent protocols to follow. (paper)

  16. The competitor release effect applied to carnivore species: how red foxes can increase in numbers when persecuted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano, J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to numerically simulate the population dynamics of a hypothetical community of three species of small to medium–sized carnivores subjected to non–selective control within the context of the competitor release effect (CRE. We applied the CRE to three carnivore species, linking interspecific competition with predator control efforts. We predicted the population response of European badger, the red fox and the pine marten to this wildlife management tool by means of numerical simulations. The theoretical responses differed depending on the intrinsic rate of growth (r, although modulated by the competition coefficients. The red fox, showing the highest r value, can increase its populations despite predator control efforts if control intensity is moderate. Populations of the other two species, however, decreased with control efforts, even reaching extinction. Three additional theoretical predictions were obtained. The conclusions from the simulations were: 1 predator control can play a role in altering the carnivore communities; 2 red fox numbers can increase due to control; and 3 predator control programs should evaluate the potential of unintended effects on ecosystems.

  17. History of Economic Rationalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book concentrates upon how economic rationalities have been embedded into particular historical practices, cultures, and moral systems. Through multiple case-studies, situated in different historical contexts of the modern West, the book shows that the development of economic rationalities...... takes place in the meeting with other regimes of thought, values, and moral discourses. The book offers new and refreshing insights, ranging from the development of early economic thinking to economic aspects and concepts in the works of classical thinkers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Karl Marx......, to the role of economic reasoning in contemporary policies of art and health care. With economic rationalities as the read thread, the reader is offered a unique chance of historical self-awareness and recollection of how economic rationality became the powerful ideological and moral force that it is today....

  18. Rationing medical education.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different ... Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at .... Walsh K. Online educational tools to improve the.

  19. Crab Rationalization Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crab Rationalization Program (Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities. The North Pacific Fishery Management...

  20. THE HICKSIAN RATIONAL CONSUMER

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel FERNÁNDEZ-GRELA

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to trace the evolution of the concept of ''rational consumer'' in Hicks's writings. After being one of the pioneers in the introduction of rationality assumptions about consumer behaviour in economic models, Hicks gradually developed a sceptical view about some of the uses to which those assumptions were put into. The focus of the paper is on continuity in Hicksian views, providing a picture of gradual changes in the long series of Hicks's works

  1. Many faces of rationality: Implications of the great rationality debate for clinical decision‐making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elqayam, Shira

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models. Rationality is typically classified under umbrella of normative (addressing the question how people “should” or “ought to” make their decisions) and descriptive theories of decision‐making (which portray how people actually make their decisions). Normative theories of rational thought of relevance to medicine include epistemic theories that direct practice of evidence‐based medicine and expected utility theory, which provides the basis for widely used clinical decision analyses. Descriptive theories of rationality of direct relevance to medical decision‐making include bounded rationality, argumentative theory of reasoning, adaptive rationality, dual processing model of rationality, regret‐based rationality, pragmatic/substantive rationality, and meta‐rationality. For the first time, we provide a review of wide range of theories and models of rationality. We showed that what is “rational” behaviour under one rationality theory may be irrational under the other theory. We also showed that context is of paramount importance to rationality and that no one model of rationality can possibly fit all contexts. We suggest that in context‐poor situations, such as policy decision‐making, normative theories based on expected utility informed by best research evidence may provide the optimal approach to medical decision

  2. Increasing the Overall Quality and the Number of Women and Hispanic Geoscientists for the Workforce: Rebuilding an Undergraduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M. T.; McGehee, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past ten years, the Geosciences Program at Texas A&M University-Kingsville has increased the number of Geology majors 400%, and in the past five years we have graduated 62 students, an increase of 800%. Of these graduates, 37% were Hispanic or African-American and 26% were women. Our graduates are high-achievers with 13% also graduating from the Honor's College (campus-wide rate is less than 1.5%) and that included three women and two Hispanic graduates. Two of these recent graduates are doctoral candidates and eleven are master's candidates at major universities. Of these, three master's candidates are Hispanic, including two women, and one doctoral candidate is a Hispanic woman. The recent productivity and quality changes in this program are attributed to our shift toward an undergraduate, student-centered focus. The increases in productivity resulted from the development of strong relationships with community colleges across the state and significant efforts in recruitment and retention. The major changes in quality included implementation of a strong field-oriented focus with full faculty participation, a strong undergraduate research program, a well-developed recruitment and retention plan, a GIS Certification incorporated into the geology degree, and a culture change to further student professional development. We have maintained over 50 majors in our program for the past three years through increased faculty presentations at high-schools and community colleges, a good University recruiting staff, and quarterly newsletters, focused on student achievements, sent to all prospective students and parents inquiring about the geology major. The resurgence of the oil and gas industry and the retirement of geoscientists have provided a steady stream of job opportunities for our graduates. The 79% that are not pursuing a graduate education accepted jobs after graduation. These include oil and gas entry level jobs, mining jobs, teaching jobs, and geospatial

  3. Increased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosje, P J; van Kooten, P J; Thepen, T; Bihari, I C; Rutten, V P; Koeman, J P; Willemse, T

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize T cells in the skin of cats with an allergic dermatitis histologically compatible with atopic dermatitis, since T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in humans. We observed a significantly greater number of T cells in lesional skin of domestic short-haired cats with allergic dermatitis (n = 10; median age 5.8 years) than in the skin of healthy control animals (n = 10; median age 5.0 years). In the skin of the healthy control animals, one or two CD4+ cells and no CD8+ cells were found. A predominant increase of CD4+ T cells and a CD4+/CD8+ ratio (mean +/- SD: 3.9 +/- 2.0) was found in the lesional skin of 10 cats with allergic dermatitis. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio in the skin of healthy control animals could not be determined because of the absence of CD8+ cells. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio in the peripheral blood of 10 cats with allergic dermatitis (mean +/- SD: 1.9 +/- 0.4) did not differ significantly from that in 10 healthy control animals (2.2 +/- 0.4). The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and predominance of CD4+ T cells in the lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis is comparable to that found in atopic dermatitis in humans. In addition, the observed increase of CD4+ T cells in the nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis compared to the skin of healthy cats is similar to what is seen in humans. Cytokines produced by T cells and antigen-specific T cells are important mediators in the inflammatory cascade resulting in atopic dermatitis in humans. This study is a first step to investigate their role in feline allergic dermatitis.

  4. Effects of increasing number of rings on the ion sensing ability of CdSe quantum dots: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Pragati; Kakkar, Rita

    2018-04-01

    A computational study on the structural and electronic properties of a special class of artificial atoms, known as quantum dots, has been carried out. These are semiconductors with unique optical and electronic properties and have been widely used in various applications, such as bio-sensing, bio-imaging, and so on. We have considered quantum dots belonging to II-VI types of semiconductors, due to their wide band gap, possession of large exciton binding energies and unique optical and electronic properties. We have studied their applications as chemical ion sensors by beginning with the study of the ion sensing ability of (CdSe) n ( n = 3, 6, 9 which are in the size range of 0.24, 0.49, 0.74 nm, respectively) quantum dots for cations of the zinc triad, namely Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, and various anions of biological and environmental importance, and studied the effect of increasing number of rings on their ion sensing ability. The various structural, electronic, and optical properties, their interaction energies, and charge transfer on interaction with metal ions and anions have been calculated and reported. Our studies indicate that the CdSe quantum dots can be employed as sensors for both divalent cations and anions, but they can sense cations better than anions.

  5. The number of articles submitted to the Journal of the Faculty of Medicine experienced a dramatic increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Escobar-Córdoba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Journal of the Faculty of Medicine of Universidad Nacional de Colombia has undergone important changes in the past years; the amount of articles submitted for initiating the editorial process has increased, in the same manner as the amount of articles received in English language, and the rejection rate, which is now around 40%. The number of international authors has also grown, thus demonstrating that the publication has achieved greater visibility and recognition. In this context, the following articles have been selected for the first issue of Volume 69 of the Journal of the Faculty of Medicine: “Is parricide a stable phenomenon? An analysis of parricide offenders in a forensic hospital” (1 is a study written by an important group of Brazilian authors, who demonstrate their expertise in one of the crimes that causes most social upheaval due to its broad implications. Parricide immediately attracts attention as it is easily linked to the presence of a mental disorder, which is actually corroborated by this study, since it shows that most parricides are young adult males, who have a low level of education, are single, with no criminal history and schizophrenic; in addition, few cases show antisocial personality disorders.

  6. A dominant lineage of Mycoplasma bovis is associated with an increased number of severe mastitis cases in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürki, Sibylle; Spergser, Joachim; Bodmer, Michèle; Pilo, Paola

    2016-11-30

    Mycoplasma bovis is the most frequent etiologic agent of bovine mycoplasmosis. It causes various diseases in bovines and considerable economic loss due to the lack of effective treatment or preventive measures such as vaccination. In contrast to the US, where M. bovis-mastitis has been reported for a long time, M. bovis infections in Switzerland and Austria were predominantly associated with pneumonia and subclinical mastitis. However, since 2007 the situation has changed with the emergence of severe M. bovis-associated mastitis cases in both countries. In order to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of the bacteria isolated from these infections, recent and old Swiss, along with recent Austrian M. bovis isolates were analyzed by a typing method displaying intermediate resolution of evolutionary relationships among isolates called Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). The analysis of Swiss and Austrian M. bovis isolates revealed two major lineages. Isolates collected since 2007 in both countries cluster in the lineage I including ST5, ST33, ST34, 36, and ST38-40 (clonal complex 1), while all Swiss isolates recovered before 2007 cluster in the lineage II comprising ST17 and ST35 (clonal complex 5). Further investigations are necessary to understand if lineage I has a higher predilection or virulence toward mammary gland cells than the old lineage or if other factors are involved in the increased number of severe mastitis cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensori-motor synchronisation variability decreases as the number of metrical levels in the stimulus signal increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Guy

    2014-03-01

    Timing performance becomes less precise for longer intervals, which makes it difficult to achieve simultaneity in synchronisation with a rhythm. The metrical structure of music, characterised by hierarchical levels of binary or ternary subdivisions of time, may function to increase precision by providing additional timing information when the subdivisions are explicit. This hypothesis was tested by comparing synchronisation performance across different numbers of metrical levels conveyed by loudness of sounds, such that the slowest level was loudest and the fastest was softest. Fifteen participants moved their hand with one of 9 inter-beat intervals (IBIs) ranging from 524 to 3,125 ms in 4 metrical level (ML) conditions ranging from 1 (one movement for each sound) to 4 (one movement for every 8th sound). The lowest relative variability (SD/IBI<1.5%) was obtained for the 3 longest IBIs (1600-3,125 ms) and MLs 3-4, significantly less than the smallest value (4-5% at 524-1024 ms) for any ML 1 condition in which all sounds are identical. Asynchronies were also more negative with higher ML. In conclusion, metrical subdivision provides information that facilitates temporal performance, which suggests an underlying neural multi-level mechanism capable of integrating information across levels. © 2013.

  8. Exposure to inorganic arsenic is associated with increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and longer telomere length in peripheral blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Shegufta Ameer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs through drinking water causes cancer. Alterations in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn and telomere length in blood have been associated with cancer risk. We elucidated if arsenic exposure alters mtDNAcn and telomere length in individuals with different arsenic metabolizing capacity.Methods: We studied two groups in the Salta province, Argentina, one in the Puna area of the Andes (N=264, 89% females and one in Chaco (N=169, 75% females. We assessed arsenic exposure as the sum of arsenic metabolites [iAs, methylarsonic acid (MMA, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA] in urine (U-As using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Efficiency of arsenic metabolism was expressed as percentage of urinary metabolites. MtDNAcn and telomere length were determined in blood by real-time PCR. Results: Median U-As was 196 (5 - 95 percentile: 21 - 537 µg/L in Andes and 80 (5 - 95 percentile: 15 - 1637 µg/L in Chaco. The latter study group had less-efficient metabolism, with higher %iAs and %MMA in urine compared with the Andean group. U-As was significantly associated with increased mtDNAcn (log2 transformed to improve linearity in Chaco (β=0.027 per 100 µg/L, p=0.0085; adjusted for age and sex, but not in Andes (β=0.025, p=0.24. U-As was also associated with longer telomere length in Chaco (β=0.016, p=0.0066 and Andes (β=0.0075, p=0.029. In both populations, individuals with above median %iAs showed significantly higher mtDNAcn and telomere length compared with individuals with below median %iAs. Conclusions: Arsenic was associated with increased mtDNAcn and telomere length, particularly in individuals with less-efficient arsenic metabolism, a group who may have increased risk for arsenic-related cancer.

  9. Patient outcome of emergency laparotomy improved with increasing "number of surgeons on-call" in a university hospital: Audit loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Anwar; Mahmood, Fahad; Teng, Chui; Jafferbhoy, Sadaf; Luke, David; Tsiamis, Achilleas

    2017-11-01

    Emergency laparotomy is a commonly performed high-mortality surgical procedure. The National Emergency Laparotomy Network (NELA) published an average mortality rate of 11.1% and a median length of stay equivalent to 16.3 days in patients undergoing emergency laparotomy. This study presents a completed audit loop after implementing the change of increasing the number of on-call surgeons in the general surgery rota of a university hospital. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of emergency laparotomy in a single UK tertiary centre after addition of one more consultant in the daily on-call rota. This is a retrospective study involving patients who underwent emergency laparotomy between March to May 2013 (first audit) and June to August 2015 (second audit). The study parameters stayed the same. The adult patients undergoing emergency laparotomy under the general surgical take were included. Appendicectomy, cholecystectomy and simple inguinal hernia repair patients were excluded. Data was collected on patient demographics, ASA, morbidity, 30-day mortality and length of hospital stay. Statistical analysis including logistic regression was performed using SPSS. During the second 3-month period, 123 patients underwent laparotomy compared to 84 in the first audit. Median age was 65(23-93) years. 56.01% cases were ASA III or above in the re-audit compared to 41.9% in the initial audit. 38% patients had bowel anastomosis compared to 35.7% in the re-audit with 4.2% leak rate in the re-audit compared to 16.6% in the first audit. 30-day mortality was 10.50% in the re-audit compared to 21% and median length of hospital stay 11 days in the re-audit compared to 16 days. The lower ASA grade was significantly associated with increased likelihood of being alive, as was being female, younger age and not requiring ITU admission post-operatively. However, having a second on-call consultant was 2.231 times more likely to increase the chances of patients not dying (p = 0

  10. Froude number fractions to increase walking pattern dynamic similarities: application to plantar pressure study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, P; Bisiaux, M; Lafortune, M A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if using similar walking velocities obtained from fractions of the Froude number (N(Fr)) and leg length can lead to kinematic and kinetic similarities and lower variability. Fifteen male subjects walked on a treadmill at 0.83 (VS(1)) and 1.16ms(-1) (VS(2)) and then at two similar velocities (V(Sim27) and V(Sim37)) determined from two fractions of the N(Fr) (0.27 and 0.37) so that the average group velocity remained unchanged in both conditions (VS(1)=V (Sim27)andVS(2)=V (Sim37)). N(Fr) can theoretically be used to determine walking velocities proportional to leg lengths and to establish dynamic similarities between subjects. This study represents the first attempt at using this approach to examine plantar pressure. The ankle and knee joint angles were studied in the sagittal plane and the plantar pressure distribution was assessed with an in-shoe measurement device. The similarity ratios were computed from anthropometric parameters and plantar pressure peaks. Dynamically similar conditions caused a 25% reduction in leg joint angles variation and a 10% significant decrease in dimensionless pressure peak variability on average of five footprint locations. It also lead to heel and under-midfoot pressure peaks proportional to body mass and to an increase in the number of under-forefoot plantar pressure peaks proportional to body mass and/or leg length. The use of walking velocities derived from N(Fr) allows kinematic and plantar pressure similarities between subjects to be observed and leads to a lower inter-subject variability. In-shoe pressure measurements have proven to be valuable for the understanding of lower extremity function. Set walking velocities used for clinical assessment mask the effects of body size and individual gait mechanics. The anthropometric scaling of walking velocities (fraction of N(Fr)) should improve identification of unique walking strategies and pathological foot functions.

  11. Positroids Induced by Rational Dyck Paths

    OpenAIRE

    Gotti, Felix

    2017-01-01

    A rational Dyck path of type $(m,d)$ is an increasing unit-step lattice path from $(0,0)$ to $(m,d) \\in \\mathbb{Z}^2$ that never goes above the diagonal line $y = (d/m)x$. On the other hand, a positroid of rank $d$ on the ground set $[d+m]$ is a special type of matroid coming from the totally nonnegative Grassmannian. In this paper we describe how to naturally assign a rank $d$ positroid on the ground set $[d+m]$, which we name rational Dyck positroid, to each rational Dyck path of type $(m,d...

  12. Guidelines for Rational Cancer Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunghee Yoo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cancer therapy has relied on surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. In recent years, these interventions have become increasingly replaced or complemented by more targeted approaches that are informed by a deeper understanding of the underlying biology. Still, the implementation of fully rational patient-specific drug design appears to be years away. Here, we present a vision of rational drug design for cancer that is defined by two major components: modularity and image guidance. We suggest that modularity can be achieved by combining a nanocarrier and an oligonucleotide component into the therapeutic. Image guidance can be incorporated into the nanocarrier component by labeling with a specific imaging reporter, such as a radionuclide or contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. While limited by the need for additional technological advancement in the areas of cancer biology, nanotechnology, and imaging, this vision for the future of cancer therapy can be used as a guide to future research endeavors.

  13. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan. Contingency gasoline rationing regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The Economic Regulatory Administration issues final rules with respect to standby gasoline rationing. The plan is designed for and would be used only in the event of a severe gasoline shortage. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations. DOE will mail government ration checks to the parties named in a national vehicle registration file to be maintained by DOE. Ration recipients may cash these checks for ration coupons at various designated coupon issuance points. Retail outlets and other suppliers will be required to redeem the ration coupons received in exchange for gasoline sold. Supplemental gas will be given to high-priority activities. A ration banking system will be established with two separate and distinct of ration accounts: retail outlets and other suppliers will open redemption accounts for the deposit of redeemed ration rights; and individuals or firms may open ration rights accounts, which will operate in much the same manner as monetary checking accounts. A white market will be permitted for the sale of transfer of ration rights. A percentage of the total ration rights to be issued will be reserved for distribution to the states as a State Ration Reserve, to be used by the states primarily for the relief of hardship. A National Ration Reserave will also be established. All sections of the Standby Gasoline Rationing Regulations are analyzed. (MCW)

  14. Possibilities of rationalizing gas storage in hydrocarbon deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stricker; Gilch; Kretzschmar

    1990-01-01

    A number of criteria on the utilization of gas fields for storage and major methods for rationalizing such storage reservoirs (such as pressure optimization and increase of well performance) are indicated. The pressure reduction/ pressure increase conducted in phases and the investigations involved are discussed in detail. In particular, experiences and results for fixing the maximum allowable storage pressures are analyzed critically. Problems of gas blending in case of different compositions of residual gas and storage gas are dealt with. Finally, some recommendations are given for the necessary investigations to increase efficiency in the conversion of depleted hydrocarbon deposits to gas storage. 3 figs

  15. Love and rationality: on some possible rational effects of love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ortiz-Millán

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I defend the idea that rather than disrupting rationality, as the common-sense conception has done it, love may actually help us to develop rational ways of thinking and acting. I make the case for romantic or erotic love, since this is the kind of love that is more frequently associated with irrationality in acting and thinking. I argue that this kind of love may make us develop epistemic and practical forms of rationality. Based on an analysis of its characteristic action tendencies, I argue that love may help us to develop an instrumental form of rationality in determining the best means to achieve the object of love. It may also narrow down the number of practical considerations that may help us to achieve our goals. Finally, love may generate rational ways of belief-formation by framing the parameters taken into account in perception and attention, and by bringing into light only a small portion of the epistemic information available. Love may make us perceive reality more acutely.Neste artigo defendo a idéia de que, em vez de perturbar a racionalidade, como a concepção do senso comum o faz, o amor pode, na verdade, ajudar-nos a desenvolver modos racionais de pensar e agir. Dou bons argumentos para o amor romântico ou erótico, uma vez que esse é o tipo de amor que é mais freqüentemente associado à irracionalidade no agir e no pensar. Argumento que esse tipo de amor pode fazer-nos desenvolver formas epistêmicas e práticas de racionalidade. Com base em uma análise de suas tendências características para a ação, argumento que o amor pode ajudar-nos a desenvolver uma forma instrumental de racionalidade para se determinar o melhor meio de atingir o objeto de amor. Ele também pode limitar o número de considerações práticas que podem ajudar-nos a atingir os nossos objetivos. Finalmente, o amor pode gerar modos racionais de formação de crenças ao estruturar os parâmetros considerados na percepção e na aten

  16. The increasing of odontoblast-like cell number on direct pulp capping of Rattus norvegicus using chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyasri Prananingrum

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulpal perforation care with direct pulp capping in the case of reversible pulpitis due to mechanical trauma was performed with chitosan which has the ability to facilitate migration, proliferation, and progenitor cell differentiation. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the increasing number of odontoblast-like cells in direct pulp capping dental care of Rattus norvegicus using chitosan for seven and fourteen days. Methods: Samples were molars of male Rattus norvegicus strain wistar, aged between 8–16 weeks, divided into two treatment groups, namely group I given chitosan and group II as a control group given Ca(OH2. Those Rattus norvegicus’ occlusal molar teeth were prepared with class I cavity, and then chitosan and Ca(OH2 were applied as the pulp capping materials. Afterwards, glasss ionomer cement type IX was used as a restoration material. Their teeth and jaw were then cut on the seventh day and the fourteenth day. Next, histopathological examination was carried out to observe the odontoblast like cells. All data were then analyzed by t test. Degree of confidence obtained, finally, was 95%. Results: The results obtained showed that the significant differences of odontoblast like cells on the seventh day observation was 0.001 (p = 0.001, and on the fourteenth day observation was 0.002 (p = 0.002. Conclusion: The number of odontoblast-like cells in direct pulp capping dental care of rattus norvegicus using chitosan is higher than the one using Ca(OH2 for seven and fourteen days.Latar belakang: Perawatan perforasi pulpa pada kasus pulpitis reversible karena trauma mekanis bur dilakukan direct pulp capping dengan cara pemberian bahan secara topikal pada daerah perforasi. Kitosan memiliki kemampuan untuk memfasilitasi migrasi, proliferasi dan diferensiasi sel progenitor pulpa. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan jumlah peningkatan odontoblas-like cell pada perawatan direct pulp capping gigi

  17. Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen; Aagaard, Per; Kadi, Fawzi

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of creatine and protein supplementation on satellite cell frequency and number of myonuclei in human skeletal muscle during 16 weeks of heavy-resistance training. In a double-blinded design 32 healthy, male subjects (19-26 years) were assigned to stren......The present study investigated the influence of creatine and protein supplementation on satellite cell frequency and number of myonuclei in human skeletal muscle during 16 weeks of heavy-resistance training. In a double-blinded design 32 healthy, male subjects (19-26 years) were assigned...

  18. [Rationalization and rationing at the bedside. A normative and empirical status quo analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, D

    2014-02-01

    The topic of bedside rationing is increasingly discussed in Germany. Further need for clarification exists for the question how bedside rationing (e.g., in the area of overcare) can be justified despite coexistent inefficiencies. This paper outlines and analyses the relationship of waste avoidance and rationing from an ethical perspective. Empirical findings regarding the status quo of bedside rationing and rationalization are presented. These normative and empirical explorations will then be further specified regarding opportunities for future physician-driven activities to tackle overuse. The self-government partners in Germany should communicate more explicitly within their communities and to the public how and with which benchmarks they aim to reduce inefficient health care (overuse) in an appropriate manner. Physician-driven activities such as the "Choosing Wisely®" initiative in the USA could provide a first step to raise the awareness for overuse among physicians as well as in the public.

  19. What Motivates an Ever Increasing Number of Students to Enroll in Part-Time Taught Postgraduate Awards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Amaly; Kember, David; Hong, Celina

    2012-01-01

    There has been a substantial rise in the number of students enrolling in part-time taught postgraduate awards. This study investigates the reasons or motivation for students to spend significant amounts on tutorial fees and find time alongside work, family and social commitments to take a taught postgraduate award. Data were gathered through…

  20. Isolation and characterization of novel mutations in the pSC101 origin that increase copy number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mitchell G.; Sedaghatian, Nima; Barajas, Jesus F.

    2018-01-01

    /cell) based plasmids, respectively. The mutant copy number variants retained compatibility with p15a, pBBR, and ColE1 origins of replication. These pSC101 variants may be useful in future metabolic engineering efforts that require medium or high-copy vectors compatible with p15a- and ColE1-based plasmids....

  1. Biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy in intermediate-risk group men increases with the number of risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuki Furubayashi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The number of intermediate risk factors is significantly associated with the PSA failure-free survival rate after radical prostatectomy in the intermediate-risk group. Patients classified into the intermediate-risk group based on all three intermediate risk factors are less likely to achieve a complete cure through surgery alone.

  2. Consumer rationality in choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and

  3. Universal and Relative Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Goldberg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I illustrate how a basic kind of universal rationality can be profitably combined with undeniable instances of relativism. I do so by engaging Michael Friedman’s recent response to a challenge from Thomas Kuhn.

  4. The rational complementarity problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Schumacher, J.M.; Weiland, S.

    1999-01-01

    An extension of the linear complementarity problem (LCP) of mathematical programming is the so-called rational complementarity problem (RCP). This problem occurs if complementarity conditions are imposed on input and output variables of linear dynamical input/state/output systems. The resulting

  5. Rational equity bubbles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ge

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the existence of a bubble in the pricing of an asset that pays positive dividends. I show that rational bubbles can exist in a growing economy. The existence of bubbles depends on the relative magnitudes of risk aversion to consumption and to wealth. Furthermore, I examine how an exogenous shock in technology might trigger bubbles.

  6. Ideal Theory, Real Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Understanding rationality and power are key to understanding actual political and administrative behavior. Political and administrative theory that ignores this fact stand in danger of being at best irrelevant or, at worst part of the problem it whishes to solve. The paper presents Jürgen Habermas...

  7. Diagnosis, Dogmatism, and Rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Efron, Noah J.

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings suggesting that misdiagnoses frequently stem from flaws in human information processing, particularly in collecting and using information. Claims that improved diagnostic tools will not remedy the problem. Drawing on the work of Karl Popper and Robin Collingwood, proposes operational principles to ensure a rational diagnostic…

  8. Rational Emotive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, William

    1977-01-01

    Rational Emotive Education--an outgrowth of theories developed by Albert Ellis--is a teaching design of mental health concepts and problem-solving activities designed to help students to approach and cope with their problems through experiential learning, via a structured, thematic sequence of emotive education lessons. (MJB)

  9. Hegel's phenomenology of rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to elucidate Hegel's conception of rationality in the Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807), and to defend the thesis that he is an author engaged in discussion with a wide variety of sources. He uses sceptical reasoning to form a line of argument with a necessary progression...

  10. When larger brains do not have more neurons: Increased numbers of cells are compensated by decreased average cell size across mouse individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana eHerculano-Houzel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong trend toward increased brain size in mammalian evolution, with larger brains composed of more and larger neurons than smaller brains across species within each mammalian order. Does the evolution of increased numbers of brain neurons, and thus larger brain size, occur simply through the selection of individuals with more and larger neurons, and thus larger brains, within a population? That is, do individuals with larger brains also have more, and larger, neurons than individuals with smaller brains, such that allometric relationships across species are simply an extension of intraspecific scaling? Here we show that this is not the case across adult male mice of a similar age. Rather, increased numbers of neurons across individuals are accompanied by increased numbers of other cells and smaller average cell size of both types, in a trade-off that explains how increased brain mass does not necessarily ensue. Fundamental regulatory mechanisms thus must exist that tie numbers of neurons to numbers of other cells and to average cell size within individual brains. Finally, our results indicate that changes in brain size in evolution are not an extension of individual variation in numbers of neurons, but rather occur through step changes that must simultaneously increase numbers of neurons and cause cell size to increase, rather than decrease.

