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Sample records for rational number points

  1. Rational points on varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Poonen, Bjorn

    2017-01-01

    This book is motivated by the problem of determining the set of rational points on a variety, but its true goal is to equip readers with a broad range of tools essential for current research in algebraic geometry and number theory. The book is unconventional in that it provides concise accounts of many topics instead of a comprehensive account of just one-this is intentionally designed to bring readers up to speed rapidly. Among the topics included are Brauer groups, faithfully flat descent, algebraic groups, torsors, étale and fppf cohomology, the Weil conjectures, and the Brauer-Manin and descent obstructions. A final chapter applies all these to study the arithmetic of surfaces. The down-to-earth explanations and the over 100 exercises make the book suitable for use as a graduate-level textbook, but even experts will appreciate having a single source covering many aspects of geometry over an unrestricted ground field and containing some material that cannot be found elsewhere. The origins of arithmetic (o...

  2. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  3. Models for Rational Number Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jean J.; Armbruster, Frank O.

    1975-01-01

    This article extends number bases to negative integers, then to positive rationals and finally to negative rationals. Methods and rules for operations in positive and negative rational bases greater than one or less than negative one are summarized in tables. Sample problems are explained and illustrated. (KM)

  4. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  5. Rational-number comparison across notation: Fractions, decimals, and whole numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle; Cordes, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Although fractions, decimals, and whole numbers can be used to represent the same rational-number values, it is unclear whether adults conceive of these rational-number magnitudes as lying along the same ordered mental continuum. In the current study, we investigated whether adults' processing of rational-number magnitudes in fraction, decimal, and whole-number notation show systematic ratio-dependent responding characteristic of an integrated mental continuum. Both reaction time (RT) and eye-tracking data from a number-magnitude comparison task revealed ratio-dependent performance when adults compared the relative magnitudes of rational numbers, both within the same notation (e.g., fractions vs. fractions) and across different notations (e.g., fractions vs. decimals), pointing to an integrated mental continuum for rational numbers across notation types. In addition, eye-tracking analyses provided evidence of an implicit whole-number bias when we compared values in fraction notation, and individual differences in this whole-number bias were related to the individual's performance on a fraction arithmetic task. Implications of our results for both cognitive development research and math education are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Working Memory Strategies during Rational Number Magnitude Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle; Cordes, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Rational number understanding is a critical building block for success in more advanced mathematics; however, how rational number magnitudes are conceptualized is not fully understood. In the current study, we used a dual-task working memory (WM) interference paradigm to investigate the dominant type of strategy (i.e., requiring verbal WM…

  7. Rational Points on Curves of Genus 2: Experiments and Speculations

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, Michael

    2009-01-01

    I will present results of computations providing statistics on rational points on (small) curves of genus 2 and use them to present several conjectures. Some of them are based on heuristic considerations, others are not.

  8. Rational surfaces having only a finite number of exceptional curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahyane, M.

    2001-10-01

    We characterize the rational surfaces X which have a finite number of (-1)-curves under the assumption that - K X is nef (i.e., the intersection number of K X with any effective divisor on X is less than or equal to zero, where K X is a canonical divisor on X) and having self-intersection zero. A (-1)-curve is a smooth rational curve of self-intersection -1. (author)

  9. Rational points, rational curves, and entire holomorphic curves on projective varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Gasbarri, Carlo; Roth, Mike; Tschinkel, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains papers from the Short Thematic Program on Rational Points, Rational Curves, and Entire Holomorphic Curves and Algebraic Varieties, held from June 3-28, 2013, at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada. The program was dedicated to the study of subtle interconnections between geometric and arithmetic properties of higher-dimensional algebraic varieties. The main areas of the program were, among others, proving density of rational points in Zariski or analytic topology on special varieties, understanding global geometric properties of rationally connected varieties, as well as connections between geometry and algebraic dynamics exploring new geometric techniques in Diophantine approximation.

  10. Rational and irrational numbers from unit resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperski, Maciej; Kłobus, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of constructing a network of unit resistors such that it enables the retrieval of an arbitrary value of equivalent resistance. In particular, we employ the notion of continued fractions to construct a ladder network by which we can easily obtain any fractional value resistance. In addition, since any irrational number is associated with an infinite continued fraction, we discuss the convergence of the equivalent resistance of an infinite resistive ladder and various aspects concerning the approximations of arbitrary numbers attained by adding additional resistors successively to the network. The presented methods can be easily implemented in an educational laboratory and offer an interesting addition to the topic of Ohm’s law. (paper)

  11. Which Type of Rational Numbers Should Students Learn First?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Many children and adults have difficulty gaining a comprehensive understanding of rational numbers. Although fractions are taught before decimals and percentages in many countries, including the USA, a number of researchers have argued that decimals are easier to learn than fractions and therefore teaching them first might mitigate children's…

  12. Reasoning strategies with rational numbers revealed by eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Patrick; DeWolf, Melissa; Bassok, Miriam; Gordon, Peter C; Holyoak, Keith J

    2017-07-01

    Recent research has begun to investigate the impact of different formats for rational numbers on the processes by which people make relational judgments about quantitative relations. DeWolf, Bassok, and Holyoak (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144(1), 127-150, 2015) found that accuracy on a relation identification task was highest when fractions were presented with countable sets, whereas accuracy was relatively low for all conditions where decimals were presented. However, it is unclear what processing strategies underlie these disparities in accuracy. We report an experiment that used eye-tracking methods to externalize the strategies that are evoked by different types of rational numbers for different types of quantities (discrete vs. continuous). Results showed that eye-movement behavior during the task was jointly determined by image and number format. Discrete images elicited a counting strategy for both fractions and decimals, but this strategy led to higher accuracy only for fractions. Continuous images encouraged magnitude estimation and comparison, but to a greater degree for decimals than fractions. This strategy led to decreased accuracy for both number formats. By analyzing participants' eye movements when they viewed a relational context and made decisions, we were able to obtain an externalized representation of the strategic choices evoked by different ontological types of entities and different types of rational numbers. Our findings using eye-tracking measures enable us to go beyond previous studies based on accuracy data alone, demonstrating that quantitative properties of images and the different formats for rational numbers jointly influence strategies that generate eye-movement behavior.

  13. Brauer groups, Tamagawa measures, and rational points on algebraic varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Jahnel, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    The central theme of this book is the study of rational points on algebraic varieties of Fano and intermediate type--both in terms of when such points exist and, if they do, their quantitative density. The book consists of three parts. In the first part, the author discusses the concept of a height and formulates Manin's conjecture on the asymptotics of rational points on Fano varieties. The second part introduces the various versions of the Brauer group. The author explains why a Brauer class may serve as an obstruction to weak approximation or even to the Hasse principle. This part includes two sections devoted to explicit computations of the Brauer-Manin obstruction for particular types of cubic surfaces. The final part describes numerical experiments related to the Manin conjecture that were carried out by the author together with Andreas-Stephan Elsenhans. The book presents the state of the art in computational arithmetic geometry for higher-dimensional algebraic varieties and will be a valuable referenc...

  14. IEEE Standard for Floating Point Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Floating point numbers are an important data type in compu- tation which is used ... quite large! Integers are ... exp, the value of the exponent will be taken as (exp –127). The ..... bit which is truncated is 1, add 1 to the least significant bit, else.

  15. Teaching Rational Number Addition Using Video Games: The Effects of Instructional Variation. CRESST Report 808

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendlinski, Terry P.; Chung, Greg K. W. K.; Binning, Kevin R.; Buschang, Rebecca E.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the meaning of rational numbers and how to perform mathematical operations with those numbers seems to be a perennial problem in the United States for both adults and children. Based on previous work, we hypothesized that giving students more time to practice using rational numbers in an environment that enticed them to apply their…

  16. The natural number bias and its role in rational number understanding in children with dyscalculia. Delay or deficit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Jo; Verschaffel, Lieven; Ghesquière, Pol; Van Dooren, Wim

    2017-12-01

    Previous research indicated that in several cases learners' errors on rational number tasks can be attributed to learners' tendency to (wrongly) apply natural number properties. There exists a large body of literature both on learners' struggle with understanding the rational number system and on the role of the natural number bias in this struggle. However, little is known about this phenomenon in learners with dyscalculia. We investigated the rational number understanding of learners with dyscalculia and compared it with the rational number understanding of learners without dyscalculia. Three groups of learners were included: sixth graders with dyscalculia, a chronological age match group, and an ability match group. The results showed that the rational number understanding of learners with dyscalculia is significantly lower than that of typically developing peers, but not significantly different from younger learners, even after statistically controlling for mathematics achievement. Next to a delay in their mathematics achievement, learners with dyscalculia seem to have an extra delay in their rational number understanding, compared with peers. This is especially the case in those rational number tasks where one has to inhibit natural number knowledge to come to the right answer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Developing Essential Understanding of Rational Numbers for Teaching Mathematics in Grades 3-5. Essential Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Carne; Fisher, William; Marks, Rick; Ross, Sharon; Zbiek, Rose Mary

    2010-01-01

    This book focuses on essential knowledge for teachers about rational numbers. It is organized around four big ideas, supported by multiple smaller, interconnected ideas--essential understandings. Taking teachers beyond a simple introduction to rational numbers, the book will broaden and deepen their mathematical understanding of one of the most…

  18. The Cognitive Predictors of Computational Skill with Whole versus Rational Numbers: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethaler, Pamela M; Fuchs, Lynn S; Star, Jon R; Bryant, Joan

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the 3(rd)-grade cognitive predictors of 5th-grade computational skill with rational numbers and how those are similar to and different from the cognitive predictors of whole-number computational skill. Students (n = 688) were assessed on incoming whole-number calculation skill, language, nonverbal reasoning, concept formation, processing speed, and working memory in the fall of 3(rd) grade. Students were followed longitudinally and assessed on calculation skill with whole numbers and with rational numbers in the spring of 5(th) grade. The unique predictors of skill with whole-number computation were incoming whole-number calculation skill, nonverbal reasoning, concept formation, and working memory (numerical executive control). In addition to these cognitive abilities, language emerged as a unique predictor of rational-number computational skill.

  19. Common Fixed Points of Generalized Rational Type Cocyclic Mappings in Multiplicative Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujahid Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present fixed point result of mappings satisfying a generalized rational contractive condition in the setup of multiplicative metric spaces. As an application, we obtain a common fixed point of a pair of weakly compatible mappings. Some common fixed point results of pair of rational contractive types mappings involved in cocyclic representation of a nonempty subset of a multiplicative metric space are also obtained. Some examples are presented to support the results proved herein. Our results generalize and extend various results in the existing literature.

  20. A systematic investigation of the link between rational number processing and algebra ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle; Cordes, Sara

    2018-02-01

    Recent research suggests that fraction understanding is predictive of algebra ability; however, the relative contributions of various aspects of rational number knowledge are unclear. Furthermore, whether this relationship is notation-dependent or rather relies upon a general understanding of rational numbers (independent of notation) is an open question. In this study, college students completed a rational number magnitude task, procedural arithmetic tasks in fraction and decimal notation, and an algebra assessment. Using these tasks, we measured three different aspects of rational number ability in both fraction and decimal notation: (1) acuity of underlying magnitude representations, (2) fluency with which symbols are mapped to the underlying magnitudes, and (3) fluency with arithmetic procedures. Analyses reveal that when looking at the measures of magnitude understanding, the relationship between adults' rational number magnitude performance and algebra ability is dependent upon notation. However, once performance on arithmetic measures is included in the relationship, individual measures of magnitude understanding are no longer unique predictors of algebra performance. Furthermore, when including all measures simultaneously, results revealed that arithmetic fluency in both fraction and decimal notation each uniquely predicted algebra ability. Findings are the first to demonstrate a relationship between rational number understanding and algebra ability in adults while providing a clearer picture of the nature of this relationship. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  1. The Cognitive Predictors of Computational Skill with Whole versus Rational Numbers: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Star, Jon R.; Bryant, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the 3rd-grade cognitive predictors of 5th-grade computational skill with rational numbers and how those are similar to and different from the cognitive predictors of whole-number computational skill. Students (n=688) were assessed on incoming whole-number calculation skill, language, nonverbal…

  2. Using Bar Representations as a Model for Connecting Concepts of Rational Number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, James A.; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Shew, Julia A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines bar models as graphical representations of rational numbers and presents related real life problems. Concludes that, through pairing the fraction bars with ratio tables and other ways of teaching numbers, numeric strategies become connected with visual strategies that allow students with diverse ways of thinking to share their…

  3. Consistency of Trend Break Point Estimator with Underspecified Break Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the consistency of trend break point estimators when the number of breaks is underspecified. The consistency of break point estimators in a simple location model with level shifts has been well documented by researchers under various settings, including extensions such as allowing a time trend in the model. Despite the consistency of break point estimators of level shifts, there are few papers on the consistency of trend shift break point estimators in the presence of an underspecified break number. The simulation study and asymptotic analysis in this paper show that the trend shift break point estimator does not converge to the true break points when the break number is underspecified. In the case of two trend shifts, the inconsistency problem worsens if the magnitudes of the breaks are similar and the breaks are either both positive or both negative. The limiting distribution for the trend break point estimator is developed and closely approximates the finite sample performance.

  4. From rational numbers to algebra: separable contributions of decimal magnitude and relational understanding of fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolf, Melissa; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J

    2015-05-01

    To understand the development of mathematical cognition and to improve instructional practices, it is critical to identify early predictors of difficulty in learning complex mathematical topics such as algebra. Recent work has shown that performance with fractions on a number line estimation task predicts algebra performance, whereas performance with whole numbers on similar estimation tasks does not. We sought to distinguish more specific precursors to algebra by measuring multiple aspects of knowledge about rational numbers. Because fractions are the first numbers that are relational expressions to which students are exposed, we investigated how understanding the relational bipartite format (a/b) of fractions might connect to later algebra performance. We presented middle school students with a battery of tests designed to measure relational understanding of fractions, procedural knowledge of fractions, and placement of fractions, decimals, and whole numbers onto number lines as well as algebra performance. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the best predictors of algebra performance were measures of relational fraction knowledge and ability to place decimals (not fractions or whole numbers) onto number lines. These findings suggest that at least two specific components of knowledge about rational numbers--relational understanding (best captured by fractions) and grasp of unidimensional magnitude (best captured by decimals)--can be linked to early success with algebraic expressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Limited Rationality and Its Quantification Through the Interval Number Judgments With Permutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Pedrycz, Witold; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2017-12-01

    The relative importance of alternatives expressed in terms of interval numbers in the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process aims to capture the uncertainty experienced by decision makers (DMs) when making a series of comparisons. Under the assumption of full rationality, the judgements of DMs in the typical analytic hierarchy process could be consistent. However, since the uncertainty in articulating the opinions of DMs is unavoidable, the interval number judgements are associated with the limited rationality. In this paper, we investigate the concept of limited rationality by introducing interval multiplicative reciprocal comparison matrices. By analyzing the consistency of interval multiplicative reciprocal comparison matrices, it is observed that the interval number judgements are inconsistent. By considering the permutations of alternatives, the concepts of approximation-consistency and acceptable approximation-consistency of interval multiplicative reciprocal comparison matrices are proposed. The exchange method is designed to generate all the permutations. A novel method of determining the interval weight vector is proposed under the consideration of randomness in comparing alternatives, and a vector of interval weights is determined. A new algorithm of solving decision making problems with interval multiplicative reciprocal preference relations is provided. Two numerical examples are carried out to illustrate the proposed approach and offer a comparison with the methods available in the literature.

  6. Randomised controlled trial of routine individual feedback to improve rationality and reduce numbers of test requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkens, R A; Pop, P; Bugter-Maessen, A M; Grol, R P; Kester, A D; Beusmans, G H; Knottnerus, J A

    1995-02-25

    Feedback can be described as a way to provide information on doctors' performance to enable changes in future behaviour. Feedback is used with the aim of changing test-ordering behaviour. It can lead to reductions in test usage and cost savings. It is not sufficiently clear, however, whether feedback leads to more appropriate test use. Since 1985, the Diagnostic Coordinating Center Maastricht has been giving feedback on diagnostic tests as a routine health care activity to all family doctors in its region. Both quantity and quality of requests are discussed. In a randomised, controlled trial over 2.5 years, discussion of tests not included previously was added to the existing routine feedback. One group of family doctors (n = 39) received feedback on test-group A (electrocardiography, endoscopy, cervical smears, and allergy tests), the other (n = 40) on test-group B (radiographic and ultrasonographic tests). Thus, each group of doctors acted as a control group for the other. Changes in volume and rationality of requests were analysed. The number of requests decreased during the trial (p = 0.036). Request numbers decreased particularly for test-group A (p = 0.04). The proportion of requests that were non-rational decreased more in the intervention than in the control groups (p = 0.009). Rationality improved predominantly for test-group B (p = 0.043). Thus, routine feedback can change the quantity and quality of requests.

  7. The Comprehensive Evaluation Method of Supervision Risk in Electricity Transaction Based on Unascertained Rational Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haining, Wang; Lei, Wang; Qian, Zhang; Zongqiang, Zheng; Hongyu, Zhou; Chuncheng, Gao

    2018-03-01

    For the uncertain problems in the comprehensive evaluation of supervision risk in electricity transaction, this paper uses the unidentified rational numbers to evaluation the supervision risk, to obtain the possible result and corresponding credibility of evaluation and realize the quantification of risk indexes. The model can draw the risk degree of various indexes, which makes it easier for the electricity transaction supervisors to identify the transaction risk and determine the risk level, assisting the decision-making and realizing the effective supervision of the risk. The results of the case analysis verify the effectiveness of the model.

  8. Fixed Points on the Real numbers without the Equality Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korovina, Margarita

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of definability properties of fixed points of effective operators on the real numbers without the equality test. In particular we prove that Gandy theorem holds for the reals without the equality test. This provides a useful tool for dealing with recursive...

  9. Applying inversion to construct planar, rational spirals that satisfy two-point G(2) Hermite data

    CERN Document Server

    Kurnosenko, A

    2010-01-01

    A method of two-point G(2) Hermite interpolation with spirals is proposed. To construct a sought for curve, the inversion is applied to an arc of some other spiral. To illustrate the method, inversions of parabola are considered in detail. The resulting curve is 4th degree rational. The method allows the matching of a wide range of boundary conditions, including those which require an inflection. Although not all G(2) Hermite data can be matched with a spiral generated from a parabolic arc, introducing one intermediate G(2) data solves the problem. Expanding the method by involving other spirals arcs is also discussed. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Conceptual structure and the procedural affordances of rational numbers: relational reasoning with fractions and decimals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolf, Melissa; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J

    2015-02-01

    The standard number system includes several distinct types of notations, which differ conceptually and afford different procedures. Among notations for rational numbers, the bipartite format of fractions (a/b) enables them to represent 2-dimensional relations between sets of discrete (i.e., countable) elements (e.g., red marbles/all marbles). In contrast, the format of decimals is inherently 1-dimensional, expressing a continuous-valued magnitude (i.e., proportion) but not a 2-dimensional relation between sets of countable elements. Experiment 1 showed that college students indeed view these 2-number notations as conceptually distinct. In a task that did not involve mathematical calculations, participants showed a strong preference to represent partitioned displays of discrete objects with fractions and partitioned displays of continuous masses with decimals. Experiment 2 provided evidence that people are better able to identify and evaluate ratio relationships using fractions than decimals, especially for discrete (or discretized) quantities. Experiments 3 and 4 found a similar pattern of performance for a more complex analogical reasoning task. When solving relational reasoning problems based on discrete or discretized quantities, fractions yielded greater accuracy than decimals; in contrast, when quantities were continuous, accuracy was lower for both symbolic notations. Whereas previous research has established that decimals are more effective than fractions in supporting magnitude comparisons, the present study reveals that fractions are relatively advantageous in supporting relational reasoning with discrete (or discretized) concepts. These findings provide an explanation for the effectiveness of natural frequency formats in supporting some types of reasoning, and have implications for teaching of rational numbers.

  11. Interior Point Method for Solving Fuzzy Number Linear Programming Problems Using Linear Ranking Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-hua Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various methods have been developed for solving linear programming problems with fuzzy number, such as simplex method and dual simplex method. But their computational complexities are exponential, which is not satisfactory for solving large-scale fuzzy linear programming problems, especially in the engineering field. A new method which can solve large-scale fuzzy number linear programming problems is presented in this paper, which is named a revised interior point method. Its idea is similar to that of interior point method used for solving linear programming problems in crisp environment before, but its feasible direction and step size are chosen by using trapezoidal fuzzy numbers, linear ranking function, fuzzy vector, and their operations, and its end condition is involved in linear ranking function. Their correctness and rationality are proved. Moreover, choice of the initial interior point and some factors influencing the results of this method are also discussed and analyzed. The result of algorithm analysis and example study that shows proper safety factor parameter, accuracy parameter, and initial interior point of this method may reduce iterations and they can be selected easily according to the actual needs. Finally, the method proposed in this paper is an alternative method for solving fuzzy number linear programming problems.

  12. Shifting of wrapped phase maps in the frequency domain using a rational number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdeisat, Munther A; Abushakra, Ahmad; Qaddoura, Maen; Burton, David R; Lilley, Francis; Arevalillo-Herráez, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The number of phase wraps in an image can be either reduced, or completely eliminated, by transforming the image into the frequency domain using a Fourier transform, and then shifting the spectrum towards the origin. After this, the spectrum is transformed back to the spatial domain using the inverse Fourier transform and finally the phase is extracted using the arctangent function. However, it is a common concern that the spectrum can be shifted only by an integer number, meaning that the phase wrap reduction is often not optimal. In this paper we propose an algorithm than enables the spectrum to be frequency shifted by a rational number. The principle of the proposed method is confirmed both by using an initial computer simulation and is subsequently validated experimentally on real fringe patterns. The technique may offer in some cases the prospects of removing the necessity for a phase unwrapping process altogether and/or speeding up the phase unwrapping process. This may be beneficial in terms of potential increases in signal recovery robustness and also for use in time-critical applications. (paper)

  13. Navier-Stokes-Fourier Equations A Rational Asymptotic Modelling Point of View

    CERN Document Server

    Zeytounian, Radyadour Kh

    2012-01-01

    This research monograph deals with a modeling theory of the system of Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations for a Newtonian fluid governing a compressible viscous and heat conducting flows. The main objective is threefold. First , to 'deconstruct' this Navier-Stokes-Fourier system in order to unify the puzzle of the various partial simplified approximate models used in Newtonian Classical Fluid Dynamics and this, first facet, have obviously a challenging approach and a very important pedagogic impact on the university education. The second facet of the main objective is to outline a rational consistent asymptotic/mathematical theory of the of  fluid flows modeling on the basis of a typical Navier-Stokes-Fourier  initial and boundary value problem. The third facet is devoted to an illustration of our rational asymptotic/mathematical modeling theory for various technological and geophysical stiff  problems from: aerodynamics, thermal and thermocapillary convections and also meteofluid dynamics.

  14. Some remarks on the general theorem of the existence of iterative roots of homeomorphisms with a rational rotation number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solarz Paweł

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We show that the theorem proved in [8] generalises the previous results concerning orientation-preserving iterative roots of homeomorphisms of the circle with a rational rotation number (see [2], [6], [10] and [7]. Nous montrons que le théorème prouvé dans [8] généralise les résultats précédents concernant les racines itérées préservant l’orientation d’homéomorphismes du cercle avec un nombre de rotation rationnel (voir [2], [6], [10] et [7].

  15. Medication for older people - aspects of rational therapy from the general practitioner's point of view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vass, M; Hendriksen, C

    2005-01-01

    state that a number of pharmacological regimens for older people are outperformed by non-pharmacological treatment alternatives involving competent individualised counselling and public provision of easy (transportation) possibilities for joining centres offering staff and equipment for physical...

  16. Number-theoretic properties of hyperelliptic fields and the torsion problem in Jacobians of hyperelliptic curves over the rational number field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platonov, V P

    2014-01-01

    In the past four years a theory has been developed for finding fundamental units in hyperelliptic fields, and on basis of this theory innovative and efficient algorithms for computing them have been constructed and implemented. A new local-global principle was discovered which gives a criterion for the existence of non-trivial units in hyperelliptic fields. The natural connection between the problem of computing fundamental units and the problem of torsion in Jacobian varieties of hyperelliptic curves over the rational number field has led to breakthrough results in the solution of this problem. The main results in the present survey were largely obtained using a symbiosis of deep theory, efficient algorithms, and supercomputing. Such a symbiosis will play an ever increasing role in the mathematics of the 21st century. Bibliography: 27 titles

  17. Series-nonuniform rational B-spline signal feedback: From chaos to any embedded periodic orbit or target point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Chenxi, E-mail: cxshao@ustc.edu.cn; Xue, Yong; Fang, Fang; Bai, Fangzhou [Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Yin, Peifeng [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania 16801 (United States); Wang, Binghong [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2015-07-15

    The self-controlling feedback control method requires an external periodic oscillator with special design, which is technically challenging. This paper proposes a chaos control method based on time series non-uniform rational B-splines (SNURBS for short) signal feedback. It first builds the chaos phase diagram or chaotic attractor with the sampled chaotic time series and any target orbit can then be explicitly chosen according to the actual demand. Second, we use the discrete timing sequence selected from the specific target orbit to build the corresponding external SNURBS chaos periodic signal, whose difference from the system current output is used as the feedback control signal. Finally, by properly adjusting the feedback weight, we can quickly lead the system to an expected status. We demonstrate both the effectiveness and efficiency of our method by applying it to two classic chaotic systems, i.e., the Van der Pol oscillator and the Lorenz chaotic system. Further, our experimental results show that compared with delayed feedback control, our method takes less time to obtain the target point or periodic orbit (from the starting point) and that its parameters can be fine-tuned more easily.

  18. Series-nonuniform rational B-spline signal feedback: From chaos to any embedded periodic orbit or target point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chenxi; Xue, Yong; Fang, Fang; Bai, Fangzhou; Yin, Peifeng; Wang, Binghong

    2015-07-01

    The self-controlling feedback control method requires an external periodic oscillator with special design, which is technically challenging. This paper proposes a chaos control method based on time series non-uniform rational B-splines (SNURBS for short) signal feedback. It first builds the chaos phase diagram or chaotic attractor with the sampled chaotic time series and any target orbit can then be explicitly chosen according to the actual demand. Second, we use the discrete timing sequence selected from the specific target orbit to build the corresponding external SNURBS chaos periodic signal, whose difference from the system current output is used as the feedback control signal. Finally, by properly adjusting the feedback weight, we can quickly lead the system to an expected status. We demonstrate both the effectiveness and efficiency of our method by applying it to two classic chaotic systems, i.e., the Van der Pol oscillator and the Lorenz chaotic system. Further, our experimental results show that compared with delayed feedback control, our method takes less time to obtain the target point or periodic orbit (from the starting point) and that its parameters can be fine-tuned more easily.

  19. On the Required Number of Antennas in a Point-to-Point Large-but-Finite MIMO System

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz; Svensson, Tommy; Eriksson, Thomas; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of the point-to-point multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems in the presence of a large but finite numbers of antennas at the transmitters and/or receivers. Considering the cases with and without hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) feedback, we determine the minimum numbers of the transmit/receive antennas which are required to satisfy different outage probability constraints. We study the effect of the spatial correlation between the antennas on the system performance. Also, the required number of antennas are obtained for different fading conditions. Our results show that different outage requirements can be satisfied with relatively few transmit/receive antennas. © 2015 IEEE.

  20. On the Required Number of Antennas in a Point-to-Point Large-but-Finite MIMO System

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2015-11-12

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of the point-to-point multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems in the presence of a large but finite numbers of antennas at the transmitters and/or receivers. Considering the cases with and without hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) feedback, we determine the minimum numbers of the transmit/receive antennas which are required to satisfy different outage probability constraints. We study the effect of the spatial correlation between the antennas on the system performance. Also, the required number of antennas are obtained for different fading conditions. Our results show that different outage requirements can be satisfied with relatively few transmit/receive antennas. © 2015 IEEE.

  1. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: ROAD_MRK (Road Number Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector points used in plotting the road numbers on the summary maps. It comprises a portion of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data...

  2. Multivariate Hermite interpolation on scattered point sets using tensor-product expo-rational B-splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechevsky, Lubomir T.; Bang, Børre; Laksa˚, Arne; Zanaty, Peter

    2011-12-01

    At the Seventh International Conference on Mathematical Methods for Curves and Surfaces, To/nsberg, Norway, in 2008, several new constructions for Hermite interpolation on scattered point sets in domains in Rn,n∈N, combined with smooth convex partition of unity for several general types of partitions of these domains were proposed in [1]. All of these constructions were based on a new type of B-splines, proposed by some of the authors several years earlier: expo-rational B-splines (ERBS) [3]. In the present communication we shall provide more details about one of these constructions: the one for the most general class of domain partitions considered. This construction is based on the use of two separate families of basis functions: one which has all the necessary Hermite interpolation properties, and another which has the necessary properties of a smooth convex partition of unity. The constructions of both of these two bases are well-known; the new part of the construction is the combined use of these bases for the derivation of a new basis which enjoys having all above-said interpolation and unity partition properties simultaneously. In [1] the emphasis was put on the use of radial basis functions in the definitions of the two initial bases in the construction; now we shall put the main emphasis on the case when these bases consist of tensor-product B-splines. This selection provides two useful advantages: (A) it is easier to compute higher-order derivatives while working in Cartesian coordinates; (B) it becomes clear that this construction becomes a far-going extension of tensor-product constructions. We shall provide 3-dimensional visualization of the resulting bivariate bases, using tensor-product ERBS. In the main tensor-product variant, we shall consider also replacement of ERBS with simpler generalized ERBS (GERBS) [2], namely, their simplified polynomial modifications: the Euler Beta-function B-splines (BFBS). One advantage of using BFBS instead of ERBS

  3. PENGENALAN POLA SIDIK JARI RIDGE ENDING DAN BIFURCATION POINT DENGAN EKSTRAKSI MINUSI METODE CROSSING NUMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Dody Lesmana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Biometric is a development of basic method of identification using human natural characteristics as its basic. One of the biometric system that is often used is fingerprint. Fingerprint matching system can be obtained by extraction of minutiae information. Information from minutiae extraction generated ridge ending and bifurcation. The technique coffered in this paper is based on the extraction of minutiae from fingerprint image using crossing number (CN method to get ridge ending and bifurcation point by scanning each of ridges point. False identification of minutiae structure may be introduced into the fingerprint image due to hole and spur structure. It is necessary to test the validity of each minutiae point to eliminate false minutiae. Experiments are firstly conducted to assess how well the crossing number method is able to extract the minutiae point. The minutiae validation algorithm is then evaluated to see how effective the algorithm is in detecting the false minutiae. From experiments result using crossing number method, it can be deduced that all ridge points corresponding to ridge ending and bifurcation point have been detected successfully. However, there are a few cases where the extracted minutiae do not correspond to true minutiae points due to hole and spur structure. Applying minutiae validation algorithm is able to cancel out the false ridge endings created by the spur structure and bifurcations created by the hole structures.

  4. Determination of the Number of Fixture Locating Points for Sheet Metal By Grey Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of the traditional fixture design for sheet metal part based on the "N-2-1" locating principle, the number of fixture locating points is determined by trial and error or the experience of the designer. To that end, a new design method based on grey theory is proposed to determine the number of sheet metal fixture locating points in this paper. Firstly, the training sample set is generated by Latin hypercube sampling (LHS and finite element analysis (FEA. Secondly, the GM(1, 1 grey model is constructed based on the established training sample set to approximate the mapping relationship between the number of fixture locating points and the concerned sheet metal maximum deformation. Thirdly, the final number of fixture locating points for sheet metal can be inversely calculated under the allowable maximum deformation. Finally, a sheet metal case is conducted and the results indicate that the proposed approach is effective and efficient in determining the number of fixture locating points for sheet metal.

  5. On the number of lattice points in three-dimensional solids of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D A

    2000-01-01

    We derive an accurate estimate for the order of magnitude of the remainder term in the problem of the number of lattice points in families of homothetic domains belonging to the class of three-dimensional solids of revolution with smooth boundaries (under certain additional conditions). This estimate is realized in the case of the solid bounded by a standardly embedded torus, for which the second term of the expansion, which describes the dependence of the number of lattice points on the dilation parameter, is written in explicit form

  6. Expected Number of Fixed Points in Boolean Networks with Arbitrary Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Fumito; Mochizuki, Atsushi

    2017-07-14

    Boolean network models describe genetic, neural, and social dynamics in complex networks, where the dynamics depend generally on network topology. Fixed points in a genetic regulatory network are typically considered to correspond to cell types in an organism. We prove that the expected number of fixed points in a Boolean network, with Boolean functions drawn from probability distributions that are not required to be uniform or identical, is one, and is independent of network topology if only a feedback arc set satisfies a stochastic neutrality condition. We also demonstrate that the expected number is increased by the predominance of positive feedback in a cycle.

  7. Analysis of random point images with the use of symbolic computation codes and generalized Catalan numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, A. L.; Tuzikov, A. V.; Solov'ev, A. A.; Torgov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    Original codes and combinatorial-geometrical computational schemes are presented, which are developed and applied for finding exact analytical formulas that describe the probability of errorless readout of random point images recorded by a scanning aperture with a limited number of threshold levels. Combinatorial problems encountered in the course of the study and associated with the new generalization of Catalan numbers are formulated and solved. An attempt is made to find the explicit analytical form of these numbers, which is, on the one hand, a necessary stage of solving the basic research problem and, on the other hand, an independent self-consistent problem.

  8. Optimization of Control Points Number at Coordinate Measurements based on the Monte-Carlo Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, A. A.; Kochetkov, A. V.; Zakharov, O. V.

    2018-01-01

    Improving the quality of products causes an increase in the requirements for the accuracy of the dimensions and shape of the surfaces of the workpieces. This, in turn, raises the requirements for accuracy and productivity of measuring of the workpieces. The use of coordinate measuring machines is currently the most effective measuring tool for solving similar problems. The article proposes a method for optimizing the number of control points using Monte Carlo simulation. Based on the measurement of a small sample from batches of workpieces, statistical modeling is performed, which allows one to obtain interval estimates of the measurement error. This approach is demonstrated by examples of applications for flatness, cylindricity and sphericity. Four options of uniform and uneven arrangement of control points are considered and their comparison is given. It is revealed that when the number of control points decreases, the arithmetic mean decreases, the standard deviation of the measurement error increases and the probability of the measurement α-error increases. In general, it has been established that it is possible to repeatedly reduce the number of control points while maintaining the required measurement accuracy.

  9. The nuclear flow and the mass number dependence of the balance point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebille, F.; de la Mota, V.; Remaud, B.; Schuck, P.

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear flow is studied theoretically with the Landau Vlasov equation in the E/A = 50 to 150 MeV energy domain using the finite range Gogny force. For comparison also other equations of states based on velocity independent mean fields are used. In this paper the mass number dependence of the balance point is investigated. A sensitivity of the flow on the equation of state as a function of mass and energies around and above the balance point can tentatively be advanced

  10. L lines, C points and Chern numbers: understanding band structure topology using polarization fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fösel, Thomas; Peano, Vittorio; Marquardt, Florian

    2017-11-01

    Topology has appeared in different physical contexts. The most prominent application is topologically protected edge transport in condensed matter physics. The Chern number, the topological invariant of gapped Bloch Hamiltonians, is an important quantity in this field. Another example of topology, in polarization physics, are polarization singularities, called L lines and C points. By establishing a connection between these two theories, we develop a novel technique to visualize and potentially measure the Chern number: it can be expressed either as the winding of the polarization azimuth along L lines in reciprocal space, or in terms of the handedness and the index of the C points. For mechanical systems, this is directly connected to the visible motion patterns.

  11. Tunable superlattice in graphene to control the number of Dirac points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Sudipta; Singh, Vibhor; Bhat, Ajay K; Parikh, Pritesh; Grover, Sameer; Sensarma, Rajdeep; Tripathi, Vikram; Sengupta, K; Deshmukh, Mandar M

    2013-09-11

    Superlattice in graphene generates extra Dirac points in the band structure and their number depends on the superlattice potential strength. Here, we have created a lateral superlattice in a graphene device with a tunable barrier height using a combination of two gates. In this Letter, we demonstrate the use of lateral superlattice to modify the band structure of graphene leading to the emergence of new Dirac cones. This controlled modification of the band structure persists up to 100 K.

  12. Rationalization and Prediction of the Equivalent Alkane Carbon Number (EACN) of Polar Hydrocarbon Oils with COSMO-RS σ-Moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowicz, Thomas; Benazzouz, Adrien; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Aubry, Jean-Marie

    2015-10-20

    The equivalent alkane carbon numbers (EACNs) of 20 polar hydrocarbon oils are determined by the fishtail method. These values supplemented by 43 already reported EACNs of other hydrocarbons are rationalized by using the COSMO-RS σ-moments as descriptors for a QSPR analysis. A reliable model, with only two meaningful physicochemical parameters, namely the surface area (M0(X)) and the overall polarity (M2(X)) of the oil X, is able to predict the EACN values of a large variety of oils including (cyclo)alkanes, (cyclo)alkenes, terpenes, aromatics, alkynes, and chloroalkanes and to rationalize structural effects on EACNs. Furthermore, the dependence of the EACN of homologous oils on the chain length provides some molecular insight into how the different oils penetrate into the interfacial film of surfactants.

  13. The Different “Personalities” of the Rational Number Approached through Problem-solving As Diferentes “Personalidades” do Número Racional Trabalhadas através da Resolução de Problemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes de la Rosa Onuchic

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We address the different “personalities” of the rational number and the concept of proportionality, analyzing the possibilities for using the Mathematics Teaching and Learning through Problem-solving Method. This method is based on the principle that knowledge can be constructed through the use of problems that generate new concepts and new contents. The different meanings of rational numberrational point, quotient, fraction, ratio, and operator – are constructs that depend on mathematical theories in which they are imbedded and the situations that evoke them in problem-solving. Some data will be presented from continuing education courses for teachers, aiming to contribute to understanding regarding the different “personalities” of the rational number. In general, these “personalities” are not easily identified by teachers and students, which is the reason for the many difficulties encountered during problem-solving involving rational numbers. One of these “personalities”, the ratio, provides the basis for the concept of proportionality, which is relevant because it is a unifying idea in mathematics. Key-words: Rational Numbers and Proportionality. Problem Solving. Teacher Education.Neste artigo, pretende-se abordar as diferentes “personalidades” do número racional e o conceito de proporcionalidade, analisando as possibilidades de utilizar a Metodologia de Ensino-Aprendizagem de Matemática através da Resolução de Problemas. Essa metodologia parte do princípio de que a construção do conhecimento pode ser realizada a partir de problemas geradores de novos conceitos e novos conteúdos. Os diferentes significados do número racional: ponto racional, quociente, fração, razão e operador são construtos que dependem das teorias matemáticas em que se inserem e das situações a que se referem na resolução de problemas. Serão apresentados alguns dados que foram desenvolvidos em cursos de formação continuada

  14. Integrability and Linearizability of the Lotka-Volterra System with a Saddle Point with Rational Hyperbolicity Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Simon; Thibault, Pierre

    In this paper, we consider normalizability, integrability and linearizability properties of the Lotka-Volterra system in the neighborhood of a singular point with eigenvalues 1 and - λ. The results are obtained by generalizing and expanding two methods already known: the power expansion of the first integral or of the linearizing transformation and the transformation of the saddle into a node. With these methods we find conditions that are valid for λ∈ R+ or λ∈ Q. These conditions will allow us to find all the integrable and linearizable systems for λ= {p}/{2} and {2}/{p} with p∈ N+.

