#### Sample records for rational matrix functions

1. Interpolation of rational matrix functions

CERN Document Server

Ball, Joseph A; Rodman, Leiba

1990-01-01

This book aims to present the theory of interpolation for rational matrix functions as a recently matured independent mathematical subject with its own problems, methods and applications. The authors decided to start working on this book during the regional CBMS conference in Lincoln, Nebraska organized by F. Gilfeather and D. Larson. The principal lecturer, J. William Helton, presented ten lectures on operator and systems theory and the interplay between them. The conference was very stimulating and helped us to decide that the time was ripe for a book on interpolation for matrix valued functions (both rational and non-rational). When the work started and the first partial draft of the book was ready it became clear that the topic is vast and that the rational case by itself with its applications is already enough material for an interesting book. In the process of writing the book, methods for the rational case were developed and refined. As a result we are now able to present the rational case as an indepe...

2. Factorizations of rational matrix functions with application to discrete isomonodromic transformations and difference Painleve equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dzhamay, Anton

2009-01-01

We study factorizations of rational matrix functions with simple poles on the Riemann sphere. For the quadratic case (two poles) we show, using multiplicative representations of such matrix functions, that a good coordinate system on this space is given by a mix of residue eigenvectors of the matrix and its inverse. Our approach is motivated by the theory of discrete isomonodromic transformations and their relationship with difference Painleve equations. In particular, in these coordinates, basic isomonodromic transformations take the form of the discrete Euler-Lagrange equations. Secondly we show that dPV equations, previously obtained in this context by D Arinkin and A Borodin, can be understood as simple relationships between the residues of such matrices and their inverses.

3. Orthogonal rational functions on the unit circle: from the scalar to the matrix case.

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Bultheel, A.; Gonzalez-Vera, P.; Hendriksen, E.; Njastad, O.

2006-01-01

Special functions and orthogonal polynomials in particular have been around for centuries. Can you imagine mathematics without trigonometric functions, the exponential function or polynomials? In the twentieth century the emphasis was on special functions satisfying linear differential equations,

4. On hereditarily rational functions

OpenAIRE

Nowak, Krzysztof Jan

2012-01-01

In this paper, we give a short proof of a theorem by Koll\\'{a}r on hereditarily rational functions. This is an answer to his appeal to find an elementary proof which does not rely so much on resolution of singularities. Our approach does not make use of desingularization techniques. Instead, we apply a stronger version of the \\L{}ojasiewicz inequality. Moreover, this allows us to sharpen Koll\\'{a}r's theorem.

5. Matrix factorisations for rational boundary conditions by defect fusion

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Behr, Nicolas; Fredenhagen, Stefan

2015-01-01

A large class of two-dimensional N=(2,2) superconformal field theories can be understood as IR fixed-points of Landau-Ginzburg models. In particular, there are rational conformal field theories that also have a Landau-Ginzburg description. To understand better the relation between the structures in the rational conformal field theory and in the Landau-Ginzburg theory, we investigate how rational B-type boundary conditions are realised as matrix factorisations in the SU(3)/U(2) Grassmannian Kazama-Suzuki model. As a tool to generate the matrix factorisations we make use of a particular interface between the Kazama-Suzuki model and products of minimal models, whose fusion can be realised as a simple functor on ring modules. This allows us to formulate a proposal for all matrix factorisations corresponding to rational boundary conditions in the SU(3)/U(2) model.

6. Matrix factorisations for rational boundary conditions by defect fusion

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Behr, Nicolas [Department of Mathematics, Heriot-Watt University,Riccarton, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences,Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Fredenhagen, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,D-14424 Golm (Germany)

2015-05-11

A large class of two-dimensional N=(2,2) superconformal field theories can be understood as IR fixed-points of Landau-Ginzburg models. In particular, there are rational conformal field theories that also have a Landau-Ginzburg description. To understand better the relation between the structures in the rational conformal field theory and in the Landau-Ginzburg theory, we investigate how rational B-type boundary conditions are realised as matrix factorisations in the SU(3)/U(2) Grassmannian Kazama-Suzuki model. As a tool to generate the matrix factorisations we make use of a particular interface between the Kazama-Suzuki model and products of minimal models, whose fusion can be realised as a simple functor on ring modules. This allows us to formulate a proposal for all matrix factorisations corresponding to rational boundary conditions in the SU(3)/U(2) model.

7. RATGRAPH: Computer Graphing of Rational Functions.

Science.gov (United States)

1987-01-01

Presents an easy-to-use Applesoft BASIC program that graphs rational functions and any asymptotes that the functions might have. Discusses the nature of rational functions, graphing them manually, employing a computer to graph rational functions, and describes how the program works. (TW)

8. Rational top and its classical r-matrix

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aminov, G; Arthamonov, S; Smirnov, A; Zotov, A

2014-01-01

We construct a rational integrable system (the rational top) on a co-adjoint orbit of SL N Lie group. It is described by the Lax operator with spectral parameter and classical non-dynamical skew-symmetric r-matrix. In the case of the orbit of minimal dimension the model is gauge equivalent to the rational Calogero–Moser (CM) system. To obtain the results we represent the Lax operator of the CM model in two different factorized forms—without spectral parameter (related to the spinless case) and another one with the spectral parameter. The latter gives rise to the rational top while the first one is related to generalized Cremmer–Gervais r-matrices. The gauge transformation relating the rational top and CM model provides the classical rational version of the IRF-Vertex correspondence. From the geometrical point of view it describes the modification of SL(N,C)-bundles over degenerated elliptic curve. In view of the Symplectic Hecke Correspondence the rational top is related to the rational spin CM model. Possible applications and generalizations of the suggested construction are discussed. In particular, the obtained r-matrix defines a class of KZB equations. (paper)

9. DISTRIBUTED RC NETWORKS WITH RATIONAL TRANSFER FUNCTIONS,

Science.gov (United States)

A distributed RC circuit analogous to a continuously tapped transmission line can be made to have a rational short-circuit transfer admittance and...one rational shortcircuit driving-point admittance. A subcircuit of the same structure has a rational open circuit transfer impedance and one rational ...open circuit driving-point impedance. Hence, rational transfer functions may be obtained while considering either generator impedance or load

10. RATIONAL APPROXIMATIONS TO GENERALIZED HYPERGEOMETRIC FUNCTIONS.

Science.gov (United States)

Under weak restrictions on the various free parameters, general theorems for rational representations of the generalized hypergeometric functions...and certain Meijer G-functions are developed. Upon specialization, these theorems yield a sequency of rational approximations which converge to the

11. Matrix string partition function

CERN Document Server

Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre

1998-01-01

We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.

12. Development of modified rational buyer auction for procurement of ancillary services utilizing participation matrix

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2008-01-01

The rational buyer auction is based on a simultaneous auction that is the redesigned auction mechanism for ancillary services by the California independent system operator (CAISO). The incentive for the rational buyer auction is CAISO's intent to adopt a common sense rule of substituting higher-quality lower-cost services for lower-quality higher-cost services, when it results in reduced total procurement cost. For the purposes of designing a desirable auction where the minimum cost for the objective function as well as prevention of price reversal are achieved, either the payment cost in marginal pricing auction must be lowered or price reversal in rational buyer auction must be avoided. The objectives of this study are (a) to develop a newly proposed 'modified rational buyer' auction that does not allow price reversal and (b) to propose and validate a solution procedure that is based on participation matrix and discrete programming. The validation of the proposed solution procedure is accomplished through examination of two case studies available in the literature. Based on the first case study data, it is shown that the newly developed modified rational buyer auction avoids price reversal occurrence, while the total payment of ISO is increased by 5.8%, as compared with rational buyer auction. Also in comparison with marginal pricing auction, the ISO payment is lowered by 38.8%, when the newly developed modified rational buyer auction is utilized. For future work, it is recommended that the application of the modified rational buyer auction to joint dispatch of energy and ancillary services is investigated

13. Rational function systems and electrical networks with multiparameters

CERN Document Server

Lu, KaiSheng

2012-01-01

To overcome the problems of system theory and network theory over real field, this book uses matrices over the field F(z) of rational functions in multiparameters describing coefficient matrices of systems and networks and makes systems and network description over F(z) and researches their structural properties: reducible condition of a class of matrices over F(z) and their characteristic polynomial; type1 matrix and two basic properties; variable replacement conditions for independent parameters; structural controllability and observability of linear systems over F(z); separability, reducibi

14. Research on Bounded Rationality of Fuzzy Choice Functions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Xinlin Wu

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The rationality of a fuzzy choice function is a hot research topic in the study of fuzzy choice functions. In this paper, two common fuzzy sets are studied and analyzed in the framework of the Banerjee choice function. The complete rationality and bounded rationality of fuzzy choice functions are defined based on the two fuzzy sets. An assumption is presented to study the fuzzy choice function, and especially the fuzzy choice function with bounded rationality is studied combined with some rationality conditions. Results show that the fuzzy choice function with bounded rationality also satisfies some important rationality conditions, but not vice versa. The research gives supplements to the investigation in the framework of the Banerjee choice function.

15. On the Solution of the Rational Matrix Equation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Faßbender Heike

2007-01-01

Full Text Available We study numerical methods for finding the maximal symmetric positive definite solution of the nonlinear matrix equation , where is symmetric positive definite and is nonsingular. Such equations arise for instance in the analysis of stationary Gaussian reciprocal processes over a finite interval. Its unique largest positive definite solution coincides with the unique positive definite solution of a related discrete-time algebraic Riccati equation (DARE. We discuss how to use the butterfly algorithm to solve the DARE. This approach is compared to several fixed-point and doubling-type iterative methods suggested in the literature.

16. Spectral transformation chains and some new biorthogonal rational functions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spiridonov, V.

2000-01-01

A discrete-time chain, associated with the generalized eigenvalue problem for two Jacobi matrices, is derived. Various discrete and continuous symmetries of this integrable equation are revealed. A class of its rational, elementary and elliptic function solutions, appearing from a similarity reduction, are constructed. The latter lead to large families of biorthogonal rational functions based upon the very-well-posed balanced hypergeometric series of three types: the standard hypergeometric series 9 F 8 , basic series 10 φ 9 and its elliptic analogue 10 E 9 . For an important subclass of the elliptic biorthogonal rational functions the weight function and normalization constants are determined explicitly. (orig.)

17. On the solution of a rational matrix equation arising in G-networks

NARCIS (Netherlands)

B. Meini (Beatrice); T. Nesti (Tommaso)

2017-01-01

textabstractWe consider the problem of solving a rational matrix equation arising in the solution of G-networks. We propose and analyze two numerical methods: a fixed point iteration and the Newton–Raphson method. The fixed point iteration is shown to be globally convergent with linear convergence

18. Meixner-like functions having a rational z-transform

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Brinker, den A.C.

1995-01-01

Square-summable causal functions can be expressed in a Meixner series. In principle, approximate filter synthesis is thus possible. However, Meixner filters are not realizable since the Meixner functions do not have a rational z-transform. A set of orthonormal functions is constructed with the

19. Rational Density Functional Selection Using Game Theory.

Science.gov (United States)

McAnanama-Brereton, Suzanne; Waller, Mark P

2018-01-22

Theoretical chemistry has a paradox of choice due to the availability of a myriad of density functionals and basis sets. Traditionally, a particular density functional is chosen on the basis of the level of user expertise (i.e., subjective experiences). Herein we circumvent the user-centric selection procedure by describing a novel approach for objectively selecting a particular functional for a given application. We achieve this by employing game theory to identify optimal functional/basis set combinations. A three-player (accuracy, complexity, and similarity) game is devised, through which Nash equilibrium solutions can be obtained. This approach has the advantage that results can be systematically improved by enlarging the underlying knowledge base, and the deterministic selection procedure mathematically justifies the density functional and basis set selections.

20. Extension of P-adic Exact Scientific Computational Library (ESCL) to Compute the Exponential of Rational Matrix

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Lu, Chao

2008-01-01

...) using p-adic arithmetic. New algorithms have been designed and implemented for matrix operations with rational numbers by representing numerator and denominator with arbitrary length integers, all integers and fractional...

1. A rational approximation to Reich-Moore collision matrix of non-fissile nuclides

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Devan, K.; Keshavamurthy, R.S.

1999-01-01

The cross sections of many important nuclides are represented in Reich-Moore (RM) formalism in the recent American Evaluated Nuclear Data file, ENDF/B-VI. Processing of cross sections with RM resonance parameters is much more difficult than the other multilevel formalisms such as MLBW and Adler-Adler. In this paper, we derive a rational approximation to the RM collision matrix in the vicinity of a resonance. This simplifies the cross section processing. The energy range of the validity of this approximation in the vicinity of a resonance is also derived. Choosing Ni 58 as an example, results of our approximation for a non-fissile nuclide are given for two typical s-wave resonances. Our rational approximation method is found to work with good accuracies in the vicinity of resonances

2. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

KAUST Repository

Loczi, Lajos

2014-05-19

We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.

3. Differential analysis of matrix convex functions II

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hansen, Frank; Tomiyama, Jun

2009-01-01

We continue the analysis in [F. Hansen, and J. Tomiyama, Differential analysis of matrix convex functions. Linear Algebra Appl., 420:102--116, 2007] of matrix convex functions of a fixed order defined in a real interval by differential methods as opposed to the characterization in terms of divided...

4. Rational Functions with a General Distribution of Poles on the Real Line Orthogonal with Respect to Varying Exponential Weights: I

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

McLaughlin, K. T.-R.; Vartanian, A. H.; Zhou, X.

2008-01-01

Orthogonal rational functions are characterized in terms of a family of matrix Riemann-Hilbert problems on R, and a related family of energy minimisation problems is presented. Existence, uniqueness, and regularity properties of the equilibrium measures which solve the energy minimisation problems are established. These measures are used to derive a family of 'model' matrix Riemann-Hilbert problems which are amenable to asymptotic analysis via the Deift-Zhou non-linear steepest-descent method

5. Values of the polygamma functions at rational arguments

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Choi, Junesang; Cvijovic, Djurdje

2007-01-01

Gauss in 1812, in his celebrated memoir on the hypergeometric series, presented a remarkable formula for the psi (or digamma) function, ψ(z), at rational arguments z, which can be expressed in terms of elementary functions. Davis in 1935 extended Gauss's result to the polygamma functions ψ (n) (z) (n element of N) by using a known series representation of ψ (n) (z) in an elementary yet technical way. Koelbig in 1996, in his CERN technical report, also gave two extensions to ψ (n) (z) by using the series definition of polylogarithm function and the above-known series representation. Here we aim at deriving general formulae expressing ψ (n) (z) (n element of N 0 ) as rational arguments in terms of other functions, which will be obtained in two ways. In addition, several special cases are also considered and, as a by-product of our main results, we derive, in a simple and unified manner, all formulae given by Gauss, Davis and Koelbig. Finally, it should be noted that all our results, in view of the relationship between ψ (n) (z) and the Hurwitz zeta function, ζ(s, a), could be rewritten in the representation of ζ(s, a)

6. Airspace Operations Demo Functional Requirements Matrix

Science.gov (United States)

2005-01-01

The Flight IPT assessed the reasonableness of demonstrating each of the Access 5 Step 1 functional requirements. The functional requirements listed in this matrix are from the September 2005 release of the Access 5 Functional Requirements Document. The demonstration mission considered was a notional Western US mission (WUS). The conclusion of the assessment is that 90% of the Access 5 Step 1 functional requirements can be demonstrated using the notional Western US mission.

7. A rational function based scheme for solving advection equation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Xiao, Feng; Yabe, Takashi.

1995-07-01

A numerical scheme for solving advection equations is presented. The scheme is derived from a rational interpolation function. Some properties of the scheme with respect to convex-concave preserving and monotone preserving are discussed. We find that the scheme is attractive in surpressinging overshoots and undershoots even in the vicinities of discontinuity. The scheme can also be easily swicthed as the CIP (Cubic interpolated Pseudo-Particle) method to get a third-order accuracy in smooth region. Numbers of numerical tests are carried out to show the non-oscillatory and less diffusive nature of the scheme. (author)

8. Differential analysis of matrix convex functions

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hansen, Frank; Tomiyama, Jun

2007-01-01

We analyze matrix convex functions of a fixed order defined in a real interval by differential methods as opposed to the characterization in terms of divided differences given by Kraus [F. Kraus, Über konvekse Matrixfunktionen, Math. Z. 41 (1936) 18-42]. We obtain for each order conditions for ma...

9. Rational design of functional and tunable oscillating enzymatic networks

Science.gov (United States)

Semenov, Sergey N.; Wong, Albert S. Y.; van der Made, R. Martijn; Postma, Sjoerd G. J.; Groen, Joost; van Roekel, Hendrik W. H.; de Greef, Tom F. A.; Huck, Wilhelm T. S.

2015-02-01

Life is sustained by complex systems operating far from equilibrium and consisting of a multitude of enzymatic reaction networks. The operating principles of biology's regulatory networks are known, but the in vitro assembly of out-of-equilibrium enzymatic reaction networks has proved challenging, limiting the development of synthetic systems showing autonomous behaviour. Here, we present a strategy for the rational design of programmable functional reaction networks that exhibit dynamic behaviour. We demonstrate that a network built around autoactivation and delayed negative feedback of the enzyme trypsin is capable of producing sustained oscillating concentrations of active trypsin for over 65 h. Other functions, such as amplification, analog-to-digital conversion and periodic control over equilibrium systems, are obtained by linking multiple network modules in microfluidic flow reactors. The methodology developed here provides a general framework to construct dissipative, tunable and robust (bio)chemical reaction networks.

10. Globally conformal invariant gauge field theory with rational correlation functions

CERN Document Server

Nikolov, N M; Todorov, I T; CERN. Geneva; Todorov, Ivan T.

2003-01-01

Operator product expansions (OPE) for the product of a scalar field with its conjugate are presented as infinite sums of bilocal fields $V_{\\kappa} (x_1, x_2)$ of dimension $(\\kappa, \\kappa)$. For a {\\it globally conformal invariant} (GCI) theory we write down the OPE of $V_{\\kappa}$ into a series of {\\it twist} (dimension minus rank) $2\\kappa$ symmetric traceless tensor fields with coefficients computed from the (rational) 4-point function of the scalar field. We argue that the theory of a GCI hermitian scalar field ${\\cal L} (x)$ of dimension 4 in $D = 4$ Minkowski space such that the 3-point functions of a pair of ${\\cal L}$'s and a scalar field of dimension 2 or 4 vanish can be interpreted as the theory of local observables of a conformally invariant fixed point in a gauge theory with Lagrangian density ${\\cal L} (x)$.

11. Correlation functions of two-matrix models

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bonora, L.; Xiong, C.S.

1993-11-01

We show how to calculate correlation functions of two matrix models without any approximation technique (except for genus expansion). In particular we do not use any continuum limit technique. This allows us to find many solutions which are invisible to the latter technique. To reach our goal we make full use of the integrable hierarchies and their reductions which were shown in previous papers to naturally appear in multi-matrix models. The second ingredient we use, even though to a lesser extent, are the W-constraints. In fact an explicit solution of the relevant hierarchy, satisfying the W-constraints (string equation), underlies the explicit calculation of the correlation functions. The correlation functions we compute lend themselves to a possible interpretation in terms of topological field theories. (orig.)

12. Statistical Method to Overcome Overfitting Issue in Rational Function Models

Science.gov (United States)

2017-09-01

Rational function models (RFMs) are known as one of the most appealing models which are extensively applied in geometric correction of satellite images and map production. Overfitting is a common issue, in the case of terrain dependent RFMs, that degrades the accuracy of RFMs-derived geospatial products. This issue, resulting from the high number of RFMs' parameters, leads to ill-posedness of the RFMs. To tackle this problem, in this study, a fast and robust statistical approach is proposed and compared to Tikhonov regularization (TR) method, as a frequently-used solution to RFMs' overfitting. In the proposed method, a statistical test, namely, significance test is applied to search for the RFMs' parameters that are resistant against overfitting issue. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated for two real data sets of Cartosat-1 satellite images. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method in term of the achievable level of accuracy. This technique, indeed, shows an improvement of 50-80% over the TR.

13. Rational parametrisation of normalised Stiefel manifolds, and explicit non-'t Hooft solutions of the Atiyah-Drinfeld-Hitchin-Manin instanton matrix equations for Sp(n)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

McCarthy, P.J.

1981-01-01

It is proved that normalised Stiefel manifolds admit a rational parametrisation which generalises Cayley's parametrisation of the unitary groups. Applying (the quaternionic case of) this parametrisation to the Atiyah-Drinfeld-Hitchin-Manin (ADHM) instanton matrix equations, large families of new explicit rational solutions emerge. In particular, new explicit non-'t Hooft solutions are presented. (orig.)

14. Impact of matrix stiffness on fibroblast function

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

El-Mohri, Hichem; Wu, Yang; Mohanty, Swetaparna; Ghosh, Gargi, E-mail: gargi@umich.edu

2017-05-01

Chronic non-healing wounds, caused by impaired production of growth factors and reduced vascularization, represent a significant burden to patients, health care professionals, and health care system. While several wound dressing biomaterials have been developed, the impact of the mechanical properties of the dressings on the residing cells and consequently on the healing of the wounds is largely overlooked. The primary focus of this study is to explore whether manipulation of the substrate mechanics can regulate the function of fibroblasts, particularly in the context of their angiogenic activity. A photocrosslinkable hydrogel platform with orthogonal control over gel modulus and cell adhesive sites was developed to explore the quantitative relationship between ECM compliance and fibroblast function. Increase in matrix stiffness resulted in enhanced fibroblast proliferation and stress fiber formation. However, the angiogenic activity of fibroblasts was found to be optimum when the cells were seeded on compliant matrices. Thus, the observations suggest that the stiffness of the wound dressing material may play an important role in the progression of wound healing. - Highlights: • Proliferation and stress fiber formation of fibroblasts increase with increasing matrix mechanics. • Cell area correlates with the growth of fibroblasts. • Angiogenic activity of fibroblasts optimum when cells seeded on compliant gels.

15. Spectral function from Reduced Density Matrix Functional Theory

Science.gov (United States)

Romaniello, Pina; di Sabatino, Stefano; Berger, Jan A.; Reining, Lucia

2015-03-01

In this work we focus on the calculation of the spectral function, which determines, for example, photoemission spectra, from reduced density matrix functional theory. Starting from its definition in terms of the one-body Green's function we derive an expression for the spectral function that depends on the natural occupation numbers and on an effective energy which accounts for all the charged excitations. This effective energy depends on the two-body as well as higher-order density matrices. Various approximations to this expression are explored by using the exactly solvable Hubbard chains.

16. Harvesting bioenergy with rationally designed complex functional materials

Science.gov (United States)

Kuang, Liangju

A key challenge in renewable energy is to capture, convert and store solar power with earth-abundant materials and environmentally benign technologies. The goal of this thesis is to develop rationally designed complex functional materials for bio-renewable energy applications. On one hand, photoconversion membrane proteins (MPs) are nature's nanoengineering feats for renewable energy management. Harnessing their functions in synthetic systems could help understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the nanoscale. This is particularly enticing in the post-genome era as recombinant or cell-free expression of many MPs with high yields becomes possible. However, the labile nature of lipid bilayers renders them unsuitable for use in a broad range of engineered systems. A knowledge gap exists about how to design robust synthetic nanomembranes as lipid-bilayer-mimics to support MP functions and how to direct hierarchical MP reconstitution into those membranes to form 2-D or 3-D ordered proteomembrane arrays. Our studies on proteorhodopsin (PR) and bacterial reaction center (BRC), the two light-harvesting MPs, reveal that a charge-interaction-directed reconstitution (CIDR) mechanism induces spontaneous reconstitution of detergent-solubilized MPs into various amphiphilic block copolymer membranes, many of which have far superior stability than lipid bilayers. Our preliminary data also suggest MPs are not enslaved by the biological membranes they derive from; rather, the chemically nonspecific material properties of MP-supporting membranes may act as allosteric regulators. Versatile chemical designs are possible to modulate the conformational energetics of MPs, hence their transport performance in synthetic systems. On the other hand, microalgae are widely regarded as a sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. Microalgae-derived biofuels have not been commercialized yet because current technologies for microalgae dewatering add a huge cost to the

17. Z-sinapinic acid: the change of the stereochemistry of cinnamic acids as rational synthesis of a new matrix for carbohydrate MALDI-MS analysis.

Science.gov (United States)

Salum, María L; Itovich, Lucia M; Erra-Balsells, Rosa

2013-11-01

Successful application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MS started with the introduction of efficient matrices such as cinnamic acid derivatives (i.e. 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, SA; α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid). Since the empirical founding of these matrices, other commercial available cinnamic acids with different nature and location of substituents at benzene ring were attempted. Rational design and synthesis of new cinnamic acids have been recently described too. Because the presence of a rigid double bond in its molecule structure, cinnamic acids can exist as two different geometric isomers, the E-form and Z-form. Commercial available cinnamic acids currently used as matrices are the geometric isomers trans or E (E-cinnamic and trans-cinnamic acids). As a new rational design of MALDI matrices, Z-cinnamic acids were synthesized, and their properties as matrices were studied. Their performance was compared with that of the corresponding E-isomer and classical crystalline matrices (3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid; norharmane) in the analysis of neutral/sulfated carbohydrates. Herein, we demonstrate the outstanding performance for Z-SA. Sulfated oligosaccharides were detected in negative ion mode, and the dissociation of sulfate groups was almost suppressed. Additionally, to better understand the quite different performance of each geometric isomer as matrix, the physical and morphological properties as well as the photochemical stability in solid state were studied. The influence of the E/Z photoisomerization of the matrix during MALDI was evaluated. Finally, molecular modeling (density functional theory study) of the optimized geometry and stereochemistry of E-cinnamic and Z-cinnamic acids revealed some factors governing the analyte-matrix interaction. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

18. Simplifications of rational matrices by using UML

OpenAIRE

Tasić, Milan B.; Stanimirović, Ivan P.

2013-01-01

The simplification process on rational matrices consists of simplifying each entry represented by a rational function. We follow the classic approach of dividing the numerator and denominator polynomials by their common GCD polynomial, and provide the activity diagram in UML for this process. A rational matrix representation as the quotient of a polynomial matrix and a polynomial is also discussed here and illustrated via activity diagrams. Also, a class diagram giving the links between the c...

19. On the existence of polynomial Lyapunov functions for rationally stable vector fields

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Leth, Tobias; Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer

2018-01-01

This paper proves the existence of polynomial Lyapunov functions for rationally stable vector fields. For practical purposes the existence of polynomial Lyapunov functions plays a significant role since polynomial Lyapunov functions can be found algorithmically. The paper extents an existing result...... on exponentially stable vector fields to the case of rational stability. For asymptotically stable vector fields a known counter example is investigated to exhibit the mechanisms responsible for the inability to extend the result further....

20. Inequalities for majorizing analytic functions and their applications to rational trigonometric functions and polynomials

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Olesov, A V

2014-01-01

New inequalities are established for analytic functions satisfying Meiman's majorization conditions. Estimates for values of and differential inequalities involving rational trigonometric functions with an integer majorant on an interval of length less than the period and with prescribed poles which are symmetrically positioned relative to the real axis, as well as differential inequalities for trigonometric polynomials in some classes, are given as applications. These results improve several theorems due to Meiman, Genchev, Smirnov and Rusak. Bibliography: 27 titles

1. Rational Design of Semiconductor Nanostructures for Functional Subcellular Interfaces.

Science.gov (United States)

Parameswaran, Ramya; Tian, Bozhi

2018-05-15

One of the fundamental questions guiding research in the biological sciences is how cellular systems process complex physical and environmental cues and communicate with each other across multiple length scales. Importantly, aberrant signal processing in these systems can lead to diseases that can have devastating impacts on human lives. Biophysical studies in the past several decades have demonstrated that cells can respond to not only biochemical cues but also mechanical and electrical ones. Thus, the development of new materials that can both sense and modulate all of these pathways is necessary. Semiconducting nanostructures are an emerging class of discovery platforms and tools that can push the limits of our ability to modulate and sense biological behaviors for both fundamental research and clinical applications. These materials are of particular interest for interfacing with cellular systems due to their matched dimension with subcellular components (e.g., cytoskeletal filaments), and easily tunable properties in the electrical, optical and mechanical regimes. Rational design via traditional or new approaches, such as nanocasting and mesoscale chemical lithography, can allow us to control micro- and nanoscale features in nanowires to achieve new biointerfaces. Both processes endogenous to the target cell and properties of the material surface dictate the character of these interfaces. In this Account, we focus on (1) approaches for the rational design of semiconducting nanowires that exhibit unique structures for biointerfaces, (2) recent fundamental discoveries that yield robust biointerfaces at the subcellular level, (3) intracellular electrical and mechanical sensing, and (4) modulation of cellular behaviors through material topography and remote physical stimuli. In the first section, we discuss new approaches for the synthetic control of micro- and nanoscale features of these materials. In the second section, we focus on achieving biointerfaces with

2. A NEW TOOL FOR IMAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON CHEBYSHEV RATIONAL FUNCTIONS: CHEF FUNCTIONS

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jiménez-Teja, Y.; Benítez, N.

2012-01-01

We introduce a new approach to the modeling of the light distribution of galaxies, an orthonormal polar basis formed by a combination of Chebyshev rational functions and Fourier polynomials that we call CHEF functions, or CHEFs. We have developed an orthonormalization process to apply this basis to pixelized images, and implemented the method as a Python pipeline. The new basis displays remarkable flexibility, being able to accurately fit all kinds of galaxy shapes, including irregulars, spirals, ellipticals, highly compact, and highly elongated galaxies. It does this while using fewer components than similar methods, as shapelets, and without producing artifacts, due to the efficiency of the rational Chebyshev polynomials to fit quickly decaying functions like galaxy profiles. The method is linear and very stable, and therefore is capable of processing large numbers of galaxies in a fast and automated way. Due to the high quality of the fits in the central parts of the galaxies, and the efficiency of the CHEF basis modeling galaxy profiles up to very large distances, the method provides highly accurate estimates of total galaxy fluxes and ellipticities. Future papers will explore in more detail the application of the method to perform multiband photometry, morphological classification, and weak shear measurements.

3. Authorship matrix: a rational approach to quantify individual contributions and responsibilities in multi-author scientific articles.

Science.gov (United States)

Clement, T Prabhakar

2014-06-01

We propose a rational method for addressing an important question-who deserves to be an author of a scientific article? We review various contentious issues associated with this question and recommend that the scientific community should view authorship in terms of contributions and responsibilities, rather than credits. We propose a new paradigm that conceptually divides a scientific article into four basic elements: ideas, work, writing, and stewardship. We employ these four fundamental elements to modify the well-known International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines. The modified ICMJE guidelines are then used as the basis to develop an approach to quantify individual contributions and responsibilities in multi-author articles. The outcome of the approach is an authorship matrix, which can be used to answer several nagging questions related to authorship.

4. Rational calculation accuracy in acousto-optical matrix-vector processor

Science.gov (United States)

Oparin, V. V.; Tigin, Dmitry V.

1994-01-01

The high speed of parallel computations for a comparatively small-size processor and acceptable power consumption makes the usage of acousto-optic matrix-vector multiplier (AOMVM) attractive for processing of large amounts of information in real time. The limited accuracy of computations is an essential disadvantage of such a processor. The reduced accuracy requirements allow for considerable simplification of the AOMVM architecture and the reduction of the demands on its components.

5. Massively parallel sparse matrix function calculations with NTPoly

Science.gov (United States)

Dawson, William; Nakajima, Takahito

2018-04-01

We present NTPoly, a massively parallel library for computing the functions of sparse, symmetric matrices. The theory of matrix functions is a well developed framework with a wide range of applications including differential equations, graph theory, and electronic structure calculations. One particularly important application area is diagonalization free methods in quantum chemistry. When the input and output of the matrix function are sparse, methods based on polynomial expansions can be used to compute matrix functions in linear time. We present a library based on these methods that can compute a variety of matrix functions. Distributed memory parallelization is based on a communication avoiding sparse matrix multiplication algorithm. OpenMP task parallellization is utilized to implement hybrid parallelization. We describe NTPoly's interface and show how it can be integrated with programs written in many different programming languages. We demonstrate the merits of NTPoly by performing large scale calculations on the K computer.

6. Rational function approximation method for discrete ordinates problems in slab geometry

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leal, Andre Luiz do C.; Barros, Ricardo C.

2009-01-01

In this work we use rational function approaches to obtain the transfer functions that appear in the spectral Green's function (SGF) auxiliary equations for one-speed isotropic scattering SN equations in one-dimensional Cartesian geometry. For this task we use the computation of the Pade approximants to compare the results with the standard SGF method's applied to deep penetration problems in homogeneous domains. This work is a preliminary investigation of a new proposal for handling leakage terms that appear in the two transverse integrated one-dimensional SN equations in the exponential SGF method (SGF-ExpN). Numerical results are presented to illustrate the rational function approximation accuracy. (author)

7. Matrix regulators in neural stem cell functions.

Science.gov (United States)

Wade, Anna; McKinney, Andrew; Phillips, Joanna J

2014-08-01

Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) reside within a complex and dynamic extracellular microenvironment, or niche. This niche regulates fundamental aspects of their behavior during normal neural development and repair. Precise yet dynamic regulation of NSPC self-renewal, migration, and differentiation is critical and must persist over the life of an organism. In this review, we summarize some of the major components of the NSPC niche and provide examples of how cues from the extracellular matrix regulate NSPC behaviors. We use proteoglycans to illustrate the many diverse roles of the niche in providing temporal and spatial regulation of cellular behavior. The NSPC niche is comprised of multiple components that include; soluble ligands, such as growth factors, morphogens, chemokines, and neurotransmitters, the extracellular matrix, and cellular components. As illustrated by proteoglycans, a major component of the extracellular matrix, the NSPC, niche provides temporal and spatial regulation of NSPC behaviors. The factors that control NSPC behavior are vital to understand as we attempt to modulate normal neural development and repair. Furthermore, an improved understanding of how these factors regulate cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, crucial for malignancy, may reveal novel anti-tumor strategies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

8. On the Solution of the Rational Matrix Equation X=Q+LX−1LT

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Heike Faßbender

2007-01-01

Full Text Available We study numerical methods for finding the maximal symmetric positive definite solution of the nonlinear matrix equation X=Q+LX−1LT, where Q is symmetric positive definite and L is nonsingular. Such equations arise for instance in the analysis of stationary Gaussian reciprocal processes over a finite interval. Its unique largest positive definite solution coincides with the unique positive definite solution of a related discrete-time algebraic Riccati equation (DARE. We discuss how to use the butterfly SZ algorithm to solve the DARE. This approach is compared to several fixed-point and doubling-type iterative methods suggested in the literature.

9. The Candida albicans Biofilm Matrix: Composition, Structure and Function.

Science.gov (United States)

Pierce, Christopher G; Vila, Taissa; Romo, Jesus A; Montelongo-Jauregui, Daniel; Wall, Gina; Ramasubramanian, Anand; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L

2017-03-01

A majority of infections caused by Candida albicans -the most frequent fungal pathogen-are associated with biofilm formation. A salient feature of C. albicans biofilms is the presence of the biofilm matrix. This matrix is composed of exopolymeric materials secreted by sessile cells within the biofilm, in which all classes of macromolecules are represented, and provides protection against environmental challenges. In this review, we summarize the knowledge accumulated during the last two decades on the composition, structure, and function of the C. albicans biofilm matrix. Knowledge of the matrix components, its structure, and function will help pave the way to novel strategies to combat C. albicans biofilm infections.

10. Optimized implementations of rational approximations for the Voigt and complex error function

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Schreier, Franz

2011-01-01

Rational functions are frequently used as efficient yet accurate numerical approximations for real and complex valued functions. For the complex error function w(x+iy), whose real part is the Voigt function K(x,y), code optimizations of rational approximations are investigated. An assessment of requirements for atmospheric radiative transfer modeling indicates a y range over many orders of magnitude and accuracy better than 10 -4 . Following a brief survey of complex error function algorithms in general and rational function approximations in particular the problems associated with subdivisions of the x, y plane (i.e., conditional branches in the code) are discussed and practical aspects of Fortran and Python implementations are considered. Benchmark tests of a variety of algorithms demonstrate that programming language, compiler choice, and implementation details influence computational speed and there is no unique ranking of algorithms. A new implementation, based on subdivision of the upper half-plane in only two regions, combining Weideman's rational approximation for small |x|+y<15 and Humlicek's rational approximation otherwise is shown to be efficient and accurate for all x, y.

11. A J matrix engine for density functional theory calculations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1996-01-01

We introduce a new method for the formation of the J matrix (Coulomb interaction matrix) within a basis of Cartesian Gaussian functions, as needed in density functional theory and Hartree endash Fock calculations. By summing the density matrix into the underlying Gaussian integral formulas, we have developed a J matrix open-quote open-quote engine close-quote close-quote which forms the exact J matrix without explicitly forming the full set of two electron integral intermediates. Several precomputable quantities have been identified, substantially reducing the number of floating point operations and memory accesses needed in a J matrix calculation. Initial timings indicate a speedup of greater than four times for the (pp parallel pp) class of integrals with speedups increasing to over ten times for (ff parallel ff) integrals. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

12. Testing two mechanisms by which rational and irrational beliefs may affect the functionality of inferences.

Science.gov (United States)

Bond, F W; Dryden, W; Briscoe, R

1999-12-01

This article describes a role playing experiment that examined the sufficiency hypothesis of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT). This proposition states that it is sufficient for rational and irrational beliefs to refer to preferences and musts, respectively, if those beliefs are to affect the functionality of inferences (FI). Consistent with the REBT literature (e.g. Dryden, 1994; Dryden & Ellis, 1988; Palmer, Dryden, Ellis & Yapp, 1995) results from this experiment showed that rational and irrational beliefs, as defined by REBT, do affect FI. Specifically, results showed that people who hold a rational belief form inferences that are significantly more functional than those that are formed by people who hold an irrational belief. Contrary to REBT theory, the sufficiency hypothesis was not supported. Thus, results indicated that it is not sufficient for rational and irrational beliefs to refer to preferences and musts, respectively, if those beliefs are to affect the FI. It appears, then, that preferences and musts are not sufficient mechanisms by which rational and irrational beliefs, respectively, affect the FI. Psychotherapeutic implications of these findings are considered.

13. Approximation by rational functions as processing method, analysis and transformation of neutron data

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gaj, E.V.; Badikov, S.A.; Gusejnov, M.A.; Rabotnov, N.S.

1988-01-01

Possible applications of rational functions in the analysis of neutron cross sections, angular distributions and neutron constants generation are described. Results of investigations made in this direction, which have been obtained after the preceding conference in Kiev, are presented: the method of simultaneous treatment of several cross sections for one compound nucleus in the resonance range; the use of the Pade approximation for elastically scattered neutron angular distribution approximation; obtaining of subgroup constants on the basis of rational approximation of cross section functional dependence on dilution cross section; the first experience in function approximation by two variables

14. Nuclear matrix - structure, function and pathogenesis.

Science.gov (United States)

Wasąg, Piotr; Lenartowski, Robert

2016-12-20

The nuclear matrix (NM), or nuclear skeleton, is the non-chromatin, ribonucleoproteinaceous framework that is resistant to high ionic strength buffers, nonionic detergents, and nucleolytic enzymes. The NM fulfills a structural role in eukaryotic cells and is responsible for maintaining the shape of the nucleus and the spatial organization of chromatin. Moreover, the NM participates in several cellular processes, such as DNA replication/repair, gene expression, RNA transport, cell signaling and differentiation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Short nucleotide sequences called scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MAR) anchor the chromatin loops to the NM proteins (NMP). The NMP composition is dynamic and depends on the cell type and differentiation stage or metabolic activity. Alterations in the NMP composition affect anchoring of the S/MARs and thus alter gene expression. This review aims to systematize information about the skeletal structure of the nucleus, with particular emphasis on the organization of the NM and its role in selected cellular processes. We also discuss several diseases that are caused by aberrant NM structure or dysfunction of individual NM elements.