  11. Chewing suppresses the stress-induced increase in the number of pERK-immunoreactive cells in the periaqueductal grey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kentaro; Narimatsu, Yuri; Ono, Yumie; Sasaguri, Ken-Ichi; Onozuka, Minoru; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu

    2015-07-10

    We investigated the effects of chewing under immobilization stress on the periaqueductal gray (PAG) matter using phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) as a marker of responding cells. Immobilization stress increased pERK-immunoreactive cells in the PAG. Among four subdivisions of the PAG, the increase of immunoreactive cells was remarkable in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral subdivisions. However, increase of pERK-immunoreactive cells by the immobilization stress was not so evident in the dorsomedial and lateral subdivisions. The chewing under immobilization stress prevented the stress-induced increase of pERK-immunoreactive cells in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral subdivisions with statistical significances (p<0.05). Again, chewing effects on pERK-immunoreactive cells were not visible in the dorsomedial and lateral subdivisions. These results suggest that the chewing alleviates the PAG (dorsolateral and ventrolateral subdivisions) responses to stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  13. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martínez-Tur

    Full Text Available The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  14. Intergroup Conflict and Rational Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A.; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict –associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)– has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making. PMID:25461384

  15. Ex vivo lung perfusion to improve donor lung function and increase the number of organs available for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Franco; Rosso, Lorenzo; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Palleschi, Alessandro; Tosi, Davide; Mendogni, Paolo; Salice, Valentina; Ruggeri, Giulia M; Fumagalli, Jacopo; Villa, Alessandro; Nosotti, Mario; Santambrogio, Luigi; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the initial clinical experience of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) at the Fondazione Ca' Granda in Milan between January 2011 and May 2013. EVLP was considered if donor PaO2 /FiO2 was below 300 mmHg or if lung function was doubtful. Donors with massive lung contusion, aspiration, purulent secretions, pneumonia, or sepsis were excluded. EVLP was run with a low-flow, open atrium and low hematocrit technique. Thirty-five lung transplants from brain death donors were performed, seven of which after EVLP. EVLP donors were older (54 ± 9 years vs. 40 ± 15 years, EVLP versus Standard, P donor organs and resulted in successful transplants with lungs that would have otherwise been rejected (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01967953). © 2014 The Authors. Transplant International published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Steunstichting ESOT.

  16. Meta-analysis identifies 29 additional ulcerative colitis risk loci, increasing the number of confirmed associations to 47

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Carl A; Boucher, Gabrielle; Lees, Charlie W

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene studies in ulcerative colitis have identified 18 susceptibility loci. We conducted a meta-analysis of six ulcerative colitis genome-wide association study datasets, comprising 6,687 cases and 19,718 controls, and followed up the top association...... signals in 9,628 cases and 12,917 controls. We identified 29 additional risk loci (P associated loci to 47. After annotating associated regions using GRAIL, expression quantitative trait loci data and correlations with non-synonymous SNPs, we...... identified many candidate genes that provide potentially important insights into disease pathogenesis, including IL1R2, IL8RA-IL8RB, IL7R, IL12B, DAP, PRDM1, JAK2, IRF5, GNA12 and LSP1. The total number of confirmed inflammatory bowel disease risk loci is now 99, including a minimum of 28 shared association...

  17. Effect of increasing diffusion gradient direction number on diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking in the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Xu Fang; Liang, Bie Bei; Xia, Tian; Huang, Qin Ming; Zhuang, Song Lin; Yu, Tong Gang

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of varying the number of diffusion gradient directions (NDGDs) on diffusion tensor fiber tracking (FT) in human brain white matter using tract characteristics. Twelve normal volunteers underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scanning with NDGDs of 6, 11, 15, 21, and 31 orientations. Three fiber tract groups, including the splenium of the corpus callosum (CC), the entire CC, and the full brain tract, were reconstructed by deterministic DTI-FT. Tract architecture was first qualitatively evaluated by visual observation. Six quantitative tract characteristics, including the number of fibers (NF), average length (AL), fractional anisotropy (FA), relative anisotropy (RA), mean diffusivity (MD), and volume ratio (VR) were measured for the splenium of the CC at the tract branch level, for the entire CC at tract level, and for the full brain tract at the whole brain level. Visual results and those of NF, AL, FA, RA, MD, and VR were compared among the five different NDGDs. The DTI-FT with NDGD of 11, 15, 21, and 31 orientations gave better tracking results compared with NDGD of 6 after the visual evaluation. NF, FA, RA, MD, and VR values with NDGD of six were significantly greater (smallest p = 0.001 to largest p = 0.042) than those with four other NDGDs (11, 15, 21, or 31 orientations), whereas AL measured with NDGD of six was significantly smaller (smallest p = 0.001 to largest p = 0.041) than with four other NDGDs (11, 15, 21, or 31 orientations). No significant differences were observed in the results among the four NDGD groups of 11, 15, 21, and 31 directions (smallest p = 0.059 to largest p = 1.000). The main fiber tracts were detected with NDGD of six orientations; however, the use of larger NDGD (> or = 11 orientations) could provide improved tract characteristics at the expense of longer scanning time.

  18. Effect of increasing diffusion gradient direction number on diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking in the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Xu Fang; Liang, Bie Bei; Xia, Tian; Huang, Qin Ming; Zhuang, Song Lin [School of Optical-Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shanghai Medical Instrument College, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Yu, Tong Gang [Dept. of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-04-15

    To assess the effects of varying the number of diffusion gradient directions (NDGDs) on diffusion tensor fiber tracking (FT) in human brain white matter using tract characteristics. Twelve normal volunteers underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scanning with NDGDs of 6, 11, 15, 21, and 31 orientations. Three fiber tract groups, including the splenium of the corpus callosum (CC), the entire CC, and the full brain tract, were reconstructed by deterministic DTI-FT. Tract architecture was first qualitatively evaluated by visual observation. Six quantitative tract characteristics, including the number of fibers (NF), average length (AL), fractional anisotropy (FA), relative anisotropy (RA), mean diffusivity (MD), and volume ratio (VR) were measured for the splenium of the CC at the tract branch level, for the entire CC at tract level, and for the full brain tract at the whole brain level. Visual results and those of NF, AL, FA, RA, MD, and VR were compared among the five different NDGDs. The DTI-FT with NDGD of 11, 15, 21, and 31 orientations gave better tracking results compared with NDGD of 6 after the visual evaluation. NF, FA, RA, MD, and VR values with NDGD of six were significantly greater (smallest p = 0.001 to largest p = 0.042) than those with four other NDGDs (11, 15, 21, or 31 orientations), whereas AL measured with NDGD of six was significantly smaller (smallest p = 0.001 to largest p = 0.041) than with four other NDGDs (11, 15, 21, or 31 orientations). No significant differences were observed in the results among the four NDGD groups of 11, 15, 21, and 31 directions (smallest p = 0.059 to largest p = 1.000). The main fiber tracts were detected with NDGD of six orientations; however, the use of larger NDGD (> or = 11 orientations) could provide improved tract characteristics at the expense of longer scanning time.

  19. Farm Business Management Analysis: Adjusting the Farm Business to Increase Profit. Unit III. Volume 15, Number 3. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Robert; And Others

    Designed primarily for Missouri vocational agricultural instructors participating in the Farm Business Management Analysis Program, this instructor's guide, consisting of 10 lessons, deals with adjusting a farm business to increase profits. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons: law and the farm family, planning income tax…

  20. Method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and pre-determined increase in cetane number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Francis Joseph; Quinn, Robert

    2004-07-06

    The present invention relates to a method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and a pre-determined increase in cetane number over the stock diesel fuel. Upon establishing the desired flash-point and increase in cetane number, an amount of a first oxygenate with a flash-point less than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number equal to or greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number. Thereafter, an amount of a second oxygenate with a flash-point equal to or greater than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number.

  1. Rationality and ritual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynne, B.

    1982-01-01

    The book concerns the Windscale Public Inquiry, held to investigate the application by British Nuclear Fuels to build a 1200 tonne per year thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP) for spent nuclear fuels from Britain and overseas. The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (international dimensions; the Windscale Inquiry; conflict resolution and social drama; public debate and the sociology of knowledge); the decision-making legacy; oxide reprocessing - the background; the public inquiry tradition - a comparative perspective; the emergence of THORP from a private to a public issue (local and national planning politics); the process and impact of the Inquiry (opposition groups); judicial rationality, expert conflict, and political authority); the rationality and politics of analysis (proliferation; radiation risks; relative risks; the Ravenglass issue; discharge targets; general radiation protection arrangements); conclusion. (U.K.)

  2. Rational management of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Venkataraman

    2014-09-01

    Management of epilepsies in children has improved considerably over the last decade, all over the world due to the advances seen in the understanding of the patho-physiology of epileptogenesis, availability of both structural and functional imaging studies along with better quality EEG/video-EEG recordings and the availability of a plethora of newer anti-epileptic drugs which are tailormade to act on specific pathways. In spite of this, there is still a long way to go before one is able to be absolutely rational about which drug to use for which type of epilepsy. There have been a lot of advances in the area of epilepsy surgery and is certainly gaining ground for specific cases. Better understanding of the genetic basis of epilepsies will hopefully lead to a more rational treatment plan in the future. Also, a lot of work needs to be done to dispel various misunderstandings and myths about epilepsy which still exists in our country.

  3. Multivariate rational data fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte

    1992-12-01

    Sections 1 and 2 discuss the advantages of an object-oriented implementation combined with higher floating-point arithmetic, of the algorithms available for multivariate data fitting using rational functions. Section 1 will in particular explain what we mean by "higher arithmetic". Section 2 will concentrate on the concepts of "object orientation". In sections 3 and 4 we shall describe the generality of the data structure that can be dealt with: due to some new results virtually every data set is acceptable right now, with possible coalescence of coordinates or points. In order to solve the multivariate rational interpolation problem the data sets are fed to different algorithms depending on the structure of the interpolation points in then-variate space.

  4. Rational decisions, random matrices and spin glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluccio, Stefano; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Potters, Marc

    We consider the problem of rational decision making in the presence of nonlinear constraints. By using tools borrowed from spin glass and random matrix theory, we focus on the portfolio optimisation problem. We show that the number of optimal solutions is generally exponentially large, and each of them is fragile: rationality is in this case of limited use. In addition, this problem is related to spin glasses with Lévy-like (long-ranged) couplings, for which we show that the ground state is not exponentially degenerate.

  5. Rational Unified Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kopal, Nils

    2016-01-01

    In this German seminar paper, which was written in the year 2011 at the University of Duisburg for a Bachelor Colloquium in Applied computer science, we show a brief overview of the Rational Unified Process (RUP). Thus, interested students or generally interested people in software development gain a first impression of RUP. The paper includes a survey and overview of the underlying process structure, the phases of the process, its workflows, and describes the always by the RUP developers pos...

  6. Maps of Bounded Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Kahneman, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The work cited by the Nobel committee was done jointly with the late Amos Tversky (1937-1996) during a long and unusually close collaboration. Together, we explored the psychology of intuitive beliefs and choices and examined their bounded rationality. This essay presents a current perspective on the three major topics of our joint work: heuristics of judgment, risky choice, and framing effects. In all three domains we studied intuitions - thoughts and preferences that come to mind quickly an...

  7. Emotional Theory of Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés, Mario; Finkel, Lucila

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, it has been definitely established the existence of a close relationship between the emotional phenomena and rational processes, but we still do not have a unified definition, or effective models to describe any of them well. To advance our understanding of the mechanisms governing the behavior of living beings we must integrate multiple theories, experiments and models from both fields. In this paper we propose a new theoretical framework that allows integrating and unders...

  8. On hereditarily rational functions

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, Krzysztof Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short proof of a theorem by Koll\\'{a}r on hereditarily rational functions. This is an answer to his appeal to find an elementary proof which does not rely so much on resolution of singularities. Our approach does not make use of desingularization techniques. Instead, we apply a stronger version of the \\L{}ojasiewicz inequality. Moreover, this allows us to sharpen Koll\\'{a}r's theorem.

  9. Ectopic phytocystatin expression increases nodule numbers and influences the responses of soybean (Glycine max) to nitrogen deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quain, Marian D; Makgopa, Matome E; Cooper, James W; Kunert, Karl J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-04-01

    Cysteine proteases and cystatins have many functions that remain poorly characterised, particularly in crop plants. We therefore investigated the responses of these proteins to nitrogen deficiency in wild-type soybeans and in two independent transgenic soybean lines (OCI-1 and OCI-2) that express the rice cystatin, oryzacystatin-I (OCI). Plants were grown for four weeks under either a high (5 mM) nitrate (HN) regime or in the absence of added nitrate (LN) in the absence or presence of symbiotic rhizobial bacteria. Under the LN regime all lines showed similar classic symptoms of nitrogen deficiency including lower shoot biomass and leaf chlorophyll. However, the LN-induced decreases in leaf protein and increases in root protein tended to be smaller in the OCI-1 and OCI-2 lines than in the wild type. When LN-plants were grown with rhizobia, OCI-1 and OCI-2 roots had significantly more crown nodules than wild-type plants. The growth nitrogen regime had a significant effect on the abundance of transcripts encoding vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs), LN-dependent increases in VPE2 and VPE3 transcripts in all lines. However, the LN-dependent increases of VPE2 and VPE3 transcripts were significantly lower in the leaves of OCI-1 and OCI-2 plants than in the wild type. These results show that nitrogen availability regulates the leaf and root cysteine protease, VPE and cystatin transcript profiles in a manner that is in some cases influenced by ectopic OCI expression. Moreover, the OCI-dependent inhibition of papain-like cysteine proteases favours increased nodulation and enhanced tolerance to nitrogen limitation, as shown by the smaller LN-dependent decreases in leaf protein observed in the OCI-1 and OCI-2 plants relative to the wild type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rational choices for the wavelengths of a two color interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobes, F.C.

    1995-07-01

    If in a two color interferometer for plasma density measurements, the two wavelengths are chosen to have a ratio that is a rational number, and if the signals from each of the wavelengths are multiplied in frequency by the appropriate integer of the rational number and then heterodyned together, the resultant signal will have all effects of component motion nulled out. A phase measurement of this signal will have only plasma density information in it. With CO 2 lasers, it is possible to find suitable wavelength pairs which are close enough to rational numbers to produce an improvement of about 100 in density resolution, compared to standard two color interferometers

  11. Changes in human dendritic cell number and function in severe obesity may contribute to increased susceptibility to viral infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, D

    2013-02-26

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key immune sentinels linking the innate and adaptive immune systems. DCs recognise danger signals and initiate T-cell tolerance, memory and polarisation. They are critical cells in responding to a viral illness. Obese individuals have been shown to have an impaired response to vaccinations against virally mediated conditions and to have an increased susceptibility to multi-organ failure in response to viral illness. We investigated if DCs are altered in an obese cohort (mean body mass index 51.7±7.3 kg m(-2)), ultimately resulting in differential T-cell responses. Circulating DCs were found to be significantly decreased in the obese compared with the lean cohort (0.82% vs 2.53%). Following Toll-like receptor stimulation, compared with lean controls, DCs generated from the obese cohort upregulated significantly less CD83 (40% vs 17% mean fluorescence intensity), a molecule implicated in the elicitation of T-cell responses, particularly viral responses. Obese DCs produced twofold more of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 than lean controls, and in turn stimulated fourfold more IL-4-production from allogenic naive T cells. We conclude that obesity negatively impacts the ability of DCs to mature and elicit appropriate T-cell responses to a general stimulus. This may contribute to the increased susceptibility to viral infection observed in severe obesity.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 26 February 2013; doi:10.1038\\/ijo.2013.16.

  12. Emergence of scale-free characteristics in socio-ecological systems with bounded rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Kasthurirathna, Dharshana; Piraveenan, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Socio?ecological systems are increasingly modelled by games played on complex networks. While the concept of Nash equilibrium assumes perfect rationality, in reality players display heterogeneous bounded rationality. Here we present a topological model of bounded rationality in socio-ecological systems, using the rationality parameter of the Quantal Response Equilibrium. We argue that system rationality could be measured by the average Kullback?-Leibler divergence between Nash and Quantal Res...

  13. Increasing the Number of Outpatients Receiving Spiritual Assessment: A Pain and Palliative Care Service Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Castillo, Blanca J; Hirsch, Rosemarie; Groninger, Hunter; Baker, Karen; Cheng, M Jennifer; Phillips, Jayne; Pollack, John; Berger, Ann M

    2015-11-01

    Spirituality is a patient need that requires special attention from the Pain and Palliative Care Service team. This quality improvement project aimed to provide spiritual assessment for all new outpatients with serious life-altering illnesses. Percentage of new outpatients receiving spiritual assessment (Faith, Importance/Influence, Community, Address/Action in care, psychosocial evaluation, chaplain consults) at baseline and postinterventions. Interventions included encouraging clinicians to incorporate adequate spiritual assessment into patient care and implementing chaplain covisits for all initial outpatient visits. The quality improvement interventions increased spiritual assessment (baseline vs. postinterventions): chaplain covisits (25.5% vs. 50%), Faith, Importance/Influence, Community, Address/Action in care completion (49% vs. 72%), and psychosocial evaluation (89% vs. 94%). Improved spiritual assessment in an outpatient palliative care clinic setting can occur with a multidisciplinary approach. This project also identifies data collection and documentation processes that can be targeted for improvement. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Application of distilled white vinegar in the cloaca to counter the increase in Campylobacter numbers on broiler skin during feather removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, M E; Smith, D P; Hinton, A

    2006-02-01

    Because of the escape of highly contaminated gut contents from the cloaca of positive carcasses, Campylobacter numbers recovered from broiler carcass skin samples increase during automated feather removal. Vinegar is known to have antimicrobial action. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vinegar placed in the cloaca prior to feather removal on the numbers of Campylobacter recovered from broiler breast skin. Broilers were stunned, killed, and bled in a pilot processing plant. Vinegar was placed in the colons of the chickens prior to scalding. Carcasses were scalded, and Campylobacter numbers were determined on breast skin before and after passage through a commercial-style feather-picking machine. Campylobacter numbers recovered from the breast skin of untreated control carcasses increased during feather removal from 1.3 log CFU per sample prior to defeathering to 4.2 log afterward. Placement of water in the colon before scalding had no effect on Campylobacter numbers. Campylobacter numbers recovered from the breast skin of carcasses treated with vinegar also increased during defeathering but to a significantly lesser extent. Treated carcasses experienced only a 1-log increase from 1.6 log CFU per sample before feather removal to 2.6 log CFU per sample afterward. Application of an effective food-grade antimicrobial in the colon prior to scald can limit the increase in Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcasses during defeathering.

  15. Exotic plant infestation is associated with decreased modularity and increased numbers of connectors in mixed-grass prairie pollination networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.; Rabie, Paul A.; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L.; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots andConvolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvenseand the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested

  16. Many faces of rationality: Implications of the great rationality debate for clinical decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Djulbegovic, B.; Elqayam, Shira

    2017-01-01

    open access article Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings fromThe Great Rationality Debate from t...

  17. Cluster lot quality assurance sampling: effect of increasing the number of clusters on classification precision and operational feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okayasu, Hiromasa; Brown, Alexandra E; Nzioki, Michael M; Gasasira, Alex N; Takane, Marina; Mkanda, Pascal; Wassilak, Steven G F; Sutter, Roland W

    2014-11-01

    To assess the quality of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has used cluster lot quality assurance sampling (C-LQAS) methods since 2009. However, since the inception of C-LQAS, questions have been raised about the optimal balance between operational feasibility and precision of classification of lots to identify areas with low SIA quality that require corrective programmatic action. To determine if an increased precision in classification would result in differential programmatic decision making, we conducted a pilot evaluation in 4 local government areas (LGAs) in Nigeria with an expanded LQAS sample size of 16 clusters (instead of the standard 6 clusters) of 10 subjects each. The results showed greater heterogeneity between clusters than the assumed standard deviation of 10%, ranging from 12% to 23%. Comparing the distribution of 4-outcome classifications obtained from all possible combinations of 6-cluster subsamples to the observed classification of the 16-cluster sample, we obtained an exact match in classification in 56% to 85% of instances. We concluded that the 6-cluster C-LQAS provides acceptable classification precision for programmatic action. Considering the greater resources required to implement an expanded C-LQAS, the improvement in precision was deemed insufficient to warrant the effort. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. The number of unrecognized myocardial infarction scars detected at DE-MRI increases during a 5-year follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Themudo, Raquel; Johansson, Lars; Ebeling-Barbier, Charlotte; Ahlstroem, Haakan; Bjerner, Tomas [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Lind, Lars [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2017-02-15

    In an elderly population, the prevalence of unrecognized myocardial infarction (UMI) scars found via late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging was more frequent than expected. This study investigated whether UMI scars detected with LGE-CMR at age 70 would be detectable at age 75 and whether the scar size changed over time. From 248 participants that underwent LGE-CMR at age 70, 185 subjects underwent a follow-up scan at age 75. A myocardial infarction (MI) scar was defined as late enhancement involving the subendocardium. In the 185 subjects that underwent follow-up, 42 subjects had a UMI scar at age 70 and 61 subjects had a UMI scar at age 75. Thirty-seven (88 %) of the 42 UMI scars seen at age 70 were seen in the same myocardial segment at age 75. The size of UMI scars did not differ between age 70 and 75. The prevalence of UMI scars detected at LGE-CMR increases with age. During a 5-year follow-up, 88 % (37/42) of the UMI scars were visible in the same myocardial segment, reassuring that UMI scars are a consistent finding. The size of UMI scars detected during LGE-CMR did not change over time. (orig.)

  19. Effects of a combined Bleomycin/radiotherapy on the increase of cell numbers in Ehrlich ascitic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of separate and combined application of the cytostatic Bleomycin and X-radiation on the multiplication of the Ehrlich ascitic tumour cells in vivo and on the survival time of tumourous mice was examined by applying automatic, electronic cell counting. If this cytostatic is administered alone up to 100 mg/kg the growth curve of the EAT-cells shows, after a 24 hours' delay, hardly any difference to that of untreated tumour cells. The separate administration of such Bleomycin doses and the separate X-radiation of the EAT cells with doses of up to 1000 rad had no significant influence on the survival time of tumourous mice. The combined application of Bleomycin and X-radiation elongates the 50%-survival time of the tumourous mice. If the X-radiation takes place 12 hours after the Bleomycin treatment the animals survive longer than is the case with simultaneous treatment. Although no dose effect curves could be set up the results obtained let assume a synergistic effect of Bleomycin and irradiation which is especially significant if the radiation is carried out 12 hours after a Bleomycin treatment. The reasons of this are assumed to lie in the increased radiation sensitivity of the tumour cells caused by the bleomycin-induced partial synchronisation of the EAT cells. (orig.) [de

  20. Empirical evidence for resource-rational anchoring and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieder, Falk; Griffiths, Thomas L; M Huys, Quentin J; Goodman, Noah D

    2018-04-01

    People's estimates of numerical quantities are systematically biased towards their initial guess. This anchoring bias is usually interpreted as sign of human irrationality, but it has recently been suggested that the anchoring bias instead results from people's rational use of their finite time and limited cognitive resources. If this were true, then adjustment should decrease with the relative cost of time. To test this hypothesis, we designed a new numerical estimation paradigm that controls people's knowledge and varies the cost of time and error independently while allowing people to invest as much or as little time and effort into refining their estimate as they wish. Two experiments confirmed the prediction that adjustment decreases with time cost but increases with error cost regardless of whether the anchor was self-generated or provided. These results support the hypothesis that people rationally adapt their number of adjustments to achieve a near-optimal speed-accuracy tradeoff. This suggests that the anchoring bias might be a signature of the rational use of finite time and limited cognitive resources rather than a sign of human irrationality.

  1. Lying for the Greater Good: Bounded Rationality in a Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Sürücü

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the interaction between fully and boundedly rational agents in situations where their interests are perfectly aligned. The cognitive limitations of the boundedly rational agent do not allow him to fully understand the market conditions and lead him to take non-optimal decisions in some situations. Using categorization to model bounded rationality, we show that the fully rational agent can nudge, i.e., he can manipulate the information he sends and decrease the expected loss caused by the boundedly rational agent. Assuming different types for the boundedly rational agent, who differ only in the categories used, we show that the fully rational agent may learn the type of the boundedly rational agent along their interaction. Using this additional information, the outcome can be improved and the amount of manipulated information can be decreased. Furthermore, as the length of the interaction increases the probability that the fully rational agent learns the type of the boundedly rational agent grows

  2. Number of Published Randomized Controlled Multi Center Trials Testing Pharmacological Interventions or Devices Is Increasing in Both Medical and Surgical Specialties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Okholm, Cecilie; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2014-01-01

    : The object of this study was to investigate the development in the organization of multicenter studies, the distribution of studies within different clinical specialties, across continents, and investigate the differences related to testing various interventions. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A literature search...... was done in MEDLINE for multicenter studies published in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010, respectively. Data extraction identified data related to clinical specialties, interventions, participating patients, departments, countries, and continents. RESULTS: The number of multicenter studies increased from 112...... as the number of participating departments increased during the time span, though the increase in studies was most evident in Europe and North America compared with the rest of the world....

  3. ADDITION POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN THE DIET INCREASES THE NUMBER AND SIZE OF FOLLICLES IN COWS FED UNDER TROPICAL GRAZING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cansino-Arroyo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective was determined the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS on the number and follicular size in cows fed under tropical grazing during the dry season and rainy season. Using a group of cows PUFAS (GA, dry: n=9 and rain: n=13 maintained under grazing continuo, which received a nutritional supplement, with the addition of 5 % of PUFAS in the supplement. A second control group (GT; dry: n=13 and rain: n=9, kept in the same conditions as the previous group, without PUFAS. The number of follicles was greater during the rainy season than during dry (P=0.0001. Cows GT nutritional supplement did not improve the number of follicles between 2 times (P ≥ 0.7. However, the addition of PUFAS to supplement increases the number of follicles during the rainy season (P=0.002. Otherwise, when the cows were ovulation hormonally stimulated are not noted an increase in the number of follicles in cows with or without PUFAS in the supplement. With these results, we can conclude that the number of follicles is affected by perceived conditions, besides that addition of PUFAS increases the number of follicles during the rainy season in tropical grazing cows.

  4. Unbiased cell quantification reveals a continued increase in the number of neocortical neurones during early post-natal development in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Lise; Krøigård, Thomas; Finsen, Bente

    2007-01-01

    The post-natal growth spurt of the mammalian neocortex has been attributed to maturation of dendritic arborizations, growth and myelination of axons, and addition of glia. It is unclear whether this growth may also involve recruitment of additional neurones. Using stereological methods, we analysed...... the number of neurones and glia in the neocortex during post-natal development in two separate strains of mice. Cell counting by the optical fractionator revealed that the number of neurones increased 80-100% from the time of birth to post-natal day (P)16, followed by a reduction by approximately 25...... was delayed until P16. The number of glia reached its maximum at P16, whereas the number of oligodendroglia, identified using a transgenic marker, increased until P55, the latest time of observation. Neurones continued to accumulate in the developing neocortex during the first 2 weeks of post...

  5. Are security analysts rational? a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Peixinho, Rúben; Coelho, Luís; Taffler, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Rational choice theory and bounded rationality constitute the basis for the discussion in several areas regarding human rationality. In finance, this discussion has been made between traditional finance and behavioural finance approach, which have different perspectives concerning market agents’ rationality. This paper reviews several studies addressing rationality among security analysts. The analysis shows that analysts’systematic optimism seems to be inconsistent with rationality....

  6. Zebularine treatment is associated with deletion of FT-B1 leading to an increase in spikelet number in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, E Jean; Ford, Brett; Wallace, Xiaomei; Pettolino, Filomena; Griffin, Patrick T; Schmitz, Robert J; Zhang, Peng; Barrero, Jose M; Hayden, Matthew J; Boden, Scott A; Cavanagh, Colin A; Swain, Steve M; Trevaskis, Ben

    2018-06-01

    The number of rachis nodes (spikelets) on a wheat spike is a component of grain yield that correlates with flowering time. The genetic basis regulating flowering in cereals is well understood, but there are reports that flowering time can be modified at a high frequency by selective breeding, suggesting that it may be regulated by both epigenetic and genetic mechanisms. We investigated the role of DNA methylation in regulating spikelet number and flowering time by treating a semi-spring wheat with the demethylating agent, Zebularine. Three lines with a heritable increase in spikelet number were identified. The molecular basis for increased spikelet number was not determined in 2 lines, but the phenotype showed non-Mendelian inheritance, suggesting that it could have an epigenetic basis. In the remaining line, the increased spikelet phenotype behaved as a Mendelian recessive trait and late flowering was associated with a deletion encompassing the floral promoter, FT-B1. Deletion of FT-B1 delayed the transition to reproductive growth, extended the duration of spike development, and increased spikelet number under different temperature regimes and photoperiod. Transiently disrupting DNA methylation can generate novel flowering behaviour in wheat, but these changes may not be sufficiently stable for use in breeding programs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Heterogeneity and the (de)stabilizing role of rationality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalli, Fausto; Naimzada, Ahmad; Pireddu, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze Cournot oligopolies with heterogeneous firms of generic size. • Rational and naive players are considered. • Stability with respect to oligopoly composition is studied. • In some settings, increasing the rational firms fraction introduces instability. - Abstract: In this paper we study oligopolies of generic size consisting of heterogeneous firms, which adopt best response adjustment mechanisms with either perfect foresight (rational firms) or static expectations (naive firms). Assuming an isoelastic demand function and possibly different marginal costs for the two groups of firms, we focus on the local stability of the Nash equilibrium. We show that, with respect to the oligopoly composition, described in terms of the fraction of rational firms, different scenarios are possible. We find that a high rationality degree may not always guarantee stability, in particular when rational firms have sufficiently larger marginal costs. In fact, in this situation, increasing the fraction of rational firms can even introduce instability. Besides the usual scenarios in which replacing some naive firms with rational ones leads to a stabilization of (or at least keeps unchanged) the dynamics, we provide a family of situations, characterized by costs ratio favorable to naive firms, in which equilibrium loses its stability when naive firms are replaced by rational ones. The results we present are both analytical and simulative.