  15. Inverse electrocardiographic transformations: dependence on the number of epicardial regions and body surface data points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, P R; Walker, S J; Hyttinen, J A; Kilpatrick, D

    1994-04-01

    The inverse problem of electrocardiography, the computation of epicardial potentials from body surface potentials, is influenced by the desired resolution on the epicardium, the number of recording points on the body surface, and the method of limiting the inversion process. To examine the role of these variables in the computation of the inverse transform, Tikhonov's zero-order regularization and singular value decomposition (SVD) have been used to invert the forward transfer matrix. The inverses have been compared in a data-independent manner using the resolution and the noise amplification as endpoints. Sets of 32, 50, 192, and 384 leads were chosen as sets of body surface data, and 26, 50, 74, and 98 regions were chosen to represent the epicardium. The resolution and noise were both improved by using a greater number of electrodes on the body surface. When 60% of the singular values are retained, the results show a trade-off between noise and resolution, with typical maximal epicardial noise levels of less than 0.5% of maximum epicardial potentials for 26 epicardial regions, 2.5% for 50 epicardial regions, 7.5% for 74 epicardial regions, and 50% for 98 epicardial regions. As the number of epicardial regions is increased, the regularization technique effectively fixes the noise amplification but markedly decreases the resolution, whereas SVD results in an increase in noise and a moderate decrease in resolution. Overall the regularization technique performs slightly better than SVD in the noise-resolution relationship. There is a region at the posterior of the heart that was poorly resolved regardless of the number of regions chosen. The variance of the resolution was such as to suggest the use of variable-size epicardial regions based on the resolution.

  16. Numbers and functions from a classical-experimental mathematician's point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Moll, Victor H

    2012-01-01

    New mathematics often comes about by probing what is already known. Mathematicians will change the parameters in a familiar calculation or explore the essential ingredients of a classic proof. Almost magically, new ideas emerge from this process. This book examines elementary functions, such as those encountered in calculus courses, from this point of view of experimental mathematics. The focus is on exploring the connections between these functions and topics in number theory and combinatorics. There is also an emphasis throughout the book on how current mathematical software can be used to discover and prove interesting properties of these functions. The book provides a transition between elementary mathematics and more advanced topics, trying to make this transition as smooth as possible. Many topics occur in the book, but they are all part of a bigger picture of mathematics. By delving into a variety of them, the reader will develop this broad view. The large collection of problems is an essential part of...

  17. Source of vacuum electromagnetic zero-point energy and Dirac's large numbers hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simaciu, I.; Dumitrescu, G.

    1993-01-01

    The stochastic electrodynamics states that zero-point fluctuation of the vacuum (ZPF) is an electromagnetic zero-point radiation with spectral density ρ(ω)=ℎω 3 / 2π 2 C 3 . Protons, free electrons and atoms are sources for this radiation. Each of them absorbs and emits energy by interacting with ZPF. At equilibrium ZPF radiation is scattered by dipoles.Scattered radiation spectral density is ρ(ω,r) ρ(ω).c.σ(ω) / 4πr 2 . Radiation of dipole spectral density of Universe is ρ ∫ 0 R nρ(ω,r)4πr 2 dr. But if σ atom P e σ=σ T then ρ ρ(ω)σ T R.n. Moreover if ρ=ρ(ω) then σ T Rn = 1. With R = G M/c 2 and σ T ≅(e 2 /m e c 2 ) 2 ∝ r e 2 then σ T .Rn 1 is equivalent to R/r e = e 2 /Gm p m e i.e. the cosmological coincidence discussed in the context of Dirac's large-numbers hypothesis. (Author)

  18. High-yield exfoliation of tungsten disulphide nanosheets by rational mixing of low-boiling-point solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi-Moghaddam, Ali; Saievar-Iranizad, Esmaiel

    2018-01-01

    Developing high-throughput, reliable, and facile approaches for producing atomically thin sheets of transition metal dichalcogenides is of great importance to pave the way for their use in real applications. Here, we report a highly promising route for exfoliating two-dimensional tungsten disulphide sheets by using binary combination of low-boiling-point solvents. Experimental results show significant dependence of exfoliation yield on the type of solvents as well as relative volume fraction of each solvent. The highest yield was found for appropriate combination of isopropanol/water (20 vol% isopropanol and 80 vol% water) which is approximately 7 times higher than that in pure isopropanol and 4 times higher than that in pure water. The dramatic increase in exfoliation yield can be attributed to perfect match between the surface tension of tungsten disulphide and binary solvent system. Furthermore, solvent molecular size also has a profound impact on the exfoliation efficiency, due to the steric repulsion.

  19. Effect of the number of two-wheeled containers at a gathering point on energetic workload and work efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijer, P. Paul F M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Van Dieën, Jaap H.; Visser, Bart

    2000-01-01

    The effect of the number of two-wheeled containers at a gathering point on the energetic workload and the work efficiency in refuse collecting was studied. The results showed that the size of the gathering point had no effect on the energetic workload. However, the size of the gathering point had an

  20. Prediction uncertainty of plume characteristics derived from a small number of measuring points

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, H. K.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Leijnse, A.

    A small number of measuring points may inflict a bias on the characterisation of flow and transport based on field experiments in the unsaturated zone. Simulation of pure advective transport of a Gaussian plume through a setup of 30 regularly placed measuring points revealed regular temporal fluctuations about the real spatial moments. An irregular setup predicted both irregular fluctuations and larger discrepancies from the real value. From these considerations, a regular setup is recommended. Spatial moments were sensitive to the plume size relative to the distance between individual measuring points. To reduce prediction errors of the variance, the distance between the measuring points should be less than twice the standard deviation of the examined plume. The total size of the setup should cover several standard deviations of the plume to avoid mass being lost from the monitored area. Numerical simulations of a dispersing plume (comparing calculations based on 9000 nodes with 30 measuring points) revealed that vertical and horizontal centres of mass were predicted well at all degrees of heterogeneity, and the same was the case for horizontal variances. Vertical variances were more susceptible to prediction errors, but estimates were of the same order of magnitude as the real values. Résumé Lorsque l'on cherche à caractériser l'écoulement et le transport à partir d'expériences de terrain dans la zone saturée, il arrive qu'un petit nombre de points introduisent un biais. La simulation d'un transport purement advectif d'un panache gaussien au travers d'un ensemble de 30 points de mesures espacés régulièrement fait apparaître des variations temporelles régulières autour des moments spatiaux réels. Un ensemble irrégulier conduit à prédire à la fois des variations irrégulières et de plus grandes divergences par rapport à la valeur réelle. A partir de ces constations, un ensemble régulier est recommandé. Les moments spatiaux sont apparus

  1. Evenly spaced Detrended Fluctuation Analysis: Selecting the number of points for the diffusion plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Joshua J.; Haddad, Jeffrey M.

    2018-02-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) has become a widely-used tool to examine the correlation structure of a time series and provided insights into neuromuscular health and disease states. As the popularity of utilizing DFA in the human behavioral sciences has grown, understanding its limitations and how to properly determine parameters is becoming increasingly important. DFA examines the correlation structure of variability in a time series by computing α, the slope of the log SD- log n diffusion plot. When using the traditional DFA algorithm, the timescales, n, are often selected as a set of integers between a minimum and maximum length based on the number of data points in the time series. This produces non-uniformly distributed values of n in logarithmic scale, which influences the estimation of α due to a disproportionate weighting of the long-timescale regions of the diffusion plot. Recently, the evenly spaced DFA and evenly spaced average DFA algorithms were introduced. Both algorithms compute α by selecting k points for the diffusion plot based on the minimum and maximum timescales of interest and improve the consistency of α estimates for simulated fractional Gaussian noise and fractional Brownian motion time series. Two issues that remain unaddressed are (1) how to select k and (2) whether the evenly-spaced DFA algorithms show similar benefits when assessing human behavioral data. We manipulated k and examined its effects on the accuracy, consistency, and confidence limits of α in simulated and experimental time series. We demonstrate that the accuracy and consistency of α are relatively unaffected by the selection of k. However, the confidence limits of α narrow as k increases, dramatically reducing measurement uncertainty for single trials. We provide guidelines for selecting k and discuss potential uses of the evenly spaced DFA algorithms when assessing human behavioral data.

  2. Degree of a isolated real point or a singular complex point on a plane curve defined over Q

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder

    2010-01-01

    Let $X$ be a curve in the affine plane defined by a reduced polynomial of degree $d$ with rational coefficients. Assume that $P$ is an isolated real point or a singular complex point on the curve $X$. The coordinates of $P$ are algebraic numbers over the rationals of degree at most $d^2$. The res......Let $X$ be a curve in the affine plane defined by a reduced polynomial of degree $d$ with rational coefficients. Assume that $P$ is an isolated real point or a singular complex point on the curve $X$. The coordinates of $P$ are algebraic numbers over the rationals of degree at most $d^2...

  3. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan. Contingency gasoline rationing regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The Economic Regulatory Administration issues final rules with respect to standby gasoline rationing. The plan is designed for and would be used only in the event of a severe gasoline shortage. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations. DOE will mail government ration checks to the parties named in a national vehicle registration file to be maintained by DOE. Ration recipients may cash these checks for ration coupons at various designated coupon issuance points. Retail outlets and other suppliers will be required to redeem the ration coupons received in exchange for gasoline sold. Supplemental gas will be given to high-priority activities. A ration banking system will be established with two separate and distinct of ration accounts: retail outlets and other suppliers will open redemption accounts for the deposit of redeemed ration rights; and individuals or firms may open ration rights accounts, which will operate in much the same manner as monetary checking accounts. A white market will be permitted for the sale of transfer of ration rights. A percentage of the total ration rights to be issued will be reserved for distribution to the states as a State Ration Reserve, to be used by the states primarily for the relief of hardship. A National Ration Reserave will also be established. All sections of the Standby Gasoline Rationing Regulations are analyzed. (MCW)

  4. Common fixed point theorems for finite number of mappings without continuity and compatibility on intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sushil; Deshpande, Bhavana

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to prove some common fixed point theorems for finite number of discontinuous, noncompatible mappings on noncomplete intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces. Our results extend, generalize and intuitionistic fuzzify several known results in fuzzy metric spaces. We give an example and also give formulas for total number of commutativity conditions for finite number of mappings.

  5. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. XVII. SPIRE point-source catalogs and number counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Ciro; Bendo, George J.; Bianchi, Simone; Hunt, Leslie; Zibetti, Stefano; Corbelli, Edvige; di Serego Alighieri, Sperello; Grossi, Marco; Davies, Jonathan; Baes, Maarten; De Looze, Ilse; Fritz, Jacopo; Pohlen, Michael; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Verstappen, Joris; Boquien, Médéric; Boselli, Alessandro; Cortese, Luca; Hughes, Thomas; Viaene, Sebastien; Bizzocchi, Luca; Clemens, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Aims: We present three independent catalogs of point-sources extracted from SPIRE images at 250, 350, and 500 μm, acquired with the Herschel Space Observatory as a part of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS). The catalogs have been cross-correlated to consistently extract the photometry at SPIRE wavelengths for each object. Methods: Sources have been detected using an iterative loop. The source positions are determined by estimating the likelihood to be a real source for each peak on the maps, according to the criterion defined in the sourceExtractorSussextractor task. The flux densities are estimated using the sourceExtractorTimeline, a timeline-based point source fitter that also determines the fitting procedure with the width of the Gaussian that best reproduces the source considered. Afterwards, each source is subtracted from the maps, removing a Gaussian function in every position with the full width half maximum equal to that estimated in sourceExtractorTimeline. This procedure improves the robustness of our algorithm in terms of source identification. We calculate the completeness and the flux accuracy by injecting artificial sources in the timeline and estimate the reliability of the catalog using a permutation method. Results: The HeViCS catalogs contain about 52 000, 42 200, and 18 700 sources selected at 250, 350, and 500 μm above 3σ and are ~75%, 62%, and 50% complete at flux densities of 20 mJy at 250, 350, 500 μm, respectively. We then measured source number counts at 250, 350, and 500 μm and compare them with previous data and semi-analytical models. We also cross-correlated the catalogs with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate the redshift distribution of the nearby sources. From this cross-correlation, we select ~2000 sources with reliable fluxes and a high signal-to-noise ratio, finding an average redshift z ~ 0.3 ± 0.22 and 0.25 (16-84 percentile). Conclusions: The number counts at 250, 350, and 500 μm show an increase in

  6. Rational maps, monopoles and skyrmions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, C.J.; Manton, N.S.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the similarities between BPS monopoles and skyrmions, and point to an underlying connection in terms of rational maps between Riemann spheres. This involves the introduction of a new ansatz for Skyrme fields. We use this to construct good approximations to several known skyrmions, including all the minimal energy configurations up to baryon number nine, and some new solutions such as a baryon number seventeen Skyrme field with the truncated icosahedron structure of a buckyball. The new approach is also used to understand the low-lying vibrational modes of skyrmions, which are required for quantization. Along the way we discover an interesting Morse function on the space of rational maps which may be of use in understanding the Sen forms on the monopole moduli spaces. (orig.)

  7. Competent Reasoning with Rational Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John P. III

    1995-01-01

    Analyzed students' reasoning with fractions. Found that skilled students applied strategies specifically tailored to restricted classes of fractions and produced reliable solutions with a minimum of computation effort. Results suggest that competent reasoning depends on a knowledge base that includes numerically specific and invented strategies,…

  8. Rational Design of High-Number dsDNA Fragments Based on Thermodynamics for the Construction of Full-Length Genes in a Single Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birla, Bhagyashree S; Chou, Hui-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Gene synthesis is frequently used in modern molecular biology research either to create novel genes or to obtain natural genes when the synthesis approach is more flexible and reliable than cloning. DNA chemical synthesis has limits on both its length and yield, thus full-length genes have to be hierarchically constructed from synthesized DNA fragments. Gibson Assembly and its derivatives are the simplest methods to assemble multiple double-stranded DNA fragments. Currently, up to 12 dsDNA fragments can be assembled at once with Gibson Assembly according to its vendor. In practice, the number of dsDNA fragments that can be assembled in a single reaction are much lower. We have developed a rational design method for gene construction that allows high-number dsDNA fragments to be assembled into full-length genes in a single reaction. Using this new design method and a modified version of the Gibson Assembly protocol, we have assembled 3 different genes from up to 45 dsDNA fragments at once. Our design method uses the thermodynamic analysis software Picky that identifies all unique junctions in a gene where consecutive DNA fragments are specifically made to connect to each other. Our novel method is generally applicable to most gene sequences, and can improve both the efficiency and cost of gene assembly.

  9. Rational Design of High-Number dsDNA Fragments Based on Thermodynamics for the Construction of Full-Length Genes in a Single Reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyashree S Birla

    Full Text Available Gene synthesis is frequently used in modern molecular biology research either to create novel genes or to obtain natural genes when the synthesis approach is more flexible and reliable than cloning. DNA chemical synthesis has limits on both its length and yield, thus full-length genes have to be hierarchically constructed from synthesized DNA fragments. Gibson Assembly and its derivatives are the simplest methods to assemble multiple double-stranded DNA fragments. Currently, up to 12 dsDNA fragments can be assembled at once with Gibson Assembly according to its vendor. In practice, the number of dsDNA fragments that can be assembled in a single reaction are much lower. We have developed a rational design method for gene construction that allows high-number dsDNA fragments to be assembled into full-length genes in a single reaction. Using this new design method and a modified version of the Gibson Assembly protocol, we have assembled 3 different genes from up to 45 dsDNA fragments at once. Our design method uses the thermodynamic analysis software Picky that identifies all unique junctions in a gene where consecutive DNA fragments are specifically made to connect to each other. Our novel method is generally applicable to most gene sequences, and can improve both the efficiency and cost of gene assembly.

  10. Iterating the Number of Intersection Points of the Diagonals of Irregular Convex Polygons, or C (n, 4) the Hard Way!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathout, Leith

    2007-01-01

    Counting the number of internal intersection points made by the diagonals of irregular convex polygons where no three diagonals are concurrent is an interesting problem in discrete mathematics. This paper uses an iterative approach to develop a summation relation which tallies the total number of intersections, and shows that this total can be…

  11. Pragmatics & rationality.

    OpenAIRE

    Allott, N. E.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is about the reconciliation of realistic views of rationality with inferential-intentional theories of communication. Grice (1957 1975) argued that working out what a speaker meant by an utterance is a matter of inferring the speaker's intentions on the presumption that she is acting rationally. This is abductive inference: inference to the best explanation for the utterance. Thus an utterance both rationalises and causes the interpretation the hearer constructs. Human rationality...

  12. DISTRIBUTED RC NETWORKS WITH RATIONAL TRANSFER FUNCTIONS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    A distributed RC circuit analogous to a continuously tapped transmission line can be made to have a rational short-circuit transfer admittance and...one rational shortcircuit driving-point admittance. A subcircuit of the same structure has a rational open circuit transfer impedance and one rational ...open circuit driving-point impedance. Hence, rational transfer functions may be obtained while considering either generator impedance or load

  13. Bernoulli numbers and polynomials from a more general point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattoli, G.; Cesarano, C.; Lorenzutta, S.

    2000-01-01

    In this work it is applied the method of generating function, to introduce new forms of Bernoulli numbers and polynomials, which are exploited to derive further classes of partial sums involving generalized many index many variable polynomials. Analogous considerations are developed for the Euler numbers and polynomials [it

  14. Cycle numbers within nets, sol molecules, micronets and at the gel point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fawcett, Allan H.; Cameron, Colin; Hetherington, Cecil R.

    1999-01-01

    The concept of cycle number, C, was developed to count the number of different cycles within a micronet and network as a complement to the smaller and familiar quantity, cycle rank, c. The individual cycles present within a micronet were recognized by exploring the connectivity or Kirchoff matrix...

  15. Choosing the Optimal Number of B-spline Control Points (Part 1: Methodology and Approximation of Curves)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmening, Corinna; Neuner, Hans

    2016-09-01

    Due to the establishment of terrestrial laser scanner, the analysis strategies in engineering geodesy change from pointwise approaches to areal ones. These areal analysis strategies are commonly built on the modelling of the acquired point clouds. Freeform curves and surfaces like B-spline curves/surfaces are one possible approach to obtain space continuous information. A variety of parameters determines the B-spline's appearance; the B-spline's complexity is mostly determined by the number of control points. Usually, this number of control points is chosen quite arbitrarily by intuitive trial-and-error-procedures. In this paper, the Akaike Information Criterion and the Bayesian Information Criterion are investigated with regard to a justified and reproducible choice of the optimal number of control points of B-spline curves. Additionally, we develop a method which is based on the structural risk minimization of the statistical learning theory. Unlike the Akaike and the Bayesian Information Criteria this method doesn't use the number of parameters as complexity measure of the approximating functions but their Vapnik-Chervonenkis-dimension. Furthermore, it is also valid for non-linear models. Thus, the three methods differ in their target function to be minimized and consequently in their definition of optimality. The present paper will be continued by a second paper dealing with the choice of the optimal number of control points of B-spline surfaces.

  16. ['No naturally shaped human foot would end in wedged-in, pointed toes" (Knud Ahlborn)--Wandervögel, youth movement and movement for rational footwear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Nike Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    The nineteenth century "movement for rational clothing" not only aimed at reforming women's clothes (leaving behind corset-fashion), it set out to improve women's rights in general. Few people know that footwear also was modernized in the second half of the nineteenth century. After shoes had been made for 350 years on the basis of a symmetry pattern, without or with almost invisible distinction between left and right feet, scientists around the Frankfurt born professor of anatomy Georg Hermann von Meyer (1815-1892) demanded with him radical reform of footwear--for both sexes--using new lasts that were modelled on the natural shape of feet. Around the turn of the century, after physicians, shoemakers and hygienists had spent decades debating new ideas, members of the Wandervogel movement adopted the issue for their own purposes and chose anatomic over fashionable yet unhealthy fits which tended to be pointed, slim and--above all--symmetrical. Once the Wandervogel movement had split into several smaller groupings in 1904 and become part of the Jugendbewegung (youth movement), some of its members wanted clothing to also carry symbolic meaning. Naturally-shaped hygienic boots should no longer just allow for walking without damage to the feet: they should become the embodiment of a new spirit and, beyond that, of a reformed society. A new "lay practice" and "do-it-yourself"-shoemaking replaced former academic programs for new natural footwear. Interestingly enough, alongside those quite radical concepts, a kind of "footwear reform light" established itself in the market: on the surface only slightly different from the old-fashioned, symmetrical shoes, these "modern" pairs, which consisted of a right and left shoe, remained successful even after the world wars and became the new standard in the twentieth century, because the shoes made according to this pattern lasted longer, fitted better and were more comfortable.

  17. Evaluation of bispectrum in the wave number domain based on multi-point measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an estimator of the bispectrum, a measure of three-wave couplings. It is evaluated directly in the wave number domain using a limited number of detectors. The ability of the bispectrum estimator is examined numerically and then it is applied to fluctuations of magnetic field and electron density in the terrestrial foreshock region observed by the four Cluster spacecraft, which indicates the presence of a three-wave coupling in space plasma.

  18. High-resolution wave number spectrum using multi-point measurements in space – the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A new analysis method is presented that provides a high-resolution power spectrum in a broad wave number domain based on multi-point measurements. The analysis technique is referred to as the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR and it benefits from Capon's minimum variance method for obtaining the proper power spectral density of the signal as well as the MUSIC algorithm (Multiple Signal Classification for considerably reducing the noise part in the spectrum. The mathematical foundation of the analysis method is presented and it is applied to synthetic data as well as Cluster observations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Using the MSR technique for Cluster data we find a wave in the solar wind propagating parallel to the mean magnetic field with relatively small amplitude, which is not identified by the Capon spectrum. The Cluster data analysis shows the potential of the MSR technique for studying waves and turbulence using multi-point measurements.

  19. Research about the number of D-points of -tiling in given ellipse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglin WEI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An Archimedean tiling is a tiling of the plane by one type of regular polygon or several types of regular polygons, and every vertex of the tiling has the same vertex characteristics. There are 11 Archimedean tiling, and this paper studies -tiling, which is an Archimedean tiling generated by squares and regular octagons in the plane, and every vertex is associated with one square and two octagons. This paper studies the number of vertices contained in an ellipse in -tiling. Through analysing the sequence of vertices lying on half chord in the ellipse, and using the method of the geometry of number and congruence in number theory, it presents an algorithm about the value of the number of vertices contained in the ellipse, and obtains a formula of limit about the number of vertices and the square of short semi-axis of the ellipse. It is proved that the value of limit is connected with the area of the corresponding central polygon. The algorithm and the formula of limit are very useful for the study of related problems in other Archimedean tilings.

  20. Bernoulli numbers and polynomials from a more general point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM(Italy). Div. Fisica Applicata; Cesarano, C. [Ulm Univ., Ulm (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics; Lonzellutta, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche E. Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Div. Fisica Applicata

    2000-07-01

    In this work it is applied the method of generating function, to introduce new forms of Bernoulli numbers and polynomials, which are exploited to derive further classes of partial sums involving generalized many index many variable polynomials. Analogous considerations are developed for the Euler numbers and polynomials. [Italian] Si applica il metodo della funzione generatrice per introdurre nuove forme di numeri e polinomi di Bernoulli che vengono utilizzati per sviluppare e per calcolare somme parziali che coinvolgono polinomi a piu' indici ed a piu' variabili. Si sviluppano considerazioni analoghe per i polinomi ed i numeri di Eulero.

  1. The Tipping Point: F-Score as a Function of the Number of Retrieved Items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guns, Raf; Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger

    2012-01-01

    One of the best known measures of information retrieval (IR) performance is the F-score, the harmonic mean of precision and recall. In this article we show that the curve of the F-score as a function of the number of retrieved items is always of the same shape: a fast concave increase to a maximu...

  2. Analyzing logistic map pseudorandom number generators for periodicity induced by finite precision floating-point representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persohn, K.J.; Povinelli, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A chaotic pseudorandom number generator (C-PRNG) poorly explores the key space. ► A C-PRNG is finite and periodic when implemented on a finite precision computer. ► We present a method to determine the period lengths of a C-PRNG. - Abstract: Because of the mixing and aperiodic properties of chaotic maps, such maps have been used as the basis for pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs). However, when implemented on a finite precision computer, chaotic maps have finite and periodic orbits. This manuscript explores the consequences finite precision has on the periodicity of a PRNG based on the logistic map. A comparison is made with conventional methods of generating pseudorandom numbers. The approach used to determine the number, delay, and period of the orbits of the logistic map at varying degrees of precision (3 to 23 bits) is described in detail, including the use of the Condor high-throughput computing environment to parallelize independent tasks of analyzing a large initial seed space. Results demonstrate that in terms of pathological seeds and effective bit length, a PRNG based on the logistic map performs exponentially worse than conventional PRNGs.

  3. Embeddings of graphs into Euclidean space under which the number of points that belong to a hyperplane is minimal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblakov, Konstantin I; Oblakova, Tat' yana A [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-31

    The paper is devoted to the characteristic of a graph that is the minimal (over all embeddings of the graph into a space of given dimension) number of points that belong to the same hyperplane. Upper and lower estimates for this number are given that linearly depend on the dimension of the space. For trees a more precise upper estimate is obtained, which asymptotically coincides with the lower one for large dimension of the space. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  4. On the Required Number of Antennas in a Point-to-Point Large-but-Finite MIMO System: Outage-Limited Scenario

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2016-03-22

    This paper investigates the performance of the point-To-point multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems in the presence of a large but finite numbers of antennas at the transmitters and/or receivers. Considering the cases with and without hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) feedback, we determine the minimum numbers of the transmit/receive antennas, which are required to satisfy different outage probability constraints. Our results are obtained for different fading conditions and the effect of the power amplifiers efficiency/feedback error probability on the performance of the MIMO-HARQ systems is analyzed. Then, we use some recent results on the achievable rates of finite block-length codes, to analyze the effect of the codewords lengths on the system performance. Moreover, we derive closed-form expressions for the asymptotic performance of the MIMO-HARQ systems when the number of antennas increases. Our analytical and numerical results show that different outage requirements can be satisfied with relatively few transmit/receive antennas. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  5. Geometry of minimal rational curves on Fano manifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J -M [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    This lecture is an introduction to my joint project with N. Mok where we develop a geometric theory of Fano manifolds of Picard number 1 by studying the collection of tangent directions of minimal rational curves through a generic point. After a sketch of some historical background, the fundamental object of this project, the variety of minimal rational tangents, is defined and various examples are examined. Then some results on the variety of minimal rational tangents are discussed including an extension theorem for holomorphic maps preserving the geometric structure. Some applications of this theory to the stability of the tangent bundles and the rigidity of generically finite morphisms are given. (author)

  6. Baseline rationing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...... the family is associated with a standard rule and we show that if the latter obeys some properties reflecting principles of impartiality, priority and solidarity, the former obeys them too....

  7. Adolescent rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshman, David

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are commonly seen as irrational, a position supported to varying degrees by many developmentalists, who often appeal to recent research on adolescent brains. Careful review of relevant evidence, however, shows that (1) adults are less rational than is generally assumed, (2) adolescents (and adults) are categorically different from children with respect to the attainment of advanced levels of rationality and psychological functioning, and (3) adolescents and adults do not differ categorically from each other with respect to any rational competencies, irrational tendencies, brain structures, or neurological functioning. Development often continues in adolescence and beyond but categorical claims about adolescents as distinct from adults cannot be justified. A review of U.S. Supreme Court decisions concerning intellectual freedom, reproductive freedom, and criminal responsibility shows ongoing ambivalence and confusion about the rationality of adolescents. Developmental theory and research suggest that adolescents should be conceptualized as young adults, not immature brains, with important implications for their roles, rights, and responsibilities.

  8. Embodying rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Mastrogiorgio, Antonio; Petracca, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The current notions of bounded rationality in economics share distinctive features with Simon’s original notion, which still influences the theoretical and experimental research in the fields of choice, judgment, decision making, problem solving, and social cognition. All these notions of bounded rationality are in fact equally rooted in the information-processing approach to human cognition, expressing the view that reasoning is disembodied and that it can be reduced to the processing of abs...

  9. Evaluation of use of MPAD trajectory tape and number of orbit points for orbiter mission thermal predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The application of using the mission planning and analysis division (MPAD) common format trajectory data tape to predict temperatures for preflight and post flight mission analysis is presented and evaluated. All of the analyses utilized the latest Space Transportation System 1 flight (STS-1) MPAD trajectory tape, and the simplified '136 note' midsection/payload bay thermal math model. For the first 6.7 hours of the STS-1 flight profile, transient temperatures are presented for selected nodal locations with the current standard method, and the trajectory tape method. Whether the differences are considered significant or not depends upon the view point. Other transient temperature predictions are also presented. These results were obtained to investigate an initial concern that perhaps the predicted temperature differences between the two methods would not only be caused by the inaccuracies of the current method's assumed nominal attitude profile but also be affected by a lack of a sufficient number of orbit points in the current method. Comparison between 6, 12, and 24 orbit point parameters showed a surprising insensitivity to the number of orbit points.

  10. Rational BRDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacanowski, Romain; Salazar Celis, Oliver; Schlick, Christophe; Granier, Xavier; Poulin, Pierre; Cuyt, Annie

    2012-11-01

    Over the last two decades, much effort has been devoted to accurately measuring Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) of real-world materials and to use efficiently the resulting data for rendering. Because of their large size, it is difficult to use directly measured BRDFs for real-time applications, and fitting the most sophisticated analytical BRDF models is still a complex task. In this paper, we introduce Rational BRDF, a general-purpose and efficient representation for arbitrary BRDFs, based on Rational Functions (RFs). Using an adapted parametrization, we demonstrate how Rational BRDFs offer 1) a more compact and efficient representation using low-degree RFs, 2) an accurate fitting of measured materials with guaranteed control of the residual error, and 3) efficient importance sampling by applying the same fitting process to determine the inverse of the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) generated from the BRDF for use in Monte-Carlo rendering.

  11. Rational emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshulam, Meir; Winter, Eyal; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon; Aharon, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    We present here the concept of rational emotions: Emotions may be directly controlled and utilized in a conscious, analytic fashion, enabling an individual to size up a situation, to determine that a certain "mental state" is strategically advantageous and adjust accordingly. Building on the growing body of literature recognizing the vital role of emotions in determining decisions, we explore the complementary role of rational choice in choosing emotional states. Participants played the role of "recipient" in the dictator game, in which an anonymous "dictator" decides how to split an amount of money between himself and the recipient. A subset of recipients was given a monetary incentive to be angry at low-split offers. That subset demonstrated increased physiological arousal at low offers relative to high offers as well as more anger than other participants. These results provide a fresh outlook on human decision-making and contribute to the continuing effort to build more complete models of rational behavior.

  12. Column Number Density Expressions Through M = 0 and M = 1 Point Source Plumes Along Any Straight Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Analytical expressions for column number density (CND) are developed for optical line of sight paths through a variety of steady free molecule point source models including directionally-constrained effusion (Mach number M = 0) and flow from a sonic orifice (M = 1). Sonic orifice solutions are approximate, developed using a fair simulacrum fitted to the free molecule solution. Expressions are also developed for a spherically-symmetric thermal expansion (M = 0). CND solutions are found for the most general paths relative to these sources and briefly explored. It is determined that the maximum CND from a distant location through directed effusion and sonic orifice cases occurs along the path parallel to the source plane that intersects the plume axis. For the effusive case this value is exactly twice the CND found along the ray originating from that point of intersection and extending to infinity along the plume's axis. For sonic plumes this ratio is reduced to about 4/3. For high Mach number cases the maximum CND will be found along the axial centerline path. Keywords: column number density, plume flows, outgassing, free molecule flow.

  13. Investigation of relation between singular points and number of limit cycles for a rotor-AMBs system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Tian, Y.; Zhang, W.

    2009-01-01

    The relation between singular points and the number of limit cycles is investigated for a rotor-active magnetic bearings system with time-varying stiffness and single-degree-of-freedom. The averaged equation of the system is a perturbed polynomial Hamiltonian system of degree 5. The dynamic characteristics of the unperturbed system are first analyzed for a certain parameter group. The number of limit cycles and their configurations of the perturbed system under eight different parametric groups are obtained and the influence of eight control conditions on the number of limit cycles is studied. The results obtained here will play an important leading role in the study of the properties of nonlinear dynamics and control of the rotor-active magnetic bearings system with time-varying stiffness.

  14. Confucian Rationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, there is still a widely held view that the Chinese and Western modes of thought are quite distinct from each other. In particular, the Chinese mode of thought derived from Confucianism is considered as comparatively less rational than the Western one. In this article, I first argue that although the analogical mode of argumentation,…

  15. On the Transfer of a Number of Concepts of Statistical Radiophysics to the Theory of One-dimensional Point Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agalar M. Agalarov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the possibility of using a bispectrum under the investigation of regular and chaotic behaviour of one-dimensional point mappings is discussed. The effectiveness of the transfer of this concept to nonlinear dynamics was demonstrated by an example of the Feigenbaum mapping. Also in the work, the application of the Kullback-Leibler entropy in the theory of point mappings is considered. It has been shown that this information-like value is able to describe the behaviour of statistical ensembles of one-dimensional mappings. In the framework of this theory some general properties of its behaviour were found out. Constructivity of the Kullback-Leibler entropy in the theory of point mappings was shown by means of its direct calculation for the ”saw tooth” mapping with linear initial probability density. Moreover, for this mapping the denumerable set of initial probability densities hitting into its stationary probability density after a finite number of steps was pointed out. 

  16. Gender Variations in the Effects of Number of Organizational Memberships, Number of Social Networking Sites, and Grade-Point Average on Global Social Responsibility in Filipino University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo B. Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study seeks to estimate gender variations in the direct effects of (a number of organizational memberships, (b number of social networking sites (SNS, and (c grade-point average (GPA on global social responsibility (GSR; and in the indirect effects of (a and of (b through (c on GSR. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from questionnaire interviews involving 3,173 Filipino university students. Based on a path model, the three factors were tested to determine their inter-relationships and their relationships with GSR. The direct and total effects of the exogenous factors on the dependent variable are statistically significantly robust. The indirect effects of organizational memberships on GSR through GPA are also statistically significant, but the indirect effects of SNS on GSR through GPA are marginal. Men and women significantly differ only in terms of the total effects of their organizational memberships on GSR. The lack of broad gender variations in the effects of SNS, organizational memberships and GPA on GSR may be linked to the relatively homogenous characteristics and experiences of the university students interviewed. There is a need for more path models to better understand the predictors of GSR in local students.

  17. Gender Variations in the Effects of Number of Organizational Memberships, Number of Social Networking Sites, and Grade-Point Average on Global Social Responsibility in Filipino University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B.; Baring, Rito V.; Sta. Maria, Madelene A.

    2016-01-01

    The study seeks to estimate gender variations in the direct effects of (a) number of organizational memberships, (b) number of social networking sites (SNS), and (c) grade-point average (GPA) on global social responsibility (GSR); and in the indirect effects of (a) and of (b) through (c) on GSR. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from questionnaire interviews involving 3,173 Filipino university students. Based on a path model, the three factors were tested to determine their inter-relationships and their relationships with GSR. The direct and total effects of the exogenous factors on the dependent variable are statistically significantly robust. The indirect effects of organizational memberships on GSR through GPA are also statistically significant, but the indirect effects of SNS on GSR through GPA are marginal. Men and women significantly differ only in terms of the total effects of their organizational memberships on GSR. The lack of broad gender variations in the effects of SNS, organizational memberships and GPA on GSR may be linked to the relatively homogenous characteristics and experiences of the university students interviewed. There is a need for more path models to better understand the predictors of GSR in local students. PMID:27247700

  18. Gender Variations in the Effects of Number of Organizational Memberships, Number of Social Networking Sites, and Grade-Point Average on Global Social Responsibility in Filipino University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B; Baring, Rito V; Sta Maria, Madelene A

    2016-02-01

    The study seeks to estimate gender variations in the direct effects of (a) number of organizational memberships, (b) number of social networking sites (SNS), and (c) grade-point average (GPA) on global social responsibility (GSR); and in the indirect effects of (a) and of (b) through (c) on GSR. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from questionnaire interviews involving 3,173 Filipino university students. Based on a path model, the three factors were tested to determine their inter-relationships and their relationships with GSR. The direct and total effects of the exogenous factors on the dependent variable are statistically significantly robust. The indirect effects of organizational memberships on GSR through GPA are also statistically significant, but the indirect effects of SNS on GSR through GPA are marginal. Men and women significantly differ only in terms of the total effects of their organizational memberships on GSR. The lack of broad gender variations in the effects of SNS, organizational memberships and GPA on GSR may be linked to the relatively homogenous characteristics and experiences of the university students interviewed. There is a need for more path models to better understand the predictors of GSR in local students.

  19. Impact of mesh points number on the accuracy of deterministic calculations of control rods worth for Tehran research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boustani, Ehsan; Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran; Khakshournia, Samad

    2016-01-01

    In this paper two different computational approaches, a deterministic and a stochastic one, were used for calculation of the control rods worth of the Tehran research reactor. For the deterministic approach the MTRPC package composed of the WIMS code and diffusion code CITVAP was used, while for the stochastic one the Monte Carlo code MCNPX was applied. On comparing our results obtained by the Monte Carlo approach and those previously reported in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) of Tehran research reactor produced by the deterministic approach large discrepancies were seen. To uncover the root cause of these discrepancies, some efforts were made and finally was discerned that the number of spatial mesh points in the deterministic approach was the critical cause of these discrepancies. Therefore, the mesh optimization was performed for different regions of the core such that the results of deterministic approach based on the optimized mesh points have a good agreement with those obtained by the Monte Carlo approach.