15. Rational quadratic trigonometric Bézier curve based on new basis with exponential functions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Wu Beibei

2017-06-01

Full Text Available We construct a rational quadratic trigonometric Bézier curve with four shape parameters by introducing two exponential functions into the trigonometric basis functions in this paper. It has the similar properties as the rational quadratic Bézier curve. For given control points, the shape of the curve can be flexibly adjusted by changing the shape parameters and the weight. Some conics can be exactly represented when the control points, the shape parameters and the weight are chosen appropriately. The C0, C1 and C2 continuous conditions for joining two constructed curves are discussed. Some examples are given.

16. String beta function equations from c=1 matrix model

CERN Document Server

Dhar, A; Wadia, S R; Dhar, Avinash; Mandal, Gautam; Wadia, Spenta R

1995-01-01

We derive the \\sigma-model tachyon \\beta-function equation of 2-dimensional string theory, in the background of flat space and linear dilaton, working entirely within the c=1 matrix model. The tachyon \\beta-function equation is satisfied by a \\underbar{nonlocal} and \\underbar{nonlinear} combination of the (massless) scalar field of the matrix model. We discuss the possibility of describing the discrete states' as well as other possible gravitational and higher tensor backgrounds of 2-dimensional string theory within the c=1 matrix model. We also comment on the realization of the W-infinity symmetry of the matrix model in the string theory. The present work reinforces the viewpoint that a nonlocal (and nonlinear) transform is required to extract the space-time physics of 2-dimensional string theory from the c=1 matrix model.

17. Finite element transport using Wachspress rational basis functions on quadrilaterals in diffusive regions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Davidson, G.; Palmer, T.S.

2005-01-01

In 1975, Wachspress developed basis functions that can be constructed upon very general zone shapes, including convex polygons and polyhedra, as well as certain zone shapes with curved sides and faces. Additionally, Adams has recently shown that weight functions with certain properties will produce solutions with full-resolution. Wachspress rational functions possess those necessary properties. Here we present methods to construct and integrate Wachspress rational functions on quadrilaterals. We also present an asymptotic analysis of a discontinuous finite element discretization on quadrilaterals, and we present 3 numerical results that confirm the predictions of our analysis. In the first test problem, we showed that Wachspress rational functions could give robust solutions for a strongly heterogeneous problem with both orthogonal and skewed meshes. This strongly heterogenous problem contained thick, diffusive regions, and the discretization provided full-resolution solutions. In the second test problem, we confirmed our asymptotic analysis by demonstrating that the transport solution will converge to the diffusion solution as the problem is made increasingly thick and diffusive. In the third test problem, we demonstrated that bilinear discontinuous based transport and Wachspress rational function based transport converge in the one-mesh limit

18. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

KAUST Repository

Loczi, Lajos; Ketcheson, David I.

2014-01-01

-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend

19. Large-degree asymptotics of rational Painlevé-II functions: noncritical behaviour

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Buckingham, Robert J; Miller, Peter D

2014-01-01

Rational solutions of the inhomogeneous Painlevé-II equation and of a related coupled Painlevé-II system have recently arisen in studies of fluid vortices and of the sine-Gordon equation. For the sine-Gordon application in particular it is of interest to understand the large-degree asymptotic behaviour of the rational Painlevé-II functions. We explicitly compute the leading-order large-degree asymptotics of these two families of rational functions valid in the whole complex plane with the exception of a neighbourhood of a certain piecewise-smooth closed curve. We obtain rigorous error bounds by using the Deift–Zhou nonlinear steepest-descent method for Riemann–Hilbert problems. (paper)

20. Functional equations in matrix normed spaces

The abstract characterization given for linear spaces of bounded Hilbert space operators in terms of ... effect on operator algebra theory (see [12]). .... of functional equations for the proof of new fixed point theorems with applications. By.

1. A Matrix Splitting Method for Composite Function Minimization

KAUST Repository

Yuan, Ganzhao

2016-12-07

Composite function minimization captures a wide spectrum of applications in both computer vision and machine learning. It includes bound constrained optimization and cardinality regularized optimization as special cases. This paper proposes and analyzes a new Matrix Splitting Method (MSM) for minimizing composite functions. It can be viewed as a generalization of the classical Gauss-Seidel method and the Successive Over-Relaxation method for solving linear systems in the literature. Incorporating a new Gaussian elimination procedure, the matrix splitting method achieves state-of-the-art performance. For convex problems, we establish the global convergence, convergence rate, and iteration complexity of MSM, while for non-convex problems, we prove its global convergence. Finally, we validate the performance of our matrix splitting method on two particular applications: nonnegative matrix factorization and cardinality regularized sparse coding. Extensive experiments show that our method outperforms existing composite function minimization techniques in term of both efficiency and efficacy.

2. A Matrix Splitting Method for Composite Function Minimization

KAUST Repository

Yuan, Ganzhao; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Ghanem, Bernard

2016-01-01

Composite function minimization captures a wide spectrum of applications in both computer vision and machine learning. It includes bound constrained optimization and cardinality regularized optimization as special cases. This paper proposes and analyzes a new Matrix Splitting Method (MSM) for minimizing composite functions. It can be viewed as a generalization of the classical Gauss-Seidel method and the Successive Over-Relaxation method for solving linear systems in the literature. Incorporating a new Gaussian elimination procedure, the matrix splitting method achieves state-of-the-art performance. For convex problems, we establish the global convergence, convergence rate, and iteration complexity of MSM, while for non-convex problems, we prove its global convergence. Finally, we validate the performance of our matrix splitting method on two particular applications: nonnegative matrix factorization and cardinality regularized sparse coding. Extensive experiments show that our method outperforms existing composite function minimization techniques in term of both efficiency and efficacy.

3. Analysis of additive generators of fuzzy operations represented by rational functions

Science.gov (United States)

Ledeneva, T. M.

2018-03-01

This article presents an approach for determining additive generators of commutative and associative operations. Its applicability for finding generators of triangular norms and conorms is shown. Conditions for the parameters of increasing generators that generate triangular conorms in the class of rational functions are determined.

4. Pre-University Students' Errors in Integration of Rational Functions and Implications for Classroom Teaching

Science.gov (United States)

Yee, Ng Kin; Lam, Toh Tin

2008-01-01

This paper reports on students' errors in performing integration of rational functions, a topic of calculus in the pre-university mathematics classrooms. Generally the errors could be classified as those due to the students' weak algebraic concepts and their lack of understanding of the concept of integration. With the students' inability to link…

5. Specialisation of extracellular matrix for function in tendons and ligaments

Science.gov (United States)

Birch, Helen L.; Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Rumian, Adam P.

2013-01-01

Summary Tendons and ligaments are similar structures in terms of their composition, organisation and mechanical properties. The distinction between them stems from their anatomical location; tendons form a link between muscle and bone while ligaments link bones to bones. A range of overlapping functions can be assigned to tendon and ligaments and each structure has specific mechanical properties which appear to be suited for particular in vivo function. The extracellular matrix in tendon and ligament varies in accordance with function, providing appropriate mechanical properties. The most useful framework in which to consider extracellular matrix differences therefore is that of function rather than anatomical location. In this review we discuss what is known about the relationship between functional requirements, structural properties from molecular to gross level, cellular gene expression and matrix turnover. The relevance of this information is considered by reviewing clinical aspects of tendon and ligament repair and reconstructive procedures. PMID:23885341

6. Detection of functional matrix metalloproteinases by zymography.

Science.gov (United States)

Hu, Xueyou; Beeton, Christine

2010-11-08

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-containing endopeptidases. They degrade proteins by cleavage of peptide bonds. More than twenty MMPs have been identified and are separated into six groups based on their structure and substrate specificity (collagenases, gelatinases, membrane type [MT-MMP], stromelysins, matrilysins, and others). MMPs play a critical role in cell invasion, cartilage degradation, tissue remodeling, wound healing, and embryogenesis. They therefore participate in both normal processes and in the pathogenesis of many diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Here, we will focus on MMP-2 (gelatinase A, type IV collagenase), a widely expressed MMP. We will demonstrate how to detect MMP-2 in cell culture supernatants by zymography, a commonly used, simple, and yet very sensitive technique first described in 1980 by C. Heussen and E.B. Dowdle. This technique is semi-quantitative, it can therefore be used to determine MMP levels in test samples when known concentrations of recombinant MMP are loaded on the same gel. Solutions containing MMPs (e.g. cell culture supernatants, urine, or serum) are loaded onto a polyacrylamide gel containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; to linearize the proteins) and gelatin (substrate for MMP-2). The sample buffer is designed to increase sample viscosity (to facilitate gel loading), provide a tracking dye (bromophenol blue; to monitor sample migration), provide denaturing molecules (to linearize proteins), and control the pH of the sample. Proteins are then allowed to migrate under an electric current in a running buffer designed to provide a constant migration rate. The distance of migration is inversely correlated with the molecular weight of the protein (small proteins move faster through the gel than large proteins do and therefore migrate further down the gel). After migration, the gel is placed in a renaturing buffer to allow proteins to regain their tertiary

7. Universality of correlation functions in random matrix models of QCD

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jackson, A.D.; Sener, M.K.; Verbaarschot, J.J.M.

1997-01-01

We demonstrate the universality of the spectral correlation functions of a QCD inspired random matrix model that consists of a random part having the chiral structure of the QCD Dirac operator and a deterministic part which describes a schematic temperature dependence. We calculate the correlation functions analytically using the technique of Itzykson-Zuber integrals for arbitrary complex supermatrices. An alternative exact calculation for arbitrary matrix size is given for the special case of zero temperature, and we reproduce the well-known Laguerre kernel. At finite temperature, the microscopic limit of the correlation functions are calculated in the saddle-point approximation. The main result of this paper is that the microscopic universality of correlation functions is maintained even though unitary invariance is broken by the addition of a deterministic matrix to the ensemble. (orig.)

8. Exact 2-point function in Hermitian matrix model

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Morozov, A.; Shakirov, Sh.

2009-01-01

J. Harer and D. Zagier have found a strikingly simple generating function [1,2] for exact (all-genera) 1-point correlators in the Gaussian Hermitian matrix model. In this paper we generalize their result to 2-point correlators, using Toda integrability of the model. Remarkably, this exact 2-point correlation function turns out to be an elementary function - arctangent. Relation to the standard 2-point resolvents is pointed out. Some attempts of generalization to 3-point and higher functions are described.

9. Nonlinear oligopolistic game with isoelastic demand function: Rationality and local monopolistic approximation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2016-01-01

Isoelastic demand function have been used in literature to study the dynamic features of systems constructed based on economic market structure. In this paper, we adopt the so-called Cobb–Douglas production function and study its impact on the steady state of an oligopolistic game that consists of four oligopolistic competitors or firms. Briefly, the paper handles three different scenarios. The first scenario introduces four oligopolistic firms who plays rational against each other in market. The firms use the myopic mechanism (or bounded rational) to update their production in the next time unit. The steady state of the obtained system in this scenario, which is the Nash equilibrium, is unique and its characteristics are investigated. Based on a local monopolistic approximation (LMA) strategy, one competitor prefers to play against the three rational firms and this is illustrated in the second scenario. The last scenario discusses the case when three competitors use the LMA strategy against a rational one. For all scenarios discrete dynamical systems are used to describe the game introduced in all scenarios. The stability analysis of the Nash equilibrium is investigated analytically and some numerical simulations are used to confirm the obtained analytical results.

10. Modelling and prediction for chaotic fir laser attractor using rational function neural network.

Science.gov (United States)

Cho, S

2001-02-01

Many real-world systems such as irregular ECG signal, volatility of currency exchange rate and heated fluid reaction exhibit highly complex nonlinear characteristic known as chaos. These chaotic systems cannot be retreated satisfactorily using linear system theory due to its high dimensionality and irregularity. This research focuses on prediction and modelling of chaotic FIR (Far InfraRed) laser system for which the underlying equations are not given. This paper proposed a method for prediction and modelling a chaotic FIR laser time series using rational function neural network. Three network architectures, TDNN (Time Delayed Neural Network), RBF (radial basis function) network and the RF (rational function) network, are also presented. Comparisons between these networks performance show the improvements introduced by the RF network in terms of a decrement in network complexity and better ability of predictability.

11. Matrix Transfer Function Design for Flexible Structures: An Application

Science.gov (United States)

Brennan, T. J.; Compito, A. V.; Doran, A. L.; Gustafson, C. L.; Wong, C. L.

1985-01-01

The application of matrix transfer function design techniques to the problem of disturbance rejection on a flexible space structure is demonstrated. The design approach is based on parameterizing a class of stabilizing compensators for the plant and formulating the design specifications as a constrained minimization problem in terms of these parameters. The solution yields a matrix transfer function representation of the compensator. A state space realization of the compensator is constructed to investigate performance and stability on the nominal and perturbed models. The application is made to the ACOSSA (Active Control of Space Structures) optical structure.

12. Rational Arithmetic Mathematica Functions to Evaluate the Two-Sided One Sample K-S Cumulative Sampling Distribution

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

J. Randall Brown

2007-06-01

Full Text Available One of the most widely used goodness-of-fit tests is the two-sided one sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S test which has been implemented by many computer statistical software packages. To calculate a two-sided p value (evaluate the cumulative sampling distribution, these packages use various methods including recursion formulae, limiting distributions, and approximations of unknown accuracy developed over thirty years ago. Based on an extensive literature search for the two-sided one sample K-S test, this paper identifies an exact formula for sample sizes up to 31, six recursion formulae, and one matrix formula that can be used to calculate a p value. To ensure accurate calculation by avoiding catastrophic cancelation and eliminating rounding error, each of these formulae is implemented in rational arithmetic. For the six recursion formulae and the matrix formula, computational experience for sample sizes up to 500 shows that computational times are increasing functions of both the sample size and the number of digits in the numerator and denominator integers of the rational number test statistic. The computational times of the seven formulae vary immensely but the Durbin recursion formula is almost always the fastest. Linear search is used to calculate the inverse of the cumulative sampling distribution (find the confidence interval half-width and tables of calculated half-widths are presented for sample sizes up to 500. Using calculated half-widths as input, computational times for the fastest formula, the Durbin recursion formula, are given for sample sizes up to two thousand.

13. On an application of conformal maps to inequalities for rational functions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dubinin, V N

2002-01-01

Using classical properties of conformal maps, we get new exact inequalities for rational functions with prescribed poles. In particular, we prove a new Bernstein-type inequality, an inequality for Blaschke products and a theorem that generalizes the Turan inequality for polynomials. The estimates obtained strengthen some familiar inequalities of Videnskii and Rusak. They are also related to recent results of Borwein, Erdelyi, Li, Mohapatra, Rodriguez, Aziz and others

14. Uniformly constructing combinatorial solutions, combining a rational function with hyperbolic or trigonometric functions, for the (2+1) dimensional Broer-Kaup-Kupershmidt equation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liu Qing; Wang Zihua

2010-01-01

According to two dependent rational solutions to a generalized Riccati equation together with the equation itself, a rational-exponent solution to a nonlinear partial differential equation can be constructed. By selecting different parameter values in the rational-exponent solution, many families of combinatorial solutions combined with a rational function such as hyperbolic functions or trigonometric functions, are rapidly derived. This method is applied to the Whitham-Broer-Kaup equation and a series of combinatorial solutions are obtained, showing that this method is a more concise and efficient approach and can uniformly construct many types of combined solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations.

15. Factorisations for partition functions of random Hermitian matrix models

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jackson, D.M.; Visentin, T.I.

1996-01-01

The partition function Z N , for Hermitian-complex matrix models can be expressed as an explicit integral over R N , where N is a positive integer. Such an integral also occurs in connection with random surfaces and models of two dimensional quantum gravity. We show that Z N can be expressed as the product of two partition functions, evaluated at translated arguments, for another model, giving an explicit connection between the two models. We also give an alternative computation of the partition function for the φ 4 -model.The approach is an algebraic one and holds for the functions regarded as formal power series in the appropriate ring. (orig.)

16. An Outlyingness Matrix for Multivariate Functional Data Classification

KAUST Repository

Dai, Wenlin

2017-08-25

The classification of multivariate functional data is an important task in scientific research. Unlike point-wise data, functional data are usually classified by their shapes rather than by their scales. We define an outlyingness matrix by extending directional outlyingness, an effective measure of the shape variation of curves that combines the direction of outlyingness with conventional statistical depth. We propose two classifiers based on directional outlyingness and the outlyingness matrix, respectively. Our classifiers provide better performance compared with existing depth-based classifiers when applied on both univariate and multivariate functional data from simulation studies. We also test our methods on two data problems: speech recognition and gesture classification, and obtain results that are consistent with the findings from the simulated data.

17. Generating function rationality for anisotropic vicious walk configurations on the directed square lattice

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bhatti, F M; Essam, J W

2006-01-01

Guttmann and Voege introduced a model of f-friendly walkers and argued that a generating function for the number of n-walker configurations making a total of k left steps is a rational function with denominator (1 - x n ) k+1 . They also found that for f = 0, 1 and 2 the sums of the numerator coefficients for watermelon configurations in which each of 3 walkers made w left steps were 3-dimensional Catalan numbers. Here it is shown that for n vicious walker (f = 0) watermelon configurations the m th coefficient of the numerator is the generalised Naryana number N(w, n, m) of Sulanke which is symmetric under interchange of w and n. The sums, C w,n , of these coefficients as a sequence indexed by w are n-dimensional Catalan numbers or w-dimensional Catalan numbers if indexed by n. The unexpected symmetry in n and w is seen to follow from duality. Inui and Katori introduced Fermi walk configurations which are non-crossing subsets of the directed random walks between opposite corners of a rectangular l x w grid. They related these to Bose configurations which biject to vicious walker watermelon configurations. Bose configurations include multisets. Here we consider generating functions for the numbers of configurations in which l and w are fixed. It is found that the maximum number of walks in a Fermi configuration is lw + 1 and the number of configurations corresponding to this number of walks is C l,w . This limit on the number of walks in a Fermi configuration leads to the rationality of the Bose generating function and by duality to the rationality of the generating function of Guttmann and Voege

18. Generating function rationality for anisotropic vicious walk configurations on the directed square lattice

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bhatti, F M [Department of Mathematics, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Sector U, DHA, Lahore (Pakistan); Essam, J W [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Royal Holloway College, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)

2006-06-15

Guttmann and Voege introduced a model of f-friendly walkers and argued that a generating function for the number of n-walker configurations making a total of k left steps is a rational function with denominator (1 - x{sup n}){sup k+1}. They also found that for f = 0, 1 and 2 the sums of the numerator coefficients for watermelon configurations in which each of 3 walkers made w left steps were 3-dimensional Catalan numbers. Here it is shown that for n vicious walker (f = 0) watermelon configurations the m{sup th} coefficient of the numerator is the generalised Naryana number N(w, n, m) of Sulanke which is symmetric under interchange of w and n. The sums, C{sub w,n}, of these coefficients as a sequence indexed by w are n-dimensional Catalan numbers or w-dimensional Catalan numbers if indexed by n. The unexpected symmetry in n and w is seen to follow from duality. Inui and Katori introduced Fermi walk configurations which are non-crossing subsets of the directed random walks between opposite corners of a rectangular l x w grid. They related these to Bose configurations which biject to vicious walker watermelon configurations. Bose configurations include multisets. Here we consider generating functions for the numbers of configurations in which l and w are fixed. It is found that the maximum number of walks in a Fermi configuration is lw + 1 and the number of configurations corresponding to this number of walks is C{sub l,w}. This limit on the number of walks in a Fermi configuration leads to the rationality of the Bose generating function and by duality to the rationality of the generating function of Guttmann and Voege.

Science.gov (United States)

Moshman, David

2013-01-01

20. Extended Jacobi Elliptic Function Rational Expansion Method and Its Application to (2+1)-Dimensional Stochastic Dispersive Long Wave System

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Song Lina; Zhang Hongqing

2007-01-01

In this work, by means of a generalized method and symbolic computation, we extend the Jacobi elliptic function rational expansion method to uniformly construct a series of stochastic wave solutions for stochastic evolution equations. To illustrate the effectiveness of our method, we take the (2+1)-dimensional stochastic dispersive long wave system as an example. We not only have obtained some known solutions, but also have constructed some new rational formal stochastic Jacobi elliptic function solutions.

1. An Outlyingness Matrix for Multivariate Functional Data Classification

KAUST Repository

Dai, Wenlin; Genton, Marc G.

2017-01-01

outlyingness with conventional statistical depth. We propose two classifiers based on directional outlyingness and the outlyingness matrix, respectively. Our classifiers provide better performance compared with existing depth-based classifiers when applied on both univariate and multivariate functional data from simulation studies. We also test our methods on two data problems: speech recognition and gesture classification, and obtain results that are consistent with the findings from the simulated data.

2. Reduced density matrix functional theory via a wave function based approach

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Schade, Robert; Bloechl, Peter [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal (Germany); Pruschke, Thomas [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany)

2016-07-01

We propose a new method for the calculation of the electronic and atomic structure of correlated electron systems based on reduced density matrix functional theory (rDMFT). The density-matrix functional is evaluated on the fly using Levy's constrained search formalism. The present implementation rests on a local approximation of the interaction reminiscent to that of dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). We focus here on additional approximations to the exact density-matrix functional in the local approximation and evaluate their performance.

3. Comparison Between Polynomial, Euler Beta-Function and Expo-Rational B-Spline Bases

Science.gov (United States)

Kristoffersen, Arnt R.; Dechevsky, Lubomir T.; Laksa˚, Arne; Bang, Børre

2011-12-01

Euler Beta-function B-splines (BFBS) are the practically most important instance of generalized expo-rational B-splines (GERBS) which are not true expo-rational B-splines (ERBS). BFBS do not enjoy the full range of the superproperties of ERBS but, while ERBS are special functions computable by a very rapidly converging yet approximate numerical quadrature algorithms, BFBS are explicitly computable piecewise polynomial (for integer multiplicities), similar to classical Schoenberg B-splines. In the present communication we define, compute and visualize for the first time all possible BFBS of degree up to 3 which provide Hermite interpolation in three consecutive knots of multiplicity up to 3, i.e., the function is being interpolated together with its derivatives of order up to 2. We compare the BFBS obtained for different degrees and multiplicities among themselves and versus the classical Schoenberg polynomial B-splines and the true ERBS for the considered knots. The results of the graphical comparison are discussed from analytical point of view. For the numerical computation and visualization of the new B-splines we have used Maple 12.

4. The functional matrix hypothesis revisited. 3. The genomic thesis.

Science.gov (United States)

Moss, M L

1997-09-01

Although the initial versions of the functional matrix hypothesis (FMH) theoretically posited the ontogenetic primacy of "function," it is only in recent years that advances in the morphogenetic, engineering, and computer sciences provided an integrated experimental and numerical data base that permitted recent significant revisions of the FMH--revisions that strongly support the primary role of function in craniofacial growth and development. Acknowledging that the currently dominant scientific paradigm suggests that genomic, instead of epigenetic (functional) factors, regulate (cause, control) such growth, an analysis of this continuing controversy was deemed useful. Accordingly the method of dialectical analysis, is employed, stating a thesis, an antithesis, and a resolving synthesis based primarily on an extensive review of the pertinent current literature. This article extensively reviews the genomic hypothesis and offers a critique intended to remove some of the unintentional conceptual obscurantism that has recently come to surround it.

5. Application of Rational Second Kind Chebyshev Functions for System of Integrodifferential Equations on Semi-Infinite Intervals

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

M. Tavassoli Kajani

2012-01-01

Full Text Available Rational Chebyshev bases and Galerkin method are used to obtain the approximate solution of a system of high-order integro-differential equations on the interval [0,∞. This method is based on replacement of the unknown functions by their truncated series of rational Chebyshev expansion. Test examples are considered to show the high accuracy, simplicity, and efficiency of this method.

6. Rational BRDF.

Science.gov (United States)

Pacanowski, Romain; Salazar Celis, Oliver; Schlick, Christophe; Granier, Xavier; Poulin, Pierre; Cuyt, Annie

2012-11-01

Over the last two decades, much effort has been devoted to accurately measuring Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) of real-world materials and to use efficiently the resulting data for rendering. Because of their large size, it is difficult to use directly measured BRDFs for real-time applications, and fitting the most sophisticated analytical BRDF models is still a complex task. In this paper, we introduce Rational BRDF, a general-purpose and efficient representation for arbitrary BRDFs, based on Rational Functions (RFs). Using an adapted parametrization, we demonstrate how Rational BRDFs offer 1) a more compact and efficient representation using low-degree RFs, 2) an accurate fitting of measured materials with guaranteed control of the residual error, and 3) efficient importance sampling by applying the same fitting process to determine the inverse of the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) generated from the BRDF for use in Monte-Carlo rendering.

7. On rationally supported surfaces

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Gravesen, Jens; Juttler, B.; Sir, Z.

2008-01-01

We analyze the class of surfaces which are equipped with rational support functions. Any rational support function can be decomposed into a symmetric (even) and an antisymmetric (odd) part. We analyze certain geometric properties of surfaces with odd and even rational support functions....... In particular it is shown that odd rational support functions correspond to those rational surfaces which can be equipped with a linear field of normal vectors, which were discussed by Sampoli et al. (Sampoli, M.L., Peternell, M., Juttler, B., 2006. Rational surfaces with linear normals and their convolutions...... with rational surfaces. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 23, 179-192). As shown recently, this class of surfaces includes non-developable quadratic triangular Bezier surface patches (Lavicka, M., Bastl, B., 2007. Rational hypersurfaces with rational convolutions. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 24, 410426; Peternell, M...

8. A study on rational function model generation for TerraSAR-X imagery.

Science.gov (United States)

2013-09-09

The Rational Function Model (RFM) has been widely used as an alternative to rigorous sensor models of high-resolution optical imagery in photogrammetry and remote sensing geometric processing. However, not much work has been done to evaluate the applicability of the RF model for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image processing. This paper investigates how to generate a Rational Polynomial Coefficient (RPC) for high-resolution TerraSAR-X imagery using an independent approach. The experimental results demonstrate that the RFM obtained using the independent approach fits the Range-Doppler physical sensor model with an accuracy of greater than 10-3 pixel. Because independent RPCs indicate absolute errors in geolocation, two methods can be used to improve the geometric accuracy of the RFM. In the first method, Ground Control Points (GCPs) are used to update SAR sensor orientation parameters, and the RPCs are calculated using the updated parameters. Our experiment demonstrates that by using three control points in the corners of the image, an accuracy of 0.69 pixels in range and 0.88 pixels in the azimuth direction is achieved. For the second method, we tested the use of an affine model for refining RPCs. In this case, by applying four GCPs in the corners of the image, the accuracy reached 0.75 pixels in range and 0.82 pixels in the azimuth direction.

9. A Study on Rational Function Model Generation for TerraSAR-X Imagery

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mahdi Motagh

2013-09-01

Full Text Available The Rational Function Model (RFM has been widely used as an alternative to rigorous sensor models of high-resolution optical imagery in photogrammetry and remote sensing geometric processing. However, not much work has been done to evaluate the applicability of the RF model for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR image processing. This paper investigates how to generate a Rational Polynomial Coefficient (RPC for high-resolution TerraSAR-X imagery using an independent approach. The experimental results demonstrate that the RFM obtained using the independent approach fits the Range-Doppler physical sensor model with an accuracy of greater than 10−3 pixel. Because independent RPCs indicate absolute errors in geolocation, two methods can be used to improve the geometric accuracy of the RFM. In the first method, Ground Control Points (GCPs are used to update SAR sensor orientation parameters, and the RPCs are calculated using the updated parameters. Our experiment demonstrates that by using three control points in the corners of the image, an accuracy of 0.69 pixels in range and 0.88 pixels in the azimuth direction is achieved. For the second method, we tested the use of an affine model for refining RPCs. In this case, by applying four GCPs in the corners of the image, the accuracy reached 0.75 pixels in range and 0.82 pixels in the azimuth direction.

10. Oligopoly games with nonlinear demand and cost functions: Two boundedly rational adjustment processes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2006-01-01

11. Enhanced Matrix Power Function for Cryptographic Primitive Construction

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Eligijus Sakalauskas

2018-02-01

Full Text Available A new enhanced matrix power function (MPF is presented for the construction of cryptographic primitives. According to the definition in previously published papers, an MPF is an action of two matrices powering some base matrix on the left and right. The MPF inversion equations, corresponding to the MPF problem, are derived and have some structural similarity with classical multivariate quadratic (MQ problem equations. Unlike the MQ problem, the MPF problem seems to be more complicated, since its equations are not defined over the field, but are represented as left–right action of two matrices defined over the infinite near-semiring on the matrix defined over the certain infinite, additive, noncommuting semigroup. The main results are the following: (1 the proposition of infinite, nonsymmetric, and noncommuting algebraic structures for the construction of the enhanced MPF, satisfying associativity conditions, which are necessary for cryptographic applications; (2 the proof that MPF inversion is polynomially equivalent to the solution of a certain kind of generalized multivariate quadratic (MQ problem which can be reckoned as hard; (3 the estimation of the effectiveness of direct MPF value computation; and (4 the presentation of preliminary security analysis, the determination of the security parameter, and specification of its secure value. These results allow us to make a conjecture that enhanced MPF can be a candidate one-way function (OWF, since the effective (polynomial-time inversion algorithm for it is not yet known. An example of the application of the proposed MPF for the Key Agreement Protocol (KAP is presented. Since the direct MPF value is computed effectively, the proposed MPF is suitable for the realization of cryptographic protocols in devices with restricted computation resources.

12. A transformed rational function method and exact solutions to the 3+1 dimensional Jimbo-Miwa equation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ma Wenxiu; Lee, J.-H.

2009-01-01

A direct approach to exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations is proposed, by using rational function transformations. The new method provides a more systematical and convenient handling of the solution process of nonlinear equations, unifying the tanh-function type methods, the homogeneous balance method, the exp-function method, the mapping method, and the F-expansion type methods. Its key point is to search for rational solutions to variable-coefficient ordinary differential equations transformed from given partial differential equations. As an application, the construction problem of exact solutions to the 3+1 dimensional Jimbo-Miwa equation is treated, together with a Baecklund transformation.

13. Extracellular matrix hydrogels from decellularized tissues: Structure and function.

Science.gov (United States)

Saldin, Lindsey T; Cramer, Madeline C; Velankar, Sachin S; White, Lisa J; Badylak, Stephen F

2017-02-01

Extracellular matrix (ECM) bioscaffolds prepared from decellularized tissues have been used to facilitate constructive and functional tissue remodeling in a variety of clinical applications. The discovery that these ECM materials could be solubilized and subsequently manipulated to form hydrogels expanded their potential in vitro and in vivo utility; i.e. as culture substrates comparable to collagen or Matrigel, and as injectable materials that fill irregularly-shaped defects. The mechanisms by which ECM hydrogels direct cell behavior and influence remodeling outcomes are only partially understood, but likely include structural and biological signals retained from the native source tissue. The present review describes the utility, formation, and physical and biological characterization of ECM hydrogels. Two examples of clinical application are presented to demonstrate in vivo utility of ECM hydrogels in different organ systems. Finally, new research directions and clinical translation of ECM hydrogels are discussed. More than 70 papers have been published on extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels created from source tissue in almost every organ system. The present manuscript represents a review of ECM hydrogels and attempts to identify structure-function relationships that influence the tissue remodeling outcomes and gaps in the understanding thereof. There is a Phase 1 clinical trial now in progress for an ECM hydrogel. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

14. Reduced density matrix functional theory at finite temperature

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Baldsiefen, Tim

2012-10-15

Density functional theory (DFT) is highly successful in many fields of research. There are, however, areas in which its performance is rather limited. An important example is the description of thermodynamical variables of a quantum system in thermodynamical equilibrium. Although the finite-temperature version of DFT (FT-DFT) rests on a firm theoretical basis and is only one year younger than its brother, groundstate DFT, it has been successfully applied to only a few problems. Because FT-DFT, like DFT, is in principle exact, these shortcomings can be attributed to the difficulties of deriving valuable functionals for FT-DFT. In this thesis, we are going to present an alternative theoretical description of quantum systems in thermal equilibrium. It is based on the 1-reduced density matrix (1RDM) of the system, rather than on its density and will rather cumbersomly be called finite-temperature reduced density matrix functional theory (FT-RDMFT). Its zero-temperature counterpart (RDMFT) proved to be successful in several fields, formerly difficult to address via DFT. These fields include, for example, the calculation of dissociation energies or the calculation of the fundamental gap, also for Mott insulators. This success is mainly due to the fact that the 1RDM carries more directly accessible ''manybody'' information than the density alone, leading for example to an exact description of the kinetic energy functional. This sparks the hope that a description of thermodynamical systems employing the 1RDM via FT-RDMFT can yield an improvement over FT-DFT. Giving a short review of RDMFT and pointing out difficulties when describing spin-polarized systems initiates our work. We then lay the theoretical framework for FT-RDMFT by proving the required Hohenberg-Kohn-like theorems, investigating and determining the domain of FT-RDMFT functionals and by deriving several properties of the exact functional. Subsequently, we present a perturbative method to

15. Reduced density matrix functional theory at finite temperature

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Baldsiefen, Tim

2012-10-01

Density functional theory (DFT) is highly successful in many fields of research. There are, however, areas in which its performance is rather limited. An important example is the description of thermodynamical variables of a quantum system in thermodynamical equilibrium. Although the finite-temperature version of DFT (FT-DFT) rests on a firm theoretical basis and is only one year younger than its brother, groundstate DFT, it has been successfully applied to only a few problems. Because FT-DFT, like DFT, is in principle exact, these shortcomings can be attributed to the difficulties of deriving valuable functionals for FT-DFT. In this thesis, we are going to present an alternative theoretical description of quantum systems in thermal equilibrium. It is based on the 1-reduced density matrix (1RDM) of the system, rather than on its density and will rather cumbersomly be called finite-temperature reduced density matrix functional theory (FT-RDMFT). Its zero-temperature counterpart (RDMFT) proved to be successful in several fields, formerly difficult to address via DFT. These fields include, for example, the calculation of dissociation energies or the calculation of the fundamental gap, also for Mott insulators. This success is mainly due to the fact that the 1RDM carries more directly accessible ''manybody'' information than the density alone, leading for example to an exact description of the kinetic energy functional. This sparks the hope that a description of thermodynamical systems employing the 1RDM via FT-RDMFT can yield an improvement over FT-DFT. Giving a short review of RDMFT and pointing out difficulties when describing spin-polarized systems initiates our work. We then lay the theoretical framework for FT-RDMFT by proving the required Hohenberg-Kohn-like theorems, investigating and determining the domain of FT-RDMFT functionals and by deriving several properties of the exact functional. Subsequently, we present a perturbative method to iteratively construct

16. A new modification in the exponential rational function method for nonlinear fractional differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Ahmed, Naveed; Bibi, Sadaf; Khan, Umar; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef

2018-02-01

We have modified the traditional exponential rational function method (ERFM) and have used it to find the exact solutions of two different fractional partial differential equations, one is the time fractional Boussinesq equation and the other is the (2+1)-dimensional time fractional Zoomeron equation. In both the cases it is observed that the modified scheme provides more types of solutions than the traditional one. Moreover, a comparison of the recent solutions is made with some already existing solutions. We can confidently conclude that the modified scheme works better and provides more types of solutions with almost similar computational cost. Our generalized solutions include periodic, soliton-like, singular soliton and kink solutions. A graphical simulation of all types of solutions is provided and the correctness of the solution is verified by direct substitution. The extended version of the solutions is expected to provide more flexibility to scientists working in the relevant field to test their simulation data.

17. Calculation of Resonance Interaction Effects Using a Rational Approximation to the Symmetric Resonance Line Shape Function

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Haeggblom, H.

1968-08-01

The method of calculating the resonance interaction effect by series expansions has been studied. Starting from the assumption that the neutron flux in a homogeneous mixture is inversely proportional to the total cross section, the expression for the flux can be simplified by series expansions. Two types of expansions are investigated and it is shown that only one of them is generally applicable. It is also shown that this expansion gives sufficient accuracy if the approximate resonance line shape function is reasonably representative. An investigation is made of the approximation of the resonance shape function with a Gaussian function which in some cases has been used to calculate the interaction effect. It is shown that this approximation is not sufficiently accurate in all cases which can occur in practice. Then, a rational approximation is introduced which in the first order approximation gives the same order of accuracy as a practically exact shape function. The integrations can be made analytically in the complex plane and the method is therefore very fast compared to purely numerical integrations. The method can be applied both to statistically correlated and uncorrelated resonances

18. Tools in the orbit space approach to the study of invariant functions: rational parametrization of strata

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sartori, G; Valente, G

2003-01-01

Functions which are equivariant or invariant under the transformations of a compact linear group G acting in a Euclidean space R n , can profitably be studied as functions defined in the orbit space of the group. The orbit space is the union of a finite set of strata, which are semialgebraic manifolds formed by the G-orbits with the same orbit-type. In this paper, we provide a simple recipe to obtain rational parametrizations of the strata. Our results can be easily exploited, in many physical contexts where the study of equivariant or invariant functions is important, for instance in the determination of patterns of spontaneous symmetry breaking, in the analysis of phase spaces and structural phase transitions (Landau theory), in equivariant bifurcation theory, in crystal field theory and in most areas where use is made of symmetry-adapted functions. A physically significant example of utilization of the recipe is given, related to spontaneous polarization in chiral biaxial liquid crystals, where the advantages with respect to previous heuristic approaches are shown

19. Tools in the orbit space approach to the study of invariant functions: rational parametrization of strata

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sartori, G; Valente, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

2003-02-21

Functions which are equivariant or invariant under the transformations of a compact linear group G acting in a Euclidean space R{sup n}, can profitably be studied as functions defined in the orbit space of the group. The orbit space is the union of a finite set of strata, which are semialgebraic manifolds formed by the G-orbits with the same orbit-type. In this paper, we provide a simple recipe to obtain rational parametrizations of the strata. Our results can be easily exploited, in many physical contexts where the study of equivariant or invariant functions is important, for instance in the determination of patterns of spontaneous symmetry breaking, in the analysis of phase spaces and structural phase transitions (Landau theory), in equivariant bifurcation theory, in crystal field theory and in most areas where use is made of symmetry-adapted functions. A physically significant example of utilization of the recipe is given, related to spontaneous polarization in chiral biaxial liquid crystals, where the advantages with respect to previous heuristic approaches are shown.

20. Calculation of Resonance Interaction Effects Using a Rational Approximation to the Symmetric Resonance Line Shape Function

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Haeggblom, H

1968-08-15

The method of calculating the resonance interaction effect by series expansions has been studied. Starting from the assumption that the neutron flux in a homogeneous mixture is inversely proportional to the total cross section, the expression for the flux can be simplified by series expansions. Two types of expansions are investigated and it is shown that only one of them is generally applicable. It is also shown that this expansion gives sufficient accuracy if the approximate resonance line shape function is reasonably representative. An investigation is made of the approximation of the resonance shape function with a Gaussian function which in some cases has been used to calculate the interaction effect. It is shown that this approximation is not sufficiently accurate in all cases which can occur in practice. Then, a rational approximation is introduced which in the first order approximation gives the same order of accuracy as a practically exact shape function. The integrations can be made analytically in the complex plane and the method is therefore very fast compared to purely numerical integrations. The method can be applied both to statistically correlated and uncorrelated resonances.