  8. Rational approximations to linear forms of exponentials and binomials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, G V

    1983-05-01

    Mahler proved the following quantitative result supplementing the Lindemann-Weierstrass theorem: Sigma(i=0) (n)C(i)e(ri) > H(-n-epsilon) for any distinct rational numbers r(0),r(1),..., r(n) and rational integers C(0),C(1),...,C(n) with H = max(0 1 - epsilon. The simplest examples of new numbers with the irrationality exponent "2 + epsilon" are sinh 1 or sin 1.

  9. Pre- and post-experimental manipulation assessments confirm the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Cuatianquiz Lima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary cavity nesting (SCN birds breed in holes that they do not excavate themselves. This is possible where there are large trees whose size and age permit the digging of holes by primary excavators and only rarely happens in forest plantations, where we expected a deficit of both breeding holes and SCN species. We assessed whether the availability of tree cavities influenced the number of SCNs in two temperate forest types, and evaluated the change in number of SCNs after adding nest boxes. First, we counted all cavities within each of our 25-m radius sampling points in mature and young forest plots during 2009. We then added nest boxes at standardised locations during 2010 and 2011 and conducted fortnightly bird counts (January–October 2009–2011. In 2011 we added two extra plots of each forest type, where we also conducted bird counts. Prior to adding nest boxes, counts revealed more SCNs in mature than in young forest. Following the addition of nest boxes, the number of SCNs increased significantly in the points with nest boxes in both types of forest. Counts in 2011 confirmed the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes. Given the likely benefits associated with a richer bird community we propose that, as is routinely done in some countries, forest management programs preserve old tree stumps and add nest boxes to forest plantations in order to increase bird numbers and bird community diversity.

  10. Pre- and post-experimental manipulation assessments confirm the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuatianquiz Lima, Cecilia; Macías Garcia, Constantino

    2016-01-01

    Secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds breed in holes that they do not excavate themselves. This is possible where there are large trees whose size and age permit the digging of holes by primary excavators and only rarely happens in forest plantations, where we expected a deficit of both breeding holes and SCN species. We assessed whether the availability of tree cavities influenced the number of SCNs in two temperate forest types, and evaluated the change in number of SCNs after adding nest boxes. First, we counted all cavities within each of our 25-m radius sampling points in mature and young forest plots during 2009. We then added nest boxes at standardised locations during 2010 and 2011 and conducted fortnightly bird counts (January-October 2009-2011). In 2011 we added two extra plots of each forest type, where we also conducted bird counts. Prior to adding nest boxes, counts revealed more SCNs in mature than in young forest. Following the addition of nest boxes, the number of SCNs increased significantly in the points with nest boxes in both types of forest. Counts in 2011 confirmed the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes. Given the likely benefits associated with a richer bird community we propose that, as is routinely done in some countries, forest management programs preserve old tree stumps and add nest boxes to forest plantations in order to increase bird numbers and bird community diversity.

  11. Pre- and post-experimental manipulation assessments confirm the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuatianquiz Lima, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds breed in holes that they do not excavate themselves. This is possible where there are large trees whose size and age permit the digging of holes by primary excavators and only rarely happens in forest plantations, where we expected a deficit of both breeding holes and SCN species. We assessed whether the availability of tree cavities influenced the number of SCNs in two temperate forest types, and evaluated the change in number of SCNs after adding nest boxes. First, we counted all cavities within each of our 25-m radius sampling points in mature and young forest plots during 2009. We then added nest boxes at standardised locations during 2010 and 2011 and conducted fortnightly bird counts (January–October 2009–2011). In 2011 we added two extra plots of each forest type, where we also conducted bird counts. Prior to adding nest boxes, counts revealed more SCNs in mature than in young forest. Following the addition of nest boxes, the number of SCNs increased significantly in the points with nest boxes in both types of forest. Counts in 2011 confirmed the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes. Given the likely benefits associated with a richer bird community we propose that, as is routinely done in some countries, forest management programs preserve old tree stumps and add nest boxes to forest plantations in order to increase bird numbers and bird community diversity. PMID:26998410

  12. Operations with Rational Numbers and their Meanings based on the Part-all Conception As Operações com Números Racionais e seus Significados a partir da Concepção Parte-todo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Ferreira da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a reflection regarding operations with fractional numbers focusing on the part-all conception through some activities that can contribute to teaching practices at the elementary school level. A brief characterization of the all-part conception is provided along with descriptions of activities involving the four basic operations based on the use of flat figures, although other conceptions may emerge during the solution. We limit our considerations to this conception because it is the most frequent, in textbooks as well as teacher practice, although it is not used to justify operational rules of fractional numbers. Key-words: Fractions. Fractional Numbers. Operations.Neste artigo, apresentamos uma reflexão a respeito das operações com números fracionários focalizando a concepção parte-todo por meio de algumas atividades que possam contribuir para a prática docente na escola básica. O estudo explicita uma breve caracterização da concepção parte-todo e atividades envolvendo as quatro operações fundamentais tratadas em figuras planas, embora outras concepções possam ser mobilizadas durante a solução. Restringimos nossas considerações a essa concepção visto ser a mais freqüente, tanto em livros didáticos, quanto na prática do professor, embora não seja utilizada para justificar as regras operatórias dos números fracionários. Palavras-chave: Frações. Números Fracionários. Operações.

  13. An extract of pomegranate fruit and galangal rhizome increases the numbers of motile sperm: a prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedder, Maja D K; Jakobsen, Henrik B; Giversen, Ina; Christensen, Lars P; Parner, Erik T; Fedder, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) and galangal (Alpinia galanga) have separately been shown to stimulate spermatogenesis and to increase sperm counts and motility in rodents. Within traditional medicine, pomegranate fruit has long been used to increase fertility, however studies on the effect on spermatogenesis in humans have never been published. With this study we investigated whether oral intake of tablets containing standardised amounts of extract of pomegranate fruit and powder of greater galangal rhizome (Punalpin) would increase the total number of motile spermatozoa. The study was designed as a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial. Enrolment was based on the mean total number of motile spermatozoa of two ejaculates. The participants delivered an ejaculate after 4-8 days of tablet intake and two ejaculates just before they stopped taking the tablets. Seventy adult men with a semen quality not meeting the standards for commercial application at Nordic Cryobank, but without azoospermia, were included in the study. Participants were randomized to take tablets containing extract of pomegranate fruit (standardised with respect to punicalagin A+B, punicalin and ellagic acid) and freeze-dried rhizome of greater galangal (standardised with respect to 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate) or placebo on a daily basis for three months. Sixty-six participants completed the intervention (active treatment: n = 34; placebo: n = 32). After the intervention the total number of motile spermatozoa was increased in participants treated with plant extracts compared with the placebo group (p = 0.026). After three months of active treatment, the average total number of motile sperm increased by 62% (from 23.4 to 37.8 millions), while for the placebo group, the number of motile sperm increased by 20%. Sperm morphology was not affected by the treatment. Our findings may help subfertile men to gain an improved amount of motile ejaculated sperm by taking tablets

  14. Rational use of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racoveanu, N.T.; Volodin, V.

    1992-01-01

    Radiologists in USA and UK have since early 1970 questioned the efficacy of various radiological investigations and produced substantial evidence that more rational approaches are necessary. WHO initiated, in 1977, a programme which has issued four technical reports giving practical recommendations on how to rationalise the use of radiological examinations. Three main directions are considered: (1) Abandonment of routine radiological examinations, as procedures with no clinical or epidemiologic significance and which represent a waste of resources and patient dose. (2) Patient selection for various radiological investigations based on clinical criteria (high, intermediate, low yield). Selected patients have an increased prevalence of the given disease and the predictive value of radiological investigation is much higher. (3) Use of diagnostic algorithms with higher cost/efficiency and risk/benefit ratios, improving the outcome of radiological examinations. (author)

  15. Does the risk of developing dementia increase with the number of episodes in patients with depressive disorder and in patients with bipolar disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, L V; Andersen, P K

    2004-12-01

    Several findings suggest that some patients with depressive or bipolar disorder may be at increased risk of developing dementia. The present study aimed to investigate whether the risk of developing dementia increases with the number of affective episodes in patients with depressive disorder and in patients with bipolar disorder. This was a case register study including all hospital admissions with primary affective disorder in Denmark during 1970-99. The effect of the number of prior episodes leading to admission on the rate of readmission with a diagnosis of dementia following the first discharge after 1985 was estimated. A total of 18,726 patients with depressive disorder and 4248 patients with bipolar disorder were included in the study. The rate of a diagnosis of dementia on readmission was significantly related to the number of prior affective episodes leading to admission. On average, the rate of dementia tended to increase 13% with every episode leading to admission for patients with depressive disorder and 6% with every episode leading to admission for patients with bipolar disorder, when adjusted for differences in age and sex. On average, the risk of dementia seems to increase with the number of episodes in depressive and bipolar affective disorders.

  16. Adaptive information-theoretic bounded rational decision-making with parametric priors

    OpenAIRE

    Grau-Moya, Jordi; Braun, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Deviations from rational decision-making due to limited computational resources have been studied in the field of bounded rationality, originally proposed by Herbert Simon. There have been a number of different approaches to model bounded rationality ranging from optimality principles to heuristics. Here we take an information-theoretic approach to bounded rationality, where information-processing costs are measured by the relative entropy between a posterior decision strategy and a given fix...

  17. Rational Approximations to Rational Models: Alternative Algorithms for Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Adam N.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Navarro, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Rational models of cognition typically consider the abstract computational problems posed by the environment, assuming that people are capable of optimally solving those problems. This differs from more traditional formal models of cognition, which focus on the psychological processes responsible for behavior. A basic challenge for rational models…

  18. Realization theory for rational systems: Minimal rational realizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Nemcová (Jana); J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractThe study of realizations of response maps is a topic of control and system theory. Realization theory is used in system identification and control synthesis. A minimal rational realization of a given response map p is a rational realization of p such that the dimension of its state

  19. Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.

  20. Does the risk of developing dementia increase with the number of episodes in patients with depressive disorder and in patients with bipolar disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Several findings suggest that some patients with depressive or bipolar disorder may be at increased risk of developing dementia. The present study aimed to investigate whether the risk of developing dementia increases with the number of affective episodes in patients with depressive...... following the first discharge after 1985 was estimated. A total of 18,726 patients with depressive disorder and 4248 patients with bipolar disorder were included in the study. RESULTS: The rate of a diagnosis of dementia on readmission was significantly related to the number of prior affective episodes...... leading to admission. On average, the rate of dementia tended to increase 13% with every episode leading to admission for patients with depressive disorder and 6% with every episode leading to admission for patients with bipolar disorder, when adjusted for differences in age and sex. CONCLUSION...

  1. p-adic numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Grešak, Rozalija

    2015-01-01

    The field of real numbers is usually constructed using Dedekind cuts. In these thesis we focus on the construction of the field of real numbers using metric completion of rational numbers using Cauchy sequences. In a similar manner we construct the field of p-adic numbers, describe some of their basic and topological properties. We follow by a construction of complex p-adic numbers and we compare them with the ordinary complex numbers. We conclude the thesis by giving a motivation for the int...

  2. Rationalization of water consumption in paper industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarković Darja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper was to consider the possibilities of economical paper production with rationalization of water consumption. In accordance with the principles of viable development. The pulp & paper industry has had to face global market needs and strict regulation concerning the environment. The basic motive was to provide consistent and high product quality, which is competitive on the market. The pulp & paper industry is one of the largest consumers and pollutants of natural resources. In that light, the rationalization of raw material, water, energy and chemicals consumption with minimization of environmental impact is essential. The European directive on environmental protection obliges producers of pulp & paper to decrease the volume of wastewater and to increase the efficiency treatment. Pulp and paper industry in Serbia and Montenegro will also be faced with the demands for environmental protection. Numerous examples of water consumption rationalization and improvement of water quality in the pulp & paper industry could be found in different literature sources. It is necessary to increase water system closure and implement up-to-date treatment methods. The possibilities for water consumption rationalization, in a real system the paperboard mill UMKA, were examined.

  3. Rational customs clearance technology choice

    OpenAIRE

    Shramenko, N.; Andriets, V.

    2008-01-01

    Issues concerning cargo delivery efficiencyincrease by choice of rational customs clearance technology have been considered. Three possible variants of customs clearance andmethods which allow to define the most rational version of cargo delivery in international road communication based on main efficiency criteria for definite distance have been presented.

  4. Differential Rationality and Personal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Cameron

    This publication discusses differential rationality; it asserts that the development of institutions, professions, and individuals involves the differentiation of forms and styles of thinking and knowing that are, in various ways, idiosyncratic. Based on this understanding, differential rationality can be seen as a developmental construct that…

  5. Rationality problem for algebraic tori

    CERN Document Server

    Hoshi, Akinari

    2017-01-01

    The authors give the complete stably rational classification of algebraic tori of dimensions 4 and 5 over a field k. In particular, the stably rational classification of norm one tori whose Chevalley modules are of rank 4 and 5 is given. The authors show that there exist exactly 487 (resp. 7, resp. 216) stably rational (resp. not stably but retract rational, resp. not retract rational) algebraic tori of dimension 4, and there exist exactly 3051 (resp. 25, resp. 3003) stably rational (resp. not stably but retract rational, resp. not retract rational) algebraic tori of dimension 5. The authors make a procedure to compute a flabby resolution of a G-lattice effectively by using the computer algebra system GAP. Some algorithms may determine whether the flabby class of a G-lattice is invertible (resp. zero) or not. Using the algorithms, the suthors determine all the flabby and coflabby G-lattices of rank up to 6 and verify that they are stably permutation. The authors also show that the Krull-Schmidt theorem for G-...

  6. Product differentiation under bounded rationality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Poutré, La J.A.; Kok, de A.G.; Pyka, A.; Handa, H.; Ishibuchi, H.; Ong, Y.-S.; Tan, K.-C.

    2015-01-01

    We study product differentiation equilibria and dynamics on the Salop circle under bounded rationality. Due to bounded rationality, firms tend to agglomerate in pairs. Upon adding a second tier of component suppliers, downstream assemblers may escape pairwise horizontal agglomeration. Moreover, we

  7. Endurance Exercise Mobilizes Developmentally Early Stem Cells into Peripheral Blood and Increases Their Number in Bone Marrow: Implications for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Marycz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise has been reported to increase the number of circulating hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs in peripheral blood (PB as well as in bone marrow (BM. We therefore became interested in whether endurance exercise has the same effect on very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs, which have been described as a population of developmentally early stem cells residing in BM. Mice were run daily for 1 hour on a treadmill for periods of 5 days or 5 weeks. Human volunteers had trained in long-distance running for one year, six times per week. FACS-based analyses and RT-PCR of murine and human VSELs and HSPCs from collected bone marrow and peripheral blood were performed. We observed that endurance exercise increased the number of VSELs circulating in PB and residing in BM. In parallel, we observed an increase in the number of HSPCs. These observations were subsequently confirmed in young athletes, who showed an increase in circulating VSELs and HSPCs after intensive running exercise. We provide for the first time evidence that endurance exercise may have beneficial effects on the expansion of developmentally early stem cells. We hypothesize that these circulating stem cells are involved in repairing minor exercise-related tissue and organ injuries.

  8. The concept of rational suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, D J

    1986-05-01

    Suicide has been condemned in our culture in one way or another since Augustine offered theological arguments against it in the sixth century. More recently, theological condemnation has given way to the view that suicidal behavior must always be symptomatic of emotional disturbance and mental illness. However, suicide has not always been viewed so negatively. In other times and cultures, it has been held that circumstances might befall a person in which suicide would be a perfectly rational course of action, in the same sense that any other course of action could be rational: that it could be sensible, i.e., defensible by good reasons, or that it could be in keeping with the agent's fundamental interests. Indiscriminate use of modern life-sustaining technologies has renewed interest in the possibility of rational suicide. Today proponents of rational suicide tend to equate the rationality of suicide with the competence of the decision to commit suicide.

  9. Limited rationality and strategic interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehr, Ernst; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2008-01-01

    Much evidence suggests that people are heterogeneous with regard to their abilities to make rational, forward-looking decisions. This raises the question as to when the rational types are decisive for aggregate outcomes and when the boundedly rational types shape aggregate results. We examine...... this question in the context of a long-standing and important economic problem: the adjustment of nominal prices after an anticipated monetary shock. Our experiments suggest that two types of bounded rationality-money illusion and anchoring-are important behavioral forces behind nominal inertia. However......, depending on the strategic environment, bounded rationality has vastly different effects on aggregate price adjustment. If agents' actions are strategic substitutes, adjustment to the new equilibrium is extremely quick, whereas under strategic complementarity, adjustment is both very slow and associated...

  10. Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation but Not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Gomes da Silva

    Full Text Available Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain development and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and absolute cell numbers in the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex of rat pups born from mothers exercised during pregnancy. Additionally, we evaluated the cognitive abilities of adult offspring in different behavioral paradigms (exploratory activity and habituation in open field tests, spatial memory in a water maze test, and aversive memory in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Results showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy increased BDNF levels and absolute numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the hippocampal formation of offspring. No differences in BDNF levels or cell numbers were detected in the cerebral cortex. It was also observed that offspring from exercised mothers exhibited better cognitive performance in nonassociative (habituation and associative (spatial learning mnemonic tasks than did offspring from sedentary mothers. Our findings indicate that maternal exercise during pregnancy enhances offspring cognitive function (habituation behavior and spatial learning and increases BDNF levels and cell numbers in the hippocampal formation of offspring.

  11. Low temperature-induced DNA hypermethylation attenuates expression of RhAG, an AGAMOUS homolog, and increases petal number in rose (Rosa hybrida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Chen, Wen; Fan, Tiangang; Tian, Yaran; Zhang, Shuai; Zeng, Daxing; Li, Yonghong

    2015-10-05

    Flower development is central to angiosperm reproduction and is regulated by a broad range of endogenous and exogenous stimuli. It has been well documented that ambient temperature plays a key role in controlling flowering time; however, the mechanisms by which temperature regulates floral organ differentiation remain largely unknown. In this study, we show that low temperature treatment significantly increases petal number in rose (Rosa hybrida) through the promotion of stamen petaloidy. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression pattern of RhAG, a rose homolog of the Arabidopsis thaliana AGAMOUS C-function gene, is associated with low temperature regulated flower development. Silencing of RhAG mimicked the impact of low temperature treatments on petal development by significantly increasing petal number through an increased production of petaloid stamens. In situ hybridization studies further revealed that low temperature restricts its spatial expression area. Analysis of DNA methylation level showed that low temperature treatment enhances the methylation level of the RhAG promoter, and a specific promoter region that was hypermethylated at CHH loci under low temperature conditions, was identified by bisulfite sequencing. This suggests that epigenetic DNA methylation contributes to the ambient temperature modulation of RhAG expression. Our results provide highlights in the role of RhAG gene in petal number determination and add a new layer of complexity in the regulation of floral organ development. We propose that RhAG plays an essential role in rose flower patterning by regulating petal development, and that low temperatures increase petal number, at least in part, by suppressing RhAG expression via enhancing DNA CHH hypermethylation of the RhAG promoter.

  12. SU-E-T-568: Improving Normal Brain Sparing with Increasing Number of Arc Beams for Volume Modulated Arc Beam Radiosurgery of Multiple Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, S; Hildebrand, K; Ahmad, S; Larson, D; Ma, L; Sahgal, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated arc beams have been newly reported for treating multiple brain metastases. The purpose of this study was to determine the variations in the normal brain doses with increasing number of arc beams for multiple brain metastases treatments via the TrueBeam Rapidarc system (Varian Oncology, Palo Alto, CA). Methods: A patient case with 12 metastatic brain lesions previously treated on the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (GK) was used for the study. All lesions and organs at risk were contoured by a senior radiation oncologist and treatment plans for a subset of 3, 6, 9 and all 12 targets were developed for the TrueBeam Rapidarc system via 3 to 7 intensity modulated arc-beams with each target covered by at least 99% of the prescribed dose of 20 Gy. The peripheral normal brain isodose volumes as well as the total beam-on time were analyzed with increasing number of arc beams for these targets. Results: All intensisty modulated arc-beam plans produced efficient treatment delivery with the beam-on time averaging 0.6–1.5 min per lesion at an output of 1200 MU/min. With increasing number of arc beams, the peripheral normal brain isodose volumes such as the 12-Gy isodose line enclosed normal brain tissue volumes were on average decreased by 6%, 11%, 18%, and 28% for the 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-target treatment plans respectively. The lowest normal brain isodose volumes were consistently found for the 7-arc treatment plans for all the cases. Conclusion: With nearly identical beam-on times, the peripheral normal brain dose was notably decreased when the total number of intensity modulated arc beams was increased when treating multiple brain metastases. Dr Sahgal and Dr Ma are currently serving on the board of international society of stereotactic radiosurgery

  13. Geometry of minimal rational curves on Fano manifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J -M [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    This lecture is an introduction to my joint project with N. Mok where we develop a geometric theory of Fano manifolds of Picard number 1 by studying the collection of tangent directions of minimal rational curves through a generic point. After a sketch of some historical background, the fundamental object of this project, the variety of minimal rational tangents, is defined and various examples are examined. Then some results on the variety of minimal rational tangents are discussed including an extension theorem for holomorphic maps preserving the geometric structure. Some applications of this theory to the stability of the tangent bundles and the rigidity of generically finite morphisms are given. (author)

  14. [Rational use of medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helali, A

    2006-12-01

    Every body speaks about inappropriate use of medicines and each one gives his own explanation. Politicians are telling about the waste of medicines and the money of their national budget. Citizens are saying that the physicians prescribe more than necessary for treatment and blame them as one part of the financial burden weighting on their family budget. Physicians give different explanation and think that the rational use of medicines is a sort of pressure to limit their freedom to prescribe what it seems to them necessary and better for their patients. Pharmacists dispensing medicines consider the prescription as a physician's prerogative and prefer to stay neutral in this debate. Within this large range of opinions, it is difficult to find general consensus, so that every body take care to not declare his proper opinion about the subject, the causes and the adequate solutions. Finally no changes take place in this issue. However, neither the government as responsible for the citizen's health, nor the health professionals and international organisations, are facing their complete obligations toward the populations by ensuring to them that the medicines are administered according to the health need of the patients, efficacious and safe , in doses that meet their own individual requirements, for an adequate period of time, and at the lower cost, and be secured against misuse by the pharmacist before the delivery to the patients. This is a worthwhile programme, but unfortunately without designate takers or promoters until now.

  15. Plural rationalities and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, P.; Thompson, M.

    1989-01-01

    Like many social scientists, we attribute public unwillingness to accept certain low probability risks not to 'irrationality' but rather to the everyday application of qualitative as well as quantitative criteria. Just as most people buying a video or hi-fi do not base their decision solely on price or performance data but also consider such intangibles as design and the reputation of the manufacturer, individuals faced with a given risk take into account not merely the probability of harm but also the credibility and trustworthiness of whoever generates the information and manages the safety and other precautions which ensure its accuracy. To analyse these qualitative dimensions we utilise the grid/-group methodology developed by the cultural anthropologist Mary Douglas, and her co-workers. Douglas identifies four basic forms of society and four associated 'thought worlds' which serve to legitimise and reproduce them. Differences in concepts of human cognition, time and many other variables between the different thought worlds are so profound that they can be regarded as different kinds of rationality. The acceptability of risks is partially determined by the extent to which they support or threaten the existence of the different societies. (author)

  16. Increasing number of fractured ribs is not predictive of the severity of splenic injury following blunt trauma: an analysis of a National Trauma Registry database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, Kessel; Forat, Swaid; Itamar, Ashkenazi; Oded, Olsha; Kobi, Peleg; Adi, Givon; Igor, Jeroukhimov; Ricardo, Alfici

    2014-05-01

    Association between rib fractures and incidence of abdominal solid organs injury is well described. However, the correlation between the number of fractured ribs and severity of splenic injury is not clear. The purpose of this study was to assess whether an increasing number of rib fractures predicts the severity of splenic injury in blunt trauma patients. A retrospective cohort study involving blunt trauma patients with concomitant splenic injuries and rib fractures, between the years 1998 and 2012, registered in the Israeli National Trauma Registry. Of 321,618 patients with blunt mechanism of trauma, 57,130 had torso injuries, and of these 14,651 patients sustained rib fractures, and 3691 patients suffered from splenic injury. Concomitant splenic injury occurred in 1326 of the patients with rib fractures (9.1%), as compared to 2365 patients sustaining splenic injury without rib fractures (5.6%). The incidence of splenic injury among patients sustaining 5 or more rib fractures was significantly higher compared to patients suffering from 1 to 4 rib fractures. Among patients with splenic injury, the tendency to sustain associated rib fractures increased steadily with age. Patients with concomitant rib fractures had higher Injury Severity Score (ISS), but similar mortality rates, compared to patients with splenic injury without rib fractures. Among patients with concomitant rib fractures and splenic injury, there was no relation between the number of fractured ribs and the severity of splenic injury, neither as a whole group, nor after stratification according to the mechanism of injury. Although the presence of rib fractures increases the probability of splenic injury in blunt torso trauma, there is no relation between the number of fractured ribs and splenic injury severity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. International cooperation for rational use of energy in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Papers discussed the experiences of OLADE, IEA and EEC member countries in the field of rational use of energy in a number of industrial sectors, such as textiles; generation, transmission and distribution of electricity; iron and steel; non-ferrous metals; cement; and sugar. Instruments and technologies for rational use of energy in industry were also discussed as well as possibilities for international cooperation in this field.

  18. Discrete Choice and Rational Inattention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Melo, Emerson; de Palma, André

    2017-01-01

    This paper establishes a general equivalence between discrete choice and rational inattention models. Matejka and McKay (2015, AER) showed that when information costs are modelled using the Shannon entropy, the result- ing choice probabilities in the rational inattention model take the multinomial...... logit form. We show that when information costs are modelled using a class of generalized entropies, then the choice probabilities in any rational inattention model are observationally equivalent to some additive random utility discrete choice model and vice versa. This equivalence arises from convex...

  19. Testing bounded rationality against full rationality in job changing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Contini, Bruno; Morini, Matteo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we question the hypothesis of full rationality in the context of job changing behaviour, via simple econometric explorations on microdata drawn from WHIP (Worker Histories Italian Panel). Workers' performance is compared at the end of a three-year time window that starts when choices are expressed, under the accepted notion that the main driving forces of job change are future real wages and expected job quality. Bounded rationality suggests that individuals will search for new ...

  20. Testing Bounded Rationality Against Full Rationality in Job Changing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Contini

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I question the hypothesis of full rationality in the context of job changing behaviour, via simple econometric explorations on microdata drawn from WHIP (Worker Histories Italian Panel). Workers’ performance is compared at the end of a three-year time window that starts when choices are expressed, under the accepted notion that the main driving forces of job change are future real wages and expected job quality. Bounded rationality suggests that individuals will search for new o...