  20. Impact of mesh points number on the accuracy of deterministic calculations of control rods worth for Tehran research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boustani, Ehsan [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Energy Engineering and Physics Dept.; Khakshournia, Samad [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Energy Engineering and Physics Dept.

    2016-12-15

    In this paper two different computational approaches, a deterministic and a stochastic one, were used for calculation of the control rods worth of the Tehran research reactor. For the deterministic approach the MTRPC package composed of the WIMS code and diffusion code CITVAP was used, while for the stochastic one the Monte Carlo code MCNPX was applied. On comparing our results obtained by the Monte Carlo approach and those previously reported in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) of Tehran research reactor produced by the deterministic approach large discrepancies were seen. To uncover the root cause of these discrepancies, some efforts were made and finally was discerned that the number of spatial mesh points in the deterministic approach was the critical cause of these discrepancies. Therefore, the mesh optimization was performed for different regions of the core such that the results of deterministic approach based on the optimized mesh points have a good agreement with those obtained by the Monte Carlo approach.

  1. Measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point distribution in petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kuangnan; Edwards, Kathleen E; Dechert, Gary J; Jaffe, Stephen B; Green, Larry A; Olmstead, William N

    2008-02-01

    We report a new method for rapid measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point (BP) distribution for petroleum crude and products. The technology is based on negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for selective ionization of petroleum acid and quantification of acid structures and molecular weight distributions. A chip-based nanoelectrospray system enables microscale (boiling point distributions of TAN values can be calculated from the composition. The rapid measurement of TAN BP distributions by ESI is demonstrated for a series of high-TAN crudes and distillation cuts. TAN values determined by the technique agree well with those by the titration method. The distributed properties compare favorably with those measured by distillation and measurement of TAN of corresponding cuts.

  2. Multivariate rational data fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte

    1992-12-01

    Sections 1 and 2 discuss the advantages of an object-oriented implementation combined with higher floating-point arithmetic, of the algorithms available for multivariate data fitting using rational functions. Section 1 will in particular explain what we mean by "higher arithmetic". Section 2 will concentrate on the concepts of "object orientation". In sections 3 and 4 we shall describe the generality of the data structure that can be dealt with: due to some new results virtually every data set is acceptable right now, with possible coalescence of coordinates or points. In order to solve the multivariate rational interpolation problem the data sets are fed to different algorithms depending on the structure of the interpolation points in then-variate space.

  3. Effects of lactation number, milk yield and milk composition on freezing point of milk of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Otwinowska-Mindur; Ewa PTAK

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the influence of lactation number, daily milk yield, somatic cell count and milk composition on the freezing point of milk of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. The data comprised 3,067,343 test day milk samples collected in 2014 from 865,198 first seven lactations of 714,018 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, made available by the Polish Federation of Cattle Breeders and Dairy Farmers. The cows calved in 20,043 herds in 2013 and 2014. Four lactation classes w...

  4. Visualization of 2-D and 3-D fields from its value in a finite number of points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dari, E.A.; Venere, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    This work describes a method for the visualization of two- and three-dimensional fields, given its value in a finite number of points. These data can be originated in experimental measurements, numerical results, or any other source. For the field interpolation, the space is divided into simplices (triangles or tetrahedrons), using the Watson algorithm to obtain the Delaunay triangulation. Inside each simplex, linear interpolation is assumed. The visualization is accomplished by means of Finite Elements post-processors, capable of handling unstructured meshes, which were also developed by the authors. (Author) [es

  5. Evaluation of magnetic helicity density in the wave number domain using multi-point measurements in space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We develop an estimator for the magnetic helicity density, a measure of the spiral geometry of magnetic field lines, in the wave number domain as a wave diagnostic tool based on multi-point measurements in space. The estimator is numerically tested with a synthetic data set and then applied to an observation of magnetic field fluctuations in the Earth foreshock region provided by the four-point measurements of the Cluster spacecraft. The energy and the magnetic helicity density are determined in the frequency and the wave number domain, which allows us to identify the wave properties in the plasma rest frame correcting for the Doppler shift. In the analyzed time interval, dominant wave components have parallel propagation to the mean magnetic field, away from the shock at about Alfvén speed and a left-hand spatial rotation sense of helicity with respect to the propagation direction, which means a right-hand temporal rotation sense of polarization. These wave properties are well explained by the right-hand resonant beam instability as the driving mechanism in the foreshock. Cluster observations allow therefore detailed comparisons with various theories of waves and instabilities.

  6. Rational valuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Spielthenner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuations are ubiquitous. We may be for or against genetically modified food; we find some politicians irresponsible; we prefer Beethoven to rock ‘n’ roll or vice versa; some enjoy bird-watching while others find it boring; and we may think that we have to tighten up on green-house gas emissions. Valuing is pervasive and often we are not even aware that we are valuing. However, many of ourvaluations are ill grounded and rationally defective. They are frequently based on misinformation, sloppy thinking, prejudice, and are biased in many ways as psychological research shows. For this reason there is widespread agreement among phi-losophers that we need an account of substantive valuational rationality, both for the theory of practical reasoning and for ethics as well. My main objectin this paper is to outline such an account and to present a principle that allows a non-technical rational criticism of valuations

  7. SREM - WRS system module number 3348 for calculating the removal flux due to point, line or disc sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimstone, M.J.

    1978-06-01

    The WRS Modular Programming System has been developed as a means by which programmes may be more efficiently constructed, maintained and modified. In this system a module is a self-contained unit typically composed of one or more Fortran routines, and a programme is constructed from a number of such modules. This report describes one WRS module, the function of which is to calculate the uncollided flux and first-collision source from a disc source in a slab geometry system, a line source at the centre of a cylindrical system or a point source at the centre of a spherical system. The information given in this manual is of use both to the programmer wishing to incorporate the module in a programme, and to the user of such a programme. (author)

  8. Rational decisions

    CERN Document Server

    Binmore, Ken

    2008-01-01

    It is widely held that Bayesian decision theory is the final word on how a rational person should make decisions. However, Leonard Savage--the inventor of Bayesian decision theory--argued that it would be ridiculous to use his theory outside the kind of small world in which it is always possible to ""look before you leap."" If taken seriously, this view makes Bayesian decision theory inappropriate for the large worlds of scientific discovery and macroeconomic enterprise. When is it correct to use Bayesian decision theory--and when does it need to be modified? Using a minimum of mathematics,

  9. Column Number Density Expressions Through M = 0 and M = 1 Point Source Plumes Along Any Straight Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Providers of payloads carried aboard the International Space Station must conduct analyses to demonstrate that any planned gaseous venting events generate no more than a certain level of material that may interfere with optical measurements from other experiments or payloads located nearby. This requirement is expressed in terms of a maximum column number density (CND). Depending on the level of rarefaction, such venting may be characterized by effusion for low flow rates, or by a sonic distribution at higher levels. Since the relative locations of other sensitive payloads are often unknown because they may refer to future projects, this requirement becomes a search for the maximum CND along any path.In another application, certain astronomical observations make use of CND to estimate light attenuation from a distant star through gaseous plumes, such as the Fermi Bubbles emanating from the vicinity of the black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy, in order to infer the amount of material being expelled via those plumes.This paper presents analytical CND expressions developed for general straight paths based upon a free molecule point source model for steady effusive flow and for a distribution fitted to model flows from a sonic orifice. Among other things, in this Mach number range it is demonstrated that the maximum CND from a distant location occurs along the path parallel to the source plane that intersects the plume axis. For effusive flows this value is exactly twice the CND found along the ray originating from that point of intersection and extending to infinity along the plumes axis. For sonic plumes this ratio is reduced to about 43.

  10. Rationalization: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Rationalization was studied by Sigmund Freud and was specifically labeled by Ernest Jones. Rationalization ought to be differentiated from rational, rationality, logical analysis, etc. On the one hand, rationalization is considered a defense mechanism, on the other hand, rationality is not. Haan has done much work with self-report inventories and…

  11. Effect of the number of two-wheeled containers at a gathering point on the energetic workload and work efficiency in refuse collecting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; van der Beek, Allard J.; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Visser, Bart; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the number of two-wheeled containers at a gathering point on the energetic workload and the work efficiency in refuse collecting was studied in order to design an optimal gathering point for two-wheeled containers. Three sizes of gathering points were investigated, i.e. with 2, 16 and

  12. Rational inattention or rational overreaction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Smed, Sinne

    We investigate differences in how consumers of fish react to health information in the mass media. We specify a dynamic empirical model that allows for heterogeneity in all basic parameters of consumer behavior as well as in how consumers react to information. We estimate the model using a unique...... houshold panel tracking consumption, prices, news stories and media habits over 24 quarters. We fi nd that the consumers most likely to be ’rationally ignorant’ of health effects react more dramatically to health news than the consumers who most likely are well informed....

  13. Rationality of limited rationality : some aggregate implications

    OpenAIRE

    Uri M. Possen; Mikko Puhakka

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we let economic agents choose whether to become fully rational or stay boundedly rational. Boundedly rational agents are less sophisticated in their information processing abilities. It is costly to acquire information needed to become fully rational, and thus not all agents are willing to incur those costs. We then explore the aggregate effects of endogenizing the decision whether the agent should or should not become fully rational in handling information. Since fully and boun...

  14. Popper, Rationality and the Possibility of Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Social science employs teleological explanations which depend upon the rationality principle, according to which people exhibit instrumental rationality. Popper points out that people also exhibit critical rationality, the tendency to stand back from, and to question or criticise, their views. I explain how our critical rationality impugns the explanatory value of the rationality principle and thereby threatens the very possibility of social science. I discuss the relationship between instrumental and critical rationality and show how we can reconcile our critical rationality with the possibility of social science if we invoke Popper’s conception of limited rationality and his indeterminism.

  15. Privacy-Enhancing Auctions Using Rational Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Triandopoulos, Nikolaos

    2009-01-01

    show how to use rational cryptography to approximately implement any given ex interim individually strictly rational equilibrium of such an auction without a trusted mediator through a cryptographic protocol that uses only point-to-point authenticated channels between the players. By “ex interim...

  16. Method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and pre-determined increase in cetane number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Francis Joseph; Quinn, Robert

    2004-07-06

    The present invention relates to a method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and a pre-determined increase in cetane number over the stock diesel fuel. Upon establishing the desired flash-point and increase in cetane number, an amount of a first oxygenate with a flash-point less than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number equal to or greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number. Thereafter, an amount of a second oxygenate with a flash-point equal to or greater than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number.

  17. Researches on Nutritional Behaviour in Romanian Black and White Primiparous Cows. Interruptions Number and their Duration in the Ration Consumption Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 9 Romanian Black and White primiparous cows. The aim of this study was todetermine some aspect of nutritional behaviour of the cows. During the experiments, the following behaviour aspectswere determined: interruption number and their duration in the feed consumption time. Results showed that theadministration order of forages had an influence on the interruptions number, which was 0.74 less for hay in fibroussucculentorder (O1. For silage, the interruption number was 0.42 higher in fibrous-succulent order (O1. Betweenportion 1 (P1 and portion 3 (P3, the significant difference (p<0.05 was for interruptions duration, duringconsumption silage, in favour portion P1. Distinct significant differences (p<0.01 was observed for the interruptionnumber during consumption silage (0.95 sec. higher in P1 than in P3, for interruption duration (5.96 sec. higher inP1 than in P3. Between P2 and P3, significant difference (p<0.05 was observed for interruptions number duringconsumption silage and for average interruptions duration during consumption beet in favour to portion P2.Regarding the number of feedings per portion, always the differences were higher in the second feeding F1 than inthe first feeding F2.

  18. Rational kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Angeles, Jorge

    1988-01-01

    A rational study of kinematics is a treatment of the subject based on invariants, i.e., quantities that remain essentially unchanged under a change of observer. An observer is understood to be a reference frame supplied with a clock (Truesdell 1966). This study will therefore include an introduction to invariants. The language of these is tensor analysis and multilinear algebra, both of which share many isomorphic relations, These subjects are treated in full detail in Ericksen (1960) and Bowen and Wang (1976), and hence will not be included here. Only a short account of notation and definitions will be presented. Moreover, definitions and basic concepts pertaining to the kinematics of rigid bodies will be also included. Although the kinematics of rigid bodies can be regarded as a particular case of the kinematics of continua, the former deserves attention on its own merits for several reasons. One of these is that it describes locally the motions undergone by continua. Another reason is that a whole area of ...

  19. Rational Belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    and Feyerabend (1970) have pointed out, such generalizations are, particularly early on, maintained in the face of falsifying evidence. That is, they... Feyerabend , P. (1970) Against method. In Studies in the philosonhy of science, ed. Radner & Winokur, 17-130. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press. Finetti

  20. The Number of Point Mutations in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer Embryonic Stem Cells Depends on the Method and Somatic Cell Type Used for Their Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Ryoko; Mizutani, Eiji; Hoki, Yuko; Sunayama, Misato; Wakayama, Sayaka; Nagatomo, Hiroaki; Kasama, Yasuji; Nakamura, Miki; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Abe, Masumi

    2017-05-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine but point mutations have been identified in these cells and have raised serious concerns about their safe use. We generated nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells (ntESCs) from both mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and tail-tip fibroblasts (TTFs) and by whole genome sequencing found fewer mutations compared with iPSCs generated by retroviral gene transduction. Furthermore, TTF-derived ntESCs showed only a very small number of point mutations, approximately 80% less than the number observed in iPSCs generated using retrovirus. Base substitution profile analysis confirmed this greatly reduced number of point mutations. The point mutations in iPSCs are therefore not a Yamanaka factor-specific phenomenon but are intrinsic to genome reprogramming. Moreover, the dramatic reduction in point mutations in ntESCs suggests that most are not essential for genome reprogramming. Our results suggest that it is feasible to reduce the point mutation frequency in iPSCs by optimizing various genome reprogramming conditions. We conducted whole genome sequencing of ntES cells derived from MEFs or TTFs. We thereby succeeded in establishing TTF-derived ntES cell lines with far fewer point mutations. Base substitution profile analysis of these clones also indicated a reduced point mutation frequency, moving from a transversion-predominance to a transition-predominance. Stem Cells 2017;35:1189-1196. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  1. Probability and rational choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Botting

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2014v18n1p1 In this paper I will discuss the rationality of reasoning about the future. There are two things that we might like to know about the future: which hypotheses are true and what will happen next. To put it in philosophical language, I aim to show that there are methods by which inferring to a generalization (selecting a hypothesis and inferring to the next instance (singular predictive inference can be shown to be normative and the method itself shown to be rational, where this is due in part to being based on evidence (although not in the same way and in part on a prior rational choice. I will also argue that these two inferences have been confused, being distinct not only conceptually (as nobody disputes but also in their results (the value given to the probability of the hypothesis being not in general that given to the next instance and that methods that are adequate for one are not by themselves adequate for the other. A number of debates over method founder on this confusion and do not show what the debaters think they show.

  2. Rationality in Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Dijkstra, Jacob; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary theories of rational behavior in human society augment the orthodox model of rationality both by adding various forms of bounded rationality and relaxing the assumptions of self-interest and materialistic preferences. This entry discusses how these extensions of the theory of rational

  3. On the irrationality of Ramanujan's mock theta functions and other q-series at an infinite number of points

    OpenAIRE

    Mingarelli, Angelo B.

    2007-01-01

    We show that all of Ramanujan's mock theta functions of order 3, Watson's three additional mock theta functions of order 3, the Rogers-Ramanujan q-series, and 6 mock theta functions of order 5 take on irrational values at the points q=\\pm 1/2,\\pm 1/3,\\pm 1/4,...

  4. Some genus 3 curves with many points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auer, R; Top, J; Fieker, C; Kohel, DR

    2002-01-01

    We explain a naive approach towards the problem of finding genus 3 curves C over any given finite field F-q of odd characteristic, with a number of rational points close to the Hasse-Weil-Serre upper bound q+1+3[2rootq]. The method turns out to be successful at least in characteristic 3.

  5. Rationality in Machiavelli and in Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Chaly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains interpretation and comparative analysis of Machiavelli’s and Kant’s conceptions on rationality as two prime examples of “realist” and “idealist” modes of agency. Kantian model of rationality is viewed as an augmentation of the Machiavellian one, not an opposition to it. To elaborate the point, Robert Aumann’s model of act-rationality and rulerationality is applied to the two philosophical models. Kantian practical reason is interpreted as an addition to Aumann’s instrumental rationality, providing rules for rules, or “rule-rule-rationality”.

  6. Public policy, rationality and reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Canto Sáenz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work suggests the incorporation of practical reason in the design, implementation and evaluation of public policies, alongside instrumental rationality. It takes two proposals that today point in this direction: Rawls distinction between reasonable (practical reason and rational (instrumental reason and what this author calls the CI Procedure (categorical imperative procedure and Habermas model of deliberative democracy. The main conclusion is that the analysis of public policies can not be limited to rather narrow limits of science, but requires the contribution of political and moral philosophy.

  7. On rationally supported surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Juttler, B.; Sir, Z.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the class of surfaces which are equipped with rational support functions. Any rational support function can be decomposed into a symmetric (even) and an antisymmetric (odd) part. We analyze certain geometric properties of surfaces with odd and even rational support functions....... In particular it is shown that odd rational support functions correspond to those rational surfaces which can be equipped with a linear field of normal vectors, which were discussed by Sampoli et al. (Sampoli, M.L., Peternell, M., Juttler, B., 2006. Rational surfaces with linear normals and their convolutions...... with rational surfaces. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 23, 179-192). As shown recently, this class of surfaces includes non-developable quadratic triangular Bezier surface patches (Lavicka, M., Bastl, B., 2007. Rational hypersurfaces with rational convolutions. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 24, 410426; Peternell, M...

  8. Train Practical Nurses to Become Registered Nurses: A Survey of the PN Point of View. Research Report Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpatrick, Eleanor

    To secure information about the characteristics of the practical nurse population and their opinions about registered nurse preparation, questionnaires were distributed to 2,923 practical nurses employed by the New York City Municipal Hospitals. Usable questionnaires numbered 2,361 or 81 percent of the employed PN population. Approximately 9…

  9. A Rational Approach to Rational Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Describes suicide as reaction to internal and external sources of stress and the impact of life events. Notes that, in the elderly, these situations are prevalent in many who are not suicidal. Contends that much more is written about rational suicide than its alternative (rational nonsuicide). Reviews reasons for this and suggests rational…

  10. Rationing medical education.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different ... Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. ... state-of-the-art resources, technology and tutors con-.

  11. Love and rationality: on some possible rational effects of love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ortiz-Millán

    Full Text Available In this paper I defend the idea that rather than disrupting rationality, as the common-sense conception has done it, love may actually help us to develop rational ways of thinking and acting. I make the case for romantic or erotic love, since this is the kind of love that is more frequently associated with irrationality in acting and thinking. I argue that this kind of love may make us develop epistemic and practical forms of rationality. Based on an analysis of its characteristic action tendencies, I argue that love may help us to develop an instrumental form of rationality in determining the best means to achieve the object of love. It may also narrow down the number of practical considerations that may help us to achieve our goals. Finally, love may generate rational ways of belief-formation by framing the parameters taken into account in perception and attention, and by bringing into light only a small portion of the epistemic information available. Love may make us perceive reality more acutely.

  12. Rationing with baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....

  13. CONTRIBUTIONS TO RATIONAL APPROXIMATION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the key results of linear Chebyshev approximation theory are extended to generalized rational functions. Prominent among these is Haar’s...linear theorem which yields necessary and sufficient conditions for uniqueness. Some new results in the classic field of rational function Chebyshev...Furthermore a Weierstrass type theorem is proven for rational Chebyshev approximation. A characterization theorem for rational trigonometric Chebyshev approximation in terms of sign alternation is developed. (Author)

  14. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU Number 423 is comprised of only one Corrective Action Site (CAS) which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (240 feet) northwest. The UDP was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to dispose of waste fluids from the Building 03-60 automotive maintenance shop. It is likely that soils surrounding the UDP have been impacted by oil, grease, cleaning supplies and solvents as well as waste motor oil and other automotive fluids released from the UDP

  15. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU Number 423 is comprised of only one Corrective Action Site (CAS) which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (240 feet) northwest. The UDP was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to dispose of waste fluids from the Building 03-60 automotive maintenance shop. It is likely that soils surrounding the UDP have been impacted by oil, grease, cleaning supplies and solvents as well as waste motor oil and other automotive fluids released from the UDP.

  16. Bounded Rationality and Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mukdad

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the theory of bounded rationality which had been introduced by Herbert Simon in the 1950s. Simon introduced the notion of bounded rationality stating that while decision-makers strive for rationality, they are limited by the effect of the environment, their information process capacity and by the constraints on their information storage and retrieval capabilities. Moreover, this article tries to specifically blend this notion into budgeting, using the foundations of inc...

  17. Rational Multiparty Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Wallrabenstein, John Ross

    2014-01-01

    The field of rational cryptography considers the design of cryptographic protocols in the presence of rational agents seeking to maximize local utility functions. This departs from the standard secure multiparty computation setting, where players are assumed to be either honest or malicious. ^ We detail the construction of both a two-party and a multiparty game theoretic framework for constructing rational cryptographic protocols. Our framework specifies the utility function assumptions neces...

  18. Calculation of Complexity Costs – An Approach for Rationalizing a Product Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an operational method for rationalizing a product program based on the calculation of complexity costs. The method takes its starting point in the calculation of complexity costs on a product program level. This is done throughout the value chain ranging from component invento...... of a product program. These findings represent an improved decision basis for the planning of reactive and proactive initiatives of rationalizing a product program.......This paper proposes an operational method for rationalizing a product program based on the calculation of complexity costs. The method takes its starting point in the calculation of complexity costs on a product program level. This is done throughout the value chain ranging from component...... inventories at the factory sites, all the way to the distribution of finished goods from distribution centers to the customers. The method proposes a step-wise approach including the analysis, quantification and allocation of product program complexity costs by the means of identifying of a number...

  19. Determinants of Actor Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer-supplier...... relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse...

  20. Analytic aspects of rational conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiritsis, E.B.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1990-01-01

    The problem of deriving linear differential equations for correlation functions of Rational Conformal Field Theories is considered. Techniques from the theory of fuchsian differential equations are used to show that knowledge of the central charge, dimensions of primary fields and fusion rules are enough to fix the differential equations for one- and two-point functions on the tours. Any other correlation function can be calculated along similar lines. The results settle the issue of 'exact solution' of rational conformal field theories. (orig.)

  1. Rational approximations for tomographic reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Matthew; Beylkin, Gregory; Monzón, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    We use optimal rational approximations of projection data collected in x-ray tomography to improve image resolution. Under the assumption that the object of interest is described by functions with jump discontinuities, for each projection we construct its rational approximation with a small (near optimal) number of terms for a given accuracy threshold. This allows us to augment the measured data, i.e., double the number of available samples in each projection or, equivalently, extend (double) the domain of their Fourier transform. We also develop a new, fast, polar coordinate Fourier domain algorithm which uses our nonlinear approximation of projection data in a natural way. Using augmented projections of the Shepp–Logan phantom, we provide a comparison between the new algorithm and the standard filtered back-projection algorithm. We demonstrate that the reconstructed image has improved resolution without additional artifacts near sharp transitions in the image. (paper)

  2. Does strand configuration and number of purchase points affect the biomechanical behavior of a tendon repair? A biomechanical evaluation using different kessler methods of flexor tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogramaci, Yunus; Kalaci, Aydiner; Sevinç, Teoman Toni; Esen, Erdinc; Komurcu, Mahmut; Yanat, Ahmet Nedim

    2008-09-01

    This study compares the mechanical properties of modified Kessler and double-modified Kessler flexor tendon repair techniques and evaluates simple modifications on both methods. Forty fresh sheep flexor tendons were divided equally into four groups. A transverse sharp cut was done in the middle of each tendon and then repaired with modified Kessler technique, modified Kessler with additional purchase point in the midpoint of each longitudinal strand, double-modified Kessler technique, or a combination of outer Kessler and inner cruciate configuration based on double-modified Kessler technique. The tendons were tested in a tensile testing machine to assess the mechanical performance of the repairs. Outcome measures included gap formation and ultimate forces. The gap strengths of the double-modified Kessler technique (30.85 N, SD 1.90) and double-modified Kessler technique with inner cruciate configuration (33.60 N, SD 4.64) were statistically significantly greater than that of the two-strand modified Kessler (22.56 N, SD 3.44) and modified Kessler with additional purchase configuration (21.75 N, SD 4.03; Tukey honestly significant difference test, P purchase point in modified Kessler repair or changing the inner strand configuration in double-modified Kessler repair. The results of this study show that the number of strands across the repair site together with the number of locking loops clearly affects the strength of the repair; meanwhile, the longitudinal strand orientation and number of purchase points in a single loop did not affect its strength.

  3. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)

  4. Two Concepts of Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dominant tradition in Western philosophy sees rationality as dictating. Thus rationality may require that we believe the best explanation and simple conceptual truths and that we infer in accordance with evident rules of inference. I argue that, given what we know about the growth of knowledge, this authoritarian concept of rationality leads to absurdities and should be abandoned. I then outline a libertarian concept of rationality, derived from Popper, which eschews the dictates and which sees a rational agent as one who questions, criticises, conjectures and experiments. I argue that, while the libertarian approach escapes the absurdities of the authoritarian, it requires two significant developments and an important clarification to be made fully consistent with itself.

  5. Exploring rationality in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Meth...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality.......Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...

  6. Irrational Rationality of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nalbandov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with the ontological problem of applying the rational choice frameworks to the study of terrorism. It testing the application of the rational choice to the “old” (before the end of the Cold War and the “new” (after the end of the Cold War terrorisms. It starts with analyzing the fundamentals of rationality and applies it at two levels: the individual (actors and group (collective via two outlooks: tactical (short-term and strategic (long-term. The main argument of the article is that while the “old” terrorism can be explained by the rational choice theory its “new” version represents a substantial departure from rationality.

  7. Respect for rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca L

    2009-12-01

    The standard notion of autonomy in medical ethics does not require that autonomous choices not be irrational. The paper gives three examples of seemingly irrational patient choices and discusses how a rational autonomy analysis differs from the standard view. It then considers whether a switch to the rational autonomy view would lead to overriding more patient decisions but concludes that this should not be the case. Rather, a determination of whether individual patient decisions are autonomous is much less relevant than usually considered in determining whether health care providers must abide by these decisions. Furthermore, respect for rational autonomy entails strong positive requirements of respect for the autonomy of the person as a rational decision maker. The rationality view of autonomy is conceptually stronger than the standard view, allows for a more nuanced understanding of the practical moral calculus involved in respecting patient autonomy, and promotes positive respect for patient autonomy.

  8. Normative and descriptive rationality: from nature to artifice and back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besold, T. R.; Uckelman, S. L.

    2018-03-01

    Rationality plays a key role in both the study of human reasoning and Artificial Intelligence (AI). Certain notions of rationality have been adopted in AI as guides for the development of intelligent machines and these notions have been given a normative function. The notions of rationality in AI are often taken to be closely related to conceptions of rationality in human contexts. In this paper, we argue that the normative role of rationality differs in the human and artificial contexts. While rationality in human-focused fields of study is normative, prescribing how humans ought to reason, the normative conception in AI is built on a notion of human rationality which is descriptive, not normative, in the human context, as AI aims at building agents which reason as humans do. In order to make this point, we review prominent notions of rationality used in psychology, cognitive science, and (the history of) philosophy, as well as in AI, and discuss some factors that contributed to rationality being assigned the differing normative statuses in the differing fields of study. We argue that while 'rationality' is a normative notion in both AI and in human reasoning, the normativity of the AI conception of 'rationality' is grounded in a descriptive account of human rationality.

  9. Rational use of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racoveanu, N.T.; Volodin, V.

    1992-01-01

    The escalating number of radiodiagnostic investigations has, as a consequence, an increase in medical irradiation of patients and of cost of radiological services. Radiologists in USA and UK have since early 1970 questioned the efficacy of various radiological investigations and produced substantial evidence that more rational approaches are necessary. WHO initiated, in 1977, a programme in this direction which has issued four technical reports which give practical recommendations on how to rationalize the use of radiological examinations. Three main directions are considered: (1) Abandonment of routine radiological examinations, as procedures with no clinical or epidemiologic significance and which represent a waste of resources and patient dose. (2) Patient selection for various radiological investigations based on clinical criteria (high, intermediate, low yield). Selected patients have an increased prevalence of the given disease and the predictive value of radiological investigation is much higher. (3) Use of diagnostic algorithms with higher cost/efficiency and risk/benefit ratios, improving the outcome of radiological examinations

  10. Quantify Your Self! Numbers in Ambiguous Borderlands of Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka; Grøn, Lone

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the widespread use of numbers in health education programs and provides a reflection on the interplay of the medical and moral significance of numbers. Furthermore, the paper points out how patient schools are captured in a borderland space where moral and medical rationalities...... merge, clash, and collide. Empirical examples from an ethnographic study of six patient schools illustrate different practices where educators and participants reflect and act upon numbers in different ways....

  11. [Expert consensus on prescription comment of Chinese traditional patent medicine for promoting the rational use of drugs in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui; Zhao, Kui-Jun; Guo, Gui-Ming; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Yu-Guang; Xue, Chun-Miao; Yang, Yi-Heng; Wang, Li-Xia; Li, Guo-Hui; Tang, Jin-Fa; Nie, Li-Xing; Zhang, Xiang-Lin; Zhao, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Yi; Yan, Can; Yuan, Suo-Zhong; Sun, Lu-Lu; Feng, Xing-Zhong; Yan, Dan

    2018-03-01

    With the growth of number of Chinese patent medicines and clinical use, the rational use of Chinese medicine is becoming more and more serious. Due to the complexity of Chinese medicine theory and the uncertainty of clinical application, the prescription review of Chinese patent medicine always relied on experience in their respective, leading to the uncontrolled of clinical rational use. According to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and characteristics of the unique clinical therapeutics, based on the practice experience and expertise comments, our paper formed the expert consensus on the prescription review of Chinese traditional patent medicine for promoting the rational use of drugs in Beijing. The objective, methods and key points of prescription review of Chinese patent medicine, were included in this expert consensus, in order to regulate the behavior of prescription and promote rational drug use. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. History of Economic Rationalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book concentrates upon how economic rationalities have been embedded into particular historical practices, cultures, and moral systems. Through multiple case-studies, situated in different historical contexts of the modern West, the book shows that the development of economic rationalities...... takes place in the meeting with other regimes of thought, values, and moral discourses. The book offers new and refreshing insights, ranging from the development of early economic thinking to economic aspects and concepts in the works of classical thinkers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Karl Marx......, to the role of economic reasoning in contemporary policies of art and health care. With economic rationalities as the read thread, the reader is offered a unique chance of historical self-awareness and recollection of how economic rationality became the powerful ideological and moral force that it is today....

  13. Rationing medical education.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different ... Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at .... Walsh K. Online educational tools to improve the.

  14. Crab Rationalization Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crab Rationalization Program (Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities. The North Pacific Fishery Management...

  15. THE HICKSIAN RATIONAL CONSUMER

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel FERNÁNDEZ-GRELA

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to trace the evolution of the concept of ''rational consumer'' in Hicks's writings. After being one of the pioneers in the introduction of rationality assumptions about consumer behaviour in economic models, Hicks gradually developed a sceptical view about some of the uses to which those assumptions were put into. The focus of the paper is on continuity in Hicksian views, providing a picture of gradual changes in the long series of Hicks's works

  16. Proposed standby gasoline rationing plan: public comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    Under the proposed plan, DOE would allocate ration rights (rights to purchase gasoline) to owners of registered vehicles. All vehicles in a given class would receive the same entitlement. Essential services would receive supplemental allotments of ration rights as pririty firms. Once every 3 months, ration checks would be mailed out to all vehicle registrants, allotting them a certain amount of ration rights. These checks would then be cashed at Coupon Issuance Points, where the bearer would receive ration coupons to be used at gasoline stations. Large users of gasoline could deposit their allotment checks in accounts at ration banks. Coupons or checks would be freely exchangeable in a white market. A certain percentage of the gasoline supply would be set aside in reserve for use in national emergencies. When the plan was published in the Federal Register, public comments were requested. DOE also solicited comments from private citizens, public interest groups, business and industry, state and local governments. A total of 1126 responses were reveived and these are analyzed in this paper. The second part of the report describes how the comments were classified, and gives a statistical breakdown of the major responses. The last section is a discussion and analysis of theissue raised by commenting agencies, firms, associations, and individuals. (MCW)

  17. Predicting Performance on the National Athletic Trainers' Association Board of Certification Examination From Grade Point Average and Number of Clinical Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemas, David A.; Manning, James M.; Gazzillo, Linda M.; Young, John

    2001-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether grade point average, hours of clinical education, or both are significant predictors of performance on the National Athletic Trainers' Association Board of Certification examination and whether curriculum and internship candidates' scores on the certification examination can be differentially predicted. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data collection forms and consent forms were mailed to the subjects to collect data for predictor variables. Subject scores on the certification examination were obtained from Columbia Assessment Services. SUBJECTS: A total of 270 first-time candidates for the April and June 1998 certification examinations. MEASUREMENTS: Grade point average, number of clinical hours completed, sex, route to certification eligibility (curriculum or internship), scores on each section of the certification examination, and pass/fail criteria for each section. RESULTS: We found no significant difference between the scores of men and women on any section of the examination. Scores for curriculum and internship candidates differed significantly on the written and practical sections of the examination but not on the simulation section. Grade point average was a significant predictor of scores on each section of the examination and the examination as a whole. Clinical hours completed did not add a significant increment for any section but did add a significant increment for the examination overall. Although no significant difference was noted between curriculum and internship candidates in predicting scores on sections of the examination, a significant difference by route was found in predicting whether candidates would pass the examination as a whole (P =.047). Proportion of variance accounted for was less than R(2) = 0.0723 for any section of the examination and R(2) = 0.057 for the examination as a whole. CONCLUSIONS: Potential predictors of performance on the certification examination can be useful to athletic training educators in

  18. Rationality, religion and refusal of treatment in an ambulance revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon-Parkes, Kate

    2013-09-01

    In their recent article, Erbay et al considered whether a seriously injured patient should be able to refuse treatment if the refusal was based on a (mis)interpretation of religious doctrine. They argued that in such a case 'what is important…is whether the teaching or philosophy used as a reference point has been in fact correctly perceived' (p 653). If it has not been, they asserted that this eroded the patient's capacity to make an autonomous decision and that therefore, in such cases, it is the role of the healthcare professional (HCP) to 'assist patients to think more clearly and rationally' (p 653). There are, however, a number of problems with the reasons why Erbay et al suggest we should help patients to rationalise their decisions and how HCPs should go about this. In this article, the author explores some of their main arguments regarding consent and rationality (particularly in relation to religious beliefs), as well as Erbay et al's normative claim that HCPs have an obligation to promote autonomy by helping patients to come to a 'rational' decision. Ultimately, the author agrees that the (temporary) solution to the dilemma presented in this scenario (which was to insert an intravenous cannula into the patient in order to allow an infusion of fluids in the event that he changed his mind) seemed both pragmatic and ethically permissible. However, it is suggested that the arguments which underpin this conclusion in Erbay et al's article are largely unsound.

  19. Love and rationality: on some possible rational effects of love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ortiz-Millán

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I defend the idea that rather than disrupting rationality, as the common-sense conception has done it, love may actually help us to develop rational ways of thinking and acting. I make the case for romantic or erotic love, since this is the kind of love that is more frequently associated with irrationality in acting and thinking. I argue that this kind of love may make us develop epistemic and practical forms of rationality. Based on an analysis of its characteristic action tendencies, I argue that love may help us to develop an instrumental form of rationality in determining the best means to achieve the object of love. It may also narrow down the number of practical considerations that may help us to achieve our goals. Finally, love may generate rational ways of belief-formation by framing the parameters taken into account in perception and attention, and by bringing into light only a small portion of the epistemic information available. Love may make us perceive reality more acutely.Neste artigo defendo a idéia de que, em vez de perturbar a racionalidade, como a concepção do senso comum o faz, o amor pode, na verdade, ajudar-nos a desenvolver modos racionais de pensar e agir. Dou bons argumentos para o amor romântico ou erótico, uma vez que esse é o tipo de amor que é mais freqüentemente associado à irracionalidade no agir e no pensar. Argumento que esse tipo de amor pode fazer-nos desenvolver formas epistêmicas e práticas de racionalidade. Com base em uma análise de suas tendências características para a ação, argumento que o amor pode ajudar-nos a desenvolver uma forma instrumental de racionalidade para se determinar o melhor meio de atingir o objeto de amor. Ele também pode limitar o número de considerações práticas que podem ajudar-nos a atingir os nossos objetivos. Finalmente, o amor pode gerar modos racionais de formação de crenças ao estruturar os parâmetros considerados na percepção e na aten

  20. A chaotic system with an infinite number of equilibrium points located on a line and on a hyperbola and its fractional-order form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingni, Sifeu Takougang; Pham, Viet-Thanh; Jafari, Sajad; Woafo, Paul

    2017-01-01

    A three-dimensional autonomous chaotic system with an infinite number of equilibrium points located on a line and a hyperbola is proposed in this paper. To analyze the dynamical behaviors of the proposed system, mathematical tools such as Routh-Hurwitz criteria, Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagram are exploited. For a suitable choice of the parameters, the proposed system can generate periodic oscillations and chaotic attractors of different shapes such as bistable and monostable chaotic attractors. In addition, an electronic circuit is designed and implemented to verify the feasibility of the proposed system. A good qualitative agreement is shown between the numerical simulations and the Orcard-PSpice results. Moreover, the fractional-order form of the proposed system is studied using analog and numerical simulations. It is found that chaos, periodic oscillations and periodic spiking exist in this proposed system with order less than three. Then an electronic circuit is designed for the commensurate fractional order α = 0.98, from which we can observe that a chaotic attractor exists in the fractional-order form of the proposed system. Finally, the problem of drive-response generalized projective synchronization of the fractional-order form of the chaotic proposed autonomous system is considered.