1. NP-Hardness of optimizing the sum of Rational Linear Functions over an Asymptotic-Linear-Program

OpenAIRE

Chermakani, Deepak Ponvel

2012-01-01

We convert, within polynomial-time and sequential processing, an NP-Complete Problem into a real-variable problem of minimizing a sum of Rational Linear Functions constrained by an Asymptotic-Linear-Program. The coefficients and constants in the real-variable problem are 0, 1, -1, K, or -K, where K is the time parameter that tends to positive infinity. The number of variables, constraints, and rational linear functions in the objective, of the real-variable problem is bounded by a polynomial ...

2. Ramiprilate inhibits functional matrix metalloproteinase activity in Crohn's disease fistulas

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Efsen, Eva; Saermark, Torben; Hansen, Alastair

2011-01-01

Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -3 and -9 has been demonstrated in Crohn's disease fistulas, but it is unknown whether these enzymes are biologically active and represent a therapeutic target. Therefore, we investigated the proteolytic activity of MMPs in fistula tissue...... from six controls were also included. Total functional MMP activity was measured by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based, fluorogenic MMP-substrate cleavage assay, and the specific activity of MMP-2, -3 and -9 by the MMP Biotrak Activity Assay. The MMP inhibitors comprised ethylene......-9.83) compared with non-Crohn's fistulas, [0.32 ng/ml, range 0-2.66, (p MMP-9 activity [0.64 ng/ml, range 0-5.66 and 0.17 ng/ml, range 0-1.1, respectively (p MMP activity level by 42% and suppressed the specific MMP-3...

3. Why the nth-root function is not a rational function

Science.gov (United States)

Dobbs, David E.

2017-11-01

The set of functions ? is linearly independent over ? (with respect to any open subinterval of (0, ∞)). The titular result is a corollary for any integer n ≥ 2 (and the domain [0, ∞)). Some more accessible proofs of that result are also given. Let F be a finite field of characteristic p and cardinality pk. Then the pth-root function F → F is a polynomial function of degree at most pk - 2 if pk ≠ 2 (resp., the identity function if pk = 2). Also, for any integer n ≥ 2, every element of F has an nth root in F if and only if, for each prime number q dividing n, q is not a factor of pk - 1. Various parts of this note could find classroom use in courses at various levels, on precalculus, calculus or abstract algebra. A final section addresses educational benefits of such coverage and offers some recommendations to practitioners.

4. CONTRIBUTIONS TO RATIONAL APPROXIMATION,

Science.gov (United States)

Some of the key results of linear Chebyshev approximation theory are extended to generalized rational functions. Prominent among these is Haar’s...linear theorem which yields necessary and sufficient conditions for uniqueness. Some new results in the classic field of rational function Chebyshev...Furthermore a Weierstrass type theorem is proven for rational Chebyshev approximation. A characterization theorem for rational trigonometric Chebyshev approximation in terms of sign alternation is developed. (Author)

5. Towards all-order Laurent expansion of generalized hypergeometric functions around rational values of parameters

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kalmykov, M.Yu.; Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

2008-07-15

We prove the following theorems: 1) The Laurent expansions in {epsilon} of the Gauss hypergeometric functions {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+(p)/(q)+c{epsilon};z), {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+(p)/(q)+a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+(p/q)+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+(p)/(q)+c{epsilon};z) and {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+(p)/(q)+ a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+(p)/(q)+c{epsilon};z), where I{sub 1},I{sub 2},I{sub 3},p,q are arbitrary integers, a,b,c are arbitrary numbers and {epsilon} is an infinitesimal parameter, are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms of q-roots of unity with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials; 2) The Laurent expansion of the Gauss hypergeometric function {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+(p)/(q)+a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+c{epsilon};z) is expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms of q-roots of unity times powers of logarithm with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials; 3) The multiple inverse rational sums {sigma}{sup {infinity}}{sub j=1}({gamma}(j))/({gamma}(1+j-(p)/(q))) (z{sup j})/(j{sup c}) S{sub a{sub 1}}(j-1).. S{sub a{sub p}}(j-1) and the multiple rational sums {sigma}{sup {infinity}}{sub j=1} ({gamma}(j+(p)/(q)))/({gamma}(1+j)) (z{sup j})/(j{sup c}) S{sub a{sub 1}}(j-1).. S{sub a{sub p}}(j-1), where S{sub a}(j)={sigma}{sup j}{sub k=1}(1)/(k{sup a}) is a harmonic series and c is an arbitrary integer, are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms; 4) The generalized hypergeometric functions {sub p}F{sub p.1}((vector)A+(vector)a{epsilon};(vector)B+(vector)b{epsilon},(p)/(q)+B{sub p-1};z) and {sub p}F{sub p-1}((vector)A+(vector)a{epsilon},(p)/(q)+A{sub p};(vector)B+(vector)b{epsilon};z) are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials. (orig.)

6. Rational Design and Tuning of Functional RNA Switch to Control an Allosteric Intermolecular Interaction.

Science.gov (United States)

Endoh, Tamaki; Sugimoto, Naoki

2015-08-04

Conformational transitions of biomolecules in response to specific stimuli control many biological processes. In natural functional RNA switches, often called riboswitches, a particular RNA structure that has a suppressive or facilitative effect on gene expression transitions to an alternative structure with the opposite effect upon binding of a specific metabolite to the aptamer region. Stability of RNA secondary structure (-ΔG°) can be predicted based on thermodynamic parameters and is easily tuned by changes in nucleobases. We envisioned that tuning of a functional RNA switch that causes an allosteric interaction between an RNA and a peptide would be possible based on a predicted switching energy (ΔΔG°) that corresponds to the energy difference between the RNA secondary structure before (-ΔG°before) and after (-ΔG°after) the RNA conformational transition. We first selected functional RNA switches responsive to neomycin with predicted ΔΔG° values ranging from 5.6 to 12.2 kcal mol(-1). We then demonstrated a simple strategy to rationally convert the functional RNA switch to switches responsive to natural metabolites thiamine pyrophosphate, S-adenosyl methionine, and adenine based on the predicted ΔΔG° values. The ΔΔG° values of the designed RNA switches proportionally correlated with interaction energy (ΔG°interaction) between the RNA and peptide, and we were able to tune the sensitivity of the RNA switches for the trigger molecule. The strategy demonstrated here will be generally applicable for construction of functional RNA switches and biosensors in which mechanisms are based on conformational transition of nucleic acids.

7. A New Method of Creating Technology/Function Matrix for Systematic Innovation without Expert

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tien-Yuan Cheng

2012-02-01

Full Text Available The technology/function matrix is comprised by specific technologies and functions, and through the technology/function matrix we can known what the technologies with functions have opportunities for innovation of product or technology. However, the technology/function matrix is very difficult to create, because the patents need to be read, analyzed and categorized into the technology/function matrix always more than hundreds or thousands. In this research, I propose a method to create a technology/function matrix just need to execute patent search without reading and analyzing patents. Through the proposed method anyone can create a technology/function matrix in a short time without experts’ help even if there are thousands of thousands of patents need to be read and analyzed.

8. Reduced density-matrix functional theory: Correlation and spectroscopy.

Science.gov (United States)

Di Sabatino, S; Berger, J A; Reining, L; Romaniello, P

2015-07-14

In this work, we explore the performance of approximations to electron correlation in reduced density-matrix functional theory (RDMFT) and of approximations to the observables calculated within this theory. Our analysis focuses on the calculation of total energies, occupation numbers, removal/addition energies, and spectral functions. We use the exactly solvable Hubbard dimer at 1/4 and 1/2 fillings as test systems. This allows us to analyze the underlying physics and to elucidate the origin of the observed trends. For comparison, we also report the results of the GW approximation, where the self-energy functional is approximated, but no further hypothesis is made concerning the approximations of the observables. In particular, we focus on the atomic limit, where the two sites of the dimer are pulled apart and electrons localize on either site with equal probability, unless a small perturbation is present: this is the regime of strong electron correlation. In this limit, using the Hubbard dimer at 1/2 filling with or without a spin-symmetry-broken ground state allows us to explore how degeneracies and spin-symmetry breaking are treated in RDMFT. We find that, within the used approximations, neither in RDMFT nor in GW, the signature of strong correlation is present, when looking at the removal/addition energies and spectral function from the spin-singlet ground state, whereas both give the exact result for the spin-symmetry broken case. Moreover, we show how the spectroscopic properties change from one spin structure to the other.

9. Approximate rational Jacobi elliptic function solutions of the fractional differential equations via the enhanced Adomian decomposition method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Song Lina; Wang Weiguo

2010-01-01

In this Letter, an enhanced Adomian decomposition method which introduces the h-curve of the homotopy analysis method into the standard Adomian decomposition method is proposed. Some examples prove that this method can derive successfully approximate rational Jacobi elliptic function solutions of the fractional differential equations.

10. An extended Jacobi elliptic function rational expansion method and its application to (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wang Qi; Chen Yong; Zhang Hongqing

2005-01-01

With the aid of computerized symbolic computation, a new elliptic function rational expansion method is presented by means of a new general ansatz, in which periodic solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations that can be expressed as a finite Laurent series of some of 12 Jacobi elliptic functions, is more powerful than exiting Jacobi elliptic function methods and is very powerful to uniformly construct more new exact periodic solutions in terms of rational formal Jacobi elliptic function solution of nonlinear partial differential equations. As an application of the method, we choose a (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation to illustrate the method. As a result, we can successfully obtain the solutions found by most existing Jacobi elliptic function methods and find other new and more general solutions at the same time. Of course, more shock wave solutions or solitary wave solutions can be gotten at their limit condition

11. EVALUATION OF RATIONAL FUNCTION MODEL FOR GEOMETRIC MODELING OF CHANG'E-1 CCD IMAGES

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Y. Liu

2012-08-01

Full Text Available Rational Function Model (RFM is a generic geometric model that has been widely used in geometric processing of high-resolution earth-observation satellite images, due to its generality and excellent capability of fitting complex rigorous sensor models. In this paper, the feasibility and precision of RFM for geometric modeling of China's Chang'E-1 (CE-1 lunar orbiter images is presented. The RFM parameters of forward-, nadir- and backward-looking CE-1 images are generated though least squares solution using virtual control points derived from the rigorous sensor model. The precision of the RFM is evaluated by comparing with the rigorous sensor model in both image space and object space. Experimental results using nine images from three orbits show that RFM can precisely fit the rigorous sensor model of CE-1 CCD images with a RMS residual error of 1/100 pixel level in image space and less than 5 meters in object space. This indicates that it is feasible to use RFM to describe the imaging geometry of CE-1 CCD images and spacecraft position and orientation. RFM will enable planetary data centers to have an option to supply RFM parameters of orbital images while keeping the original orbit trajectory data confidential.

12. A density functional theory insight towards the rational design of ionic liquids for SO2 capture.

Science.gov (United States)

García, Gregorio; Atilhan, Mert; Aparicio, Santiago

2015-05-28

A systematic density functional theory (DFT) analysis has been carried out to obtain information at the molecular level on the key parameters related to efficient SO2 capture by ionic liquids (ILs). A set of 55 ILs, for which high gas solubility is expected, has been selected. SO2 solubility of ILs was firstly predicted based on the COSMO-RS (Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents) method, which provides a good prediction of gas solubility data in ILs without prior experimental knowledge of the compounds' features. Then, interactions between SO2 and ILs were deeply analyzed through DFT simulations. This work provides valuable information about required factors at the molecular level to provide high SO2 solubility in ILs, which is crucial for further implementation of these materials in the future. In our opinion, systematic research on ILs for SO2 capture increases our knowledge about those factors which could be controlled at the molecular level, providing an approach for the rational design of task-specific ILs.

13. Structural and functional polymer-matrix composites for electromagnetic applications

Science.gov (United States)

Wu, Junhua

This dissertation addresses the science and technology of functional and structural polymer-matrix composite materials for electromagnetic applications, which include electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding and low observability (Stealth). The structural composites are continuous carbon fiber epoxy-matrix composites, which are widely used for airframes. The functional composites are composites with discontinuous fillers and in both bulk and coating forms. Through composite structure variation, attractive electromagnetic properties have been achieved. With no degradation of the tensile strength or modulus, the shielding effectiveness of the structural composites has been improved by enhancing multiple reflections through light activation of the carbon fiber. The multiple reflections loss of the electromagnetic wave increases from 1.1 to 10.2 dB at 1.0 GHz due to the activation. Such a large effect of multiple reflections has not been previously reported in any material. The observability of these composites has been lowered by decreasing the electrical conductivity (and hence decreasing the reflection loss) through carbon fiber coating. The incorporation of mumetal, a magnetic alloy particulate filler (28-40 mum size), in a latex paint has been found to be effective for enhancing the shielding only if the electrical resistivity of the resulting composite coating is below 10 O.cm, as rendered by a conductive particulate filler, such as nickel flake (14-20 mum size). This effectiveness (39 dB at 1.0 GHz) is attributed to the absorption of the electromagnetic wave by the mumetal and the nickel flake, with the high conductivity rendered by the presence of the nickel flake resulting in a relatively high reflection loss of 15.5 dB. Without the nickel flake, the mumetal gives only 3 dB of shielding and 1.5 dB of reflection loss at 1.0 GHz. Nickel powder (0.3-0.5 mum size) has been found to be an effective filler for improving the shielding of polyethersulfone (PES

14. Representation of the Coulomb Matrix Elements by Means of Appell Hypergeometric Function F 2

Science.gov (United States)

Bentalha, Zine el abidine

2018-06-01

Exact analytical representation for the Coulomb matrix elements by means of Appell's double series F 2 is derived. The finite sum obtained for the Appell function F 2 allows us to evaluate explicitly the matrix elements of the two-body Coulomb interaction in the lowest Landau level. An application requiring the matrix elements of Coulomb potential in quantum Hall effect regime is presented.

15. Effects of ration level on immune functions in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

Science.gov (United States)

Alcorn, S.W.; Pascho, R.J.; Murray, A.L.; Shearer, K.D.

2003-01-01

The relationship between nutritional status and disease resistance in cultured salmonids can be affected by dietary manipulations. Careful attention to feeding levels may be important to avoid imbalances in nutrient levels that could ultimately impair a fish's ability to resist infectious microorganisms. In the current study, fish in three feed-level groups were fed an experimental diet either to satiation, 64% of satiation or 40% of satiation. A fourth group of fish were fed a commercial diet at the 64% of satiation level and served as controls. To evaluate certain indices of disease resistance in the test and control fish, a panel of assays was employed to measure humoral and cellular immune functions 30, 39 and 54 weeks after starting the dietary treatments. The panel included measures of blood hematocrit and leucocrit levels, plasma protein concentration and serum lysozyme and complement activity. Cellular analyses included differential blood leucocyte counts, NBT reduction and phagocytosis by pronephros macrophages and myeloperoxidase activity of pronephros neutrophils. No differences were observed in those indices between fish tested from the control-diet group (commercial diet fed at the 64% rate) and fish tested from the 64% feed-level group, except that fish fed the commercial diet had a greater concentration of plasma protein. Leucocrit values and plasma protein concentrations tended to increase among the experimental feed groups as the ration increased from 40% to satiation. More importantly, phagocytic activity by anterior kidney leucocytes was found to be inversely proportional to the feed level. Whereas the results of this study provide evidence that the salmonid immune system may be fairly robust with regard to available metabolic energy, the significant changes observed in phagocytic cell activity suggest that some cellular immune functions may be affected by the feed level.

16. The Optimization on Ranks and Inertias of a Quadratic Hermitian Matrix Function and Its Applications

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yirong Yao

2013-01-01

Full Text Available We solve optimization problems on the ranks and inertias of the quadratic Hermitian matrix function subject to a consistent system of matrix equations and . As applications, we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the solvability to the systems of matrix equations and matrix inequalities , and in the Löwner partial ordering to be feasible, respectively. The findings of this paper widely extend the known results in the literature.

17. Matrix of response functions for xenon gamma-ray detector

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shustov, A.E.; Vlasik, K.F.; Grachev, V.M.; Dmitrenko, V.V.; Novikov, A.S.; P'ya, S.N.; Ulin, S.E.; Uteshev, Z.M.; Chernysheva, I.V.

2014-01-01

An approach of creation of response matrix using simulation GEANT4 gamma-ray Monte-Carlo method has been described for gamma-ray spectrometer based on high pressure xenon impulse ionization chamber with a shielding grid [ru

18. The problem of the universal density functional and the density matrix functional theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bobrov, V. B.; Trigger, S. A.

2013-01-01

The analysis in this paper shows that the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem is the constellation of two statements: (i) the mathematically rigorous Hohenberg-Kohn lemma, which demonstrates that the same ground-state density cannot correspond to two different potentials of an external field, and (ii) the hypothesis of the existence of the universal density functional. Based on the obtained explicit expression for the nonrel-ativistic particle energy in a local external field, we prove that the energy of the system of more than two non-interacting electrons cannot be a functional of the inhomogeneous density. This result is generalized to the system of interacting electrons. It means that the Hohenberg-Kohn lemma cannot provide justification of the universal density functional for fermions. At the same time, statements of the density functional theory remain valid when considering any number of noninteracting ground-state bosons due to the Bose condensation effect. In the framework of the density matrix functional theory, the hypothesis of the existence of the universal density matrix functional corresponds to the cases of noninteracting particles and to interaction in the Hartree-Fock approximation.

19. Recovery of the Dirac system from the rectangular Weyl matrix function

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fritzsche, B; Kirstein, B; Roitberg, I Ya; Sakhnovich, A L

2012-01-01

Weyl theory for Dirac systems with rectangular matrix potentials is non-classical. The corresponding Weyl functions are rectangular matrix functions. Furthermore, they are non-expansive in the upper semi-plane. Inverse problems are studied for such Weyl functions, and some results are new even for the square Weyl functions. High-energy asymptotics of Weyl functions and Borg–Marchenko-type uniqueness results are derived too. (paper)

20. Symbolic computation of exact solutions expressible in rational formal hyperbolic and elliptic functions for nonlinear partial differential equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wang Qi; Chen Yong

2007-01-01

With the aid of symbolic computation, some algorithms are presented for the rational expansion methods, which lead to closed-form solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). The new algorithms are given to find exact rational formal polynomial solutions of PDEs in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions, solutions of the Riccati equation and solutions of the generalized Riccati equation. They can be implemented in symbolic computation system Maple. As applications of the methods, we choose some nonlinear PDEs to illustrate the methods. As a result, we not only can successfully obtain the solutions found by most existing Jacobi elliptic function methods and Tanh-methods, but also find other new and more general solutions at the same time

1. Decay of autoionizing states in time-dependent density functional and reduced density matrix functional theory

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kapoor, Varun; Brics, Martins; Bauer, Dieter [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany)

2013-07-01

Autoionizing states are inaccessible to time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) using known, adiabatic Kohn-Sham (KS) potentials. We determine the exact KS potential for a numerically exactly solvable model Helium atom interacting with a laser field that is populating an autoionizing state. The exact single-particle density of the population in the autoionizing state corresponds to that of the energetically lowest quasi-stationary state in the exact KS potential. We describe how this exact potential controls the decay by a barrier whose height and width allows for the density to tunnel out and decay with the same rate as in the ab initio time-dependent Schroedinger calculation. However, devising a useful exchange-correlation potential that is capable of governing such a scenario in general and in more complex systems is hopeless. As an improvement over TDDFT, time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory has been proposed. We are able to obtain for the above described autoionization process the exact time-dependent natural orbitals (i.e., the eigenfunctions of the exact, time-dependent one-body reduced density matrix) and study the potentials that appear in the equations of motion for the natural orbitals and the structure of the two-body density matrix expanded in them.

2. Rational Multiparty Computation

OpenAIRE

Wallrabenstein, John Ross

2014-01-01

The field of rational cryptography considers the design of cryptographic protocols in the presence of rational agents seeking to maximize local utility functions. This departs from the standard secure multiparty computation setting, where players are assumed to be either honest or malicious. ^ We detail the construction of both a two-party and a multiparty game theoretic framework for constructing rational cryptographic protocols. Our framework specifies the utility function assumptions neces...

3. Matrix converter controlled with the direct transfer function approach

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rodriguez, J.; Silva, E.; Blaabjerg, Frede

2005-01-01

Power electronics is an emerging technology. New power circuits are invented and have to be introduced into the power electronics curriculum. One of the interesting new circuits is the matrix converter (MC), and this paper analyses its working principles. A simple model is proposed to represent...

4. Gauss-Arnoldi quadrature for -1φ,φ> and rational Pade-type approximation for Markov-type functions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knizhnerman, L A

2008-01-01

The efficiency of Gauss-Arnoldi quadrature for the calculation of the quantity -1 φ,φ> is studied, where A is a bounded operator in a Hilbert space and φ is a non-trivial vector in this space. A necessary and a sufficient conditions are found for the efficiency of the quadrature in the case of a normal operator. An example of a non-normal operator for which this quadrature is inefficient is presented. It is shown that Gauss-Arnoldi quadrature is related in certain cases to rational Pade-type approximation (with the poles at Ritz numbers) for functions of Markov type and, in particular, can be used for the localization of the poles of a rational perturbation. Error estimates are found, which can also be used when classical Pade approximation does not work or it may not be efficient. Theoretical results and conjectures are illustrated by numerical experiments. Bibliography: 44 titles

5. Rational Design of Cancer-Targeted Benzoselenadiazole by RGD Peptide Functionalization for Cancer Theranostics.

Science.gov (United States)

Yang, Liye; Li, Wenying; Huang, Yanyu; Zhou, Yangliang; Chen, Tianfeng

2015-09-01

A cancer-targeted conjugate of the selenadiazole derivative BSeC (benzo[1,2,5] selenadiazole-5-carboxylic acid) with RGD peptide as targeting molecule and PEI (polyethylenimine) as a linker is rationally designed and synthesized in the present study. The results show that RGD-PEI-BSeC forms nanoparticles in aqueous solution with a core-shell nanostructure and high stability under physiological conditions. This rational design effectively enhances the selective cellular uptake and cellular retention of BSeC in human glioma cells, and increases its selectivity between cancer and normal cells. The nanoparticles enter the cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis via clathrin-mediated and nystatin-dependent lipid raft-mediated pathways. Internalized nanoparticles trigger glioma cell apoptosis by activation of ROS-mediated p53 phosphorylation. Therefore, this study provides a strategy for the rational design of selenium-containing cancer-targeted theranostics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

6. Complex curve of the two-matrix model and its tau-function

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2003-01-01

We study the Hermitian and normal two-matrix models in planar approximation for an arbitrary number of eigenvalue supports. Its planar graph interpretation is given. The study reveals a general structure of the underlying analytic complex curve, different from the hyperelliptic curve of the one-matrix model. The matrix model quantities are expressed through the periods of meromorphic generating differential on this curve and the partition function of the multiple support solution, as a function of filling numbers and coefficients of the matrix potential, is shown to be a quasiclassical tau-function. The relation to N = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories is discussed. A general class of solvable multi-matrix models with tree-like interactions is considered

7. Integration of large chemical kinetic mechanisms via exponential methods with Krylov approximations to Jacobian matrix functions

KAUST Repository

Bisetti, Fabrizio

2012-01-01

with the computational cost associated with the time integration of stiff, large chemical systems, a novel approach is proposed. The approach combines an exponential integrator and Krylov subspace approximations to the exponential function of the Jacobian matrix

8. Nuclear matrix and structural and functional compartmentalization of the eucaryotic cell nucleus.

Science.gov (United States)

Razin, S V; Borunova, V V; Iarovaia, O V; Vassetzky, Y S

2014-07-01

Becoming popular at the end of the 20th century, the concept of the nuclear matrix implies the existence of a nuclear skeleton that organizes functional elements in the cell nucleus. This review presents a critical analysis of the results obtained in the study of nuclear matrix in the light of current views on the organization of the cell nucleus. Numerous studies of nuclear matrix have failed to provide evidence of the existence of such a structure. Moreover, the existence of a filamentous structure that supports the nuclear compartmentalization appears to be unnecessary, since this function is performed by the folded genome itself.

9. On calculation of zeta function of integral matrix

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Janáček, Jiří

2009-01-01

Roč. 134, č. 1 (2009), s. 49-58 ISSN 0862-7959 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100110502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Epstein zeta function * integral lattice * Riemann theta function Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

10. Maximum entropy formalism for the analytic continuation of matrix-valued Green's functions

Science.gov (United States)

Kraberger, Gernot J.; Triebl, Robert; Zingl, Manuel; Aichhorn, Markus

2017-10-01

We present a generalization of the maximum entropy method to the analytic continuation of matrix-valued Green's functions. To treat off-diagonal elements correctly based on Bayesian probability theory, the entropy term has to be extended for spectral functions that are possibly negative in some frequency ranges. In that way, all matrix elements of the Green's function matrix can be analytically continued; we introduce a computationally cheap element-wise method for this purpose. However, this method cannot ensure important constraints on the mathematical properties of the resulting spectral functions, namely positive semidefiniteness and Hermiticity. To improve on this, we present a full matrix formalism, where all matrix elements are treated simultaneously. We show the capabilities of these methods using insulating and metallic dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) Green's functions as test cases. Finally, we apply the methods to realistic material calculations for LaTiO3, where off-diagonal matrix elements in the Green's function appear due to the distorted crystal structure.

11. Classical density functional theory and the phase-field crystal method using a rational function to describe the two-body direct correlation function.

Science.gov (United States)

Pisutha-Arnond, N; Chan, V W L; Iyer, M; Gavini, V; Thornton, K

2013-01-01

We introduce a new approach to represent a two-body direct correlation function (DCF) in order to alleviate the computational demand of classical density functional theory (CDFT) and enhance the predictive capability of the phase-field crystal (PFC) method. The approach utilizes a rational function fit (RFF) to approximate the two-body DCF in Fourier space. We use the RFF to show that short-wavelength contributions of the two-body DCF play an important role in determining the thermodynamic properties of materials. We further show that using the RFF to empirically parametrize the two-body DCF allows us to obtain the thermodynamic properties of solids and liquids that agree with the results of CDFT simulations with the full two-body DCF without incurring significant computational costs. In addition, the RFF can also be used to improve the representation of the two-body DCF in the PFC method. Last, the RFF allows for a real-space reformulation of the CDFT and PFC method, which enables descriptions of nonperiodic systems and the use of nonuniform and adaptive grids.

12. Orbital functionals in density-matrix- and current-density-functional theory

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Helbig, N

2006-05-15

Density-Functional Theory (DFT), although widely used and very successful in the calculation of several observables, fails to correctly describe strongly correlated materials. In the first part of this work we, therefore, introduce reduced-densitymatrix- functional theory (RDMFT) which is one possible way to treat electron correlation beyond DFT. Within this theory the one-body reduced density matrix (1- RDM) is used as the basic variable. Our main interest is the calculation of the fundamental gap which proves very problematic within DFT. In order to calculate the fundamental gap we generalize RDMFT to fractional particle numbers M by describing the system as an ensemble of an N and an N+1 particle system (with N{<=}M{<=}N+1). For each fixed particle number, M, the total energy is minimized with respect to the natural orbitals and their occupation numbers. This leads to the total energy as a function of M. The derivative of this function with respect to the particle number has a discontinuity at integer particle number which is identical to the gap. In addition, we investigate the necessary and sufficient conditions for the 1- RDM of a system with fractional particle number to be N-representable. Numerical results are presented for alkali atoms, small molecules, and periodic systems. Another problem within DFT is the description of non-relativistic many-electron systems in the presence of magnetic fields. It requires the paramagnetic current density and the spin magnetization to be used as basic variables besides the electron density. However, electron-gas-based functionals of current-spin-density-functional Theory (CSDFT) exhibit derivative discontinuities as a function of the magnetic field whenever a new Landau level is occupied, which makes them difficult to use in practice. Since the appearance of Landau levels is, intrinsically, an orbital effect it is appealing to use orbital-dependent functionals. We have developed a CSDFT version of the optimized

13. Heuristic lipophilicity potential for computer-aided rational drug design: Optimizations of screening functions and parameters

Science.gov (United States)

Du, Qishi; Mezey, Paul G.

1998-09-01

In this research we test and compare three possible atom-basedscreening functions used in the heuristic molecular lipophilicity potential(HMLP). Screening function 1 is a power distance-dependent function, b_{{i}} /| {R_{{i}}- r} |^γ, screening function 2is an exponential distance-dependent function, biexp(-| {R_i- r} |/d_0 , and screening function 3 is aweighted distance-dependent function, {{sign}}( {b_i } ){{exp}}ξ ( {| {R_i- r} |/| {b_i } |} )For every screening function, the parameters (γ ,d0, and ξ are optimized using 41 common organic molecules of 4 types of compounds:aliphatic alcohols, aliphatic carboxylic acids, aliphatic amines, andaliphatic alkanes. The results of calculations show that screening function3 cannot give chemically reasonable results, however, both the powerscreening function and the exponential screening function give chemicallysatisfactory results. There are two notable differences between screeningfunctions 1 and 2. First, the exponential screening function has largervalues in the short distance than the power screening function, thereforemore influence from the nearest neighbors is involved using screeningfunction 2 than screening function 1. Second, the power screening functionhas larger values in the long distance than the exponential screeningfunction, therefore screening function 1 is effected by atoms at longdistance more than screening function 2. For screening function 1, thesuitable range of parameter d0 is 1.5 < d0 < 3.0, and d0 = 2.0 is recommended. HMLP developed in this researchprovides a potential tool for computer-aided three-dimensional drugdesign.

14. Ramiprilate inhibits functional matrix metalloproteinase activity in Crohn's disease fistulas

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Efsen, Eva; Saermark, Torben; Hansen, Alastair

2011-01-01

from six controls were also included. Total functional MMP activity was measured by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based, fluorogenic MMP-substrate cleavage assay, and the specific activity of MMP-2, -3 and -9 by the MMP Biotrak Activity Assay. The MMP inhibitors comprised ethylene...

15. Mixed matrix microporous hollow fibers with ion-exchange functionality

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Kiyono, R.; Kiyono, R.; Koops, G.H.; Wessling, Matthias; Strathmann, H.

2004-01-01

Heterogeneous hollow fiber membranes with cation exchange functionality are prepared using a wet spinning technique. The spinning dope solutions are prepared by dispersing finely ground cation ion-exchange resin (CER) particles in an N-methyl pyrrolidone solution of polysulfone (PSF). The polymer

16. Pascal-Like Triangle and Pascal-Like Functional Matrix

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

M. Bayat

2013-06-01

Full Text Available . In this paper we shall first introduce the Pascal-like triangle, using a generalization of the recurrence relation for arrays of Pascal triangle. Then we define the Pascal-like functional and Fermat-like matrices and investigate their algebraic properties. Finally, we obtain some binomial identities, using these matrices

17. Structure-function discrepancy in Clostridium botulinum C3 toxin for its rational prioritization as a subunit vaccine.

Science.gov (United States)

Prathiviraj, R; Prisilla, A; Chellapandi, P

2016-06-01

Clostridium botulinum is anaerobic pathogenic bacterium causing food-born botulism in human and animals by producing botulinum neurotoxins A-H, C2, and C3 cytotoxins. Physiological group III strains (type C and D) of this bacterium are capable of producing C2 and C3 toxins in cattle and avian. Herein, we have revealed the structure-function disparity of C3 toxins from two different C. botulinum type C phage (CboC) and type D phage (CboD) to design avirulent toxins rationally. Structure-function discrepancy of the both toxins was computationally evaluated from their homology models based on the conservation in sequence-structure-function relationships upon covariation and point mutations. It has shown that 8 avirulent mutants were generated from CboC of 34 mutants while 27 avirulent mutants resulted from CboD mutants. No major changes were found in tertiary structure of these toxins; however, some structural variations appeared in the coiled and loop regions. Correlated mutation on the first residue would disorder or revolutionize the hydrogen bonding pattern of the coevolved pairs. It suggested that the residues coupling in the local structural environments were compensated with coevolved pairs so as to preserve a pseudocatalytic function in the avirulent mutants. Avirulent mutants of C3 toxins have shown a stable structure with a common blue print of folding process and also attained a near-native backrub ensemble. Thus, we concluded that selecting the site-directed mutagenesis sites are very important criteria for designing avirulent toxins, in development of rational subunit vaccines, to cattle and avian, but the vaccine specificity can be determined by the C3 toxins of C. botulinum harboring phages.

18. Extended Krylov subspaces approximations of matrix functions. Application to computational electromagnetics

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Druskin, V.; Lee, Ping [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT (United States); Knizhnerman, L. [Central Geophysical Expedition, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1996-12-31

There is now a growing interest in the area of using Krylov subspace approximations to compute the actions of matrix functions. The main application of this approach is the solution of ODE systems, obtained after discretization of partial differential equations by method of lines. In the event that the cost of computing the matrix inverse is relatively inexpensive, it is sometimes attractive to solve the ODE using the extended Krylov subspaces, originated by actions of both positive and negative matrix powers. Examples of such problems can be found frequently in computational electromagnetics.

19. Pragmatics & rationality.

OpenAIRE

Allott, N. E.

2007-01-01

This thesis is about the reconciliation of realistic views of rationality with inferential-intentional theories of communication. Grice (1957 1975) argued that working out what a speaker meant by an utterance is a matter of inferring the speaker's intentions on the presumption that she is acting rationally. This is abductive inference: inference to the best explanation for the utterance. Thus an utterance both rationalises and causes the interpretation the hearer constructs. Human rationality...

20. On functional determinants of matrix differential operators with multiple zero modes

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Falco, G.M.; Fedorenko, Andrey A; Gruzberg, Ilya A

2017-01-01

We generalize the method of computing functional determinants with a single excluded zero eigenvalue developed by McKane and Tarlie to differential operators with multiple zero eigenvalues. We derive general formulas for such functional determinants of $r\\times r$ matrix second order differential

1. A real-space stochastic density matrix approach for density functional electronic structure.

Science.gov (United States)

Beck, Thomas L

2015-12-21

The recent development of real-space grid methods has led to more efficient, accurate, and adaptable approaches for large-scale electrostatics and density functional electronic structure modeling. With the incorporation of multiscale techniques, linear-scaling real-space solvers are possible for density functional problems if localized orbitals are used to represent the Kohn-Sham energy functional. These methods still suffer from high computational and storage overheads, however, due to extensive matrix operations related to the underlying wave function grid representation. In this paper, an alternative stochastic method is outlined that aims to solve directly for the one-electron density matrix in real space. In order to illustrate aspects of the method, model calculations are performed for simple one-dimensional problems that display some features of the more general problem, such as spatial nodes in the density matrix. This orbital-free approach may prove helpful considering a future involving increasingly parallel computing architectures. Its primary advantage is the near-locality of the random walks, allowing for simultaneous updates of the density matrix in different regions of space partitioned across the processors. In addition, it allows for testing and enforcement of the particle number and idempotency constraints through stabilization of a Feynman-Kac functional integral as opposed to the extensive matrix operations in traditional approaches.

2. The universal R-matrix and its associated quantum algebra as functionals of the classical r-matrix: the sl2 case

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Freidel, L.; Maillet, J.M.

1992-09-01

Using a geometrical approach to the quantum Yang-Baxter equation, the quantum algebra U h (sl 2 ) and its universal quantum R-matrix are explicitly constructed as functionals of the associated classical r-matrix. In this framework, the quantum algebra U h (sl 2 ) is naturally imbedded in the universal enveloping algebra of the sl 2 current algebra. (author) 13 refs

3. W-infinity ward identities and correlation functions in the c = 1 matrix model

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Das, S.R.; Dhar, A.; Mandal, G.; Wadia, S.R.

1992-01-01

In this paper, the authors explore consequences of W-infinity symmetry in the fermionic field theory of the c = 1 matrix model. The authors derive exact Ward identities relating correlation functions of the bilocal operator. These identities can be expressed as equations satisfied by the effective action of a three-dimensional theory and contain non-perturbative information about the model. The authors use thee identities to calculate the two-point function of the bilocal operator in the double scaling limit. The authors extract the operator whose two-point correlator has a single pole at an (imaginary) integer value of the energy. The authors then rewrite the W-infinity charges in terms of operators in the matrix model and use this to derive constraints satisfied by the partition function of the matrix model with a general time dependent potential

4. Matrix intensification alters avian functional group composition in adjacent rainforest fragments.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Justus P Deikumah

Full Text Available Conversion of farmland land-use matrices to surface mining is an increasing threat to the habitat quality of forest remnants and their constituent biota, with consequences for ecosystem functionality. We evaluated the effects of matrix type on bird community composition and the abundance and evenness within avian functional groups in south-west Ghana. We hypothesized that surface mining near remnants may result in a shift in functional composition of avifaunal communities, potentially disrupting ecological processes within tropical forest ecosystems. Matrix intensification and proximity to the remnant edge strongly influenced the abundance of members of several functional guilds. Obligate frugivores, strict terrestrial insectivores, lower and upper strata birds, and insect gleaners were most negatively affected by adjacent mining matrices, suggesting certain ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal may be disrupted by landscape change in this region. Evenness of these functional guilds was also lower in remnants adjacent to surface mining, regardless of the distance from remnant edge, with the exception of strict terrestrial insectivores. These shifts suggest matrix intensification can influence avian functional group composition and related ecosystem-level processes in adjacent forest remnants. The management of matrix habitat quality near and within mine concessions is important for improving efforts to preserveavian biodiversity in landscapes undergoing intensification such as through increased surface mining.

5. One-point functions in AdS/dCFT from matrix product states

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Buhl-Mortensen, Isak; Leeuw, Marius de; Kristjansen, Charlotte; Zarembo, Konstantin

2016-01-01

One-point functions of certain non-protected scalar operators in the defect CFT dual to the D3-D5 probe brane system with k units of world volume flux can be expressed as overlaps between Bethe eigenstates of the Heisenberg spin chain and a matrix product state. We present a closed expression of determinant form for these one-point functions, valid for any value of k. The determinant formula factorizes into the k=2 result times a k-dependent pre-factor. Making use of the transfer matrix of the Heisenberg spin chain we recursively relate the matrix product state for higher even and odd k to the matrix product state for k=2 and k=3 respectively. We furthermore find evidence that the matrix product states for k=2 and k=3 are related via a ratio of Baxter’s Q-operators. The general k formula has an interesting thermodynamical limit involving a non-trivial scaling of k, which indicates that the match between string and field theory one-point functions found for chiral primaries might be tested for non-protected operators as well. We revisit the string computation for chiral primaries and discuss how it can be extended to non-protected operators.

6. Uncertainty plus Prior Equals Rational Bias: An Intuitive Bayesian Probability Weighting Function

Science.gov (United States)

2012-01-01

Empirical research has shown that when making choices based on probabilistic options, people behave as if they overestimate small probabilities, underestimate large probabilities, and treat positive and negative outcomes differently. These distortions have been modeled using a nonlinear probability weighting function, which is found in several…

7. Rational Use of Antibiotics in the Treatment of Functional Bowel Disorders

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Roberta Fasulo

2010-07-01

Full Text Available Functional gastrointestinal symptoms such us bloating, fullness, flatulence, diarrhea, and constipation due to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS were recently attributed to small bowel bacterial overgrowth, a condition depending on the presence of an increased number of bacteria in the small bowel. However, the methodology used to describe this association may be harshly criticized, since it has already been shown to be quite inaccurate. As a result an inappropriate use of antibiotics was consequently generated. In fact, antibiotics could be effective in the treatment of functional complaints, but only in a limited subgroup of patients, characterized by an increase of fermentation at colonic level. In this review, we have examined the papers suggesting a pathophysiological link between IBS and small bowel bacterial overgrowth, underlining its inappropriateness, and put forth our personal view on the rationale for antibiotic use in IBS.