  1. Increased numbers of CD38 molecules on bright CD8+ T lymphocytes in infectious mononucleosis caused by Epstein–Barr virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ŽIDOVEC LEPEJ, S; VINCE, A; ÐAKOVIĆ RODE, O; REMENAR, A; JEREN, T

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the expression of CD38 on CD8+ T lymphocytes of patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). CD38 quantification technique chosen for this study was based on the enumeration of CD38 antibody binding sites in comparison to the quantification standards rather than determining relative fluorescence, which is difficult to standardize. The study enrolled 19 patients with typical clinical and laboratory parameters compatible with EBV-induced IM as well as 10 patients with atypical clinical presentation of this disease. Furthermore, CD38 expression was analysed in a group of 13 patients with IM caused by CMV infection. CD38 quantification was performed within 6 days of the presentation of symptoms. All three groups of IM patients showed a statistically significant increase in the number of anti-CD38 antibody binding sites (which correspond to the number of CD38 molecules) on bright CD8+ T lymphocytes compared to healthy controls. The numbers of CD38 molecules expressed on CD8+ T lymphocytes did not differ significantly between IM patients with typical and atypical clinical presentation of the disease. Patients with CMV-induced IM had significantly lower numbers of CD38 molecules expressed on CD8+ T lymphocytes. Therefore, we conclude that CD38 quantification could be helpful in differential diagnostics of IM cases with atypical clinical presentation. PMID:12930365

  2. High Intensity Interval Training Increases Natural Killer Cell Number and Function in Obese Breast Cancer-challenged Mice and Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Nicole G; Fan, Isabella Y; Gillen, Jenna B; Chew, Marianne; Marcinko, Katarina; Steinberg, Gregory R; Gibala, Martin J; Ashkar, Ali A

    2017-12-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) boosts natural killer (NK) cell number and activity in normal weight breast cancer patients; however, whether this occurs in obese individuals is not well established. The goal of this study was to determine whether HIIT effectively boosts NK cells as a therapeutic strategy against breast cancer in an obese mouse model and in overweight/obese women. Diet induced female C57Bl/6 obese mice were assigned to undergo HIIT for four weeks or remain sedentary. Female participants were subjected to a six weeks HIIT protocol. HIIT mice acclimatized to treadmill running were subsequently injected with 5 × 10 5 polyoma middle T (MT) breast cancer cells intravenously. NK cell number and activation were monitored using flow cytometry, and tumor burden or lipid content evaluated from histological lung and liver tissues, respectively. In both mice and humans, circulating NK cell number and activation (CD3-NK1.1+CD27+ and CD3-CD56+, respectively) markedly increased immediately after HIIT. HIIT obese mice had reduced lung tumor burden compared to controls following MT challenge, and had diminished hepatic lipid deposition despite minimal body weight loss. Our findings demonstrate that HIIT can benefit obese individuals by enhancing NK cell number and activity, reducing tumor burden, and enhancing metabolic health.

  3. A large increase of sour taste receptor cells in Skn-1-deficient mice does not alter the number of their sour taste signal-transmitting gustatory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Naohiro; Narukawa, Masataka; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Kurumi; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2017-05-01

    The connections between taste receptor cells (TRCs) and innervating gustatory neurons are formed in a mutually dependent manner during development. To investigate whether a change in the ratio of cell types that compose taste buds influences the number of innervating gustatory neurons, we analyzed the proportion of gustatory neurons that transmit sour taste signals in adult Skn-1a -/- mice in which the number of sour TRCs is greatly increased. We generated polycystic kidney disease 1 like 3-wheat germ agglutinin (pkd1l3-WGA)/Skn-1a +/+ and pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice by crossing Skn-1a -/- mice and pkd1l3-WGA transgenic mice, in which neural pathways of sour taste signals can be visualized. The number of WGA-positive cells in the circumvallate papillae is 3-fold higher in taste buds of pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice relative to pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a +/+ mice. Intriguingly, the ratio of WGA-positive neurons to P2X 2 -expressing gustatory neurons in nodose/petrosal ganglia was similar between pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a +/+ and pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice. In conclusion, an alteration in the ratio of cell types that compose taste buds does not influence the number of gustatory neurons that transmit sour taste signals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Physical Activity Increases the Total Number of Bone-Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Enhances Their Osteogenic Potential, and Inhibits Their Adipogenic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Marędziak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging and sedentary lifestyle are common nowadays and are associated with the increasing number of chronic diseases. Thus, physical activity is recommended as one of three healthy behavior factors that play a crucial role in health prophylaxis. In the present study, we were interested whether physical activity influences the number and potential of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells BMMSCs. In this study, four-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice were trained on a treadmill at progressive speeds over a 5-week period. Comparisons made between exercised (EX and sedentary animal groups revealed (i significantly higher number of MSCs in EX animals, (ii elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, (iii increased level of osteopontin (OPN and osteocalcin (OCL, and (iv reduced marrow cavity fat. The results obtained support the thesis that EX may play a substantial role in the regeneration of mesenchymal tissues. Therefore, EX may represent a novel, nonpharmacological strategy of slowing down age-related decline of the musculoskeletal functions.

  5. Increasing the number and signal-to-noise ratio of OBS traces with supervirtual refraction interferometry and free-surface multiples

    KAUST Repository

    Bharadwaj, P.; Wang, X.; Schuster, Gerard T.; McIntosh, K.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of supervirtual interferometry is modified so that free-surface related multiple refractions can be used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of primary refraction events by a factor proportional to√Ns, where Ns is the number of post-critical sources for a specified refraction multiple. We also show that refraction multiples can be transformed into primary refraction events recorded at virtual hydrophones located between the actual hydrophones. Thus, data recorded by a coarse sampling of ocean bottom seismic (OBS) stations can be transformed, in principle, into a virtual survey with P times more OBS stations, where P is the order of the visible free-surface related multiple refractions. The key assumption is that the refraction arrivals are those of head waves, not pure diving waves. The effectiveness of this method is validated with both synthetic OBS data and an OBS data set recorded offshore from Taiwan. Results show the successful reconstruction of far-offset traces out to a source-receiver offset of 120 km. The primary supervirtual traces increase the number of pickable first arrivals from approximately 1600 to more than 3100 for a subset of the OBS data set where the source is only on one side of the recording stations. In addition, the head waves associated with the first-order free-surface refraction multiples allow for the creation of six new common receiver gathers recorded at virtual OBS station located about half way between the actual OBS stations. This doubles the number of OBS stations compared to the original survey and increases the total number of pickable traces from approximately 1600 to more than 6200. In summary, our results with the OBS data demonstrate that refraction interferometry can sometimes more than quadruple the number of usable traces, increase the source-receiver offsets, fill in the receiver line with a denser distribution of OBS stations, and provide more reliable picking of first arrivals. Apotential liability

  6. Increasing the number and signal-to-noise ratio of OBS traces with supervirtual refraction interferometry and free-surface multiples

    KAUST Repository

    Bharadwaj, P.

    2013-01-10

    The theory of supervirtual interferometry is modified so that free-surface related multiple refractions can be used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of primary refraction events by a factor proportional to√Ns, where Ns is the number of post-critical sources for a specified refraction multiple. We also show that refraction multiples can be transformed into primary refraction events recorded at virtual hydrophones located between the actual hydrophones. Thus, data recorded by a coarse sampling of ocean bottom seismic (OBS) stations can be transformed, in principle, into a virtual survey with P times more OBS stations, where P is the order of the visible free-surface related multiple refractions. The key assumption is that the refraction arrivals are those of head waves, not pure diving waves. The effectiveness of this method is validated with both synthetic OBS data and an OBS data set recorded offshore from Taiwan. Results show the successful reconstruction of far-offset traces out to a source-receiver offset of 120 km. The primary supervirtual traces increase the number of pickable first arrivals from approximately 1600 to more than 3100 for a subset of the OBS data set where the source is only on one side of the recording stations. In addition, the head waves associated with the first-order free-surface refraction multiples allow for the creation of six new common receiver gathers recorded at virtual OBS station located about half way between the actual OBS stations. This doubles the number of OBS stations compared to the original survey and increases the total number of pickable traces from approximately 1600 to more than 6200. In summary, our results with the OBS data demonstrate that refraction interferometry can sometimes more than quadruple the number of usable traces, increase the source-receiver offsets, fill in the receiver line with a denser distribution of OBS stations, and provide more reliable picking of first arrivals. Apotential liability

  7. Chronic levodopa administration followed by a washout period increased number and induced phenotypic changes in striatal dopaminergic cells in MPTP-monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla DiCaudo

    Full Text Available In addition to the medium spiny neurons the mammalian striatum contains a small population of GABAergic interneurons that are immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, which dramatically increases after lesions to the nigrostriatal pathway and striatal delivery of neurotrophic factors. The regulatory effect of levodopa (L-Dopa on the number and phenotype of these cells is less well understood. Eleven macaques (Macaca fascicularis were included. Group I (n = 4 received 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP and L-Dopa; Group II (n = 4 was treated with MPTP plus vehicle and Group III (n = 3 consist of intact animals (control group. L-Dopa and vehicle were given for 1 year and animals sacrificed 6 months later. Immunohistochemistry against TH was used to identify striatal and nigral dopaminergic cells. Double and triple labeling immunofluorescence was performed to detect the neurochemical characteristics of the striatal TH-ir cells using antibodies against: TH, anti-glutamate decarboxylase (GAD(67 anti-calretinin (CR anti-dopa decarboxylase (DDC and anti-dopamine and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32. The greatest density of TH-ir striatal cells was detected in the striatum of the L-Dopa treated monkeys and particularly in its associative territory. None of the striatal TH-ir cell expressed DARPP-32 indicating they are interneurons. The percentages of TH-ir cells that expressed GAD67 and DDC was approximately 50%. Interestingly, we found that in the L-Dopa group the number of TH/CR expressing cells was significantly reduced. We conclude that chronic L-Dopa administration produced a long-lasting increase in the number of TH-ir cells, even after a washout period of 6 months. L-Dopa also modified the phenotype of these cells with a significant reduction of the TH/CR phenotype in favor of an increased number of TH/GAD cells that do not express CR. We suggest that the increased number of striatal TH-ir cells might be involved

  8. Vildagliptin, but not glibenclamide, increases circulating endothelial progenitor cell number: a 12-month randomized controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei Cas, Alessandra; Spigoni, Valentina; Cito, Monia; Aldigeri, Raffaella; Ridolfi, Valentina; Marchesi, Elisabetta; Marina, Michela; Derlindati, Eleonora; Aloe, Rosalia; Bonadonna, Riccardo C; Zavaroni, Ivana

    2017-02-23

    Fewer circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and increased plasma (C-term) stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α), a substrate of DPP-4, are biomarkers, and perhaps mediators, of cardiovascular risk and mortality. Short-term/acute treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors improve EPC bioavailability; however, long-term effects of DPP-4i on EPCs bioavailability/plasma (C-term) SDF-1α are unknown. Randomized (2:1) open-label trial to compare the effects of vildagliptin (V) (100 mg/day) vs glibenclamide (G) (2.5 mg bid to a maximal dose of 5 mg bid) on circulating EPC levels at 4 and 12 months of treatment in 64 patients with type 2 diabetes in metformin failure. At baseline, and after 4 and 12 months, main clinical/biohumoral parameters, inflammatory biomarkers, concomitant therapies, EPC number (CD34 + /CD133 + /KDR + /10 6 cytometric events) and plasma (C-term) SDF-1α (R&D system) were assessed. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the two groups. V and G similarly and significantly (p < 0.0001) improved glucose control. At 12 months, V significantly increased EPC number (p < 0.05) and significantly reduced (C-term) SDF-1α plasma levels (p < 0.01) compared to G, with no differences in inflammatory biomarkers. V exerts a long-term favorable effect on EPC and (C-term) SDF-1α levels at glucose equipoise, thereby implying a putative beneficial effect on vascular integrity. Trial registration Clinical Trials number: NCT01822548; name: Effect of Vildagliptin vs. Glibenclamide on Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cell Number Type 2 Diabetes. Registered 28 March, 2013.

  9. [The impact of ethical and moral competence in decision making on rationalism and rationing nursing interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdt, R

    2005-08-01

    The intraprofessional discourse about economical aspects in nursing from an ethical point of view has not taken place yet. To cope with the increasing restriction of resources, some preconditions have to be met: It is necessary to communicate issues in rationalizing and rationing in nursing openly. Person-oriented criteria in the nursing process indicate a high level of competence and user-oriented quality in nursing care. But nursing professionals do not decide in favor or against resources to perform this task on a high or poor quality level. Democratic decision-making on providing nursing services depends on a continuous societal discourse about allocation criteria.

  10. Icariin protects rats against 5/6 nephrectomy-induced chronic kidney failure by increasing the number of renal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongdi; He, Liqun; Huang, Di; Lei, Shi; Gao, Jiandong

    2015-10-21

    Chronic kidney disease poses a serious health problem worldwide with increasing prevalence and lack of effective treatment. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of icariin in alleviating chronic renal failure induced by 5/6 nephrectomy in rats. The chronic renal failure model was established by a two-phased 5/6 nephrectomy procedure. The model rats were given daily doses of water or icariin for 8 weeks. The kidney morphology was checked by HE staining. The levels of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid were measured by colometric methods. The expression of specified genes was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining. The number of renal stem/progenitor cells was analyzed by CD133 and CD24 immunohistochemical staining. Icariin protected against CDK-caused damages to kidney histology and improved renal function, significantly reduced levels of BUN, creatinine, and uric acid. Icariin inhibited the expression level of TGF-β1 whereas upregulated HGF, BMP-7, WT-1, and Pax2 expression. Moreover, ccariin significantly increased the expression of CD24, CD133, Osr1, and Nanog in remnant kidney and the numbers of CD133(+)/CD24(+) renal stem/progenitor cells. These data demonstrated that icariin effectively alleviated 5/6 nephrectomy induced chronic renal failure through increasing renal stem/progenitor cells.

  11. Rational reconstructions of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittelstaedt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Newton’s classical physics and its underlying ontology are loaded with several metaphysical hypotheses that cannot be justified by rational reasoning nor by experimental evidence. Furthermore, it is well known that some of these hypotheses are not contained in the great theories of Modern Physics, such as the theory of Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. This book shows that, on the basis of Newton’s classical physics and by rational reconstruction, the theory of Special Relativity as well as Quantum Mechanics can be obtained by partly eliminating or attenuating the metaphysical hypotheses. Moreover, it is shown that these reconstructions do not require additional hypotheses or new experimental results. In the second edition the rational reconstructions are completed with respect to General Relativity and Cosmology. In addition, the statistics of quantum objects is elaborated in more detail with respect to the rational reconstruction of quantum mechanics. The new material completes the approach of t...

  12. Rational-Emotive Staff Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Susan G.; Forman, Bruce D.

    1980-01-01

    The application of Rational-Emotive Therapy principles and techniques in in-service education for school personnel is discussed. Teacher and counselor participation in a staff development program is described. (Author)

  13. Increasing Leaf Vein Density via Mutagenesis in Rice Results in an Enhanced Rate of Photosynthesis, Smaller Cell Sizes and Can Reduce Interveinal Mesophyll Cell Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryo B. Feldman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Improvements to leaf photosynthetic rates of crops can be achieved by targeted manipulation of individual component processes, such as the activity and properties of RuBisCO or photoprotection. This study shows that simple forward genetic screens of mutant populations can also be used to rapidly generate photosynthesis variants that are useful for breeding. Increasing leaf vein density (concentration of vascular tissue per unit leaf area has important implications for plant hydraulic properties and assimilate transport. It was an important step to improving photosynthetic rates in the evolution of both C3 and C4 species and is a foundation or prerequisite trait for C4 engineering in crops like rice (Oryza sativa. A previous high throughput screen identified five mutant rice lines (cv. IR64 with increased vein densities and associated narrower leaf widths (Feldman et al., 2014. Here, these high vein density rice variants were analyzed for properties related to photosynthesis. Two lines were identified as having significantly reduced mesophyll to bundle sheath cell number ratios. All five lines had 20% higher light saturated photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf area, higher maximum carboxylation rates, dark respiration rates and electron transport capacities. This was associated with no significant differences in leaf thickness, stomatal conductance or CO2 compensation point between mutants and the wild-type. The enhanced photosynthetic rate in these lines may be a result of increased RuBisCO and electron transport component amount and/or activity and/or enhanced transport of photoassimilates. We conclude that high vein density (associated with altered mesophyll cell length and number is a trait that may confer increased photosynthetic efficiency without increased transpiration.

  14. Exceptional curves on smooth rational surfaces with -K not nef and of self-intersection zero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahyane, Mustapha

    2001-08-01

    We prove that a smooth rational surface X defined over the field of complex numbers having an anti-canonical divisor not nef and of self-intersection zero has a finite number of (-1)-curves. A (-1)-curve is a smooth rational curve of self-interaction -1. By giving an example, we also show that X may have no (-2)-curves, a (-2)-curve is a smooth rational curve of self-intersection -2. (author)

  15. Should warfarin or aspirin be stopped prior to prostate biopsy? An analysis of bleeding complications related to increasing sample number regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, R.; Abbas, A.; Idriz, S.; Hoy, A.; Rutherford, E.E.; Smart, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy with increased sampling numbers are more likely to experience bleeding complications and whether warfarin or low-dose aspirin are independent risk factors. Materials and methods: 930 consecutive patients with suspected prostatic cancer were followed up after biopsy. Warfarin/low-dose aspirin was not stopped prior to the procedure. An eight to 10 sample regime TRUS-guided prostate biopsy was performed and patients were offered a questionnaire to complete 10 days after the procedure, to determine any immediate or delayed bleeding complications. Results: 902 patients returned completed questionnaires. 579 (64.2%) underwent eight core biopsies, 47 (5.2%) underwent nine, and 276 (30.6%) underwent 10. 68 were taking warfarin [mean international normalized ratio (INR) = 2.5], 216 were taking low-dose aspirin, one was taking both, and 617 were taking neither. 27.9% of those on warfarin and 33.8% of those on aspirin experienced haematuria. 37% of those on no blood-thinning medication experienced haematuria. 13.2% of those on warfarin and 14.4% of those on aspirin experienced rectal bleeding. 11.5% of those on no blood-thinning medication experienced rectal bleeding. 7.4% of those on warfarin and 12% of those on aspirin experienced haematospermia. 13.8% of those on neither experienced haematospermia. Regression analysis showed a significant association between increasing sampling number and occurrence of all bleeding complication types. There was no significant association between minor bleeding complications and warfarin use; however, there was a significant association between minor bleeding complications and low-dose aspirin use. There was no severe bleeding complication. Conclusion: There is an increased risk of bleeding complications following TRUS-guided prostate biopsy with increased sampling numbers but these are minor. There is also an increased risk with low

  16. Management between Rationality and Irrationality

    OpenAIRE

    Cene Bavec

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, we discuss theoretical and practical aspects of management and its rational and irrational behavior in the light of traditional management theories and contemporary social theories and theories of complexity. We exposed differences between middle and top management, where rationality is ascribed mainly to middle management, while top management often acts on seemingly irrational way. For the part of this irrationality, we cannot blame management because it originates from the na...

  17. Choice, internal consistency, and rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi Bhattacharyya; Prasanta K. Pattanaik; Yongsheng Xu

    2010-01-01

    The classical theory of rational choice is built on several important internal consistency conditions. In recent years, the reasonableness of those internal consistency conditions has been questioned and criticized, and several responses to accommodate such criticisms have been proposed in the literature. This paper develops a general framework to accommodate the issues raised by the criticisms of classical rational choice theory, and examines the broad impact of these criticisms from both no...

  18. Enhancement of phase space density by increasing trap anisotropy in a magneto-optical trap with a large number of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengalattore, M.; Conroy, R.S.; Prentiss, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    The phase space density of dense, cylindrical clouds of atoms in a 2D magneto-optic trap is investigated. For a large number of trapped atoms (>10 8 ), the density of a spherical cloud is limited by photon reabsorption. However, as the atom cloud is deformed to reduce the radial optical density, the temperature of the atoms decreases due to the suppression of multiple scattering leading to an increase in the phase space density. A density of 2x10 -4 has been achieved in a magneto-optic trap containing 2x10 8 atoms

  19. Strategic Capacity Rationing to Induce Early Purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Liu; Garrett J. van Ryzin

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic pricing offers the potential to increase revenues. At the same time, it creates an incentive for customers to strategize over the timing of their purchases. A firm should ideally account for this behavior when making its pricing and stocking decisions. In particular, we investigate whether it is optimal for a firm to create rationing risk by deliberately understocking products. Then, the resulting threat of shortages creates an incentive for customers to purchase early at higher price...

  20. Interpolation of rational matrix functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Joseph A; Rodman, Leiba

    1990-01-01

    This book aims to present the theory of interpolation for rational matrix functions as a recently matured independent mathematical subject with its own problems, methods and applications. The authors decided to start working on this book during the regional CBMS conference in Lincoln, Nebraska organized by F. Gilfeather and D. Larson. The principal lecturer, J. William Helton, presented ten lectures on operator and systems theory and the interplay between them. The conference was very stimulating and helped us to decide that the time was ripe for a book on interpolation for matrix valued functions (both rational and non-rational). When the work started and the first partial draft of the book was ready it became clear that the topic is vast and that the rational case by itself with its applications is already enough material for an interesting book. In the process of writing the book, methods for the rational case were developed and refined. As a result we are now able to present the rational case as an indepe...

  1. Maternal high-protein diet during pregnancy, but not during suckling, induced altered expression of an increasing number of hepatic genes in adult mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanselow, Jens; Kucia, Marzena; Langhammer, Martina; Koczan, Dirk; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-04-01

    Indirect effects of a high-protein maternal diet are not well understood. In this study, we analyzed short-term and sustainable effects of a prenatal versus early postnatal maternal high-protein diet on growth and hepatic gene expression in mouse offspring. Dams were exposed to an isoenergetic high-protein (HP, 40 % w/w) diet during pregnancy or lactation. Growth and hepatic expression profiles of male offspring were evaluated directly after weaning and 150 days after birth. Offspring from two dietary groups, high-protein diet during pregnancy and control diet during lactation (HPC), and control diet during pregnancy and high-protein diet during lactation (CHP), were compared with offspring (CC) from control-fed dams. Maternal CHP treatment was associated with sustained offspring growth retardation, but decreased numbers of affected hepatic genes in adults compared to weanlings. In contrast, offspring of the HPC group did not show persistent effects on growth parameters, but the number of affected hepatic genes was even increased at adult age. In both dietary groups, however, only a small subset of genes was affected in weanlings as well as in adults. We conclude that (1) prenatal and early postnatal maternal HP diet caused persistent, but (2) different effects and partially complementary trends on growth characteristics and on the hepatic transcriptome and associated pathways and that (3) only a small number of genes and associated upstream regulators might be involved in passing early diet-induced imprints to adulthood.

  2. Increase in the number of distributed power generation installations in electricity distribution grids - Literature; Zunahme der dezentralen Energieerzeugungsanlagen in elektrischen Verteilnetzen: Literatur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottsponer, O.; Mauchle, P.

    2003-07-01

    This is the tenth and last part of a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a project that looked into potential problems relating to the Swiss electricity distribution grid with respect to the increasing number of distributed power generation facilities being put into service. The identification of special conditions for the grid's operation and future development that take increasing decentralised power production into account are discussed. The results of the project activities encompass the analysis and evaluation of various problem areas associated with planning and management of the grid during normal operation and periods of malfunction, as well as required modifications to safety systems and grid configurations. This ninth appendix to the main report presents an overview and details of the literature and internet sources used in the project. Also, similar projects that discuss the problem area dealt with are briefly described. These include the Dispower, EDIson, DEMS, AMOEVES and ELSAD projects.

  3. Effect of plant extracts and an essential oil on the control of brown spot disease, tillering, number of panicles and yield increase in rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, Julienne; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Dongmo, J. Blaise Lekagne

    2013-01-01

    disease, the tillering, the number of panicles and the yield increase in rice were evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. In vitro, the growth of both fungi was completely inhibited by the EO of C. citrinus and C. citratus at 4,520 mu g/ml and 452 mu g/ml, respectively. For solvent extracts...... in the non-treated and treated samples with a low incidence (0-4 of B. oryzae. Under field conditions, the combined use of the essential oil of C. citrinus as a seed treatment and spraying the plants with 2 % ethanol followed by 2 % (w/v) aqueous extracts of C. citrinus or C. citratus increased the emergence......, we concluded that the EO and solvent extracts of C. citrinus and C. citratus have potential as control agents against brown spot and other seed-borne fungal diseases in rice under both conventional and organic farming....

  4. Increased numbers of preexisting memory CD8 T cells and decreased T-bet expression can restrain terminal differentiation of secondary effector and memory CD8 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nikhil S; Cui, Weiguo; Dominguez, Claudia X; Chen, Jonathan H; Hand, Timothy W; Kaech, Susan M

    2011-10-15

    Memory CD8 T cells acquire effector memory cell properties after reinfection and may reach terminally differentiated, senescent states ("Hayflick limit") after multiple infections. The signals controlling this process are not well understood, but we found that the degree of secondary effector and memory CD8 T cell differentiation was intimately linked to the amount of T-bet expressed upon reactivation and preexisting memory CD8 T cell number (i.e., primary memory CD8 T cell precursor frequency) present during secondary infection. Compared with naive cells, memory CD8 T cells were predisposed toward terminal effector (TE) cell differentiation because they could immediately respond to IL-12 and induce T-bet, even in the absence of Ag. TE cell formation after secondary (2°) or tertiary infections was dependent on increased T-bet expression because T-bet(+/-) cells were resistant to these phenotypic changes. Larger numbers of preexisting memory CD8 T cells limited the duration of 2° infection and the amount of IL-12 produced, and consequently, this reduced T-bet expression and the proportion of 2° TE CD8 T cells that formed. Together, these data show that over repeated infections, memory CD8 T cell quality and proliferative fitness is not strictly determined by the number of serial encounters with Ag or cell divisions, but is a function of the CD8 T cell differentiation state, which is genetically controlled in a T-bet-dependent manner. This differentiation state can be modulated by preexisting memory CD8 T cell number and the intensity of inflammation during reinfection. These results have important implications for vaccinations involving prime-boost strategies.

  5. Increased Numbers of NK Cells, NKT-Like Cells, and NK Inhibitory Receptors in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available T cells and B cells participate in the pathogenesis of COPD. Currently, NK cells and NKT cells have gained increasing attention. In the present study, 19 COPD patients and 12 healthy nonsmokers (HNS were recruited, and their pulmonary function was assessed. The frequencies of CD3+ T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, B, NK, and NKT-like cells were determined using flow cytometry. The frequencies of spontaneous and inducible IFN-γ+ or CD107a+ NK and NKT-like cells as well as activating or inhibitory receptors were also detected. The potential association of lymphocyte subsets with disease severity was further analyzed. Significantly decreased numbers of CD3+ and CD4+ T cells, and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio, but increased numbers of CD3−CD56+ NK and CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells were observed in COPD patients compared to HNS. The frequencies of inducible IFN-γ-secreting NK and NKT-like cells were less in COPD patients. The frequencies of CD158a and CD158b on NK cells and CD158b on NKT-like cells were greater. The frequency of CD158b+ NK cells was negatively correlated with FEV1% prediction and FEV1/FVC. Our data indicate that COPD patients have immune dysfunction, and higher frequencies of inhibitory NK cells and NKT-like cells may participate in the pathogenesis of COPD.

  6. Inhibition of muscle fibrosis results in increases in both utrophin levels and the number of revertant myofibers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Oshrat; Genin, Olga; Angelini, Corrado; Halevy, Orna; Pines, Mark

    2015-09-15

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is characterized by: near absence of dystrophin in skeletal muscles; low percentage of revertant myofibers; up-regulation of utrophin synthesis; and a high degree of muscle fibrosis. In patient quadriceps femoris biopsies (n = 6, ages between 3-9 years) an inverse correlation was observed between the levels of collagen type I - representing fibrosis - and the levels of utrophin. This correlation was independent of the patient's age and was observed in the entire muscle biopsy sections. In the mdx mice diaphragm (n = 6/group), inhibition of fibrosis by halofuginone resulted in increases in the levels of utrophin. The utrophin/fibrosis relationships were not limited to collagen type I, but also applied to other constituents of the fibrosis machinery. The inverse correlation was found also in old mdx mice with established fibrosis. In addition, inhibition of collagen type I levels was associated with increases in the numbers of revertant myofibers, both as single myofibers and in clusters in the diaphragm and the gastrocnemius. In summary, our results demonstrate an inverse correlation between the level of muscle fibrosis and the level of utrophin and that of the number of revertant myofibers. These findings may reveal common links between the fibrotic and utrophin-synthesis pathways and offer new insights into the regulation of utrophin synthesis.

  7. The rationale of rationality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weesie, H.M.; Snijders, C.C.P.; Buskens, V.W.

    2009-01-01

    Our research starts from the assumption that actors use a single decision theory to guide them on how to behave in all possible one-shot two-person encounters. To address which decision theories perform well, we let 17 theories compete in a large number of randomly selected symmetric 2 × 2 games. It

  8. Rational Decision Making as Performative Praxis: Explaining Rationality's Éternel Retour

    OpenAIRE

    Cabantous, L.; Gond, J-P.

    2011-01-01

    Organizational theorists built their knowledge of decision making through a progressive critique of rational choice theory. Their positioning towards rationality, however, is at odds with the observation of rationality persistence in organizational life. This paper addresses this paradox. It proposes a new perspective on rationality that allows the theorizing of the production of rational decisions by organizations. To account for rationality's éternel retour, we approach rational decision ma...