  1. Chemical composition, effective atomic number and electron density study of trommel sieve waste (TSW), Portland cement, lime, pointing and their admixtures with TSW in different proportions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurudirek, Murat; Aygun, Murat; Erzeneoglu, Salih Zeki

    2010-01-01

    The trommel sieve waste (TSW) which forms during the boron ore production is considered to be a promising building material with its use as an admixture with Portland cement and is considered to be an alternative radiation shielding material, also. Thus, having knowledge on the chemical composition and radiation interaction properties of TSW as compared to other building materials is of importance. In the present study, chemical compositions of the materials used have been determined using a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (WDXRFS). Also, TSW, some commonly used building materials (Portland cement, lime and pointing) and their admixtures with TSW have been investigated in terms of total mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ), photon interaction cross sections (σ t ), effective atomic numbers (Z eff ) and effective electron densities (N e ) by using X-rays at 22.1, 25 keV and γ-rays at 88 keV photon energies. Possible conclusions were drawn with respect to the variations in photon energy and chemical composition.

  2. Towards a formal logic of design rationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1997-01-01

    Certain extensions to standard predicate logic are proposed and used as a framework for critical logical study of patterns of inference in design reasoning. It is shown that within this framework a modal logic of design rationalization (suggested by an empirical study reported earlier) can...... be formally defined in terms of quantification over a universe of discourse of ‘relevant points of view’. Five basic principles of the extended predicate logic are listed, on the basis of which the validity of ten modal patterns of inference encountered in design rationalization is tested. The basic idea...

  3. Decision rules and group rationality: cognitive gain or standstill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curşeu, Petru Lucian; Jansen, Rob J G; Chappin, Maryse M H

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in group cognition points towards the existence of collective cognitive competencies that transcend individual group members' cognitive competencies. Since rationality is a key cognitive competence for group decision making, and group cognition emerges from the coordination of individual cognition during social interactions, this study tests the extent to which collaborative and consultative decision rules impact the emergence of group rationality. Using a set of decision tasks adapted from the heuristics and biases literature, we evaluate rationality as the extent to which individual choices are aligned with a normative ideal. We further operationalize group rationality as cognitive synergy (the extent to which collective rationality exceeds average or best individual rationality in the group), and we test the effect of collaborative and consultative decision rules in a sample of 176 groups. Our results show that the collaborative decision rule has superior synergic effects as compared to the consultative decision rule. The ninety one groups working in a collaborative fashion made more rational choices (above and beyond the average rationality of their members) than the eighty five groups working in a consultative fashion. Moreover, the groups using a collaborative decision rule were closer to the rationality of their best member than groups using consultative decision rules. Nevertheless, on average groups did not outperformed their best member. Therefore, our results reveal how decision rules prescribing interpersonal interactions impact on the emergence of collective cognitive competencies. They also open potential venues for further research on the emergence of collective rationality in human decision-making groups.

  4. Decision rules and group rationality: cognitive gain or standstill?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Lucian Curşeu

    Full Text Available Recent research in group cognition points towards the existence of collective cognitive competencies that transcend individual group members' cognitive competencies. Since rationality is a key cognitive competence for group decision making, and group cognition emerges from the coordination of individual cognition during social interactions, this study tests the extent to which collaborative and consultative decision rules impact the emergence of group rationality. Using a set of decision tasks adapted from the heuristics and biases literature, we evaluate rationality as the extent to which individual choices are aligned with a normative ideal. We further operationalize group rationality as cognitive synergy (the extent to which collective rationality exceeds average or best individual rationality in the group, and we test the effect of collaborative and consultative decision rules in a sample of 176 groups. Our results show that the collaborative decision rule has superior synergic effects as compared to the consultative decision rule. The ninety one groups working in a collaborative fashion made more rational choices (above and beyond the average rationality of their members than the eighty five groups working in a consultative fashion. Moreover, the groups using a collaborative decision rule were closer to the rationality of their best member than groups using consultative decision rules. Nevertheless, on average groups did not outperformed their best member. Therefore, our results reveal how decision rules prescribing interpersonal interactions impact on the emergence of collective cognitive competencies. They also open potential venues for further research on the emergence of collective rationality in human decision-making groups.

  5. Consumer rationality in choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and

  6. Universal and Relative Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Goldberg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I illustrate how a basic kind of universal rationality can be profitably combined with undeniable instances of relativism. I do so by engaging Michael Friedman’s recent response to a challenge from Thomas Kuhn.

  7. The rational complementarity problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Schumacher, J.M.; Weiland, S.

    1999-01-01

    An extension of the linear complementarity problem (LCP) of mathematical programming is the so-called rational complementarity problem (RCP). This problem occurs if complementarity conditions are imposed on input and output variables of linear dynamical input/state/output systems. The resulting

  8. Rational equity bubbles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ge

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the existence of a bubble in the pricing of an asset that pays positive dividends. I show that rational bubbles can exist in a growing economy. The existence of bubbles depends on the relative magnitudes of risk aversion to consumption and to wealth. Furthermore, I examine how an exogenous shock in technology might trigger bubbles.

  9. Ideal Theory, Real Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Understanding rationality and power are key to understanding actual political and administrative behavior. Political and administrative theory that ignores this fact stand in danger of being at best irrelevant or, at worst part of the problem it whishes to solve. The paper presents Jürgen Habermas...

  10. Diagnosis, Dogmatism, and Rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Efron, Noah J.

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings suggesting that misdiagnoses frequently stem from flaws in human information processing, particularly in collecting and using information. Claims that improved diagnostic tools will not remedy the problem. Drawing on the work of Karl Popper and Robin Collingwood, proposes operational principles to ensure a rational diagnostic…

  11. Rational Emotive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, William

    1977-01-01

    Rational Emotive Education--an outgrowth of theories developed by Albert Ellis--is a teaching design of mental health concepts and problem-solving activities designed to help students to approach and cope with their problems through experiential learning, via a structured, thematic sequence of emotive education lessons. (MJB)

  12. Hegel's phenomenology of rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to elucidate Hegel's conception of rationality in the Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807), and to defend the thesis that he is an author engaged in discussion with a wide variety of sources. He uses sceptical reasoning to form a line of argument with a necessary progression...

  13. Decision rules and group rationality: cognitive gain or standstill?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu, P.L.; Jansen, R.J.G.; Chappin, M.M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in group cognition points towards the existence of collective cognitive competencies that transcend individual group members’ cognitive competencies. Since rationality is a key cognitive competence for group decision making, and group cognition emerges from the coordination of

  14. Economic Rationality in the Ultimatum Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Fiala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous application of experimental methodology to the interdisciplinary research of economic decision making is the main purpose of our work. In this paper, we introduce the main decisionmaking theories and outline economic rationality. We explain why we find it useful to discriminate between the “irrational” and “non-rational” components of decision making. We offer an oriented interdisciplinary point of view on economic rationality. In the applied section, we describe the main features of the Ultimatum game and summarize the up-to-date theories explaining the non-rational course of the game. We discuss in detail the reported relations between the nominal value of the stakes and the distribution of the offers and responses. We introduce the blinded, randomized Ultimatum game experiment that we conducted in our laboratory. We stress the importance of anonymity of the study subjects and the difference in salience of a factual reward against a  hypothetical reward. We present the results of our study, showing that a  duly chosen non-monetary reward, directly inconvertible into money, leads to a different offer distribution in the Ultimatum game without the necessity to invest excessive sums of money in the rewards. We compare our results to research published by other authors. According to our theory, the rational, non-rational and irrational components contribute to the decision making in Ultimatum differently depending on the different reward stakes.

  15. Game interrupted: The rationality of considering the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Almy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The ``problem of points'', introduced by Paccioli in 1494 and solved by Pascal and Fermat 160 years later, inspired the modern concept of probability. Incidentally, the problem also shows that rational decision-making requires the consideration of future events. We show that naive responses to the problem of points are more future oriented and thus more rational in this sense when the problem itself is presented in a future frame instead of the canonical past frame. A simple nudge is sufficient to make decisions more rational. We consider the implications of this finding for hypothesis testing and predictions of replicability.

  16. Capital Requirements and Credit Rationing

    OpenAIRE

    Itai Agur

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trade-off between financial stability and credit rationing that arises when increasing capital requirements. It extends the Stiglitz-Weiss model of credit rationing to allow for bank default. Bank capital structure then matters for lending incentives. With default and rationing endogenous, optimal capital requirements can be analyzed. Introducing bank financiers, the paper also shows that uninsured funding raises the sensitivity of rationing to capital requirements. In...

  17. Rationality and ritual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynne, B.

    1982-01-01

    The book concerns the Windscale Public Inquiry, held to investigate the application by British Nuclear Fuels to build a 1200 tonne per year thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP) for spent nuclear fuels from Britain and overseas. The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (international dimensions; the Windscale Inquiry; conflict resolution and social drama; public debate and the sociology of knowledge); the decision-making legacy; oxide reprocessing - the background; the public inquiry tradition - a comparative perspective; the emergence of THORP from a private to a public issue (local and national planning politics); the process and impact of the Inquiry (opposition groups); judicial rationality, expert conflict, and political authority); the rationality and politics of analysis (proliferation; radiation risks; relative risks; the Ravenglass issue; discharge targets; general radiation protection arrangements); conclusion. (U.K.)

  18. Rational management of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Venkataraman

    2014-09-01

    Management of epilepsies in children has improved considerably over the last decade, all over the world due to the advances seen in the understanding of the patho-physiology of epileptogenesis, availability of both structural and functional imaging studies along with better quality EEG/video-EEG recordings and the availability of a plethora of newer anti-epileptic drugs which are tailormade to act on specific pathways. In spite of this, there is still a long way to go before one is able to be absolutely rational about which drug to use for which type of epilepsy. There have been a lot of advances in the area of epilepsy surgery and is certainly gaining ground for specific cases. Better understanding of the genetic basis of epilepsies will hopefully lead to a more rational treatment plan in the future. Also, a lot of work needs to be done to dispel various misunderstandings and myths about epilepsy which still exists in our country.

  19. Rational decisions, random matrices and spin glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluccio, Stefano; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Potters, Marc

    We consider the problem of rational decision making in the presence of nonlinear constraints. By using tools borrowed from spin glass and random matrix theory, we focus on the portfolio optimisation problem. We show that the number of optimal solutions is generally exponentially large, and each of them is fragile: rationality is in this case of limited use. In addition, this problem is related to spin glasses with Lévy-like (long-ranged) couplings, for which we show that the ground state is not exponentially degenerate.

  20. Rational Unified Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kopal, Nils

    2016-01-01

    In this German seminar paper, which was written in the year 2011 at the University of Duisburg for a Bachelor Colloquium in Applied computer science, we show a brief overview of the Rational Unified Process (RUP). Thus, interested students or generally interested people in software development gain a first impression of RUP. The paper includes a survey and overview of the underlying process structure, the phases of the process, its workflows, and describes the always by the RUP developers pos...

  1. Maps of Bounded Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Kahneman, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The work cited by the Nobel committee was done jointly with the late Amos Tversky (1937-1996) during a long and unusually close collaboration. Together, we explored the psychology of intuitive beliefs and choices and examined their bounded rationality. This essay presents a current perspective on the three major topics of our joint work: heuristics of judgment, risky choice, and framing effects. In all three domains we studied intuitions - thoughts and preferences that come to mind quickly an...

  2. Emotional Theory of Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés, Mario; Finkel, Lucila

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, it has been definitely established the existence of a close relationship between the emotional phenomena and rational processes, but we still do not have a unified definition, or effective models to describe any of them well. To advance our understanding of the mechanisms governing the behavior of living beings we must integrate multiple theories, experiments and models from both fields. In this paper we propose a new theoretical framework that allows integrating and unders...

  3. On hereditarily rational functions

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, Krzysztof Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short proof of a theorem by Koll\\'{a}r on hereditarily rational functions. This is an answer to his appeal to find an elementary proof which does not rely so much on resolution of singularities. Our approach does not make use of desingularization techniques. Instead, we apply a stronger version of the \\L{}ojasiewicz inequality. Moreover, this allows us to sharpen Koll\\'{a}r's theorem.

  4. Rationality, Theory Acceptance and Decision Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nicolas Kaufmann

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Following Kuhn's main thesis according to which theory revision and acceptance is always paradigm relative, I propose to outline some possible consequences of such a view. First, asking the question in what sense Bayesian decision theory could serve as the appropriate (normative theory of rationality examined from the point of view of the epistemology of theory acceptance, I argue that Bayesianism leads to a narrow conception of theory acceptance. Second, regarding the different types of theory revision, i.e. expansion, contraction, replacement and residuals shifts, I extract from Kuhn's view a series of indications showing that theory replacement cannot be rationalized within the framework of Bayesian decision theory, not even within a more sophisticated version of that model. Third, and finally, I will point to the need for a more comprehensive model of rationality than the Bayesian expected utility maximization model, the need for a model which could better deal with the different aspects of theory replacement. I will show that Kuhn's distinction between normal and revolutionary science gives us several hints for a more adequate theory of rationality in science. I will also show that Kuhn is not in a position to fully articulate his main ideas and that he well be confronted with a serious problem concerning collective choice of a paradigm.

  5. Rational choices for the wavelengths of a two color interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobes, F.C.

    1995-07-01

    If in a two color interferometer for plasma density measurements, the two wavelengths are chosen to have a ratio that is a rational number, and if the signals from each of the wavelengths are multiplied in frequency by the appropriate integer of the rational number and then heterodyned together, the resultant signal will have all effects of component motion nulled out. A phase measurement of this signal will have only plasma density information in it. With CO 2 lasers, it is possible to find suitable wavelength pairs which are close enough to rational numbers to produce an improvement of about 100 in density resolution, compared to standard two color interferometers

  6. Points of sale of tobacco products : Synthesis of scientific and practice based knowledge on the impact of reducing the number of points of sale and restrictions on tobacco product displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monshouwer, Karin; Verdurmen, Jacqueline; Ketelaars, T.; van Laar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Several tobacco control measures are in place that aim to reduce the availability, accessibility and/or visibility of tobacco products at points of sale (POS). In response to a debate in the Dutch Parliament in October 2013, the Secretary of State for Health, Welfare and Sport agreed to review

  7. Rational and moral action : a critical survey of rational choice theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, J.P.R.

    2009-01-01

    This book is about rational choice theory from a different point of view. It is different for three reasons. First, it pays attention to the unintended consequences of intended actions. Second, it employs a non-instrumental approach to moral actions. And third, it argues that choice opportunities

  8. Why the Three-Point Rule Failed to Sufficiently Reduce the Number of Draws in Soccer: An Application of Prospect Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Dennis; Heuer, Andreas; Strauss, Bernd

    2015-06-01

    Incentives guide human behavior by altering the level of external motivation. We apply the idea of loss aversion from prospect theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) to the point reward systems in soccer and investigate the controversial impact of the three-point rule on reducing the fraction of draws in this sport. Making use of the Poisson nature of goal scoring, we compared empirical results with theoretically deduced draw ratios from 24 countries encompassing 20 seasons each (N = 118.148 matches). The rule change yielded a slight reduction in the ratio of draws, but despite adverse incentives, still 18% more matches ended drawn than expected, t(23) = 11.04, p prospect theory assertions. Alternative point systems that manipulated incentives for losses yielded reductions at or below statistical expectation. This provides support for the deduced concept of how arbitrary aims, such as the reduction of draws in the world's soccer leagues, could be more effectively accomplished than currently attempted.

  9. Are security analysts rational? a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Peixinho, Rúben; Coelho, Luís; Taffler, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Rational choice theory and bounded rationality constitute the basis for the discussion in several areas regarding human rationality. In finance, this discussion has been made between traditional finance and behavioural finance approach, which have different perspectives concerning market agents’ rationality. This paper reviews several studies addressing rationality among security analysts. The analysis shows that analysts’systematic optimism seems to be inconsistent with rationality....

  10. [The impact of ethical and moral competence in decision making on rationalism and rationing nursing interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdt, R

    2005-08-01

    The intraprofessional discourse about economical aspects in nursing from an ethical point of view has not taken place yet. To cope with the increasing restriction of resources, some preconditions have to be met: It is necessary to communicate issues in rationalizing and rationing in nursing openly. Person-oriented criteria in the nursing process indicate a high level of competence and user-oriented quality in nursing care. But nursing professionals do not decide in favor or against resources to perform this task on a high or poor quality level. Democratic decision-making on providing nursing services depends on a continuous societal discourse about allocation criteria.

  11. Rational approximations to linear forms of exponentials and binomials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, G V

    1983-05-01

    Mahler proved the following quantitative result supplementing the Lindemann-Weierstrass theorem: Sigma(i=0) (n)C(i)e(ri) > H(-n-epsilon) for any distinct rational numbers r(0),r(1),..., r(n) and rational integers C(0),C(1),...,C(n) with H = max(0 1 - epsilon. The simplest examples of new numbers with the irrationality exponent "2 + epsilon" are sinh 1 or sin 1.

  12. Rational top and its classical r-matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminov, G; Arthamonov, S; Smirnov, A; Zotov, A

    2014-01-01

    We construct a rational integrable system (the rational top) on a co-adjoint orbit of SL N Lie group. It is described by the Lax operator with spectral parameter and classical non-dynamical skew-symmetric r-matrix. In the case of the orbit of minimal dimension the model is gauge equivalent to the rational Calogero–Moser (CM) system. To obtain the results we represent the Lax operator of the CM model in two different factorized forms—without spectral parameter (related to the spinless case) and another one with the spectral parameter. The latter gives rise to the rational top while the first one is related to generalized Cremmer–Gervais r-matrices. The gauge transformation relating the rational top and CM model provides the classical rational version of the IRF-Vertex correspondence. From the geometrical point of view it describes the modification of SL(N,C)-bundles over degenerated elliptic curve. In view of the Symplectic Hecke Correspondence the rational top is related to the rational spin CM model. Possible applications and generalizations of the suggested construction are discussed. In particular, the obtained r-matrix defines a class of KZB equations. (paper)

  13. Autogenerator-based modelling framework for development of strategic games simulations: rational pigs game extended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabac, Robert; Radošević, Danijel; Magdalenić, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    When considering strategic games from the conceptual perspective that focuses on the questions of participants' decision-making rationality, the very issues of modelling and simulation are rarely discussed. The well-known Rational Pigs matrix game has been relatively intensively analyzed in terms of reassessment of the logic of two players involved in asymmetric situations as gluttons that differ significantly by their attributes. This paper presents a successful attempt of using autogenerator for creating the framework of the game, including the predefined scenarios and corresponding payoffs. Autogenerator offers flexibility concerning the specification of game parameters, which consist of variations in the number of simultaneous players and their features and game objects and their attributes as well as some general game characteristics. In the proposed approach the model of autogenerator was upgraded so as to enable program specification updates. For the purpose of treatment of more complex strategic scenarios, we created the Rational Pigs Game Extended (RPGE), in which the introduction of a third glutton entails significant structural changes. In addition, due to the existence of particular attributes of the new player, "the tramp," one equilibrium point from the original game is destabilized which has an influence on the decision-making of rational players.

  14. Operations with Rational Numbers and their Meanings based on the Part-all Conception As Operações com Números Racionais e seus Significados a partir da Concepção Parte-todo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Ferreira da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a reflection regarding operations with fractional numbers focusing on the part-all conception through some activities that can contribute to teaching practices at the elementary school level. A brief characterization of the all-part conception is provided along with descriptions of activities involving the four basic operations based on the use of flat figures, although other conceptions may emerge during the solution. We limit our considerations to this conception because it is the most frequent, in textbooks as well as teacher practice, although it is not used to justify operational rules of fractional numbers. Key-words: Fractions. Fractional Numbers. Operations.Neste artigo, apresentamos uma reflexão a respeito das operações com números fracionários focalizando a concepção parte-todo por meio de algumas atividades que possam contribuir para a prática docente na escola básica. O estudo explicita uma breve caracterização da concepção parte-todo e atividades envolvendo as quatro operações fundamentais tratadas em figuras planas, embora outras concepções possam ser mobilizadas durante a solução. Restringimos nossas considerações a essa concepção visto ser a mais freqüente, tanto em livros didáticos, quanto na prática do professor, embora não seja utilizada para justificar as regras operatórias dos números fracionários. Palavras-chave: Frações. Números Fracionários. Operações.

  15. Adaptive information-theoretic bounded rational decision-making with parametric priors

    OpenAIRE

    Grau-Moya, Jordi; Braun, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Deviations from rational decision-making due to limited computational resources have been studied in the field of bounded rationality, originally proposed by Herbert Simon. There have been a number of different approaches to model bounded rationality ranging from optimality principles to heuristics. Here we take an information-theoretic approach to bounded rationality, where information-processing costs are measured by the relative entropy between a posterior decision strategy and a given fix...

  16. Rational Approximations to Rational Models: Alternative Algorithms for Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Adam N.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Navarro, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Rational models of cognition typically consider the abstract computational problems posed by the environment, assuming that people are capable of optimally solving those problems. This differs from more traditional formal models of cognition, which focus on the psychological processes responsible for behavior. A basic challenge for rational models…

  17. Realization theory for rational systems: Minimal rational realizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Nemcová (Jana); J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractThe study of realizations of response maps is a topic of control and system theory. Realization theory is used in system identification and control synthesis. A minimal rational realization of a given response map p is a rational realization of p such that the dimension of its state

  18. Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.

  19. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  20. A new construction of rational electromagnetic knots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Zhilin, Gleb

    2018-06-01

    We set up a correspondence between solutions of the Yang-Mills equations on R ×S3 and in Minkowski spacetime via de Sitter space. Some known Abelian and non-Abelian exact solutions are rederived. For the Maxwell case we present a straightforward algorithm to generate an infinite number of explicit solutions, with fields and potentials in Minkowski coordinates given by rational functions of increasing complexity. We illustrate our method with a nontrivial example.

  1. p-adic numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Grešak, Rozalija

    2015-01-01

    The field of real numbers is usually constructed using Dedekind cuts. In these thesis we focus on the construction of the field of real numbers using metric completion of rational numbers using Cauchy sequences. In a similar manner we construct the field of p-adic numbers, describe some of their basic and topological properties. We follow by a construction of complex p-adic numbers and we compare them with the ordinary complex numbers. We conclude the thesis by giving a motivation for the int...

  2. Rational noncompliance with prescribed medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Douglas O; DeMarco, Joseph P

    2010-09-01

    Despite the attention that patient noncompliance has received from medical researchers, patient noncompliance remains poorly understood and difficult to alter. With a better theory of patient noncompliance, both greater success in achieving compliance and greater respect for patient decision making are likely. The theory presented, which uses a microeconomic approach, bridges a gap in the extant literature that has so far ignored the contributions of this classic perspective on decision making involving the tradeoff of costs and benefits. The model also generates a surprising conclusion: that patients are typically acting rationally when they refuse to comply with certain treatments. However, compliance is predicted to rise with increased benefits and reduced costs. The prediction that noncompliance is rational is especially true in chronic conditions at the point that treatment begins to move closer to the medically ideal treatment level. Although the details of this theory have not been tested empirically, it is well supported by existing prospective and retrospective studies.

  3. Rational customs clearance technology choice

    OpenAIRE

    Shramenko, N.; Andriets, V.

    2008-01-01

    Issues concerning cargo delivery efficiencyincrease by choice of rational customs clearance technology have been considered. Three possible variants of customs clearance andmethods which allow to define the most rational version of cargo delivery in international road communication based on main efficiency criteria for definite distance have been presented.

  4. Differential Rationality and Personal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Cameron

    This publication discusses differential rationality; it asserts that the development of institutions, professions, and individuals involves the differentiation of forms and styles of thinking and knowing that are, in various ways, idiosyncratic. Based on this understanding, differential rationality can be seen as a developmental construct that…

  5. Rationality problem for algebraic tori

    CERN Document Server

    Hoshi, Akinari

    2017-01-01

    The authors give the complete stably rational classification of algebraic tori of dimensions 4 and 5 over a field k. In particular, the stably rational classification of norm one tori whose Chevalley modules are of rank 4 and 5 is given. The authors show that there exist exactly 487 (resp. 7, resp. 216) stably rational (resp. not stably but retract rational, resp. not retract rational) algebraic tori of dimension 4, and there exist exactly 3051 (resp. 25, resp. 3003) stably rational (resp. not stably but retract rational, resp. not retract rational) algebraic tori of dimension 5. The authors make a procedure to compute a flabby resolution of a G-lattice effectively by using the computer algebra system GAP. Some algorithms may determine whether the flabby class of a G-lattice is invertible (resp. zero) or not. Using the algorithms, the suthors determine all the flabby and coflabby G-lattices of rank up to 6 and verify that they are stably permutation. The authors also show that the Krull-Schmidt theorem for G-...

  6. Product differentiation under bounded rationality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Poutré, La J.A.; Kok, de A.G.; Pyka, A.; Handa, H.; Ishibuchi, H.; Ong, Y.-S.; Tan, K.-C.

    2015-01-01

    We study product differentiation equilibria and dynamics on the Salop circle under bounded rationality. Due to bounded rationality, firms tend to agglomerate in pairs. Upon adding a second tier of component suppliers, downstream assemblers may escape pairwise horizontal agglomeration. Moreover, we

  7. The concept of rational suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, D J

    1986-05-01

    Suicide has been condemned in our culture in one way or another since Augustine offered theological arguments against it in the sixth century. More recently, theological condemnation has given way to the view that suicidal behavior must always be symptomatic of emotional disturbance and mental illness. However, suicide has not always been viewed so negatively. In other times and cultures, it has been held that circumstances might befall a person in which suicide would be a perfectly rational course of action, in the same sense that any other course of action could be rational: that it could be sensible, i.e., defensible by good reasons, or that it could be in keeping with the agent's fundamental interests. Indiscriminate use of modern life-sustaining technologies has renewed interest in the possibility of rational suicide. Today proponents of rational suicide tend to equate the rationality of suicide with the competence of the decision to commit suicide.

  8. Limited rationality and strategic interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehr, Ernst; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2008-01-01

    Much evidence suggests that people are heterogeneous with regard to their abilities to make rational, forward-looking decisions. This raises the question as to when the rational types are decisive for aggregate outcomes and when the boundedly rational types shape aggregate results. We examine...... this question in the context of a long-standing and important economic problem: the adjustment of nominal prices after an anticipated monetary shock. Our experiments suggest that two types of bounded rationality-money illusion and anchoring-are important behavioral forces behind nominal inertia. However......, depending on the strategic environment, bounded rationality has vastly different effects on aggregate price adjustment. If agents' actions are strategic substitutes, adjustment to the new equilibrium is extremely quick, whereas under strategic complementarity, adjustment is both very slow and associated...

  9. Shear flow generation and transport barrier formation on rational surface current sheets in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaogang; Xiao Chijie; Wang Jiaqi

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A thin current sheet with a magnetic field component in the same direction can form the electrical field perpendicularly pointing to the sheet, therefore an ExB flow with a strong shear across the current sheet. An electrical potential well is also found on the rational surface of RFP as well as the neutral sheet of the magnetotail with the E-field pointing to the rational (neutral) surface. Theoretically, a current singularity is found to be formed on the rational surface in ideal MHD. It is then very likely that the sheet current on the rational surfaces will generate the electrical potential well in its vicinity so the electrical field pointing to the sheet. It results in an ExB flow with a strong shear in the immediate neighborhood of the rational surface. It may be the cause of the transport barrier often seen near the low (m, n) rational surfaces with MHD signals. (author)

  10. [Rational use of medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helali, A

    2006-12-01

    Every body speaks about inappropriate use of medicines and each one gives his own explanation. Politicians are telling about the waste of medicines and the money of their national budget. Citizens are saying that the physicians prescribe more than necessary for treatment and blame them as one part of the financial burden weighting on their family budget. Physicians give different explanation and think that the rational use of medicines is a sort of pressure to limit their freedom to prescribe what it seems to them necessary and better for their patients. Pharmacists dispensing medicines consider the prescription as a physician's prerogative and prefer to stay neutral in this debate. Within this large range of opinions, it is difficult to find general consensus, so that every body take care to not declare his proper opinion about the subject, the causes and the adequate solutions. Finally no changes take place in this issue. However, neither the government as responsible for the citizen's health, nor the health professionals and international organisations, are facing their complete obligations toward the populations by ensuring to them that the medicines are administered according to the health need of the patients, efficacious and safe , in doses that meet their own individual requirements, for an adequate period of time, and at the lower cost, and be secured against misuse by the pharmacist before the delivery to the patients. This is a worthwhile programme, but unfortunately without designate takers or promoters until now.

  11. Plural rationalities and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, P.; Thompson, M.

    1989-01-01

    Like many social scientists, we attribute public unwillingness to accept certain low probability risks not to 'irrationality' but rather to the everyday application of qualitative as well as quantitative criteria. Just as most people buying a video or hi-fi do not base their decision solely on price or performance data but also consider such intangibles as design and the reputation of the manufacturer, individuals faced with a given risk take into account not merely the probability of harm but also the credibility and trustworthiness of whoever generates the information and manages the safety and other precautions which ensure its accuracy. To analyse these qualitative dimensions we utilise the grid/-group methodology developed by the cultural anthropologist Mary Douglas, and her co-workers. Douglas identifies four basic forms of society and four associated 'thought worlds' which serve to legitimise and reproduce them. Differences in concepts of human cognition, time and many other variables between the different thought worlds are so profound that they can be regarded as different kinds of rationality. The acceptability of risks is partially determined by the extent to which they support or threaten the existence of the different societies. (author)

  12. Rational drug therapy education in clinical phase carried out by task-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, S. Sırrı; Akyüz, Bahar; Ağrı, Arzu Erdal; Özlem, Mıdık

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Irrational drug use results in drug interactions, treatment noncompliance, and drug resistance. Rational pharmacotherapy education is being implemented in many faculties of medicine. Our aim is to introduce rational pharmacotherapy education by clinicians and to evaluate task-based rational drug therapy education in the clinical context. Methods: The Kirkpatrick's evaluation model was used for the evaluation of the program. The participants evaluated the program in terms of constituents of the program, utilization, and contribution to learning. Voluntary participants responded to the evaluation forms after the educational program. Data are evaluated using both quantitative and qualitative tools. SPSS (version 21) used for quantitative data for determining mean and standard deviation values. Descriptive qualitative analysis approach is used for the analysis of open-ended questions. Results: It was revealed that the program and its components have been favorable. A total 95.9% of the students consider the education to be beneficial. Simulated patients practice and personal drug choice/problem-based learning sessions were appreciated by the students in particular. 93.9% of the students stated that all students of medicine should undergo this educational program. Among the five presentations contained in the program, “The Principles of Prescribing” received the highest points (9 ± 1.00) from participating students in general evaluation of the educational program. Conclusion: This study was carried out to improve task-based rational drug therapy education. According to feedback from the students concerning content, method, resource, assessment, and program design; some important changes, especially in number of facilitators and indications, are made in rational pharmacotherapy education in clinical task-based learning program. PMID:28458432

  13. International cooperation for rational use of energy in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Papers discussed the experiences of OLADE, IEA and EEC member countries in the field of rational use of energy in a number of industrial sectors, such as textiles; generation, transmission and distribution of electricity; iron and steel; non-ferrous metals; cement; and sugar. Instruments and technologies for rational use of energy in industry were also discussed as well as possibilities for international cooperation in this field.

  14. RATIONALITY: A CENTRAL POINT BETWEEN TRADITIONAL FINANCE AND BEHAVIOURAL FINANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Subramaniam V.A.; Velnampy T.

    2017-01-01

    Investment plays an important role not only in the life of an individual but also in the development of countries. People save money for the purpose of future consumption and invest the saved money with the objectives of protecting the real value of money and making more money. Bodie, Kane & Marcus (1998) defined the term investment as the current commitment of money and other resources with the expectation of obtaining future benefits. Investment decision making is an important aspect in the...

  15. Are motorways rational from slime mould's point of view?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamatzky, A.; Akl, S.; Alonso-Sanz, R.; van Dessel, W.; Ibrahim, Z.; Ilachinski, A.; Jones, J.; Kayem, A.V.D.M.; Martínez, G.J.; de Oliveira, P.; Prokopenko, M.; Schubert, T.; Sloot, P.; Strano, E.; Yang, X.-S.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the results of our experimental laboratory approximation of motorway networks with slime mould Physarum polycephalum. Motorway networks of 14 geographical areas are considered: Australia, Africa, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, Iberia, Italy, Malaysia, Mexico, the Netherlands, UK

  16. Matrix factorisations for rational boundary conditions by defect fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behr, Nicolas; Fredenhagen, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    A large class of two-dimensional N=(2,2) superconformal field theories can be understood as IR fixed-points of Landau-Ginzburg models. In particular, there are rational conformal field theories that also have a Landau-Ginzburg description. To understand better the relation between the structures in the rational conformal field theory and in the Landau-Ginzburg theory, we investigate how rational B-type boundary conditions are realised as matrix factorisations in the SU(3)/U(2) Grassmannian Kazama-Suzuki model. As a tool to generate the matrix factorisations we make use of a particular interface between the Kazama-Suzuki model and products of minimal models, whose fusion can be realised as a simple functor on ring modules. This allows us to formulate a proposal for all matrix factorisations corresponding to rational boundary conditions in the SU(3)/U(2) model.

  17. Context and scale: Distinctions for improving debates about physician "rationing".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburt, Jon C; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2017-08-29

    Important discussions about limiting care based on professional judgment often devolve into heated debates over the place of physicians in bedside rationing. Politics, loaded rhetoric, and ideological caricature from both sides of the rationing debate obscure precise points of disagreement and consensus, and hinder critical dialogue around the obligations and boundaries of professional practice. We propose a way forward by reframing the rationing conversation, distinguishing between the scale of the decision (macro vs. micro) and its context (ordinary allocation vs. extraordinary re-allocation) avoiding the word "rationing." We propose to shift the terminology, using specific, descriptive words to defuse conflict and re-focus the debate towards substantive issues. These distinctions can clarify the real ethical differences at stake and facilitate a more constructive conversation about the clinical and social responsibilities of physicians to use resources ethically at the bedside and their role in allocating medical resources at a societal level.

  18. Matrix factorisations for rational boundary conditions by defect fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behr, Nicolas [Department of Mathematics, Heriot-Watt University,Riccarton, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences,Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Fredenhagen, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,D-14424 Golm (Germany)

    2015-05-11

    A large class of two-dimensional N=(2,2) superconformal field theories can be understood as IR fixed-points of Landau-Ginzburg models. In particular, there are rational conformal field theories that also have a Landau-Ginzburg description. To understand better the relation between the structures in the rational conformal field theory and in the Landau-Ginzburg theory, we investigate how rational B-type boundary conditions are realised as matrix factorisations in the SU(3)/U(2) Grassmannian Kazama-Suzuki model. As a tool to generate the matrix factorisations we make use of a particular interface between the Kazama-Suzuki model and products of minimal models, whose fusion can be realised as a simple functor on ring modules. This allows us to formulate a proposal for all matrix factorisations corresponding to rational boundary conditions in the SU(3)/U(2) model.

  19. Discrete Choice and Rational Inattention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Melo, Emerson; de Palma, André

    2017-01-01

    This paper establishes a general equivalence between discrete choice and rational inattention models. Matejka and McKay (2015, AER) showed that when information costs are modelled using the Shannon entropy, the result- ing choice probabilities in the rational inattention model take the multinomial...... logit form. We show that when information costs are modelled using a class of generalized entropies, then the choice probabilities in any rational inattention model are observationally equivalent to some additive random utility discrete choice model and vice versa. This equivalence arises from convex...

  20. Testing bounded rationality against full rationality in job changing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Contini, Bruno; Morini, Matteo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we question the hypothesis of full rationality in the context of job changing behaviour, via simple econometric explorations on microdata drawn from WHIP (Worker Histories Italian Panel). Workers' performance is compared at the end of a three-year time window that starts when choices are expressed, under the accepted notion that the main driving forces of job change are future real wages and expected job quality. Bounded rationality suggests that individuals will search for new ...

  1. Testing Bounded Rationality Against Full Rationality in Job Changing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Contini

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I question the hypothesis of full rationality in the context of job changing behaviour, via simple econometric explorations on microdata drawn from WHIP (Worker Histories Italian Panel). Workers’ performance is compared at the end of a three-year time window that starts when choices are expressed, under the accepted notion that the main driving forces of job change are future real wages and expected job quality. Bounded rationality suggests that individuals will search for new o...

  2. Implementation of the principles of rational incentive system in modern conditions on an example of sectoral enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotkina Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on studying of the problem of workers incentives on the example of one of Russian regions. The authors studied the characteristics of personnel matters in the Tyumen region enterprises. Workers incentive is the most important tool which influences the staff motivation and the mood of an individual worker. The rational incentive system provides a number of principles, implementation of which is relevant in formation of the system of values which are the foundation of the employee motivation system. In order to study the implementation of the principles of rational incentive system in modern conditions the authors conducted a survey. The managers of the industrial enterprises operating in the market of the city of Tyumen became the respondents of the survey. The respondents filled in the questionnaire developed by the authors. The processing of the received data revealed a number of interesting points, which are disclosed in this article.

  3. Rational reconstructions of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittelstaedt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Newton’s classical physics and its underlying ontology are loaded with several metaphysical hypotheses that cannot be justified by rational reasoning nor by experimental evidence. Furthermore, it is well known that some of these hypotheses are not contained in the great theories of Modern Physics, such as the theory of Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. This book shows that, on the basis of Newton’s classical physics and by rational reconstruction, the theory of Special Relativity as well as Quantum Mechanics can be obtained by partly eliminating or attenuating the metaphysical hypotheses. Moreover, it is shown that these reconstructions do not require additional hypotheses or new experimental results. In the second edition the rational reconstructions are completed with respect to General Relativity and Cosmology. In addition, the statistics of quantum objects is elaborated in more detail with respect to the rational reconstruction of quantum mechanics. The new material completes the approach of t...

  4. Rational-Emotive Staff Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Susan G.; Forman, Bruce D.

    1980-01-01

    The application of Rational-Emotive Therapy principles and techniques in in-service education for school personnel is discussed. Teacher and counselor participation in a staff development program is described. (Author)

  5. Exceptional curves on smooth rational surfaces with -K not nef and of self-intersection zero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahyane, Mustapha

    2001-08-01

    We prove that a smooth rational surface X defined over the field of complex numbers having an anti-canonical divisor not nef and of self-intersection zero has a finite number of (-1)-curves. A (-1)-curve is a smooth rational curve of self-interaction -1. By giving an example, we also show that X may have no (-2)-curves, a (-2)-curve is a smooth rational curve of self-intersection -2. (author)

  6. Management between Rationality and Irrationality

    OpenAIRE

    Cene Bavec

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, we discuss theoretical and practical aspects of management and its rational and irrational behavior in the light of traditional management theories and contemporary social theories and theories of complexity. We exposed differences between middle and top management, where rationality is ascribed mainly to middle management, while top management often acts on seemingly irrational way. For the part of this irrationality, we cannot blame management because it originates from the na...