8. Uncertainty plus prior equals rational bias: an intuitive Bayesian probability weighting function.

Science.gov (United States)

2012-10-01

Empirical research has shown that when making choices based on probabilistic options, people behave as if they overestimate small probabilities, underestimate large probabilities, and treat positive and negative outcomes differently. These distortions have been modeled using a nonlinear probability weighting function, which is found in several nonexpected utility theories, including rank-dependent models and prospect theory; here, we propose a Bayesian approach to the probability weighting function and, with it, a psychological rationale. In the real world, uncertainty is ubiquitous and, accordingly, the optimal strategy is to combine probability statements with prior information using Bayes' rule. First, we show that any reasonable prior on probabilities leads to 2 of the observed effects; overweighting of low probabilities and underweighting of high probabilities. We then investigate 2 plausible kinds of priors: informative priors based on previous experience and uninformative priors of ignorance. Individually, these priors potentially lead to large problems of bias and inefficiency, respectively; however, when combined using Bayesian model comparison methods, both forms of prior can be applied adaptively, gaining the efficiency of empirical priors and the robustness of ignorance priors. We illustrate this for the simple case of generic good and bad options, using Internet blogs to estimate the relevant priors of inference. Given this combined ignorant/informative prior, the Bayesian probability weighting function is not only robust and efficient but also matches all of the major characteristics of the distortions found in empirical research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

9. Self-consistent embedding of density-matrix renormalization group wavefunctions in a density functional environment.

Science.gov (United States)

Dresselhaus, Thomas; Neugebauer, Johannes; Knecht, Stefan; Keller, Sebastian; Ma, Yingjin; Reiher, Markus

2015-01-28

We present the first implementation of a density matrix renormalization group algorithm embedded in an environment described by density functional theory. The frozen density embedding scheme is used with a freeze-and-thaw strategy for a self-consistent polarization of the orbital-optimized wavefunction and the environmental densities with respect to each other.

10. Human 2'-phosphodiesterase localizes to the mitochondrial matrix with a putative function in mitochondrial RNA turnover

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Poulsen, Jesper Buchhave; Andersen, Kasper Røjkjær; Kjær, Karina Hansen

2011-01-01

. Interestingly, 2′-PDE shares both functionally and structurally characteristics with the CCR4-type exonuclease–endonuclease–phosphatase family of deadenylases. Here we show that 2′-PDE locates to the mitochondrial matrix of human cells, and comprise an active 3′–5′ exoribonuclease exhibiting a preference...

11. Baseline rationing

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...... the family is associated with a standard rule and we show that if the latter obeys some properties reflecting principles of impartiality, priority and solidarity, the former obeys them too....

12. Embodying rationality

OpenAIRE

Mastrogiorgio, Antonio; Petracca, Enrico

2016-01-01

The current notions of bounded rationality in economics share distinctive features with Simon’s original notion, which still influences the theoretical and experimental research in the fields of choice, judgment, decision making, problem solving, and social cognition. All these notions of bounded rationality are in fact equally rooted in the information-processing approach to human cognition, expressing the view that reasoning is disembodied and that it can be reduced to the processing of abs...

13. Dynamic Matrix Rank

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Frandsen, Peter Frands

2009-01-01

We consider maintaining information about the rank of a matrix under changes of the entries. For n×n matrices, we show an upper bound of O(n1.575) arithmetic operations and a lower bound of Ω(n) arithmetic operations per element change. The upper bound is valid when changing up to O(n0.575) entries...... in a single column of the matrix. We also give an algorithm that maintains the rank using O(n2) arithmetic operations per rank one update. These bounds appear to be the first nontrivial bounds for the problem. The upper bounds are valid for arbitrary fields, whereas the lower bound is valid for algebraically...... closed fields. The upper bound for element updates uses fast rectangular matrix multiplication, and the lower bound involves further development of an earlier technique for proving lower bounds for dynamic computation of rational functions....

14. Three-loop SM beta-functions for matrix Yukawa couplings

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A.V. Bednyakov

2014-10-01

Full Text Available We present the extension of our previous results for three-loop Yukawa coupling beta-functions to the case of complex Yukawa matrices describing the flavour structure of the SM. The calculation is carried out in the context of unbroken phase of the SM with the help of the MINCER program in a general linear gauge and cross-checked by means of MATAD/BAMBA codes. In addition, ambiguities in Yukawa matrix beta-functions are studied.

15. Sequential optimization of matrix chain multiplication relative to different cost functions

KAUST Repository

Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail

2011-01-01

In this paper, we present a methodology to optimize matrix chain multiplication sequentially relative to different cost functions such as total number of scalar multiplications, communication overhead in a multiprocessor environment, etc. For n matrices our optimization procedure requires O(n 3) arithmetic operations per one cost function. This work is done in the framework of a dynamic programming extension that allows sequential optimization relative to different criteria. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

16. Knowing When to Be "Rational": Flexible Economic Decision Making and Executive Function in Preschool Children.

Science.gov (United States)

Lee, Wendy S C; Carlson, Stephanie M

2015-01-01

Failure to delay gratification may not indicate poor control or irrationality, but might be an adaptive response. Two studies investigated 3.5- and 4.5-year-old children's ability to adapt their delay and saving behavior when their preference (e.g., to delay or not delay) became nonadaptive. In Study 1 (N = 140), children's delay preference was associated with a risk of losing rewards. In Study 2 (N = 142), children's saving preference was associated with an inability to play an attractive game. Whereas baseline delaying and saving preferences were unrelated to a standardized executive function measure, children who switched to their nonpreferred choice scored higher, suggesting flexibility of decision-making may be a more meaningful dependent variable than baseline performance in developmental research on self-control. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

17. Towards Rational Design of Functional Fluoride and Oxyfluoride Materials from First Principles

Science.gov (United States)

Charles, Nenian

Complex transition metal compounds (TMCs) research has produced functional materials with a range of properties, including ferroelectricity, colossal magnetoresistance, nonlinear optical activity and high-temperature superconductivity. Conventional routes to tune properties in transition metal oxides, for example, have relied primarily on cation chemical substitution and interfacial effects in thin film heterostructures. In heteroanionic TMCs, exhibiting two chemically distinct anions coordinating the same or different cations, engineering of the anion sub-lattice for property control is a promising alternative approach. The presence of multiple anions provides additional design variables, such as anion order, that are absent in homoanionic counterparts. The more complex structural and chemical phase space of heteroanionic materials provides a unique opportunity to realize enhanced or unanticipated electronic, optical, and magnetic responses. Although there is growing interest in heteroanionic materials, and synthetic and characterization advances are occurring for these materials, the crystal-chemistry principles for realizing structural and property control are only slowing emerging. This dissertation employs anion engineering to investigate phenomena in transition metal fluorides and oxyfluorides compounds using first principles density functional theory calculations. Oxyfluorides are particularly intriguing owing their tendency to stabilize highly ordered anion sublattices as well as the potential to combine the advantageous properties of transition metal oxides and fluorides. This work 1) addresses the challenges of studying fluorides and oxyfluorides using first principles calculations; 2) evaluates the feasibility of using external stimuli, such as epitaxial strain and hydrostatic pressure, to control properties of fluorides and oxyfluorides; and 3) formulates a computational workflow based on multiple levels of theory and computation to elucidate structure

18. Static versus Dynamic Disposition: The Role of GeoGebra in Representing Polynomial-Rational Inequalities and Exponential-Logarithmic Functions

Science.gov (United States)

Caglayan, Günhan

2014-01-01

This study investigates prospective secondary mathematics teachers' visual representations of polynomial and rational inequalities, and graphs of exponential and logarithmic functions with GeoGebra Dynamic Software. Five prospective teachers in a university in the United States participated in this research study, which was situated within a…

19. Functionalized carbon nanotubes mixed matrix membranes of polymers of intrinsic microporosity for gas separation.

Science.gov (United States)

Khan, Muntazim Munir; Filiz, Volkan; Bengtson, Gisela; Shishatskiy, Sergey; Rahman, Mushfequr; Abetz, Volker

2012-09-06

The present work reports on the gas transport behavior of mixed matrix membranes (MMM) which were prepared from multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and dispersed within polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1) matrix. The MWCNTs were chemically functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) for a better dispersion in the polymer matrix. MMM-incorporating functionalized MWCNTs (f-MWCNTs) were fabricated by dip-coating method using microporous polyacrylonitrile membrane as a support and were characterized for gas separation performance. Gas permeation measurements show that MMM incorporated with pristine or functionalized MWCNTs exhibited improved gas separation performance compared to pure PIM-1. The f-MWCNTs MMM show better performance in terms of permeance and selectivity in comparison to pristine MWCNTs. The gas permeances of the derived MMM are increased to approximately 50% without sacrificing the selectivity at 2 wt.% of f-MWCNTs' loading. The PEG groups on the MWCNTs have strong interaction with CO2 which increases the solubility of polar gas and limit the solubility of nonpolar gas, which is advantageous for CO2/N2 selectivity. The addition of f-MWCNTs inside the polymer matrix also improved the long-term gas transport stability of MMM in comparison with PIM-1. The high permeance, selectivity, and long term stability of the fabricated MMM suggest that the reported approach can be utilized in practical gas separation technology.

20. Numerical Solution of Multiterm Fractional Differential Equations Using the Matrix Mittag–Leffler Functions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Marina Popolizio

2018-01-01

Full Text Available Multiterm fractional differential equations (MTFDEs nowadays represent a widely used tool to model many important processes, particularly for multirate systems. Their numerical solution is then a compelling subject that deserves great attention, not least because of the difficulties to apply general purpose methods for fractional differential equations (FDEs to this case. In this paper, we first transform the MTFDEs into equivalent systems of FDEs, as done by Diethelm and Ford; in this way, the solution can be expressed in terms of Mittag–Leffler (ML functions evaluated at matrix arguments. We then propose to compute it by resorting to the matrix approach proposed by Garrappa and Popolizio. Several numerical tests are presented that clearly show that this matrix approach is very accurate and fast, also in comparison with other numerical methods.

1. Matrix elements of N-particle explicitly correlated Gaussian basis functions with complex exponential parameters.

Science.gov (United States)

2006-06-14

In this work we present analytical expressions for Hamiltonian matrix elements with spherically symmetric, explicitly correlated Gaussian basis functions with complex exponential parameters for an arbitrary number of particles. The expressions are derived using the formalism of matrix differential calculus. In addition, we present expressions for the energy gradient that includes derivatives of the Hamiltonian integrals with respect to the exponential parameters. The gradient is used in the variational optimization of the parameters. All the expressions are presented in the matrix form suitable for both numerical implementation and theoretical analysis. The energy and gradient formulas have been programmed and used to calculate ground and excited states of the He atom using an approach that does not involve the Born-Oppenheimer approximation.

2. Matrix elements of N-particle explicitly correlated Gaussian basis functions with complex exponential parameters

Science.gov (United States)

2006-06-01

In this work we present analytical expressions for Hamiltonian matrix elements with spherically symmetric, explicitly correlated Gaussian basis functions with complex exponential parameters for an arbitrary number of particles. The expressions are derived using the formalism of matrix differential calculus. In addition, we present expressions for the energy gradient that includes derivatives of the Hamiltonian integrals with respect to the exponential parameters. The gradient is used in the variational optimization of the parameters. All the expressions are presented in the matrix form suitable for both numerical implementation and theoretical analysis. The energy and gradient formulas have been programed and used to calculate ground and excited states of the He atom using an approach that does not involve the Born-Oppenheimer approximation.

3. Functional role of EMMPRIN in the formation and mineralisation of dental matrix in mouse molars.

Science.gov (United States)

Xie, Ming; Xing, Guofang; Hou, Liwen; Bao, Jing; Chen, Yuqing; Jiao, Ting; Zhang, Fuqiang

2015-02-01

Our previous research has shown that the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is expressed during and may function in the early development of tooth germs. In the present study, we observed the specific expression of EMMPRIN in ameloblasts and odontoblasts during the middle and late stages of tooth germ development using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, to extend our understanding of the function of EMMPRIN in odontogenesis, we used an anti-EMMPRIN function-blocking antibody to remove EMMPRIN activity in tooth germ culture in vitro. Both the formation and mineralisation of dental hard tissues were suppressed in the tooth germ culture after the abrogation of EMMPRIN. Meanwhile, significant reductions in VEGF, MMP-9, ALPL, ameloblastin, amelogenin and enamelin expression were observed in antibody-treated tooth germ explants compared to control and normal serum-treated explants. The current results illustrate that EMMPRIN may play a critical role in the processing and maturation of the dental matrix.

4. Mitochondrial function in engineered cardiac tissues is regulated by extracellular matrix elasticity and tissue alignment.

Science.gov (United States)

Lyra-Leite, Davi M; Andres, Allen M; Petersen, Andrew P; Ariyasinghe, Nethika R; Cho, Nathan; Lee, Jezell A; Gottlieb, Roberta A; McCain, Megan L

2017-10-01

Mitochondria in cardiac myocytes are critical for generating ATP to meet the high metabolic demands associated with sarcomere shortening. Distinct remodeling of mitochondrial structure and function occur in cardiac myocytes in both developmental and pathological settings. However, the factors that underlie these changes are poorly understood. Because remodeling of tissue architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM) elasticity are also hallmarks of ventricular development and disease, we hypothesize that these environmental factors regulate mitochondrial function in cardiac myocytes. To test this, we developed a new procedure to transfer tunable polydimethylsiloxane disks microcontact-printed with fibronectin into cell culture microplates. We cultured Sprague-Dawley neonatal rat ventricular myocytes within the wells, which consistently formed tissues following the printed fibronectin, and measured oxygen consumption rate using a Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer. Our data indicate that parameters associated with baseline metabolism are predominantly regulated by ECM elasticity, whereas the ability of tissues to adapt to metabolic stress is regulated by both ECM elasticity and tissue alignment. Furthermore, bioenergetic health index, which reflects both the positive and negative aspects of oxygen consumption, was highest in aligned tissues on the most rigid substrate, suggesting that overall mitochondrial function is regulated by both ECM elasticity and tissue alignment. Our results demonstrate that mitochondrial function is regulated by both ECM elasticity and myofibril architecture in cardiac myocytes. This provides novel insight into how extracellular cues impact mitochondrial function in the context of cardiac development and disease. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A new methodology has been developed to measure O 2 consumption rates in engineered cardiac tissues with independent control over tissue alignment and matrix elasticity. This led to the findings that matrix

5. Rational emotions.

Science.gov (United States)

Meshulam, Meir; Winter, Eyal; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon; Aharon, Itzhak

2012-01-01

We present here the concept of rational emotions: Emotions may be directly controlled and utilized in a conscious, analytic fashion, enabling an individual to size up a situation, to determine that a certain "mental state" is strategically advantageous and adjust accordingly. Building on the growing body of literature recognizing the vital role of emotions in determining decisions, we explore the complementary role of rational choice in choosing emotional states. Participants played the role of "recipient" in the dictator game, in which an anonymous "dictator" decides how to split an amount of money between himself and the recipient. A subset of recipients was given a monetary incentive to be angry at low-split offers. That subset demonstrated increased physiological arousal at low offers relative to high offers as well as more anger than other participants. These results provide a fresh outlook on human decision-making and contribute to the continuing effort to build more complete models of rational behavior.

6. Perceived rationality, morality, and power of social choice as a function of interdependence structure and social value orientation

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Joireman, J.A.; Kuhlman, D.M.; van Lange, P.A.M.; Doi, T.; Shelley, G.P.

2003-01-01

The present study examines how individuals with different social value orientations (i.e. prosocial, individualistic, and competitive) construe the rationality, morality, and power of choices in four distinct interdependence structures which systematically differ in the motives that could underlie

7. Microscopic universality of complex matrix model correlation functions at weak non-Hermiticity

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Akemann, G.

2002-01-01

The microscopic correlation functions of non-chiral random matrix models with complex eigenvalues are analyzed for a wide class of non-Gaussian measures. In the large-N limit of weak non-Hermiticity, where N is the size of the complex matrices, we can prove that all k-point correlation functions including an arbitrary number of Dirac mass terms are universal close to the origin. To this aim we establish the universality of the asymptotics of orthogonal polynomials in the complex plane. The universality of the correlation functions then follows from that of the kernel of orthogonal polynomials and a mapping of massive to massless correlators

8. Effects of matrix characteristics and interpatch distance on functional connectivity in fragmented temperate rainforests.

Science.gov (United States)

Magrach, Ainhoa; Larrinaga, Asier R; Santamaría, Luis

2012-04-01

The connectivity of remnant patches of habitat may affect the persistence of species in fragmented landscapes. We evaluated the effects of the structural connectivity of forest patches (i.e., distance between patches) and matrix class (land-cover type) on the functional connectivity of 3 bird species (the White-crested Elaenia [Elaenia albiceps], the Green-backed Firecrown Hummingbird [Sephanoides sephaniodes], and the Austral Thrush [Turdus falklandii]). We measured functional connectivity as the rate at which each species crossed from one patch to another. We also evaluated whether greater functional connectivity translated into greater ecological connectivity (dispersal of fruit and pollen) by comparing among forest patches fruit set of a plant pollinated by hummingbirds and abundance of seedlings and adults of 2 plants with bird- and wind-dispersed seeds. Interpatch distance was strongly associated with functional connectivity, but its effect was not independent of matrix class. For one of the bird-dispersed plants, greater functional connectivity for White-crested Elaenias and Austral Thrushes (both frugivores) was associated with higher densities of this plant. The lack of a similar association for the wind-dispersed species suggests this effect is linked to the dispersal vector. The abundance of the hummingbird-pollinated species was not related to the presence of hummingbirds. Interpatch distance and matrix class affect animal movement in fragmented landscapes and may have a cascading effect on the distribution of some animal-dispersed species. On the basis of our results, we believe effort should be invested in optimizing patch configuration and modifying the matrix so as to mitigate the effects of patch isolation in fragmented landscapes. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

9. Wiener-Hopf factorization of piecewise meromorphic matrix-valued functions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2009-01-01

Let D + be a multiply connected domain bounded by a contour Γ, let D - be the complement of D + union Γ in C-bar=C union {∞}, and a(t) be a continuous invertible matrix-valued function on Γ which can be meromorphically extended into the open disconnected set D - (as a piecewise meromorphic matrix-valued function). An explicit solution of the Wiener-Hopf factorization problem for a(t) is obtained and the partial factorization indices of a(t) are calculated. Here an explicit solution of a factorization problem is meant in the sense of reducing it to the investigation of finitely many systems of linear algebraic equations with matrices expressed in closed form, that is, in quadratures. Bibliography: 15 titles.

10. Targeting a single function of the multifunctional matrix metalloprotease MT1-MMP

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ingvarsen, Signe; Porse, Astrid; Erpicum, Charlotte

2013-01-01

and pathological events, has been complicated by the lack of specific inhibitors and the fact that some of the potent MMPs are multifunctional enzymes. These factors have also hampered the setup of therapeutic strategies targeting MMP activity. A tempting target is the membrane-associated MT1-MMP, which has well......-documented importance in matrix degradation but which takes part in more than one pathway in this regard. In this report, we describe the selective targeting of a single function of this enzyme by means of a specific monoclonal antibody against MT1-MMP, raised in an MT1-MMP knock-out mouse. The antibody blocks...... matrix in vitro, as well as in lymphatic vessel sprouting assayed ex vivo. This is the first example of the complete inactivation of a single function of a multifunctional MMP and the use of this strategy to pursue its role....

11. Structure and function of the interphotoreceptor matrix surrounding retinal photoreceptor cells.

Science.gov (United States)

Ishikawa, Makoto; Sawada, Yu; Yoshitomi, Takeshi

2015-04-01

The interphotoreceptor matrix (IPM) is a highly organized structure with interconnected domains surrounding cone and rod photoreceptor cells and extends throughout the subretinal space. Based on known roles of the extracellular matrix in other tissues, the IPM is thought to have several prominent functions including serving as a receptor for growth factors, regulating retinoid transport, participating in cytoskeletal organization in surrounding cells, and regulation of oxygen and nutrient transport. In addition, a number of studies suggest that the IPM also may play a significant role in the etiology of retinal degenerative disorders. In this review, we describe the present knowledge concerning the structure and function of the IPM under physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

12. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle extracellular matrix with aging

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kragstrup, T W; Kjaer, M; Mackey, A L

2011-01-01

The extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle is critical for force transmission and for the passive elastic response of skeletal muscle. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the deterioration in muscle mechanical properties with aging....... Structural changes include an increase in the collagen concentration, a change in the elastic fiber system, and an increase in fat infiltration of skeletal muscle. Biochemical changes include a decreased turnover of collagen with potential accumulation of enzymatically mediated collagen cross...

13. A Matrix Method Based on the Fibonacci Polynomials to the Generalized Pantograph Equations with Functional Arguments

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ayşe Betül Koç

2014-01-01

Full Text Available A pseudospectral method based on the Fibonacci operational matrix is proposed to solve generalized pantograph equations with linear functional arguments. By using this method, approximate solutions of the problems are easily obtained in form of the truncated Fibonacci series. Some illustrative examples are given to verify the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method. Then, the numerical results are compared with other methods.

14. Confucian Rationalism

Science.gov (United States)

Lam, Chi-Ming

2014-01-01

Nowadays, there is still a widely held view that the Chinese and Western modes of thought are quite distinct from each other. In particular, the Chinese mode of thought derived from Confucianism is considered as comparatively less rational than the Western one. In this article, I first argue that although the analogical mode of argumentation,…

15. Fabrication of Functionalized MOFs Incorporated Mixed Matrix Hollow Fiber Membrane for Gas Separation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Haitao Zhu

2017-01-01

Full Text Available The metal-organic framework (MOFs of MIL-53 was functionalized by aminosilane grafting and then incorporated into Ultem®1000 polymer matrix to fabricate mixed matrix hollow fiber membrane (MMHFM with high separation performance. SEM, XRD, and TGA were performed to characterize the functionalized MIL-53 and prepared MMHFM. The filler particles were embedded in membrane successfully and dispersed well in the polymer matrix. The incorporation of MOFs endowed MMHFM better thermal stability. Moreover, effects of solvent ratio in spinning dope, spinning condition, and testing temperature on gas separation performance of MMHFM were investigated. By optimizing dope composition, air gap distance, and bore fluid composition, MMHFM containing functionalized MIL-53 achieved excellent gas permeance and CO2/N2 selectivity. The CO2 permeance increased from 12.2 GPU for pure Ultem HFM to 30.9 GPU and the ideal CO2/N2 selectivity was enhanced from 25.4 to 34.7 simultaneously. Additionally, gas permeance increased but the selectivity decreased with the temperature increase, which followed the solution-diffusion based transport mechanism.

16. Mimicking the extracellular matrix with functionalized, metal-assembled collagen peptide scaffolds.

Science.gov (United States)

Hernandez-Gordillo, Victor; Chmielewski, Jean

2014-08-01

17. Random matrix theory for analyzing the brain functional network in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Rong; Wang, Li; Yang, Yong; Li, Jiajia; Wu, Ying; Lin, Pan

2016-11-01

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood neuropsychiatric disorder and affects approximately 6 -7 % of children worldwide. Here, we investigate the statistical properties of undirected and directed brain functional networks in ADHD patients based on random matrix theory (RMT), in which the undirected functional connectivity is constructed based on correlation coefficient and the directed functional connectivity is measured based on cross-correlation coefficient and mutual information. We first analyze the functional connectivity and the eigenvalues of the brain functional network. We find that ADHD patients have increased undirected functional connectivity, reflecting a higher degree of linear dependence between regions, and increased directed functional connectivity, indicating stronger causality and more transmission of information among brain regions. More importantly, we explore the randomness of the undirected and directed functional networks using RMT. We find that for ADHD patients, the undirected functional network is more orderly than that for normal subjects, which indicates an abnormal increase in undirected functional connectivity. In addition, we find that the directed functional networks are more random, which reveals greater disorder in causality and more chaotic information flow among brain regions in ADHD patients. Our results not only further confirm the efficacy of RMT in characterizing the intrinsic properties of brain functional networks but also provide insights into the possibilities RMT offers for improving clinical diagnoses and treatment evaluations for ADHD patients.

18. Unitarity or asymptotic completeness equations and analytic structure of the S matrix and Green functions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iagolnitzer, D.

1983-11-01

Recent axiomatic results on the (non holonomic) analytic structure of the multiparticle S matrix and Green functions are reviewed and related general conjectures are described: (i) formal expansions of Green functions in terms of (holonomic) Feynman-type integrals in which each vertex represents an irreducible kernel, and (ii) ''graph by graph unitarity'' and other discontinuity formulae of the latter. These conjectures are closely linked with unitarity or asymptotic completeness equations, which they yield in a formal sense. In constructive field theory, a direct proof of the first conjecture (together with an independent proof of the second) would thus imply, as a first step, asymptotic completeness in that sense

19. External field as the functional of inhomogeneous density and the density matrix functional approach

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Bobrov, V.B.; Trigger, S.A.; Vlasov, Y.P.

2012-01-01

Based on the Hohenberg-Kohn lemma and the hypotheses of the density functional existence for the external-field potential, it is shown that the strict result of the density functional theory is the equation of the external-field potential as the density functional. This result leads to the

20. EISPACK, Subroutines for Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors, Matrix Operations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Garbow, Burton S.; Cline, A.K.; Meyering, J.

1993-01-01

1 - Description of problem or function: EISPACK3 is a collection of 75 FORTRAN subroutines, both single- and double-precision, that compute the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of nine classes of matrices. The package can determine the Eigen-system of complex general, complex Hermitian, real general, real symmetric, real symmetric band, real symmetric tridiagonal, special real tridiagonal, generalized real, and generalized real symmetric matrices. In addition, there are two routines which use the singular value decomposition to solve certain least squares problem. The individual subroutines are - Identification/Description: BAKVEC: Back transform vectors of matrix formed by FIGI; BALANC: Balance a real general matrix; BALBAK: Back transform vectors of matrix formed by BALANC; BANDR: Reduce sym. band matrix to sym. tridiag. matrix; BANDV: Find some vectors of sym. band matrix; BISECT: Find some values of sym. tridiag. matrix; BQR: Find some values of sym. band matrix; CBABK2: Back transform vectors of matrix formed by CBAL; CBAL: Balance a complex general matrix; CDIV: Perform division of two complex quantities; CG: Driver subroutine for a complex general matrix; CH: Driver subroutine for a complex Hermitian matrix; CINVIT: Find some vectors of complex Hess. matrix; COMBAK: Back transform vectors of matrix formed by COMHES; COMHES: Reduce complex matrix to complex Hess. (elementary); COMLR: Find all values of complex Hess. matrix (LR); COMLR2: Find all values/vectors of cmplx Hess. matrix (LR); CCMQR: Find all values of complex Hessenberg matrix (QR); COMQR2: Find all values/vectors of cmplx Hess. matrix (QR); CORTB: Back transform vectors of matrix formed by CORTH; CORTH: Reduce complex matrix to complex Hess. (unitary); CSROOT: Find square root of complex quantity; ELMBAK: Back transform vectors of matrix formed by ELMHES; ELMHES: Reduce real matrix to real Hess. (elementary); ELTRAN: Accumulate transformations from ELMHES (for HQR2); EPSLON: Estimate unit roundoff

1. Full four-dimensional and reciprocal Mueller matrix bidirectional reflectance distribution function of sintered polytetrafluoroethylene.

Science.gov (United States)

Germer, Thomas A

2017-11-20

We measured the Mueller matrix bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of a sintered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sample over the scattering hemisphere for six incident angles (0°-75° in 15° steps) and for four wavelengths (351 nm, 532 nm, 633 nm, and 1064 nm). The data for each wavelength were fit to a phenomenological description for the Mueller matrix BRDF, which is an extension of the bidirectional surface scattering modes developed by Koenderink and van Doorn [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.15, 2903 (1998)JOAOD60740-323210.1364/JOSAA.15.002903] for unpolarized BRDF. This description is designed to be complete, to obey the appropriate reciprocity conditions, and to provide a full description of the Mueller matrix BRDF as a function of incident and scattering directions for each wavelength. The description was further extended by linearizing the surface scattering mode coefficients with wavelength. This data set and its parameterization provides a comprehensive on-demand description of the reflectance properties for this commonly used diffuse reflectance reference material over a wide range of wavelengths.

2. Effective functionalization of carbon nanotubes for bisphenol F epoxy matrix composites

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Zhe Wang

2012-08-01

Full Text Available A brand-new type of multifunctional nanocomposites with high DC conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength was fabricated. Ionic liquid functionalized Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs-IL were embedded into epoxy matrix with covalent bonding by the attached epoxy groups. The highest DC conductivity was 8.38 x 10-3 S.m-1 with 1.0 wt. (% loading of CNTs-IL and the tensile strength was increased by 36.4% only at a 0.5 wt. (% concentration. A mixing solvent was used to disperse CNTs-IL in the epoxy monomer. The dispersion and distribution of CNTs-IL in the polymer matrix were measured by utilizing both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively.

3. Two- and three-point functions in the D=1 matrix model

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ben-Menahem, S.

1991-01-01

The critical behavior of the genus-zero two-point function in the D=1 matrix model is carefully analyzed for arbitrary embedding-space momentum. Kostov's result is recovered for momenta below a certain value P 0 (which is 1/√α' in the continuum language), with a non-universal form factor which is expressed simply in terms of the critical fermion trajectory. For momenta above P 0 , the Kostov scaling term is found to be subdominant. We then extend the large-N WKB treatment to calculate the genus-zero three-point function, and elucidate its critical behavior when all momenta are below P 0 . The resulting universal scaling behavior, as well as the non-universal form factor for the three-point function, are related to the two-point functions of the individual external momenta, through the factorization familiar from continuum conformal field theories. (orig.)

4. Novel insights into the function and dynamics of extracellular matrix in liver fibrosis

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Karsdal, Morten A; Manon-Jensen, Tina; Genovese, Federica

2015-01-01

Emerging evidence suggests that altered components and posttranslational modifications of proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM) may both initiate and drive disease progression. The ECM is a complex grid consisting of multiple proteins, most of which play a vital role in containing......) explore key structural and functional components of the ECM as exemplified by monogenetic disorders leading to severe pathologies, 2) discuss selected pathological posttranslational modifications of ECM proteins resulting in altered functional (signaling) properties from the original structural proteins......, and 3) discuss how these findings support the novel concept that an increasing number of components of the ECM harbor signaling functions that can modulate fibrotic liver disease. The ECM entails functions in addition to anchoring cells and modulating their migratory behavior. Key ECM components...

5. Rational valuations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Georg Spielthenner

2007-01-01

Full Text Available Valuations are ubiquitous. We may be for or against genetically modified food; we find some politicians irresponsible; we prefer Beethoven to rock ‘n’ roll or vice versa; some enjoy bird-watching while others find it boring; and we may think that we have to tighten up on green-house gas emissions. Valuing is pervasive and often we are not even aware that we are valuing. However, many of ourvaluations are ill grounded and rationally defective. They are frequently based on misinformation, sloppy thinking, prejudice, and are biased in many ways as psychological research shows. For this reason there is widespread agreement among phi-losophers that we need an account of substantive valuational rationality, both for the theory of practical reasoning and for ethics as well. My main objectin this paper is to outline such an account and to present a principle that allows a non-technical rational criticism of valuations

6. On- and off-resonance radiation-atom-coupling matrix elements involving extended atomic wave functions

Science.gov (United States)

Komninos, Yannis; Mercouris, Theodoros; Nicolaides, Cleanthes A.

2014-01-01

In continuation of our earlier works, we present results concerning the computation of matrix elements of the multipolar Hamiltonian (MPH) between extended wave functions that are obtained numerically. The choice of the MPH is discussed in connection with the broader issue of the form of radiation-atom (or -molecule) interaction that is appropriate for the systematic solution of various problems of matter-radiation interaction. We derive analytic formulas, in terms of the sine-integral function and spherical Bessel functions of various orders, for the cumulative radial integrals that were obtained and calculated by Komninos, Mercouris, and Nicolaides [Phys. Rev. A 71, 023410 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevA.71.023410]. This development allows the much faster and more accurate computation of such matrix elements, a fact that enhances the efficiency with which the time-dependent Schrödinger equation is solved nonperturbatively, in the framework of the state-specific expansion approach. The formulas are applicable to the general case where a pair of orbitals with angular parts |ℓ1,m1> and |ℓ2,m2> are coupled radiatively. As a test case, we calculate the matrix elements of the electric field and of the paramagnetic operators for on- and off-resonance transitions, between hydrogenic circular states of high angular momentum, whose quantum numbers are chosen so as to satisfy electric dipole and electric quadrupole selection rules. Because of the nature of their wave function (they are nodeless and the large centrifugal barrier keeps their overwhelming part at large distances from the nucleus), the validity of the electric dipole approximation in various applications where the off-resonance couplings must be considered becomes precarious. For example, for the transition from the circular state with n = 20 to that with n = 21, for which ≈400 a.u., the dipole approximation starts to fail already at XUV wavelengths (λ <125nm).

7. A random matrix model for elliptic curve L-functions of finite conductor

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dueñez, E; Huynh, D K; Keating, J P; Snaith, N C; Miller, S J

2012-01-01

We propose a random-matrix model for families of elliptic curve L-functions of finite conductor. A repulsion of the critical zeros of these L-functions away from the centre of the critical strip was observed numerically by Miller (2006 Exp. Math. 15 257–79); such behaviour deviates qualitatively from the conjectural limiting distribution of the zeros (for large conductors this distribution is expected to approach the one-level density of eigenvalues of orthogonal matrices after appropriate rescaling). Our purpose here is to provide a random-matrix model for Miller’s surprising discovery. We consider the family of even quadratic twists of a given elliptic curve. The main ingredient in our model is a calculation of the eigenvalue distribution of random orthogonal matrices whose characteristic polynomials are larger than some given value at the symmetry point in the spectra. We call this sub-ensemble of SO(2N) the excised orthogonal ensemble. The sieving-off of matrices with small values of the characteristic polynomial is akin to the discretization of the central values of L-functions implied by the formulae of Waldspurger and Kohnen–Zagier. The cut-off scale appropriate to modelling elliptic curve L-functions is exponentially small relative to the matrix size N. The one-level density of the excised ensemble can be expressed in terms of that of the well-known Jacobi ensemble, enabling the former to be explicitly calculated. It exhibits an exponentially small (on the scale of the mean spacing) hard gap determined by the cut-off value, followed by soft repulsion on a much larger scale. Neither of these features is present in the one-level density of SO(2N). When N → ∞ we recover the limiting orthogonal behaviour. Our results agree qualitatively with Miller’s discrepancy. Choosing the cut-off appropriately gives a model in good quantitative agreement with the number-theoretical data. (paper)

8. Comment on "Nonuniqueness of algebraic first-order density-matrix functionals"

Science.gov (United States)

Gritsenko, O. V.

2018-02-01

Wang and Knowles (WK) [Phys. Rev. A 92, 012520 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.012520] have given a counterexample to the conventional in reduced density-matrix functional theory representation of the second-order reduced density matrix (2RDM) Γi j ,k l in the basis of the natural orbitals as a function Γi j ,k l(n ) of the orbital occupation numbers (ONs) ni. The observed nonuniqueness of Γi j ,k l for prototype systems of different symmetry has been interpreted as the inherent inability of ON functions to reproduce the 2RDM, due to the insufficient information contained in the 1RDM spectrum. In this Comment, it is argued that, rather than totally invalidating Γi j ,k l(n ) , the WK example exposes its symmetry dependence which, as well as the previously established analogous dependence in density functional theory, is demonstrated with a general formulation based on the Levy constrained search.

9. Fisher matrix forecast on cosmological parameters from the dark energy survey 2-point angular correlation function

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sobreira, F.; Rosenfeld, R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (IFT/UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. Fisica Teorica; Simoni, F. de; Costa, L.A.N. da; Gaia, M.A.G.; Ramos, B.; Ogando, R.; Makler, M. [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2011-07-01

Full text: We study the cosmological constraints expected for the upcoming project Dark Energy Survey (DES) with the full functional form of the 2-point angular correlation function. The angular correlation function model applied in this work includes the effects of linear redshift-space distortion, photometric redshift errors (assumed to be Gaussian) and non-linearities prevenient from gravitational infall. The Fisher information matrix is constructed with the full covariance matrix, which takes the correlation between nearby redshift shells in a proper manner. The survey was sliced into 20 redshift shells in the range 0:4 {<=} z {<=} 1:40 with a variable angular scale in order to search only the scale around the signal from the baryon acoustic oscillation, therefore well within the validity of the non-linear model employed. We found that under those assumptions and with a flat {Lambda}CDM WMAP7 fiducial model, the DES will be able to constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter w with a precision of {approx} 20% and the cold dark matter with {approx} 11% when marginalizing over the other 25 parameters (bias is treated as a free parameter for each shell). When applying WMAP7 priors on {Omega}{sub baryon}, {Omega} c{sub dm}, n{sub s}, and HST priors on the Hubble parameter, w is constrained with {approx} 9% precision. This shows that the full shape of the angular correlation function with DES data will be a powerful probe to constrain cosmological parameters. (author)

10. Investment, credit rationing, and the soft budget constraint: what would a well-functioning credit market look like?

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Hanousek, Jan; Filer, R. K.

2004-01-01

Roč. 82, č. 3 (2004), s. 385-390 ISSN 0165-1765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : credit rationing * soft budget constraint * investment Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.361, year: 2004

11. Parallel synthesis of libraries of anodic and cathodic functionalized electrodeposition paints as immobilization matrix for amperometric biosensors.

Science.gov (United States)

Ngounou, Bertrand; Aliyev, Elchin H; Guschin, Dmitrii A; Sultanov, Yusif M; Efendiev, Ayaz A; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

2007-09-01

The integration of flexible anchoring groups bearing imidazolyl or pyridyl substituents into the structure of electrodeposition paints (EDP) is the basis for the parallel synthesis of a library containing 107 members of different cathodic and anodic EDPs with a high variation in polymer properties. The obtained EDPs were used as immobilization matrix for biosensor fabrication using glucose oxidase as a model enzyme. Amperometric glucose sensors based on the different EDPs showed a wide variation in their sensor characteristics with respect to the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (KM(app)) representing the linear measuring range and the maximum current (Imax(app)). Based on these results first assumptions concerning the impact of different side chains in the EDP on the expected biosensor properties could be obtained allowing for an improved rational optimization of EDPs used as immobilization matrix in amperometric biosensors.