  9. Dehydroepiandrosterone increases the number and dendrite maturation of doublecortin cells in the dentate gyrus of middle age male Wistar rats exposed to chronic mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Pérez, J J; Martínez-Mota, L; Jiménez-Rubio, G; Ortiz-López, L; Cabrera-Muñoz, E A; Galindo-Sevilla, N; Zambrano, E; Hernández-Luis, F; Ramírez-Rodríguez, G B; Flores-Ramos, M

    2017-03-15

    Aging increases the vulnerability to stress and risk of developing depression. These changes have been related to a reduction of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, an adrenal steroid with anti-stress effects. Also, adult hippocampal neurogenesis decreases during aging and its alteration or impaired is related to the development of depression. Besides, it has been hypothesized that DHEA increases the formation of new neurons. However, it is unknown whether treatment with DHEA in aging may stimulate the dendrite maturation of newborn neurons and reversing depressive-like signs evoked by chronic stress exposure. Here aged male rats (14 months old) were subjected to a scheme of chronic mild stress (CMS) during six weeks, received a treatment with DHEA from the third week of CMS. Changes in body weight and sucrose preference (SP) were measured once a week. DHEA levels were measured in serum, identification of doublecortin-(DCX)-, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN-labeled cells was done in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. CMS produced a gradual reduction in the body weight, but no changes in the SP were observed. Treatment enhanced levels of DHEA, but lack of recovery on body weight of stressed rats. Aging reduced the number of DCX-, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN- cells but DHEA just significantly increased the number of DCX-cells in rats under CMS and controls, reaching levels of young non-stressed rats (used here as a reference of an optimal status of health). In rats under CMS, DHEA facilitated dendritic maturation of immature new neurons. Our results reveal that DHEA improves neural plasticity even in conditions of CMS in middle age rats. Thus, this hormone reverted the decrement of DCX-cells caused during normal aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rationally Irrational: The Case of Sexual Burglary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedneault, Amelie; Beauregard, Eric; Harris, Danielle A; Knight, Raymond A

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated rationality in sexually motivated burglaries. Specifically, we analyzed the situational cues identified by sexual burglars in their target selection. The research project investigated 224 individual incidents of residential burglary with apparent sexual motivations. Situational characteristics of the incidents were recorded and analyzed using forward sequential regressions. Results indicated that most sexually motivated burglaries occurred in occupied residences with deficient physical guardianship, when the victim was alone. Violence, theft, penetration, and fetishism were found to be committed in circumstances that increased the benefits and lowered the risks. Results showed that sexual burglary is rational in nature-sexual burglars chose residences that were easy to break into. We found little support for the premise that such opportunities arose while carrying out regular burglaries. Instead, the data indicated that sexual burglars acted opportunistically on situational cues that are markedly dissimilar to those of regular burglars. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Rational noncompliance with prescribed medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Douglas O; DeMarco, Joseph P

    2010-09-01

    Despite the attention that patient noncompliance has received from medical researchers, patient noncompliance remains poorly understood and difficult to alter. With a better theory of patient noncompliance, both greater success in achieving compliance and greater respect for patient decision making are likely. The theory presented, which uses a microeconomic approach, bridges a gap in the extant literature that has so far ignored the contributions of this classic perspective on decision making involving the tradeoff of costs and benefits. The model also generates a surprising conclusion: that patients are typically acting rationally when they refuse to comply with certain treatments. However, compliance is predicted to rise with increased benefits and reduced costs. The prediction that noncompliance is rational is especially true in chronic conditions at the point that treatment begins to move closer to the medically ideal treatment level. Although the details of this theory have not been tested empirically, it is well supported by existing prospective and retrospective studies.

  12. Rationing medical education | Walsh | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at the prospect of rationing, the truth is that rationing has always occurred in one form or another in medical education and in healthcare more broadly. Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. For example rationing may ...

  13. A rational approach to decision making in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B A; Sass, N L

    1984-06-01

    The application of the Kepner-Tregoe (C. H. Kepner and B. B. Tregoe, 1981, The New Rational Manager, Princeton Res. Press, Princeton, N. J.) problem solving technique to the evaluation and interpretation of toxicological information is described. Data from a chronic study provide an illustrative example. In this study an excess in the number of urinary bladder neoplasms was observed in male rats exposed to diets containing the test chemical. No similar effect was seen in treated female rats. Both male and female mice exposed to treatment also exhibited no effect. Whether treatment was the cause of the observed increase should be based on all the scientific and technical information that is relevant to this decision. The Kepner-Tregoe method of problem analysis captures this information in a framework that makes it easily understood. This is especially desirable if the judgments that are a vital part of regulatory decision making are to be adequately communicated.

  14. [The rational application of Da Vinci surgical system in thyroidectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q Q

    2017-08-01

    Da Vinci surgical system is the most advanced minimally invasive surgical platform in the world, and this system has been widely used in cardiac surgery, urology surgery, gynecologic surgery and general surgery. Although the application of this system was relatively late in thyroid surgery, the number of thyroidectomy with Da Vinci surgical system is increasing quickly. Having reviewed recent studies and summarized clinical experience, compared with traditional open operation, the robotic thyroidectomy has the same surgical safety and effectiveness in selective patients with thyroid cancer. In this paper, several aspects on this novel operation were demonstrated, including surgical indications and contraindications, the approaches, surgical procedures and postoperative complications, in order to promote the rational application of Da Vinci surgical system in thyroidectomy.

  15. Quality testing as a reserve for rationalization measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babic, H.G.

    1979-01-01

    The increase in large-scale planning activities and their realization in all fields of quality testing as opposed to the requirements for a reduction of costs emphasizes the necessity of rationaling measures. Especially during the planning phases there are a number of possibilities for solving this problem: the determination of reference dates for production devices based on the preparation of dates with regard to machines and testing, the assignment of the testing frequency in dependence of the quotient from deviations in production and characteristics tolerances, the application of methods of operation planning following different priority rules. Apart from already existing systems for normal and computeraided planning of testing material application by the help of which the most optimal testing material is selected for certain testing jobs systematic representations and programs for the planning of the testing procedure and the testing precision will enrich the joint complex of the organization of testing procedures. (orig./RW) [de

  16. Susceptibility for Lupus Nephritis by Low Copy Number of the FCGR3B Gene Is Linked to Increased Levels of Pathogenic Autoantibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes C. Nossent

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low copy number (CN of the FCGR3B gene reduces FCGR3B membrane expression on neutrophils and results in clearance of a smaller amount of immune complex. We investigated FCGR3B CN in relation to the clinical phenotype in a Caucasian SLE cohort (. FCGR3B CN was determined by three different qPCR parameter estimations (Ct−, Cy0, and cpD1 and confirmed by the FCGR2C/FCGR2A paralog ratio test. Clinical and serological data were then analyzed for their association with FCGR3B CN. Low FCGR3B CN (2. In multivariate analyses, LN was independently associated with anti-C1q-Ab levels ( and low FCGR3B CN (. We conclude that the susceptibility for LN in patients with low FCGR3B CN is linked to increased levels of pathogenic autoantibodies.

  17. A novel design of an automatic lighting control system for a wireless sensor network with increased sensor lifetime and reduced sensor numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamaddoust, Reza; Haghighat, Abolfazl Toroghi; Sharif, Mohamad Javad Motahari; Capanni, Niccolo

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are currently being applied to energy conservation applications such as light control. We propose a design for such a system called a lighting automatic control system (LACS). The LACS system contains a centralized or distributed architecture determined by application requirements and space usage. The system optimizes the calculations and communications for lighting intensity, incorporates user illumination requirements according to their activities and performs adjustments based on external lighting effects in external sensor and external sensor-less architectures. Methods are proposed for reducing the number of sensors required and increasing the lifetime of those used, for considerably reduced energy consumption. Additionally we suggest methods for improving uniformity of illuminance distribution on a workplane's surface, which improves user satisfaction. Finally simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of our design.

  18. A Novel Design of an Automatic Lighting Control System for a Wireless Sensor Network with Increased Sensor Lifetime and Reduced Sensor Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamaddoust, Reza; Haghighat, Abolfazl Toroghi; Sharif, Mohamad Javad Motahari; Capanni, Niccolo

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are currently being applied to energy conservation applications such as light control. We propose a design for such a system called a Lighting Automatic Control System (LACS). The LACS system contains a centralized or distributed architecture determined by application requirements and space usage. The system optimizes the calculations and communications for lighting intensity, incorporates user illumination requirements according to their activities and performs adjustments based on external lighting effects in external sensor and external sensor-less architectures. Methods are proposed for reducing the number of sensors required and increasing the lifetime of those used, for considerably reduced energy consumption. Additionally we suggest methods for improving uniformity of illuminance distribution on a workplane’s surface, which improves user satisfaction. Finally simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of our design. PMID:22164114

  19. Effects of long-term moderate exercise and increase in number of daily steps on serum lipids in women: randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN21921919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirbod Seyed

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a 24-month period of moderate exercise on serum lipids in menopausal women. Methods The subjects (40–60 y were randomly divided into an exercise group (n = 14 and a control group (n = 13. The women in the exercise group were asked to participate in a 90-minute physical education class once a week and to record their daily steps as measured by a pedometer for 24 months. Results Mean of daily steps was significantly higher in the exercise group from about 6,800 to over 8,500 steps (P P Conclusions These results suggest that daily exercise as well as increasing the number of daily steps can improve the profile of serum lipids.

  20. DISTRIBUTED RC NETWORKS WITH RATIONAL TRANSFER FUNCTIONS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    A distributed RC circuit analogous to a continuously tapped transmission line can be made to have a rational short-circuit transfer admittance and...one rational shortcircuit driving-point admittance. A subcircuit of the same structure has a rational open circuit transfer impedance and one rational ...open circuit driving-point impedance. Hence, rational transfer functions may be obtained while considering either generator impedance or load

  1. Professor Stewart's incredible numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Ian Stewart explores the astonishing properties of numbers from 1 to10 to zero and infinity, including one figure that, if you wrote it out, would span the universe. He looks at every kind of number you can think of - real, imaginary, rational, irrational, positive and negative - along with several you might have thought you couldn't think of. He explains the insights of the ancient mathematicians, shows how numbers have evolved through the ages, and reveals the way numerical theory enables everyday life. Under Professor Stewart's guidance you will discover the mathematics of codes,

  2. Increased number of papers co-authored by professor and his students in humanities and social sciences journals published in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rae Seong Hong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Humanities and social sciences studies in Korea have remarkably low rates of co-authorship between professors and students. We chose a bibliometrics-based approach to characterize changes in the ratio of joint authorship between professors and students. Articles classified in the humanities and social sciences sectors that were published in journals registered in the Korean Citation Index during 2 phases over a 10-year period—2004 to 2006 (phase 1 and 2011 to 2013 (phase 2—were used as the main source for the analysis. The study results can be summarized as follows: first, the overall number of co-authored articles drastically increased from phase 1 to phase 2; the percentage of co-authorship articles increased from 34.8% to 47.7%, and the percentage of co-authorship between students and professors rose from 9.9% to 20.7%. This trend was particularly noticeable in the social sciences, such as accounting, social welfare, and economics/business administration. Second, papers written by scholars from Seoul National University, Yonsei University, and Korea University were often published in high-impact factor journals. Among those articles, the rate of professor-student co-authorship increased by 21.6% for 7 years. Third, the increase in professor-student co-authored articles published in high- impact factor journals was even sharper. These findings indicate that perceptions of professor-student co-authorship have changed in the humanities and social sciences. In the near future, positive perceptions toward joint research and joint authorship between professors and students are expected to become more widespread.

  3. Rationality in the Cryptographic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubacek, Pavel

    This thesis presents results in the field of rational cryptography. In the first part we study the use of cryptographic protocols to avoid mediation and binding commitment when implementing game theoretic equilibrium concepts. First, we concentrate on the limits of cryptographic cheap talk...... to implement correlated equilibria of two-player strategic games in a sequentially rational way. We show that there exist two-player games for which no cryptographic protocol can implement the mediator in a sequentially rational way; that is, without introducing empty threats. In the context of computational...... with appealing economic applications. Our implementation puts forward a notion of cryptographically blinded games that exploits the power of encryption to selectively restrict the information available to players about sampled action profiles, such that these desirable equilibria can be stably achieved...

  4. Rational choice in field archaelology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Pavel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present article I attempt to apply advances in the study of instrumental and epistemic rationality to field archaeology in order to gain insights into the ways archaeologists reason. The cognitive processes, particularly processes of decision making, that enable archaeologists to conduct the excavation in the trench have not been adequately studied so far. I take my cues from two different bodies of theory. I first inquire into the potential that rational choice theory (RCT may have in modeling archaeological behaviour, and I define subjective expected utility, which archaeologists attempt to maximize, in terms of knowledge acquisition and social gain. Following Elster’s criticism of RCT, I conclude that RCT’s standards for rational action do not correspond with those ostensibly used in field archaeology, but that instrumental rationality has a prominent role in the “archaeological experiment”. I further explore if models proposed as reaction to RCT may account for archaeological decision making. I focus on fast and frugal heuristics, and search for archaeological illustrations for some of the cognitive biases that are better documented in psychological literature. I document confirmation and congruence biases, the endowment effect, observer-expectancy bias, illusory correlation, clustering illusion, sunk cost bias, and anchoring, among others and I propose that some of these biases are used as cognitive tools by archaeologists at work and retain epistemic value. However, I find formal logic to be secondary in the development of archaeological reasoning, with default logic and defeasible logic being used instead. I emphasize scientific knowledge as an actively negotiated social product of human inquiry, and conclude that to describe rationality in field archaeology a bounded rationality model is the most promising avenue of investigation.

  5. Rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Renyuan

    2015-08-26

    The ever-increasing human demand for safe and clean water is gradually pushing conventional water treatment technologies to their limits and it is now a popular perception that the solutions to the existing and future water challenges will highly hinge upon the further development of nanomaterial sciences. The concept of rational design emphasizes ‘design-for-purpose’ and it necessitates a scientifically clear problem definition to initiate the nanomaterial design. The field of rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment has experienced a significant growth in the past decade and is poised to make its contribution in creating advanced next-generation water treatment technologies in the years to come. Within the water treatment context, this review offers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of the latest progress of the rational design, synthesis and applications of nanomaterials in adsorption, chemical oxidation and reduction reactions, membrane-based separation, oil/water separation, and synergistic multifunctional all-in-one nanomaterials/nanodevices. Special attention is paid on chemical concepts of the nanomaterial designs throughout the review.

  6. Increase in the number of distributed power generation installations in electricity distribution grids - Storage technologies; Zunahme der dezentralen Energieerzeugungsanlagen in elektrischen Verteilnetzen: Grundlagen der Speicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luechinger, P.

    2003-07-01

    This is the fifth part of a ten-part final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a project that looked into potential problems relating to the Swiss electricity distribution grid with respect to the increasing number of distributed power generation facilities being put into service. The identification of special conditions for the grid's operation and future development that take increasing decentralised power production into account are discussed. The results of the project activities encompass the analysis and evaluation of various problem areas associated with planning and management of the grid during normal operation and periods of malfunction, as well as required modifications to safety systems and grid configurations. This fourth appendix to the main report describes six ways of storing electricity, including accumulators, super caps, super-conducting magnetic and flywheel energy storage units. The accumulator technologies discussed include lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and sodium-sulphur batteries. Each of these types of power storage technologies is briefly described. The characteristics of these various types of storage are compared.

  7. Increasing biopsy number and sampling from gastric body improve the sensitivity of rapid urease test in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzong-Hsi; Lin, Chien-Chu; Chung, Chen-Shuan; Lin, Cheng-Kuan; Liang, Cheng-Chao; Tsai, Kuang-Chau

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the sensitivity of rapid urease test (RUT) for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection decreased during peptic ulcer bleeding. We designed this study and tried to find a better method to improve the detection rate of H. pylori infection at the same session of endoscopic diagnosis of peptic ulcer bleeding. We prospectively enrolled 116 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding. These patients received intravenous proton pump inhibitor and then received upper gastrointestinal endoscopy within 24 h after arrival. We took one piece of biopsy from gastric antrum (Group 1), four pieces from gastric antrum (Group 2), and one piece from the gastric body (Group 3) for three separate RUTs, respectively. (13)C-urease breath test was used as gold standard for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. There were 74 patients (64 %) with positive (13)C-urease breath test. Among these 74 patients, 45 patients had positive RUT (sensitivity: 61 %) in Group 1; 55 patients had positive RUT (sensitivity: 74 %) in Group 2; 54 patients had positive RUT (sensitivity: 73 %) in Group 3. There were significant differences between Group 1 and Group 2 (p = 0.02) and between Group 1 and Group 3 (p = 0.022). The sensitivity of RUT was 61 % during peptic ulcer bleeding. The sensitivity of RUT can be increased significantly by increased biopsy number from gastric antrum or biopsy from gastric body.

  8. Increasing Number and Proportion of Adverse Obstetrical Outcomes among Women Living with HIV in the Ottawa Area: A 20-Year Clinical Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Buchan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence and associated risks with adverse obstetrical outcomes among women living with HIV are not well measured. The objective of this study was to longitudinally investigate the prevalence and correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes among women with HIV. Methods. This 20-year (1990–2010 clinical case series assessed the prevalence of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV receiving care at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH. General estimating equation modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes, while controlling for year of childbirth clustering. Results. At TOH, there were 127 deliveries among 94 women (1990–2010: 22 preterm births, 9 births with low birth weight, 12 births small for gestational age, and 4 stillbirths. Per year, the odds of adverse obstetrical outcomes increased by 15% (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03–1.30. Psychiatric illness (AOR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.12–6.24, teen pregnancy (AOR: 3.35, 95% CI: 1.04–1.46, and recent immigrant status (AOR: 7.24, 95% CI: 1.30–40.28 were the strongest correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes. Conclusions. The increasing number and proportion of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV over the past 20 years highlight the need for social supports and maternal and child health interventions, especially among adolescents, new immigrants, and those with a history of mental illness.

  9. Increase in the number of distributed power generation installations in electricity distribution grids - General requirements; Zunahme der dezentralen Energieerzeugungsanlagen in elektrischen Verteilnetzen: Rahmenbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, G.; Mauchle, P.

    2003-07-01

    This is the third part of a ten-part final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a project that looked into potential problems relating to the Swiss electricity distribution grid with respect to the increasing number of distributed power generation facilities being put into service. The identification of special conditions for the grid's operation and future development that take increasing decentralised power production into account are discussed. The results of the project activities encompass the analysis and evaluation of various problem areas associated with planning and management of the grid during normal operation and periods of malfunction, as well as required modifications to safety systems and grid configurations. The first part of this second appendix to the main report examines the electrical conditions and requirements that have to be met by distributed production facilities. These include limits for voltage and frequency, synchronisation aspects, protection, reactive power questions and islanding. Also, recommendations are made on the assessment of grid reactions and on the avoidance of non-permissible effects on the grid's audio-frequency remote control apparatus. A second part examines the situation concerning the connection of distributed power units to the grid and grid topologies. The last chapter lists relevant standards and guidelines.

  10. Number of addictive substances used related to increased risk of unnatural death: A combined medico-legal and case-record study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindgren Anna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use disorders have repeatedly been found to lead to premature death, i.e. drug-related death by disease, fatal intoxications, or trauma (accidents, suicide, undetermined suicide, and homicide. The present study examined the relationship between multi-drug substance use and natural and unnatural death. Methods All consecutive, autopsied patients who had been in contact with the Addiction Centre in Malmö University Hospital from 1993 to 1997 inclusive were investigated. Drug abuse was investigated blindly in the case records and related to the cause of death in 387 subjects. Results Every substance apart from alcohol used previously in life added to the risk of unnatural death in a linear way. There were independent increased risks of fatal heroin overdoses or undetermined suicide. Death by suicide and violent death were unrelated to additional abuse. Conclusion The number of drugs used was related to an increased risk of unnatural death by undetermined suicide (mainly fatal intoxications and heroin overdose.

  11. Rationalizing the Promotion of Non-Rational Behaviors in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter A. C.; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2002-01-01

    Organizations must balance rational/technical efficiency and emotions. Action learning has been proven to be effective for developing emotional openness in the workplace. Facilitators of action learning should draw upon the disciplines of counseling, Gestalt, psychodynamics, and Eastern philosophies. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

  12. Re-visions of rationality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Ben R

    2005-01-01

    The appeal of simple algorithms that take account of both the constraints of human cognitive capacity and the structure of environments has been an enduring theme in cognitive science. A novel version of such a boundedly rational perspective views the mind as containing an 'adaptive toolbox' of specialized cognitive heuristics suited to different problems. Although intuitively appealing, when this version was proposed, empirical evidence for the use of such heuristics was scant. I argue that in the light of empirical studies carried out since then, it is time this 'vision of rationality' was revised. An alternative view based on integrative models rather than collections of heuristics is proposed.

  13. Mental health as rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1981-08-01

    Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.

  14. Public policy, rationality and reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Canto Sáenz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work suggests the incorporation of practical reason in the design, implementation and evaluation of public policies, alongside instrumental rationality. It takes two proposals that today point in this direction: Rawls distinction between reasonable (practical reason and rational (instrumental reason and what this author calls the CI Procedure (categorical imperative procedure and Habermas model of deliberative democracy. The main conclusion is that the analysis of public policies can not be limited to rather narrow limits of science, but requires the contribution of political and moral philosophy.

  15. An increasing number of qualitative research papers in oncology and palliative care: does it mean a thorough development of the methodology of research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunelli Cinzia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the second half of the nineties, a scientific debate about the usefulness of qualitative research in medicine began in the main medical journals as well as the amount of "qualitative" papers published on peer reviewed journals has noticeably increased during these last years. Nevertheless the label of qualitative methodology has been assigned to an heterogeneous collection of studies. Some of them show a complete awareness of the specificity of this kind of research, while others are still largely influenced by the quantitative paradigm prevailing in the medical field. The concern with the rigour and credibility of qualitative methods has lead to the development of a number of checklist for assessing qualitative research. The purposes of this review were to describe the quality of the development of qualitative research in the medical field, focusing on oncology and palliative care, and to discuss the applicability of a descriptive checklist. Methods A review was conducted on Medline and PsycINFO databases. On the basis of their abstract, papers found have been classified considering: publication year, kind of journal, paper type, data gathering method, sample size and declared methodological approach. A sub sample of the previous papers was than selected and their methodological characteristics were evaluated based on a descriptive checklist. Results 351 abstracts and 26 full papers were analysed. An increase over time in the number of qualitative studies is evident. While most of the papers before 1999 were published on nursing journals (43%, afterwards also medical journals were largely represented. Psychological journals increased from 7% to 12%. The 22% of studies used a sample size lower than 15 and the 15% did not specify the sample size in the abstract. The methodological approach was also often not specified and the percentage increased in the second time period (from 73% to 80%. Grounded theory was the most

  16. Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora palmivora, Closely Related Causal Agents of Cacao Black Pod Rot, Underwent Increases in Genome Sizes and Gene Numbers by Different Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S.; Shao, Jonathan; Lary, David J.; Kronmiller, Brent A.; Shen, Danyu; Strem, Mary D.; Amoako-Attah, Ishmael; Akrofi, Andrew Yaw; Begoude, B.A. Didier; ten Hoopen, G. Martijn; Coulibaly, Klotioloma; Kebe, Boubacar Ismaël; Melnick, Rachel L.; Guiltinan, Mark J.; Tyler, Brett M.; Meinhardt, Lyndel W.

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) are closely related species causing cacao black pod rot. Although Ppal is a cosmopolitan pathogen, cacao is the only known host of economic importance for Pmeg. Pmeg is more virulent on cacao than Ppal. We sequenced and compared the Pmeg and Ppal genomes and identified virulence-related putative gene models (PGeneM) that may be responsible for their differences in host specificities and virulence. Pmeg and Ppal have estimated genome sizes of 126.88 and 151.23 Mb and PGeneM numbers of 42,036 and 44,327, respectively. The evolutionary histories of Pmeg and Ppal appear quite different. Postspeciation, Ppal underwent whole-genome duplication whereas Pmeg has undergone selective increases in PGeneM numbers, likely through accelerated transposable element-driven duplications. Many PGeneMs in both species failed to match transcripts and may represent pseudogenes or cryptic genetic reservoirs. Pmeg appears to have amplified specific gene families, some of which are virulence-related. Analysis of mycelium, zoospore, and in planta transcriptome expression profiles using neural network self-organizing map analysis generated 24 multivariate and nonlinear self-organizing map classes. Many members of the RxLR, necrosis-inducing phytophthora protein, and pectinase genes families were specifically induced in planta. Pmeg displays a diverse virulence-related gene complement similar in size to and potentially of greater diversity than Ppal but it remains likely that the specific functions of the genes determine each species’ unique characteristics as pathogens. PMID:28186564

  17. Characteristics of health professions schools, public school systems, and community-based organizations in successful partnerships to increase the numbers of underrepresented minority students entering health professions education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carline, Jan D; Patterson, Davis G

    2003-05-01

    To identify characteristics of health professions schools, public schools, and community-based organizations in successful partnerships to increase the number of underrepresented minority students entering health professions. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the W. K. Kellogg Foundation funded the Health Professions Partnership Initiative program developed from Project 3000 by 2000 of the Association of American Medical Colleges. Semi-structured interviews were completed with awardees and representatives of the funding agencies, the national program office, and the national advisory committee between the fall of 2000 and the summer of 2002. Site visits were conducted at ten sites, with representatives of partner institutions, teachers, parents, and children. Characteristics that supported and hindered development of successful partnerships were identified using an iterative qualitative approach. Successful partnerships included professional schools that had a commitment to community service. Successful leaders could work in both cultures of the professional and public schools. Attitudes of respect and listening to the needs of partners were essential. Public school governance supported innovation. Happenstance and convergence of interests played significant roles in partnership development. The most telling statement was "We did it, together." This study identifies characteristics associated with smoothly working partnerships, and barriers to successful program development. Successful partnerships can form the basis on which educational interventions are built. The study is limited by the definition of success used, and its focus on one funded program. The authors were unable to identify outcomes in terms of numbers of children influenced by programs or instances in which lasting changes in health professions schools had occurred.

  18. Distribution theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chung-Chun

    2008-01-01

    The book timely surveys new research results and related developments in Diophantine approximation, a division of number theory which deals with the approximation of real numbers by rational numbers. The book is appended with a list of challenging open problems and a comprehensive list of references. From the contents: Field extensions Algebraic numbers Algebraic geometry Height functions The abc-conjecture Roth''s theorem Subspace theorems Vojta''s conjectures L-functions.