  7. Choice, internal consistency, and rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi Bhattacharyya; Prasanta K. Pattanaik; Yongsheng Xu

    2010-01-01

    The classical theory of rational choice is built on several important internal consistency conditions. In recent years, the reasonableness of those internal consistency conditions has been questioned and criticized, and several responses to accommodate such criticisms have been proposed in the literature. This paper develops a general framework to accommodate the issues raised by the criticisms of classical rational choice theory, and examines the broad impact of these criticisms from both no...

  8. Topological Landau-Ginzburg theory with a rational potential and the dispersionless KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, S.; Kodama, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Based on the dispersionless KP (dKP) theory, we study a topological Landau-Ginzburg (LG) theory characterized by a rational potential. Writing the dKP hierarchy in a general form treating all the primaries in an equal basis, we find that the hierarchy naturally includes the dispersionless (continuous) limit of Toda hierarchy and its generalizations having a finite number of primaries. Several flat solutions of the topological LG theory are obtained in this formulation, and are identified with those discussed by Dubrovin. We explicitly construct gravitational descendants for all the primary fields. Giving a residue formula for the 3-point functions of the fields, we show that these 3-point functions satisfy the topological recursion relation. The string equation is obtained as the generalized hodograph solutions of the dKP hierarchy, which show that all the gravitational effects to the constitutive equations (2-point functions) can be renormalized into the coupling constants in the small phase space. (orig.)

  9. Interpolation of rational matrix functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Joseph A; Rodman, Leiba

    1990-01-01

    This book aims to present the theory of interpolation for rational matrix functions as a recently matured independent mathematical subject with its own problems, methods and applications. The authors decided to start working on this book during the regional CBMS conference in Lincoln, Nebraska organized by F. Gilfeather and D. Larson. The principal lecturer, J. William Helton, presented ten lectures on operator and systems theory and the interplay between them. The conference was very stimulating and helped us to decide that the time was ripe for a book on interpolation for matrix valued functions (both rational and non-rational). When the work started and the first partial draft of the book was ready it became clear that the topic is vast and that the rational case by itself with its applications is already enough material for an interesting book. In the process of writing the book, methods for the rational case were developed and refined. As a result we are now able to present the rational case as an indepe...

  10. The rationale of rationality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weesie, H.M.; Snijders, C.C.P.; Buskens, V.W.

    2009-01-01

    Our research starts from the assumption that actors use a single decision theory to guide them on how to behave in all possible one-shot two-person encounters. To address which decision theories perform well, we let 17 theories compete in a large number of randomly selected symmetric 2 × 2 games. It

  11. Rational Decision Making as Performative Praxis: Explaining Rationality's Éternel Retour

    OpenAIRE

    Cabantous, L.; Gond, J-P.

    2011-01-01

    Organizational theorists built their knowledge of decision making through a progressive critique of rational choice theory. Their positioning towards rationality, however, is at odds with the observation of rationality persistence in organizational life. This paper addresses this paradox. It proposes a new perspective on rationality that allows the theorizing of the production of rational decisions by organizations. To account for rationality's éternel retour, we approach rational decision ma...

  12. Rationing medical education | Walsh | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at the prospect of rationing, the truth is that rationing has always occurred in one form or another in medical education and in healthcare more broadly. Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. For example rationing may ...

  13. Strategy selection as rational metareasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieder, Falk; Griffiths, Thomas L

    2017-11-01

    Many contemporary accounts of human reasoning assume that the mind is equipped with multiple heuristics that could be deployed to perform a given task. This raises the question of how the mind determines when to use which heuristic. To answer this question, we developed a rational model of strategy selection, based on the theory of rational metareasoning developed in the artificial intelligence literature. According to our model people learn to efficiently choose the strategy with the best cost-benefit tradeoff by learning a predictive model of each strategy's performance. We found that our model can provide a unifying explanation for classic findings from domains ranging from decision-making to arithmetic by capturing the variability of people's strategy choices, their dependence on task and context, and their development over time. Systematic model comparisons supported our theory, and 4 new experiments confirmed its distinctive predictions. Our findings suggest that people gradually learn to make increasingly more rational use of fallible heuristics. This perspective reconciles the 2 poles of the debate about human rationality by integrating heuristics and biases with learning and rationality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Professor Stewart's incredible numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Ian Stewart explores the astonishing properties of numbers from 1 to10 to zero and infinity, including one figure that, if you wrote it out, would span the universe. He looks at every kind of number you can think of - real, imaginary, rational, irrational, positive and negative - along with several you might have thought you couldn't think of. He explains the insights of the ancient mathematicians, shows how numbers have evolved through the ages, and reveals the way numerical theory enables everyday life. Under Professor Stewart's guidance you will discover the mathematics of codes,

  15. Rationality in the Cryptographic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubacek, Pavel

    This thesis presents results in the field of rational cryptography. In the first part we study the use of cryptographic protocols to avoid mediation and binding commitment when implementing game theoretic equilibrium concepts. First, we concentrate on the limits of cryptographic cheap talk...... to implement correlated equilibria of two-player strategic games in a sequentially rational way. We show that there exist two-player games for which no cryptographic protocol can implement the mediator in a sequentially rational way; that is, without introducing empty threats. In the context of computational...... with appealing economic applications. Our implementation puts forward a notion of cryptographically blinded games that exploits the power of encryption to selectively restrict the information available to players about sampled action profiles, such that these desirable equilibria can be stably achieved...

  16. Rational choice in field archaelology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Pavel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present article I attempt to apply advances in the study of instrumental and epistemic rationality to field archaeology in order to gain insights into the ways archaeologists reason. The cognitive processes, particularly processes of decision making, that enable archaeologists to conduct the excavation in the trench have not been adequately studied so far. I take my cues from two different bodies of theory. I first inquire into the potential that rational choice theory (RCT may have in modeling archaeological behaviour, and I define subjective expected utility, which archaeologists attempt to maximize, in terms of knowledge acquisition and social gain. Following Elster’s criticism of RCT, I conclude that RCT’s standards for rational action do not correspond with those ostensibly used in field archaeology, but that instrumental rationality has a prominent role in the “archaeological experiment”. I further explore if models proposed as reaction to RCT may account for archaeological decision making. I focus on fast and frugal heuristics, and search for archaeological illustrations for some of the cognitive biases that are better documented in psychological literature. I document confirmation and congruence biases, the endowment effect, observer-expectancy bias, illusory correlation, clustering illusion, sunk cost bias, and anchoring, among others and I propose that some of these biases are used as cognitive tools by archaeologists at work and retain epistemic value. However, I find formal logic to be secondary in the development of archaeological reasoning, with default logic and defeasible logic being used instead. I emphasize scientific knowledge as an actively negotiated social product of human inquiry, and conclude that to describe rationality in field archaeology a bounded rationality model is the most promising avenue of investigation.

  17. Rationalizing the Promotion of Non-Rational Behaviors in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter A. C.; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2002-01-01

    Organizations must balance rational/technical efficiency and emotions. Action learning has been proven to be effective for developing emotional openness in the workplace. Facilitators of action learning should draw upon the disciplines of counseling, Gestalt, psychodynamics, and Eastern philosophies. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

  18. Re-visions of rationality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Ben R

    2005-01-01

    The appeal of simple algorithms that take account of both the constraints of human cognitive capacity and the structure of environments has been an enduring theme in cognitive science. A novel version of such a boundedly rational perspective views the mind as containing an 'adaptive toolbox' of specialized cognitive heuristics suited to different problems. Although intuitively appealing, when this version was proposed, empirical evidence for the use of such heuristics was scant. I argue that in the light of empirical studies carried out since then, it is time this 'vision of rationality' was revised. An alternative view based on integrative models rather than collections of heuristics is proposed.

  19. Mental health as rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1981-08-01

    Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.

  20. Application of SharePoint Portal Technologies in Public Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Đokić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, systematic reforms are realized acrossmany countries. One of the characteristics of these reforms is necessity for rationalization of expenses in governmental and public enterprises. Rationalization of expenses can be achieved by more extensive application of information and communication technologies based on internet technologies and cloud computing. These systems include huge number of services, applications, resources, users and roles. At the same time, concepts of scalability, availability, ubiquity and pervasiveness need to be applied. This paper deals with application of portal technologies for enhanced content management, document management, and collaboration within public enterprises. The goal is to achieve efficient exchange of information on all hierarchical levels, as well as mechanisms of reporting and performance measurements, such as business intelligence and key performance indicators. The model is based on SharePoint portal technologies. A case study of application within the public enterprise Post of Serbia is described.

  1. Distribution theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chung-Chun

    2008-01-01

    The book timely surveys new research results and related developments in Diophantine approximation, a division of number theory which deals with the approximation of real numbers by rational numbers. The book is appended with a list of challenging open problems and a comprehensive list of references. From the contents: Field extensions Algebraic numbers Algebraic geometry Height functions The abc-conjecture Roth''s theorem Subspace theorems Vojta''s conjectures L-functions.

  2. The dynamics of Bertrand model with bounded rationality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jixiang; Da Qingli; Wang Yanhua

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers a Bertrand model with bounded rational. A duopoly game is modelled by two nonlinear difference equations. By using the theory of bifurcations of dynamical systems, the existence and stability for the equilibria of this system are obtained. Numerical simulations used to show bifurcations diagrams, phase portraits for various parameters and sensitive dependence on initial conditions. We observe that an increase of the speed of adjustment of bounded rational player may change the stability of Nash equilibrium point and cause bifurcation and chaos to occur. The analysis and results in this paper are interesting in mathematics and economics.

  3. [Rational drug use: an economic approach to decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Daniel Marques; da Silva, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos; Sudo, Elisa Cazue; Ortún, Vicente

    2008-04-01

    The present article approaches rational drug use (RDU) from the economical point of view. The implementation of RDU implies in costs and involves acquisition of knowledge and behavioral changes of several agents. The difficulties in implementing RDU may be due to shortage problems, information asymmetry, lack of information, uncertain clinical decisions, externalities, time-price, incentives for drug prescribers and dispensers, drug prescriber preferences and marginal utility. Health authorities, among other agencies, must therefore regularize, rationalize and control drug use to minimize inefficiency in pharmaceutical care and to prevent exposing the population to unnecessary health risks.

  4. Optimal public rationing and price response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Simona; Ma, Ching-To Albert

    2011-12-01

    We study optimal public health care rationing and private sector price responses. Consumers differ in their wealth and illness severity (defined as treatment cost). Due to a limited budget, some consumers must be rationed. Rationed consumers may purchase from a monopolistic private market. We consider two information regimes. In the first, the public supplier rations consumers according to their wealth information (means testing). In equilibrium, the public supplier must ration both rich and poor consumers. Rationing some poor consumers implements price reduction in the private market. In the second information regime, the public supplier rations consumers according to consumers' wealth and cost information. In equilibrium, consumers are allocated the good if and only if their costs are below a threshold (cost effectiveness). Rationing based on cost results in higher equilibrium consumer surplus than rationing based on wealth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Rationalization, rationing, prioritization: terminology and ethical approaches to the allocation of limited resources in hematology/oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The field of oncology with its numerous high-priced innovations contributes considerably to the fact that medical progress is expensive. Additionally, due to the demographic changes and the increasing life expectancy, a growing number of cancer patients want to profit from this progress. Since resources are limited also in the health system, the fair distribution of the available resources urgently needs to be addressed. Dealing with scarcity is a typical problem in the domain of justice theory; therefore, this article first discusses different strategies to manage limited resources: rationalization, rationing, and prioritization. It then presents substantive as well as procedural criteria that assist in the just distribution of effective health benefits. There are various strategies to reduce the utilization of limited resources: Rationalization means that efficiency reserves are being exhausted; by means of rationing, effective health benefits are withheld due to cost considerations. Rationing can occur implicitly and thus covertly, e.g. through budgeting or the implementation of waiting periods, or explicitly, through transparent rules or policies about healthcare coverage. Ranking medical treatments according to their importance (prioritization) is often a prerequisite for rationing decisions. In terms of requirements of justice, both procedural and substantive criteria (e.g. equality, urgency, benefit) are relevant for the acceptance and quality of a decision to limit access to effective health benefits. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Teaching Rational Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolever, Roberts

    1978-01-01

    Presented is an outline of a college course, "Education in American Society," that focused on teaching students rational decision-making skills while examining current issues in American Education. The outline is followed by student comments, reactions, and evaluations of the course. (JMD)

  7. Rational Suicide among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphry, Derek

    1992-01-01

    Contends that old age, in and of itself, should never need to be a cause for self-destruction. Further argues that suicide and assisted suicide carried out in the face of terminal illness causing unbearable suffering should be ethically and legally acceptable. Outlines a perspective on rational suicide among the elderly. (Author/NB)

  8. On a CO2 ration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, P.

    2003-01-01

    In 2 years all the large energy companies in the European Union will have a CO2 ration, including a system to trade a shortage or surplus of emission rights. A cost effective system to reduce emission, provided that the government does not auction the emission rights [nl

  9. Personal Autonomy and Rational Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, May A.; Shulman, Ernest

    That certain suicides (which can be designated as rational) ought not to be interfered with is closely tied to the notion of the "right to autonomy." Specifically it is because the individual in question has this right that interference is prohibited. A proper understanding of the right to autonomy, while essential to understanding why…

  10. Rational Choice Theory and Addiction Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Krstić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the construct of student satisfaction and analyze its relationship with student loyalty in the context of state and private universities. The rational choice theory assumes that, when deciding whether to consume some goods or not, consumers use analysis in order to estimate the values of individual preference indicators. From this point of view, there are risk and time preferences. The former show aversion to a risk and are expressed through the risk aversion coefficient, while the latter measure the degree of preference for present satisfaction in relation to the same satisfaction in the future. The degree of preference for present satisfaction regarding the same satisfaction in the future is expressed by the time preference rate. Smokers with a low time preference rate and high risk aversion coefficient level can be expected to be successful in cessation. The aim of this paper is to study smokers from the perspective of rational choice theory, in order to detect factors influencing their behavior. The study (investigation found that the significant factors for smokers’ behavior are: gender, age, education, risk aversion coefficient, and the time preference rate. Analysis of smokers’ behavior, with appropriate limits and qualifications, is a well-developed and highly effective tool for exploring and interpreting reality.

  11. Rationality, perception, and the all-seeing eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felin, Teppo; Koenderink, Jan; Krueger, Joachim I

    2017-08-01

    Seeing-perception and vision-is implicitly the fundamental building block of the literature on rationality and cognition. Herbert Simon and Daniel Kahneman's arguments against the omniscience of economic agents-and the concept of bounded rationality-depend critically on a particular view of the nature of perception and vision. We propose that this framework of rationality merely replaces economic omniscience with perceptual omniscience. We show how the cognitive and social sciences feature a pervasive but problematic meta-assumption that is characterized by an "all-seeing eye." We raise concerns about this assumption and discuss different ways in which the all-seeing eye manifests itself in existing research on (bounded) rationality. We first consider the centrality of vision and perception in Simon's pioneering work. We then point to Kahneman's work-particularly his article "Maps of Bounded Rationality"-to illustrate the pervasiveness of an all-seeing view of perception, as manifested in the extensive use of visual examples and illusions. Similar assumptions about perception can be found across a large literature in the cognitive sciences. The central problem is the present emphasis on inverse optics-the objective nature of objects and environments, e.g., size, contrast, and color. This framework ignores the nature of the organism and perceiver. We argue instead that reality is constructed and expressed, and we discuss the species-specificity of perception, as well as perception as a user interface. We draw on vision science as well as the arts to develop an alternative understanding of rationality in the cognitive and social sciences. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our arguments for the rationality and decision-making literature in cognitive psychology and behavioral economics, along with suggesting some ways forward.

  12. Institutional Analysis of Bounded Rationality of the Contemporary Russians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Rozmainsky

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues that behavior of present-day Russians is inconsistent with standard Neoclassical economics and can be better explained by the synthesis of various branches of Institutionalism and Post Keynesianism. Authors try to show that the present-day Russians are characterized by bounded rationality when they invest in health and financial assets, by fits and starts spend their incomes and cannot predict future levels of these incomes. Sometimes such bounded rationality manifests itself as investor myopia – a phenomenon that describes a situation when people exclude future variables from consideration starting from some threshold point of time. Investor myopia can lead to negative investment in health via smoking and heavy drinking, and also generate non-rational saving behavior. Furthermore, the contemporary Russians behave in the opportunistic manner. In particular, in the course of important examination writing the majority of people prefer to cheat off. Finally, the social pressure modifies the consumptive choice of the present-day Russians; in other words, this choice is not intrinsic. These statements are verified on the base of opinion poll findings by authors in 2016 and 2017. Sample included 521 persons, mainly young people. These data are analyzed by means of econometric – binomial and multinomial logit-models. The results of these studies show that the contemporary Russians are really characterized by bounded rather than perfect rationality. One of the conclusions is that fee-paying educated students are significantly less rational in their saving choice.

  13. Properties of extended inorganic solids predicted/rationalized by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Due to the vastly complex nature of the problem, guidelines for the preparation of extended inorganic solids with specific electronic properties remain meagre. Here we present the use of First Principles LMTO band structure calculations for the rationalization of the properties of a number of interesting extended solids.

  14. The massless two-loop two-point function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierenbaum, I.; Weinzierl, S.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the massless two-loop two-point function with arbitrary powers of the propagators and derive a representation from which we can obtain the Laurent expansion to any desired order in the dimensional regularization parameter ε. As a side product, we show that in the Laurent expansion of the two-loop integral only rational numbers and multiple zeta values occur. Our method of calculation obtains the two-loop integral as a convolution product of two primitive one-loop integrals. We comment on the generalization of this product structure to higher loop integrals. (orig.)

  15. Rationality, mental causation and social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of mental causation in the context of rational choice theory. The author defends psychological aspect of rational explanation against the challenge of contemporary reductive materialism.

  16. Rationality, mental causation and social sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenović Ivan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of mental causation in the context of rational choice theory. The author defends psychological aspect of rational explanation against the challenge of contemporary reductive materialism.

  17. Development of rationalized system treating floor drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Serizawa, Kenichi; Komatsu, Akihiro; Shimizu, Takayuki

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive liquid wastes generated at BWR plants are collected and treated as required. These days, however, generation of floor drain has deceased and HFF (Hollow Fiber Filter) has experienced a wide applicability to several kinds of liquid wastes. We should consider that the floor drain can be mixed and diluted with equipment drain and be purified by HFF. That enables some of the sumps and long priming pipes to be combined. From this point of view, we have developed a highly rationalized waste liquid system. We have evaluated the applicability of this system after an investigation into the generation and properties of floor drain and equipment drain at the latest BWR'S and an on-site test at a typical BWR. (author)

  18. Asymptotic behaviour of a non-commutative rational series with a nonnegative linear representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Dumas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the asymptotic behaviour in the mean of a non-commutative rational series, which originates from differential cryptanalysis, using tools from probability theory, and from analytic number theory. We derive a Fourier representation of a first-order summation function obtained by interpreting this rational series as a non-classical rational sequence via the octal numeration system. The method is applicable to a wide class of sequences rational with respect to a numeration system essentially under the condition that they admit a linear representation with nonnegative coefficients.

  19. A rational approach to resonance saturation in large-Nc QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masjuan, Pere; Peris, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    We point out that resonance saturation in QCD can be understood in the large-N c limit from the mathematical theory of Pade Approximants to meromorphic functions. These approximants are rational functions which encompass any saturation with a finite number of resonances as a particular example, explaining several results which have appeared in the literature. We review the main properties of Pade Approximants with the help of a toy model for the (VV-AA) two-point correlator, paying particular attention to the relationship among the Chiral Expansion, the Operator Product Expansion and the resonance spectrum. In passing, we also comment on an old proposal made by Migdal in 1977 which has recently attracted much attention in the context of AdS/QCD models. Finally, we apply the simplest Pade Approximant to the (VV-AA) correlator in the real case of QCD. The general conclusion is that a rational approximant may reliably describe a Green's function in the Euclidean, but the same is not true in the Minkowski regime due to the appearance of unphysical poles and/or residues

  20. Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L

    2011-04-01

    Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome.

  1. Lessons from Learning to Have Rational Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Lindh, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews a growing literature investigating how economic agents may learn rational expectations. Fully rational learning requires implausible initial information assumptions, therefore some form of bounded rationality has come into focus. Such learning models often converge to rational expectations equilibria within certain bounds. Convergence analysis has been much simplified by methods from adaptive control theory. Learning stability as a correspondence principle show some promise...

  2. Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion*

    OpenAIRE

    Clore, Gerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome.

  3. Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome. PMID:25125770

  4. Electricity rationing and public response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Leonardo Rocha; Soares, Lacir Jorge

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the electricity load demand behavior during the 2001 rationing period, which was implemented because of the Brazilian energy crisis. The hourly data refers to a utility situated in the southeast of the country. We use the model proposed by Soares and Souza [Soares, L.J. and Souza, L.R. (2006), 'Forecasting electricity demand using generalized long memory', International Journal of Forecasting, 22, 17-28.], making use of generalized long memory to model the seasonal behavior of the load. The rationing period is shown to have imposed a structural break in the series, decreasing the load at about 20%. Even so, the forecast accuracy is decreased only marginally, and the forecasts rapidly readapt to the new situation. The structural break, as well as the forecast errors from this model, also permits verifying the public response to pieces of information released regarding the crisis. (Author)

  5. Bounded Rationality in Transposition Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2014-01-01

    Studies explaining the timeliness and correctness of the transposition of EU directives into national legislation have provided rather inconclusive findings. They do not offer a clear-cut prediction concerning the transposition of the patients’ rights directive, which is one of the first that con......Studies explaining the timeliness and correctness of the transposition of EU directives into national legislation have provided rather inconclusive findings. They do not offer a clear-cut prediction concerning the transposition of the patients’ rights directive, which is one of the first...... that concerns the organisation and financing of national healthcare systems. This article applies the perspective of bounded rationality to explain (irregularities in) the timely and correct transposition of EU directives. The cognitive and organisational constraints long posited by the bounded rationality...

  6. Guidelines for Rational Cancer Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunghee Yoo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cancer therapy has relied on surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. In recent years, these interventions have become increasingly replaced or complemented by more targeted approaches that are informed by a deeper understanding of the underlying biology. Still, the implementation of fully rational patient-specific drug design appears to be years away. Here, we present a vision of rational drug design for cancer that is defined by two major components: modularity and image guidance. We suggest that modularity can be achieved by combining a nanocarrier and an oligonucleotide component into the therapeutic. Image guidance can be incorporated into the nanocarrier component by labeling with a specific imaging reporter, such as a radionuclide or contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. While limited by the need for additional technological advancement in the areas of cancer biology, nanotechnology, and imaging, this vision for the future of cancer therapy can be used as a guide to future research endeavors.

  7. Rational Thinking in School-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mary Kristen; Flynn, Perry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We reflect on Alan Kamhi's (2011) prologue on balancing certainty and uncertainty as it pertains to school-based practice. Method: In schools, rational thinking depends on effective team processes, much like professional learning communities. We consider the conditions that are required for rational thinking and how rational team dialogue…

  8. Book Selection, Collection Development, and Bounded Rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews previously proposed schemes of classical rationality in book selection, describes new approaches to rational choice behavior, and presents a model of book selection based on bounded rationality in a garbage can decision process. The role of tacit knowledge and symbolic content in the selection process are also discussed. (102 references)…

  9. RATGRAPH: Computer Graphing of Rational Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minch, Bradley A.

    1987-01-01

    Presents an easy-to-use Applesoft BASIC program that graphs rational functions and any asymptotes that the functions might have. Discusses the nature of rational functions, graphing them manually, employing a computer to graph rational functions, and describes how the program works. (TW)

  10. Rationality and the Logic of Good Reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Walter R.

    This paper contends that the rationality of the logic of good reasons is constituted in its use. To support this claim, the paper presents an analysis of the relationship between being reasonable and being rational. It then considers how following the logic of good reasons leads to rationality in the behavior of individuals and groups; the latter…

  11. Information Transmission and Rational Inattention

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Tutino

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of optimal communication strategy between a fully informed agent and a rationally inattentive agent. The fully informed agent observes a sequence of shocks and transmits a message to the limited-capacity agent who takes a set of actions in response to the message. The problem of the informed agent is to seek the optimal signaling strategy that induces a behavior consistent with minimal welfare loss, uniformly over a given class of bounded utility functions. We characteriz...

  12. Rational Asset Pricing Bubbles Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Werner

    2012-01-01

    Price bubble arises when the price of an asset exceeds the asset's fundamental value, that is, the present value of future dividend payments. The important result of Santos and Woodford (1997) says that price bubbles cannot exist in equilibrium in the standard dynamic asset pricing model with rational agents as long as assets are in strictly positive supply and the present value of total future resources is finite. This paper explores the possibility of asset price bubbles when either one of ...

  13. Kant on empiricism and rationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Vanzo, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to correct some widely held misconceptions concerning Kant's role in the formation of a widespread narrative of early modern philosophy. According to this narrative, which dominated the English-speaking world throughout the twentieth century, the early modern period was characterized by the development of two rival schools: René Descartes's, Baruch Spinoza's, and G. W. Leibniz's rationalism; and John Locke's, George Berkeley's, and David Hume's empiricism. Empiricists and rati...

  14. Rational approximation of vertical segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Celis, Oliver; Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte

    2007-08-01

    In many applications, observations are prone to imprecise measurements. When constructing a model based on such data, an approximation rather than an interpolation approach is needed. Very often a least squares approximation is used. Here we follow a different approach. A natural way for dealing with uncertainty in the data is by means of an uncertainty interval. We assume that the uncertainty in the independent variables is negligible and that for each observation an uncertainty interval can be given which contains the (unknown) exact value. To approximate such data we look for functions which intersect all uncertainty intervals. In the past this problem has been studied for polynomials, or more generally for functions which are linear in the unknown coefficients. Here we study the problem for a particular class of functions which are nonlinear in the unknown coefficients, namely rational functions. We show how to reduce the problem to a quadratic programming problem with a strictly convex objective function, yielding a unique rational function which intersects all uncertainty intervals and satisfies some additional properties. Compared to rational least squares approximation which reduces to a nonlinear optimization problem where the objective function may have many local minima, this makes the new approach attractive.

  15. Cooperation, psychological game theory, and limitations of rationality in social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Andrew M

    2003-04-01

    Rational choice theory enjoys unprecedented popularity and influence in the behavioral and social sciences, but it generates intractable problems when applied to socially interactive decisions. In individual decisions, instrumental rationality is defined in terms of expected utility maximization. This becomes problematic in interactive decisions, when individuals have only partial control over the outcomes, because expected utility maximization is undefined in the absence of assumptions about how the other participants will behave. Game theory therefore incorporates not only rationality but also common knowledge assumptions, enabling players to anticipate their co-players' strategies. Under these assumptions, disparate anomalies emerge. Instrumental rationality, conventionally interpreted, fails to explain intuitively obvious features of human interaction, yields predictions starkly at variance with experimental findings, and breaks down completely in certain cases. In particular, focal point selection in pure coordination games is inexplicable, though it is easily achieved in practice; the intuitively compelling payoff-dominance principle lacks rational justification; rationality in social dilemmas is self-defeating; a key solution concept for cooperative coalition games is frequently inapplicable; and rational choice in certain sequential games generates contradictions. In experiments, human players behave more cooperatively and receive higher payoffs than strict rationality would permit. Orthodox conceptions of rationality are evidently internally deficient and inadequate for explaining human interaction. Psychological game theory, based on nonstandard assumptions, is required to solve these problems, and some suggestions along these lines have already been put forward.

  16. Rational decision making in medicine: Implications for overuse and underuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Elqayam, Shira; Dale, William

    2018-06-01

    In spite of substantial spending and resource utilization, today's health care remains characterized by poor outcomes, largely due to overuse (overtesting/overtreatment) or underuse (undertesting/undertreatment) of health services. To a significant extent, this is a consequence of low-quality decision making that appears to violate various rationality criteria. Such suboptimal decision making is considered a leading cause of death and is responsible for more than 80% of health expenses. In this paper, we address the issue of overuse or underuse of health care interventions from the perspective of rational choice theory. We show that what is considered rational under one decision theory may not be considered rational under a different theory. We posit that the questions and concerns regarding both underuse and overuse have to be addressed within a specific theoretical framework. The applicable rationality criterion, and thus the "appropriateness" of health care delivery choices, depends on theory selection that is appropriate to specific clinical situations. We provide a number of illustrations showing how the choice of theoretical framework influences both our policy and individual decision making. We also highlight the practical implications of our analysis for the current efforts to measure the quality of care and link such measurements to the financing of health care services. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to Constructive Solid Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    ARL-SR-0347 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary...US Army Research Laboratory An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to...from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to Constructive Solid Geometry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  18. Obesity, social inequality and economic rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Thea; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Kærgård, Niels

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the economic literature related to obesity and consumer decisions, pursuing the overall question, whether the current obesity epidemic and its social bias can be viewed as a result of rational consumption behaviour. We address a number of potential explanations based on consumers......' utility maximisation behaviour, which all may contribute to explain the ongoing rise in obesity prevalence in many western countries. In addition to standard neoclassical explanations of obesity, we discuss moral hazard aspects, the role of network externalities, self-control problems and habitual...... behaviour. We include all of these aspects of the individual weight decision in a unified theoretical framework and present existing empirical evidence for each effect. Based on our analysis, we discuss the different economic explanations and give suggestions for future research....

  19. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  20. Argumentation as rational persuasion in doctor-patient communication

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinelli Sara

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the value of argumentation as an instrument for rational persuasion in doctor patient (and general health professional patient) communication. Argumentation can be used to influence those beliefs that form the basis of an individual's attitudes and decision making process. In the medical context argumentation can be used to legitimize the points of view of the doctor and the patient; to correct add to or modify a patient's set of beliefs; and to enhance the patient's cent...

  1. Coherent states and rational surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, Dorje C; Graefe, Eva-Maria

    2010-01-01

    The state spaces of generalized coherent states associated with special unitary groups are shown to form rational curves and surfaces in the space of pure states. These curves and surfaces are generated by the various Veronese embeddings of the underlying state space into higher dimensional state spaces. This construction is applied to the parameterization of generalized coherent states, which is useful for practical calculations, and provides an elementary combinatorial approach to the geometry of the coherent state space. The results are extended to Hilbert spaces with indefinite inner products, leading to the introduction of a new kind of generalized coherent states.

  2. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Jan R.; Peresetsky, Anatoly A.

    2018-01-01

    Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly. PMID:29375449

  3. Reappraisal of Rational Choice Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of rational choice theory (RCT for the social sciences has long been contested. Much time has been spent by economists and critics on the pervasive but elusive concept of rationality. The critiques mainly challenge the basis of the utility theorem. Several articles on the misuse of mathematics in economics have already appeared in the literature. As N. Bouleau stated, “On several occasions, however, one feels that the criticism is that the math is being misused and should be developed in some other direction (e.g. a statistical analysis of the financial tendencies that polarize wealth and income, or a study of the positive feedback mechanisms, etc.. This leaves certain dissatisfaction – on a philosophical level.” The aim of this paper is to present a decision theory, yields intention (logos and valuation (existence. Here we present a new mathematical representation of RCT, which leads to a dynamic economic theory. We discuss the philosophical or meta-economical problems, which are needed for the successful applications of mathematics.

  4. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (overconfidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (overconfidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.

  5. [Theoretical and practical considerations in rational polytherapy for epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajna, Péter

    2011-11-30

    Author analyses the consideration of rational polytherapy for epilepsy. Among the theoretical aspects he points the different effect of seizure inhibitory drugs on the epilepsy models but didn't find data enough for the basis of any successful combination. Combinations of compounds having different way of action are more promising. Rational polytherapy can serve also the epileptic patients' tailored therapy in the daily routine. There have already been some proved synergisms concerning drug interactions. Based on detailed analysis of side effects a possibility occurs for neutralization of side effects when anticonvulsants with side effects of opposite nature are combined. Considering both the side effect profiles and the different (somatic and psychic) habits of the patients we can create a special list of favourable combinations. Co-morbid states and their treatments play a significant role in the application of rational polytherapy. Combination of anticonvulsants of lower potential but without drug-interactions can be the choice in these cases. The non-epileptic indications of the anticonvulsants can also be utilized in polymorbid patients. Based on the theoretical and practical considerations the author defines the ten-step-cognitive-preparation-process in planning the optimal (poly)therapy. On speculative basis he suggests eight beneficial versions of seizure inhibitory rational polytherapy.

  6. Secularization and de-secularization processes under the light of Max Weber’s rationalization sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Weisz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article starts posing a number of problems with which the classical understanding of the end of religions in Modernity has been confronted. This allows for a framework from which Max Weber’s theory of secularization can be addressed. From 1904 onwards, this author was engaged in the understanding of the historical-universal process of rationalization, and it is in this analysis where his prospective of secularization has to be looked for. His sociology of religion is therefore deconstructed from this point of view, so as to grasp why he understood that religions were displaced in the constitution of modern life conducts. After this analysis, the article poses the importance of this author’s legacy for the understanding of different issues concerning the present process of rebirth of religions.

  7. Relations of academic procrastination, rationalizations, and performance in a web course with deadlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckman, Bruce W

    2005-06-01

    This study compared students' academic procrastination tendency with the (1) frequency and nature of rationalizations used to justify procrastination, (2) self-regulation, and (3) performance in a web-based study strategies course with frequent performance deadlines. 106 college students completed the 16-item Tuckman Procrastination Scale, a measure of tendency to procrastinate, the Frequency of Use Self-survey of Rationalizations for Procrastination, and a 9-item self-regulation scale. Students' subsequent course performance was measured by total points earned. A linear regression with Academic Procrastination as the criterion variable and Rationalization score and Course Points as the predictor variables suggested academic procrastinators support procrastinating by rationalizing, not self-regulating, and thus put themselves at a disadvantage, with respect to evaluation in highly structured courses with frequent enforced deadlines.

  8. Simplifications of rational matrices by using UML

    OpenAIRE

    Tasić, Milan B.; Stanimirović, Ivan P.

    2013-01-01

    The simplification process on rational matrices consists of simplifying each entry represented by a rational function. We follow the classic approach of dividing the numerator and denominator polynomials by their common GCD polynomial, and provide the activity diagram in UML for this process. A rational matrix representation as the quotient of a polynomial matrix and a polynomial is also discussed here and illustrated via activity diagrams. Also, a class diagram giving the links between the c...

  9. Freedom and Rationality : Rousseau on Citizenship

    OpenAIRE

    Salvat, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with Rousseau's idea of freedom in terms of rationality and deliberation. It gives support to Berlin's interpretation of the general will as a rational and objective will but dismisses the idea that Rousseau's theory necessarily leads to authoritarianism. The general will, publicly expressed by the law, may be defined as the rational and self-regarding will agents would have if put in an independent and objective state, i.e. the state of nature. The general and the particular...

  10. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    on spatial invariance of interest points under changing acquisition parameters by measuring the spatial recall rate. The scope of this paper is to investigate the performance of a number of existing well-established interest point detection methods. Automatic performance evaluation of interest points is hard......Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure based...... position. The LED illumination provides the option for artificially relighting the scene from a range of light directions. This data set has given us the ability to systematically evaluate the performance of a number of interest point detectors. The highlights of the conclusions are that the fixed scale...

  11. Rational use of energy in cellulose and paper plants; Uso racional de energia em plantas de papel e celulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Sebastiao de Souza [Asea Brown Boveri Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ABB Service

    1993-12-31

    This work aims to points the main aspects concerned to the rational use of energy in paper and cellulose plants in Brazil, showing the specific energy consumption, the costs of the energy rationalization, the identification of opportunities and their applications 4 figs.