12. Integration of large chemical kinetic mechanisms via exponential methods with Krylov approximations to Jacobian matrix functions

KAUST Repository

Bisetti, Fabrizio

2012-06-01

Recent trends in hydrocarbon fuel research indicate that the number of species and reactions in chemical kinetic mechanisms is rapidly increasing in an effort to provide predictive capabilities for fuels of practical interest. In order to cope with the computational cost associated with the time integration of stiff, large chemical systems, a novel approach is proposed. The approach combines an exponential integrator and Krylov subspace approximations to the exponential function of the Jacobian matrix. The components of the approach are described in detail and applied to the ignition of stoichiometric methane-air and iso-octane-air mixtures, here described by two widely adopted chemical kinetic mechanisms. The approach is found to be robust even at relatively large time steps and the global error displays a nominal third-order convergence. The performance of the approach is improved by utilising an adaptive algorithm for the selection of the Krylov subspace size, which guarantees an approximation to the matrix exponential within user-defined error tolerance. The Krylov projection of the Jacobian matrix onto a low-dimensional space is interpreted as a local model reduction with a well-defined error control strategy. Finally, the performance of the approach is discussed with regard to the optimal selection of the parameters governing the accuracy of its individual components. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

13. Patchwork structure-function analysis of the Sendai virus matrix protein.

Science.gov (United States)

Mottet-Osman, Geneviève; Miazza, Vincent; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Roux, Laurent

2014-09-01

Paramyxoviruses contain a bi-lipidic envelope decorated by two transmembrane glycoproteins and carpeted on the inner surface with a layer of matrix proteins (M), thought to bridge the glycoproteins with the viral nucleocapsids. To characterize M structure-function features, a set of M domains were mutated or deleted. The genes encoding these modified M were incorporated into recombinant Sendai viruses and expressed as supplemental proteins. Using a method of integrated suppression complementation system (ISCS), the functions of these M mutants were analyzed in the context of the infection. Cellular membrane association, localization at the cell periphery, nucleocapsid binding, cellular protein interactions and promotion of viral particle formation were characterized in relation with the mutations. At the end, lack of nucleocapsid binding go together with lack of cell surface localization and both features definitely correlate with loss of M global function estimated by viral particle production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

14. Biological function evaluation and effects of laser micro-pore burn-denatured acellular dermal matrix.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Youlai; Zeng, Yuanlin; Xin, Guohua; Zou, Lijin; Ding, Yuewei; Duyin, Jiang

2018-03-01

In the field of burns repairs, many problems exist in the shortage of donor skin, the expense of allograft or xenograft skin, temporary substitution and unsatisfactory extremity function after wound healing. Previous studies showed that burn-denatured skin could return to normal dermis formation and function. This study investigates the application of laser micro-pore burn-denatured acellular dermis matrix (DADM) from an escharotomy in the repair of burn wounds and evaluates the biological properties and wound repair effects of DADM in implantation experiments in Kunming mice. Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) Kunming mice were used in this study. A deep II° burn wound was created on the dorsum of the mice by an electric heated water bath. The full-thickness wound tissue was harvested. The necrotic tissue and subcutaneous tissue were removed. The denatured dermis was preserved and treated with 0.25% trypsin, 0.5% Triton X-100. The DADM was drilled by laser micro-pore. The biological properties and grafting effects of laser micro-pore burn-DADM were evaluated by morphology, cytokine expression levels and subcutaneous implantation experiments in Kunming mice. We found statistical significance (Ppore burn-DADM (experimental group) compared to the control group (no laser micro-pore burn-DADM). Cytokine expression level was different in the dermal matrixes harvested at various time points after burn (24h, 48h, 72h and infected wound group). Comparing the dermal matrix from 24h burn tissue to infected wound tissue, the expression level of IL-6, MMP-24, VE-cadherin and VEGF were decreased. We found no inflammatory cells infiltration in the dermal matrix were observed in both experimental and control groups (24h burn group), while the obviously vascular infiltration and fiber fusion were observed in the experimental group after subcutaneous implantation experiments. There was better bio-performance, low immunogenicity and better dermal incorporation after treated by laser

15. Matrix metalloproteinase sensing via porous silicon microcavity devices functionalized with human antibodies

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Martin, Marta; Gergely, Csilla [GES-UMR 5650, CNRS, Universite Montpellier 2, Pl. Eugene Bataillon 34095, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Taleb Bendiab, Chakib; Massif, Laurent; Cuisinier, Frederic [EA4203, Faculte d' Odontologie, Universite Montpellier 1, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Palestino, Gabriela [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Av. Salvador Nava 6, 78000 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Agarwal, Vivechana [CIICAP, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico)

2011-06-15

Porous silicon microcavity (PSiMc) structures were used as support material for specific sensing of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). For lower concentrations of MMP-8, the structures were tested with two types of functionalization methods. Silanization of the oxidized porous silicon structures, followed by glutaraldehyde chemistry was found to give very inconsistent results. The use of biotinilated bovine serum albumin linked to the naked PSiMc was found to be an alternative method to attach the anti MMP-8 human antibody, previously modified with streptavidin, which was further used to sense MMP-8 (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

16. On application of the S-matrix two-point function to nuclear data evaluation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Igarasi, S.

1992-01-01

Statistical model calculation using S-matrix two-point function (STF) was tried. The results were compared with those calculated with the Hauser-Feshbach formula (HF) with and without resonance level-width fluctuation corrections (WFC). The STF gave almost the same cross sections as calculated using Moldauer's degrees of freedom for the χ 2 -distributions (MCD). The effect of the WFC to the final states in continuum was also studied using the HF with WFC of the MCD and of Porter-Thomas distribution (PTD). The HF with the MCD is recommended for practical calculation of the cross sections. (orig.)

17. Endothelial cell-derived matrix promotes the metabolic functional maturation of hepatocyte via integrin-Src signalling.

Science.gov (United States)

Guo, Xinyue; Li, Weihong; Ma, Minghui; Lu, Xin; Zhang, Haiyan

2017-11-01

The extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment is involved in the regulation of hepatocyte phenotype and function. Recently, the cell-derived extracellular matrix has been proposed to represent the bioactive and biocompatible materials of the native ECM. Here, we show that the endothelial cell-derived matrix (EC matrix) promotes the metabolic maturation of human adipose stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (hASC-HLCs) through the activation of the transcription factor forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2) and the nuclear receptors hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) and pregnane X receptor (PXR). Reducing the fibronectin content in the EC matrix or silencing the expression of α5 integrin in the hASC-HLCs inhibited the effect of the EC matrix on Src phosphorylation and hepatocyte maturation. The inhibition of Src phosphorylation using the inhibitor PP2 or silencing the expression of Src in hASC-HLCs also attenuated the up-regulation of the metabolic function of hASC-HLCs in a nuclear receptor-dependent manner. These data elucidate integrin-Src signalling linking the extrinsic EC matrix signals and metabolic functional maturation of hepatocyte. This study provides a model for studying the interaction between hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cell-derived matrix. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

18. Rational decisions

CERN Document Server

Binmore, Ken

2008-01-01

It is widely held that Bayesian decision theory is the final word on how a rational person should make decisions. However, Leonard Savage--the inventor of Bayesian decision theory--argued that it would be ridiculous to use his theory outside the kind of small world in which it is always possible to ""look before you leap."" If taken seriously, this view makes Bayesian decision theory inappropriate for the large worlds of scientific discovery and macroeconomic enterprise. When is it correct to use Bayesian decision theory--and when does it need to be modified? Using a minimum of mathematics,

19. Multi-loop correlators for rational theories of 2D gravity from the generalized Kontsevich models

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kristjansen, C.

1994-01-01

functions of the susceptibilities and the eigenvalues of the external field. We furthermore use the moment technique to derive a closed expression for the genus zero multi-loop correlators for $(3,3m-1)$ and $(3,3m-2)$ rational matter fields coupled to gravity. We comment on the relation between the two-matrix...

20. One-point functions of non-SUSY operators at arbitrary genus in a matrix model for type IIA superstrings

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kuroki, Tsunehide; Sugino, Fumihiko

2017-01-01

In the previous paper, the authors pointed out correspondence between a supersymmetric double-well matrix model and two-dimensional type IIA superstring theory on a Ramond–Ramond background from the viewpoint of symmetry and spectrum. This was confirmed by agreement between planar correlation functions in the matrix model and tree-level amplitudes in the superstring theory. In order to investigate the correspondence further, in this paper we compute correlation functions to all order of genus expansion in the double scaling limit of the matrix model. One-point functions of operators protected by supersymmetry terminate at some finite order, whereas those of unprotected operators yield non-Borel summable series. The behavior of the latter is characteristic in string perturbation series, providing further evidence that the matrix model describes a string theory. Moreover, instanton corrections to the planar one-point functions are also computed, and universal logarithmic scaling behavior is found for non-supersymmetric operators.

1. One-point functions of non-SUSY operators at arbitrary genus in a matrix model for type IIA superstrings

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kuroki, Tsunehide, E-mail: kuroki@dg.kagawa-nct.ac.jp [General Eduction, National Institute of Technology, Kagawa College, 551 Kohda, Takuma-cho, Mitoyo, Kagawa 769-1192 (Japan); Sugino, Fumihiko, E-mail: fusugino@gmail.com [Okayama Institute for Quantum Physics, Furugyocho 1-7-36, Naka-ku, Okayama 703-8278 (Japan)

2017-06-15

In the previous paper, the authors pointed out correspondence between a supersymmetric double-well matrix model and two-dimensional type IIA superstring theory on a Ramond–Ramond background from the viewpoint of symmetry and spectrum. This was confirmed by agreement between planar correlation functions in the matrix model and tree-level amplitudes in the superstring theory. In order to investigate the correspondence further, in this paper we compute correlation functions to all order of genus expansion in the double scaling limit of the matrix model. One-point functions of operators protected by supersymmetry terminate at some finite order, whereas those of unprotected operators yield non-Borel summable series. The behavior of the latter is characteristic in string perturbation series, providing further evidence that the matrix model describes a string theory. Moreover, instanton corrections to the planar one-point functions are also computed, and universal logarithmic scaling behavior is found for non-supersymmetric operators.

2. Rationalization: A Bibliography.

Science.gov (United States)

Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

Rationalization was studied by Sigmund Freud and was specifically labeled by Ernest Jones. Rationalization ought to be differentiated from rational, rationality, logical analysis, etc. On the one hand, rationalization is considered a defense mechanism, on the other hand, rationality is not. Haan has done much work with self-report inventories and…

3. The structure and function of the pericellular matrix of articular cartilage.

Science.gov (United States)

Wilusz, Rebecca E; Sanchez-Adams, Johannah; Guilak, Farshid

2014-10-01

Chondrocytes in articular cartilage are surrounded by a narrow pericellular matrix (PCM) that is both biochemically and biomechanically distinct from the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the tissue. While the PCM was first observed nearly a century ago, its role is still under investigation. In support of early hypotheses regarding its function, increasing evidence indicates that the PCM serves as a transducer of biochemical and biomechanical signals to the chondrocyte. Work over the past two decades has established that the PCM in adult tissue is defined biochemically by several molecular components, including type VI collagen and perlecan. On the other hand, the biomechanical properties of this structure have only recently been measured. Techniques such as micropipette aspiration, in situ imaging, computational modeling, and atomic force microscopy have determined that the PCM exhibits distinct mechanical properties as compared to the ECM, and that these properties are influenced by specific PCM components as well as disease state. Importantly, the unique relationships among the mechanical properties of the chondrocyte, PCM, and ECM in different zones of cartilage suggest that this region significantly influences the stress-strain environment of the chondrocyte. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the measurement of PCM mechanical properties and structure that further increase our understanding of PCM function. Taken together, these studies suggest that the PCM plays a critical role in controlling the mechanical environment and mechanobiology of cells in cartilage and other cartilaginous tissues, such as the meniscus or intervertebral disc. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

4. Matrix Metalloproteinases as Regulators of Vein Structure and Function: Implications in Chronic Venous Disease.

Science.gov (United States)

MacColl, Elisabeth; Khalil, Raouf A

2015-12-01

Lower-extremity veins have efficient wall structure and function and competent valves that permit upward movement of deoxygenated blood toward the heart against hydrostatic venous pressure. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in maintaining vein wall structure and function. MMPs are zinc-binding endopeptidases secreted as inactive pro-MMPs by fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle (VSM), and leukocytes. Pro-MMPs are activated by various activators including other MMPs and proteinases. MMPs cause degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as collagen and elastin, and could have additional effects on the endothelium, as well as VSM cell migration, proliferation, Ca(2+) signaling, and contraction. Increased lower-extremity hydrostatic venous pressure is thought to induce hypoxia-inducible factors and other MMP inducers/activators such as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, prostanoids, chymase, and hormones, leading to increased MMP expression/activity, ECM degradation, VSM relaxation, and venous dilation. Leukocyte infiltration and inflammation of the vein wall cause further increases in MMPs, vein wall dilation, valve degradation, and different clinical stages of chronic venous disease (CVD), including varicose veins (VVs). VVs are characterized by ECM imbalance, incompetent valves, venous reflux, wall dilation, and tortuosity. VVs often show increased MMP levels, but may show no change or decreased levels, depending on the VV region (atrophic regions with little ECM versus hypertrophic regions with abundant ECM) and MMP form (inactive pro-MMP versus active MMP). Management of VVs includes compression stockings, venotonics, and surgical obliteration or removal. Because these approaches do not treat the causes of VVs, alternative methods are being developed. In addition to endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMPs, synthetic MMP inhibitors have been developed, and their effects in the treatment of VVs need to be examined

5. Matrix stiffness-modulated proliferation and secretory function of the airway smooth muscle cells.

Science.gov (United States)

Shkumatov, Artem; Thompson, Michael; Choi, Kyoung M; Sicard, Delphine; Baek, Kwanghyun; Kim, Dong Hyun; Tschumperlin, Daniel J; Prakash, Y S; Kong, Hyunjoon

2015-06-01

Multiple pulmonary conditions are characterized by an abnormal misbalance between various tissue components, for example, an increase in the fibrous connective tissue and loss/increase in extracellular matrix proteins (ECM). Such tissue remodeling may adversely impact physiological function of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) responsible for contraction of airways and release of a variety of bioactive molecules. However, few efforts have been made to understand the potentially significant impact of tissue remodeling on ASMCs. Therefore, this study reports how ASMCs respond to a change in mechanical stiffness of a matrix, to which ASMCs adhere because mechanical stiffness of the remodeled airways is often different from the physiological stiffness. Accordingly, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements, we found that the elastic modulus of the mouse bronchus has an arithmetic mean of 23.1 ± 14 kPa (SD) (median 18.6 kPa). By culturing ASMCs on collagen-conjugated polyacrylamide hydrogels with controlled elastic moduli, we found that gels designed to be softer than average airway tissue significantly increased cellular secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Conversely, gels stiffer than average airways stimulated cell proliferation, while reducing VEGF secretion and agonist-induced calcium responses of ASMCs. These dependencies of cellular activities on elastic modulus of the gel were correlated with changes in the expression of integrin-β1 and integrin-linked kinase (ILK). Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that changes in matrix mechanics alter cell proliferation, calcium signaling, and proangiogenic functions in ASMCs. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

6. Robust Improvement in Estimation of a Covariance Matrix in an Elliptically Contoured Distribution Respect to Quadratic Loss Function

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2008-03-01

Full Text Available Let S be matrix of residual sum of square in linear model Y = Aβ + e where matrix e is distributed as elliptically contoured with unknown scale matrix Σ. In present work, we consider the problem of estimating Σ with respect to squared loss function, L(Σˆ , Σ = tr(ΣΣˆ −1 −I 2 . It is shown that improvement of the estimators were obtained by James, Stein [7], Dey and Srivasan [1] under the normality assumption remains robust under an elliptically contoured distribution respect to squared loss function

7. Reduced density matrix embedding. General formalism and inter-domain correlation functional.

Science.gov (United States)

Pernal, Katarzyna

2016-08-03

An embedding method for a one-electron reduced density matrix (1-RDM) is proposed. It is based on partitioning of 1-RDM into domains and describing each domain in the effective potential of the other ones. To assure N-representability of the total 1-RDM N-representability and strong-orthogonality conditions are imposed on the domains. The total energy is given as a sum of single-domain energies and domain-domain electron interaction contributions. Higher than two-body inter-domain interaction terms are neglected. The two-body correlation terms are approximated by deriving inter-domain correlation from couplings of density fluctuations of two domains at a time. Unlike in most density embedding methods kinetic energy is treated exactly and it is not required that densities pertaining to the domains are only weakly overlapping. We propose to treat each domain by a corrected perfect-pairing functional. On a few examples it is shown that the embedding reduced density matrix functional method (ERDMF) yields excellent results for molecules that are well described by a single Lewis structure even if strong static intra-domain or dynamic inter-domain correlation effects must be accounted for.

8. Function of Matrix IGF-1 in Coupling Bone Resorption and Formation

Science.gov (United States)

Crane, Janet L.; Cao, Xu

2013-01-01

Balancing bone resorption and formation is the quintessential component for the prevention of osteoporosis. Signals that determine the recruitment, replication, differentiation, function, and apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteoclasts direct bone remodeling and determine whether bone tissue is gained, lost, or balanced. Therefore understanding the signaling pathways involved in the coupling process will help develop further targets for osteoporosis therapy, by blocking bone resorption or enhancing bone formation in a space and time dependent manner. Insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1) has long been known to play a role in bone strength. It is one of the most abundant substances in the bone matrix, circulates systemically and is secreted locally, and has a direct relationship with bone mineral density. Recent data has helped further our understanding of the direct role of IGF-1 signaling in coupling bone remodeling which will be discussed in this review. The bone marrow microenvironment plays a critical role in the fate of MSCs and HSCs and thus how IGF-1 interacts with other factors in the microenvironment are equally important. While previous clinical trials with IGF-1 administration have been unsuccessful at enhancing bone formation, advances in basic science studies have provided insight into further mechanisms that should be considered for future trials. Additional basic science studies dissecting the regulation and the function of matrix IGF-1 in modeling and remodeling will continue to provide further insight for future directions for anabolic therapies for osteoporosis. PMID:24068256

9. Function of matrix IGF-1 in coupling bone resorption and formation.

Science.gov (United States)

Crane, Janet L; Cao, Xu

2014-02-01

Balancing bone resorption and formation is the quintessential component for the prevention of osteoporosis. Signals that determine the recruitment, replication, differentiation, function, and apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteoclasts direct bone remodeling and determine whether bone tissue is gained, lost, or balanced. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathways involved in the coupling process will help develop further targets for osteoporosis therapy, by blocking bone resorption or enhancing bone formation in a space- and time-dependent manner. Insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1) has long been known to play a role in bone strength. It is one of the most abundant substances in the bone matrix, circulates systemically and is secreted locally, and has a direct relationship with bone mineral density. Recent data has helped further our understanding of the direct role of IGF-1 signaling in coupling bone remodeling which will be discussed in this review. The bone marrow microenvironment plays a critical role in the fate of mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells and thus how IGF-1 interacts with other factors in the microenvironment are equally important. While previous clinical trials with IGF-1 administration have been unsuccessful at enhancing bone formation, advances in basic science studies have provided insight into further mechanisms that should be considered for future trials. Additional basic science studies dissecting the regulation and the function of matrix IGF-1 in modeling and remodeling will continue to provide further insight for future directions for anabolic therapies for osteoporosis.

10. BCS wave function, matrix product states, and the Ising conformal field theory

Science.gov (United States)

Montes, Sebastián; Rodríguez-Laguna, Javier; Sierra, Germán

2017-11-01

We present a characterization of the many-body lattice wave functions obtained from the conformal blocks (CBs) of the Ising conformal field theory (CFT). The formalism is interpreted as a matrix product state using continuous ancillary degrees of freedom. We provide analytic and numerical evidence that the resulting states can be written as BCS states. We give a complete proof that the translationally invariant 1D configurations have a BCS form and we find suitable parent Hamiltonians. In particular, we prove that the ground state of the finite-size critical Ising transverse field (ITF) Hamiltonian can be obtained with this construction. Finally, we study 2D configurations using an operator product expansion (OPE) approximation. We associate these states to the weak pairing phase of the p +i p superconductor via the scaling of the pairing function and the entanglement spectrum.

11. Quasi-particle energy spectra in local reduced density matrix functional theory.

Science.gov (United States)

Lathiotakis, Nektarios N; Helbig, Nicole; Rubio, Angel; Gidopoulos, Nikitas I

2014-10-28

Recently, we introduced [N. N. Lathiotakis, N. Helbig, A. Rubio, and N. I. Gidopoulos, Phys. Rev. A 90, 032511 (2014)] local reduced density matrix functional theory (local RDMFT), a theoretical scheme capable of incorporating static correlation effects in Kohn-Sham equations. Here, we apply local RDMFT to molecular systems of relatively large size, as a demonstration of its computational efficiency and its accuracy in predicting single-electron properties from the eigenvalue spectrum of the single-particle Hamiltonian with a local effective potential. We present encouraging results on the photoelectron spectrum of molecular systems and the relative stability of C20 isotopes. In addition, we propose a modelling of the fractional occupancies as functions of the orbital energies that further improves the efficiency of the method useful in applications to large systems and solids.

12. The Einstein action for algebras of matrix valued functions - Toy models

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hajac, P.M.

1995-10-01

Two toy models are considered within the framework of noncommutative differential geometry. In the first one, the Einstein action of the Levi-Civita connection is computed for the algebra of matrix valued functions on a torus. It is shown that, assuming some constraints on the metric, this action splits into a classical-like, a quantum-like and a mixed term. In the second model, an analogue of the Palatini method of variation is applied to obtain critical points of the Einstein action functional for M 4 (R). It is pointed out that a solution to the Palatini variational problem is not necessarily a Levi-Civita connection. In this model, no additional assumptions regarding metrics are made. (author). 14 refs

13. The Einstein action for algebras of matrix valued functions - Toy models

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hajac, P M

1995-10-01

Two toy models are considered within the framework of noncommutative differential geometry. In the first one, the Einstein action of the Levi-Civita connection is computed for the algebra of matrix valued functions on a torus. It is shown that, assuming some constraints on the metric, this action splits into a classical-like, a quantum-like and a mixed term. In the second model, an analogue of the Palatini method of variation is applied to obtain critical points of the Einstein action functional for M{sub 4}(R). It is pointed out that a solution to the Palatini variational problem is not necessarily a Levi-Civita connection. In this model, no additional assumptions regarding metrics are made. (author). 14 refs.

14. Characterization of Epoxy Functionalized Graphite Nanoparticles and the Physical Properties of Epoxy Matrix Nanocomposites

Science.gov (United States)

Miller, Sandi G.; Bauer, Jonathan L.; Maryanski, Michael J.; Heimann, Paula J.; Barlow, Jeremy P.; Gosau, Jan-Michael; Allred, Ronald E.

2010-01-01

This work presents a novel approach to the functionalization of graphite nanoparticles. The technique provides a mechanism for covalent bonding between the filler and matrix, with minimal disruption to the sp2 hybridization of the pristine graphene sheet. Functionalization proceeded by covalently bonding an epoxy monomer to the surface of expanded graphite, via a coupling agent, such that the epoxy concentration was measured as approximately 4 wt.%. The impact of dispersing this material into an epoxy resin was evaluated with respect to the mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of the graphite-epoxy nanocomposite. At a loading as low as 0.5 wt.%, the electrical conductivity was increased by five orders of magnitude relative to the base resin. The material yield strength was increased by 30% and Young s modulus by 50%. These results were realized without compromise to the resin toughness.

15. Rational inattention or rational overreaction?

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Browning, Martin; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Smed, Sinne

We investigate differences in how consumers of fish react to health information in the mass media. We specify a dynamic empirical model that allows for heterogeneity in all basic parameters of consumer behavior as well as in how consumers react to information. We estimate the model using a unique...... houshold panel tracking consumption, prices, news stories and media habits over 24 quarters. We fi nd that the consumers most likely to be ’rationally ignorant’ of health effects react more dramatically to health news than the consumers who most likely are well informed....

16. Rationality of limited rationality : some aggregate implications

OpenAIRE

Uri M. Possen; Mikko Puhakka

1994-01-01

In this paper we let economic agents choose whether to become fully rational or stay boundedly rational. Boundedly rational agents are less sophisticated in their information processing abilities. It is costly to acquire information needed to become fully rational, and thus not all agents are willing to incur those costs. We then explore the aggregate effects of endogenizing the decision whether the agent should or should not become fully rational in handling information. Since fully and boun...

17. The role of singular values of measured frequency response function matrix in modal damping estimation (Part I: Theory)

OpenAIRE

Pápai, Ferenc; Szűcs, István

2015-01-01

The singular value decomposition of the measured frequency response function matrix, as a very effective tool of experimental modal analysis is used over the last twenty-five years. The complex mode indication function has become a common numerical tool in processing experimental data. There are many references on the development of complex mode indication function including the enhanced mode indication function and its use together with the enhanced frequency response function to form spatia...

18. The role of singular values of measured frequency response function matrix in modal damping estimation (Part II: Investigations)

OpenAIRE

Pápai, Ferenc; Szűcs, István

2015-01-01

The singular value decomposition of the measured frequency response function matrix, as a very effective tool of experimental modal analysis is used over the last twenty-five years. The complex mode indication function has become a common numerical tool in processing experimental data. There are many references on the development of complex mode indication function including the enhanced mode indication function and its use together with the enhanced frequency response function to form spatia...

19. Nanoparticle and gelation stabilized functional composites of an ionic salt in a hydrophobic polymer matrix.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Selin Kanyas

Full Text Available Polymer composites consisted of small hydrophilic pockets homogeneously dispersed in a hydrophobic polymer matrix are important in many applications where controlled release of the functional agent from the hydrophilic phase is needed. As an example, a release of biomolecules or drugs from therapeutic formulations or release of salt in anti-icing application can be mentioned. Here, we report a method for preparation of such a composite material consisted of small KCOOH salt pockets distributed in the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS polymer matrix and demonstrate its effectiveness in anti-icing coatings. The mixtures of the aqueous KCOOH and SBS-cyclohexane solutions were firstly stabilized by adding silica nanoparticles to the emulsions and, even more, by gelation of the aqueous phase by agarose. The emulsions were observed in optical microscope to check its stability in time and characterized by rheological measurements. The dry composite materials were obtained via casting the emulsions onto the glass substrates and evaporations of the organic solvent. Composite polymer films were characterized by water contact angle (WCA measurements. The release of KCOOH salt into water and the freezing delay experiments of water droplets on dry composite films demonstrated their anti-icing properties. It has been concluded that hydrophobic and thermoplastic SBS polymer allows incorporation of the hydrophilic pockets/phases through our technique that opens the possibility for controlled delivering of anti-icing agents from the composite.

20. Improved Asymmetric Cipher Based on Matrix Power Function with Provable Security

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Eligijus Sakalauskas

2017-01-01

Full Text Available The improved version of the author’s previously declared asymmetric cipher protocol based on matrix power function (MPF is presented. Proposed modification avoids discrete logarithm attack (DLA which could be applied to the previously declared protocol. This attack allows us to transform the initial system of MPF equations to so-called matrix multivariate quadratic (MMQ system of equations, which is a system representing a subclass of multivariate quadratic (MQ systems of equations. We are making a conjecture that avoidance of DLA in protocol, presented here, should increase its security, since an attempt to solve the initial system of MPF equations would appear to be no less complex than solving the system of MMQ equations. No algorithms are known to solve such a system of equations. Security parameters and their secure values are defined. Security analysis against chosen plaintext attack (CPA and chosen ciphertext attack (CCA is presented. Measures taken to prevent DLA attack increase the security of this protocol with respect to the previously declated protocol.

1. A Green's function method for two-dimensional reactive solute transport in a parallel fracture-matrix system

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Kewei; Zhan, Hongbin

2018-06-01

The reactive solute transport in a single fracture bounded by upper and lower matrixes is a classical problem that captures the dominant factors affecting transport behavior beyond pore scale. A parallel fracture-matrix system which considers the interaction among multiple paralleled fractures is an extension to a single fracture-matrix system. The existing analytical or semi-analytical solution for solute transport in a parallel fracture-matrix simplifies the problem to various degrees, such as neglecting the transverse dispersion in the fracture and/or the longitudinal diffusion in the matrix. The difficulty of solving the full two-dimensional (2-D) problem lies in the calculation of the mass exchange between the fracture and matrix. In this study, we propose an innovative Green's function approach to address the 2-D reactive solute transport in a parallel fracture-matrix system. The flux at the interface is calculated numerically. It is found that the transverse dispersion in the fracture can be safely neglected due to the small scale of fracture aperture. However, neglecting the longitudinal matrix diffusion would overestimate the concentration profile near the solute entrance face and underestimate the concentration profile at the far side. The error caused by neglecting the longitudinal matrix diffusion decreases with increasing Peclet number. The longitudinal matrix diffusion does not have obvious influence on the concentration profile in long-term. The developed model is applied to a non-aqueous-phase-liquid (DNAPL) contamination field case in New Haven Arkose of Connecticut in USA to estimate the Trichloroethylene (TCE) behavior over 40 years. The ratio of TCE mass stored in the matrix and the injected TCE mass increases above 90% in less than 10 years.

2. Relationship between plasma matrix metalloproteinase levels, pulmonary function, bronchodilator response, and emphysema severity.

Science.gov (United States)

Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Hong, Yoonki; Lim, Myoung Nam; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Woo Jin

2016-01-01

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation in the airway and lung. A protease-antiprotease imbalance has been suggested as a possible pathogenic mechanism for COPD. We evaluated the relationship between matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels and COPD severity. Plasma levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-9, and MMP-12 were measured in 57 COPD patients and 36 normal controls. The relationship between MMP levels and lung function, emphysema index, bronchial wall thickness, pulmonary artery pressure, and quality of life was examined using general linear regression analyses. There were significant associations of MMP-1 with bronchodilator reversibility and of MMP-8 and MMP-9 with lung function. Also, MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-9 levels were correlated with the emphysema index, independent of lung function. However, MMP-12 was not associated with lung function or emphysema severity. Associations between MMP levels and bronchial wall thickness, pulmonary artery pressure, and quality of life were not statistically significant. Plasma levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-9 are associated with COPD severity and can be used as a biomarker to better understand the characteristics of COPD patients.

3. A numerical investigation of the boundary layer flow of an Eyring-Powell fluid over a stretching sheet via rational Chebyshev functions

Science.gov (United States)

Parand, Kourosh; Mahdi Moayeri, Mohammad; Latifi, Sobhan; Delkhosh, Mehdi

2017-07-01

In this paper, a spectral method based on the four kinds of rational Chebyshev functions is proposed to approximate the solution of the boundary layer flow of an Eyring-Powell fluid over a stretching sheet. First, by using the quasilinearization method (QLM), the model which is a nonlinear ordinary differential equation is converted to a sequence of linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). By applying the proposed method on the ODEs in each iteration, the equations are converted to a system of linear algebraic equations. The results indicate the high accuracy and convergence of our method. Moreover, the effects of the Eyring-Powell fluid material parameters are discussed.

4. A new generalized exponential rational function method to find exact special solutions for the resonance nonlinear Schrödinger equation

Science.gov (United States)

2018-04-01

The present paper suggests a novel technique to acquire exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations. The main idea of the method is to generalize the exponential rational function method. In order to examine the ability of the method, we consider the resonant nonlinear Schrödinger equation (R-NLSE). Many variants of exact soliton solutions for the equation are derived by the proposed method. Physical interpretations of some obtained solutions is also included. One can easily conclude that the new proposed method is very efficient and finds the exact solutions of the equation in a relatively easy way.

5. Hankel Matrix Correlation Function-Based Subspace Identification Method for UAV Servo System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Minghong She

2018-01-01

Full Text Available For the identification problem of closed-loop subspace model, we propose a zero space projection method based on the estimation of correlation function to fill the block Hankel matrix of identification model by combining the linear algebra with geometry. By using the same projection of related data in time offset set and LQ decomposition, the multiplication operation of projection is achieved and dynamics estimation of the unknown equipment system model is obtained. Consequently, we have solved the problem of biased estimation caused when the open-loop subspace identification algorithm is applied to the closed-loop identification. A simulation example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. In final, the practicability of the identification algorithm is verified by hardware test of UAV servo system in real environment.

6. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle extracellular matrix with aging

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Kjaer, M; Mackey, A L

2011-01-01

The extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle is critical for force transmission and for the passive elastic response of skeletal muscle. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the deterioration in muscle mechanical properties with aging......-links and a buildup of advanced glycation end-product cross-links. Altered mechanotransduction, poorer activation of satellite cells, poorer chemotactic and delayed inflammatory responses, and a change in modulators of the ECM are important cellular changes. It is possible that the structural and biochemical changes...... in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the increased stiffness and impairment in force generated by the contracting muscle fibers seen with aging. The cellular interactions provide and potentially coordinate an adaptation to mechanical loading and ensure successful regeneration after muscle injury. Some...

7. The role of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) in the regulation of bovine endometrial cell functions.

Science.gov (United States)

Mishra, Birendra; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Sato, Takashi; Ito, Akira; Hashizume, Kazuyoshi

2012-06-01

Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is a cell surface glycoprotein that stimulates the production of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) for tissue remodeling. Previously, we detected EMMPRIN in the bovine endometrium, and it is mainly expressed in the luminal and glandular epithelium whereas MMPs are expressed in the underlying stroma. From this expression pattern, we hypothesized that EMMPRIN may regulate stromal MMPs in endometrial cell functions. To test this hypothesis, a coculture of epithelial and stromal cells was performed using a transwell system. In the coculture, epithelial cells were cultured on the insert membrane and stromal cell on the surface of well plates. Expression of stromal MMP-2 and MMP-14 was significantly higher in coculture with epithelial cell. Further, with the addition of anti-EMMPRIN antibody into the epithelial cell compartment, the expression of stromal EMMPRIN and MMP-2 and MMP-14 was decreased. To identify the active site of EMMPRIN for the augmentation of MMPs, EMMPRIN synthetic peptides that correspond to the extracellular loop domain-I (EM1, EM2, EM3, and EM4) were added into the epithelial cell compartment, and only EM2 at a higher dose interfered with EMMPRIN-mediated expression of MMP-14. Next, we examined the effects of progesterone and/or estrogen on the expression of EMMPRIN, MMP-2, and MMP-14. Progesterone (300 nM) significantly stimulated the expression of EMMPRIN but had no effects on any of the MMPs. These results suggest that EMMPRIN derived from epithelial cells regulates MMPs in the endometrium under progesterone-rich conditions and may thereby modulate bovine endometrial cell functions during gestation.

8. Love waves in functionally graded piezoelectric materials by stiffness matrix method.

Science.gov (United States)

Ben Salah, Issam; Wali, Yassine; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi

2011-04-01

9. Rational kinematics

CERN Document Server

Angeles, Jorge

1988-01-01

A rational study of kinematics is a treatment of the subject based on invariants, i.e., quantities that remain essentially unchanged under a change of observer. An observer is understood to be a reference frame supplied with a clock (Truesdell 1966). This study will therefore include an introduction to invariants. The language of these is tensor analysis and multilinear algebra, both of which share many isomorphic relations, These subjects are treated in full detail in Ericksen (1960) and Bowen and Wang (1976), and hence will not be included here. Only a short account of notation and definitions will be presented. Moreover, definitions and basic concepts pertaining to the kinematics of rigid bodies will be also included. Although the kinematics of rigid bodies can be regarded as a particular case of the kinematics of continua, the former deserves attention on its own merits for several reasons. One of these is that it describes locally the motions undergone by continua. Another reason is that a whole area of ...

10. Photovoltaic devices based on quantum dot functionalized nanowire arrays embedded in an organic matrix

Science.gov (United States)

Kung, Patrick; Harris, Nicholas; Shen, Gang; Wilbert, David S.; Baughman, William; Balci, Soner; Dawahre, Nabil; Butler, Lee; Rivera, Elmer; Nikles, David; Kim, Seongsin M.

2012-01-01

Quantum dot (QD) functionalized nanowire arrays are attractive structures for low cost high efficiency solar cells. QDs have the potential for higher quantum efficiency, increased stability and lifetime compared to traditional dyes, as well as the potential for multiple electron generation per photon. Nanowire array scaffolds constitute efficient, low resistance electron transport pathways which minimize the hopping mechanism in the charge transport process of quantum dot solar cells. However, the use of liquid electrolytes as a hole transport medium within such scaffold device structures have led to significant degradation of the QDs. In this work, we first present the synthesis uniform single crystalline ZnO nanowire arrays and their functionalization with InP/ZnS core-shell quantum dots. The structures are characterized using electron microscopy, optical absorption, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. Complementing photoluminescence, transmission electron microanalysis is used to reveal the successful QD attachment process and the atomistic interface between the ZnO and the QD. Energy dispersive spectroscopy reveals the co-localized presence of indium, phosphorus, and sulphur, suggestive of the core-shell nature of the QDs. The functionalized nanowire arrays are subsequently embedded in a poly-3(hexylthiophene) hole transport matrix with a high degree of polymer infiltration to complete the device structure prior to measurement.

11. Vector-matrix-quaternion, array and arithmetic packages: All HAL/S functions implemented in Ada

Science.gov (United States)

Klumpp, Allan R.; Kwong, David D.

1986-01-01

The HAL/S avionics programmers have enjoyed a variety of tools built into a language tailored to their special requirements. Ada is designed for a broader group of applications. Rather than providing built-in tools, Ada provides the elements with which users can build their own. Standard avionic packages remain to be developed. These must enable programmers to code in Ada as they have coded in HAL/S. The packages under development at JPL will provide all of the vector-matrix, array, and arithmetic functions described in the HAL/S manuals. In addition, the linear algebra package will provide all of the quaternion functions used in Shuttle steering and Galileo attitude control. Furthermore, using Ada's extensibility, many quaternion functions are being implemented as infix operations; equivalent capabilities were never implemented in HAL/S because doing so would entail modifying the compiler and expanding the language. With these packages, many HAL/S expressions will compile and execute in Ada, unchanged. Others can be converted simply by replacing the implicit HAL/S multiply operator with the Ada *. Errors will be trapped and identified. Input/output will be convenient and readable.

12. Mesenchymal stromal cells improve human islet function through released products and extracellular matrix.

Science.gov (United States)

Arzouni, Ahmed A; Vargas-Seymour, Andreia; Rackham, Chloe L; Dhadda, Paramjeet; Huang, Guo-Cai; Choudhary, Pratik; Nardi, Nance; King, Aileen J F; Jones, Peter M

2017-12-01

The aims of the present study were (i) to determine whether the reported beneficial effects of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) on mouse islet function extend to clinically relevant human tissues (islets and MSCs), enabling translation into improved protocols for clinical human islet transplantation; and (ii) to identify possible mechanisms through which human MSCs influence human islet function. Human islets were co-cultured with human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hASCs) or pre-treated with its products - extracellular matrix (ECM) and annexin A1 (ANXA1). Mouse islets were pre-treated with mouse MSC-derived ECM. Islet insulin secretory function was assessed in vitro by radioimmunoassay. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to screen human adipMSCs for potential ligands of human islet G-protein-coupled receptors. We show that co-culture with hASCs improves human islet secretory function in vitro , as measured by glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, confirming previous reports using rodent tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these beneficial effects on islet function can be partly attributed to the MSC-derived products ECM and ANXA1. Our results suggest that hASCs have the potential to improve the quality of human islets isolated for transplantation therapy of Type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, it may be possible to achieve improvements in human islet quality in a cell-free culture system by using the MSC-derived products ANXA1 and ECM. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

13. Energy and energy gradient matrix elements with N-particle explicitly correlated complex Gaussian basis functions with L =1

Science.gov (United States)

2008-03-01

In this work we consider explicitly correlated complex Gaussian basis functions for expanding the wave function of an N-particle system with the L =1 total orbital angular momentum. We derive analytical expressions for various matrix elements with these basis functions including the overlap, kinetic energy, and potential energy (Coulomb interaction) matrix elements, as well as matrix elements of other quantities. The derivatives of the overlap, kinetic, and potential energy integrals with respect to the Gaussian exponential parameters are also derived and used to calculate the energy gradient. All the derivations are performed using the formalism of the matrix differential calculus that facilitates a way of expressing the integrals in an elegant matrix form, which is convenient for the theoretical analysis and the computer implementation. The new method is tested in calculations of two systems: the lowest P state of the beryllium atom and the bound P state of the positronium molecule (with the negative parity). Both calculations yielded new, lowest-to-date, variational upper bounds, while the number of basis functions used was significantly smaller than in previous studies. It was possible to accomplish this due to the use of the analytic energy gradient in the minimization of the variational energy.