  19. Adaptation to acidic soil is achieved by increased numbers of cis-acting elements regulating ALMT1 expression in Holcus lanatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi Chang; Yokosho, Kengo; Kashino, Miho; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Yamaji, Naoki; Ma, Jian Feng

    2013-10-01

    Yorkshire fog (Holcus lanatus), which belongs to the Poaceae family and is a close relative of the agronomic crop oat (Avena sativa), is a widely adaptable grass species that is able to grow on highly acidic soils with high levels of Al, but the mechanism underlying the high Al tolerance is unknown. Here, we characterized two accessions of H. lanatus collected from an acid plot (soil pH 3.6, HL-A) and a neutral plot (pH 7.1, HL-N) in terms of Al tolerance, organic acid anion secretion and related gene expression. In response to Al (pH 4.5), the HL-A roots secreted approximately twice as much malate as the HL-N roots, but there was no difference in citrate secretion. Cloning of the gene HlALMT1 responsible for malate secretion showed that the encoded amino acid sequence did not differ between two accessions, but the expression level in the outer cell layers of the HL-A roots was twice as high as in the HL-N roots. This difference was not due to the genomic copy number, but was due to the number of cis-acting elements for an Al-responsive transcription factor (HlART1) in the promoter region of HlALMT1, as demonstrated by both a yeast one-hybrid assay and a transient assay in tobacco protoplasts. Furthermore, introduction of HlALMT1 driven by the HL-A promoter into rice resulted in significantly more Al-induced malate secretion than introduction of HlALMT1 driven by the HL-N promoter. These findings indicate that the adaptation of H. lanatus to acidic soils may be achieved by increasing number of cis-acting elements for ART1 in the promoter region of the HlALMT1 gene, enhancing the expression of HlALMT1 and the secretion of malate. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Optimal public rationing and price response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Simona; Ma, Ching-To Albert

    2011-12-01

    We study optimal public health care rationing and private sector price responses. Consumers differ in their wealth and illness severity (defined as treatment cost). Due to a limited budget, some consumers must be rationed. Rationed consumers may purchase from a monopolistic private market. We consider two information regimes. In the first, the public supplier rations consumers according to their wealth information (means testing). In equilibrium, the public supplier must ration both rich and poor consumers. Rationing some poor consumers implements price reduction in the private market. In the second information regime, the public supplier rations consumers according to consumers' wealth and cost information. In equilibrium, consumers are allocated the good if and only if their costs are below a threshold (cost effectiveness). Rationing based on cost results in higher equilibrium consumer surplus than rationing based on wealth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Teaching Rational Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolever, Roberts

    1978-01-01

    Presented is an outline of a college course, "Education in American Society," that focused on teaching students rational decision-making skills while examining current issues in American Education. The outline is followed by student comments, reactions, and evaluations of the course. (JMD)

  2. Rational Suicide among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphry, Derek

    1992-01-01

    Contends that old age, in and of itself, should never need to be a cause for self-destruction. Further argues that suicide and assisted suicide carried out in the face of terminal illness causing unbearable suffering should be ethically and legally acceptable. Outlines a perspective on rational suicide among the elderly. (Author/NB)

  3. On a CO2 ration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, P.

    2003-01-01

    In 2 years all the large energy companies in the European Union will have a CO2 ration, including a system to trade a shortage or surplus of emission rights. A cost effective system to reduce emission, provided that the government does not auction the emission rights [nl

  4. Personal Autonomy and Rational Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, May A.; Shulman, Ernest

    That certain suicides (which can be designated as rational) ought not to be interfered with is closely tied to the notion of the "right to autonomy." Specifically it is because the individual in question has this right that interference is prohibited. A proper understanding of the right to autonomy, while essential to understanding why…

  5. Developmental exposure to second-hand smoke increases adult atherogenesis and alters mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletions in apoE(-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Fetterman

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While many studies have focused upon the effects of adult second-hand smoke exposure on cardiovascular disease development, disease development occurs over decades and is likely influenced by childhood exposure. The impacts of in utero versus neonatal second-hand smoke exposure on adult atherosclerotic disease development are not known. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of in utero versus neonatal exposure to a low dose (1 mg/m(3 total suspended particulate of second-hand smoke on adult atherosclerotic lesion development using the apolipoprotein E null mouse model. Consequently, apolipoprotein E null mice were exposed to either filtered air or second-hand smoke: (i in utero from gestation days 1-19, or (ii from birth until 3 weeks of age (neonatal. Subsequently, all animals were exposed to filtered air and sacrificed at 12-14 weeks of age. Oil red-O staining of whole aortas, measures of mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress were performed. Results show that both in utero and neonatal second-hand smoke exposure significantly increased adult atherogenesis in mice compared to filtered air controls. These changes were associated with changes in aconitase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities consistent with increased oxidative stress in the aorta, changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletion levels. These studies show that in utero or neonatal exposure to second-hand smoke significantly influences adult atherosclerotic lesion development and results in significant alterations to the mitochondrion and its genome that may contribute to atherogenesis.

  6. Developmental exposure to second-hand smoke increases adult atherogenesis and alters mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletions in apoE(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Jessica L; Pompilius, Melissa; Westbrook, David G; Uyeminami, Dale; Brown, Jamelle; Pinkerton, Kent E; Ballinger, Scott W

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While many studies have focused upon the effects of adult second-hand smoke exposure on cardiovascular disease development, disease development occurs over decades and is likely influenced by childhood exposure. The impacts of in utero versus neonatal second-hand smoke exposure on adult atherosclerotic disease development are not known. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of in utero versus neonatal exposure to a low dose (1 mg/m(3) total suspended particulate) of second-hand smoke on adult atherosclerotic lesion development using the apolipoprotein E null mouse model. Consequently, apolipoprotein E null mice were exposed to either filtered air or second-hand smoke: (i) in utero from gestation days 1-19, or (ii) from birth until 3 weeks of age (neonatal). Subsequently, all animals were exposed to filtered air and sacrificed at 12-14 weeks of age. Oil red-O staining of whole aortas, measures of mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress were performed. Results show that both in utero and neonatal second-hand smoke exposure significantly increased adult atherogenesis in mice compared to filtered air controls. These changes were associated with changes in aconitase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities consistent with increased oxidative stress in the aorta, changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletion levels. These studies show that in utero or neonatal exposure to second-hand smoke significantly influences adult atherosclerotic lesion development and results in significant alterations to the mitochondrion and its genome that may contribute to atherogenesis.

  7. Developmental Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke Increases Adult Atherogenesis and Alters Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Deletions in apoE−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Jessica L.; Pompilius, Melissa; Westbrook, David G.; Uyeminami, Dale; Brown, Jamelle; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Ballinger, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While many studies have focused upon the effects of adult second-hand smoke exposure on cardiovascular disease development, disease development occurs over decades and is likely influenced by childhood exposure. The impacts of in utero versus neonatal second-hand smoke exposure on adult atherosclerotic disease development are not known. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of in utero versus neonatal exposure to a low dose (1 mg/m3 total suspended particulate) of second-hand smoke on adult atherosclerotic lesion development using the apolipoprotein E null mouse model. Consequently, apolipoprotein E null mice were exposed to either filtered air or second-hand smoke: (i) in utero from gestation days 1–19, or (ii) from birth until 3 weeks of age (neonatal). Subsequently, all animals were exposed to filtered air and sacrificed at 12–14 weeks of age. Oil red-O staining of whole aortas, measures of mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress were performed. Results show that both in utero and neonatal second-hand smoke exposure significantly increased adult atherogenesis in mice compared to filtered air controls. These changes were associated with changes in aconitase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities consistent with increased oxidative stress in the aorta, changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletion levels. These studies show that in utero or neonatal exposure to second-hand smoke significantly influences adult atherosclerotic lesion development and results in significant alterations to the mitochondrion and its genome that may contribute to atherogenesis. PMID:23825571

  8. Tjirtamai--'to care for': a nursing education model designed to increase the number of Aboriginal nurses in a rural and remote Queensland community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Roianne; West, Leeona; West, Karen; Usher, Kim

    In 2009, a nursing education model was locally designed and delivered to support the interest of a group of Aboriginal community members living in a rural and remote town in Queensland, specifically to prepare for entry into further nursing education. Named 'Tjirtamai' by the traditional owners of the area, the program was offered in recognition of the challenges faced by Aboriginal people when they enter nursing education courses and as a way to increase the local number of Aboriginal nurses. This program, while funded by the Government, had unprecedented support and involvement from both the local Aboriginal and wider community. The model offered multiple exit points, assistance with financial and other known challenges for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students, and included contextualised literacy and numeracy. Of the 38 Aboriginal students who enrolled in the course, 26 students completed. Of those students, 18 have since enrolled in a bachelor degree in nursing while another 4 enrolled in a diploma of nursing. This paper provides an overview of the course and its outcomes.

  9. Increased number of intestinal villous M cells in levamisole - pretreated weaned pigs experimentally infected with F4ac+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Valpotić

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Immunoprophylaxis of porcine postweaning colibacillosis (PWC caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC expressing F4 fimbriae is an unsolved problem. Just as ETEC strains can exploit intestinal microfold (M cells as the entry portal for infection, their high transcytotic ability make them an attractive target for mucosally delivered vaccines, adjuvants and therapeutics. We have developed a model of parenteral/oral immunization of 4-weeks-old pigs with either levamisole or vaccine candidate F4ac+ non-ETEC strain to study their effects on de novo differentiation of antigen-sampling M cells. Identification, localization and morphometric quantification of cytokeratin 18 positive M cells in the ileal mucosa of 6-weeks-old pigs revealed that they were: 1 exclusively located within villous epithelial layer, 2 significantly numerous (P< 0.01 in levamisole pretreated/challenged pigs, and 3 only slightly, but not significantly numerous in vaccinated/challenged pigs compared with non-pretreated/challenged control pigs. The fact that levamisole may affect the M cells frequency by increasing their numbers, makes it an interesting adjuvant to study development of an effective M cell-targeted vaccine against porcine PWC.

  10. Peripheral innate immune challenge exaggerated microglia activation, increased the number of inflammatory CNS macrophages, and prolonged social withdrawal in socially defeated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohleb, Eric S; Fenn, Ashley M; Pacenta, Ann M; Powell, Nicole D; Sheridan, John F; Godbout, Jonathan P

    2012-09-01

    Repeated social defeat (RSD) activates neuroendocrine pathways that have a significant influence on immunity and behavior. Previous studies from our lab indicate that RSD enhances the inflammatory capacity of CD11b⁺ cells in the brain and promotes anxiety-like behavior in an interleukin (IL)-1 and β-adrenergic receptor-dependent manner. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which mice subjected to RSD were more responsive to a secondary immune challenge. Therefore, RSD or control (HCC) mice were injected with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and activation of brain CD11b⁺ cells and behavioral responses were determined. Peripheral LPS (0.5 mg/kg) injection caused an extended sickness response with exaggerated weight loss and prolonged social withdrawal in socially defeated mice. LPS injection also amplified mRNA expression of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and CD14 in enriched CD11b⁺ cells isolated from socially defeated mice. In addition, IL-1β mRNA levels in enriched CD11b⁺ cells remained elevated in socially defeated mice 24 h and 72 h after LPS. Moreover, microglia and CNS macrophages isolated from socially defeated mice had the highest CD14 expression after LPS injection. Both social defeat and LPS injection increased the percentage of CD11b⁺/CD45(high) macrophages in the brain and the number of inflammatory macrophages (CD11b⁺/CD45(high)/CCR2⁺) was highest in RSD-LPS mice. Anxiety-like behavior was increased by social defeat, but was not exacerbated by the LPS challenge. Nonetheless, reduced locomotor activity and increased social withdrawal were still present in socially defeated mice 72 h after LPS. Last, LPS-induced microglia activation was most evident in the hippocampus of socially defeated mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that repeated social defeat enhanced the neuroinflammatory response and caused prolonged sickness following innate immune challenge

  11. Bounded rationality alters the dynamics of paediatric immunization acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraby, Tamer; Bauch, Chris T

    2015-06-02

    Interactions between disease dynamics and vaccinating behavior have been explored in many coupled behavior-disease models. Cognitive effects such as risk perception, framing, and subjective probabilities of adverse events can be important determinants of the vaccinating behaviour, and represent departures from the pure "rational" decision model that are often described as "bounded rationality". However, the impact of such cognitive effects in the context of paediatric infectious disease vaccines has received relatively little attention. Here, we develop a disease-behavior model that accounts for bounded rationality through prospect theory. We analyze the model and compare its predictions to a reduced model that lacks bounded rationality. We find that, in general, introducing bounded rationality increases the dynamical richness of the model and makes it harder to eliminate a paediatric infectious disease. In contrast, in other cases, a low cost, highly efficacious vaccine can be refused, even when the rational decision model predicts acceptance. Injunctive social norms can prevent vaccine refusal, if vaccine acceptance is sufficiently high in the beginning of the vaccination campaign. Cognitive processes can have major impacts on the predictions of behaviour-disease models, and further study of such processes in the context of vaccination is thus warranted.

  12. The Malnutrition-Related Increase in Early Visceralization of Leishmania donovani Is Associated with a Reduced Number of Lymph Node Phagocytes and Altered Conduit System Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa K.; Barnes, Jeffrey L.; Anstead, Gregory M.; Jimenez, Fabio; Travi, Bruno L.; Peniche, Alex G.; Osorio, E. Yaneth; Ahuja, Seema S.; Melby, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    In a murine model of moderate childhood malnutrition we found that polynutrient deficiency led to a 4–5-fold increase in early visceralization of L. donovani (3 days post-infection) following cutaneous infection and a 16-fold decrease in lymph node barrier function (pmalnutrition-related parasite dissemination we analyzed the cellularity, architecture, and function of the skin-draining lymph node. There was no difference in the localization of multiple cell populations in the lymph node of polynutrient deficient (PND) mice, but there was reduced cellularity with fewer CD11c+dendritic cells (DCs), fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), MOMA-2+ macrophages, and CD169+ subcapsular sinus macrophage (p<0.05 for all) compared to the well-nourished (WN) mice. The parasites were equally co-localized with DCs associated with the lymph node conduit network in the WN and PND mice, and were found in the high endothelial venule into which the conduits drain. When a fluorescent low molecular weight (10 kD) dextran was delivered in the skin, there was greater efflux of the marker from the lymph node conduit system to the spleens of PND mice (p<0.04), indicating that flow through the conduit system was altered. There was no evidence of disruption of the conduit or subcapsular sinus architecture, indicating that the movement of parasites into the subcortical conduit region was due to an active process and not from passive movement through a leaking barrier. These results indicate that the impaired capacity of the lymph node to act as a barrier to dissemination of L. donovani infection is associated with a reduced number of lymph node phagocytes, which most likely leads to reduced capture of parasites as they transit through the sinuses and conduit system. PMID:23967356

  13. Understanding the strategies employed to cope with increased numbers of AIDS-orphaned children in families in rural settings: a case of Mbeya Rural District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauk, Nelsensius Klau; Mwakinyali, Silivano Edson; Putra, Sukma; Mwanri, Lillian

    2017-02-07

    The purpose of this study was to understand the strategies employed by families that adopt Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-orphaned children (Adoptive families) for coping with and mitigating the impact of AIDS in Mbeya Rural District, Tanzania. High numbers of AIDS-orphaned children aged below 18 years in Mbeya Region have led to increasing the burden of families caring for them. Understanding the coping strategies and impact mitigation activities employed by adoptive families is important in order to develop programmes to help them. This study employed a qualitative method for data collection (one-on-one in-depth interviews). The respondents included 12 male and 8 female heads of families that provide essential care for AIDS-orphaned children in Mbeya Rural District in Tanzania. The framework approach was used to analyse the data that were collected from 15 July to 15 August 2010. The study findings revealed that adoptive families faced several challenges including financial constraints due to increased needs for basic essentials such as health care expenses, school fees and food. Further impacts on adoptive families included shortage of work opportunities and limited time to address these challenges. To mitigate these challenges, adoptive families employed a range of coping strategies including selling family assets and renting out parts of cultivable land for extra cash. Task reallocation which involved the AIDS-orphaned children entering the labour force was also employed as a strategy to mitigate challenges and involved de-enrolling of children from schools so they could take part in income-generating activities in order to earn supplementary family income. The creation of additional income-generating activities such as poultry farming were other coping mechanisms employed, and these received support from both non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and governmental organisations, including the Isangati Agricultural Development Organization (local

  14. Properties of extended inorganic solids predicted/rationalized by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Due to the vastly complex nature of the problem, guidelines for the preparation of extended inorganic solids with specific electronic properties remain meagre. Here we present the use of First Principles LMTO band structure calculations for the rationalization of the properties of a number of interesting extended solids.

  15. Rationality, mental causation and social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of mental causation in the context of rational choice theory. The author defends psychological aspect of rational explanation against the challenge of contemporary reductive materialism.

  16. Rationality, mental causation and social sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenović Ivan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of mental causation in the context of rational choice theory. The author defends psychological aspect of rational explanation against the challenge of contemporary reductive materialism.

  17. Asymptotic behaviour of a non-commutative rational series with a nonnegative linear representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Dumas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the asymptotic behaviour in the mean of a non-commutative rational series, which originates from differential cryptanalysis, using tools from probability theory, and from analytic number theory. We derive a Fourier representation of a first-order summation function obtained by interpreting this rational series as a non-classical rational sequence via the octal numeration system. The method is applicable to a wide class of sequences rational with respect to a numeration system essentially under the condition that they admit a linear representation with nonnegative coefficients.

  18. Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L

    2011-04-01

    Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome.

  19. Lessons from Learning to Have Rational Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Lindh, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews a growing literature investigating how economic agents may learn rational expectations. Fully rational learning requires implausible initial information assumptions, therefore some form of bounded rationality has come into focus. Such learning models often converge to rational expectations equilibria within certain bounds. Convergence analysis has been much simplified by methods from adaptive control theory. Learning stability as a correspondence principle show some promise...

  20. Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion*

    OpenAIRE

    Clore, Gerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome.

  1. Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome. PMID:25125770

  2. Electricity rationing and public response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Leonardo Rocha; Soares, Lacir Jorge

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the electricity load demand behavior during the 2001 rationing period, which was implemented because of the Brazilian energy crisis. The hourly data refers to a utility situated in the southeast of the country. We use the model proposed by Soares and Souza [Soares, L.J. and Souza, L.R. (2006), 'Forecasting electricity demand using generalized long memory', International Journal of Forecasting, 22, 17-28.], making use of generalized long memory to model the seasonal behavior of the load. The rationing period is shown to have imposed a structural break in the series, decreasing the load at about 20%. Even so, the forecast accuracy is decreased only marginally, and the forecasts rapidly readapt to the new situation. The structural break, as well as the forecast errors from this model, also permits verifying the public response to pieces of information released regarding the crisis. (Author)

  3. Bounded Rationality in Transposition Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2014-01-01

    Studies explaining the timeliness and correctness of the transposition of EU directives into national legislation have provided rather inconclusive findings. They do not offer a clear-cut prediction concerning the transposition of the patients’ rights directive, which is one of the first that con......Studies explaining the timeliness and correctness of the transposition of EU directives into national legislation have provided rather inconclusive findings. They do not offer a clear-cut prediction concerning the transposition of the patients’ rights directive, which is one of the first...... that concerns the organisation and financing of national healthcare systems. This article applies the perspective of bounded rationality to explain (irregularities in) the timely and correct transposition of EU directives. The cognitive and organisational constraints long posited by the bounded rationality...

  4. Rational Thinking in School-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mary Kristen; Flynn, Perry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We reflect on Alan Kamhi's (2011) prologue on balancing certainty and uncertainty as it pertains to school-based practice. Method: In schools, rational thinking depends on effective team processes, much like professional learning communities. We consider the conditions that are required for rational thinking and how rational team dialogue…

  5. Book Selection, Collection Development, and Bounded Rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews previously proposed schemes of classical rationality in book selection, describes new approaches to rational choice behavior, and presents a model of book selection based on bounded rationality in a garbage can decision process. The role of tacit knowledge and symbolic content in the selection process are also discussed. (102 references)…

  6. RATGRAPH: Computer Graphing of Rational Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minch, Bradley A.

    1987-01-01

    Presents an easy-to-use Applesoft BASIC program that graphs rational functions and any asymptotes that the functions might have. Discusses the nature of rational functions, graphing them manually, employing a computer to graph rational functions, and describes how the program works. (TW)

  7. Rationality and the Logic of Good Reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Walter R.

    This paper contends that the rationality of the logic of good reasons is constituted in its use. To support this claim, the paper presents an analysis of the relationship between being reasonable and being rational. It then considers how following the logic of good reasons leads to rationality in the behavior of individuals and groups; the latter…

  8. Information Transmission and Rational Inattention

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Tutino

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of optimal communication strategy between a fully informed agent and a rationally inattentive agent. The fully informed agent observes a sequence of shocks and transmits a message to the limited-capacity agent who takes a set of actions in response to the message. The problem of the informed agent is to seek the optimal signaling strategy that induces a behavior consistent with minimal welfare loss, uniformly over a given class of bounded utility functions. We characteriz...

  9. Rational Asset Pricing Bubbles Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Werner

    2012-01-01

    Price bubble arises when the price of an asset exceeds the asset's fundamental value, that is, the present value of future dividend payments. The important result of Santos and Woodford (1997) says that price bubbles cannot exist in equilibrium in the standard dynamic asset pricing model with rational agents as long as assets are in strictly positive supply and the present value of total future resources is finite. This paper explores the possibility of asset price bubbles when either one of ...

  10. Kant on empiricism and rationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Vanzo, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to correct some widely held misconceptions concerning Kant's role in the formation of a widespread narrative of early modern philosophy. According to this narrative, which dominated the English-speaking world throughout the twentieth century, the early modern period was characterized by the development of two rival schools: René Descartes's, Baruch Spinoza's, and G. W. Leibniz's rationalism; and John Locke's, George Berkeley's, and David Hume's empiricism. Empiricists and rati...

  11. Rational approximation of vertical segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Celis, Oliver; Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte

    2007-08-01

    In many applications, observations are prone to imprecise measurements. When constructing a model based on such data, an approximation rather than an interpolation approach is needed. Very often a least squares approximation is used. Here we follow a different approach. A natural way for dealing with uncertainty in the data is by means of an uncertainty interval. We assume that the uncertainty in the independent variables is negligible and that for each observation an uncertainty interval can be given which contains the (unknown) exact value. To approximate such data we look for functions which intersect all uncertainty intervals. In the past this problem has been studied for polynomials, or more generally for functions which are linear in the unknown coefficients. Here we study the problem for a particular class of functions which are nonlinear in the unknown coefficients, namely rational functions. We show how to reduce the problem to a quadratic programming problem with a strictly convex objective function, yielding a unique rational function which intersects all uncertainty intervals and satisfies some additional properties. Compared to rational least squares approximation which reduces to a nonlinear optimization problem where the objective function may have many local minima, this makes the new approach attractive.

  12. Rational decision making in medicine: Implications for overuse and underuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Elqayam, Shira; Dale, William

    2018-06-01

    In spite of substantial spending and resource utilization, today's health care remains characterized by poor outcomes, largely due to overuse (overtesting/overtreatment) or underuse (undertesting/undertreatment) of health services. To a significant extent, this is a consequence of low-quality decision making that appears to violate various rationality criteria. Such suboptimal decision making is considered a leading cause of death and is responsible for more than 80% of health expenses. In this paper, we address the issue of overuse or underuse of health care interventions from the perspective of rational choice theory. We show that what is considered rational under one decision theory may not be considered rational under a different theory. We posit that the questions and concerns regarding both underuse and overuse have to be addressed within a specific theoretical framework. The applicable rationality criterion, and thus the "appropriateness" of health care delivery choices, depends on theory selection that is appropriate to specific clinical situations. We provide a number of illustrations showing how the choice of theoretical framework influences both our policy and individual decision making. We also highlight the practical implications of our analysis for the current efforts to measure the quality of care and link such measurements to the financing of health care services. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The influence of ration size on energetics and nitrogen retention in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Duodu, Collins Prah; Adjei-Boateng, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    with ration size, feed conversion and protein retention were most efficient at ration sizes of 3%. Although the magnitude of the SDA response following feeding also increased with ration size, this was not proportionate to meal size. Therefore the metabolic cost of meal processing (SDA coefficient) was found......Proper nutrient management is essential for the environmental sustainability of aquaculture. While increasing daily rations generally may lead to improved growth rates, this does not necessarily mean that nutrients are utilized more efficiently. To investigate how ration size affects partitioning...... of dietary nutrient intake, the effects of meal size on growth and metabolism were examined in triplicate groups of adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) receiving daily rations corresponding to 1, 2, 3, or 4% of their biomass. While biomass gain and specific growth rates were positively correlated...

  14. To Cheat or Not to Cheat: Rationalizing Academic Impropriety

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Jason; Stuebs, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Academic cheating and fraud are becoming more prevalent. The Internet removes barriers and opens access to information and increases the opportunities for academic fraud. The incentives to succeed academically also are increasing as higher education continues to grow in importance. A student's rationalization is the last, critical piece needed to…

  15. Strategy of Rational Use of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    In the decade of the eighty, especially in order to this decade and so far, the Rational Use of Energy have not constituted a high-priority option and of present time for Colombia. The last politicians were guided, to favor the energy consumption with low prices of the coal, of the electricity, of those derived of the petroleum, growing subsidy to the gasoline and transfer of the productive sector toward the social one. In the recovery of the electric sector, it is contributed alternatives to improve the quality of the service of the electric industries where measured technical and investments in the industrial, commercial sectors and public would allow to reduce short term the consumptions for 5 to 10%, without reducing the production levels or of service. In the construction sector , the efficient designs of buildings could avoid a growth too much express of the energy consumption. The rational use of energy and the handling of the electric demand, should be one of the tools bigger than the State and of the electric industry, as the technical measures of reduction of losses, to respond to the financial crisis of the energy public sector, while the private sector acquires capacity of enough investment. The Colombians companies, experience the necessity to improve their energy efficiency, like one of the important areas of reduction of their costs and of increase of their competitiveness, in front of other countries, especially Latin-American. As consequence of the economic opening, the companies should modernize their processes and administration methods, what means a reduction in the energy consumptions. The reduction of the polluting, specially atmospheric emissions (industries, vehicles), as well as to elimination of having undone dangerous and industrial residuals, it is a priority in Colombia all improvement of the energy efficiency, particularly in the industries, it is accompanied of a proportional reduction of polluting emissions. Then a politics of

  16. An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to Constructive Solid Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    ARL-SR-0347 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary...US Army Research Laboratory An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to...from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to Constructive Solid Geometry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  17. Mechanisms of topoisomerase I (TOP1) gene copy number increase in a stage III colorectal cancer patient cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David Hersi; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Jensen, Niels Frank

    2013-01-01

    Topoisomerase I (Top1) is the target of Top1 inhibitor chemotherapy. The TOP1 gene, located at 20q12-q13.1, is frequently detected at elevated copy numbers in colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study explores the mechanism, frequency and prognostic impact of TOP1 gene aberrations in stage III C...

  18. Guiding rational reservoir flood operation using penalty-type genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chiu

    2008-06-01

    SummaryReal-time flood control of a multi-purpose reservoir should consider decreasing the flood peak stage downstream and storing floodwaters for future usage during typhoon seasons. This study proposes a reservoir flood control optimization model with linguistic description of requirements and existing regulations for rational operating decisions. The approach involves formulating reservoir flood operation as an optimization problem and using the genetic algorithm (GA) as a search engine. The optimizing formulation is expressed not only by mathematical forms of objective function and constraints, but also by no analytic expression in terms of parameters. GA is used to search a global optimum of a mixture of mathematical and nonmathematical formulations. Due to the great number of constraints and flood control requirements, it is difficult to reach a solution without violating constraints. To tackle this bottleneck, the proper penalty strategy for each parameter is proposed to guide the GA searching process. The proposed approach is applied to the Shihmen reservoir in North Taiwan for finding the rational release and desired storage as a case study. The hourly historical data sets of 29 typhoon events that have hit the area in last thirty years are investigated bye the proposed method. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the simplex method was performed. The results demonstrated that a penalty-type genetic algorithm could effectively provide rational hydrographs to reduce flood damage during the flood operation and to increase final storage for future usages.

  19. Obesity, social inequality and economic rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Thea; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Kærgård, Niels

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the economic literature related to obesity and consumer decisions, pursuing the overall question, whether the current obesity epidemic and its social bias can be viewed as a result of rational consumption behaviour. We address a number of potential explanations based on consumers......' utility maximisation behaviour, which all may contribute to explain the ongoing rise in obesity prevalence in many western countries. In addition to standard neoclassical explanations of obesity, we discuss moral hazard aspects, the role of network externalities, self-control problems and habitual...... behaviour. We include all of these aspects of the individual weight decision in a unified theoretical framework and present existing empirical evidence for each effect. Based on our analysis, we discuss the different economic explanations and give suggestions for future research....

  20. Progression of periodontal inflammation in adolescents is associated with increased number of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning-Yan; Zhang, Quan; Li, Jin-Lu; Yang, Sheng-Hui; Shi, Qing

    2014-05-01

    The study aims to evaluate the change of related subgingival periodontopathogens among different stage of gingivitis in adolescent and assess the relationship between periodontopathogens and the progression of periodontal inflammation. A total of 77 subgingival plaque samples from 35 adolescent individuals were divided into three groups including gingivitis group (mild, 15 samples; moderate, 16 samples; severe, 15 samples), chronic periodontitis group (15 samples) and healthy group (15 samples). Real-time PCR was used to quantitate Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum in subgingival plaque samples. All species, except for F. nucleatum, were detected in samples from gingivitis and periodontitis groups in significantly greater number than in those from healthy group (P periodontitis group in significantly greater number than in those from moderate-to-severe gingivitis group (P periodontal inflammation in adolescents. Examination of periodontopathogens number in adolescents may be of some value for monitoring of periodontal disease development. © 2013 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Coherent states and rational surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, Dorje C; Graefe, Eva-Maria

    2010-01-01

    The state spaces of generalized coherent states associated with special unitary groups are shown to form rational curves and surfaces in the space of pure states. These curves and surfaces are generated by the various Veronese embeddings of the underlying state space into higher dimensional state spaces. This construction is applied to the parameterization of generalized coherent states, which is useful for practical calculations, and provides an elementary combinatorial approach to the geometry of the coherent state space. The results are extended to Hilbert spaces with indefinite inner products, leading to the introduction of a new kind of generalized coherent states.

  2. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Jan R.; Peresetsky, Anatoly A.