  12. Geometric Rationalization for Freeform Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2016-06-20

    The emergence of freeform architecture provides interesting geometric challenges with regards to the design and manufacturing of large-scale structures. To design these architectural structures, we have to consider two types of constraints. First, aesthetic constraints are important because the buildings have to be visually impressive. Sec- ond, functional constraints are important for the performance of a building and its e cient construction. This thesis contributes to the area of architectural geometry. Specifically, we are interested in the geometric rationalization of freeform architec- ture with the goal of combining aesthetic and functional constraints and construction requirements. Aesthetic requirements typically come from designers and architects. To obtain visually pleasing structures, they favor smoothness of the building shape, but also smoothness of the visible patterns on the surface. Functional requirements typically come from the engineers involved in the construction process. For exam- ple, covering freeform structures using planar panels is much cheaper than using non-planar ones. Further, constructed buildings have to be stable and should not collapse. In this thesis, we explore the geometric rationalization of freeform archi- tecture using four specific example problems inspired by real life applications. We achieve our results by developing optimization algorithms and a theoretical study of the underlying geometrical structure of the problems. The four example problems are the following: (1) The design of shading and lighting systems which are torsion-free structures with planar beams based on quad meshes. They satisfy the functionality requirements of preventing light from going inside a building as shad- ing systems or reflecting light into a building as lighting systems. (2) The Design of freeform honeycomb structures that are constructed based on hex-dominant meshes with a planar beam mounted along each edge. The beams intersect without

  13. Rational Drug Use of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Sahingoz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: At this study to be aimed to assess status of the knowledge of nurses who working in public and private health institutions in Sivas province use of medication fort he treatment during their illnesses and patients and the attitudes of rational drug application. Matherials and methods: the researc planned to attend 750 nurses but it has been completed with participation of 641 nurses (Reaching rate 85,5%. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. in the study data were collected with a questionaire, percentages stated and chi square test was used for analysis. Results: %95,3 of nurses were females and mean age of them 29.21±4.85 years. The rate of contacting a doktor in case of illness is higher in 39.1% of nurses in the 21-30 age group and 48.6% of nurses working in primary care institutions. The level of self-treating is higher in 45.5 % of nurses working less than a year in profession .In the case of illness, 53% of nurses stated that they had left the medicine when signs of disease over. %98.8 of nurses expressed that they know effects of drugs used and 99.1% of them stated they know the side effects of drugs used. The entire group of postgraduate education status stated that they have not received the drug recommended by others. The level of suggesting a drug to someone else fort he same disease is higher in 65.8% of the group 31 years and older and group working over 40 hours per week. It were determined that used in consultation with the physician 65.2% of nurses antibiotics, 87.5% of them weiht loss drug and 82.7% of them contraceptive . 99.5% of the nurses have expressed that they inform to patients about use of their medications. Among the issues that expressed informations took place the application form of drugs (51.0 %and information of need to consult one if deemed one unexpected effect (59.6% . Also has been identified that of nurses acquired inform about drugs from drug book (vademecum (87.5 % and they

  14. Rational Choice and the Framing of Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-29

    survival in a competitive environment , and a minority of rational individuals can sometimes impose rationality on the whole market. Third, the...intuitive appeal of the axioms of rational choice makes it plausible that the theory derived from these axioms should provide an acceptable account of choice...rn-use U? RATIONAL CHOICE AMD THE FINNING OF KCISIOUS(U mi/ STANFORD UNIV CR A TYERSEY ET AL. 29 NAYN4-S4-K-S61SWICLASS IF lED FO 5/10S IL EEEEEEEE

  15. Investigation into rationalization of low decontamination pellet fuel fabrication plant configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Kazuhiko; Yoshimura, Tadahiro; Hoshino, Yasushi; Munekata, Hideki; Tamaki, Yoshihisa

    2005-02-01

    In feasibility studies on commercialized FBR cycle system, a comprehensive system investigation and properties evaluation for candidate FBR cycle systems has been implemented through view point of safety, economics, environmental burden reduction, non-proliferation resistivity, etc. As part of these studies, an investigation into rationalization of low decontamination pellet fuel fabrication plant configuration was carried out. Until last fiscal year, conceptual design studies of the fuel fabrication plant in 200t-HM/y scale were conducted, and system properties data concerning economics and environmental burden reduction of fuel fabrication plant was acquired. In addition to this, 50t-HM/y scale plant was also schematically studied. In this fiscal year, a rationalization study on conceptual design of 50t-HM/y scale plant was conducted with main aim of economic improvement, and the 200t-HM/y scale plant design was revised based on the recent R and D progress. The system properties data concerning economics and environmental burden reduction of fuel fabrication plant was also acquired. In both case of the 50t-HM/y and 200t-HM/y scale plant, it was suggested that the equipment costs were reduced in several percentages because of reduction of maintenance equipments and cut in line number at the pellet fabrication process although granulation process fro denitration converted powder and O/M control process for pellets were added. System properties data for comparative evaluation of candidate fuel fabrication systems was also prepared. (author)

  16. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  18. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  19. Duan's fixed point theorem: Proof and generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkowitz Martin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be an H-space of the homotopy type of a connected, finite CW-complex, any map and the th power map. Duan proved that has a fixed point if . We give a new, short and elementary proof of this. We then use rational homotopy to generalize to spaces whose rational cohomology is the tensor product of an exterior algebra on odd dimensional generators with the tensor product of truncated polynomial algebras on even dimensional generators. The role of the power map is played by a -structure as defined by Hemmi-Morisugi-Ooshima. The conclusion is that and each has a fixed point.

  20. Rational use of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racoveanu, N.T.; Volodin, V.

    1992-01-01

    Radiologists in USA and UK have since early 1970 questioned the efficacy of various radiological investigations and produced substantial evidence that more rational approaches are necessary. WHO initiated, in 1977, a programme which has issued four technical reports giving practical recommendations on how to rationalise the use of radiological examinations. Three main directions are considered: (1) Abandonment of routine radiological examinations, as procedures with no clinical or epidemiologic significance and which represent a waste of resources and patient dose. (2) Patient selection for various radiological investigations based on clinical criteria (high, intermediate, low yield). Selected patients have an increased prevalence of the given disease and the predictive value of radiological investigation is much higher. (3) Use of diagnostic algorithms with higher cost/efficiency and risk/benefit ratios, improving the outcome of radiological examinations. (author)

  1. RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY IN TAKOTSUBO CARDIOMYOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marchev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational pharmacotherapy in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is based on clinical picture and data of functional and laboratory investigations of concrete patient. In patients with hypotension and moderate-to-severe left ventricle outflow tract obstruction inotropic agents must not to be used because they can worsen the degree of obstruction. In these patients beta blockers can improve hemodynamics by causing resolution of the obstruction. If intraventricular thrombus is detected, anticoagulation for at least 3 months is recommended. The duration of anticoagulant therapy may be modified depending on the extent of cardiac function recovery and thrombus resolution. For patients without thrombus but with severe left ventricular dysfunction, anticoagulation is recommended until the akinesis or dyskinesis has resolved but not more than 3 months.

  2. A Mixed Integer Programming Poultry Feed Ration Optimisation Problem Using the Bat Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Chagwiza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a feed ration problem is presented as a mixed integer programming problem. An attempt to find the optimal quantities of Moringa oleifera inclusion into the poultry feed ration was done and the problem was solved using the Bat algorithm and the Cplex solver. The study used findings of previous research to investigate the effects of Moringa oleifera inclusion in poultry feed ration. The results show that the farmer is likely to gain US$0.89 more if Moringa oleifera is included in the feed ration. Results also show superiority of the Bat algorithm in terms of execution time and number of iterations required to find the optimum solution as compared with the results obtained by the Cplex solver. Results revealed that there is a significant economic benefit of Moringa oleifera inclusion into the poultry feed ration.

  3. Max Weber's Types of Rationality: Cornerstones for the Analysis of Rationalization Processes in History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberg, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    Explores rationality in Max Weber's works and identifies four types of rationality which play major roles in his writing--practical, theoretical, substantive, and formal. Implications for society and education are discussed. (DB)

  4. Inaugurating Rationalization: Three Field Studies Find Increased Rationalization When Anticipated Realities Become Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Kristin

    2018-04-01

    People will often rationalize the status quo, reconstruing it in an exaggeratedly positive light. They will even rationalize the status quo they anticipate, emphasizing the upsides and minimizing the downsides of sociopolitical realities they expect to take effect. Drawing on recent findings on the psychological triggers of rationalization, I present results from three field studies, one of which was preregistered, testing the hypothesis that an anticipated reality becoming current triggers an observable boost in people's rationalizations. San Franciscans rationalized a ban on plastic water bottles, Ontarians rationalized a targeted smoking ban, and Americans rationalized the presidency of Donald Trump, more in the days immediately after these realities became current compared with the days immediately before. Additional findings show evidence for a mechanism underlying these behaviors and rule out alternative accounts. These findings carry implications for scholarship on rationalization, for understanding protest behavior, and for policymakers.

  5. Response threshold variance as a basis of collective rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tatsuhiro; Hasegawa, Eisuke

    2017-04-01

    Determining the optimal choice among multiple options is necessary in various situations, and the collective rationality of groups has recently become a major topic of interest. Social insects are thought to make such optimal choices by collecting individuals' responses relating to an option's value (=a quality-graded response). However, this behaviour cannot explain the collective rationality of brains because neurons can make only 'yes/no' responses on the basis of the response threshold. Here, we elucidate the basic mechanism underlying the collective rationality of such simple units and show that an ant species uses this mechanism. A larger number of units respond 'yes' to the best option available to a collective decision-maker using only the yes/no mechanism; thus, the best option is always selected by majority decision. Colonies of the ant Myrmica kotokui preferred the better option in a binary choice experiment. The preference of a colony was demonstrated by the workers, which exhibited variable thresholds between two options' qualities. Our results demonstrate how a collective decision-maker comprising simple yes/no judgement units achieves collective rationality without using quality-graded responses. This mechanism has broad applicability to collective decision-making in brain neurons, swarm robotics and human societies.

  6. Vector Directional Distance Rational Hybrid Filters for Color Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Khriji

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A new class of nonlinear filters, called vector-directional distance rational hybrid filters (VDDRHF for multispectral image processing, is introduced and applied to color image-filtering problems. These filters are based on rational functions (RF. The VDDRHF filter is a two-stage filter, which exploits the features of the vector directional distance filter (VDDF, the center weighted vector directional distance filter (CWVDDF and those of the rational operator. The filter output is a result of vector rational function (VRF operating on the output of three sub-functions. Two vector directional distance (VDDF filters and one center weighted vector directional distance filter (CWVDDF are proposed to be used in the first stage due to their desirable properties, such as, noise attenuation, chromaticity retention, and edges and details preservation. Experimental results show that the new VDDRHF outperforms a number of widely known nonlinear filters for multi-spectral image processing such as the vector median filter (VMF, the generalized vector directional filters (GVDF and distance directional filters (DDF with respect to all criteria used.

  7. On the solution of a rational matrix equation arising in G-networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Meini (Beatrice); T. Nesti (Tommaso)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the problem of solving a rational matrix equation arising in the solution of G-networks. We propose and analyze two numerical methods: a fixed point iteration and the Newton–Raphson method. The fixed point iteration is shown to be globally convergent with linear convergence

  8. Rationality of the anomalous dimensions in N=4 SYM theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genovese, Luigi; Stanev, Yassen S.

    2005-01-01

    We reconsider the general constraints on the perturbative anomalous dimensions in conformal invariant QFT and in particular in N=4 SYM with gauge group SU(N). We show that all the perturbative corrections to the anomalous dimension of a renormalized gauge invariant local operator can be written as polynomials in its one loop anomalous dimension. In the N=4 SYM theory the coefficients of these polynomials are rational functions of the number of colours N

  9. Is It Rational to Assume that Infants Imitate Rationally? A Theoretical Analysis and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that preverbal infants evaluate the efficiency of others' actions (by applying a "principle of rational action") and that they imitate others' actions rationally. The present contribution presents a conceptual analysis of the claim that preverbal infants imitate rationally. It shows that this ability rests on at least three…

  10. Competition analysis of a triopoly game with bounded rationality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsadany, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model a Cournot triopoly game with three boundedly rational players. ► The equilibrium points of the model and their local stability are investigated. ► We study the dynamics of this model as varying the parameters. ► The stability of Nash equilibrium is lost and a chaotic behaviors occur. - Abstract: A dynamic Cournot game characterized by three boundedly rational players is modeled by three nonlinear difference equations. The stability of the equilibria of the discrete dynamical system is analyzed. As some parameters of the model are varied, the stability of Nash equilibrium is lost and a complex chaotic behavior occurs. Numerical simulation results show that complex dynamics, such as, bifurcations and chaos are displayed when the value of speed of adjustment is high. The global complexity analysis can help players to take some measures and avoid the collapse of the output dynamic competition game.

  11. Dew Point

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Shelly

    1999-01-01

    Dew Point was a solo exhibition originating at PriceWaterhouseCoopers Headquarters Gallery, London, UK and toured to the Centre de Documentacio i Museu Textil, Terrassa, Spain and Gallery Aoyama, Tokyo, Japan.

  12. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  13. Tipping Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  14. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  15. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  16. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture ... about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The force of a ...

  17. The critical point of quantum chromodynamics through lattice and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Padé approximants are the rational functions. PL. M (z) = .... Deviations from a smooth behaviour near the critical point are visible in these extrap- ... see that there is evidence, albeit statistically not very significant, that the kurtosis changes.

  18. Rationing in health systems: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keliddar, Iman; Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad; Jafari-Sirizi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is difficult to provide health care services to all those in need of such services due to limited resources and unlimited demands. Thus, priority setting and rationing have to be applied. This study aimed at critically examining the concept of rationing in health sector and identifying its purposes, influencing factors, mechanisms, and outcomes. Methods: The critical interpretive synthesis methodology was used in this study. PubMed, Cochrane, and Proquest databases were searched using the related key words to find related documents published between 1970 and 2015. In total, 161 published reports were reviewed and included in the study. Thematic content analysis was applied for data analysis. Results: Health services rationing means restricting the access of some people to useful or potentially useful health services due to budgetary limitation. The inherent features of the health market and health services, limited resources, and unlimited needs necessitate health services rationing. Rationing can be applied in 4 levels: health care policy- makers, health care managers, health care providers, and patients. Health care rationing can be accomplished through fixed budget, benefit package, payment mechanisms, queuing, copayments, and deductibles. Conclusion: This paper enriched our understanding of health services rationing and its mechanisms at various levels and contributed to the literature by broadly conceptualizing health services rationing.

  19. Fiber sources for complete calf starter rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, F R; Wallenius, R W

    1980-11-01

    Complete calf starter rations containing either 1) alfalfa hay, 2) cottonseed hulls, or 3) alfalfa-beet pulp as sources of fiber were fed to Holstein heifer calves at two locations on a limited milk program from 3 days to 12 wk of age. Rations were isonitrogenous and similar in content of crude fiber and acid detergent fiber. Although growth and development were normal on all rations, calves fed the cottonseed hull ration consumed more starter and gained more body weight than calves fed the other sources of fiber. The similarity of feed efficiencies, rumen pH, and molar ratios of volatile fatty acids between rations indicated no appreciable differences in rumen development or function. The growth response of calves fed the cottonseed hull ration appeared to be a result of better ration acceptability for which no reason was evident. Calves raised at Puyallup gained more body weight than calves at Pullman, and these gains were made more efficiently. These location effects may be related to seasonal differences and greater demands for production of body heat. Although the incidence of scours was less for calves fed alfalfa hay starter, the incidence and severity of bloat were higher for that ration.

  20. The Problem of Rational Moral Enlistment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillson, John

    2017-01-01

    How can one bring children to recognize the requirements of morality without resorting only to non-rational means of persuasion (i.e. what rational ground can be offered to children for their moral enlistment)? Michael Hand has recently defended a foundationalist approach to answering this question and John White has responded by (a) criticizing…

  1. Neurophysiology and Rationality in Political Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Steven A.

    Research both in cognitive psychology and psychobiology suggests that political behavior is often less rational than individuals believe it to be. Information processing, memory, and decision making are interlinked processes. Studies in cognitive psychology reveal that even though decision making requires rationality, individuals often adopt…

  2. The Role of Rationality in University Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    1983-01-01

    Although empirical accounts of organizational decision making often show that the process is not a rational one, a study of budgeting at Stanford University during the 1970s, while not conclusive or comprehensive, supported the claim that the institution's process was rational and provided a procedure for testing a decision-making model. (MSE)

  3. Should Teachers Be Taught to Be Rational?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floden, Robert E.; Feiman, Sharon

    1981-01-01

    Teacher education programs have long attempted to teach students to follow a rational mode of thinking. Recent research on teacher thinking has shown that a gap exists between how teachers think and the rational model. Such research should be used to give teacher educators insight into how their students think and learn. (JN)

  4. MARSI: metabolite analogues for rational strain improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, João G. R.; Zeidan, Ahmad A; Jensen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    reactions in an organism can be used to predict effects of MAs on cellular phenotypes. Here, we present the Metabolite Analogues for Rational Strain Improvement (MARSI) framework. MARSI provides a rational approach to strain improvement by searching for metabolites as targets instead of genes or reactions...

  5. RATIONAL APPROXIMATIONS TO GENERALIZED HYPERGEOMETRIC FUNCTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under weak restrictions on the various free parameters, general theorems for rational representations of the generalized hypergeometric functions...and certain Meijer G-functions are developed. Upon specialization, these theorems yield a sequency of rational approximations which converge to the

  6. The rational maps Fλ(z)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is proved that the rational maps in the family {z → zm +λ/zd : λ ∈ C\\{0}} for integers m, d ≥ 2 ... The problem of the existence of Herman rings of a rational map has been studied by. Lyubich in [9] ..... Surveys 41(4) (1986) 35–95. [10] Milnor J ...

  7. Decision Making: Rational, Nonrational, and Irrational.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Herbert A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the current state of knowledge about human decision-making and problem-solving processes, explaining recent developments and their implications for management and management training. Rational goal-setting is the key to effective decision making and accomplishment. Bounded rationality is a realistic orientation, because the world is too…

  8. Simple market equilibria with rationally inattentive consumers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip; McKay, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 3 (2012), s. 24-29 ISSN 0002-8282 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP402/11/P236 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational choice theory * bounded rationality * consumer research Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2012

  9. The Emotional and Moral Basis of Rationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boostrom, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the basis of rationality, arguing that critical thinking tends to be taught in schools as a set of skills because of the failure to recognize that choosing to think critically depends on the prior development of stable sentiments or moral habits that nourish a rational self. Primary among these stable sentiments are the…

  10. Nonlinear delay monopoly with bounded rationality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Akio; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamics of a monopolistic firm in a continuous-time framework. The firm is assumed to be boundedly rational and to experience time delays in obtaining and implementing information on output. The dynamic adjustment process is based on the gradient of the expected profit. The paper is divided into three parts: we examine delay effects on dynamics caused by one-time delay and two-time delays in the first two parts. Global dynamics and analytical results on local dynamics are numerically confirmed in the third part. Four main results are demonstrated. First, the stability switch from stability to instability occurs only once in the case of a single delay. Second, the alternation of stability and instability can continue if two time delays are involved. Third, the occurence of Hopf bifurcation is analytically shown if stability is lost. Finally, in a bifurcation process, there are a period-doubling cascade to chaos and a period-halving cascade to the equilibrium point in the case of two time delays if the difference between the two delays is large.

  11. Argumentation, rationality, and psychology of reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Godden

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explicates an account of argumentative rationality by articulating the common, basic idea of its nature, and then identifying a collection of assumptions inherent in it. Argumentative rationality is then contrasted with dual-process theories of reasoning and rationality prevalent in the psychology of reasoning. It is argued that argumentative rationality properly corresponds only with system-2 reasoning in dual-process theories. This result challenges the prescriptive force of argumentative norms derives if they derive at all from their descriptive accuracy of our cognitive capacities. In response, I propose an activity-based account of reasoning which retains the assumptions of argumentative rationality while recontextualizing the relationship between reasoning as a justificatory activity and the psychological states and processes underlying that activity.

  12. Casebook on rationalization of power use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    This book introduces the cases on rationalization of power use, which is divided into four parts. The first part refers the goal of rational use of energy and the result. The second part deals with the excellent cases on rationalization of domestic power use, which list the name of the company, hotel and factory according to the field such as building, textile and food. The third part contains the outstanding cases on rationalization of foreign power use, which were listed by the specific way to reduce electricity use each section. The fourth part is comprised of two chapters, which deals with the cases of domestic technical data and foreign technical data for rational use of energy.

  13. Generalized NLS hierarchies from rational W algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toppan, F.

    1993-11-01

    Finite rational W algebras are very natural structures appearing in coset constructions when a Kac-Moody subalgebra is factored out. The problem of relating these algebras to integrable hierarchies of equations is studied by showing how to associate to a rational W algebra its corresponding hierarchy. Two examples are worked out, the sl(2)/U(1) coset, leading to the Non-Linear Schroedinger hierarchy, and the U(1) coset of the Polyakov-Bershadsky W algebra, leading to a 3-field representation of the KP hierarchy already encountered in the literature. In such examples a rational algebra appears as algebra of constraints when reducing a KP hierarchy to a finite field representation. This fact arises the natural question whether rational algebras are always associated to such reductions and whether a classification of rational algebras can lead to a classification of the integrable hierarchies. (author). 19 refs

  14. Ethics of rationing of nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooddehghan, Zahra; Yekta, Zohreh Parsa; Nasrabadi, Alireza N

    2016-09-21

    Rationing of various needed services, for example, nursing care, is inevitable due to unlimited needs and limited resources. Rationing of nursing care is considered an ethical issue since it requires judgment about potential conflicts between personal and professional values. The present research sought to explore aspects of rationing nursing care in Iran. This study applied qualitative content analysis, a method to explore people's perceptions of everyday life phenomena and interpret the subjective content of text data. Data collection was performed through in-depth, unstructured, face-to-face interviews with open-ended questions. The study population included Iranian nurses of all nursing positions, from clinical nurses to nurse managers. Purposive sampling was employed to select 15 female and 3 male nurses (11 clinical nurses, 3 supervisors, 1 matron, 1 nurse, and 2 members of the Nursing Council) working in hospitals of three cities in Iran. The study protocol was approved by Tehran University of Medical Sciences (91D1302870). Written informed consent was also obtained from all participants. According to the participants, rationing of nursing care consisted of two categories, that is, causes of rationing and consequences of rationing. The first category comprised three subcategories, namely, patient needs and demands, routinism, and VIP patients. The three subcategories forming the second category were missed nursing care, patient dissatisfaction, and nurses' feeling of guilt. Levels at which healthcare practices are rationed and clarity of the rationing are important structural considerations in the development of an equal, appropriate, and ethical healthcare system. Moreover, the procedure of rationing is critical as it not only influences people's lives but also reflects the values that dominate in the society. Therefore, in order to minimize the negative consequences of rationing of nursing care, further studies on the ethical dimensions of this phenomenon

  15. Influence of individual rationality on continuous double auction markets with networked traders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhuan

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigates the influence of individual rationality of buyers and sellers on continuous double auction market outcomes in terms of the proportion of boundedly-rational buyers and sellers. The individual rationality is discussed in a social network artificial stock market model by embedding network formation and information set. Traders automatically select the most profitable trading strategy based on individual and social learning of the profits and trading strategies of themselves and their neighbors, and submit orders to markets. The results show that (i) a higher proportion of boundedly-rational sellers induces a higher market price, higher sellers' profits and a higher market efficiency; (ii) a higher proportion of boundedly-rational sellers induces a lower number of trades and lower buyers' profits; (iii) a higher proportion of boundedly-rational buyers induces a lower market price, a lower number of trades, and lower sellers' profits; (iv) a higher proportion of boundedly-rational buyers induces higher buyers' profits and a higher market efficiency.

  16. Hupa Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    An introduction to the Hupa number system is provided in this workbook, one in a series of numerous materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. The book is written in English with Hupa terms used only for the names of numbers. The opening pages present the numbers from 1-10, giving the numeral, the Hupa word, the English word, and…

  17. Triangular Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Triangular number, figurate num- ber, rangoli, Brahmagupta–Pell equation, Jacobi triple product identity. Figure 1. The first four triangular numbers. Left: Anuradha S Garge completed her PhD from. Pune University in 2008 under the supervision of Prof. S A Katre. Her research interests include K-theory and number theory.

  18. Proth Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.

  19. Fighting Rage with Fear: The “Faces of Muhammad” and the Limits of Secular Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin S. Deylami

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of incidents have pitted Islam against secularism and liberal democracy. This essay examines the Danish publication of the Prophet Muhammad cartoons in order to examine the deployment of rationality as a litmus test for political membership. It argues that Western media and political analysis of the protests surrounding the cartoons constructed Muslims as anti-rational and thus unfit for democratic citizenship. Such a deployment of rationality inhibits the possibility of and demands for political pluralism. The essay then looks to two disparate theorists of affective reason, Abdulkarim Soroush and William Connolly, to offer an alternative model of reason that encourages pluralist political engagement.

  20. FOUNDATION OF THE RATIONAL LEVEL OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL RELIABILITY IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MLODESTKY V. R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. The main points of contractual obligations is their timely performance with ensuring the desired level of investments of the investment funds provided for in this contract. The longer the execution of the works under the contract, the higher the probability of violation of these terms. Analysis of construction projects over the past decade has shown that the situation has not changed significantly, according to [8] contemporary data on the construction of a number of objects from which it follows that the larger the object, and accordingly, the longer construction period, the more the actual deviation of the actual terms of the construction of the planned, up to 50...100% in some cases. The comparison of these data shows that the problem of ensuring reliable operation of the construction company on the stage of implementation of a specific project is relevant in the present time. Analysis of recent research. The analysis of researches in the field of the rational justification of organizational and technological reliability values shows that its range is in the range from 0.35 to 0.9, it indicates the absence of a reasoned approach to this issue. Of course, for a more reliable implementation of the plan one needs to have a certain amount of appropriate material and financial resources, but in the management process is another important resource that should be in possession of the subject of management this is information. The purpose and objectives of work. The aim of this work is the study of the rational level of organizational and technological reliability (OTR based on analysis of the need for this information. To achieve the goal of the article were set and solve the following tasks: - to establish the relationship between OTR and the right amount of information; - to determine the influence of the accuracy of determining the current state of the controlled parameter and the level of information; - to justify the

  1. Definition of rational antiepileptic polypharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, B J; Homan, R W

    1996-01-01

    Rational polypharmacy is in its earliest stages of development and will require substantial additional development to realize its full potential. Indeed, despite the powerful appeal of the concept, clinical proof is not yet available that RP is superior to monotherapy. Important questions need to be addressed: 1. Will RP control seizures more effectively than monotherapy? 2. What data are needed to develop RP for a specific patient? 3. Will RP be cost effective? 4. Can RP be developed which will treat or prevent epilepsy while controlling seizures? Possible approaches to these questions could include: 1. The development of a data base for prospective use to monitor patients being treated at Epilepsy Centers using RP principles. 2. Use the data obtained from the above to construct more specific studies to compare identified combination therapies with monotherapy. 3. Prospectively compare in a placebo controlled, blinded study, the effect of the combination of an anti-ictal medication and a laboratory proven antiepileptic drug for prevention of the development of epilepsy in an at risk population such as head trauma or stroke.

  2. Rationality, institutions and environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatn, Arild [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway)

    2005-11-01

    This paper is about how institutions determine choices and the importance of this for environmental policy. The model of individual rational choice from neoclassical economics is compared with the model of socially determined behavior. While in the first case, institutions are either exempted from or understood as mere economizing constraints on behavior, the latter perspective views institutions as basic structures necessary also to enable people to act. The paper develops a way to integrate the individualistic model into the wider perspective of social constructivism by viewing it as a special form of such construction. On the basis of this synthesis three issues with relevance for environmental economics are discussed. First, the role of institutional factors in the process of preference formation is emphasized. Next, the role of institutions for the choice of desired states of the environment is analyzed. Finally, the effect of various policy instruments to motivate people to produce these states is discussed. It is concluded that the core policy issue is to determine which institutional frameworks are most reasonable to apply to which kind of problem. Issues, which from the perspective of neoclassical economics are pure technical, become serious value questions if understood from an institutional perspective.

  3. Sagan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  4. Numbers and computers

    CERN Document Server

    Kneusel, Ronald T

    2015-01-01

    This is a book about numbers and how those numbers are represented in and operated on by computers. It is crucial that developers understand this area because the numerical operations allowed by computers, and the limitations of those operations, especially in the area of floating point math, affect virtually everything people try to do with computers. This book aims to fill this gap by exploring, in sufficient but not overwhelming detail, just what it is that computers do with numbers. Divided into two parts, the first deals with standard representations of integers and floating point numb

  5. Convergence acceleration of quasi-periodic and quasi-periodic-rational interpolations by polynomial corrections

    OpenAIRE

    Lusine Poghosyan

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers convergence acceleration of the quasi-periodic and the quasi-periodic-rational interpolations by application of polynomial corrections. We investigate convergence of the resultant quasi-periodic-polynomial and quasi-periodic-rational-polynomial interpolations and derive exact constants of the main terms of asymptotic errors in the regions away from the endpoints. Results of numerical experiments clarify behavior of the corresponding interpolations for moderate number of in...

  6. Rational development of radiopharmaceuticals for HIV-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Chuen-Yen; Maldarelli, Frank; Eckelman, William C.; Neumann, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    The global battle against HIV-1 would benefit from a sensitive and specific radiopharmaceutical to localize HIV-infected cells. Ideally, this probe would be able to identify latently infected host cells containing replication competent HIV sequences. Clinical and research applications would include assessment of reservoirs, informing clinical management by facilitating assessment of burden of infection in different compartments, monitoring disease progression and monitoring response to therapy. A “rational” development approach could facilitate efficient identification of an appropriate targeted radiopharmaceutical. Rational development starts with understanding characteristics of the disease that can be effectively targeted and then engineering radiopharmaceuticals to hone in on an appropriate target, which in the case of HIV-1 (HIV) might be an HIV-specific product on or in the host cell, a differentially expressed gene product, an integrated DNA sequence specific enzymatic activity, part of the inflammatory response, or a combination of these. This is different from the current approach that starts with a radiopharmaceutical for a target associated with a disease, mostly from autopsy studies, without a strong rationale for the potential to impact patient care. At present, no targeted therapies are available for HIV latency, although a number of approaches are under study. Here we discuss requirements for a radiopharmaceutical useful in strategies targeting persistently infected cells. The radiopharmaceutical for HIV should be developed based on HIV biology, studied in an animal model and then in humans, and ultimately used in clinical and research settings

  7. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chok

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  8. Poisson branching point processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, K.; Teich, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule--Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers

  9. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Loczi, Lajos

    2014-05-19

    We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.

  10. Positivity Preserving Interpolation Using Rational Bicubic Spline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the positivity preserving interpolation for positive surfaces data by extending the C1 rational cubic spline interpolant of Karim and Kong to the bivariate cases. The partially blended rational bicubic spline has 12 parameters in the descriptions where 8 of them are free parameters. The sufficient conditions for the positivity are derived on every four boundary curves network on the rectangular patch. Numerical comparison with existing schemes also has been done in detail. Based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, our partially blended rational bicubic spline is on a par with the established methods.

  11. Towards a Characterization of Rational Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Itai Arieli

    2008-01-01

    R. J. Aumann and J. H. Drèze (2008) define a rational expectation of a player i in a game G as the expected payo of some type of i in some belief system for G in which common knowledge of rationality and common priors obtain. Our goal is to characterize the set of rational expectations in terms of the game's payoff matrix. We provide such a characterization for a specific class of strategic games, called semi-elementary, which includes Myerson's "elementary" games.

  12. Rational Verification in Iterated Electric Boolean Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssouf Oualhadj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric boolean games are compact representations of games where the players have qualitative objectives described by LTL formulae and have limited resources. We study the complexity of several decision problems related to the analysis of rationality in electric boolean games with LTL objectives. In particular, we report that the problem of deciding whether a profile is a Nash equilibrium in an iterated electric boolean game is no harder than in iterated boolean games without resource bounds. We show that it is a PSPACE-complete problem. As a corollary, we obtain that both rational elimination and rational construction of Nash equilibria by a supervising authority are PSPACE-complete problems.

  13. Positroids Induced by Rational Dyck Paths

    OpenAIRE

    Gotti, Felix

    2017-01-01

    A rational Dyck path of type $(m,d)$ is an increasing unit-step lattice path from $(0,0)$ to $(m,d) \\in \\mathbb{Z}^2$ that never goes above the diagonal line $y = (d/m)x$. On the other hand, a positroid of rank $d$ on the ground set $[d+m]$ is a special type of matroid coming from the totally nonnegative Grassmannian. In this paper we describe how to naturally assign a rank $d$ positroid on the ground set $[d+m]$, which we name rational Dyck positroid, to each rational Dyck path of type $(m,d...

  14. Many faces of rationality: Implications of the great rationality debate for clinical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Elqayam, Shira

    2017-10-01

    Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models. Rationality is typically classified under umbrella of normative (addressing the question how people "should" or "ought to" make their decisions) and descriptive theories of decision-making (which portray how people actually make their decisions). Normative theories of rational thought of relevance to medicine include epistemic theories that direct practice of evidence-based medicine and expected utility theory, which provides the basis for widely used clinical decision analyses. Descriptive theories of rationality of direct relevance to medical decision-making include bounded rationality, argumentative theory of reasoning, adaptive rationality, dual processing model of rationality, regret-based rationality, pragmatic/substantive rationality, and meta-rationality. For the first time, we provide a review of wide range of theories and models of rationality. We showed that what is "rational" behaviour under one rationality theory may be irrational under the other theory. We also showed that context is of paramount importance to rationality and that no one model of rationality can possibly fit all contexts. We suggest that in context-poor situations, such as policy decision-making, normative theories based on expected utility informed by best research evidence may provide the optimal approach to medical decision-making, whereas in the context

  15. Globally conformal invariant gauge field theory with rational correlation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolov, N M; Todorov, I T; CERN. Geneva; Todorov, Ivan T.

    2003-01-01

    Operator product expansions (OPE) for the product of a scalar field with its conjugate are presented as infinite sums of bilocal fields $V_{\\kappa} (x_1, x_2)$ of dimension $(\\kappa, \\kappa)$. For a {\\it globally conformal invariant} (GCI) theory we write down the OPE of $V_{\\kappa}$ into a series of {\\it twist} (dimension minus rank) $2\\kappa$ symmetric traceless tensor fields with coefficients computed from the (rational) 4-point function of the scalar field. We argue that the theory of a GCI hermitian scalar field ${\\cal L} (x)$ of dimension 4 in $D = 4$ Minkowski space such that the 3-point functions of a pair of ${\\cal L}$'s and a scalar field of dimension 2 or 4 vanish can be interpreted as the theory of local observables of a conformally invariant fixed point in a gauge theory with Lagrangian density ${\\cal L} (x)$.

  16. Rational quadratic trigonometric Bézier curve based on new basis with exponential functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Beibei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We construct a rational quadratic trigonometric Bézier curve with four shape parameters by introducing two exponential functions into the trigonometric basis functions in this paper. It has the similar properties as the rational quadratic Bézier curve. For given control points, the shape of the curve can be flexibly adjusted by changing the shape parameters and the weight. Some conics can be exactly represented when the control points, the shape parameters and the weight are chosen appropriately. The C0, C1 and C2 continuous conditions for joining two constructed curves are discussed. Some examples are given.

  17. Rational use of medicines - Indian perspective!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, G P; Manna, P K

    2015-01-01

    India, the largest democracy in the world, is with a federal structure of 29 states and 7 union territories. With a population of more than 1.2 billion, resource is always a constraint and so is in the health system too. In the federal structure, providing healthcare is largely the responsibility of state governments. Medicines are important component of health care delivery system and quality care is dependent on the availability and proper use of quality medicines. In spite of being known as pharmacy of the third world, poor access to medicines in the country is always a serious concern. Realizing the need of quality use of medicines, several initiatives have been initiated. As early as 1994, seeds of rational use of medicines were sown in the country with two initiatives: establishment of a civil society, Delhi Society for Promoting Rational Use of Drugs (DSPURD) and establishment of government agency in Tamil Nadu, a southern state, called Tamil Medical Services Corporation Limited (TNMSCL). DSPUD was in official association with World Health Organization Country Office for implementing essential medicine programme in the country for two biennia. In addition to organizing sensitising and training programme for healthcare professionals throughout the country, it looked after the procurement and appropriate use of medicines in Delhi government health facilities. TNMSCL has made innovations in medicine management including procurement directly from manufacturers as a part of pooled procurement, establishing warehouses with modern storage facilities and Information Technology enabled management of whole process. TNMSCL Model is now replicated in almost the entire country and even in some small other countries as it is successful in improving access to medicines.The National Government and the State Governments have developed strategies to promote rational use of medicines as a part of improving access and quality care in public health facilities. National

  18. Précis of bayesian rationality: The probabilistic approach to human reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaksford, Mike; Chater, Nick

    2009-02-01

    According to Aristotle, humans are the rational animal. The borderline between rationality and irrationality is fundamental to many aspects of human life including the law, mental health, and language interpretation. But what is it to be rational? One answer, deeply embedded in the Western intellectual tradition since ancient Greece, is that rationality concerns reasoning according to the rules of logic--the formal theory that specifies the inferential connections that hold with certainty between propositions. Piaget viewed logical reasoning as defining the end-point of cognitive development; and contemporary psychology of reasoning has focussed on comparing human reasoning against logical standards. Bayesian Rationality argues that rationality is defined instead by the ability to reason about uncertainty. Although people are typically poor at numerical reasoning about probability, human thought is sensitive to subtle patterns of qualitative Bayesian, probabilistic reasoning. In Chapters 1-4 of Bayesian Rationality (Oaksford & Chater 2007), the case is made that cognition in general, and human everyday reasoning in particular, is best viewed as solving probabilistic, rather than logical, inference problems. In Chapters 5-7 the psychology of "deductive" reasoning is tackled head-on: It is argued that purportedly "logical" reasoning problems, revealing apparently irrational behaviour, are better understood from a probabilistic point of view. Data from conditional reasoning, Wason's selection task, and syllogistic inference are captured by recasting these problems probabilistically. The probabilistic approach makes a variety of novel predictions which have been experimentally confirmed. The book considers the implications of this work, and the wider "probabilistic turn" in cognitive science and artificial intelligence, for understanding human rationality.

  19. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transfinite Numbers. What is Infinity? S M Srivastava. In a series of revolutionary articles written during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the great Ger- man mathematician Georg Cantor removed the age-old mistrust of infinity and created an exceptionally beau- tiful and useful theory of transfinite numbers. This is.

  20. SharePoint governance

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mudassar

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave i informasjons- og kommunikasjonsteknologi IKT590 2013 – Universitetet i Agder, Grimstad SharePoint is a web-based business collaboration platform from Microsoft which is very robust and dynamic in nature. The platform has been in the market for more than a decade and has been adapted by large number of organisations in the world. The platform has become larger in scale, richer in features and is improving consistently with every new version. However, SharePoint ...

  1. The effect of essential medicines programme on rational use of medicines in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanhong; Yang, Chen; Yin, Xiaoxv; Zhu, Minmin; Yang, Huajie; Wang, Yunxia; Li, Yongbin; Liu, Liqun; Dong, Xiaoxin; Cao, Shiyi; Lu, Zuxun

    2016-02-01

    Irrational use of medicines is a serious problem in China and has been the primary target of China's national essential medicines programme (NEMP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the NEMP on rational use of medicines in China. A nationwide sample of 3 76 700 prescriptions written by primary care providers from 2007 to 2011 was obtained following a multistage sampling process. Six prescribing indicators were measured: average number of drugs prescribed per prescription, average expenditure per prescription, percentage of prescriptions with antibiotics, with injections, with two or more antibiotics and with corticosteroids. The pre-post with control study design and the difference-in-difference (DID) methodology were employed to evaluate the effect of NEMP. Prescriptions from primary care institutions with the NEMP implementation were better than those without NEMP implementation. Adjusting for the institution's sizes, ownership, economic geographic regions and the year of NEMP implementation, the DID estimator was statistically significant in all prescribing indicators except for the percentage of prescriptions with injection. The number of drugs per prescription decreased by 0.2 per prescription [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.3, -0.1] after the NEMP was implemented; the percentages of prescriptions with antibiotics, with corticosteroids and with two or more antibiotics decreased by 7% (95% CI: -10, -4), 1% (95% CI: -2, 0) and 2% (95% CI: -3, 0), respectively; and the average expenditure per prescription decreased by eight Renminbi Yuan (95% CI: -14, -2). The effect of NEMP on reducing irrational prescribing was greater in public institutions than in private institutions (P rational use of medicines, and the effect is greater in public institutions than in private institutions. However, the irrational use is still high, pointing to the need for further reforms to tackle the underlying causes, such as clinical guidelines and patient

  2. The effectiveness of rational emotive therapy on achievement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of rational emotive therapy on achievement motivation of students. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy on Students Achievement Motivation.