14. Energy and energy gradient matrix elements with N-particle explicitly correlated complex Gaussian basis functions with L=1.

Science.gov (United States)

2008-03-21

In this work we consider explicitly correlated complex Gaussian basis functions for expanding the wave function of an N-particle system with the L=1 total orbital angular momentum. We derive analytical expressions for various matrix elements with these basis functions including the overlap, kinetic energy, and potential energy (Coulomb interaction) matrix elements, as well as matrix elements of other quantities. The derivatives of the overlap, kinetic, and potential energy integrals with respect to the Gaussian exponential parameters are also derived and used to calculate the energy gradient. All the derivations are performed using the formalism of the matrix differential calculus that facilitates a way of expressing the integrals in an elegant matrix form, which is convenient for the theoretical analysis and the computer implementation. The new method is tested in calculations of two systems: the lowest P state of the beryllium atom and the bound P state of the positronium molecule (with the negative parity). Both calculations yielded new, lowest-to-date, variational upper bounds, while the number of basis functions used was significantly smaller than in previous studies. It was possible to accomplish this due to the use of the analytic energy gradient in the minimization of the variational energy.

15. Delay differential equations via the matrix Lambert W function and bifurcation analysis: application to machine tool chatter.

Science.gov (United States)

Yi, Sun; Nelson, Patrick W; Ulsoy, A Galip

2007-04-01

In a turning process modeled using delay differential equations (DDEs), we investigate the stability of the regenerative machine tool chatter problem. An approach using the matrix Lambert W function for the analytical solution to systems of delay differential equations is applied to this problem and compared with the result obtained using a bifurcation analysis. The Lambert W function, known to be useful for solving scalar first-order DDEs, has recently been extended to a matrix Lambert W function approach to solve systems of DDEs. The essential advantages of the matrix Lambert W approach are not only the similarity to the concept of the state transition matrix in lin ear ordinary differential equations, enabling its use for general classes of linear delay differential equations, but also the observation that we need only the principal branch among an infinite number of roots to determine the stability of a system of DDEs. The bifurcation method combined with Sturm sequences provides an algorithm for determining the stability of DDEs without restrictive geometric analysis. With this approach, one can obtain the critical values of delay, which determine the stability of a system and hence the preferred operating spindle speed without chatter. We apply both the matrix Lambert W function and the bifurcation analysis approach to the problem of chatter stability in turning, and compare the results obtained to existing methods. The two new approaches show excellent accuracy and certain other advantages, when compared to traditional graphical, computational and approximate methods.

16. Time-dependent occupation numbers in reduced-density-matrix-functional theory: Application to an interacting Landau-Zener model

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Requist, Ryan; Pankratov, Oleg

2011-01-01

We prove that if the two-body terms in the equation of motion for the one-body reduced density matrix are approximated by ground-state functionals, the eigenvalues of the one-body reduced density matrix (occupation numbers) remain constant in time. This deficiency is related to the inability of such an approximation to account for relative phases in the two-body reduced density matrix. We derive an exact differential equation giving the functional dependence of these phases in an interacting Landau-Zener model and study their behavior in short- and long-time regimes. The phases undergo resonances whenever the occupation numbers approach the boundaries of the interval [0,1]. In the long-time regime, the occupation numbers display correlation-induced oscillations and the memory dependence of the functionals assumes a simple form.

17. Transcriptomics of aged Drosophila motor neurons reveals a matrix metalloproteinase that impairs motor function.

Science.gov (United States)

Azpurua, Jorge; Mahoney, Rebekah E; Eaton, Benjamin A

2018-04-01

The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is responsible for transforming nervous system signals into motor behavior and locomotion. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, an age-dependent decline in motor function occurs, analogous to the decline experienced in mice, humans, and other mammals. The molecular and cellular underpinnings of this decline are still poorly understood. By specifically profiling the transcriptome of Drosophila motor neurons across age using custom microarrays, we found that the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase 1 (dMMP1) gene reproducibly increased in motor neurons in an age-dependent manner. Modulation of physiological aging also altered the rate of dMMP1 expression, validating dMMP1 expression as a bona fide aging biomarker for motor neurons. Temporally controlled overexpression of dMMP1 specifically in motor neurons was sufficient to induce deficits in climbing behavior and cause a decrease in neurotransmitter release at neuromuscular synapses. These deficits were reversible if the dMMP1 expression was shut off again immediately after the onset of motor dysfunction. Additionally, repression of dMMP1 enzymatic activity via overexpression of a tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases delayed the onset of age-dependent motor dysfunction. MMPs are required for proper tissue architecture during development. Our results support the idea that matrix metalloproteinase 1 is acting as a downstream effector of antagonistic pleiotropy in motor neurons and is necessary for proper development, but deleterious when reactivated at an advanced age. © 2018 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

18. Right ventricular function after repair of tetralogy of Fallot: a comparison between bovine pericardium and porcine small intestinal extracellular matrix.

Science.gov (United States)

Naik, Ronak; Johnson, Jason; Kumar, T K S; Philip, Ranjit; Boston, Umar; Knott-Craig, Christopher J

2017-05-29

The porcine small intestinal extracellular matrix reportedly has the potential to differentiate into viable myocardial cells. When used in tetralogy of Fallot repair, it may improve right ventricular function. We evaluated right ventricular function after repair of tetralogy of Fallot with extracellular matrix versus bovine pericardium. Subjects with non-transannular repair of tetralogy of Fallot with at least 1 year of follow-up were selected. The extracellular matrix and bovine pericardium groups were compared. We used three-dimensional right ventricular ejection fraction, right ventricle global longitudinal strain, and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion to assess right ventricular function. The extracellular matrix group had 11 patients, whereas the bovine pericardium group had 10 patients. No differences between the groups were found regarding sex ratio, age at surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass time. The follow-up period was 28±12.6 months in the extracellular matrix group and 50.05±17.6 months in the bovine pericardium group (p=0.001). The mean three-dimensional right ventricular ejection fraction (55.7±5.0% versus 55.3±5.2%, p=0.73), right ventricular global longitudinal strain (-18.5±3.0% versus -18.0±2.2%, p=0.44), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursions (1.59±0.16 versus 1.59±0.2, p=0.93) were similar in the extracellular matrix group and in the bovine pericardium group, respectively. Right ventricular global longitudinal strain in healthy children is reported at -29±3% in literature. In a small cohort of the patients undergoing non-transannular repair of tetralogy of Fallot, there was no significant difference in right ventricular function between groups having extracellular matrix versus bovine pericardium patches followed-up for more than 1 year. Lower right ventricular longitudinal strain noted in both the groups compared to healthy children.

19. Matrix metalloproteinases and left ventricular function and structure in spinal cord injured subjects.

Science.gov (United States)

Schreiber, Roberto; Paim, Layde R; de Rossi, Guilherme; Matos-Souza, José R; Costa E Silva, Anselmo de A; Souza, Cristiane M; Borges, Mariane; Azevedo, Eliza R; Alonso, Karina C; Gorla, José I; Cliquet, Alberto; Nadruz, Wilson

2014-11-01

Subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) exhibit impaired left ventricular (LV) diastolic function, which has been reported to be attenuated by regular physical activity. This study investigated the relationship between circulating matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) and echocardiographic parameters in SCI subjects and the role of physical activity in this regard. Forty-two men with SCI [19 sedentary (S-SCI) and 23 physically-active (PA-SCI)] were evaluated by clinical, anthropometric, laboratory, and echocardiographic analysis. Plasmatic pro-MMP-2, MMP-2, MMP-8, pro-MMP-9, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and zymography. PA-SCI subjects presented lower pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-2/TIMP-2 levels and improved markers of LV diastolic function (lower E/Em and higher Em and E/A values) than S-SCI ones. Bivariate analysis showed that pro-MMP-2 correlated inversely with Em and directly with E/Em, while MMP-9 correlated directly with LV mass index and LV end-diastolic diameter in the whole sample. Following multiple regression analysis, pro-MMP-2, but not physical activity, remained associated with Em, while MMP-9 was associated with LV mass index in the whole sample. These findings suggest differing roles for MMPs in LV structure and function regulation and an interaction among pro-MMP-2, diastolic function and physical activity in SCI subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

20. On the structure and functions of gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9 in neuroinflammation.

Science.gov (United States)

Vandooren, Jennifer; Van Damme, Jo; Opdenakker, Ghislain

2014-01-01

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a specific structure that is composed of two basement membranes (BMs) and that contributes to the control of neuroinflammation. As long as the BBB is intact, extravasated leukocytes may accumulate between two BMs, generating vascular cuffs. Specific matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, have been shown to cleave BBB beta-dystroglycan and to disintegrate thereby the parenchymal BM, resulting in encephalomyelitis. This knowledge has been added to the molecular basis of the REGA model to understand the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, and it gives further ground for the use of MMP inhibitors for the treatment of acute neuroinflammation. MMP-9 is associated with central nervous system inflammation and occurs in various forms: monomers and multimers. None of the various neurological and neuropathologic functions of MMP-9 have been associated with either molecular structure or molecular form, and therefore, in-depth structure-function studies are needed before medical intervention with MMP-9-specific inhibitors is initiated.

1. Density-matrix-functional calculations for matter in strong magnetic fields: Ground states of heavy atoms

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Johnsen, Kristinn; Yngvason, Jakob

1996-01-01

We report on a numerical study of the density matrix functional introduced by Lieb, Solovej, and Yngvason for the investigation of heavy atoms in high magnetic fields. This functional describes exactly the quantum mechanical ground state of atoms and ions in the limit when the nuclear charge Z...... and the electron number N tend to infinity with N/Z fixed, and the magnetic field B tends to infinity in such a way that B/Z4/3→∞. We have calculated electronic density profiles and ground-state energies for values of the parameters that prevail on neutron star surfaces and compared them with results obtained...... by other methods. For iron at B=1012 G the ground-state energy differs by less than 2% from the Hartree-Fock value. We have also studied the maximal negative ionization of heavy atoms in this model at various field strengths. In contrast to Thomas-Fermi type theories atoms can bind excess negative charge...

2. Hyperfine electron-nuclear interactions in the frame of the Density Functional and of the Density Matrix Methods

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pavlov, R.L.; Pavlov, L.I.; Raychev, P.P.; Garistov, V.P.; Dimitrova-Ivanovich, M.

2002-01-01

The matrix elements and expectation values of the hyperfine interaction operators are presented in a form suitable for numerical implementation in density matrix methods. The electron-nuclear spin-spin (dipolar and contact) interactions are considered, as well as the interaction between nuclear spin and electron-orbital motions. These interactions from the effective Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian determine the hyperfine structure in ESR spectra and contribute to chemical shifts in NMR. Applying the Wigner-Eckart theorem in the irreducible tensor-operator technique and the spin-space separation scheme, the matrix elements and expectation values of these relativistic corrections are expressed in analytical form. The final results are presented as products, or sums of products, of factors determined by the spin and (or) angular momentum symmetry and a spatial part determined by the action of the symmetrized tensor-operators on the normalized matrix or function of the spin or charge distribution.

3. Rational management of epilepsy.

Science.gov (United States)

Viswanathan, Venkataraman

2014-09-01

Management of epilepsies in children has improved considerably over the last decade, all over the world due to the advances seen in the understanding of the patho-physiology of epileptogenesis, availability of both structural and functional imaging studies along with better quality EEG/video-EEG recordings and the availability of a plethora of newer anti-epileptic drugs which are tailormade to act on specific pathways. In spite of this, there is still a long way to go before one is able to be absolutely rational about which drug to use for which type of epilepsy. There have been a lot of advances in the area of epilepsy surgery and is certainly gaining ground for specific cases. Better understanding of the genetic basis of epilepsies will hopefully lead to a more rational treatment plan in the future. Also, a lot of work needs to be done to dispel various misunderstandings and myths about epilepsy which still exists in our country.

4. Multivariate rational data fitting

Science.gov (United States)

Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte

1992-12-01

Sections 1 and 2 discuss the advantages of an object-oriented implementation combined with higher floating-point arithmetic, of the algorithms available for multivariate data fitting using rational functions. Section 1 will in particular explain what we mean by "higher arithmetic". Section 2 will concentrate on the concepts of "object orientation". In sections 3 and 4 we shall describe the generality of the data structure that can be dealt with: due to some new results virtually every data set is acceptable right now, with possible coalescence of coordinates or points. In order to solve the multivariate rational interpolation problem the data sets are fed to different algorithms depending on the structure of the interpolation points in then-variate space.

5. On Counting the Rational Numbers

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

6. The matrix elements of the potential energy operator between the Sp(2,R) basis generating functions. Near-magic nuclei

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Filippov, G.F.; Ovcharenko, V.I.; Teryoshin, Yu.V.

1980-01-01

For near-magnetic nuclei, the matrix elements of the central exchange nucleon-nucleon interaction potential energy operator between the generating functions of the total basis of the Sn are obtained. The basis states are highest weigt vectorsp(2,R) irreducible representatio of the SO(3) irredicible representation and in addition, have a definite O(A-1) symmetry. The Sp(2,R) basis generating matrix elements simplify essentially the problem of calculating the spectrum of collective excitations of the atomic nucleus over an intrinsic function of definite O(A-1) symmetry

7. Finite-time generalized function matrix projective lag synchronization of coupled dynamical networks with different dimensions via the double power function nonlinear feedback control method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dai, Hao; Si, Gangquan; Jia, Lixin; Zhang, Yanbin

2014-01-01

This paper investigates the problem of finite-time generalized function matrix projective lag synchronization between two different coupled dynamical networks with different dimensions of network nodes. The double power function nonlinear feedback control method is proposed in this paper to guarantee that the state trajectories of the response network converge to the state trajectories of the drive network according to a function matrix in a given finite time. Furthermore, in comparison with the traditional nonlinear feedback control method, the new method improves the synchronization efficiency, and shortens the finite synchronization time. Numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method. (papers)

8. Rational/antiemotional behaviors in interpersonal relationships and the functional prognosis of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a Japanese multicenter, longitudinal study.

Science.gov (United States)

Nagano, Jun; Morita, Takako; Taneichi, Koji; Nagaoka, Shohei; Katsube, Sadanobu; Asai, Tomiaki; Yukioka, Masao; Takasugi, Kiyoshi; Kondo, Masakazu; Nishibayashi, Yasuro

2014-02-24

The repression of negative emotions is a personality factor that received considerable attention in the 1950-60s as being relevant to the onset and course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Despite subsequent, repeated criticisms of the cross-sectional nature of the earlier studies, even to date few prospective studies have been reported on this issue. This multicenter study prospectively examined if "rational and antiemotional" behavior (antiemotionality), characterized by an extreme tendency to suppress emotional behaviors and to rationalize negative experiences in conflicting interpersonal situations, is associated with the functional prognosis of patients with RA. 532 patients with RA who regularly visited one of eight hospitals/clinics in Japan in 2000 were recruited for study. All completed a self-administered baseline questionnaire about lifestyle and psychosocial factors including antiemotionality. Two years after, 460 (mean age, 56.1 years; 54 men and 406 women) of 471 patients who continued to visit the clinics agreed to take the follow-up questionnaire. The functional status of the patients was evaluated by rheumatologists based on the ACR classification system. A multiple logistic regression model that included baseline demographic, disease activity/severity-related, therapeutic, and socioeconomic factors as covariates found a tendency toward higher antiemotionality to be related to poorer functional status at follow-up. This relationship was not explained by lifestyle factors. Antiemotionality may be a prognostic factor for the functional status of patients with RA. This finding sheds light on a seemingly forgotten issue in the care of patients with RA.

9. Membrane-type-3 matrix metalloproteinase (MT3-MMP functions as a matrix composition-dependent effector of melanoma cell invasion.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Olga Tatti

Full Text Available In primary human melanoma, the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase, MT3-MMP, is overexpressed in the most aggressive nodular-type tumors. Unlike MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP, which promote cell invasion through basement membranes and collagen type I-rich tissues, the function of MT3-MMP in tumor progression remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MT3-MMP inhibits MT1-MMP-driven melanoma cell invasion in three-dimensional collagen, while yielding an altered, yet MT1-MMP-dependent, form of expansive growth behavior that phenocopies the formation of nodular cell colonies. In melanoma cell lines originating from advanced primary or metastatic lesions, endogenous MT3-MMP expression was associated with limited collagen-invasive potential. In the cell lines with highest MT3-MMP expression relative to MT1-MMP, collagen-invasive activity was increased following stable MT3-MMP gene silencing. Consistently, MT3-MMP overexpression in cells derived from less advanced superficially spreading melanoma lesions, or in the MT3-MMP knockdown cells, reduced MT1-MMP-dependent collagen invasion. Rather than altering MT1-MMP transcription, MT3-MMP interacted with MT1-MMP in membrane complexes and reduced its cell surface expression. By contrast, as a potent fibrinolytic enzyme, MT3-MMP induced efficient invasion of the cells in fibrin, a provisional matrix component frequently found at tumor-host tissue interfaces and perivascular spaces of melanoma. Since MT3-MMP was significantly upregulated in biopsies of human melanoma metastases, these results identify MT3-MMP as a matrix-dependent modifier of the invasive tumor cell functions during melanoma progression.

10. The Schur algorithm for generalized Schur functions III : J-unitary matrix polynomials on the circle

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Alpay, Daniel; Azizov, Tomas; Dijksma, Aad; Langer, Heinz

2003-01-01

The main result is that for J = ((1)(0) (0)(-1)) every J-unitary 2 x 2-matrix polynomial on the unit circle is an essentially unique product of elementary J-unitary 2 x 2-matrix polynomials which are either of degree 1 or 2k. This is shown by means of the generalized Schur transformation introduced

11. Amine functionalization of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix with generation 1 PAMAM dendrimer.

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Chan, Jeffrey C Y

2008-02-01

A method to functionalize cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM) with free amine groups was established in an attempt to improve its potential for tethering of bioactive molecules. CEM was incorporated with Generation-1 polyamidoamine (G1 PAMAM) dendrimer by using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N\\'-ethylcarbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide cross-linking system. The nature of incorporation of PAMAM dendrimer was evaluated using shrink temperature measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) assessment, ninhydrin assay, and swellability. The effects of PAMAM incorporation on mechanical and degradation properties of CEM were evaluated using a uniaxial mechanical test and collagenase degradation assay, respectively. Ninhydrin assay and FTIR assessment confirmed the presence of increasing free amine groups with increasing quantity of PAMAM in dendrimer-incorporated CEM (DENCEM) scaffolds. The amount of dendrimer used was found to be critical in controlling scaffold degradation, shrink temperature, and free amine content. Cell culture studies showed that fibroblasts seeded on DENCEM maintained their metabolic activity and ability to proliferate in vitro. In addition, fluorescence cell staining and scanning electron microscopy analysis of cell-seeded DENCEM showed preservation of normal fibroblast morphology and phenotype.

12. Functional characterization of detergent-decellularized equine tendon extracellular matrix for tissue engineering applications.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Daniel W Youngstrom

Full Text Available Natural extracellular matrix provides a number of distinct advantages for engineering replacement orthopedic tissue due to its intrinsic functional properties. The goal of this study was to optimize a biologically derived scaffold for tendon tissue engineering using equine flexor digitorum superficialis tendons. We investigated changes in scaffold composition and ultrastructure in response to several mechanical, detergent and enzymatic decellularization protocols using microscopic techniques and a panel of biochemical assays to evaluate total protein, collagen, glycosaminoglycan, and deoxyribonucleic acid content. Biocompatibility was also assessed with static mesenchymal stem cell (MSC culture. Implementation of a combination of freeze/thaw cycles, incubation in 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, trypsinization, treatment with DNase-I, and ethanol sterilization produced a non-cytotoxic biomaterial free of appreciable residual cellular debris with no significant modification of biomechanical properties. These decellularized tendon scaffolds (DTS are suitable for complex tissue engineering applications, as they provide a clean slate for cell culture while maintaining native three-dimensional architecture.

13. Rotation Matrix Method Based on Ambiguity Function for GNSS Attitude Determination.

Science.gov (United States)

Yang, Yingdong; Mao, Xuchu; Tian, Weifeng

2016-06-08

Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are well suited for attitude determination. In this study, we use the rotation matrix method to resolve the attitude angle. This method achieves better performance in reducing computational complexity and selecting satellites. The condition of the baseline length is combined with the ambiguity function method (AFM) to search for integer ambiguity, and it is validated in reducing the span of candidates. The noise error is always the key factor to the success rate. It is closely related to the satellite geometry model. In contrast to the AFM, the LAMBDA (Least-squares AMBiguity Decorrelation Adjustment) method gets better results in solving the relationship of the geometric model and the noise error. Although the AFM is more flexible, it is lack of analysis on this aspect. In this study, the influence of the satellite geometry model on the success rate is analyzed in detail. The computation error and the noise error are effectively treated. Not only is the flexibility of the AFM inherited, but the success rate is also increased. An experiment is conducted in a selected campus, and the performance is proved to be effective. Our results are based on simulated and real-time GNSS data and are applied on single-frequency processing, which is known as one of the challenging case of GNSS attitude determination.

14. Rotation Matrix Method Based on Ambiguity Function for GNSS Attitude Determination

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yingdong Yang

2016-06-01

Full Text Available Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS are well suited for attitude determination. In this study, we use the rotation matrix method to resolve the attitude angle. This method achieves better performance in reducing computational complexity and selecting satellites. The condition of the baseline length is combined with the ambiguity function method (AFM to search for integer ambiguity, and it is validated in reducing the span of candidates. The noise error is always the key factor to the success rate. It is closely related to the satellite geometry model. In contrast to the AFM, the LAMBDA (Least-squares AMBiguity Decorrelation Adjustment method gets better results in solving the relationship of the geometric model and the noise error. Although the AFM is more flexible, it is lack of analysis on this aspect. In this study, the influence of the satellite geometry model on the success rate is analyzed in detail. The computation error and the noise error are effectively treated. Not only is the flexibility of the AFM inherited, but the success rate is also increased. An experiment is conducted in a selected campus, and the performance is proved to be effective. Our results are based on simulated and real-time GNSS data and are applied on single-frequency processing, which is known as one of the challenging case of GNSS attitude determination.

15. Rationality in Society

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Flache, Andreas; Dijkstra, Jacob; Wright, James D.

2015-01-01

Contemporary theories of rational behavior in human society augment the orthodox model of rationality both by adding various forms of bounded rationality and relaxing the assumptions of self-interest and materialistic preferences. This entry discusses how these extensions of the theory of rational

16. Exact and quasi-classical density matrix and Wigner functions for a particle in the box and half space

Science.gov (United States)

Akhundova, E. A.; Dodonov, V. V.; Manko, V. I.

1993-01-01

The exact expressions for density matrix and Wigner functions of quantum systems are known only in special cases. Corresponding Hamiltonians are quadratic forms of Euclidean coordinates and momenta. In this paper we consider the problem of one-dimensional free particle movement in the bounded region 0 is less than x is less than a (including the case a = infinity).

17. One-point functions of non-SUSY operators at arbitrary genus in a matrix model for type IIA superstrings

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tsunehide Kuroki

2017-06-01

Full Text Available In the previous paper, the authors pointed out correspondence between a supersymmetric double-well matrix model and two-dimensional type IIA superstring theory on a Ramond–Ramond background from the viewpoint of symmetry and spectrum. This was confirmed by agreement between planar correlation functions in the matrix model and tree-level amplitudes in the superstring theory. In order to investigate the correspondence further, in this paper we compute correlation functions to all order of genus expansion in the double scaling limit of the matrix model. One-point functions of operators protected by supersymmetry terminate at some finite order, whereas those of unprotected operators yield non-Borel summable series. The behavior of the latter is characteristic in string perturbation series, providing further evidence that the matrix model describes a string theory. Moreover, instanton corrections to the planar one-point functions are also computed, and universal logarithmic scaling behavior is found for non-supersymmetric operators.

18. Extracellular matrix components supporting human islet function in alginate-based immunoprotective microcapsules for treatment of diabetes

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Llacua Carrasco, Luis; de Haan, Bart J; Smink, Sandra A; de Vos, Paul

In the pancreas, extracellular matrix (ECM) components play an import role in providing mechanical and physiological support, and also contribute to the function of islets. These ECM-connections are damaged during islet-isolation from the pancreas and are not fully recovered after encapsulation and

19. ADAM12 induces actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix reorganization during early adipocyte differentiation by regulating beta1 integrin function

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kawaguchi, Nobuko; Sundberg, Christina; Kveiborg, Marie

2003-01-01

-100 from cells overexpressing ADAM12 than from control cells. Collectively, these results show that surface expression of ADAM12 impairs the function of beta1 integrins and, consequently, alters the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. These events may be necessary...

20. Unbiased minimum variance estimator of a matrix exponential function. Application to Boltzmann/Bateman coupled equations solving

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dumonteil, E.; Diop, C. M.

2009-01-01

This paper derives an unbiased minimum variance estimator (UMVE) of a matrix exponential function of a normal wean. The result is then used to propose a reference scheme to solve Boltzmann/Bateman coupled equations, thanks to Monte Carlo transport codes. The last section will present numerical results on a simple example. (authors)

1. In vitro model to study the effects of matrix stiffening on Ca2+ handling and myofilament function in isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes.

Science.gov (United States)

van Deel, Elza D; Najafi, Aref; Fontoura, Dulce; Valent, Erik; Goebel, Max; Kardux, Kim; Falcão-Pires, Inês; van der Velden, Jolanda

2017-07-15

This paper describes a novel model that allows exploration of matrix-induced cardiomyocyte adaptations independent of the passive effect of matrix rigidity on cardiomyocyte function. Detachment of adult cardiomyocytes from the matrix enables the study of matrix effects on cell shortening, Ca 2+ handling and myofilament function. Cell shortening and Ca 2+ handling are altered in cardiomyocytes cultured for 24 h on a stiff matrix. Matrix stiffness-impaired cardiomyocyte contractility is reversed upon normalization of extracellular stiffness. Matrix stiffness-induced reduction in unloaded shortening is more pronounced in cardiomyocytes isolated from obese ZSF1 rats with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction compared to lean ZSF1 rats. Extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffening is a key element of cardiac disease. Increased rigidity of the ECM passively inhibits cardiac contraction, but if and how matrix stiffening also actively alters cardiomyocyte contractility is incompletely understood. In vitro models designed to study cardiomyocyte-matrix interaction lack the possibility to separate passive inhibition by a stiff matrix from active matrix-induced alterations of cardiomyocyte properties. Here we introduce a novel experimental model that allows exploration of cardiomyocyte functional alterations in response to matrix stiffening. Adult rat cardiomyocytes were cultured for 24 h on matrices of tuneable stiffness representing the healthy and the diseased heart and detached from their matrix before functional measurements. We demonstrate that matrix stiffening, independent of passive inhibition, reduces cell shortening and Ca 2+ handling but does not alter myofilament-generated force. Additionally, detachment of adult cultured cardiomyocytes allowed the transfer of cells from one matrix to another. This revealed that stiffness-induced cardiomyocyte changes are reversed when matrix stiffness is normalized. These matrix stiffness-induced changes in cardiomyocyte

2. Quantum Crystallography: Density Matrix-Density Functional Theory and the X-Ray Diffraction Experiment

Science.gov (United States)

Soirat, Arnaud J. A.

Density Matrix Theory is a Quantum Mechanical formalism in which the wavefunction is eliminated and its role taken over by reduced density matrices. The interest of this is that, it allows one, in principle, to calculate any electronic property of a physical system, without having to solve the Schrodinger equation, using only two entities much simpler than an N-body wavefunction: first and second -order reduced density matrices. In practice, though, this very promising possibility faces the tremendous theoretical problem of N-representability, which has been solved for the former, but, until now, voids any hope of theoretically determining the latter. However, it has been shown that single determinant reduced density matrices of any order may be recovered from coherent X-ray diffraction data, if one provides a proper Quantum Mechanical description of the Crystallography experiment. A deeper investigation of this method is the purpose of this work, where we, first, further study the calculation of X-ray reduced density matrices N-representable by a single Slater determinant. In this context, we independently derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the uniqueness of the method. We then show how to account for electron correlation in this model. For the first time, indeed, we derive highly accurate, yet practical, density matrices approximately N-representable by correlated-determinant wavefunctions. The interest of such a result lies in the Quantum Mechanical validity of these density matrices, their property of being entirely obtainable from X-ray coherent diffraction data, their very high accuracy conferred by this known property of the N-representing wavefunction, as well as their definition as explicit functionals of the density. All of these properties are finally used in both a theoretical and a numerical application: in the former, we show that these density matrices may be used in the context of Density Functional Theory to highly accurately determine

3. Wigner Function:from Ensemble Average of Density Operator to Its One Matrix Element in Entangled Pure States

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

FAN Hong-Yi

2002-01-01

We show that the Wigner function W = Tr(△ρ) (an ensemble average of the density operator ρ, △ is theWigner operator) can be expressed as a matrix element of ρ in the entangled pure states. In doing so, converting fromquantum master equations to time-evolution equation of the Wigner functions seems direct and concise. The entangledstates are defined in the enlarged Fock space with a fictitious freedom.

4. Towards a Characterization of Rational Expectations

OpenAIRE

Itai Arieli

2008-01-01

R. J. Aumann and J. H. Drèze (2008) define a rational expectation of a player i in a game G as the expected payo of some type of i in some belief system for G in which common knowledge of rationality and common priors obtain. Our goal is to characterize the set of rational expectations in terms of the game's payoff matrix. We provide such a characterization for a specific class of strategic games, called semi-elementary, which includes Myerson's "elementary" games.

5. SIMULATIONS OF WIDE-FIELD WEAK-LENSING SURVEYS. II. COVARIANCE MATRIX OF REAL-SPACE CORRELATION FUNCTIONS

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sato, Masanori; Matsubara, Takahiko; Takada, Masahiro; Hamana, Takashi

2011-01-01

Using 1000 ray-tracing simulations for a Λ-dominated cold dark model in Sato et al., we study the covariance matrix of cosmic shear correlation functions, which is the standard statistics used in previous measurements. The shear correlation function of a particular separation angle is affected by Fourier modes over a wide range of multipoles, even beyond a survey area, which complicates the analysis of the covariance matrix. To overcome such obstacles we first construct Gaussian shear simulations from the 1000 realizations and then use the Gaussian simulations to disentangle the Gaussian covariance contribution to the covariance matrix we measured from the original simulations. We found that an analytical formula of Gaussian covariance overestimates the covariance amplitudes due to an effect of the finite survey area. Furthermore, the clean separation of the Gaussian covariance allows us to examine the non-Gaussian covariance contributions as a function of separation angles and source redshifts. For upcoming surveys with typical source redshifts of z s = 0.6 and 1.0, the non-Gaussian contribution to the diagonal covariance components at 1 arcmin scales is greater than the Gaussian contribution by a factor of 20 and 10, respectively. Predictions based on the halo model qualitatively well reproduce the simulation results, however show a sizable disagreement in the covariance amplitudes. By combining these simulation results we develop a fitting formula to the covariance matrix for a survey with arbitrary area coverage, taking into account effects of the finiteness of survey area on the Gaussian covariance.

6. Adhesion dynamics of porcine esophageal fibroblasts on extracellular matrix protein-functionalized poly(lactic acid)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cai Ning; Gong Yingxue; Chan, Vincent; Liao Kin; Chian, Kerm Sin

2008-01-01

Effective attachment of esophageal cells on biomaterials is one important requirement in designing engineered esophagus substitute for esophageal cancer treatment. In this study, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was subjected to surface modification by coupling extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins on its surface to promote cell adhesion. Two typical ECM proteins, collagen type I (COL) and fibronectin (FN), were immobilized on the PLA surface with the aid of glutaraldehyde as a cross linker between aminolyzed PLA and ECM proteins. By using confocal reflectance interference contrast microscopy (C-RICM) integrating with phase contrast microscopy, the long-term adhesion dynamics of porcine esophageal fibroblasts (PEFs) on four types of surfaces (unmodified PLA, PLA-COOH, PLA-COL and PLA-FN) was investigated during 24 h of culture. It is demonstrated by C-RICM results that PEFs form strong adhesion contact on all four types of surfaces at different stages of cell seeding. Among the four surfaces, PEFs on the PLA-FN surface reach the maximum adhesion energy (9.5 x 10 -7 J m -2 ) in the shortest time (20 min) during the initial stage of cell seeding. After adhesion energy reaches the maximum value, PEFs maintain their highly deformed geometries till they reached a steady state after 20 h of culture. F-actin immunostaining results show that the evolvement of spatial organization of F-actin is tightly correlated with the formation of adhesion contact and cell spreading. Furthermore, the cell attachment ratio of PEFs on PLA in 2 h is only 26% compared with 88% on PLA-FN, 73% on PLA-COL and 36% on PLA-COOH. All the results demonstrate the effect of surface functionalization on the biophysical responses of PEFs in cell adhesion. Fibronectin-immobilized PLA demonstrates promising potential for application as an engineered esophagus substitute

7. Computing wave functions in multichannel collisions with non-local potentials using the R-matrix method

Science.gov (United States)

Bonitati, Joey; Slimmer, Ben; Li, Weichuan; Potel, Gregory; Nunes, Filomena

2017-09-01

The calculable form of the R-matrix method has been previously shown to be a useful tool in approximately solving the Schrodinger equation in nuclear scattering problems. We use this technique combined with the Gauss quadrature for the Lagrange-mesh method to efficiently solve for the wave functions of projectile nuclei in low energy collisions (1-100 MeV) involving an arbitrary number of channels. We include the local Woods-Saxon potential, the non-local potential of Perey and Buck, a Coulomb potential, and a coupling potential to computationally solve for the wave function of two nuclei at short distances. Object oriented programming is used to increase modularity, and parallel programming techniques are introduced to reduce computation time. We conclude that the R-matrix method is an effective method to predict the wave functions of nuclei in scattering problems involving both multiple channels and non-local potentials. Michigan State University iCER ACRES REU.

8. F4 quantum integrable, rational and trigonometric models: space-of-orbits view

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Turbiner, A V; Vieyra, J C Lopez

2014-01-01

Algebraic-rational nature of the four-dimensional, F 4 -invariant integrable quantum Hamiltonians, both rational and trigonometric, is revealed and reviewed. It was shown that being written in F 4 Weyl invariants, polynomial and exponential, respectively, both similarity-transformed Hamiltonians are in algebraic form, they are quite similar the second order differential operators with polynomial coefficients; the flat metric in the Laplace-Beltrami operator has polynomial (in invariants) matrix elements. Their potentials are calculated for the first time: they are meromorphic (rational) functions with singularities at the boundaries of the configuration space. Ground state eigenfunctions are algebraic functions in a form of polynomials in some degrees. Both Hamiltonians preserve the same infinite flag of polynomial spaces with characteristic vector (1, 2, 2, 3), it manifests exact solvability. A particular integral common for both models is derived. The first polynomial eigenfunctions are presented explicitly.

9. A Rational Approach to Rational Suicide.

Science.gov (United States)

Richman, Joseph

1992-01-01

Describes suicide as reaction to internal and external sources of stress and the impact of life events. Notes that, in the elderly, these situations are prevalent in many who are not suicidal. Contends that much more is written about rational suicide than its alternative (rational nonsuicide). Reviews reasons for this and suggests rational…

10. Quest of novel GH20 N-acetyl hexosaminidasetransglycosylating catalysts: functional screening, data mining and semi-rational mutagenesis

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Teze, David; Visnapuu, Triinu; Kjeldsen, Christian

and the fact that the products are also substrates, thus needing a kinetic control of the reaction. Several approaches have been developed to overcome these, including mechanism modifications (e.g. glycosynthases, chemical rescue), functional screening and data mining to find natural transglycosidases...... been reported. Thus, we turned to discovery and characterization of new GH20s and performing a systematic mutagenesis study. Several new GH20s of bacterial origin were isolated and described by functional screening and data mining, including transglycosidases able to synthesize lacto...

11. Rationing medical education.

African Journals Online (AJOL)

This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different ... Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. ... state-of-the-art resources, technology and tutors con-.

12. Oxidation modifies the structure and function of the extracellular matrix generated by human coronary artery endothelial cells.

Science.gov (United States)

Chuang, Christine Y; Degendorfer, Georg; Hammer, Astrid; Whitelock, John M; Malle, Ernst; Davies, Michael J

2014-04-15

ECM (extracellular matrix) materials, such as laminin, perlecan, type IV collagen and fibronectin, play a key role in determining the structure of the arterial wall and the properties of cells that interact with the ECM. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of peroxynitrous acid, an oxidant generated by activated macrophages, on the structure and function of the ECM laid down by HCAECs (human coronary artery endothelial cells) in vitro and in vivo. We show that exposure of HCAEC-derived native matrix components to peroxynitrous acid (but not decomposed oxidant) at concentrations >1 μM results in a loss of antibody recognition of perlecan, collagen IV, and cell-binding sites on laminin and fibronectin. Loss of recognition was accompanied by decreased HCAEC adhesion. Real-time PCR showed up-regulation of inflammation-associated genes, including MMP7 (matrix metalloproteinase 7) and MMP13, as well as down-regulation of the laminin α2 chain, in HCAECs cultured on peroxynitrous acid-treated matrix compared with native matrix. Immunohistochemical studies provided evidence of co-localization of laminin with 3-nitrotyrosine, a biomarker of peroxynitrous acid damage, in type II-III/IV human atherosclerotic lesions, consistent with matrix damage occurring during disease development in vivo. The results of the present study suggest a mechanism through which peroxynitrous acid modifies endothelial cell-derived native ECM proteins of the arterial basement membrane in atherosclerotic lesions. These changes to ECM and particularly perlecan and laminin may be important in inducing cellular dysfunction and contribute to atherogenesis.

13. Two Distinct Isoforms of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Are Associated with Human Delayed Kidney Graft Function.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Shaynah Wanga

Full Text Available Delayed graft function (DGF is a frequent complication of renal transplantation, particularly in the setting of transplantation of kidneys derived from deceased donors and expanded-criteria donors. DGF results from tubular epithelial cell injury and has immediate and long term consequences. These include requirement for post-transplantation dialysis, increased incidence of acute rejection, and poorer long-term outcomes. DGF represents one of the clearest clinical examples of renal acute ischemia/reperfusion injury. Experimental studies have demonstrated that ischemia/reperfusion injury induces the synthesis of the full length secreted isoform of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (FL-MMP-2, as well as an intracellular N-terminal truncated MMP-2 isoform (NTT-MMP-2 that initiates an innate immune response. We hypothesized that the two MMP-2 isoforms mediate tubular epithelial cell injury in DGF. Archival renal biopsy sections from 10 protocol biopsy controls and 41 cases with a clinical diagnosis of DGF were analyzed for the extent of tubular injury, expression of the FL-MMP-2 and NTT-MMP-2 isoforms by immunohistochemistry (IHC, in situ hybridization, and qPCR to determine isoform abundance. Differences in transcript abundance were related to tubular injury score. Markers of MMP-2-mediated injury included TUNEL staining and assessment of peritubular capillary density. There was a clear relationship between tubular epithelial cell expression of both FL-MMP-2 and NTT-MMP-2 IHC with the extent of tubular injury. The MMP-2 isoforms were detected in the same tubular segments and were present at sites of tubular injury. qPCR demonstrated highly significant increases in both the FL-MMP-2 and NTT-MMP-2 transcripts. Statistical analysis revealed highly significant associations between FL-MMP-2 and NTT-MMP-2 transcript abundance and the extent of tubular injury, with NTT-MMP-2 having the strongest association. We conclude that two distinct MMP-2 isoforms are

14. Rationing with baselines

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

2013-01-01

We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....