    2018-01-01

    Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly. PMID:29375449

  3. Reappraisal of Rational Choice Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of rational choice theory (RCT for the social sciences has long been contested. Much time has been spent by economists and critics on the pervasive but elusive concept of rationality. The critiques mainly challenge the basis of the utility theorem. Several articles on the misuse of mathematics in economics have already appeared in the literature. As N. Bouleau stated, “On several occasions, however, one feels that the criticism is that the math is being misused and should be developed in some other direction (e.g. a statistical analysis of the financial tendencies that polarize wealth and income, or a study of the positive feedback mechanisms, etc.. This leaves certain dissatisfaction – on a philosophical level.” The aim of this paper is to present a decision theory, yields intention (logos and valuation (existence. Here we present a new mathematical representation of RCT, which leads to a dynamic economic theory. We discuss the philosophical or meta-economical problems, which are needed for the successful applications of mathematics.

  4. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (overconfidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (overconfidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.

  5. Network marketing with bounded rationality and partial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiet, Hoang Anh Tuan; Kim, Beom Jun

    2008-08-01

    Network marketing has been proposed and used as a way to spread the product information to consumers through social connections. We extend the previous game model of the network marketing on a small-world tree network and propose two games: In the first model with the bounded rationality, each consumer makes purchase decision stochastically, while in the second model, consumers get only partial information due to the finite length of social connections. Via extensive numerical simulations, we find that as the rationality is enhanced not only the consumer surplus but also the firm’s profit is increased. The implication of our results is also discussed.

  6. The dynamics of Bertrand model with bounded rationality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jixiang; Da Qingli; Wang Yanhua

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers a Bertrand model with bounded rational. A duopoly game is modelled by two nonlinear difference equations. By using the theory of bifurcations of dynamical systems, the existence and stability for the equilibria of this system are obtained. Numerical simulations used to show bifurcations diagrams, phase portraits for various parameters and sensitive dependence on initial conditions. We observe that an increase of the speed of adjustment of bounded rational player may change the stability of Nash equilibrium point and cause bifurcation and chaos to occur. The analysis and results in this paper are interesting in mathematics and economics.

  7. foreign exchange rationing and wheat markets in ethiopia1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    markets and the international market are by no means straightforward. ... domestic wheat prices closely tracked import parity prices. Then, from April 2007 to May 2008, good domestic harvests coincided with increase international wheat ... assessing the effects of rationing on real exchange rates and domestic prices of.

  8. Influence of increasing numbers of RE-inverters on the power quality in the distribution grids: A PQ case study of a representative wind turbine and photovoltaic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Przemyslaw JANIK; Grzegorz KOSOBUDZKI; Harald SCHWARZ

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the selected power quality (PQ) indicia of a wind generator and a photovoltaic installation considered to be the representative of medium voltage and low voltage distribution grids.The analysis of measured values suggests that the decrease in PQ is a case of specific combination of distributed generation,grid parameters and load behaviour.Modem generators have a limited impact on PQ.On the other hand,fluctuations in power generation are regarded as an emerging PQ indicator.The growing number of distributed renewable installations causes stochastic,variable,and hardly predictable power flows in the distribution grid.The nature of fluctuations in wind and solar generation is different.In both cases,new indexes for the quantification of fluctuations are needed and are yet not standardised.Proper assessment of these fluctuations enables definition of useful fluctuation limits and rules for optimal storage system integration.

  9. LYMPHOCYTIC THYROIDITIS IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED NUMBER OF BENIGN CERVICAL NODES AND FEWER CENTRAL NECK COMPARTMENT METASTATIC LYMPH NODES IN PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donangelo, Ines; Walts, Ann E; Bresee, Catherine; Braunstein, Glenn D

    2016-10-01

    Whether or not autoimmune thyroid disease influences the progression of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) remains controversial. Findings of previous studies are influenced by lead time bias and/or procedure bias selection. These biases can be reduced by studying a single-institution patient population that underwent a similar extent of surgical resection. From a cohort of 660 patients with DTC who underwent thyroidectomy, we retrospectively studied 357 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and central compartment node dissection (CCND) for DTC between 2003 and 2013. Forty-one percent (140/345) of study patients had lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT), and 30% (91/301) had serum positive for thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb). LT was reported in 78% of the TgAb-positive cases. Sixty percent (213/357) of cases had metastatic thyroid carcinoma in 1 or more neck lymph nodes (55% [198/357] central compartment, and 22% [77/356] lateral compartment). Patients with LT had fewer metastatic cervical lymph nodes than those with no LT (2.7 ± 4.7 vs 3.5 ± 4.8, respectively, P = .0285). Patients with positive TgAb and thyroiditis had a larger number of benign cervical lymph nodes removed than those with negative TgAb or no LT. No significant difference was observed in age, tumor size, multifocality, extrathyroidal extension, vascular invasion, or frequency of cervical lymph node metastasis between TgAb-negative and -positive cases or between cases with and without LT. Lymphocytic thyroiditis is associated with fewer central neck compartment metastatic lymph nodes and a larger number of excised reactive benign cervical lymph nodes. Whether this association indicates a protective role of thyroid autoimmunity in lymph node spreading remains unclear. CCND = central compartment node dissection DTC = differentiated thyroid cancer HT = Hashimoto thyroiditis LT = lymphocytic thyroiditis TgAb = thyroglobulin antibody TPO = thyroid peroxidase.

  10. Hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) cell number is increased in human illness, but is not reduced in Prader-Willi syndrome or obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldstone, Anthony P.; Unmehopa, Unga A.; Swaab, Dick F.

    2003-01-01

    Acute illness leads to increased GH, but reduced IGF-I secretion, while both are reduced in chronic illness. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic obesity syndrome, with GH deficiency a feature independent of obesity. Reduced GH secretion may result from decreased hypothalamic release of

  11. The total length of myocytes and capillaries, and total number of myocyte nuclei in the rat heart are time-dependently increased by growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüel, Annemarie; Oxlund, Hans; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2005-01-01

    /kg/day) or vehicle for 5, 10, 20, 40, or 80 days. From the left ventricle (LV) histological sections were made and stereological methods applied. Linear regression showed that GH time-dependently increased: LV volume (r=0.96, P

  12. Simplifications of rational matrices by using UML

    OpenAIRE

    Tasić, Milan B.; Stanimirović, Ivan P.

    2013-01-01

    The simplification process on rational matrices consists of simplifying each entry represented by a rational function. We follow the classic approach of dividing the numerator and denominator polynomials by their common GCD polynomial, and provide the activity diagram in UML for this process. A rational matrix representation as the quotient of a polynomial matrix and a polynomial is also discussed here and illustrated via activity diagrams. Also, a class diagram giving the links between the c...

  13. Freedom and Rationality : Rousseau on Citizenship

    OpenAIRE

    Salvat, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with Rousseau's idea of freedom in terms of rationality and deliberation. It gives support to Berlin's interpretation of the general will as a rational and objective will but dismisses the idea that Rousseau's theory necessarily leads to authoritarianism. The general will, publicly expressed by the law, may be defined as the rational and self-regarding will agents would have if put in an independent and objective state, i.e. the state of nature. The general and the particular...

  14. Geometric Rationalization for Freeform Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2016-06-20

    The emergence of freeform architecture provides interesting geometric challenges with regards to the design and manufacturing of large-scale structures. To design these architectural structures, we have to consider two types of constraints. First, aesthetic constraints are important because the buildings have to be visually impressive. Sec- ond, functional constraints are important for the performance of a building and its e cient construction. This thesis contributes to the area of architectural geometry. Specifically, we are interested in the geometric rationalization of freeform architec- ture with the goal of combining aesthetic and functional constraints and construction requirements. Aesthetic requirements typically come from designers and architects. To obtain visually pleasing structures, they favor smoothness of the building shape, but also smoothness of the visible patterns on the surface. Functional requirements typically come from the engineers involved in the construction process. For exam- ple, covering freeform structures using planar panels is much cheaper than using non-planar ones. Further, constructed buildings have to be stable and should not collapse. In this thesis, we explore the geometric rationalization of freeform archi- tecture using four specific example problems inspired by real life applications. We achieve our results by developing optimization algorithms and a theoretical study of the underlying geometrical structure of the problems. The four example problems are the following: (1) The design of shading and lighting systems which are torsion-free structures with planar beams based on quad meshes. They satisfy the functionality requirements of preventing light from going inside a building as shad- ing systems or reflecting light into a building as lighting systems. (2) The Design of freeform honeycomb structures that are constructed based on hex-dominant meshes with a planar beam mounted along each edge. The beams intersect without

  15. Rational Drug Use of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Sahingoz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: At this study to be aimed to assess status of the knowledge of nurses who working in public and private health institutions in Sivas province use of medication fort he treatment during their illnesses and patients and the attitudes of rational drug application. Matherials and methods: the researc planned to attend 750 nurses but it has been completed with participation of 641 nurses (Reaching rate 85,5%. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. in the study data were collected with a questionaire, percentages stated and chi square test was used for analysis. Results: %95,3 of nurses were females and mean age of them 29.21±4.85 years. The rate of contacting a doktor in case of illness is higher in 39.1% of nurses in the 21-30 age group and 48.6% of nurses working in primary care institutions. The level of self-treating is higher in 45.5 % of nurses working less than a year in profession .In the case of illness, 53% of nurses stated that they had left the medicine when signs of disease over. %98.8 of nurses expressed that they know effects of drugs used and 99.1% of them stated they know the side effects of drugs used. The entire group of postgraduate education status stated that they have not received the drug recommended by others. The level of suggesting a drug to someone else fort he same disease is higher in 65.8% of the group 31 years and older and group working over 40 hours per week. It were determined that used in consultation with the physician 65.2% of nurses antibiotics, 87.5% of them weiht loss drug and 82.7% of them contraceptive . 99.5% of the nurses have expressed that they inform to patients about use of their medications. Among the issues that expressed informations took place the application form of drugs (51.0 %and information of need to consult one if deemed one unexpected effect (59.6% . Also has been identified that of nurses acquired inform about drugs from drug book (vademecum (87.5 % and they

  16. Military Payloads Hosted on Commercial Satellites: How Can the Space and Missile Systems Center Increase the Number of Commercially Hosted Military Payload Contract Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    in-orbit op- erations averaged between 17 and 22 percent of the cost of the insured satellite; some markets fetched premiums as high as 30 percent.18...coupled device (CCD) visual cameras Echostar-XI & ICO-G1 2008 x2 NAISa US Coast Guard national automatic identification system Orbcomm 2008 IRIS Cisco ...The relocation of a commercial satellite to a market with increased demands could yield a significant return on investment for the commer- cial owner

  17. Increased kilo-electron-volt x-ray yields from Z-pinch plasmas by mixing elements of similar atomic numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeney, C.; LePell, P.D.; Failor, B.H.; Wong, S.L.; Apruzese, J.P.; Whitney, K.G.; Thornhill, J.W.; Davis, J.; Yadlowsky, E.; Hazelton, R.C.; Moschella, J.J.; Nash, T.; Loter, N.

    1995-01-01

    Magnesium-coated aluminum wire array Z pinch plasmas have been tested on a 4-MA, 6-TW pulsed electrical generator. A mixture of 80% aluminum and 20% magnesium is observed to maximize the radiated kilovolt x-ray yield at ≥50 kJ, which is 50% higher than that obtained with pure aluminum. Spectroscopic analysis and collisional radiative equilbrium models with radiation transport are employed to show that the aluminum-magnesium mixture reduces the opacity of the strongest emission lines, thus increasing the yield by increasing the probability of photon escape. Furthermore, the spectroscopic data also point to the presence of a strong temperature gradient in the pinched plasma that results in the outer magnesium coating of the wires having a higher electron temperature in the pinch. This temperature difference also plays a role in enhancing the kilovolt x-ray yield. The observation of a higher magnesium electron temperature offers evidence that the magnesium reaches the axis first, forming a core that is compressed and heated by the imploding mass of aluminum. Since the emissions from the core are not absorbed by the outer aluminum, the yields are increased. By comparison, aluminum-magnesium alloys imploded on a different but similar generator do not show a temperature difference

  18. STAT3 polymorphism and Helicobacter pylori CagA strains with higher number of EPIYA-C segments independently increase the risk of gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Gifone A; Rocha, Andreia MC; Gomes, Adriana D; Faria, César LL Jr; Melo, Fabrício F; Batista, Sérgio A; Fernandes, Viviane C; Almeida, Nathálie BF; Teixeira, Kádima N; Brito, Kátia S; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães

    2015-01-01

    Because to date there is no available study on STAT3 polymorphism and gastric cancer in Western populations and taking into account that Helicobacter pylori CagA EPIYA-C segment deregulates SHP-2/ERK-JAK/STAT3 pathways, we evaluated whether the two variables are independently associated with gastric cancer. We included 1048 subjects: H. pylori-positive patients with gastric carcinoma (n = 232) and with gastritis (n = 275) and 541 blood donors. Data were analyzed using logistic regression model. The rs744166 polymorphic G allele (p = 0.01; OR = 1.76; 95 % CI = 1.44-2.70), and CagA-positive (OR = 12.80; 95 % CI = 5.58-19.86) status were independently associated with gastric cancer in comparison with blood donors. The rs744166 polymorphism (p = 0.001; OR = 1.64; 95 % CI = 1.16-2.31) and infection with H. pylori CagA-positive strains possessing higher number of EPIYA-C segments (p = 0.001; OR = 2.28; 95 % CI = 1.41-3.68) were independently associated with gastric cancer in comparison with gastritis. The association was stronger when host and bacterium genotypes were combined (p < 0.001; OR = 3.01; 95 % CI = 2.29-3.98). When stimulated with LPS (lipopolysaccharide) or Pam3Cys, peripheral mononuclear cells of healthy carriers of the rs744166 GG and AG genotypes expressed higher levels of STAT3 mRNA than those carrying AA genotype (p = 0.04 for both). The nuclear expression of phosphorylated p-STAT3 protein was significantly higher in the antral gastric tissue of carriers of rs744166 GG genotype than in carriers of AG and AA genotypes. Our study provides evidence that STAT3 rs744166 G allele and infection with CagA-positive H. pylori with higher number of EPIYA-C segments are independent risk factors for gastric cancer. The odds ratio of having gastric cancer was greater when bacterium and host high risk genotypes were combined

  19. Rational Choice and the Framing of Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-29

    survival in a competitive environment , and a minority of rational individuals can sometimes impose rationality on the whole market. Third, the...intuitive appeal of the axioms of rational choice makes it plausible that the theory derived from these axioms should provide an acceptable account of choice...rn-use U? RATIONAL CHOICE AMD THE FINNING OF KCISIOUS(U mi/ STANFORD UNIV CR A TYERSEY ET AL. 29 NAYN4-S4-K-S61SWICLASS IF lED FO 5/10S IL EEEEEEEE

  20. Rationality in Machiavelli and in Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Chaly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains interpretation and comparative analysis of Machiavelli’s and Kant’s conceptions on rationality as two prime examples of “realist” and “idealist” modes of agency. Kantian model of rationality is viewed as an augmentation of the Machiavellian one, not an opposition to it. To elaborate the point, Robert Aumann’s model of act-rationality and rulerationality is applied to the two philosophical models. Kantian practical reason is interpreted as an addition to Aumann’s instrumental rationality, providing rules for rules, or “rule-rule-rationality”.

  1. Rational accountability and rational autonomy in academic practice: An extended case study of the communicative ethic of interdisciplinary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan Margaret

    The dissertation investigates the interaction of rational accountability and rational autonomy in interdisciplinary science within the lifeworld of the university. It focuses on the cultural, social and motivational forces that university researchers draw on, and develop, to constitute and regulate interdisciplinary science. Findings are analyzed within an applied critical social theory framework that attends to the interaction of instrumental and communicative rational action within the public spaces that constitute the lifeworld of the university as a public sphere in society. The research raises questions of how academics practice interdisciplinary science and how these practices relate to the reproduction of the regulative ideal of the university as a community that practices public reason. The conceptual framework informing the research is Habermas' (1984) theory of communicative action. Using Burawoy's (1991) extended case study method as an operational strategy, two modes of constituting and regulating interdisciplinary science were found. Instrumental rational modes dominated in social contexts of interdisciplinary science where consensus on the normative goals and purposes of rational academic action were pre-existing and pre-supposed by participants. Communicative rational modes dominated in social contexts of interdisciplinary science where the normative goals and purposes of rational academic action entered a contested domain. Endorsements for interdisciplinary science policies are coinciding with demands for increased accountability and relevance of Canada's university system. At the same time that the university system must respond to external demands, it must reproduce itself as a public institution open to the discursive redemption of factual and normative validity claims. The study found that academics participate in, but also contest the instrumental regulation of academic inquiry and conduct by using their constitutional autonomy and freedom to

  2. Why humans deviate from rational choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewig, Johannes; Kretschmer, Nora; Trippe, Ralf H; Hecht, Holger; Coles, Michael G H; Holroyd, Clay B; Miltner, Wolfgang H R

    2011-04-01

    Rational choice theory predicts that humans always optimize the expected utility of options when making decisions. However, in decision-making games, humans often punish their opponents even when doing so reduces their own reward. We used the Ultimatum and Dictator games to examine the affective correlates of decision-making. We show that the feedback negativity, an event-related brain potential that originates in the anterior cingulate cortex that has been related to reinforcement learning, predicts the decision to reject unfair offers in the Ultimatum game. Furthermore, the decision to reject is positively related to more negative emotional reactions and to increased autonomic nervous system activity. These findings support the idea that subjective emotional markers guide decision-making and that the anterior cingulate cortex integrates instances of reinforcement and punishment to provide such affective markers. Copyright © 2010 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  3. Rationalization of some genetic anticodonic assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, J. C., Jr.; Hall, L. M.; Mullins, D. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrophobicity of most amino acids correlates well with that of their anticodon nucleotides, with Trp, Tyr, Ile, and Ser being the exceptions to this rule. Using previous data on hydrophobicity and binding constants, and new data on rates of esterification of polyadenylic acid with several N-acetylaminoacyl imidazolides, several of the anticodon assignments are rationalized. Chemical reasons are shown supporting the idea of the inclusion of the Ile in the catalog of biological amino acids late in the evolution, through a mutation of the existing tRNA and its aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase. It was found that an addition of hexane increases the incorporation of hydrophobic Ac-Phe into poly-A, in support of the Fox (1965) and Oparin (1965) emphasis on the biogenetic importance of phase-separated systems.

  4. RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY IN TAKOTSUBO CARDIOMYOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marchev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational pharmacotherapy in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is based on clinical picture and data of functional and laboratory investigations of concrete patient. In patients with hypotension and moderate-to-severe left ventricle outflow tract obstruction inotropic agents must not to be used because they can worsen the degree of obstruction. In these patients beta blockers can improve hemodynamics by causing resolution of the obstruction. If intraventricular thrombus is detected, anticoagulation for at least 3 months is recommended. The duration of anticoagulant therapy may be modified depending on the extent of cardiac function recovery and thrombus resolution. For patients without thrombus but with severe left ventricular dysfunction, anticoagulation is recommended until the akinesis or dyskinesis has resolved but not more than 3 months.

  5. Cassapro in broiler ration : effect of halquinol Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P Kompiang

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to determine the effect of various level of cassapro (fermented cassava and halquinol supplementation on the performance of broiler chickens . Experimental rations were formulated isoprotein and isoenergy with graded level of cassapro (0, 10, 20 and 30% . The 20 and 30% cassapro ration were prepared without and with halquinol supplementation (60 ppm. Each ration was fed to 40 of three day old broilers, divided into 4 cages ( 5 males and 5 females per cage for 4 weeks. Increasing the level of cassapro significantly reduced body weight gain (P < 0.005, increased feed conversion ratio (FCR (P < 0.0005 with no effect on feed intake (P < 0.10 . Halquinol supplementation has no effect on feed intake, but significantly increased body weight gain (P <0.05 and improved the FCR (P < 0.01 . It is concluded that high level of cassapro in the ration will cause poorer performance of the birds, however it can be alleviated by halquinolsupplementation.

  6. A Mixed Integer Programming Poultry Feed Ration Optimisation Problem Using the Bat Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Chagwiza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a feed ration problem is presented as a mixed integer programming problem. An attempt to find the optimal quantities of Moringa oleifera inclusion into the poultry feed ration was done and the problem was solved using the Bat algorithm and the Cplex solver. The study used findings of previous research to investigate the effects of Moringa oleifera inclusion in poultry feed ration. The results show that the farmer is likely to gain US$0.89 more if Moringa oleifera is included in the feed ration. Results also show superiority of the Bat algorithm in terms of execution time and number of iterations required to find the optimum solution as compared with the results obtained by the Cplex solver. Results revealed that there is a significant economic benefit of Moringa oleifera inclusion into the poultry feed ration.

  7. Max Weber's Types of Rationality: Cornerstones for the Analysis of Rationalization Processes in History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberg, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    Explores rationality in Max Weber's works and identifies four types of rationality which play major roles in his writing--practical, theoretical, substantive, and formal. Implications for society and education are discussed. (DB)

  8. Increasing the number of unloading/reambulation cycles does not adversely impact body composition and lumbar bone mineral density but reduces tissue sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shikha; Manske, Sarah L.; Judex, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    A single exposure to hindlimb unloading leads to changes in body mass, body composition and bone, but the consequences of multiple exposures are not yet understood. Within a 18 week period, adult C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 1 (1x-HLU), 2 (2x-HLU) or 3 (3x-HLU) cycles of 2 weeks of hindlimb unloading (HLU) followed by 4 weeks of reambulation (RA), or served as ambulatory age-matched controls. In vivo μCT longitudinally tracked changes in abdominal adipose and lean tissues, lumbar vertebral apparent volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and upper hindlimb muscle cross-sectional area before and after the final HLU and RA cycle. During the final HLU cycle, significant decreases in total adipose tissue and vertebral vBMD in the three experimental groups occurred such that there were no significant between-group differences at the beginning of the final RA cycle. However, the magnitude of the HLU induced losses diminished in mice undergoing their 2nd or 3rd HLU cycle. Irrespective of the number of HLU/RA cycles, total adipose tissue and vertebral vBMD recovered and were no different from age-matched controls after the final RA period. In contrast, upper hindlimb muscle cross-sectional area was significantly lower than controls in all unloaded groups after the final RA period. These results suggest that tissues in the abdominal region are more resilient to multiple bouts of unloading and more amenable to recovery during reambulation than the peripheral musculoskeletal system.

  9. Effects of retinal growth factor and of the increase of the number of subcultures on sulfated glycosaminoglycans of bovine lens epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moczar, E.; Courtois, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Sulfated glycosaminoglycans of cultured bovine lens epithelial cells grown in the presence and in the absence of a retinal growth factor were investigated comparatively. The newly formed [ 35 S] sulfate-labeled glycosaminoglycans were analysed in the extra-, peri- and intracellular compartments of early (4-5th) and late (17-18h) subcultures. The following results were obtained: (1) Cultured lens epithelial cells grown in the presence or in the absence of the growth factor synthesize chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates and dermatan sulfate, with heparan sulfate as the main component, the pericellular compartments were particularly rich in heparan sulfate; (2) The distribution pattern of the glycosaminoglycans changes during successive subcultures; the proportion of heparan sulfate increases in the pericellular compartment, the dermatan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate ratio increases in all three compartments; (3) In contrast to the drastic decrease in the fibronectin levels in the presence of growth factor in the early subcultures, only minor differences were found between the glycosaminoglycan patterns for the treated and non-treated cells. ( orig.)

  10. Increased Numbers of CD4+CD25+ and CD8+CD25+ T-Cells in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis with Parvovirus B19 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naciute, Milda; Maciunaite, Gabriele; Mieliauskaite, Diana; Rugiene, Rita; Zinkeviciene, Aukse; Mauricas, Mykolas; Murovska, Modra; Girkontaite, Irute

    2017-01-01

    To investigate T-cell subpopulations in peripheral blood of human parvovirus B19 DNA-positive (B19 + ) and -negative (B19 - ) patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy persons. Blood samples were collected from 115 patients with RA and 47 healthy volunteers; 27 patients with RA and nine controls were B19 + Cluster of differentiation (CD) 4, 8, 25 and 45RA were analyzed on blood cells. CD25 expression on CD4 + CD45RA + , CD4 + CD45RA - , CD8 + CD45RA + , CD8 + CD45RA - subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentage of CD25 low and CD25 hi cells was increased on CD4 + CD45RA + , CD4 + CD45RA - T-cells and the percentage of CD25 + cells was increased on CD8 + CD45RA + , CD8 + CD45RA - T-cells of B19 + patients with RA in comparison with B19 - patients and controls. Raised levels of CD4 and CD8 regulatory T-cells in B19 + RA patients could cause down-regulation of antiviral clearance mechanisms and lead to activation of persistent human parvovirus B19 infection in patients with RA. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. Response threshold variance as a basis of collective rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tatsuhiro; Hasegawa, Eisuke

    2017-04-01

    Determining the optimal choice among multiple options is necessary in various situations, and the collective rationality of groups has recently become a major topic of interest. Social insects are thought to make such optimal choices by collecting individuals' responses relating to an option's value (=a quality-graded response). However, this behaviour cannot explain the collective rationality of brains because neurons can make only 'yes/no' responses on the basis of the response threshold. Here, we elucidate the basic mechanism underlying the collective rationality of such simple units and show that an ant species uses this mechanism. A larger number of units respond 'yes' to the best option available to a collective decision-maker using only the yes/no mechanism; thus, the best option is always selected by majority decision. Colonies of the ant Myrmica kotokui preferred the better option in a binary choice experiment. The preference of a colony was demonstrated by the workers, which exhibited variable thresholds between two options' qualities. Our results demonstrate how a collective decision-maker comprising simple yes/no judgement units achieves collective rationality without using quality-graded responses. This mechanism has broad applicability to collective decision-making in brain neurons, swarm robotics and human societies.

  12. Vector Directional Distance Rational Hybrid Filters for Color Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Khriji

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A new class of nonlinear filters, called vector-directional distance rational hybrid filters (VDDRHF for multispectral image processing, is introduced and applied to color image-filtering problems. These filters are based on rational functions (RF. The VDDRHF filter is a two-stage filter, which exploits the features of the vector directional distance filter (VDDF, the center weighted vector directional distance filter (CWVDDF and those of the rational operator. The filter output is a result of vector rational function (VRF operating on the output of three sub-functions. Two vector directional distance (VDDF filters and one center weighted vector directional distance filter (CWVDDF are proposed to be used in the first stage due to their desirable properties, such as, noise attenuation, chromaticity retention, and edges and details preservation. Experimental results show that the new VDDRHF outperforms a number of widely known nonlinear filters for multi-spectral image processing such as the vector median filter (VMF, the generalized vector directional filters (GVDF and distance directional filters (DDF with respect to all criteria used.

  13. Emergence of scale-free characteristics in socio-ecological systems with bounded rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthurirathna, Dharshana; Piraveenan, Mahendra

    2015-06-11

    Socio-ecological systems are increasingly modelled by games played on complex networks. While the concept of Nash equilibrium assumes perfect rationality, in reality players display heterogeneous bounded rationality. Here we present a topological model of bounded rationality in socio-ecological systems, using the rationality parameter of the Quantal Response Equilibrium. We argue that system rationality could be measured by the average Kullback--Leibler divergence between Nash and Quantal Response Equilibria, and that the convergence towards Nash equilibria on average corresponds to increased system rationality. Using this model, we show that when a randomly connected socio-ecological system is topologically optimised to converge towards Nash equilibria, scale-free and small world features emerge. Therefore, optimising system rationality is an evolutionary reason for the emergence of scale-free and small-world features in socio-ecological systems. Further, we show that in games where multiple equilibria are possible, the correlation between the scale-freeness of the system and the fraction of links with multiple equilibria goes through a rapid transition when the average system rationality increases. Our results explain the influence of the topological structure of socio-ecological systems in shaping their collective cognitive behaviour, and provide an explanation for the prevalence of scale-free and small-world characteristics in such systems.

  14. Rationality of the anomalous dimensions in N=4 SYM theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genovese, Luigi; Stanev, Yassen S.