  3. Proposal for energy rationalization in the dairy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, M.; Bova, S.; Florio, G.

    A cost-benefit analysis was carried out on the possible measures for energy rationalization in a small-medium cheese plant situated in Calabria (Southern Italy). The first stage involved detailing knowledge of the working processes and of the total energy needs. Based on this data and on the assumption that the present production cycle should be only slightly modified, some technically feasible solutions were identified. Among the most convenient solutions from the economic point of view, is that requiring cogeneration with diesel motors.

  4. Environmental Management: the Ideology of Natural Resource Rational Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotukhin, V. M.; Gogolin, V. A.; Yazevich, M. Yu; Baumgarten, M. I.; Dyagileva, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the ontological and methodological principles of environmental management. These principles form the united ideology of natural resource rational use as the environment preservation basis. Consideration of environmental issues from the environmental management point of view is stipulated by the concern of the scientific community about the existence of mankind and the sphere of its inhabiting. The need to overcome the stereotypes existing in mass consciousness about safe and environmentally friendly consumption is stressed. The process of forming environmental management policy should contribute to the stabilization (balancing) of the consumers’ expectations and collective decision-making based on a public ecological consensus.

  5. Changing fields of rationality - a policy for change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strumse, Einar; Westskog, Hege; Winther, Tanja

    2010-07-01

    Work objective: To analyze effective strategies for changing households' energy consumption based on an interdisciplinary model for understanding change. Methodology: In this paper we develop a conceptual model for understanding individuals' energy consumption. We synthesize insights from anthropology, social psychology and economics grasping perspectives from behaviour to practice and from the Bourdieu's fields to rationality thinking in economics. We use this insight to analyze strategies for change. Abstract: In this paper we analyze effective strategies for changing households' energy consumption based on an interdisciplinary model for understanding change. The model focuses on four main categories for understanding individual consumption: a. Material constraints b. Values and identity c. Norms d. Ability These are the main influencing factors of the individual's consumption level, but in interaction with the corresponding group and the societal levels for the same factors. The model can be illustrated. One combination of factors on all levels constitutes a field of rationality. We claim that an important strategy for changing energy consumption towards sustainability is changing the field of rationality of the individual. Changing of rationality fields would from our point of view initiate reflection which is an important condition for changed behavior. One example of changing of fields is information measures that relates energy consumption to the 'citizen' field rather than the 'consumer' field. Hence, according to our conceptual framework - how policy should be framed (information measures for instance ) would be an important knowledge area for design of effective policy measures. (Author)

  6. Many faces of rationality: Implications of the great rationality debate for clinical decision‐making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elqayam, Shira

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models. Rationality is typically classified under umbrella of normative (addressing the question how people “should” or “ought to” make their decisions) and descriptive theories of decision‐making (which portray how people actually make their decisions). Normative theories of rational thought of relevance to medicine include epistemic theories that direct practice of evidence‐based medicine and expected utility theory, which provides the basis for widely used clinical decision analyses. Descriptive theories of rationality of direct relevance to medical decision‐making include bounded rationality, argumentative theory of reasoning, adaptive rationality, dual processing model of rationality, regret‐based rationality, pragmatic/substantive rationality, and meta‐rationality. For the first time, we provide a review of wide range of theories and models of rationality. We showed that what is “rational” behaviour under one rationality theory may be irrational under the other theory. We also showed that context is of paramount importance to rationality and that no one model of rationality can possibly fit all contexts. We suggest that in context‐poor situations, such as policy decision‐making, normative theories based on expected utility informed by best research evidence may provide the optimal approach to medical decision

  7. Smooth surfaces from rational bilinear patches

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jun; Pottmann, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Smooth freeform skins from simple panels constitute a challenging topic arising in contemporary architecture. We contribute to this problem area by showing how to approximate a negatively curved surface by smoothly joined rational bilinear patches

  8. Towards a classification of rational Hopf algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.; Ganchev, A.; Vecsernyes, P.

    1994-02-01

    Rational Hopf algebras, i.e. certain quasitriangular weak quasi-Hopf *-algebras, are expected to describe the quantum symmetry of rational field theories. In this paper methods are developed which allow for a classification of all rational Hopf algebras that are compatible with some prescribed set of fusion rules. The algebras are parametrized by the solutions of the square, pentagon and hexagon identities. As examples, we classify all solutions for fusion rules with not more than three sectors, as well as for the level three affine A 1 (1) fusion rules. We also establish several general properties of rational Hopf algebras and present a graphical description of the coassociator in terms of labelled tetrahedra. The latter construction allows to make contact with conformal field theory fusing matrices and with invariants of three-manifolds and topological lattice field theory. (orig.)

  9. Bounded rational choice behaviour: applications in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo

    2016-01-01

    Even though the theory of rational behaviour has been challenged for almost 100 years, the dominant approach within the field of transport has been based upon the assumptions of neoclassical economics that we live in a world of rational decision makers who always have perfect knowledge and aim...... rational choice behaviour focuses on how the latter approach can be seriously taken into account within transport applications. As the editors discuss in the introduction, a true optimal choice can only be made if an individual has full and perfect information of all relevant attributes in his/her choice...... set. An individual is said to demonstrate bounded rational behaviour if he/she does not systematically consider all attributes deemed relevant for the decision problem at hand, does not consider all choice options and/or does not choose the best choice alternative. Such simplified representation...

  10. Principles of Economic Rationality in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalan, Marion; Winter, York; Nachev, Vladislav

    2017-12-12

    Humans and non-human animals frequently violate principles of economic rationality, such as transitivity, independence of irrelevant alternatives, and regularity. The conditions that lead to these violations are not completely understood. Here we report a study on mice tested in automated home-cage setups using rewards of drinking water. Rewards differed in one of two dimensions, volume or probability. Our results suggest that mouse choice conforms to the principles of economic rationality for options that differ along a single reward dimension. A psychometric analysis of mouse choices further revealed that mice responded more strongly to differences in probability than to differences in volume, despite equivalence in return rates. This study also demonstrates the synergistic effect between the principles of economic rationality and psychophysics in making quantitative predictions about choices of healthy laboratory mice. This opens up new possibilities for the analyses of multi-dimensional choice and the use of mice with cognitive impairments that may violate economic rationality.

  11. Pandemic ventilator rationing and appeals processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrone, Daniel; Resnik, David

    2011-06-01

    In a severe influenza pandemic, hospitals will likely experience serious and widespread shortages of patient pulmonary ventilators and of staff qualified to operate them. Deciding who will receive access to mechanical ventilation will often determine who lives and who dies. This prospect raises an important question whether pandemic preparedness plans should include some process by which individuals affected by ventilator rationing would have the opportunity to appeal adverse decisions. However, the issue of appeals processes to ventilator rationing decisions has been largely neglected in state pandemic planning efforts. If we are to devise just and effective plans for coping with a severe influenza pandemic, more attention to the issue of appeals processes for pandemic ventilator rationing decisions is needed. Arguments for and against appeals processes are considered, and some suggestions are offered to help efforts at devising more rational pandemic preparedness plans.

  12. Rationally inattentive seller: sales and discrete pricing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 3 (2016), s. 1125-1155 ISSN 0034-6527 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity * sticky prices Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016

  13. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  14. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  15. Rational emotive behaviour therapy: distinctive features

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, Windy

    2008-01-01

    Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) encourages the client to focus on their emotional problems in order to understand, challenge and change the irrational beliefs that underpin these problems. REBT can help clients to strengthen conviction in their alternative rational beliefs by acting in ways that are consistent with them and thus encourage a healthier outlook.\\ud \\ud This accessible and direct guide introduces the reader to REBT while indicating how it is different from other approac...

  16. Heterogeneity, Bounded Rationality and Market Dysfunctionality

    OpenAIRE

    Xue-Zhong He; Lei Shi

    2008-01-01

    As the main building blocks of the modern finance theory, homogeneity and rational expectation have faced difficulty in explaining many market anomalies, stylized factors, and market inefficiency in empirical studies. As a result, heterogeneity and bounded rationality have been used as an alterative paradigm of asset price dynamics and this paradigm has been widely recognized recently in both academic and financial market practitioners. Within the framework of Chiarella, Dieci and He (2006a, ...

  17. Rationally Addicted to Drinking and Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Bask, Mikael; Melkersson, Maria

    2001-01-01

    When modeling demand for addictive consumption goods, the most widely used framework is the rational addiction model proposed by Becker and Murphy (1988). In the present paper, we extend the rational addiction model to include two addictive consumption goods, alcohol and cigarettes. We estimate the aggregate demand for alcohol and cigarettes in Sweden, using aggregate annual time series on sales volumes for the period 1955-1999. OLS estimates are compared to GMM estimates allowing for possibl...

  18. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing

    OpenAIRE

    Orosz, Gábor; Krekó, Péter; Paskuj, Benedek; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample (N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in re...

  19. Chocolate Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Caleb; Khovanova, Tanya; Park, Robin; Song, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a game played on a rectangular $m \\times n$ gridded chocolate bar. Each move, a player breaks the bar along a grid line. Each move after that consists of taking any piece of chocolate and breaking it again along existing grid lines, until just $mn$ individual squares remain. This paper enumerates the number of ways to break an $m \\times n$ bar, which we call chocolate numbers, and introduces four new sequences related to these numbers. Using various techniques, we p...

  20. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  1. Technical evaluation report on the Third 10-year Interval Inservice Inspection Program Plan: Florida Power and Light Company, Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4 (Docket Numbers 50-250 and 50-251)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.W.; Feige, E.J.; Galbraith, S.G.; Porter, A.M.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the results of the evaluation of the Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4, Third 10-Year Interval Inservice Inspection Program Plan, Revision 0, submitted September 9, 1993, including the requests for relief from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, requirements that the licensee has determined to be impractical. The Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4, Third 10-Year Interval Inservice Inspection Program Plan is evaluated in Section 2 of this report. The inservice inspection (ISI) program plan is evaluated for (a) compliance with the appropriate edition/addenda of Section XI, (b) acceptability of the examination sample, (c) correctness of the application of system or component examination exclusion criteria, and (d) compliance with ISI-related commitments identified during previous Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews. The requests for relief are evaluated in Section 3 of this report

  2. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  3. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martínez-Tur

    Full Text Available The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  4. Intergroup Conflict and Rational Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A.; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict –associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)– has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making. PMID:25461384

  5. Effective Entrepreneurial Choice: The Role of Rationality and Non-Rationality in Three Entrepreneurs Success Stories

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Anne Michele, Siang Yoon

    2007-01-01

    Good entrepreneurship is important for economic growth and productivity in any modern economy. The purpose of this dissertation is to research how good entrepreneurial decisions are made. In theory, optimal or rational decision making means choosing the best alternative in response to the problem. However, in reality, people do not act rationally because they often cannot make rational choices. The reason is that people do not have enough brain power, time or resources to process the compl...

  6. Lying for Strategic Advantage: Rational and Boundedly Rational Misrepresentation of Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Vincent P.

    2001-01-01

    Starting from Hendricks and McAfee's (2000) example of the Allies' decision to feint at Calais and attack at Normandy on D-Day, this paper models misrepresentation of intentions to competitors or enemies. Allowing for the possibility of bounded strategic rationality and rational players' responses to it yields a sensible account of lying via costless, noiseless messages. In many cases the model has generically unique pure-strategy sequential equilibria, in which rational players exploit bound...

  7. Nice numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, John

    2016-01-01

    In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...

  8. Rationality and institutions : an inquiry into the normative implications of rational choice theory

    OpenAIRE

    Engelen, Bart

    2007-01-01

    I aim to analyze in this dissertation what a desirable basic institutional structure looks like from the perspective of rationality. While the main topic is thus normative in nature, I start by clarifying in the first part what the notion of rationality exactly entails. I do so by focusing explicitly on the economic conception of rationality, according to which a rational individual is motivated to serve his self-interest on the basis of cost-benefit calculations. Such a Homo Economicus is ch...

  9. Numbers, sequences and series

    CERN Document Server

    Hirst, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Number and geometry are the foundations upon which mathematics has been built over some 3000 years. This book is concerned with the logical foundations of number systems from integers to complex numbers. The author has chosen to develop the ideas by illustrating the techniques used throughout mathematics rather than using a self-contained logical treatise. The idea of proof has been emphasised, as has the illustration of concepts from a graphical, numerical and algebraic point of view. Having laid the foundations of the number system, the author has then turned to the analysis of infinite proc

  10. Dynamic pricing of network goods with boundedly rational consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radner, Roy; Radunskaya, Ami; Sundararajan, Arun

    2014-01-07

    We present a model of dynamic monopoly pricing for a good that displays network effects. In contrast with the standard notion of a rational-expectations equilibrium, we model consumers as boundedly rational and unable either to pay immediate attention to each price change or to make accurate forecasts of the adoption of the network good. Our analysis shows that the seller's optimal price trajectory has the following structure: The price is low when the user base is below a target level, is high when the user base is above the target, and is set to keep the user base stationary once the target level has been attained. We show that this pricing policy is robust to a number of extensions, which include the product's user base evolving over time and consumers basing their choices on a mixture of a myopic and a "stubborn" expectation of adoption. Our results differ significantly from those that would be predicted by a model based on rational-expectations equilibrium and are more consistent with the pricing of network goods observed in practice.

  11. Empirical evidence for resource-rational anchoring and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieder, Falk; Griffiths, Thomas L; M Huys, Quentin J; Goodman, Noah D

    2018-04-01

    People's estimates of numerical quantities are systematically biased towards their initial guess. This anchoring bias is usually interpreted as sign of human irrationality, but it has recently been suggested that the anchoring bias instead results from people's rational use of their finite time and limited cognitive resources. If this were true, then adjustment should decrease with the relative cost of time. To test this hypothesis, we designed a new numerical estimation paradigm that controls people's knowledge and varies the cost of time and error independently while allowing people to invest as much or as little time and effort into refining their estimate as they wish. Two experiments confirmed the prediction that adjustment decreases with time cost but increases with error cost regardless of whether the anchor was self-generated or provided. These results support the hypothesis that people rationally adapt their number of adjustments to achieve a near-optimal speed-accuracy tradeoff. This suggests that the anchoring bias might be a signature of the rational use of finite time and limited cognitive resources rather than a sign of human irrationality.

  12. A discussion of theoretical and practical rationality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstroem, B. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). VTT Automation

    1999-12-01

    Theoretical rationality as defined in Expected Utility Theory and amended with other considerations gives a good basis for decision making. One should however always keep in mind that practical rationality often is far more complicated. People use their everyday experience when placed before new problems and this may lead to apparently irrational choices which on a closer scrutiny may be completely rational. Theories in human decision making unfortunately becomes untestable, firstly because a theory taking all considerations into account would be to complex to be practical and secondly because the data needed to test the theory cannot be collected. The benefit of EUT is that it is simple and straightforward as compared with competing theories. In the natural sciences rationality is often seen simply as a problem of optimisation. This view is practical, but it has to include also psychological and sociological considerations. The apparent controversy between natural and behavioural sciences could at least in principle be resolved by a better understanding of the complexity of human rationality. The human mind does not work in isolation, but it is adapted to a social community and a continuously changing environment. Understanding all components of human rationality is a challenge which cannot be solved on a short term basis. An important part of human rationality is connected to the intricate balance between individual and societal utility. The human mind has over thousands of years learnt to resolve that balance, but in the modern society there are decisions which may not be solvable with an intuitive approach and a strategy of trial and error. For these decisions more solid theories of rationality will be needed. EUT can in spite of its dismerits be used as the backbone for such a theory, but it has to be extended with better explanations of both individual and social rationality. If this understanding of the practical aspects of human rationality can be reached

  13. A discussion of theoretical and practical rationality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical rationality as defined in Expected Utility Theory and amended with other considerations gives a good basis for decision making. One should however always keep in mind that practical rationality often is far more complicated. People use their everyday experience when placed before new problems and this may lead to apparently irrational choices which on a closer scrutiny may be completely rational. Theories in human decision making unfortunately becomes untestable, firstly because a theory taking all considerations into account would be to complex to be practical and secondly because the data needed to test the theory cannot be collected. The benefit of EUT is that it is simple and straightforward as compared with competing theories. In the natural sciences rationality is often seen simply as a problem of optimisation. This view is practical, but it has to include also psychological and sociological considerations. The apparent controversy between natural and behavioural sciences could at least in principle be resolved by a better understanding of the complexity of human rationality. The human mind does not work in isolation, but it is adapted to a social community and a continuously changing environment. Understanding all components of human rationality is a challenge which cannot be solved on a short term basis. An important part of human rationality is connected to the intricate balance between individual and societal utility. The human mind has over thousands of years learnt to resolve that balance, but in the modern society there are decisions which may not be solvable with an intuitive approach and a strategy of trial and error. For these decisions more solid theories of rationality will be needed. EUT can in spite of its dismerits be used as the backbone for such a theory, but it has to be extended with better explanations of both individual and social rationality. If this understanding of the practical aspects of human rationality can be reached

  14. Rationality and irrationality in understanding human behaviour. An evaluation of the methodological consequences of conceptualising irrationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Toth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most known and fertile models for understanding human behaviour are those which rest on the assumption of human rationality. These models have specific strategies for dealing with situations in which understanding human behaviour becomes difficult, i.e. cases of irrationality, and this, in turn, leads to particular methodological consequences. The aim of this article is to illustrate and systematize some of the typical theoretical approaches to the issues of rationality and irrationality and their methodological consequences, while warning, at the same time, against the risks of applying rationality models of a pronounced normative-evaluative nature. A number of important methodological consequences of applying the principle of charity to various degrees of strength are analysed and a taxonomic grid for the different ways of approaching rationality is presented.

  15. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  16. Collective Rationality in Graph Aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endriss, U.; Grandi, U.; Schaub, T.; Friedrich, G.; O'Sullivan, B.

    2014-01-01

    Suppose a number of agents each provide us with a directed graph over a common set of vertices. Graph aggregation is the problem of computing a single “collective” graph that best represents the information inherent in this profile of individual graphs. We consider this aggregation problem from the

  17. Funny Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore M. Porter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The struggle over cure rate measures in nineteenth-century asylums provides an exemplary instance of how, when used for official assessments of institutions, these numbers become sites of contestation. The evasion of goals and corruption of measures tends to make these numbers “funny” in the sense of becoming dis-honest, while the mismatch between boring, technical appearances and cunning backstage manipulations supplies dark humor. The dangers are evident in recent efforts to decentralize the functions of governments and corporations using incen-tives based on quantified targets.

  18. Transcendental numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the topic of transcendental numbers for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The text is constructed to support a full course on the subject, including descriptions of both relevant theorems and their applications. While the first part of the book focuses on introducing key concepts, the second part presents more complex material, including applications of Baker’s theorem, Schanuel’s conjecture, and Schneider’s theorem. These later chapters may be of interest to researchers interested in examining the relationship between transcendence and L-functions. Readers of this text should possess basic knowledge of complex analysis and elementary algebraic number theory.

  19. Astronomy in the training of teachers and the role of practical rationality in sky observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretones, P. S.; Compiani, M.

    2006-08-01

    This work analyses a program in the training of teachers that departs from the courses based on the technical rationality. An Astronomy course was offered to Science and Geography teachers of the four last years of high school education, comprising 46 hours, and organized in 2002 by the Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas in Limeira, Brazil. Following the course a study group was established and held five meetings. The data was obtained through assessments, interviews, and accounts by the teachers and records from the classes and meetings. The actions and conceptual changes and the role of the Practical Rationality were then investigated. It was verified that for sky observation, the model of Practical Rationality within the reflective teacher theoretical framework and tutorial actions leads to knowledge acquisition, conceptual changes and extracurricular activities. Examples are: suggestions, personal actions of the teachers without their students, accounts of extracurricular activities and development of astronomical contents in class, actions in the pedagogical practices and reflections of the teachers with the teacher/ researcher towards the assessment of such changes are shown. It is important to stress that sky observation has specific features that lead to an equally specific school practice, in which the contents and procedures based on observations and their representation point towards a more practical rationality. Even in a training course for teachers based on technical rationality, the introduction of sky observation deepens the practical rationality and the development of principles that guide the acquisition and the teaching of knowledge about sky observation.

  20. Extension of P-adic Exact Scientific Computational Library (ESCL) to Compute the Exponential of Rational Matrix

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Chao

    2008-01-01

    ...) using p-adic arithmetic. New algorithms have been designed and implemented for matrix operations with rational numbers by representing numerator and denominator with arbitrary length integers, all integers and fractional...

  1. Using Rational-Emotive Therapy to Prevent Classroom Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Jo; Coleman, Maggie

    1988-01-01

    Teachers are encouraged to utilize rational-emotive therapy to prevent and deal with classroom behavior problems. Rational-emotive therapy is defined, the ABC model of rational thinking briefly explained, types of irrational thinking identified, and suggestions for becoming a rational thinker are offered. Classroom examples are given. (DB)

  2. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this is a characteristic difference between finite and infinite sets and created an immensely useful branch of mathematics based on this idea which had a great impact on the whole of mathe- matics. For example, the question of what is a number (finite or infinite) is almost a philosophical one. However Cantor's work turned it ...

  3. The database search problem: a question of rational decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelson, S; Biedermann, A; Bozza, S; Taroni, F

    2012-10-10

    This paper applies probability and decision theory in the graphical interface of an influence diagram to study the formal requirements of rationality which justify the individualization of a person found through a database search. The decision-theoretic part of the analysis studies the parameters that a rational decision maker would use to individualize the selected person. The modeling part (in the form of an influence diagram) clarifies the relationships between this decision and the ingredients that make up the database search problem, i.e., the results of the database search and the different pairs of propositions describing whether an individual is at the source of the crime stain. These analyses evaluate the desirability associated with the decision of 'individualizing' (and 'not individualizing'). They point out that this decision is a function of (i) the probability that the individual in question is, in fact, at the source of the crime stain (i.e., the state of nature), and (ii) the decision maker's preferences among the possible consequences of the decision (i.e., the decision maker's loss function). We discuss the relevance and argumentative implications of these insights with respect to recent comments in specialized literature, which suggest points of view that are opposed to the results of our study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rational reflection coefficient and inverse scattering on the line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatier, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    Inverse scattering for the Schroedinger equation on the line is studied for reflection and transmission coefficients that satisfy the usual regularity conditions and are rational functions of k. The origin is still a particular point, but the potentials do not need to be cut at this point like in previous studies. Giving up this restriction corresponds to the existence of poles for both reflection coefficients in both upper and lower half k-planes. It is shown that the problem reduces to solving a linear algebraic system. A different algorithm, made of a sequence of Darboux-Backlund transforms, gives also the solution in closed form and enables to study separately modifications of both sides of the potential due to the introduction of poles. Thus it paves the way for approximation studies. Generalizations and particular problems will be studied in forthcoming papers

  5. Gravity with a cosmological constant from rational curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Tim

    2015-11-01

    We give a new formula for all tree-level correlators of boundary field insertions in gauged N=8 supergravity in AdS4; this is an analogue of the tree-level S-matrix in anti-de Sitter space. The formula is written in terms of rational maps from the Riemann sphere to twistor space, with no reference to bulk perturbation theory. It is polynomial in the cosmological constant, and equal to the classical scattering amplitudes of supergravity in the flat space limit. The formula is manifestly supersymmetric, independent of gauge choices on twistor space, and equivalent to expressions computed via perturbation theory at 3-point overline{MHV} and n-point MHV. We also show that the formula factorizes and obeys BCFW recursion in twistor space.

  6. Gravity with a cosmological constant from rational curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, Tim

    2015-01-01

    We give a new formula for all tree-level correlators of boundary field insertions in gauged N=8 supergravity in AdS_4; this is an analogue of the tree-level S-matrix in anti-de Sitter space. The formula is written in terms of rational maps from the Riemann sphere to twistor space, with no reference to bulk perturbation theory. It is polynomial in the cosmological constant, and equal to the classical scattering amplitudes of supergravity in the flat space limit. The formula is manifestly supersymmetric, independent of gauge choices on twistor space, and equivalent to expressions computed via perturbation theory at 3-point (MHV)-bar and n-point MHV. We also show that the formula factorizes and obeys BCFW recursion in twistor space.

  7. Battling demons with medical authority: werewolves, physicians and rationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Nadine

    2013-09-01

    Werewolves and physicians experienced their closest contact in the context of early modern witch and werewolf trials. For medical critics of the trials, melancholic diseases served as reference points for medical explanations of both individual cases and werewolf beliefs in general. This paper attempts to construct a conceptual history of werewolf beliefs and their respective medical responses. After differentiating the relevant terms, pre-modern werewolf concepts and medical lycanthropy are introduced. The early modern controversy between medical and demonological explanations forms the main part of this study. The history of werewolves and their medical explanations is then traced through to present times. An important point of discussion is to what extent the physicians' engagements with werewolves can be characterized as rationalization.

  8. Insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables - Common test methods - Part 5-1: Methods specific to filling compounds - Drop-point - Separation of oil - Lower temperature brittleness - Total acid number - Absence of corrosive components - Permittivity at 23 °C - DC resistivity at 23 °C and 100 °C

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Specifies the test methods for filling compounds of electric cables used with telecommunication equipment. Gives the methods for drop-point, separation of oil, lower temperature brittleness, total acid number, absence of corrosive components, permittivity at 23 °C, d.c. resistivity at 23°C and 100°C.

  9. Minimax rational approximation of the Fermi-Dirac distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Jonathan E.

    2016-10-01

    Accurate rational approximations of the Fermi-Dirac distribution are a useful component in many numerical algorithms for electronic structure calculations. The best known approximations use O(log(βΔ)log(ɛ-1)) poles to achieve an error tolerance ɛ at temperature β-1 over an energy interval Δ. We apply minimax approximation to reduce the number of poles by a factor of four and replace Δ with Δocc, the occupied energy interval. This is particularly beneficial when Δ ≫ Δocc, such as in electronic structure calculations that use a large basis set.

  10. Possibilities of rationalizing gas storage in hydrocarbon deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stricker; Gilch; Kretzschmar

    1990-01-01

    A number of criteria on the utilization of gas fields for storage and major methods for rationalizing such storage reservoirs (such as pressure optimization and increase of well performance) are indicated. The pressure reduction/ pressure increase conducted in phases and the investigations involved are discussed in detail. In particular, experiences and results for fixing the maximum allowable storage pressures are analyzed critically. Problems of gas blending in case of different compositions of residual gas and storage gas are dealt with. Finally, some recommendations are given for the necessary investigations to increase efficiency in the conversion of depleted hydrocarbon deposits to gas storage. 3 figs

  11. A rational function based scheme for solving advection equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Feng; Yabe, Takashi.

    1995-07-01

    A numerical scheme for solving advection equations is presented. The scheme is derived from a rational interpolation function. Some properties of the scheme with respect to convex-concave preserving and monotone preserving are discussed. We find that the scheme is attractive in surpressinging overshoots and undershoots even in the vicinities of discontinuity. The scheme can also be easily swicthed as the CIP (Cubic interpolated Pseudo-Particle) method to get a third-order accuracy in smooth region. Numbers of numerical tests are carried out to show the non-oscillatory and less diffusive nature of the scheme. (author)

  12. Rational assembly of nanoparticle superlattices with designed lattice symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Oleg; Lu, Fang; Tagawa, Miho

    2017-09-05

    A method for lattice design via multivalent linkers (LDML) is disclosed that introduces a rationally designed symmetry of connections between particles in order to achieve control over the morphology of their assembly. The method affords the inclusion of different programmable interactions within one linker that allow an assembly of different types of particles. The designed symmetry of connections is preferably provided utilizing DNA encoding. The linkers may include fabricated "patchy" particles, DNA scaffold constructs and Y-shaped DNA linkers, anisotropic particles, which are preferably functionalized with DNA, multimeric protein-DNA complexes, and particles with finite numbers of DNA linkers.

  13. On a Graphical Technique for Evaluating Some Rational Expectations Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Swensen, Anders R.

    2011-01-01

    Campbell and Shiller (1987) proposed a graphical technique for the present value model, which consists of plotting estimates of the spread and theoretical spread as calculated from the cointegrated vector autoregressive model without imposing the restrictions implied by the present value model....... In addition to getting a visual impression of the fit of the model, the purpose is to see if the two spreads are nevertheless similar as measured by correlation, variance ratio, and noise ratio. We extend these techniques to a number of rational expectation models and give a general definition of spread...

  14. Darboux integrability and rational reversibility in cubic systems with two invariant straight lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cozma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We find conditions for a singular point O(0,0 of a center or a focus type to be a center, in a cubic differential system with two distinct invariant straight lines. The presence of a center at O(0,0 is proved by using the method of Darboux integrability and the rational reversibility.

  15. On rationality of moduli spaces of vector bundles on real Hirzebruch ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Moduli spaces of semistable vector bundles on a smooth projective variety are studied from various points of view. One of the questions that is often addressed is the birational type of the moduli space, more precisely, the question of rationality. It is known that the moduli space of semistable vector bundles of ...

  16. On the Hegemony of Technical Rationality and the Importance of Distinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkoy, Oivind

    2017-01-01

    The point of departure in this article is the hegemony of technical rationality when it comes to the justification of music education. This is considered as an example of uniformity, sameness, and homogeneity, or worse, simplicity and naivety--or even worse, a sweet innocence--regarding understanding and thoughts about life, society, and culture…

  17. Experiental Marketing vs. Traditional Marketing: Creating Rational and Emotional Liaisons with Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Dainora Grundey

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show peculiarities of traditional and experiential marketing and describe why experiential marketing is better way to understand consumer behaviour. Comparative analysis shows the main characteristics of traditional and experiential marketing. Traditional marketing characteristics are there: product functional characteristics and superiority, narrow determinate product categories, point of view to the consumer as a rational thinker, application analytical, quan...

  18. Duopoly competition for rational addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SF Koch

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an examination of an oligopoly market for addictive commodities, specifically cigarettes. The model is characterized by overlapping generations of consumers and differentiated products. A price equilibrium, which is both stationary and symmetric, is characterized. The model accounts for many of the features within the South African tobacco market. Although excise taxes rose in South Africa, and the actual price in the market rose by more than the increase in the excise tax, the model shows that the increase in the price beyond the excise tax was caused by factors other than the change in the tax rate. The model also points to potential empirical problems associated with estimating cigarette market outcomes, due to the fact that the combination of market structure and addiction may greatly impact the assumed exogeneity of the prices used in the analysis.

  19. Space cutter compensation method for five-axis nonuniform rational basis spline machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyu Ding

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In view of the good machining performance of traditional three-axis nonuniform rational basis spline interpolation and the space cutter compensation issue in multi-axis machining, this article presents a triple nonuniform rational basis spline five-axis interpolation method, which uses three nonuniform rational basis spline curves to describe cutter center location, cutter axis vector, and cutter contact point trajectory, respectively. The relative position of the cutter and workpiece is calculated under the workpiece coordinate system, and the cutter machining trajectory can be described precisely and smoothly using this method. The three nonuniform rational basis spline curves are transformed into a 12-dimentional Bézier curve to carry out discretization during the discrete process. With the cutter contact point trajectory as the precision control condition, the discretization is fast. As for different cutters and corners, the complete description method of space cutter compensation vector is presented in this article. Finally, the five-axis nonuniform rational basis spline machining method is further verified in a two-turntable five-axis machine.

  20. [Rationalization and rationing at the bedside. A normative and empirical status quo analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, D

    2014-02-01

    The topic of bedside rationing is increasingly discussed in Germany. Further need for clarification exists for the question how bedside rationing (e.g., in the area of overcare) can be justified despite coexistent inefficiencies. This paper outlines and analyses the relationship of waste avoidance and rationing from an ethical perspective. Empirical findings regarding the status quo of bedside rationing and rationalization are presented. These normative and empirical explorations will then be further specified regarding opportunities for future physician-driven activities to tackle overuse. The self-government partners in Germany should communicate more explicitly within their communities and to the public how and with which benchmarks they aim to reduce inefficient health care (overuse) in an appropriate manner. Physician-driven activities such as the "Choosing Wisely®" initiative in the USA could provide a first step to raise the awareness for overuse among physicians as well as in the public.

  1. Families of Smooth Rational Curves of Small Degree on the Fano Variety of Degree 5 of Main Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Omelkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider some families of smooth rational curves of degree 2, 3 and 4 on a smooth Fano threefold X which is a linear section of the Grassmanian G(1, 4 under the Pl¨ucker embedding. We prove that these families are irreducible. The proof of the irreducibility of the families of curves of degree d is based on the study of degeneration of a rational curve of degree d into a curve which decomposes into an irreducible rational curve of degree d−1 and a projective line intersecting transversally at a point. We prove that the Hilbert scheme of curves of degree d on X is smooth at the point corresponding to such a reducible curve. Then calculations in the framework of deformation theory show that such a curve varies into a smooth rational curve of degree d. Thus, the set of reducible curves of degree d of the above type lies in the closure of a unique component of the Hilbert scheme of smooth rational curves of degree d on X. From this fact and the irreducibility of the Hilbert scheme of smooth rational curves of degree d on the Grassmannian G(1, 4 one deduces the irreducibility of the Hilbert scheme of smooth rational curves of degree d on a general Fano threefold X.

  2. 99 cent: Price Points in E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Franz Hackl; Michael E. Kummer; Rudolf Winter-Ebmer

    2010-01-01

    Basu (2006) argues that the prevalence of 99 cent prices in shops can be explained with rational consumers who disregard the rightmost digits of the price. This bounded rational behaviour leads to a Bertrand equi- librium with positive markups. We use data from an Austrian price com- parison site and find results highly compatible with Basu's theory. We can show that price points - in particular prices ending in 9 - are preva- lent and have significant impact on consumer demand. Moreover, the...

  3. Techno-Optimism and Rational Superstition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    our common understanding of reason and rationality? To adopt rational expectations about the world, after all, should we not attempt to avoid the emotional over-determination of our assessments? I show that applied reason is conceptually entangled with this superstitious optimism in the continued...... of retro-causation, where the future is held to somehow have a retroactive effect on the past. This suggests, I argue, that the underlying mechanism by which techno-optimism is supposed to be instrumental in bringing about the future is fundamentally superstitious. But does this superstition not go against...... successes of technology. The article thus reveals a curious sense in which reason is intrinsically superstitious. I offer an evolutionary explanation for this, showing that the biological origins of reason will by nature tend to produce rational agents which are superstitiously bound to realism...

  4. Autonomy, rationality and the wish to die.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D M

    1999-12-01

    Although suicide has traditionally carried a negative sanction in Western societies, this is now being challenged, and while there remains substantial public concern surrounding youth and elder suicide, there is a paradoxical push to relax the prohibition under certain circumstances. Central to the arguments behind this are the principles of respect for autonomy and the importance of rationality. It is argued here that the concepts of rationality and autonomy, while valuable, are not strong enough to substantiate a categorical "right to suicide" and that the concepts of "understandability" and "respect" are more useful and able to provide the foundation for responding to a person expressing a wish to die. Roman suicide, sometimes held as an example of "rational suicide", illustrates the effects of culture, tradition and values on the attitudes to, and the practice of, suicide.

  5. Rational speculative bubbles: A critical view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radonjić Ognjen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of rational bubbles, the bubble is present whenever asset prices progressively diverge from their fundamental value, which occurs because agents expect that asset prices will continue to grow exponentially (self-fulfilling prophecies far in the future and consistently, which promises the realization of ever larger capital gains. In our opinion, the basic shortcoming of this theory refers to the assumption that all market agents are perfectly informed and rational and, accordingly, form homogeneous expectations. The model does not explain decision-making processes or expectation formation, nor does it detect potential psychological and institutional factors that might significantly influence decision making processes and market participants’ reactions to news. Since assumptions of the model critically determine its validity, we conclude that comprehensiveness of the rational bubble model is, to put it mildly, limited.

  6. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Krekó, Péter; Paskuj, Benedek; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample ( N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in reducing CT, whereas empathizing with the targets of CTs had no effect. Individual differences played no role in CT reduction, but the perceived intelligence and competence of the individual who conveyed the CT belief-reduction information contributed to the success of the CT belief reduction. Rational arguments targeting the link between the object of belief and its characteristics appear to be an effective tool in fighting conspiracy theory beliefs.

  7. Irrational Numbers Can "In-Spiral" You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Leslie D.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the instructional process of helping students visualize irrational numbers. Students learn to create a spiral, called "the wheel of Theodorus," which demonstrates irrational and rational lengths. Examples of student work help the reader appreciate the delightful possibilities of this project. (Contains 4 figures.)

  8. Rational design of modular circuits for gene transcription: A test of the bottom-up approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Emanuele

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of synthetic circuits developed so far have been designed by an ad hoc approach, using a small number of components (i.e. LacI, TetR and a trial and error strategy. We are at the point where an increasing number of modular, inter-changeable and well-characterized components is needed to expand the construction of synthetic devices and to allow a rational approach to the design. Results We used interchangeable modular biological parts to create a set of novel synthetic devices for controlling gene transcription, and we developed a mathematical model of the modular circuits. Model parameters were identified by experimental measurements from a subset of modular combinations. The model revealed an unexpected feature of the lactose repressor system, i.e. a residual binding affinity for the operator site by induced lactose repressor molecules. Once this residual affinity was taken into account, the model properly reproduced the experimental data from the training set. The parameters identified in the training set allowed the prediction of the behavior of networks not included in the identification procedure. Conclusions This study provides new quantitative evidences that the use of independent and well-characterized biological parts and mathematical modeling, what is called a bottom-up approach to the construction of gene networks, can allow the design of new and different devices re-using the same modular parts.

  9. Clinical reasoning in the real world is mediated by bounded rationality: implications for diagnostic clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilauri Ferreira, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Ferreira, Rodrigo Fernando; Rajgor, Dimple; Shah, Jatin; Menezes, Andrea; Pietrobon, Ricardo

    2010-04-20

    Little is known about the reasoning mechanisms used by physicians in decision-making and how this compares to diagnostic clinical practice guidelines. We explored the clinical reasoning process in a real life environment. This is a qualitative study evaluating transcriptions of sixteen physicians' reasoning during appointments with patients, clinical discussions between specialists, and personal interviews with physicians affiliated to a hospital in Brazil. FOUR MAIN THEMES WERE IDENTIFIED: simple and robust heuristics, extensive use of social environment rationality, attempts to prove diagnostic and therapeutic hypothesis while refuting potential contradictions using positive test strategy, and reaching the saturation point. Physicians constantly attempted to prove their initial hypothesis while trying to refute any contradictions. While social environment rationality was the main factor in the determination of all steps of the clinical reasoning process, factors such as referral letters and number of contradictions associated with the initial hypothesis had influence on physicians' confidence and determination of the threshold to reach a final decision. Physicians rely on simple heuristics associated with environmental factors. This model allows for robustness, simplicity, and cognitive energy saving. Since this model does not fit into current diagnostic clinical practice guidelines, we make some propositions to help its integration.