15. Rational synthesis of AB-type N-substituted core-functionalized naphthalene diimides (cNDIs).

Science.gov (United States)

Berezin, Andrey A; Sciutto, Andrea; Demitri, Nicola; Bonifazi, Davide

2015-04-17

Acid-mediated transformation of tetraethyl 2,6-diethoxynaphthalene-1,4,5,8-tetracarboxylate selectively affords the core-substituted naphthalene-anhydride-ester (cNAE) in quantitative yield. This anhydride can be selectively converted into hetero-N-substituted core-functionalized naphthalene diimides (cNDIs) through sequential condensation reactions in the presence of the precursor amine with very high isolated yields over four steps. The approach can be applied to prepare a large variety of heterocyclic, aromatic, and aliphatic heterodiimides.

16. Rational design of small molecules that modulate the transcriptional function of the response regulator PhoP.

Science.gov (United States)

Qing, Xiaoyu; De Weerdt, Ami; De Maeyer, Marc; Steenackers, Hans; Voet, Arnout

2018-01-01

The response regulator PhoP, which is part of the PhoP/PhoQ two-component system, regulates the expression of multiple genes involved in controlling virulence in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and other species of Gram-negative bacteria. Modulating the phosphorylation-mediated dimerization in the receiver domain may interfere with the transcriptional function of PhoP. In this study, we analyzed the therapeutic potential of the PhoP receiver domain by exploring it as a potential target for drug design. The structural information was then applied to identify the first hit compounds from commercial chemical libraries by combining pharmacophore modelling and docking methods with a GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein)-based promoter-fusion bioassay. In total, one hundred and forty compounds were selected, purchased, and tested for biological activity. Several novel scaffolds showed acceptable potency to modulate the transcriptional function of PhoP, either by enhancing or inhibiting the expression of PhoP-dependent genes. These compounds may be used as the starting point for developing modulators that target the protein-protein interface of the PhoP protein as an alternative strategy against antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

17. α-Amino acid containing degradable polymers as functional biomaterials: rational design, synthetic pathway, and biomedical applications.

Science.gov (United States)

Sun, Huanli; Meng, Fenghua; Dias, Aylvin A; Hendriks, Marc; Feijen, Jan; Zhong, Zhiyuan

2011-06-13

18. Theory of quark mixing matrix and invariant functions of mass matrices

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jarlskog, C.

1987-10-01

The outline of this talk is as follows: The origin of the quark mixing matrix. Super elementary theory of flavour projection operators. Equivalences and invariances. The commutator formalism and CP violation. CP conditions for any number of families. The 'angle' between the quark mass matrices. Application to Fritzsch and Stech matrices. References. (author)

19. Time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory applied to laser-driven, correlated two-electron dynamics

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brics, Martins; Kapoor, Varun; Bauer, Dieter [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany)

2013-07-01

Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with known and practicable exchange-correlation potentials does not capture highly correlated electron dynamics such as single-photon double ionization, autoionization, or nonsequential ionization. Time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory (TDRDMFT) may remedy these problems. The key ingredients in TDRDMFT are the natural orbitals (NOs), i.e., the eigenfunctions of the one-body reduced density matrix (1-RDM), and the occupation numbers (OCs), i.e., the respective eigenvalues. The two-body reduced density matrix (2-RDM) is then expanded in NOs, and equations of motion for the NOs can be derived. If the expansion coefficients of the 2-RDM were known exactly, the problem at hand would be solved. In practice, approximations have to be made. We study the prospects of TDRDMFT following a top-down approach. We solve the exact two-electron time-dependent Schroedinger equation for a model Helium atom in intense laser fields in order to study highly correlated phenomena such as the population of autoionizing states or single-photon double ionization. From the exact wave function we calculate the exact NOs, OCs, the exact expansion coefficients of the 2-RDM, and the exact potentials in the equations of motion. In that way we can identify how many NOs and which level of approximations are necessary to capture such phenomena.

20. Variational Optimization of the Second-Order Density Matrix Corresponding to a Seniority-Zero Configuration Interaction Wave Function.

Science.gov (United States)

Poelmans, Ward; Van Raemdonck, Mario; Verstichel, Brecht; De Baerdemacker, Stijn; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E; Alcoba, Diego R; Bultinck, Patrick; Van Neck, Dimitri

2015-09-08

We perform a direct variational determination of the second-order (two-particle) density matrix corresponding to a many-electron system, under a restricted set of the two-index N-representability P-, Q-, and G-conditions. In addition, we impose a set of necessary constraints that the two-particle density matrix must be derivable from a doubly occupied many-electron wave function, i.e., a singlet wave function for which the Slater determinant decomposition only contains determinants in which spatial orbitals are doubly occupied. We rederive the two-index N-representability conditions first found by Weinhold and Wilson and apply them to various benchmark systems (linear hydrogen chains, He, N2, and CN(-)). This work is motivated by the fact that a doubly occupied many-electron wave function captures in many cases the bulk of the static correlation. Compared to the general case, the structure of doubly occupied two-particle density matrices causes the associate semidefinite program to have a very favorable scaling as L(3), where L is the number of spatial orbitals. Since the doubly occupied Hilbert space depends on the choice of the orbitals, variational calculation steps of the two-particle density matrix are interspersed with orbital-optimization steps (based on Jacobi rotations in the space of the spatial orbitals). We also point to the importance of symmetry breaking of the orbitals when performing calculations in a doubly occupied framework.

1. Enhanced selectivity in mixed matrix membranes for CO2 capture through efficient dispersion of amine-functionalized MOF nanoparticles

Science.gov (United States)

Ghalei, Behnam; Sakurai, Kento; Kinoshita, Yosuke; Wakimoto, Kazuki; Isfahani, Ali Pournaghshband; Song, Qilei; Doitomi, Kazuki; Furukawa, Shuhei; Hirao, Hajime; Kusuda, Hiromu; Kitagawa, Susumu; Sivaniah, Easan

2017-07-01

Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) for gas separation applications have enhanced selectivity when compared with the pure polymer matrix, but are commonly reported with low intrinsic permeability, which has major cost implications for implementation of membrane technologies in large-scale carbon capture projects. High-permeability polymers rarely generate sufficient selectivity for energy-efficient CO2 capture. Here we report substantial selectivity enhancements within high-permeability polymers as a result of the efficient dispersion of amine-functionalized, nanosized metal-organic framework (MOF) additives. The enhancement effects under optimal mixing conditions occur with minimal loss in overall permeability. Nanosizing of the MOF enhances its dispersion within the polymer matrix to minimize non-selective microvoid formation around the particles. Amination of such MOFs increases their interaction with thepolymer matrix, resulting in a measured rigidification and enhanced selectivity of the overall composite. The optimal MOF MMM performance was verified in three different polymer systems, and also over pressure and temperature ranges suitable for carbon capture.

2. Mental health as rational autonomy.

Science.gov (United States)

Edwards, R B

1981-08-01

Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.

3. Rational geometrical engineering of palladium sulfide multi-arm nanostructures as a superior bi-functional electrocatalyst.

Science.gov (United States)

Nandan, R; Nanda, K K

2017-08-31

Geometrical tunability offers sharp edges and an open-armed structure accompanied with a high electrochemical active surface area to ensure the efficient and effective utilization of materials by exposing the electrochemical active sites for facile accessibility of reactant species. Herein, we report a one-step, single-pot, surfactant-free, electroless, and economic route to synthesize palladium sulfide nanostructures with different geometries at mild temperatures and their catalytic properties towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and methanol electro-oxidation (MOR). For ORR, the positive on-set, half wave potentials, smaller Tafel slope, high electrochemical active surface area, large roughness factor, and better cyclic stability of the proposed nanostructures as compared to those of the commercial state-of-the-art Pt-C/PdS catalysts suggest their superiority in an alkaline medium. In addition, high mass activity (J f ∼ 715 mA mg -1 ), in comparison with that of the commercial state-of-the-art Pt-C/PdS catalysts (J f ∼ 138/41 mA mg -1 , respectively), and high J f /J b (1.52) along with the superior operational stability of the multi-arm palladium sulfide nanostructures towards MOR advocates the bi-functional behavior of the catalyst and its potential as a promising Pt-free anode/cathode electrocatalyst in fuel cells.

4. One-nucleon removal reactions as a test of overlap functions from the one-body density matrix calculations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dimitrova, S.S.; Gaidarov, M.K.; Antonov, A.N.; Stoitsov, M.V.; Hodgson, P.E; Lukyanov, V.K.; Zemlyanaya, E.V.; Krumova, G.Z.

1997-01-01

Overlap functions and spectroscopic factors extracted from a model one-body density matrix (OBDM) accounting for short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations are used to calculate differential cross sections of (p, d) reactions and the momentum distributions of transitions to single-particle states in 16 O and 40 Ca. A comparison between the experimental (p, d) and (e, e'p) data, their DWBA and CDWIA analyses and the OBDM calculations is made. Our theoretical predictions for the spectroscopic factors are compared with the empirically extracted ones. It is shown that the overlap functions obtained within the Jastrow correlation method are applicable to the description of the quantities considered. (author)

5. The quantum symmetry of rational field theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuchs, J.

1993-12-01

The quantum symmetry of a rational quantum field theory is a finite-dimensional multi-matrix algebra. Its representation category, which determines the fusion rules and braid group representations of superselection sectors, is a braided monoidal C*-category. Various properties of such algebraic structures are described, and some ideas concerning the classification programme are outlined. (orig.)

6. On some 3-point functions in the W{sub 4} CFT and related braiding matrix

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Furlan, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Trieste,Trieste (Italy); Petkova, V.B. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences,Sofia (Bulgaria)

2015-12-14

We construct a class of 3-point constants in the sl(4) Toda conformal theory W{sub 4}, extending the examples in Fateev and Litvinov http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2007/11/002. Their knowledge allows to determine the braiding/fusing matrix transforming 4-point conformal blocks of one fundamental, labelled by the 6-dimensional sl(4) representation, and three partially degenerate vertex operators. It is a 3×3 submatrix of the generic 6×6 fusing matrix consistent with the fusion rules for the particular class of representations. We check a braiding relation which has wider applications to conformal models with sl(4) symmetry. The 3-point constants in dual regions of central charge are compared in preparation for a BPS like relation in the (sl)-hat (4) WZW model.

7. From Function to System: Advances in Choosing a Matrix Structure of the Translation Process

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ирина Николаевна Ремхе

2016-12-01

Full Text Available This article presents the authors’ view on the transition towards a new paradigm in the study of the translation process based on synergy, collaboration, networking and the cognitive structure of the translator’s mind. In the search for a hypothetical cognitive model of translation, a matrix model is represented to further enrich the interdisciplinary platform through understanding the conglomerate of the many sources involved in the act of translation and focusing on the role of the individual human being in translational cognition. The Map-Matrix Model comprises three levels of the translator’s mental space: Neurological, Representational and Conceptual. Each level corresponds to the inheritance relations between mapping patterns, clusters and frames. The model will be presented and interrogated through the results of a practical Think-aloud protocols experiment in order to give a better insight into the translation efficiency in terms of information processing and a clearer assumption of the feasibility of the concept.

8. Lyapunov Functions and Solutions of the Lyapunov Matrix Equation for Marginally Stable Systems

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kliem, Wolfhard; Pommer, Christian

2000-01-01

We consider linear systems of differential equations $I \\ddot{x}+B \\dot{x}+C{x}={0}$ where $I$ is the identity matrix and $B$ and $C$ are general complex $n$ x $n$ matrices. Our main interest is to determine conditions for complete marginalstability of these systems. To this end we find solutions...... of the Lyapunov matrix equation and characterize the set of matrices $(B, C)$ which guarantees marginal stability. The theory is applied to gyroscopic systems, to indefinite damped systems, and to circulatory systems, showing how to choose certain parameter matrices to get sufficient conditions for marginal...... stability.Comparison is made with some known results for equations with real system matrices.Moreover more general cases are investigated and several examples are given....

9. Kinetic-energy matrix elements for atomic Hylleraas-CI wave functions

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Harris, Frank E., E-mail: harris@qtp.ufl.edu [Department of Physics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA and Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

2016-05-28

Hylleraas-CI is a superposition-of-configurations method in which each configuration is constructed from a Slater-type orbital (STO) product to which is appended (linearly) at most one interelectron distance r{sub ij}. Computations of the kinetic energy for atoms by this method have been difficult due to the lack of formulas expressing these matrix elements for general angular momentum in terms of overlap and potential-energy integrals. It is shown here that a strategic application of angular-momentum theory, including the use of vector spherical harmonics, enables the reduction of all atomic kinetic-energy integrals to overlap and potential-energy matrix elements. The new formulas are validated by showing that they yield correct results for a large number of integrals published by other investigators.

10. Collagen VI disorders: Insights on form and function in the extracellular matrix and beyond.

Science.gov (United States)

Lamandé, Shireen R; Bateman, John F

2017-12-22

Mutations in the three canonical collagen VI genes, COL6A1, COL6A2 and COL6A3, cause a spectrum of muscle disease from Bethlem myopathy at the mild end to the severe Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy. Mutations can be either dominant or recessive and the resulting clinical severity is influenced by the way mutations impact the complex collagen VI assembly process. Most mutations are found towards the N-terminus of the triple helical collagenous domain and compromise extracellular microfibril assembly. Outside the triple helix collagen VI is highly polymorphic and discriminating mutations from rare benign changes remains a major diagnostic challenge. Collagen VI deficiency alters extracellular matrix structure and biomechanical properties and leads to increased apoptosis and oxidative stress, decreased autophagy, and impaired muscle regeneration. Therapies that target these downstream consequences have been tested in a collagen VI null mouse and also in small human trials where they show modest clinical efficacy. An important role for collagen VI in obesity, cancer and diabetes is emerging. A major barrier to developing effective therapies is the paucity of information about how collagen VI deficiency in the extracellular matrix signals the final downstream consequences - the receptors involved and the intracellular messengers await further characterization. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

11. Generating matrix elements of the hamiltonian of the algebraic version of resonating group method on intrinsic wave functions with various oscillator lengths

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1986-01-01

The receipts to calculate the generating matrix elements of the algebraic version of resonating group method (RGM) are given for two- and three-cluster nucleon systems, the center of mass motion being separeted exactly. For the Hamiltonian with Gaussian nucleon-nucleon potential dependence the generating matrix elements of the RGM algebraic version can be written down explictly if matrix elements of the corresponding system on wave functions of the Brink cluster model are known

12. FUNCTIONAL SUBCLONE PROFILING FOR PREDICTION OF TREATMENT-INDUCED INTRA-TUMOR POPULATION SHIFTS AND DISCOVERY OF RATIONAL DRUG COMBINATIONS IN HUMAN GLIOBLASTOMA

Science.gov (United States)

Reinartz, Roman; Wang, Shanshan; Kebir, Sied; Silver, Daniel J.; Wieland, Anja; Zheng, Tong; Küpper, Marius; Rauschenbach, Laurèl; Fimmers, Rolf; Shepherd, Timothy M.; Trageser, Daniel; Till, Andreas; Schäfer, Niklas; Glas, Martin; Hillmer, Axel M.; Cichon, Sven; Smith, Amy A.; Pietsch, Torsten; Liu, Ying; Reynolds, Brent A.; Yachnis, Anthony; Pincus, David W.; Simon, Matthias; Brüstle, Oliver; Steindler, Dennis A.; Scheffler, Björn

2016-01-01

Purpose Investigation of clonal heterogeneity may be key to understanding mechanisms of therapeutic failure in human cancer. However, little is known on the consequences of therapeutic intervention on the clonal composition of solid tumors. Experimental Design Here, we used 33 single cell-derived subclones generated from five clinical glioblastoma specimens for exploring intra- and inter-individual spectra of drug resistance profiles in vitro. In a personalized setting, we explored whether differences in pharmacological sensitivity among subclones could be employed to predict drug-dependent changes to the clonal composition of tumors. Results Subclones from individual tumors exhibited a remarkable heterogeneity of drug resistance to a library of potential anti-glioblastoma compounds. A more comprehensive intra-tumoral analysis revealed that stable genetic and phenotypic characteristics of co-existing subclones could be correlated with distinct drug sensitivity profiles. The data obtained from differential drug response analysis could be employed to predict clonal population shifts within the naïve parental tumor in vitro and in orthotopic xenografts. Furthermore, the value of pharmacological profiles could be shown for establishing rational strategies for individualized secondary lines of treatment. Conclusions Our data provide a previously unrecognized strategy for revealing functional consequences of intra-tumor heterogeneity by enabling predictive modeling of treatment-related subclone dynamics in human glioblastoma. PMID:27521447

13. Rational approximation of vertical segments

Science.gov (United States)

Salazar Celis, Oliver; Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte

2007-08-01

In many applications, observations are prone to imprecise measurements. When constructing a model based on such data, an approximation rather than an interpolation approach is needed. Very often a least squares approximation is used. Here we follow a different approach. A natural way for dealing with uncertainty in the data is by means of an uncertainty interval. We assume that the uncertainty in the independent variables is negligible and that for each observation an uncertainty interval can be given which contains the (unknown) exact value. To approximate such data we look for functions which intersect all uncertainty intervals. In the past this problem has been studied for polynomials, or more generally for functions which are linear in the unknown coefficients. Here we study the problem for a particular class of functions which are nonlinear in the unknown coefficients, namely rational functions. We show how to reduce the problem to a quadratic programming problem with a strictly convex objective function, yielding a unique rational function which intersects all uncertainty intervals and satisfies some additional properties. Compared to rational least squares approximation which reduces to a nonlinear optimization problem where the objective function may have many local minima, this makes the new approach attractive.

14. Analytic aspects of rational conformal field theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kiritsis, E.B.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

1990-01-01

The problem of deriving linear differential equations for correlation functions of Rational Conformal Field Theories is considered. Techniques from the theory of fuchsian differential equations are used to show that knowledge of the central charge, dimensions of primary fields and fusion rules are enough to fix the differential equations for one- and two-point functions on the tours. Any other correlation function can be calculated along similar lines. The results settle the issue of 'exact solution' of rational conformal field theories. (orig.)

15. Microscopically based energy density functionals for nuclei using the density matrix expansion. II. Full optimization and validation

Science.gov (United States)

Navarro Pérez, R.; Schunck, N.; Dyhdalo, A.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Bogner, S. K.

2018-05-01

Background: Energy density functional methods provide a generic framework to compute properties of atomic nuclei starting from models of nuclear potentials and the rules of quantum mechanics. Until now, the overwhelming majority of functionals have been constructed either from empirical nuclear potentials such as the Skyrme or Gogny forces, or from systematic gradient-like expansions in the spirit of the density functional theory for atoms. Purpose: We seek to obtain a usable form of the nuclear energy density functional that is rooted in the modern theory of nuclear forces. We thus consider a functional obtained from the density matrix expansion of local nuclear potentials from chiral effective field theory. We propose a parametrization of this functional carefully calibrated and validated on selected ground-state properties that is suitable for large-scale calculations of nuclear properties. Methods: Our energy functional comprises two main components. The first component is a non-local functional of the density and corresponds to the direct part (Hartree term) of the expectation value of local chiral potentials on a Slater determinant. Contributions to the mean field and the energy of this term are computed by expanding the spatial, finite-range components of the chiral potential onto Gaussian functions. The second component is a local functional of the density and is obtained by applying the density matrix expansion to the exchange part (Fock term) of the expectation value of the local chiral potential. We apply the UNEDF2 optimization protocol to determine the coupling constants of this energy functional. Results: We obtain a set of microscopically constrained functionals for local chiral potentials from leading order up to next-to-next-to-leading order with and without three-body forces and contributions from Δ excitations. These functionals are validated on the calculation of nuclear and neutron matter, nuclear mass tables, single-particle shell structure

16. Dissecting the functional role of key residues in triheme cytochrome PpcA: a path to rational design of G. sulfurreducens strains with enhanced electron transfer capabilities.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PpcA is the most abundant member of a family of five triheme cytochromes c7 in the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens (Gs and is the most likely carrier of electrons destined for outer surface during respiration on solid metal oxides, a process that requires extracellular electron transfer. This cytochrome has the highest content of lysine residues (24% among the family, and it was suggested to be involved in e-/H(+ energy transduction processes. In the present work, we investigated the functional role of lysine residues strategically located in the vicinity of each heme group. Each lysine was replaced by glutamine or glutamic acid to evaluate the effects of a neutral or negatively charged residue in each position. The results showed that replacing Lys9 (located near heme IV, Lys18 (near heme I or Lys22 (between hemes I and III has essentially no effect on the redox properties of the heme groups and are probably involved in redox partner recognition. On the other hand, Lys43 (near heme IV, Lys52 (between hemes III and IV and Lys60 (near heme III are crucial in the regulation of the functional mechanism of PpcA, namely in the selection of microstates that allow the protein to establish preferential e-/H(+ transfer pathways. The results showed that the preferred e-/H(+ transfer pathways are only established when heme III is the last heme to oxidize, a feature reinforced by a higher difference between its reduction potential and that of its predecessor in the order of oxidation. We also showed that K43 and K52 mutants keep the mechanistic features of PpcA by establishing preferential e-/H+ transfer pathways at lower reduction potential values than the wild-type protein, a property that can enable rational design of Gs strains with optimized extracellular electron transfer capabilities.

17. Bounded Rationality and Budgeting

OpenAIRE

2016-01-01

This article discusses the theory of bounded rationality which had been introduced by Herbert Simon in the 1950s. Simon introduced the notion of bounded rationality stating that while decision-makers strive for rationality, they are limited by the effect of the environment, their information process capacity and by the constraints on their information storage and retrieval capabilities. Moreover, this article tries to specifically blend this notion into budgeting, using the foundations of inc...

18. Analysis of the half-projected Hartree--Fock function: density matrix, natural orbitals, and configuration interaction equivalence

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1976-01-01

The half-projected Hartree--Fock function for singlet states (HPHF) is analyzed in terms of natural electronic configurations. For this purpose the HPHF spinless density matrix and its natural orbitals are first deduced. It is found that the HPHF function does not contain any contribution from odd-times excited configurations. It is seen in addition, in the case of the singlet ground states, this function is approximately equivalent to two closed-shell configurations, although the nature of the excited one depends on the nuclear geometry. An example is given in the case of the LiH ground state. Finally, the application of this model for studying systems of more than two atoms is criticized

19. Determinants of Actor Rationality

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ellegaard, Chris

Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer-supplier...... relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse...

20. A new macroscopically anisotropic pressure dependent yield function for metal matrix composite based on strain gradient plasticity for the microstructure

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Azizi, Reza; Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

2013-01-01

Metal matrix composites with long aligned elastic fibers are studied using an energetic rate independent strain gradient plasticity theory with an isotropic pressure independent yield function at the microscale. The material response is homogenized to obtain a conventional macroscopic model...... is investigated numerically using a unit cell model with periodic boundary conditions containing a single fiber deformed under generalized plane strain conditions. The homogenized response can be modeled by conventional plasticity with an anisotropic yield surface and a free energy depending on plastic strain...

1. Extracellular matrix elasticity and topography: material-based cues that affect cell function via conserved mechanisms

Science.gov (United States)

Janson, Isaac A.; Putnam, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

Chemical, mechanical, and topographic extracellular matrix (ECM) cues have been extensively studied for their influence on cell behavior. These ECM cues alter cell adhesion, cell shape, and cell migration, and activate signal transduction pathways to influence gene expression, proliferation, and differentiation. ECM elasticity and topography, in particular, have emerged as material properties of intense focus based on strong evidence these physical cue can partially dictate stem cell differentiation. Cells generate forces to pull on their adhesive contacts, and these tractional forces appear to be a common element of cells’ responses to both elasticity and topography. This review focuses on recently published work that links ECM topography and mechanics and their influence on differentiation and other cell behaviors, We also highlight signaling pathways typically implicated in mechanotransduction that are (or may be) shared by cells subjected to topographic cues. Finally, we conclude with a brief discussion of the potential implications of these commonalities for cell based therapies and biomaterial design. PMID:24910444

2. Functionalized porphyrin conjugate thin films deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Iordache, S. [University of Bucharest, 3Nano-SAE Research Center, PO Box MG-38, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Popescu, A.C.; Popescu, C.E.; Dorcioman, G.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Ciucu, A.A. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Bucharest (Romania); Balan, A.; Stamatin, I. [University of Bucharest, 3Nano-SAE Research Center, PO Box MG-38, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Fagadar-Cosma, E. [Institute of Chemistry Timisoara of Romanian Academy, M. Viteazul Ave. 24, 300223-Timisoara (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [Tulane University, Departments of Physics and Biomedical Engineering, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)

2013-08-01

We report on the deposition of nanostructured porphyrin-base, 5(4-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(4-phenoxyphenyl)-porphyrin thin films by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation onto silicon substrates with screen-printed electrodes. AFM investigations have shown that at 400 mJ/cm{sup 2} fluence a topographical transition takes place from the platelet-like stacking porphyrin-based nanostructures in a perpendicular arrangement to a quasi-parallel one both relative to the substrate surface. Raman spectroscopy has shown that the chemical structure of the deposited thin films is preserved for fluences within the range of 200–300 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Cyclic voltammograms have demonstrated that the free porphyrin is appropriate as a single mediator for glucose in a specific case of screen-printed electrodes, suggesting potential for designing a new class of biosensors.

3. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinase Structure-Function Relationships: Insights From Molecular Dynamics Studies.

Science.gov (United States)

Karabencheva-Christova, Tatyana G; Christov, Christo Z; Fields, Gregg B

2017-01-01

Several members of the zinc-dependent matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family catalyze collagen degradation. Experimental data reveal a collaboration between different MMP domains in order to achieve efficient collagenolysis. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been utilized to provide atomistic details of the collagenolytic process. The triple-helical structure of collagen exhibits local regions of flexibility, with modulation of interchain salt bridges and water bridges contributing to accessibility of individual chains by the enzyme. In turn, the hemopexin-like (HPX) domain of the MMP initially binds the triple helix and facilitates the presentation of individual strands to active site in the catalytic (CAT) domain. Extensive positive and negative correlated motions are observed between the CAT and HPX domains when collagen is bound. Ultimately, the MD simulation studies have complemented structural (NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography) and kinetic analyses to provide a more detailed mechanistic view of MMP-catalyzed collagenolysis. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

4. Structure, composition and function of interfaces in ceramic fibre/matrix composites

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pippel, E.

1993-01-01

Improving the properties of fibre reinforced ceramics and glasses by optimizing their microstructure requires the knowledge of this structure down to the atomic level. In these materials energy-dissipative processes during fracture particularly act within an interface layer or layer system between fibre and matrix which can either be produced by fibre coating, or which develops during the processing of the composites. Examples are presented of the microstructural phenomena of such layers revealed by HVEM and HREM and complemented by microchemical information via a nanoscale EDXS equipment. The investigations are carried out on Nicalon fibres in Duran glass as well as on Tyranno, Nicalon and carbon fibres in different SiC-matrices. Finally, a process is discussed which may control the important interface parameters. (orig.)

5. Matrix thermalization

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Nguyen, Kévin

2017-01-01

Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

6. Matrix thermalization

Science.gov (United States)

Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Nguyen, Kévin

2017-02-01

Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

7. Matrix thermalization

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Craps, Ben [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Evnin, Oleg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Thanon Phayathai, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Nguyen, Kévin [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

2017-02-08

Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

8. Coping More Effectively Through Rational Self-Counseling.

Science.gov (United States)

Rogers, George W., Jr.

1981-01-01

Rational Self-Counseling, a variation of rational-emotive therapy, is a self-help therapeutic technique in which students are encouraged to be responsible for their own behavior and emotions. The primary function of self-counseling is to evaluate whether thoughts are rational. A list of questions which students might ask themselves is presented.…

9. Conservation and Divergence in the Candida Species Biofilm Matrix Mannan-Glucan Complex Structure, Function, and Genetic Control.

Science.gov (United States)

Dominguez, Eddie; Zarnowski, Robert; Sanchez, Hiram; Covelli, Antonio S; Westler, William M; Azadi, Parastoo; Nett, Jeniel; Mitchell, Aaron P; Andes, David R

2018-04-03

Candida biofilms resist the effects of available antifungal therapies. Prior studies with Candida albicans biofilms show that an extracellular matrix mannan-glucan complex (MGCx) contributes to antifungal sequestration, leading to drug resistance. Here we implement biochemical, pharmacological, and genetic approaches to explore a similar mechanism of resistance for the three most common clinically encountered non- albicans Candida species (NAC). Our findings reveal that each Candida species biofilm synthesizes a mannan-glucan complex and that the antifungal-protective function of this complex is conserved. Structural similarities extended primarily to the polysaccharide backbone (α-1,6-mannan and β-1,6-glucan). Surprisingly, biochemical analysis uncovered stark differences in the branching side chains of the MGCx among the species. Consistent with the structural analysis, similarities in the genetic control of MGCx production for each Candida species also appeared limited to the synthesis of the polysaccharide backbone. Each species appears to employ a unique subset of modification enzymes for MGCx synthesis, likely accounting for the observed side chain diversity. Our results argue for the conservation of matrix function among Candida spp. While biogenesis is preserved at the level of the mannan-glucan complex backbone, divergence emerges for construction of branching side chains. Thus, the MGCx backbone represents an ideal drug target for effective pan- Candida species biofilm therapy. IMPORTANCE Candida species, the most common fungal pathogens, frequently grow as a biofilm. These adherent communities tolerate extremely high concentrations of antifungal agents, due in large part, to a protective extracellular matrix. The present studies define the structural, functional, and genetic similarities and differences in the biofilm matrix from the four most common Candida species. Each species synthesizes an extracellular mannan-glucan complex (MGCx) which

10. Rational decisions, random matrices and spin glasses

Science.gov (United States)

Galluccio, Stefano; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Potters, Marc

We consider the problem of rational decision making in the presence of nonlinear constraints. By using tools borrowed from spin glass and random matrix theory, we focus on the portfolio optimisation problem. We show that the number of optimal solutions is generally exponentially large, and each of them is fragile: rationality is in this case of limited use. In addition, this problem is related to spin glasses with Lévy-like (long-ranged) couplings, for which we show that the ground state is not exponentially degenerate.

11. Extracellular Matrix-Mediated Maturation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Monolayer Structure and Electrophysiological Function.

Science.gov (United States)

Herron, Todd J; Rocha, Andre Monteiro Da; Campbell, Katherine F; Ponce-Balbuena, Daniela; Willis, B Cicero; Guerrero-Serna, Guadalupe; Liu, Qinghua; Klos, Matt; Musa, Hassan; Zarzoso, Manuel; Bizy, Alexandra; Furness, Jamie; Anumonwo, Justus; Mironov, Sergey; Jalife, José

2016-04-01

Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) monolayers generated to date display an immature embryonic-like functional and structural phenotype that limits their utility for research and cardiac regeneration. In particular, the electrophysiological function of hPSC-CM monolayers and bioengineered constructs used to date are characterized by slow electric impulse propagation velocity and immature action potential profiles. Here, we have identified an optimal extracellular matrix for significant electrophysiological and structural maturation of hPSC-CM monolayers. hPSC-CM plated in the optimal extracellular matrix combination have impulse propagation velocities ≈2× faster than previously reported (43.6±7.0 cm/s; n=9) and have mature cardiomyocyte action potential profiles, including hyperpolarized diastolic potential and rapid action potential upstroke velocity (146.5±17.7 V/s; n=5 monolayers). In addition, the optimal extracellular matrix promoted hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes and the expression of key mature sarcolemmal (SCN5A, Kir2.1, and connexin43) and myofilament markers (cardiac troponin I). The maturation process reported here relies on activation of integrin signaling pathways: neutralization of β1 integrin receptors via blocking antibodies and pharmacological blockade of focal adhesion kinase activation prevented structural maturation. Maturation of human stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte monolayers is achieved in a 1-week period by plating cardiomyocytes on PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) coverslips rather than on conventional 2-dimensional cell culture formats, such as glass coverslips or plastic dishes. Activation of integrin signaling and focal adhesion kinase is essential for significant maturation of human cardiac monolayers. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

12. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

None

1980-06-01

The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)

13. Soluble extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN, EMN) regulates cancer-related cellular functions by homotypic interactions with surface CD147.

Science.gov (United States)

Knutti, Nadine; Kuepper, Michael; Friedrich, Karlheinz

2015-11-01

EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) is a widely expressed glycoprotein and a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily which exists in both a membrane-spanning and a soluble form. Homotypic interactions of EMMPRIN underlie its multiple roles in normal development and pathological situations such as viral infections, Alzheimer's disease and cancer. This study employed a recombinant soluble, fully glycosylated EMMPRIN domain (rhsEMN) as a tool to characterize the structural basis of EMMPRIN-EMMPRIN receptor (EMNR) contacts and their functional effects on MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. rhsEMN did not form dimers in solution but bound to surface EMMPRIN (EMN) on MCF-7 cells with high affinity and was readily internalized. The interaction interface for the homotypic contact was localized to the N-terminal Ig domain. rhsEMN exerted a stimulatory effect on proliferation of MCF-7 cells whereas it reduced cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were accompanied by an upregulation of endogenous EMMPRIN as well as of matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14), a membrane-bound protease involved in the extracellular release of soluble EMMPRIN, indicating a regulatory feedback mechanism. The proliferation-promoting activity of rhsEMN was mimicked by a novel functional antibody directed to EMMPRIN, underscoring that crosslinking of cell surface EMMPRIN (EMNR) is crucial for eliciting intracellular signalling. Addressing malignancy-related signal transduction in HEK-293 cells, we could show that rhsEMN triggers the oncogenic Wnt pathway. © 2015 FEBS.

14. The dimer interface of the membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase hemopexin domain: crystal structure and biological functions.

Science.gov (United States)

Tochowicz, Anna; Goettig, Peter; Evans, Richard; Visse, Robert; Shitomi, Yasuyuki; Palmisano, Ralf; Ito, Noriko; Richter, Klaus; Maskos, Klaus; Franke, Daniel; Svergun, Dmitri; Nagase, Hideaki; Bode, Wolfram; Itoh, Yoshifumi

2011-03-04

Homodimerization is an essential step for membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) to activate proMMP-2 and to degrade collagen on the cell surface. To uncover the molecular basis of the hemopexin (Hpx) domain-driven dimerization of MT1-MMP, a crystal structure of the Hpx domain was solved at 1.7 Å resolution. Two interactions were identified as potential biological dimer interfaces in the crystal structure, and mutagenesis studies revealed that the biological dimer possesses a symmetrical interaction where blades II and III of molecule A interact with blades III and II of molecule B. The mutations of amino acids involved in the interaction weakened the dimer interaction of Hpx domains in solution, and incorporation of these mutations into the full-length enzyme significantly inhibited dimer-dependent functions on the cell surface, including proMMP-2 activation, collagen degradation, and invasion into the three-dimensional collagen matrix, whereas dimer-independent functions, including gelatin film degradation and two-dimensional cell migration, were not affected. These results shed light on the structural basis of MT1-MMP dimerization that is crucial to promote cellular invasion.

15. Electrodeposition of zinc–silica composite coatings: challenges in incorporating functionalized silica particles into a zinc matrix

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tabrisur Rahman Khan, Andreas Erbe, Michael Auinger, Frank Marlow and Michael Rohwerder

2011-01-01

Full Text Available Zinc is a well-known sacrificial coating material for iron and co-deposition of suitable particles is of interest for further improving its corrosion protection performance. However, incorporation of particles that are well dispersible in aqueous electrolytes, such as silica particles, is extremely difficult. Here, we report a detailed study of Zn–SiO2 nanocomposite coatings deposited from a zinc sulfate solution at pH 3. The effect of functionalization of the silica particles on the electro-codeposition was investigated. The best incorporation was achieved for particles modified with SiO2–SH, dithiooxamide or cysteamine; these particles have functional groups that can strongly interact with zinc and therefore incorporate well into the metal matrix. Other modifications (SiO2–NH3+, SiO2–Cl and N,N-dimethyldodecylamine of the silica particles lead to adsorption and entrapment only.

16. Two Concepts of Rationality

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Danny Frederick

2010-02-01

Full Text Available The dominant tradition in Western philosophy sees rationality as dictating. Thus rationality may require that we believe the best explanation and simple conceptual truths and that we infer in accordance with evident rules of inference. I argue that, given what we know about the growth of knowledge, this authoritarian concept of rationality leads to absurdities and should be abandoned. I then outline a libertarian concept of rationality, derived from Popper, which eschews the dictates and which sees a rational agent as one who questions, criticises, conjectures and experiments. I argue that, while the libertarian approach escapes the absurdities of the authoritarian, it requires two significant developments and an important clarification to be made fully consistent with itself.

17. Exploring rationality in schizophrenia

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth

2015-01-01

Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Meth...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality.......Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...

18. Irrational Rationality of Terrorism

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Robert Nalbandov

2013-12-01

Full Text Available The present article deals with the ontological problem of applying the rational choice frameworks to the study of terrorism. It testing the application of the rational choice to the “old” (before the end of the Cold War and the “new” (after the end of the Cold War terrorisms. It starts with analyzing the fundamentals of rationality and applies it at two levels: the individual (actors and group (collective via two outlooks: tactical (short-term and strategic (long-term. The main argument of the article is that while the “old” terrorism can be explained by the rational choice theory its “new” version represents a substantial departure from rationality.

19. Respect for rational autonomy.

Science.gov (United States)

Walker, Rebecca L

2009-12-01

The standard notion of autonomy in medical ethics does not require that autonomous choices not be irrational. The paper gives three examples of seemingly irrational patient choices and discusses how a rational autonomy analysis differs from the standard view. It then considers whether a switch to the rational autonomy view would lead to overriding more patient decisions but concludes that this should not be the case. Rather, a determination of whether individual patient decisions are autonomous is much less relevant than usually considered in determining whether health care providers must abide by these decisions. Furthermore, respect for rational autonomy entails strong positive requirements of respect for the autonomy of the person as a rational decision maker. The rationality view of autonomy is conceptually stronger than the standard view, allows for a more nuanced understanding of the practical moral calculus involved in respecting patient autonomy, and promotes positive respect for patient autonomy.

20. Fiber sources for complete calf starter rations.

Science.gov (United States)

Murdock, F R; Wallenius, R W

1980-11-01

Complete calf starter rations containing either 1) alfalfa hay, 2) cottonseed hulls, or 3) alfalfa-beet pulp as sources of fiber were fed to Holstein heifer calves at two locations on a limited milk program from 3 days to 12 wk of age. Rations were isonitrogenous and similar in content of crude fiber and acid detergent fiber. Although growth and development were normal on all rations, calves fed the cottonseed hull ration consumed more starter and gained more body weight than calves fed the other sources of fiber. The similarity of feed efficiencies, rumen pH, and molar ratios of volatile fatty acids between rations indicated no appreciable differences in rumen development or function. The growth response of calves fed the cottonseed hull ration appeared to be a result of better ration acceptability for which no reason was evident. Calves raised at Puyallup gained more body weight than calves at Pullman, and these gains were made more efficiently. These location effects may be related to seasonal differences and greater demands for production of body heat. Although the incidence of scours was less for calves fed alfalfa hay starter, the incidence and severity of bloat were higher for that ration.