    2005-01-01

    We reconsider the general constraints on the perturbative anomalous dimensions in conformal invariant QFT and in particular in N=4 SYM with gauge group SU(N). We show that all the perturbative corrections to the anomalous dimension of a renormalized gauge invariant local operator can be written as polynomials in its one loop anomalous dimension. In the N=4 SYM theory the coefficients of these polynomials are rational functions of the number of colours N

  15. Is It Rational to Assume that Infants Imitate Rationally? A Theoretical Analysis and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that preverbal infants evaluate the efficiency of others' actions (by applying a "principle of rational action") and that they imitate others' actions rationally. The present contribution presents a conceptual analysis of the claim that preverbal infants imitate rationally. It shows that this ability rests on at least three…

  16. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT ANTIOXIDANTS ON FAT STABILITY IN BROILER RATIONS: THIOBARBITURIC ACID VALUES

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Mustafa, Fawad Ahmad, Arfan Yousaf and Asad Ullah Hyder

    2002-01-01

    Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value was significantly (P< 0.05) affected by storage period, fat levels and antioxidants but the interaction of these factors was non significant. TBA value increased with the increase in storage period, however, the increase was relatively less during first 14 days of storage then a significant increase in TBA was observed as the storage period prolonged. Rations containing 4% fat have greater TBA value than the rations containing 2 or 3% fat. There was also a sign...

  17. News Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

  18. TGF-β1 Improves Biomechanical Strength by Extracellular Matrix Accumulation Without Increasing the Number of Tenogenic Lineage Cells in a Rat Rotator Cuff Repair Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Hitoshi; Shukunami, Chisa; Tokunaga, Takuya; Karasugi, Tatsuki; Okamoto, Nobukazu; Taniwaki, Takuya; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Yuji

    2017-08-01

    Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) positively regulates the tenogenic marker genes scleraxis ( Scx) and tenomodulin ( Tnmd) in mesenchymal progenitors in vitro. However, little is known about the effect of TGF-β1 on the expression of tenogenic markers during rotator cuff (RC) healing in rats. TGF-β1 improves the biomechanical properties and histological maturity of reparative tissue in a rat RC repair model by stimulating the growth of tenogenic cells. Controlled laboratory study. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 180) underwent unilateral supraspinatus tendon-to-bone surgical repair and were randomly treated with a gelatin hydrogel presoaked in TGF-β1 (100 ng) or phosphate-buffered saline. The effects of TGF-β1 on RC healing were investigated at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively by immunostaining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen, by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization or immunostaining for enthesis-related markers (SRY-box containing gene 9 [ Sox9], Scx, and Tnmd), and by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining for type I and III collagen. At 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively, biomechanical testing, micro-computed tomography, and biochemical analysis were also performed. At 2 and 4 weeks postoperatively, mesenchymal stem cell-related markers, phospho-Smad2, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and MMP-13 were assessed by immunostaining. The TGF-β1-treated group had significantly higher ultimate load to failure and tissue volume at 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively and a higher collagen content at 12 weeks compared with the saline group. Tendon-related gene expression, histological maturity, cell proliferation, and mesenchymal stem cell-related marker immunoreactivity were not affected by exogenously administrated TGF-β1 at all time points. In the TGF-β1-treated group, the percentage of phospho-Smad2-positive cells within the healing tissue increased

  19. Finding of coagulase negative staphylococci in the herd with an increased number of somatic cells in milk and their antimicrobial susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Vera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS are generally considered to be opportunistic pathogens. Controlling CNS mastitis is difficult because the epidemiology is not clear, and the CNS group consists of about 40 different Staphylococcus species. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of coagulasenegative staphylococci in milk of the cows with subclinical mastitis, as well as to determine different CNS species isolated from quarter milk samples for their susceptibility to antimicrobials used commonly for mastitis therapy. On the farm where there was found an increase of somatic cells in bulk milk, 112 dairy cows were examined by mastitis test. From 52 udder quarters where mastitis test showed an increase of somatic cells, milk samples were taken for bacteriological examination. For isolating the causes of mastitis there was used blood agar. Identification of the causative agents of mastitis was carried out on the basis of colony appearance on blood agar and their physiological characteristics. Coagulasepositive staphylococci sensitivity which cause mastitis was tested by Kirby Bauer method. For susceptibility testing there were used commercially produced discs containing: 10 IU penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (20 +10 μg, cloxacillin 25 μg, 30 μg amoxicillin, cephalexin 30 μg, ceftiofur 30 μg, 15 μg lincomycin, gentamicin and tetracycline 30 μg. The sensitivity of microorganisms was evaluated on the basis of inhibition zone diameter recommended by the manufacturer and was labeled as sensitive (S moderately sensitive (I or resistant (R. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated from 61.53% of samples from cows with subclinical mastitis, making them the most common cause of subclinical mastitis. The highest resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci was found to penicillin G (58.33% of isolates. Full sensitivity of coagulase-negative staphylococci was found to amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (100% of

  20. Establishment of Aedes aegypti (L.) in mountainous regions in Mexico: Increasing number of population at risk of mosquito-borne disease and future climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equihua, Miguel; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Benítez, Griselda; Estrada-Contreras, Israel; Sandoval-Ruiz, César A; Mendoza-Palmero, Fredy S

    2017-02-01

    The study was conducted in the central region of Veracruz Mexico, in the metropolitan area of Xalapa. It is a mountainous area where Aedes aegypti (L.) is not currently endemic. An entomological survey was done along an elevation gradient using the Ae. aegypti occurrences at different life cycle stages. Seven sites were sampled and a total of 24 mosquito species were recorded: 9 species were found in urban areas, 18 in non-urban areas with remnant vegetation, and 3 occurred in both environments. Ae. aegypti was found only in the urban areas, usually below 1200m a.s.l., but in this study was recorded for the first time at 1420m a.s.l. These occurrences, together with additional distribution data in the state of Veracruz were used to developed species distribution models using Maxlike software in R to identify the current projected suitable areas for the establishment of this vector and the human populations that might be affected by dengue transmission at higher elevations. Its emergence in previously unsuitable places appears to be driven by both habitat destruction and biodiversity loss associated with biotic homogenization. A border study using data from the edges of the vector's distribution might allow sensitive monitoring to detect any changes in this mosquito's distribution pattern, and any changes in the anthropic drivers or climate that could increase transmission risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rationing in health systems: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keliddar, Iman; Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad; Jafari-Sirizi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is difficult to provide health care services to all those in need of such services due to limited resources and unlimited demands. Thus, priority setting and rationing have to be applied. This study aimed at critically examining the concept of rationing in health sector and identifying its purposes, influencing factors, mechanisms, and outcomes. Methods: The critical interpretive synthesis methodology was used in this study. PubMed, Cochrane, and Proquest databases were searched using the related key words to find related documents published between 1970 and 2015. In total, 161 published reports were reviewed and included in the study. Thematic content analysis was applied for data analysis. Results: Health services rationing means restricting the access of some people to useful or potentially useful health services due to budgetary limitation. The inherent features of the health market and health services, limited resources, and unlimited needs necessitate health services rationing. Rationing can be applied in 4 levels: health care policy- makers, health care managers, health care providers, and patients. Health care rationing can be accomplished through fixed budget, benefit package, payment mechanisms, queuing, copayments, and deductibles. Conclusion: This paper enriched our understanding of health services rationing and its mechanisms at various levels and contributed to the literature by broadly conceptualizing health services rationing.

  2. Fiber sources for complete calf starter rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, F R; Wallenius, R W

    1980-11-01

    Complete calf starter rations containing either 1) alfalfa hay, 2) cottonseed hulls, or 3) alfalfa-beet pulp as sources of fiber were fed to Holstein heifer calves at two locations on a limited milk program from 3 days to 12 wk of age. Rations were isonitrogenous and similar in content of crude fiber and acid detergent fiber. Although growth and development were normal on all rations, calves fed the cottonseed hull ration consumed more starter and gained more body weight than calves fed the other sources of fiber. The similarity of feed efficiencies, rumen pH, and molar ratios of volatile fatty acids between rations indicated no appreciable differences in rumen development or function. The growth response of calves fed the cottonseed hull ration appeared to be a result of better ration acceptability for which no reason was evident. Calves raised at Puyallup gained more body weight than calves at Pullman, and these gains were made more efficiently. These location effects may be related to seasonal differences and greater demands for production of body heat. Although the incidence of scours was less for calves fed alfalfa hay starter, the incidence and severity of bloat were higher for that ration.

  3. The Problem of Rational Moral Enlistment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillson, John

    2017-01-01

    How can one bring children to recognize the requirements of morality without resorting only to non-rational means of persuasion (i.e. what rational ground can be offered to children for their moral enlistment)? Michael Hand has recently defended a foundationalist approach to answering this question and John White has responded by (a) criticizing…

  4. Neurophysiology and Rationality in Political Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Steven A.

    Research both in cognitive psychology and psychobiology suggests that political behavior is often less rational than individuals believe it to be. Information processing, memory, and decision making are interlinked processes. Studies in cognitive psychology reveal that even though decision making requires rationality, individuals often adopt…

  5. Privacy-Enhancing Auctions Using Rational Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Triandopoulos, Nikolaos

    2009-01-01

    show how to use rational cryptography to approximately implement any given ex interim individually strictly rational equilibrium of such an auction without a trusted mediator through a cryptographic protocol that uses only point-to-point authenticated channels between the players. By “ex interim...

  6. The Role of Rationality in University Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    1983-01-01

    Although empirical accounts of organizational decision making often show that the process is not a rational one, a study of budgeting at Stanford University during the 1970s, while not conclusive or comprehensive, supported the claim that the institution's process was rational and provided a procedure for testing a decision-making model. (MSE)

  7. Should Teachers Be Taught to Be Rational?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floden, Robert E.; Feiman, Sharon

    1981-01-01

    Teacher education programs have long attempted to teach students to follow a rational mode of thinking. Recent research on teacher thinking has shown that a gap exists between how teachers think and the rational model. Such research should be used to give teacher educators insight into how their students think and learn. (JN)

  8. MARSI: metabolite analogues for rational strain improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, João G. R.; Zeidan, Ahmad A; Jensen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    reactions in an organism can be used to predict effects of MAs on cellular phenotypes. Here, we present the Metabolite Analogues for Rational Strain Improvement (MARSI) framework. MARSI provides a rational approach to strain improvement by searching for metabolites as targets instead of genes or reactions...

  9. RATIONAL APPROXIMATIONS TO GENERALIZED HYPERGEOMETRIC FUNCTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under weak restrictions on the various free parameters, general theorems for rational representations of the generalized hypergeometric functions...and certain Meijer G-functions are developed. Upon specialization, these theorems yield a sequency of rational approximations which converge to the

  10. The rational maps Fλ(z)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is proved that the rational maps in the family {z → zm +λ/zd : λ ∈ C\\{0}} for integers m, d ≥ 2 ... The problem of the existence of Herman rings of a rational map has been studied by. Lyubich in [9] ..... Surveys 41(4) (1986) 35–95. [10] Milnor J ...

  11. Decision Making: Rational, Nonrational, and Irrational.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Herbert A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the current state of knowledge about human decision-making and problem-solving processes, explaining recent developments and their implications for management and management training. Rational goal-setting is the key to effective decision making and accomplishment. Bounded rationality is a realistic orientation, because the world is too…

  12. Simple market equilibria with rationally inattentive consumers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip; McKay, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 3 (2012), s. 24-29 ISSN 0002-8282 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP402/11/P236 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational choice theory * bounded rationality * consumer research Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2012

  13. The Emotional and Moral Basis of Rationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boostrom, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the basis of rationality, arguing that critical thinking tends to be taught in schools as a set of skills because of the failure to recognize that choosing to think critically depends on the prior development of stable sentiments or moral habits that nourish a rational self. Primary among these stable sentiments are the…

  14. Argumentation, rationality, and psychology of reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Godden

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explicates an account of argumentative rationality by articulating the common, basic idea of its nature, and then identifying a collection of assumptions inherent in it. Argumentative rationality is then contrasted with dual-process theories of reasoning and rationality prevalent in the psychology of reasoning. It is argued that argumentative rationality properly corresponds only with system-2 reasoning in dual-process theories. This result challenges the prescriptive force of argumentative norms derives if they derive at all from their descriptive accuracy of our cognitive capacities. In response, I propose an activity-based account of reasoning which retains the assumptions of argumentative rationality while recontextualizing the relationship between reasoning as a justificatory activity and the psychological states and processes underlying that activity.

  15. Casebook on rationalization of power use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    This book introduces the cases on rationalization of power use, which is divided into four parts. The first part refers the goal of rational use of energy and the result. The second part deals with the excellent cases on rationalization of domestic power use, which list the name of the company, hotel and factory according to the field such as building, textile and food. The third part contains the outstanding cases on rationalization of foreign power use, which were listed by the specific way to reduce electricity use each section. The fourth part is comprised of two chapters, which deals with the cases of domestic technical data and foreign technical data for rational use of energy.

  16. Generalized NLS hierarchies from rational W algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toppan, F.

    1993-11-01

    Finite rational W algebras are very natural structures appearing in coset constructions when a Kac-Moody subalgebra is factored out. The problem of relating these algebras to integrable hierarchies of equations is studied by showing how to associate to a rational W algebra its corresponding hierarchy. Two examples are worked out, the sl(2)/U(1) coset, leading to the Non-Linear Schroedinger hierarchy, and the U(1) coset of the Polyakov-Bershadsky W algebra, leading to a 3-field representation of the KP hierarchy already encountered in the literature. In such examples a rational algebra appears as algebra of constraints when reducing a KP hierarchy to a finite field representation. This fact arises the natural question whether rational algebras are always associated to such reductions and whether a classification of rational algebras can lead to a classification of the integrable hierarchies. (author). 19 refs

  17. Ethics of rationing of nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooddehghan, Zahra; Yekta, Zohreh Parsa; Nasrabadi, Alireza N

    2016-09-21

    Rationing of various needed services, for example, nursing care, is inevitable due to unlimited needs and limited resources. Rationing of nursing care is considered an ethical issue since it requires judgment about potential conflicts between personal and professional values. The present research sought to explore aspects of rationing nursing care in Iran. This study applied qualitative content analysis, a method to explore people's perceptions of everyday life phenomena and interpret the subjective content of text data. Data collection was performed through in-depth, unstructured, face-to-face interviews with open-ended questions. The study population included Iranian nurses of all nursing positions, from clinical nurses to nurse managers. Purposive sampling was employed to select 15 female and 3 male nurses (11 clinical nurses, 3 supervisors, 1 matron, 1 nurse, and 2 members of the Nursing Council) working in hospitals of three cities in Iran. The study protocol was approved by Tehran University of Medical Sciences (91D1302870). Written informed consent was also obtained from all participants. According to the participants, rationing of nursing care consisted of two categories, that is, causes of rationing and consequences of rationing. The first category comprised three subcategories, namely, patient needs and demands, routinism, and VIP patients. The three subcategories forming the second category were missed nursing care, patient dissatisfaction, and nurses' feeling of guilt. Levels at which healthcare practices are rationed and clarity of the rationing are important structural considerations in the development of an equal, appropriate, and ethical healthcare system. Moreover, the procedure of rationing is critical as it not only influences people's lives but also reflects the values that dominate in the society. Therefore, in order to minimize the negative consequences of rationing of nursing care, further studies on the ethical dimensions of this phenomenon

  18. Influence of individual rationality on continuous double auction markets with networked traders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhuan

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigates the influence of individual rationality of buyers and sellers on continuous double auction market outcomes in terms of the proportion of boundedly-rational buyers and sellers. The individual rationality is discussed in a social network artificial stock market model by embedding network formation and information set. Traders automatically select the most profitable trading strategy based on individual and social learning of the profits and trading strategies of themselves and their neighbors, and submit orders to markets. The results show that (i) a higher proportion of boundedly-rational sellers induces a higher market price, higher sellers' profits and a higher market efficiency; (ii) a higher proportion of boundedly-rational sellers induces a lower number of trades and lower buyers' profits; (iii) a higher proportion of boundedly-rational buyers induces a lower market price, a lower number of trades, and lower sellers' profits; (iv) a higher proportion of boundedly-rational buyers induces higher buyers' profits and a higher market efficiency.

  19. Hupa Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    An introduction to the Hupa number system is provided in this workbook, one in a series of numerous materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. The book is written in English with Hupa terms used only for the names of numbers. The opening pages present the numbers from 1-10, giving the numeral, the Hupa word, the English word, and…

  20. Triangular Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Triangular number, figurate num- ber, rangoli, Brahmagupta–Pell equation, Jacobi triple product identity. Figure 1. The first four triangular numbers. Left: Anuradha S Garge completed her PhD from. Pune University in 2008 under the supervision of Prof. S A Katre. Her research interests include K-theory and number theory.

  1. Proth Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.

  2. Fighting Rage with Fear: The “Faces of Muhammad” and the Limits of Secular Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin S. Deylami

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of incidents have pitted Islam against secularism and liberal democracy. This essay examines the Danish publication of the Prophet Muhammad cartoons in order to examine the deployment of rationality as a litmus test for political membership. It argues that Western media and political analysis of the protests surrounding the cartoons constructed Muslims as anti-rational and thus unfit for democratic citizenship. Such a deployment of rationality inhibits the possibility of and demands for political pluralism. The essay then looks to two disparate theorists of affective reason, Abdulkarim Soroush and William Connolly, to offer an alternative model of reason that encourages pluralist political engagement.

  3. Definition of rational antiepileptic polypharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, B J; Homan, R W

    1996-01-01

    Rational polypharmacy is in its earliest stages of development and will require substantial additional development to realize its full potential. Indeed, despite the powerful appeal of the concept, clinical proof is not yet available that RP is superior to monotherapy. Important questions need to be addressed: 1. Will RP control seizures more effectively than monotherapy? 2. What data are needed to develop RP for a specific patient? 3. Will RP be cost effective? 4. Can RP be developed which will treat or prevent epilepsy while controlling seizures? Possible approaches to these questions could include: 1. The development of a data base for prospective use to monitor patients being treated at Epilepsy Centers using RP principles. 2. Use the data obtained from the above to construct more specific studies to compare identified combination therapies with monotherapy. 3. Prospectively compare in a placebo controlled, blinded study, the effect of the combination of an anti-ictal medication and a laboratory proven antiepileptic drug for prevention of the development of epilepsy in an at risk population such as head trauma or stroke.

  4. Rationality, institutions and environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatn, Arild [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway)

    2005-11-01

    This paper is about how institutions determine choices and the importance of this for environmental policy. The model of individual rational choice from neoclassical economics is compared with the model of socially determined behavior. While in the first case, institutions are either exempted from or understood as mere economizing constraints on behavior, the latter perspective views institutions as basic structures necessary also to enable people to act. The paper develops a way to integrate the individualistic model into the wider perspective of social constructivism by viewing it as a special form of such construction. On the basis of this synthesis three issues with relevance for environmental economics are discussed. First, the role of institutional factors in the process of preference formation is emphasized. Next, the role of institutions for the choice of desired states of the environment is analyzed. Finally, the effect of various policy instruments to motivate people to produce these states is discussed. It is concluded that the core policy issue is to determine which institutional frameworks are most reasonable to apply to which kind of problem. Issues, which from the perspective of neoclassical economics are pure technical, become serious value questions if understood from an institutional perspective.

  5. Sagan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  6. Bounded rationality alters the dynamics of paediatric immunization acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraby, Tamer; Bauch, Chris T.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between disease dynamics and vaccinating behavior have been explored in many coupled behavior-disease models. Cognitive effects such as risk perception, framing, and subjective probabilities of adverse events can be important determinants of the vaccinating behaviour, and represent departures from the pure “rational” decision model that are often described as “bounded rationality”. However, the impact of such cognitive effects in the context of paediatric infectious disease vaccines has received relatively little attention. Here, we develop a disease-behavior model that accounts for bounded rationality through prospect theory. We analyze the model and compare its predictions to a reduced model that lacks bounded rationality. We find that, in general, introducing bounded rationality increases the dynamical richness of the model and makes it harder to eliminate a paediatric infectious disease. In contrast, in other cases, a low cost, highly efficacious vaccine can be refused, even when the rational decision model predicts acceptance. Injunctive social norms can prevent vaccine refusal, if vaccine acceptance is sufficiently high in the beginning of the vaccination campaign. Cognitive processes can have major impacts on the predictions of behaviour-disease models, and further study of such processes in the context of vaccination is thus warranted. PMID:26035413

  7. Rationalization of work of leaders of physical-sports organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Putiatina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to create the main ways of rationalization of the work of heads of physical-sports organizations in the structure of their scientific organization of the work. Material & Methods: the content of the administrative activity of representatives of the system of the regional government of the sphere of physical culture and sport of the Kharkov area, and also directors of sports schools of Kharkov (57 respondents are generalized. Methods – the analysis of references, the organizational analysis, the organizational diagnosis, the poll (questioning, the methods of mathematical statistics. Results: the essence and the content of rationalization of the administrative work in the sphere of physical culture and sport are considered. The integrated approach to certain objects of rationalization of the administrative work is established in physical-sports organizations. Conclusions: the main ways of rationalization of the work of heads of physical-sports organizations are: the organization of work concerning the development of motivational mechanisms of the activity of heads; the increase of the economic appeal of work; the formation of ideology of a healthy lifestyle.

  8. Public and private health-care financing with alternate public rationing rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuff, Katherine; Hurley, Jeremiah; Mestelman, Stuart; Muller, Andrew; Nuscheler, Robert

    2012-02-01

    We develop a model to analyze parallel public and private health-care financing under two alternative public sector rationing rules: needs-based rationing and random rationing. Individuals vary in income and severity of illness. There is a limited supply of health-care resources used to treat individuals, causing some individuals to go untreated. Insurers (both public and private) must bid to obtain the necessary health-care resources to treat their beneficiaries. Given individuals' willingnesses-to-pay for private insurance are increasing in income, the introduction of private insurance diverts treatment from relatively poor to relatively rich individuals. Further, the impact of introducing parallel private insurance depends on the rationing mechanism in the public sector. We show that the private health insurance market is smaller when the public sector rations according to need than when allocation is random. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Convergence acceleration of quasi-periodic and quasi-periodic-rational interpolations by polynomial corrections

    OpenAIRE

    Lusine Poghosyan

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers convergence acceleration of the quasi-periodic and the quasi-periodic-rational interpolations by application of polynomial corrections. We investigate convergence of the resultant quasi-periodic-polynomial and quasi-periodic-rational-polynomial interpolations and derive exact constants of the main terms of asymptotic errors in the regions away from the endpoints. Results of numerical experiments clarify behavior of the corresponding interpolations for moderate number of in...

  10. Rational development of radiopharmaceuticals for HIV-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Chuen-Yen; Maldarelli, Frank; Eckelman, William C.; Neumann, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    The global battle against HIV-1 would benefit from a sensitive and specific radiopharmaceutical to localize HIV-infected cells. Ideally, this probe would be able to identify latently infected host cells containing replication competent HIV sequences. Clinical and research applications would include assessment of reservoirs, informing clinical management by facilitating assessment of burden of infection in different compartments, monitoring disease progression and monitoring response to therapy. A “rational” development approach could facilitate efficient identification of an appropriate targeted radiopharmaceutical. Rational development starts with understanding characteristics of the disease that can be effectively targeted and then engineering radiopharmaceuticals to hone in on an appropriate target, which in the case of HIV-1 (HIV) might be an HIV-specific product on or in the host cell, a differentially expressed gene product, an integrated DNA sequence specific enzymatic activity, part of the inflammatory response, or a combination of these. This is different from the current approach that starts with a radiopharmaceutical for a target associated with a disease, mostly from autopsy studies, without a strong rationale for the potential to impact patient care. At present, no targeted therapies are available for HIV latency, although a number of approaches are under study. Here we discuss requirements for a radiopharmaceutical useful in strategies targeting persistently infected cells. The radiopharmaceutical for HIV should be developed based on HIV biology, studied in an animal model and then in humans, and ultimately used in clinical and research settings

  11. A meta-analysis of the relationship between rational beliefs and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Horea-Radu; David, Daniel Ovidiu

    2018-06-01

     Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) model of psychological health assumes that rational beliefs cause functional emotions and adaptive behavior, but the presumed role of rational beliefs as protective factor against psychological distress/disorders is still in debate. An important step in validating an evidence-based therapy is to investigate the underling theoretical assumptions. Thus, the aim of the present meta-analysis is to investigate the direction and magnitude of the relationship between rational beliefs and psychological distress.  Our search identified 26 studies that met our criteria. We evaluated the effect size using the random-effects model and we tested the moderator role of several variables. The overall results revealed a medium negative association between rational beliefs and psychological distress, r = -0.31. The strongest association was found for unconditional acceptance beliefs (r = -0.41). The results add empirical evidence for the underling theory of REBT and revealed that the strength of the association between rational beliefs and distress is robust for a wide range of emotional problems. Therefore, rational beliefs could be a trans-diagnostic protective factor against distress. Moreover, results emphasized that rational beliefs type is an important factor, suggesting an increased focus in therapy on the developing of unconditional acceptance and self-acceptance beliefs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chok

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  13. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  14. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Loczi, Lajos

    2014-05-19

    We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.

  15. Positivity Preserving Interpolation Using Rational Bicubic Spline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the positivity preserving interpolation for positive surfaces data by extending the C1 rational cubic spline interpolant of Karim and Kong to the bivariate cases. The partially blended rational bicubic spline has 12 parameters in the descriptions where 8 of them are free parameters. The sufficient conditions for the positivity are derived on every four boundary curves network on the rectangular patch. Numerical comparison with existing schemes also has been done in detail. Based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, our partially blended rational bicubic spline is on a par with the established methods.

  16. Towards a Characterization of Rational Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Itai Arieli

    2008-01-01

    R. J. Aumann and J. H. Drèze (2008) define a rational expectation of a player i in a game G as the expected payo of some type of i in some belief system for G in which common knowledge of rationality and common priors obtain. Our goal is to characterize the set of rational expectations in terms of the game's payoff matrix. We provide such a characterization for a specific class of strategic games, called semi-elementary, which includes Myerson's "elementary" games.

  17. Rational Verification in Iterated Electric Boolean Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssouf Oualhadj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric boolean games are compact representations of games where the players have qualitative objectives described by LTL formulae and have limited resources. We study the complexity of several decision problems related to the analysis of rationality in electric boolean games with LTL objectives. In particular, we report that the problem of deciding whether a profile is a Nash equilibrium in an iterated electric boolean game is no harder than in iterated boolean games without resource bounds. We show that it is a PSPACE-complete problem. As a corollary, we obtain that both rational elimination and rational construction of Nash equilibria by a supervising authority are PSPACE-complete problems.

  18. Rational use of medicines - Indian perspective!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, G P; Manna, P K

    2015-01-01

    India, the largest democracy in the world, is with a federal structure of 29 states and 7 union territories. With a population of more than 1.2 billion, resource is always a constraint and so is in the health system too. In the federal structure, providing healthcare is largely the responsibility of state governments. Medicines are important component of health care delivery system and quality care is dependent on the availability and proper use of quality medicines. In spite of being known as pharmacy of the third world, poor access to medicines in the country is always a serious concern. Realizing the need of quality use of medicines, several initiatives have been initiated. As early as 1994, seeds of rational use of medicines were sown in the country with two initiatives: establishment of a civil society, Delhi Society for Promoting Rational Use of Drugs (DSPURD) and establishment of government agency in Tamil Nadu, a southern state, called Tamil Medical Services Corporation Limited (TNMSCL). DSPUD was in official association with World Health Organization Country Office for implementing essential medicine programme in the country for two biennia. In addition to organizing sensitising and training programme for healthcare professionals throughout the country, it looked after the procurement and appropriate use of medicines in Delhi government health facilities. TNMSCL has made innovations in medicine management including procurement directly from manufacturers as a part of pooled procurement, establishing warehouses with modern storage facilities and Information Technology enabled management of whole process. TNMSCL Model is now replicated in almost the entire country and even in some small other countries as it is successful in improving access to medicines.The National Government and the State Governments have developed strategies to promote rational use of medicines as a part of improving access and quality care in public health facilities. National

  19. Decision to commit crime: rational or nonrational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn D. Walters

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to prove the necessity to take into account the influence of emotions on decision making to describe a combined model of the decision making process which unites rational and irrational components of choice in crime commitment. Methods dialectic systemic historicallegal formaljuridical methods summarization. Results the paper gives a complex analysis of the criminal decisionmaking process and reveals the factors increasing the probability of antisocial actions. The value of the combined cognitiveemotive model is that emotions can give more significant information to the decisionmaker than reasoning. Scientific novelty the author proposes a theory of decision making which says that a person chooses to act or not to act under hedonistic or moral emotions while the irrelevant emotions are increased and the relevant ones are suppressed by cognitive and situational factors serving as a basis for criminal decision making. Practical significance studying the role of emotions in the criminal and noncriminal decision making will significantly contribute to the development of criminology. The research results will be useful for researchers and lawenforcement bodies as well as for all those who are interested in the issues of crime control and prevention.

  20. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transfinite Numbers. What is Infinity? S M Srivastava. In a series of revolutionary articles written during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the great Ger- man mathematician Georg Cantor removed the age-old mistrust of infinity and created an exceptionally beau- tiful and useful theory of transfinite numbers. This is.