  10. Clinical reasoning in the real world is mediated by bounded rationality: implications for diagnostic clinical practice guidelines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ribeiro Bonilauri Ferreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the reasoning mechanisms used by physicians in decision-making and how this compares to diagnostic clinical practice guidelines. We explored the clinical reasoning process in a real life environment. METHOD: This is a qualitative study evaluating transcriptions of sixteen physicians' reasoning during appointments with patients, clinical discussions between specialists, and personal interviews with physicians affiliated to a hospital in Brazil. RESULTS: FOUR MAIN THEMES WERE IDENTIFIED: simple and robust heuristics, extensive use of social environment rationality, attempts to prove diagnostic and therapeutic hypothesis while refuting potential contradictions using positive test strategy, and reaching the saturation point. Physicians constantly attempted to prove their initial hypothesis while trying to refute any contradictions. While social environment rationality was the main factor in the determination of all steps of the clinical reasoning process, factors such as referral letters and number of contradictions associated with the initial hypothesis had influence on physicians' confidence and determination of the threshold to reach a final decision. DISCUSSION: Physicians rely on simple heuristics associated with environmental factors. This model allows for robustness, simplicity, and cognitive energy saving. Since this model does not fit into current diagnostic clinical practice guidelines, we make some propositions to help its integration.

  11. Algebraic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    Careful organization and clear, detailed proofs characterize this methodical, self-contained exposition of basic results of classical algebraic number theory from a relatively modem point of view. This volume presents most of the number-theoretic prerequisites for a study of either class field theory (as formulated by Artin and Tate) or the contemporary treatment of analytical questions (as found, for example, in Tate's thesis).Although concerned exclusively with algebraic number fields, this treatment features axiomatic formulations with a considerable range of applications. Modem abstract te

  12. The emergence of number

    CERN Document Server

    Crossley, John N

    1987-01-01

    This book presents detailed studies of the development of three kinds of number. In the first part the development of the natural numbers from Stone-Age times right up to the present day is examined not only from the point of view of pure history but also taking into account archaeological, anthropological and linguistic evidence. The dramatic change caused by the introduction of logical theories of number in the 19th century is also treated and this part ends with a non-technical account of the very latest developments in the area of Gödel's theorem. The second part is concerned with the deve

  13. Rationality and Emotions in Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Markič

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision making is traditionally viewed as a rational process where reason calculates the best way to achieve the goal. Investigations from different areas of cognitive science have shown that human decisions and actions are much more influenced by intuition and emotional responses then it was previously thought. In this paper I examine the role of emotion in decision making, particularly Damasio’s hypothesis of somatic markers and Green’s dual process theory of moral judgment. I conclude the paper with the discussion of the threat that deliberation and conscious rationality is an illusion.

  14. Rationality and drug use: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondel, Serge; Lohéac, Youenn; Rinaudo, Stéphane

    2007-05-01

    In rational addiction theory, higher discount rates encourage drug use. We test this hypothesis in the general framework of rationality and behaviour under risk. We do so using an experimental design with real monetary incentives. The decisions of 34 drug addicts are compared with those of a control group. The decisions of drug users (DU) are not any less consistent with standard theories of behaviour over time and under risk. Further, there is no difference in the estimated discount rate between drug users and the control group, but the former do appear to be more risk-seeking.

  15. Rationalization with ruled surfaces in architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Kasper Hornbak

    This thesis addresses the problems of rationalizing and segmenting large scale 3D models, and how to handle difficult production constraints in this area. The design choices when constructing large scale architecture are influenced by the budget. Therefore I strive to minimize the amount of time...... and material needed for production. This makes advanced free form architecture viable for low cost projects, allowing the architects to realize their designs. By pre-cutting building blocks using hot wire robots, the amount of milling necessary can be reduced drastically. I do this by rationalizing...

  16. Were Neanderthals Rational? A Stoic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Whiting

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper adopts the philosophical approach of Stoicism as the basis for re-examining the cognitive and ethical relationship between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals. Stoicism sets out a clear criterion for the special moral status of human beings, namely rationality. We explore to what extent Neanderthals were sufficiently rational to be considered “human”. Recent findings in the fields of palaeoanthropology and palaeogenetics show that Neanderthals possessed high-level cognitive abilities and produced viable offspring with anatomically modern humans. Our discussion offers insights for reflecting on the relationship between humans and other forms of natural life and any moral obligations that result.

  17. Rational homotopy theory and differential forms

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    This completely revised and corrected version of the well-known Florence notes circulated by the authors together with E. Friedlander examines basic topology, emphasizing homotopy theory. Included is a discussion of Postnikov towers and rational homotopy theory. This is then followed by an in-depth look at differential forms and de Tham's theorem on simplicial complexes. In addition, Sullivan's results on computing the rational homotopy type from forms is presented.  New to the Second Edition: *Fully-revised appendices including an expanded discussion of the Hirsch lemma*Presentation of a natu

  18. Rational Homological Stability for Automorphisms of Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Matthias

    In this thesis we prove rational homological stability for the classifying spaces of the homotopy automorphisms and block di↵eomorphisms of iterated connected sums of products of spheres of a certain connectivity.The results in particular apply to the manifolds       Npg,q  = (#g(Sp x Sq)) - int...... with coefficients in the homology of the universal covering, which is studied using rational homology theory. The result for the block di↵eomorphisms is deduced from the homological stability for the homotopy automorphisms upon using Surgery theory. Themain theorems of this thesis extend the homological stability...

  19. Rationing in the presence of baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a general model of rationing in which agents have baselines, in addition to claims against the (insufficient) endowment of the good to be allocated. Many real-life problems fit this general model (e.g., bankruptcy with prioritized claims, resource allocation in the public health care...... sector, water distribution in drought periods). We introduce (and characterize) a natural class of allocation methods for this model. Any method within the class is associated with a rule in the standard rationing model, and we show that if the latter obeys some focal properties, the former obeys them...

  20. Information, power, and social rationality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, O.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of institutional structures on economic and political processes and on the results of such processes is a central economics and political-science problem. This study adopts the recent fundamental information economics thesis which maintains that unevenly distributed information has a negative effect on politico-economic systems and that the corresponding individual and collective countermeasures are keys to the structures and characteristics of economic and political institutions. The theoretical part presents some relatively simple game theory models to elucidate the basic problems caused by unevenly distributed information in politico-economic systems. The empirical part is dedicated to an international comparative analysis of nuclear energy policies in the United States, in Great Britain, France, and in Germany. The results obtained reveal that the information economics approach explains the way in which the different institutional arrangements have influenced the policies and their results in the respective countries. The last chapter classifies the theoretical and empirical results by some further theoretical political-science, sociological and economic approaches. Points of contact with and differences between combined federalistic, neo-corporate, bureaucratic-politics and technocratic approaches are discussed. (orig./UA) [de

  1. Rational system of radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, K.; Tada, J.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation doses are the most important subject to the sciences relating to the effects of ionizing radiation on matter. Since any science at all must stand on the quantitative description of causality, uses of physical quantities as the measures are indispensable. The current system of radiation dosimetry is built on the fundamental dose of the absorbed dose, which is defined as the 'energy imparted' density, and for practical convenience various weighted absorbed doses are introduced as subsidiary. However, it has been pointed out that these quantities lack adequacy inherently as a measure of causes, in addition to the insufficiency of the specification of the concept. Firstly, separation of the quantities of radiation field and of the dose is not possible, since both quantities are deeply related to the same microscopic constituents, i.e., electrons. Secondly, the value of the absorbed dose cannot be fixed at the moment of irradiation. Since the absorbed dose is a quantity of interaction product of radiation and matter, the values of the dose cannot be fixed instantaneously. Thirdly, it is not easy to envision the physical entity of the quantity from the definition. The form of existence of the 'imparted' energy is not clear in the current definition. These defects can not be removed as long as an interaction product is adopted as the dose quantity. In this paper, the authors present a prescription to solve these problems. (author)

  2. How energy can be more rationally used. Technical possibilities and facts of business management. Under the pressure of rising energy costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, H; Ziegler, A [Bundesministerium fuer Forschung und Technologie, Bonn (Germany, F.R.)

    1976-03-01

    The article deals with the technical possibilities and economical operating facts of rational energy consumption. Beginning with a short discussion of the available energy reserves it is shown that a rational way of dealing with energy can already be pre-programmed in the choice of the energy form for each particular consumption purpose. Economic growth, indeed, promotes the rational use of energy. The following main points are individually discussed: related subjects in economic pre-planning operation, energy economy in the heating of houses, questions of environmental protection. The article ends with a look at future aspects of rational energy utilization.

  3. Comparison of a rational vs. high throughput approach for rapid salt screening and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collman, Benjamin M; Miller, Jonathan M; Seadeek, Christopher; Stambek, Julie A; Blackburn, Anthony C

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, high throughput (HT) screening has become the most widely used approach for early phase salt screening and selection in a drug discovery/development setting. The purpose of this study was to compare a rational approach for salt screening and selection to those results previously generated using a HT approach. The rational approach involved a much smaller number of initial trials (one salt synthesis attempt per counterion) that were selected based on a few strategic solubility determinations of the free form combined with a theoretical analysis of the ideal solvent solubility conditions for salt formation. Salt screening results for sertraline, tamoxifen, and trazodone using the rational approach were compared to those previously generated by HT screening. The rational approach produced similar results to HT screening, including identification of the commercially chosen salt forms, but with a fraction of the crystallization attempts. Moreover, the rational approach provided enough solid from the very initial crystallization of a salt for more thorough and reliable solid-state characterization and thus rapid decision-making. The crystallization techniques used in the rational approach mimic larger-scale process crystallization, allowing smoother technical transfer of the selected salt to the process chemist.

  4. Are Secondary School Students Still Hampered by the Natural Number Bias? A Reaction Time Study on Fraction Comparison Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Jo; Lijnen, Tristan; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Rational numbers and particularly fractions are difficult for students. It is often claimed that the "natural number bias" underlies erroneous reasoning about rational numbers. This cross-sectional study investigated the natural number bias in first and fifth year secondary school students. Relying on dual process theory assumptions that…

  5. Asymptotic theory of dissipative trapped electron mode overlapping many rational surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogister, A.; Hasselberg, G.

    1978-01-01

    The two dimensional eigenvalue equation describing the dissipative trapped electron mode is solved exactly in the limit of the mode overlapping many rational surfaces using the Pogutse model for the magnetic field and the pitch angle collision operator. The trapped electron contribution to the growth rate decreases, with respect to the standard theory, by a factor of order Δ/chi sub(T) << 1 where chi sub(T) is the position of the turning point and Δ the distance between rational surfaces

  6. RATIONALIZING TRANSPORTATIONS SERVICE: A CASE STUDY ON THE STANDARDIZATION OF LOGISTICS SERVICE PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton de Oliveira Pires

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to high competitiveness on supply chains, small economies tend to become very important to overall costs reduction and represent marketing gains. The aim of this study is to analyze if the rationalization in low value deliveries, lower than R$ 2,000.00, will be able to generate a considerable cut of costs. To perform this exploratory study, company historic was analyzed and surveys were performed with several suppliers. The studies showed it is possible to reduce freight average impact in relation to the sold value at 44.03%. This result points to the advantages in coordinating more rationally the process of hiring transportation providers.

  7. K-Rational D-Brane Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Schimmrigk, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the problem of constructing spacetime from string theory is addressed in the context of D-brane physics. It is suggested that the knowledge of discrete configurations of D-branes is sufficient to reconstruct the motivic building blocks of certain Calabi-Yau varieties. The collections of D-branes involved have algebraic base points, leading to the notion of K-arithmetic D-crystals for algebraic number fields K. This idea can be tested for D0-branes in the framework of toroidal compactifications via the conjectures of Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer. For the special class of D0-crystals of Heegner type these conjectures can be interpreted as formulae that relate the canonical Neron-Tate height of the base points of the D-crystals to special values of the motivic L-function at the central point. In simple cases the knowledge of the D-crystals of Heegner type suffices to uniquely determine the geometry.

  8. Models of bounded rationality under certainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This chapter reviews models of decision-making and choice under conditions of certainty. It allows readers to position the contribution of the other chapters in this book in the historical development of the topic area. Theory Bounded rationality is defined in terms of a strategy to simplify

  9. Suicide: rationality and responsibility for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Angela Onkay

    2014-03-01

    Death by suicide is widely held as an undesirable outcome. Most Western countries place emphasis on patient autonomy, a concept of controversy in relation to suicide. This paper explores the tensions between patients' rights and many societies' overarching desire to prevent suicide, while clarifying the relations between mental disorders, mental capacity, and rational suicide. A literature search was conducted using search terms of suicide and ethics in the PubMed and LexisNexis Academic databases. Article titles and abstracts were reviewed and deemed relevant if the paper addressed topics of rational suicide, patient autonomy or rights, or responsibility for life. Further articles were found from reference lists and by suggestion from preliminary reviewers of this paper. Suicidal behaviour in a person cannot be reliably predicted, yet various associations and organizations have developed standards of care for managing patients exhibiting suicidal behaviour. The responsibility for preventing suicide tends to be placed on the treating clinician. In cases where a person is capable of making treatment decisions--uninfluenced by any mental disorder--there is growing interest in the concept of rational suicide. There is much debate about whether suicide can ever be rational. Designating suicide as an undesirable event that should never occur raises the debate of who is responsible for one's life and runs the risk of erroneously attributing blame for suicide. While upholding patient rights of autonomy in psychiatric care is laudable, cases of suicidality warrant a delicate consideration of clinical judgment, duty of care, and legal obligations.

  10. Rationality, Motivation, Effectiveness: Bureaucracy's Triple Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William

    1984-01-01

    The United States has inherited an ideology concerning politics, culture, and the state that values the democratic distribution by the schools of rationality and of social motivation. Unfortunately, the bureaucratic organization of schools discourages this distribution, and the incentives for changing either the organization or the distribution…

  11. Rational approximations and quantum algorithms with postselection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahadev, U.; de Wolf, R.

    2015-01-01

    We study the close connection between rational functions that approximate a given Boolean function, and quantum algorithms that compute the same function using post-selection. We show that the minimal degree of the former equals (up to a factor of 2) the minimal query complexity of the latter. We

  12. [Popper's critical rationalism and the biomedical sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlícek, J

    1993-11-08

    Popper's rationalism makes an important contribution of the 20th century philosophy to the methodology of natural sciences. Through its criterion of falsification, it enabled the scientists to take a critical but constructive view on hypotheses, conjectures and theories. This attitude found its application also in medicine.

  13. Parity, Incomparability and Rationally Justified Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Martijn

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the possibility of a rationally justified choice between two options neither of which is better than the other while they are not equally good either (‘3NT’). Joseph Raz regards such options as incomparable and argues that reason cannot guide the choice between them. Ruth

  14. Heterogeneous Parking Market Subject to Parking Rationing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asadi Bagloee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of drivers and parking spaces delineate a heterogeneous parking market for which the literature has yet to provide a model applicable to the real world. The main obstacle is computational complexities of considering various parking restrictions along with traffic congestion on the road network. In this study, the heterogeneity aspects are considered within a Logit parking choice model. A mathematical programming problem was introduced to explicitly consider parking capacities and parking rationing constraints. The parking rationing is defined as any arrangement to reserve parking space for some specific demand such as parking permit, private parking, VIP parking, and different parking durations. Introduction of parking rationing in the presence of other constraints is a unique factor in this study which makes the model more realistic. The algorithm was tested on a central business district case study. The results prove that the algorithm is able to converge rapidly. Among the algorithm’s output are shadow prices of the parking capacity and parking rationing constraints. The shadow prices contain important information which is key to addressing a variety of parking issues, such as the location of parking shortages, identification of fair parking charges, viability of parking permits, and the size of reserved parking.

  15. Rationally inattentive seller: sales and discrete pricing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 3 (2016), s. 1125-1155 ISSN 0034-6527 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP402/11/P236 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity * sticky prices Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016

  16. Viagra: : A success story for rationing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, R.; Sturm, H.

    2002-01-01

    The 1998 launch of Viagra prompted widespread fears about the budgetary consequences for insurers and governments, all the more so since Viagra was only the first of a new wave of so-called lifestyle drugs. The fears have turned out to be greatly exaggerated. This paper analyzes the rationing

  17. Confucianism and Critical Rationalism: Friends or Foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    According to Karl Popper's critical rationalism, criticism is the only way we have of systematically detecting and learning from our mistakes so as to get nearer to the truth. Meanwhile, it is arguable that the emphasis of Confucianism on creating a hierarchical and harmonious society can easily lead to submission rather than opposition, producing…

  18. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  19. Rationalization of water consumption in paper industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarković Darja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper was to consider the possibilities of economical paper production with rationalization of water consumption. In accordance with the principles of viable development. The pulp & paper industry has had to face global market needs and strict regulation concerning the environment. The basic motive was to provide consistent and high product quality, which is competitive on the market. The pulp & paper industry is one of the largest consumers and pollutants of natural resources. In that light, the rationalization of raw material, water, energy and chemicals consumption with minimization of environmental impact is essential. The European directive on environmental protection obliges producers of pulp & paper to decrease the volume of wastewater and to increase the efficiency treatment. Pulp and paper industry in Serbia and Montenegro will also be faced with the demands for environmental protection. Numerous examples of water consumption rationalization and improvement of water quality in the pulp & paper industry could be found in different literature sources. It is necessary to increase water system closure and implement up-to-date treatment methods. The possibilities for water consumption rationalization, in a real system the paperboard mill UMKA, were examined.

  20. Macroeconomics after Two Decades of Rational Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Bennett T.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses real business cycle analysis, growth theory, and other economic concepts in the context of the rational expectations revolution in macroeconomics. Focuses on post-1982 research. Concludes that the rejuvenation of growth analysis is an encouraging development because it could lead to changes in welfare policy. (CFR)

  1. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2010), s. 1-40 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp409.pdf

  2. The Assessment of Rational Thinking: IQ ? RQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanovich, Keith E.; West, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors argue that distinguishing between rationality and intelligence helps explain how people can be, at the same time, intelligent and irrational (Stanovich, 2009). As such, researchers need to study separately the individual differences in cognitive skills that underlie intelligence and the individual differences in…

  3. Rational and Mechanistic Perspectives on Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This special issue describes important recent developments in applying reinforcement learning models to capture neural and cognitive function. But reinforcement learning, as a theoretical framework, can apply at two very different levels of description: "mechanistic" and "rational." Reinforcement learning is often viewed in mechanistic terms--as…

  4. Effecting attitudinal change towards rational drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T; Natu, M V

    1995-01-01

    Attitudes of 40 interns towards rational drug use (RDU) were assessed, using a standardized Likert type scale. The assessment was repeated after 4 months to evaluate the effect of usual working conditions of the hospital. After this period, the attitudes had slided towards negative side (p attitudes of test group returned towards positive side (p attitudes.

  5. Rationalizing Cooperation: Moroccan Craft, Politics, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Claire

    2018-01-01

    State attempts to rationalize Moroccan craft education reflect the ambivalent status of traditional knowledge in a modern economy. Female artisans, recently organized as a cooperative, navigate this ambivalence in a weaving "theory" class and in their "occupation" of the cooperative structure itself. During performances of…

  6. Feeling food: The rationality of perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, V.

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory bodies tend to treat people¿s emotional responses towards foods as a nuisance for rational opinion-formation and decision-making. This position is thought to be supported by such evidence as: (1) people showing negative emotional responses to the idea of eating meat products from

  7. CREDIT RATIONING AND SME DEVELOPMENT IN BOTSWANA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None

    have the negative effect of stifling the growth of potential firms, thereby .... credit market may explain the credit rationing behaviour of banks to ... derive policy implications to enhance access to bank credit by SMEs. 4. ..... The main challenges to SMEs identified by the study were non-payment of outstanding ... This decision is.

  8. The quantum symmetry of rational field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.

    1993-12-01

    The quantum symmetry of a rational quantum field theory is a finite-dimensional multi-matrix algebra. Its representation category, which determines the fusion rules and braid group representations of superselection sectors, is a braided monoidal C*-category. Various properties of such algebraic structures are described, and some ideas concerning the classification programme are outlined. (orig.)

  9. More Than the Ten Rational Thinking Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, E. Paul

    1980-01-01

    The 10 rational processes (which include recalling and imagining, classifying and generalizing, comparing and evaluating, analyzing and synthesizing, and deducting and inferring) are examined from a cultural and historical perspective, with particular emphasis on the suprarational aspects of creative thinking. A three stage model for facilitating…

  10. On A System of Rational Difference Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Din Qamar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study local asymptotic stability, global character and periodic nature of solutions of the system of rational difference equations given by xn+1= , yn=, n=0, 1,…, where the parameters a; b; c; d; e; f ∊ (0; ∞), and with initial conditions x0; y0 ∊ (0; ∞). Some numerical examples are given to illustrate our results.

  11. Teachers\\' practical rationality of mathematics teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mathematics teaching as a practice and the way that teachers learn in such a practice. Conversations during interviews with the teachers in the sample indicate that SchoÈn\\'s notion of reflection-in-action is a key to understanding how teachers use their practical rationality as they try to understand nuanced meanings of the

  12. The Rational-Emotive Approach: A Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, G. Barry

    1976-01-01

    The critique of Rational-Emotive Therapy aims criticism at Ellis' concept of irrationality, analysis of human behavior and therapeutic techniques. Ellis suggests that his critic's claims lack the support of experimental evidence. He further suggests that an "existential" bias pervades which differs from his own brand of…

  13. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Humanism in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Larry K.

    1996-01-01

    Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)

  14. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy with Troubled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zionts, Paul; Zionts, Laura

    1997-01-01

    Based on the early work of Albert Ellis, seeks to identify and challenge irrational beliefs that underlie behavior problems. Outlines concepts and methods of Rational Emotive Behavior Theory and describes the application both in counseling and as a mental health curriculum for troubled children and youth. Offers classroom techniques. (RJM)

  15. Bounded Rationality of Generalized Abstract Fuzzy Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By using a nonlinear scalarization technique, the bounded rationality model M for generalized abstract fuzzy economies in finite continuous spaces is established. Furthermore, by using the model M, some new theorems for structural stability and robustness to (λ,ϵ-equilibria of generalized abstract fuzzy economies are proved.

  16. Medicine, ethics and religion: rational or irrational?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, R D; Genesen, L B

    1998-12-01

    Savulescu maintains that our paper, which encourages clinicians to honour requests for "inappropriate treatment" is prejudicial to his atheistic beliefs, and therefore wrong. In this paper we clarify and expand on our ideas, and respond to his assertion that medicine, ethics and atheism are objective, rational and true, while religion is irrational and false.

  17. A rational approximation of the effectiveness factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedel, Stig; Luss, Dan

    1980-01-01

    A fast, approximate method of calculating the effectiveness factor for arbitrary rate expressions is presented. The method does not require any iterative or interpolative calculations. It utilizes the well known asymptotic behavior for small and large Thiele moduli to derive a rational function...

  18. Multiple Equilibria in Noisy Rational Expectations Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palvolgyi, Domotor; Venter, Gyuri

    This paper studies equilibrium uniqueness in standard noisy rational expectations economies with asymmetric or differential information a la Grossman and Stiglitz (1980) and Hellwig (1980). We show that the standard linear equilibrium of Grossman and Stiglitz (1980) is the unique equilibrium...

  19. Travel time variability and rational inattention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Jiang, Gege

    2017-01-01

    This paper sets up a rational inattention model for the choice of departure time for a traveler facing random travel time. The traveler chooses how much information to acquire about the travel time out-come before choosing departure time. This reduces the cost of travel time variability compared...

  20. Bounded Rationality in Individual Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this paper are: (i) To give a pithy, opinionated summary of what has been learned about bounded rationality in individual decision making from experiments in economics and psychology (drawing on my 1995 Handbook of Experimental Economics chapter); and (ii) mention some promising new directions for research which would be included if that chapter were written today.

  1. Duan's fixed point theorem: proof and generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Let X be an H-space of the homotopy type of a connected, finite CW-complex, f:X→X any map and p k :X→X the k th power map. Duan proved that p k f :X→X has a fixed point if k≥2 . We give a new, short and elementary proof of this. We then use rational homotopy to generalize to spaces X whose rational cohomology is the tensor product of an exterior algebra on odd dimensional generators with the tensor product of truncated polynomial algebras on even dimensional generators. The role of the power map is played by a θ -structure μ θ :X→X as defined by Hemmi-Morisugi-Ooshima. The conclusion is that μ θ f and f μ θ each has a fixed point.

  2. The Brothel Phone Number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsby, Trine Mygind

    2017-01-01

    Taking a point of departure in negotiations for access to a phone number for a brothel abroad, the article demonstrates how a group of pimps in Eastern Romania attempt to extend their local business into the rest of the EU. The article shows how the phone number works as a micro-infrastructure in......Taking a point of departure in negotiations for access to a phone number for a brothel abroad, the article demonstrates how a group of pimps in Eastern Romania attempt to extend their local business into the rest of the EU. The article shows how the phone number works as a micro...... in turn cultivate and maximize uncertainty about themselves in others. When making the move to go abroad into unknown terrains, accessing the infrastructure generated by the phone number can provide certainty and consolidate one’s position within criminal networks abroad. However, at the same time......, mishandling the phone number can be dangerous and in that sense produce new doubts and uncertainties....

  3. Solving the Rational Polynomial Coefficients Based on L Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Li, X.; Yue, T.; Huang, W.; He, C.; Huang, Y.

    2018-05-01

    The rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) model is a generalized sensor model, which can achieve high approximation accuracy. And it is widely used in the field of photogrammetry and remote sensing. Least square method is usually used to determine the optimal parameter solution of the rational function model. However the distribution of control points is not uniform or the model is over-parameterized, which leads to the singularity of the coefficient matrix of the normal equation. So the normal equation becomes ill conditioned equation. The obtained solutions are extremely unstable and even wrong. The Tikhonov regularization can effectively improve and solve the ill conditioned equation. In this paper, we calculate pathological equations by regularization method, and determine the regularization parameters by L curve. The results of the experiments on aerial format photos show that the accuracy of the first-order RPC with the equal denominators has the highest accuracy. The high order RPC model is not necessary in the processing of dealing with frame images, as the RPC model and the projective model are almost the same. The result shows that the first-order RPC model is basically consistent with the strict sensor model of photogrammetry. Orthorectification results both the firstorder RPC model and Camera Model (ERDAS9.2 platform) are similar to each other, and the maximum residuals of X and Y are 0.8174 feet and 0.9272 feet respectively. This result shows that RPC model can be used in the aerial photographic compensation replacement sensor model.

  4. Demarketing fear: Bring the nuclear issue back to rational discourse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the strategies for breaking the deadlock between the demand for resolving climate crisis and the resistance to deploying nuclear power. Since our present renewable technology is not advanced enough to replace fossil fuel power plants, nuclear power becomes the only available means that can buy us more time to explore better energy sources for coping with the dilemma of global warming and energy security. Therefore, this paper proposes an elaborated fear appeal framework that may shed light on the intervention points for mitigating fear. By examining the influence of fear appeal on the nuclear issue, three strategies for demarketing the nuclear fear of the public are recommended. The paper concludes that only when energy policy makers and the nuclear industry recognize the significance of minimizing fear and begin to work on removing the sources of fear, can we then expect to bring the nuclear issue back to rational discourse. - Highlights: • Both cognition and emotion are critical in decision-making processes. • Dealing with the emotion of fear is essential for resolving the nuclear issue. • Fear should be mitigated to make rational discourses on nuclear power happen. • Fear can be mitigated by manipulating issue familiarity and response feasibility. • Using equivalency and issue framing may alter public perceptions of nuclear power

  5. Duality and modular invariance in rational conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Miao.

    1990-03-01

    We investigate the polynomial equations which should be satisfied by the duality data for a rational conformal field theory. We show that by these duality data we can construct some vector spaces which are isomorphic to the spaces of conformal blocks. One can construct explicitly the inner product for the former if one deals with a unitary theory. These vector spaces endowed with an inner product are the algebraic reminiscences of the Hilbert spaces in a Chern-Simons theory. As by-products, we show that the polynomial equations involving the modular transformations for the one-point blocks on the torus are not independent. And along the way, we discuss the reconstruction of the quantum group in a rational conformal theory. Finally, we discuss the solution of structure constants for a physical theory. Making some assumption, we obtain a neat solution. And this solution in turn implies that the quantum groups of the left sector and of the right sector must be the same, although the chiral algebras need not to be the same. Some examples are given. (orig.)

  6. The social conditions of instrumental action: Problems in the sociological understanding of rational choice theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Sciberras de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article critically analyzes new sociological approaches to the rational choice theory which - beyond examining political or economic practices - link the notion of instrumental rationality to social issues and themes. The article begins by highlighting the issue of trust, indicating the functionality of certain social arrangements in collective problem-solving. The paper goes on to demonstrate that problems emerge with the theory when it attempts to explain the feasibility of social norms in impersonal, comprehensive contexts. Thus, the fundamental point that appears to be missing from rational choice theory is the perception that individual decisions and instrumental conduct itself incorporate dispositions that in a sense are beyond the actors' control.

  7. Resistance of the packing to attack of insects pest in irradiated ration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Suely S.H.

    2013-01-01

    The pests as beetles, acarids, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal rations, spices, dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting the deterioration of the products. The objective of the research was use the gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 in the disinfestation of some types of rations used for feeding of animals of small size. In the experiment packing measuring 10 cm x 20 cm with capacity of 70 grams of substrate (ration) with 4 types of existent marks in the trade: (1), (2), (3) and (4) of free samples were used. Each treatment had 10 repetitions, that were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy, to do the disinfestation of the ration samples. After the irradiation all the packing and the control were conditioned in plastic boxes of 80 cm x 50 cm with cover, where the insects: Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and S. oryzae were liberated, in a total of 400 for each box. The boxes were maintained at room acclimatized with 27 ± 2 deg C and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. The counting of the number of insects and holes in the packing were made after 60 days. The results showed that only the package of the ration type number 4, was susceptive to the attack of the species of insects. (author)

  8. Resistance of the packing to attack of insects pest in irradiated ration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Suely S.H., E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente; Franco, Jose G.; Villavicencio, Anna L.H.C., E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br, E-mail: villavic@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The pests as beetles, acarids, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal rations, spices, dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting the deterioration of the products. The objective of the research was use the gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 in the disinfestation of some types of rations used for feeding of animals of small size. In the experiment packing measuring 10 cm x 20 cm with capacity of 70 grams of substrate (ration) with 4 types of existent marks in the trade: (1), (2), (3) and (4) of free samples were used. Each treatment had 10 repetitions, that were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy, to do the disinfestation of the ration samples. After the irradiation all the packing and the control were conditioned in plastic boxes of 80 cm x 50 cm with cover, where the insects: Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and S. oryzae were liberated, in a total of 400 for each box. The boxes were maintained at room acclimatized with 27 ± 2 deg C and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. The counting of the number of insects and holes in the packing were made after 60 days. The results showed that only the package of the ration type number 4, was susceptive to the attack of the species of insects. (author)

  9. Characterizing fixed points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo Zlobec

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A set of sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence of a point x⋆ such that f(x⋆ = x⋆ is called a "fixed point theorem". Many such theorems are named after well-known mathematicians and economists. Fixed point theorems are among most useful ones in applied mathematics, especially in economics and game theory. Particularly important theorem in these areas is Kakutani's fixed point theorem which ensures existence of fixed point for point-to-set mappings, e.g., [2, 3, 4]. John Nash developed and applied Kakutani's ideas to prove the existence of (what became known as "Nash equilibrium" for finite games with mixed strategies for any number of players. This work earned him a Nobel Prize in Economics that he shared with two mathematicians. Nash's life was dramatized in the movie "Beautiful Mind" in 2001. In this paper, we approach the system f(x = x differently. Instead of studying existence of its solutions our objective is to determine conditions which are both necessary and sufficient that an arbitrary point x⋆ is a fixed point, i.e., that it satisfies f(x⋆ = x⋆. The existence of solutions for continuous function f of the single variable is easy to establish using the Intermediate Value Theorem of Calculus. However, characterizing fixed points x⋆, i.e., providing answers to the question of finding both necessary and sufficient conditions for an arbitrary given x⋆ to satisfy f(x⋆ = x⋆, is not simple even for functions of the single variable. It is possible that constructive answers do not exist. Our objective is to find them. Our work may require some less familiar tools. One of these might be the "quadratic envelope characterization of zero-derivative point" recalled in the next section. The results are taken from the author's current research project "Studying the Essence of Fixed Points". They are believed to be original. The author has received several feedbacks on the preliminary report and on parts of the project

  10. Many faces of rationality: Implications of the great rationality debate for clinical decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Djulbegovic, B.; Elqayam, Shira

    2017-01-01

    open access article Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings fromThe Great Rationality Debate from t...

  11. Fast computation of vanilla prices in time-changed models and implied volatilities using rational approximations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, M.; Stolte, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new numerical method to price vanilla options quickly in time-changed Brownian motion models. The method is based on rational function approximations of the Black-Scholes formula. Detailed numerical results are given for a number of widely used models. In particular, we use the

  12. Dynamic inventory rationing strategies for inventory systems with two demand classes, Poisson demand and backordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, Ruud H.; Haneveld, Willem K. Klein

    2008-01-01

    We study inventory systems with two demand classes (critical and non-critical), Poisson demand and backordering. We analyze dynamic rationing strategies where the number of items reserved for critical demand depends on the remaining time until the next order arrives. Different from results in the

  13. Outrages Against Personal Dignity: Rationalizing Abuse and Torture in the War on Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Hooks; Clayton Mosher

    2005-01-01

    The outrage over revelations of torture and abuse at Abu Ghraib prison has faded from public discourse, but a number of questions remain unanswered. This paper criticizes official rationalizations offered for the abuse. We make the case that these abuses are systemic, resulting from dehumanization of the enemy and the long reliance on and…

  14. A Comparison of Rational Emotive Therapy and Tibetan Buddhism: Albert Ellis and the Dalai Lama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Susan A; Austad, Carol Shaw

    2013-01-01

    This article explores conceptual and methodological similarities between Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) and Tibetan Buddhism (TB). The authors examine some of the values and concepts they share. They compare the two systems on a number of issues: philosophical underpinnings, concepts of what causes human psychopathology, techniques to…

  15. On a Numerical and Graphical Technique for Evaluating some Models Involving Rational Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Swensen, Anders Rygh

    Campbell and Shiller (1987) proposed a graphical technique for the present value model which consists of plotting the spread and theoretical spread as calculated from the cointegrated vector autoregressive model. We extend these techniques to a number of rational expectation models and give...

  16. On a numerical and graphical technique for evaluating some models involving rational expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Swensen, Anders Rygh

    Campbell and Shiller (1987) proposed a graphical technique for the present value model which consists of plotting the spread and theoretical spread as calculated from the cointegrated vector autoregressive model. We extend these techniques to a number of rational expectation models and give...

  17. Cognitive distance, absorptive capacity and group rationality: a simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Lucian Curşeu

    Full Text Available We report the results of a simulation study in which we explore the joint effect of group absorptive capacity (as the average individual rationality of the group members and cognitive distance (as the distance between the most rational group member and the rest of the group on the emergence of collective rationality in groups. We start from empirical results reported in the literature on group rationality as collective group level competence and use data on real-life groups of four and five to validate a mathematical model. We then use this mathematical model to predict group level scores from a variety of possible group configurations (varying both in cognitive distance and average individual rationality. Our results show that both group competence and cognitive distance are necessary conditions for emergent group rationality. Group configurations, in which the groups become more rational than the most rational group member, are groups scoring low on cognitive distance and scoring high on absorptive capacity.

  18. Cognitive distance, absorptive capacity and group rationality: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curşeu, Petru Lucian; Krehel, Oleh; Evers, Joep H M; Muntean, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a simulation study in which we explore the joint effect of group absorptive capacity (as the average individual rationality of the group members) and cognitive distance (as the distance between the most rational group member and the rest of the group) on the emergence of collective rationality in groups. We start from empirical results reported in the literature on group rationality as collective group level competence and use data on real-life groups of four and five to validate a mathematical model. We then use this mathematical model to predict group level scores from a variety of possible group configurations (varying both in cognitive distance and average individual rationality). Our results show that both group competence and cognitive distance are necessary conditions for emergent group rationality. Group configurations, in which the groups become more rational than the most rational group member, are groups scoring low on cognitive distance and scoring high on absorptive capacity.

  19. Evolving political science. Biological adaptation, rational action, and symbolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingley, Dustin

    2006-01-01

    Political science, as a discipline, has been reluctant to adopt theories and methodologies developed in fields studying human behavior from an evolutionary standpoint. I ask whether evolutionary concepts are reconcilable with standard political-science theories and whether those concepts help solve puzzles to which these theories classically are applied. I find that evolutionary concepts readily and simultaneously accommodate theories of rational choice, symbolism, interpretation, and acculturation. Moreover, phenomena perennially hard to explain in standard political science become clearer when human interactions are understood in light of natural selection and evolutionary psychology. These phenomena include the political and economic effects of emotion, status, personal attractiveness, and variations in information-processing and decision-making under uncertainty; exemplary is the use of "focal points" in multiple-equilibrium games. I conclude with an overview of recent research by, and ongoing debates among, scholars analyzing politics in evolutionarily sophisticated terms.

  20. Is the Rational Addiction model inherently impossible to estimate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Audrey; Dass, Adrian Rohit; Ferguson, Brian S

    2017-07-01

    The Rational Addiction (RA) model is increasingly often estimated using individual level panel data with mixed results; in particular, with regard to the implied rate of time discount. This paper suggests that the odd values of the rate of discount frequently found in the literature may in fact be a consequence of the saddle-point dynamics associated with individual level inter-temporal optimization problems. We report the results of Monte Carlo experiments estimating RA-type difference equations that seem to suggest the possibility that the presence of both a stable and an unstable root in the dynamic process may create serious problems for the estimation of RA equations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.