1. Effects of Mutations on Structure–Function Relationships of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Warispreet Singh

2016-10-01

Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 is one of the most widely studied enzymes involved in collagen degradation. Mutations of specific residues in the MMP-1 hemopexin-like (HPX domain have been shown to modulate activity of the MMP-1 catalytic (CAT domain. In order to reveal the structural and conformational effects of such mutations, a molecular dynamics (MD study was performed of in silico mutated residues in the X-ray crystallographic structure of MMP-1 complexed with a collagen-model triple-helical peptide (THP. The results indicate an important role of the mutated residues in MMP-1 interactions with the THP and communication between the CAT and the HPX domains. Each mutation has a distinct impact on the correlated motions in the MMP-1•THP. An increased collagenase activity corresponded to the appearance of a unique anti-correlated motion and decreased correlated motions, while decreased collagenase activity corresponded both to increased and decreased anti-correlated motions.

2. Effects of Mutations on Structure-Function Relationships of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1.

Science.gov (United States)

Singh, Warispreet; Fields, Gregg B; Christov, Christo Z; Karabencheva-Christova, Tatyana G

2016-10-14

Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is one of the most widely studied enzymes involved in collagen degradation. Mutations of specific residues in the MMP-1 hemopexin-like (HPX) domain have been shown to modulate activity of the MMP-1 catalytic (CAT) domain. In order to reveal the structural and conformational effects of such mutations, a molecular dynamics (MD) study was performed of in silico mutated residues in the X-ray crystallographic structure of MMP-1 complexed with a collagen-model triple-helical peptide (THP). The results indicate an important role of the mutated residues in MMP-1 interactions with the THP and communication between the CAT and the HPX domains. Each mutation has a distinct impact on the correlated motions in the MMP-1•THP. An increased collagenase activity corresponded to the appearance of a unique anti-correlated motion and decreased correlated motions, while decreased collagenase activity corresponded both to increased and decreased anti-correlated motions.

3. Information Transmission and Rational Inattention

OpenAIRE

Antonella Tutino

2015-01-01

We study the problem of optimal communication strategy between a fully informed agent and a rationally inattentive agent. The fully informed agent observes a sequence of shocks and transmits a message to the limited-capacity agent who takes a set of actions in response to the message. The problem of the informed agent is to seek the optimal signaling strategy that induces a behavior consistent with minimal welfare loss, uniformly over a given class of bounded utility functions. We characteriz...

4. Extended biorthogonal matrix polynomials

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ayman Shehata

2017-01-01

Full Text Available The pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials for commutative matrices were first introduced by Varma and Tasdelen in [22]. The main aim of this paper is to extend the properties of the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials of Varma and Tasdelen and certain generating matrix functions, finite series, some matrix recurrence relations, several important properties of matrix differential recurrence relations, biorthogonality relations and matrix differential equation for the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k and K(A,B n (x, k are discussed. For the matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k, various families of bilinear and bilateral generating matrix functions are constructed in the sequel.

5. Matrix elements of intraband transitions in quantum dot intermediate band solar cells: the influence of quantum dot presence on the extended-state electron wave-functions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nozawa, Tomohiro; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

2014-01-01

The intraband transitions which are essential for quantum dot intermediate band solar cells (QD IBSCs) are theoretically investigated by estimating the matrix elements from a ground bound state, which is often regarded as an intermediate band (IB), to conduction band (CB) states for a structure with a quantum dot (QD) embedded in a matrix (a QD/matrix structure). We have found that the QD pushes away the electron envelope functions (probability densities) from the QD region in almost all quantum states above the matrix CB minimum. As a result, the matrix elements of the intraband transitions in the QD/matrix structure are largely reduced, compared to those calculated assuming the envelope functions of free electrons (i.e., plane-wave envelope functions) in a matrix structure as the final states of the intraband transitions. The result indicates the strong influence of the QD itself on the intraband transitions from the IB to the CB states in QD IBSC devices. This work will help in better understanding the problem of the intraband transitions and give new insight, that is, engineering of quantum states is indispensable for the realization of QD IBSCs with high solar energy conversion efficiencies. (paper)

6. On Triple Product and Rational Solutions of Yang—Baxter Equation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhang Chun-Hong; Jia Xiao-Yu; Li Min-Li; Wu Ke; Zhao Wei-Zhong

2014-01-01

The Yang—Baxter equation is reinvestigated in the framework of triple system. By requiring the rational R matrix of the Yang—Baxter equation satisfying the generalized Filippov condition, we derive a relation with respect to the rational R matrix. Moreover the case of the super Yang—Baxter equation is also investigated. (general)

7. Immunosuppressive function of mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord matrix in immune thrombocytopenia patients.

Science.gov (United States)

Ma, Li; Zhou, Zeping; Zhang, Donglei; Yang, Shaoguang; Wang, Jinhong; Xue, Feng; Yang, Yanhui; Yang, Renchi

2012-05-01

Human umbilical cord matrix/Wharton's jelly (hUC)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been shown to have marked therapeutic effects in a number of inflammatory diseases and autoimmune diseases in humans based on their potential for immunosuppression and their low immunogenicity. Currently, no data are available on the effectiveness of UC-MSC transplantation in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients. It was the objective of this study to assess the effect of allogeneic UC-MSCs on ITP patients in vitro and in vivo. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) from ITP patients and healthy controls were co-cultured with UC-MSCs for three days and seven days, respectively. Flow cytometry and ELISA were applied to assess the various parameters. In PBMCs from ITP patients, the proliferation of autoreactive T, B lymphocytes and destruction of autologous platelets were dramatically suppressed by UC-MSCs. UC-MSCs not only suppressed co-stimulatory molecules CD80, CD40L and FasL expression but also in shifting Th1/Th2/Treg cytokines profile in ITP patients. UC-MSCs obviously reversed the dysfunctions of megakaryocytes by promoting platelet production and decreasing the number of living megakaryocytes as well as early apoptosis. In addition, the level of thrombopoietin was increased significantly. Our clinical study showed that UC-MSCs play a role in alleviating refractory ITP by increasing platelet numbers. These findings suggested that UC-MSCs transplantation might be a potential therapy for ITP.

8. On Pointwise Approximation of Conjugate Functions by Some Hump Matrix Means of Conjugate Fourier Series

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

W. Łenski

2015-01-01

Full Text Available The results generalizing some theorems on N, pnE, γ summability are shown. The same degrees of pointwise approximation as in earlier papers by weaker assumptions on considered functions and examined summability methods are obtained. From presented pointwise results, the estimation on norm approximation is derived. Some special cases as corollaries are also formulated.

9. Elastic modulus of Al-Si/SiC metal matrix composites as a function of volume fraction

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Santhosh Kumar, S; Rajasekharan, T [Powder Metallurgy Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh PO, Hyderabad-500 058 (India); Seshu Bai, V [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Central University PO, Hyderabad-500 046 (India); Rajkumar, K V; Sharma, G K; Jayakumar, T, E-mail: dearsanthosh@gmail.co [Non-Destructive Evaluation Division, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Chennai-603 102 (India)

2009-09-07

Aluminum alloy matrix composites have emerged as candidate materials for electronic packaging applications in the field of aerospace semiconductor electronics. Composites prepared by the pressureless infiltration technique with high volume fractions in the range 0.41-0.70 were studied using ultrasonic velocity measurements. For different volume fractions of SiC, the longitudinal velocity and shear velocity were found to be in the range of 7600-9300 m s{sup -1} and 4400-5500 m s{sup -1}, respectively. The elastic moduli of the composites were determined from ultrasonic velocities and were analysed as a function of the volume fraction of the reinforcement. The observed variation is discussed in the context of existing theoretical models for the effective elastic moduli of two-phase systems.

10. Extracellular Matrix Modulates Morphology, Growth, Oxidative Stress Response and Functionality of Human Skin Fibroblasts during Aging In Vitro

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Jørgensen, Peter; Rattan, Suresh

2014-01-01

recent observations indicate that replicative lifespan, senescence and functionality of cells in vitro can be significantly affected by the quality of the extra cellular matrix (ECM). Following up on those reports, here we show that using the ECM prepared from early passage young cells, partial...... rejuvenation of serially passaged human facial skin fibroblasts was possible in pre-senescent middle-aged cells, but not in fully senescent late passage cells. ECM from young cells improved the appearance, viability, stress tolerance and wound healing ability of skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, young ECM...... modulated the oxidative stress response transcription factor Nrf-2 and its downstream effector haem-oxygenase (HO-1), possibly through the amelioration of the environmental stress induced by the plastic surface of the culturing flasks. Therefore, it is important to consider the role of ECM in modulating...

11. Rational maps, monopoles and skyrmions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Houghton, C.J.; Manton, N.S.

1998-01-01

We discuss the similarities between BPS monopoles and skyrmions, and point to an underlying connection in terms of rational maps between Riemann spheres. This involves the introduction of a new ansatz for Skyrme fields. We use this to construct good approximations to several known skyrmions, including all the minimal energy configurations up to baryon number nine, and some new solutions such as a baryon number seventeen Skyrme field with the truncated icosahedron structure of a buckyball. The new approach is also used to understand the low-lying vibrational modes of skyrmions, which are required for quantization. Along the way we discover an interesting Morse function on the space of rational maps which may be of use in understanding the Sen forms on the monopole moduli spaces. (orig.)

12. Rational approximations for tomographic reconstructions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reynolds, Matthew; Beylkin, Gregory; Monzón, Lucas

2013-01-01

We use optimal rational approximations of projection data collected in x-ray tomography to improve image resolution. Under the assumption that the object of interest is described by functions with jump discontinuities, for each projection we construct its rational approximation with a small (near optimal) number of terms for a given accuracy threshold. This allows us to augment the measured data, i.e., double the number of available samples in each projection or, equivalently, extend (double) the domain of their Fourier transform. We also develop a new, fast, polar coordinate Fourier domain algorithm which uses our nonlinear approximation of projection data in a natural way. Using augmented projections of the Shepp–Logan phantom, we provide a comparison between the new algorithm and the standard filtered back-projection algorithm. We demonstrate that the reconstructed image has improved resolution without additional artifacts near sharp transitions in the image. (paper)

13. History of Economic Rationalities

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This book concentrates upon how economic rationalities have been embedded into particular historical practices, cultures, and moral systems. Through multiple case-studies, situated in different historical contexts of the modern West, the book shows that the development of economic rationalities...... takes place in the meeting with other regimes of thought, values, and moral discourses. The book offers new and refreshing insights, ranging from the development of early economic thinking to economic aspects and concepts in the works of classical thinkers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Karl Marx......, to the role of economic reasoning in contemporary policies of art and health care. With economic rationalities as the read thread, the reader is offered a unique chance of historical self-awareness and recollection of how economic rationality became the powerful ideological and moral force that it is today....

14. Rationing medical education.

African Journals Online (AJOL)

This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different ... Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at .... Walsh K. Online educational tools to improve the.

15. Crab Rationalization Permit Program

Data.gov (United States)

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crab Rationalization Program (Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities. The North Pacific Fishery Management...

16. Computations of zeros of special functions and eigenvalues of differential equations by matrix method

OpenAIRE

Miyazaki, Yoshinori

2000-01-01

This paper is strongly based on two powerful general theorems proved by Ikebe, et. al in 1993[15] and 1996[13], which will be referred to as Theorem A and Theorem B in this paper. They were recently published and justify the approximate computations of simple eigenvalues of infinite matrices of certain types by truncation, giving an extremely accurate error estimates. So far, they have applied to some important problems in engineering, such as computing the zeros of some special functions, an...

17. The functionally graded sintered steel WC-Co-NbC matrix

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Santos, A.A.A.; Silva Junior, J.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil)

2009-07-01

Full text: The high speed steels are used for machining, including cutting tools at high speeds because their wear resistance, high temperature properties and excellent hardness. They are ferrous based alloys of the Fe-C-X component system where X represents a group of elements comprising Cr, W or Mo, V and Co. The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of powder metallurgy technique to develop functionally graded alloy material added by WC, Co and NbC. The morphology of the composite powders and sintered MMC were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and XRD measurements. (author)

18. LIM kinase1 modulates function of membrane type matrix metalloproteinase 1: implication in invasion of prostate cancer cells

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Chakrabarti Ratna

2011-01-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1 is an actin and microtubule cytoskeleton modulatory protein that is overexpressed in a number of cancerous tissues and cells and also promotes invasion and metastasis of prostate and breast cancer cells. Membrane type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP is a critical modulator of extracellular matrix (ECM turnover through pericellular proteolysis and thus plays crucial roles in neoplastic cell invasion and metastasis. MT1-MMP and its substrates pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9 are often overexpressed in a variety of cancers including prostate cancer and the expression levels correlate with the grade of malignancy in prostate cancer cells. The purpose of this study is to determine any functional relation between LIMK1 and MT1-MMP and its implication in cell invasion. Results Our results showed that treatment with the hydroxamate inhibitor of MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 ilomastat inhibited LIMK1-induced invasion of benign prostate epithelial cells. Over expression of LIMK1 resulted in increased collagenolytic activity of MMP-2, and secretion of pro-MMP2 and pro-MMP-9. Cells over expressing LIMK1 also exhibited increased expression of MT1-MMP, transcriptional activation and its localization to the plasma membrane. LIMK1 physically associates with MT1-MMP and is colocalized with it to the Golgi vesicles. We also noted increased expression of both MT1-MMP and LIMK1 in prostate tumor tissues. Conclusion Our results provide new information on regulation of MT1-MMP function by LIMK1 and showed for the first time, involvement of MMPs in LIMK1 induced cell invasion.

19. Rational approximations and quantum algorithms with postselection

NARCIS (Netherlands)

2015-01-01

We study the close connection between rational functions that approximate a given Boolean function, and quantum algorithms that compute the same function using post-selection. We show that the minimal degree of the former equals (up to a factor of 2) the minimal query complexity of the latter. We

20. THE HICKSIAN RATIONAL CONSUMER

OpenAIRE

Manuel FERNÁNDEZ-GRELA

2005-01-01

The aim of this paper is to trace the evolution of the concept of ''rational consumer'' in Hicks's writings. After being one of the pioneers in the introduction of rationality assumptions about consumer behaviour in economic models, Hicks gradually developed a sceptical view about some of the uses to which those assumptions were put into. The focus of the paper is on continuity in Hicksian views, providing a picture of gradual changes in the long series of Hicks's works

1. Boundary conditions in rational conformal field theories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Behrend, Roger E.; Pearce, Paul A.; Petkova, Valentina B.; Zuber, Jean-Bernard

2000-01-01

We develop further the theory of Rational Conformal Field Theories (RCFTs) on a cylinder with specified boundary conditions emphasizing the role of a triplet of algebras: the Verlinde, graph fusion and Pasquier algebras. We show that solving Cardy's equation, expressing consistency of a RCFT on a cylinder, is equivalent to finding integer valued matrix representations of the Verlinde algebra. These matrices allow us to naturally associate a graph G to each RCFT such that the conformal boundary conditions are labelled by the nodes of G. This approach is carried to completion for sl(2) theories leading to complete sets of conformal boundary conditions, their associated cylinder partition functions and the A-D-E classification. We also review the current status for WZW sl(3) theories. Finally, a systematic generalisation of the formalism of Cardy-Lewellen is developed to allow for multiplicities arising from more general representations of the Verlinde algebra. We obtain information on the bulk-boundary coefficients and reproduce the relevant algebraic structures from the sewing constraints

2. Multivariate Matrix-Exponential Distributions

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

2010-01-01

be written as linear combinations of the elements in the exponential of a matrix. For this reason we shall refer to multivariate distributions with rational Laplace transform as multivariate matrix-exponential distributions (MVME). The marginal distributions of an MVME are univariate matrix......-exponential distributions. We prove a characterization that states that a distribution is an MVME distribution if and only if all non-negative, non-null linear combinations of the coordinates have a univariate matrix-exponential distribution. This theorem is analog to a well-known characterization theorem...

3. Electric dipole moment function of the X1 Sigma/+/ state of CO - Vibration-rotation matrix elements for transitions of gas laser and astrophysical interest

Science.gov (United States)

Chackerian, C., Jr.

1976-01-01

The electric dipole moment function of the ground electronic state of carbon monoxide has been determined by combining numerical solutions of the radial Schrodinger equation with absolute intensity data of vibration-rotation bands. The derived dipole moment function is used to calculate matrix elements of interest to stellar astronomy and of importance in the carbon monoxide laser.

4. A new matrix for scoring the functionality of national laboratory networks in Africa: introducing the LABNET scorecard.

Science.gov (United States)

Ondoa, Pascale; Datema, Tjeerd; Keita-Sow, Mah-Sere; Ndihokubwayo, Jean-Bosco; Isadore, Jocelyn; Oskam, Linda; Nkengasong, John; Lewis, Kim

2016-01-01

Functional national laboratory networks and systems are indispensable to the achievement of global health security targets according to the International Health Regulations. The lack of indicators to measure the functionality of national laboratory network has limited the efficiency of past and current interventions to enhance laboratory capacity in resource-limited-settings. We have developed a matrix for the assessment of national laboratory network functionality and progress thereof, with support from the African Society of Laboratory Medicine and the Association of Public Health Laboratories. The laboratory network (LABNET) scorecard was designed to: (1) Measure the status of nine overarching core capabilities of laboratory network required to achieve global health security targets, as recommended by the main normative standards; (2) Complement the World Health Organization joint external evaluation tool for the assessment of health system preparedness to International Health Regulations (2005) by providing detailed information on laboratory systems; and (3) Serve as a clear roadmap to guide the stepwise implementation of laboratory capability to prevent, detect and act upon infectious threats. The application of the LABNET scorecard under the coordination of the African Society of Laboratory Medicine and the Association of Public Health Laboratories could contribute to the design, monitoring and evaluation of upcoming Global Health Security Agenda-supported laboratory capacity building programmes in sub Saharan-Africa and other resource-limited settings, and inform the development of national laboratory policies and strategic plans. Endorsement by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa is foreseen.

5. A new matrix for scoring the functionality of national laboratory networks in Africa: introducing the LABNET scorecard

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Pascale Ondoa

2016-10-01

Full Text Available Background: Functional national laboratory networks and systems are indispensable to the achievement of global health security targets according to the International Health Regulations. The lack of indicators to measure the functionality of national laboratory network has limited the efficiency of past and current interventions to enhance laboratory capacity in resourcelimited-settings. Scorecard for laboratory networks: We have developed a matrix for the assessment of national laboratory network functionality and progress thereof, with support from the African Society of Laboratory Medicine and the Association of Public Health Laboratories. The laboratory network (LABNET scorecard was designed to: (1 Measure the status of nine overarching core capabilities of laboratory network required to achieve global health security targets, as recommended by the main normative standards; (2 Complement the World Health Organization joint external evaluation tool for the assessment of health system preparedness to International Health Regulations (2005 by providing detailed information on laboratory systems; and (3 Serve as a clear roadmap to guide the stepwise implementation of laboratory capability to prevent, detect and act upon infectious threats. Conclusions: The application of the LABNET scorecard under the coordination of the African Society of Laboratory Medicine and the Association of Public Health Laboratories could contribute to the design, monitoring and evaluation of upcoming Global Health Security Agenda-supported laboratory capacity building programmes in sub Saharan-Africa and other resource-limited settings, and inform the development of national laboratory policies and strategic plans. Endorsement by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa is foreseen.

6. A New Perspective on the Flame Describing Function of a Matrix Flame

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Maria Heckl

2015-06-01

Full Text Available This paper considers a fundamental thermoacoustic test rig developed by Noiray (“Linear and nonlinear analysis of combustion instabilities, application to multipoint injection systems and control strategies”, PhD thesis, École Centrale Paris, 2007 and models it with an entirely analytical approach. The test rig is treated as a system of two coupled elements: an acoustic resonator and a flame with oscillating rate of heat release. We describe the acoustics of the combustion rig in terms of modes, and derive a governing equation for one such mode. This turns out to be the equation for a damped harmonic oscillator, forced by the heat release rate from the flame. In order to model the heat release rate, and in particular its nonlinear aspects, we develop a generalised nτ-law with amplitude-dependent coefficients and multiple time-lag. The coefficients are determined from Noiray's measured flame describing function. Stability predictions are made by evaluating the sign of the damping coefficient in the governing equation. These predictions are in excellent qualitative agreement with the measured stability behaviour. Finally, the physical mechanisms of the amplitude-dependence are explored.

7. Normative and descriptive rationality: from nature to artifice and back

Science.gov (United States)

Besold, T. R.; Uckelman, S. L.

2018-03-01

Rationality plays a key role in both the study of human reasoning and Artificial Intelligence (AI). Certain notions of rationality have been adopted in AI as guides for the development of intelligent machines and these notions have been given a normative function. The notions of rationality in AI are often taken to be closely related to conceptions of rationality in human contexts. In this paper, we argue that the normative role of rationality differs in the human and artificial contexts. While rationality in human-focused fields of study is normative, prescribing how humans ought to reason, the normative conception in AI is built on a notion of human rationality which is descriptive, not normative, in the human context, as AI aims at building agents which reason as humans do. In order to make this point, we review prominent notions of rationality used in psychology, cognitive science, and (the history of) philosophy, as well as in AI, and discuss some factors that contributed to rationality being assigned the differing normative statuses in the differing fields of study. We argue that while 'rationality' is a normative notion in both AI and in human reasoning, the normativity of the AI conception of 'rationality' is grounded in a descriptive account of human rationality.

8. Etude de la diagraphie neutron du granite de Beauvoir. Effet neutron des altérations et de la matrice du granite. Calibration granite. Porosité totale à l'eau et porosité neutron Analysis of the Beauvoir Granite Neutron Log. Neutron Effect of Alterations and of the Granite Matrix. Granite Calibration. Total Water Porosity and Neutron Porosity

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Galle C.

2006-11-01

relationship between the N neutron counting rate and the PorosityNc standard neutron porosity (limestone calibration was analysed (Fig. 2 and Fig. 3. For neutron porosities ranging from 0. 5 to 100%, we also examined the behaviour of N as a function of the borehole diameter (Fig. 4. To avoid the problem of correcting the hole effect and to be able to compare the porosities determined by neutron logging and measurements performed on core samples no matter what the depth was, the neutron counting rate was recalculated (N63 for a constant diameter of 63 mm (chosen arbitrarily, (Fig. 5. Then, a calibration curve between the N63 counting rate and the PorosityNR total reconstituted neutron porosity was determined for all the granite samples. From this relationship, we calculated a PorosityNg neutron porosity, called granitecalibration neutron porosity. Then PorosityNR, PorosityNg and PorosityNc were compared (Fig. 7, Fig. 9 and Fig. 10. By substracting the PorosityNma neutron matrix effect from PorosityNg and PorosityNc, we obtained the ng and nc water content values that we compared to the n water content measured on core samples (Fig. 8 and Fig. 11. PorosityNR, PorosityNg and neutron porosities and n, ng and nc water contents (free water saturation, were compared for the different alteration facies of the Beauvoir granite (Fig. 12. On the whole, there was a better (qualitative and quantitative relationship between the PorosityNR total neutron porosity and the PorosityNg granitecalibration neutron porosity (which are about 9%, than with PorosityNc. The PorosityNc neutron porosity issuing from the limestone calibration was underestimated because the rock neutron matrix effect was not taken into account (around 7% for the Beauvoir granite. Concerning water contents, limestone calibration led to nc water content values that, in 60% of the cases, were less than 0% and hence unusable. On the other hand, the ng water content obtained from the granitecalibration neutron porosity was more

9. Mammal-like striatal functions in Anolis. I. Distribution of serotonin receptor subtypes, and absence of striosome and matrix organization.

Science.gov (United States)

Clark, E C; Baxter, L R

2000-11-01

Serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors are thought to play important roles in the mammalian striatum. As basal ganglia functions in general are thought highly conserved among amniotes, we decided to use in situ autoradiographic methods to determine the occurrence and distribution of pharmacologically mammal-like 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors in the lizard, Anolis carolinensis, with particular attention to the striatum. We also determined the distributions of 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B/D), 5 HT(3), and 5-HT(uptake) receptors for comparison. All 5-HT receptors examined showed pharmacological binding specificity, and forebrain binding density distributions that resembled those reported for mammals. Anolis 5 HT(2A/C) and 5-HT(1A) site distributions were similar in both in vivo and ex vivo binding experiments. 5-HT(2A & C) receptors occur in both high and low affinity states, the former having preferential affinity for (125)I-(+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo-amphetamine hydrochloride ((125)I-DOI). In mammals (125)I-DOI binding shows a patchy density distribution in the striatum, being more dense in striosomes than in surrounding matrix. There was no evidence of any such patchy density of (125)I-DOI binding in the anole striatum, however. As a further indication that anoles do not possess a striosome and matrix striatal organization, neither (3)H-naloxone binding nor histochemical staining for acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) were patchy. AChE did show a band-like striatal distribution, however, similar to that seen in birds. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

10. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan. Contingency gasoline rationing regulations

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1979-02-01

The Economic Regulatory Administration issues final rules with respect to standby gasoline rationing. The plan is designed for and would be used only in the event of a severe gasoline shortage. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations. DOE will mail government ration checks to the parties named in a national vehicle registration file to be maintained by DOE. Ration recipients may cash these checks for ration coupons at various designated coupon issuance points. Retail outlets and other suppliers will be required to redeem the ration coupons received in exchange for gasoline sold. Supplemental gas will be given to high-priority activities. A ration banking system will be established with two separate and distinct of ration accounts: retail outlets and other suppliers will open redemption accounts for the deposit of redeemed ration rights; and individuals or firms may open ration rights accounts, which will operate in much the same manner as monetary checking accounts. A white market will be permitted for the sale of transfer of ration rights. A percentage of the total ration rights to be issued will be reserved for distribution to the states as a State Ration Reserve, to be used by the states primarily for the relief of hardship. A National Ration Reserave will also be established. All sections of the Standby Gasoline Rationing Regulations are analyzed. (MCW)

11. Reactive fillers based on SWCNTs functionalized with matrix-based moieties for the production of epoxy composites with superior and tunable properties

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

González-Domínguez, Jose M; Ansón-Casaos, A; Martínez, M Teresa; Martínez-Rubí, Yadienka; Simard, Benoit; Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Gómez-Fatou, Marian

2012-01-01

Composite materials based on epoxy matrix and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are able to exhibit outstanding improvements in physical properties when using a tailored covalent functionalization with matrix-based moieties containing terminal amines or epoxide rings. The proper choice of grafted moiety and integration protocol makes it feasible to tune the composite physical properties. At 0.5 wt% SWCNT loading, these composites exhibit up to 65% improvement in storage modulus, 91% improvement in tensile strength, and 65% improvement in toughness. A 15 °C increase in the glass transition temperature relative to the parent matrix was also achieved. This suggests that a highly improved interfacial bonding between matrix and filler, coupled to improved dispersion, are achieved. The degradation temperatures show an upshift in the range of 40–60 °C, which indicates superior thermal performance. Electrical conductivity ranges from ∼10 −13 to ∼10 −3 S cm −1 , which also shows the possibility of tuning the insulating or conductive behaviour of the composites. The chemical affinity of the functionalization moieties with the matrix and the unchanged molecular structure at the SWCNT/matrix interface are responsible for such improvements. (paper)

12. Obtaining Hartree-Fock and density functional theory doubly excited states with Car-Parrinello density matrix search

Science.gov (United States)

Liang, Wenkel; Isborn, Christine M.; Li, Xiaosong

2009-11-01

The calculation of doubly excited states is one of the major problems plaguing the modern day excited state workhorse methodology of linear response time dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) and density function theory (TDDFT). We have previously shown that the use of a resonantly tuned field within real-time TDHF and TDDFT is able to simultaneously excite both the α and β electrons to achieve the two-electron excited states of minimal basis H2 and HeH+ [C. M. Isborn and X. Li, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 204107 (2008)]. We now extend this method to many electron systems with the use of our Car-Parrinello density matrix search (CP-DMS) with a first-principles fictitious mass method for wave function optimization [X. Li, C. L. Moss, W. Liang, and Y. Feng, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 234115 (2009)]. Real-time TDHF/TDDFT is used during the application of the laser field perturbation, driving the electron density toward the doubly excited state. The CP-DMS method then converges the density to the nearest stationary state. We present these stationary state doubly excited state energies and properties at the HF and DFT levels for H2, HeH+, lithium hydride, ethylene, and butadiene.

13. Bio-inspired configurable multiscale extracellular matrix-like structures for functional alignment and guided orientation of cells.

Science.gov (United States)

Bae, Won-Gyu; Kim, Jangho; Choung, Yun-Hoon; Chung, Yesol; Suh, Kahp Y; Pang, Changhyun; Chung, Jong Hoon; Jeong, Hoon Eui

2015-11-01

Inspired by the hierarchically organized protein fibers in extracellular matrix (ECM) as well as the physiological importance of multiscale topography, we developed a simple but robust method for the design and manipulation of precisely controllable multiscale hierarchical structures using capillary force lithography in combination with an original wrinkling technique. In this study, based on our proposed fabrication technology, we approached a conceptual platform that can mimic the hierarchically multiscale topographical and orientation cues of the ECM for controlling cell structure and function. We patterned the polyurethane acrylate-based nanotopography with various orientations on the microgrooves, which could provide multiscale topography signals of ECM to control single and multicellular morphology and orientation with precision. Using our platforms, we found that the structures and orientations of fibroblast cells were greatly influenced by the nanotopography, rather than the microtopography. We also proposed a new approach that enables the generation of native ECM having nanofibers in specific three-dimensional (3D) configurations by culturing fibroblast cells on the multiscale substrata. We suggest that our methodology could be used as efficient strategies for the design and manipulation of various functional platforms, including well-defined 3D tissue structures for advanced regenerative medicine applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

14. Response function of an HPGe detector simulated through MCNP 4A varying the density and chemical composition of the matrix

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leal A, B.; Mireles G, F.; Quirino T, L.; Pinedo, J.L.

2005-01-01

In the area of the Radiological Safety it is required of a calibrated detection system in energy and efficiency for the determination of the concentration in activity in samples that vary in chemical composition and by this in density. The area of Nuclear Engineering requires to find the grade of isotopic enrichment of the uranium of the Sub-critic Nuclear Chicago 9000 Mark. Given the experimental importance that has the determination from the curves of efficiency to the effects of establishing the quantitative results, is appealed to the simulation of the response function of the detector used in the Regional Center of Nuclear Studies inside the range of energy of 80 keV to 1400 keV varying the density of the matrix and the chemical composition by means of the application of the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4A. The obtained results in the simulation of the response function of the detector show a grade of acceptance in the range from 500 to 1400 keV energy, with a smaller percentage discrepancy to 10%, in the range of low energy that its go from 59 to 400 keV, the percentage discrepancy varies from 17% until 30%, which is manifested in the opposing isotopic relationship for 5 fuel rods of the Sub critic nuclear assemble. (Author)

15. Reinforcing copper matrix composites through molecular-level mixing of functionalized nanodiamond by co-deposition route

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

He Jie; Zhao Naiqin; Shi Chunsheng; Du Xiwen; Li Jiajun; Nash, Philip

2008-01-01

This work reports a chemical method called 'co-deposition route' for fabricating ND (nanodiamond)/Cu composite at a molecular-level mixing. The main procedure of 'co-deposition route' includes four steps. ND particles have been functionalized by HF acid before co-deposition. SEM, HRTEM (high-resolution transmission electron spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), EDS (energy-dispersive spectrum analysis) and optical microscope were carried out to characterize the as-prepared composite powders and bulk composites. Results indicated that copper matrix composite with a homogeneous dispersion of functionalized ND particles can be prepared. The modification of ND particles was performed by HF (30 vol%) acid at 70 deg. C, and C-F bond was successfully detected by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectrum) and IR (Infrared spectroscopy). The properties of relative density, microhardness and electric conductivity of ND/Cu composites have been measured. With the comparison of conventional methods, it showed that the as-prepared ND/Cu composites with good combined performances have a promising future for industry application

16. Reinforcing copper matrix composites through molecular-level mixing of functionalized nanodiamond by co-deposition route

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

He Jie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072 (China); Zhao Naiqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials (China)], E-mail: nqzhao@tju.edu.cn; Shi Chunsheng; Du Xiwen; Li Jiajun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072 (China); Nash, Philip [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

2008-08-25

This work reports a chemical method called 'co-deposition route' for fabricating ND (nanodiamond)/Cu composite at a molecular-level mixing. The main procedure of 'co-deposition route' includes four steps. ND particles have been functionalized by HF acid before co-deposition. SEM, HRTEM (high-resolution transmission electron spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), EDS (energy-dispersive spectrum analysis) and optical microscope were carried out to characterize the as-prepared composite powders and bulk composites. Results indicated that copper matrix composite with a homogeneous dispersion of functionalized ND particles can be prepared. The modification of ND particles was performed by HF (30 vol%) acid at 70 deg. C, and C-F bond was successfully detected by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectrum) and IR (Infrared spectroscopy). The properties of relative density, microhardness and electric conductivity of ND/Cu composites have been measured. With the comparison of conventional methods, it showed that the as-prepared ND/Cu composites with good combined performances have a promising future for industry application.

17. Adaptive generalized function matrix projective lag synchronization between fractional-order and integer-order complex networks with delayed coupling and different dimensions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dai, Hao; Si, Gangquan; Jia, Lixin; Zhang, Yanbin

2013-01-01

This paper investigates generalized function matrix projective lag synchronization between fractional-order and integer-order complex networks with delayed coupling, non-identical topological structures and different dimensions. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, generalized function matrix projective lag synchronization criteria are derived by using the adaptive control method. In addition, the three-dimensional fractional-order chaotic system and the four-dimensional integer-order hyperchaotic system as the nodes of the drive and the response networks, respectively, are analyzed in detail, and numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. (paper)

18. A novel functional site of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) that limits the migration of human uterine cervical carcinoma cells.

Science.gov (United States)

Sato, Takashi; Watanabe, Mami; Hashimoto, Kei; Ota, Tomoko; Akimoto, Noriko; Imada, Keisuke; Nomizu, Motoyoshi; Ito, Akira

2012-01-01

EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer)/CD147, a membrane-bound glycoprotein with two extracellular loop domains (termed loops I and II), progresses tumor invasion and metastasis by increasing the production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in peritumoral stoma cells. EMMPRIN has also been associated with the control of migration activity in some tumor cells, but little is known about how EMMPRIN regulates tumor cell migration. In the present study, EMMPRIN siRNA suppressed the gene expression and production of EMMPRIN in human uterine cervical carcinoma SKG-II cells. An in vitro scratch wound assay showed enhancement of migration of EMMPRIN-knockdown SKG-II cells. In addition, the SKG-II cell migration was augmented by adding an E. coli-expressed human EMMPRIN mutant with two extracellular loop domains (eEMP-I/II), which bound to the cell surface of SKG-II cells. However, eEMP-I/II suppressed the native EMMPRIN-mediated augmentation of proMMP-1/procollagenase-1 production in a co-culture of the SKG-II cells and human uterine cervical fibroblasts, indicating that the augmentation of SKG-II cell migration resulted from the interference of native EMMPRIN functions by eEMP-I/II on the cell surface. Furthermore, a systematic peptide screening method using nine synthetic EMMPRIN peptides coding the loop I and II domains (termed EM1-9) revealed that EM9 (170HIENLNMEADPGQYR184) facilitated SKG-II cell migration. Moreover, SKG-II cell migration was enhanced by administration of an antibody against EM9, but not EM1 which is a crucial site for the MMP inducible activity of EMMPRIN. Therefore, these results provide novel evidence that EMMPRIN on the cell surface limits the cell migration of human uterine cervical carcinoma cells through 170HIENLNMEADPGQYR184 in the loop II domain. Finally, these results should provide an increased understanding of the functions of EMMPRIN in malignant cervical carcinoma cells, and could contribute to the development of

19. Breast cancer cell cyclooxygenase-2 expression alters extracellular matrix structure and function and numbers of cancer associated fibroblasts.

Science.gov (United States)

Krishnamachary, Balaji; Stasinopoulos, Ioannis; Kakkad, Samata; Penet, Marie-France; Jacob, Desmond; Wildes, Flonne; Mironchik, Yelena; Pathak, Arvind P; Solaiyappan, Meiyappan; Bhujwalla, Zaver M

2017-03-14

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a critically important mediator of inflammation that significantly influences tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. We investigated the role of COX-2 expressed by triple negative breast cancer cells in altering the structure and function of the extracellular matrix (ECM). COX-2 downregulation effects on ECM structure and function were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy of tumors derived from triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, and a derived clone stably expressing a short hairpin (shRNA) molecule downregulating COX-2. MRI of albumin-GdDTPA was used to characterize macromolecular fluid transport in vivo and SHG microscopy was used to quantify collagen 1 (Col1) fiber morphology. COX-2 downregulation decreased Col1 fiber density and altered macromolecular fluid transport. Immunohistochemistry identified significantly fewer activated cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in low COX-2 expressing tumors. Metastatic lung nodules established by COX-2 downregulated cells were infrequent, smaller, and contained fewer Col1 fibers.COX-2 overexpression studies were performed with tumors derived from triple negative SUM-149 breast cancer cells lentivirally transduced to overexpress COX-2. SHG microscopy identified significantly higher Col1 fiber density in COX-2 overexpressing tumors with an increase of CAFs. These data expand upon the roles of COX-2 in shaping the structure and function of the ECM in primary and metastatic tumors, and identify the potential role of COX-2 in modifying the number of CAFs in tumors that may have contributed to the altered ECM.

20. Effects of extracellular matrix proteins on macrophage differentiation, growth, and function: comparison of liquid and agar culture systems

Science.gov (United States)

Armstrong, J. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1994-01-01

Both spaceflight and skeletal unloading suppress the haematopoietic differentiation of macrophages (Sonnenfeld et al., Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 61:648-653, 1990; Armstrong et al., J. Appl. Physiol., 75:2734-2739, 1993). The mechanism behind this reduction in haematopoiesis has yet to be elucidated. However, changes in bone marrow extracellular matrix (ECM) may be involved. To further understand the role of ECM products in macrophage differentiation, we have performed experiments evaluating the effects of fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV on macrophage development and function. Bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured on four different ECM substrates in liquid culture medium showed less growth than those cultured on plastic. Significant morphological differences were seen on each of the substrates used. Phenotypically and functionally, as measured by class II major histocompatibility molecule (MHCII) expression, MAC-2 expression, and the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), these macrophages were similar. In contrast, bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured in suspension, using agar, showed no difference in growth when exposed to ECM proteins. However, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion was affected by fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that the ECM products fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV have profound effects on macrophage development and function. Additionally, we suggest that an ECM-supplemented agar culture system provides an environment more analogous to in vivo bone marrow than does a traditional liquid culture system.

1. A photoemission moments model using density functional and transfer matrix methods applied to coating layers on surfaces: Theory

Science.gov (United States)

Jensen, Kevin L.; Finkenstadt, Daniel; Shabaev, Andrew; Lambrakos, Samuel G.; Moody, Nathan A.; Petillo, John J.; Yamaguchi, Hisato; Liu, Fangze

2018-01-01

Recent experimental measurements of a bulk material covered with a small number of graphene layers reported by Yamaguchi et al. [NPJ 2D Mater. Appl. 1, 12 (2017)] (on bialkali) and Liu et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 041607 (2017)] (on copper) and the needs of emission models in beam optics codes have lead to substantial changes in a Moments model of photoemission. The changes account for (i) a barrier profile and density of states factor based on density functional theory (DFT) evaluations, (ii) a Drude-Lorentz model of the optical constants and laser penetration depth, and (iii) a transmission probability evaluated by an Airy Transfer Matrix Approach. Importantly, the DFT results lead to a surface barrier profile of a shape similar to both resonant barriers and reflectionless wells: the associated quantum mechanical transmission probabilities are shown to be comparable to those recently required to enable the Moments (and Three Step) model to match experimental data but for reasons very different than the assumption by conventional wisdom that a barrier is responsible. The substantial modifications of the Moments model components, motivated by computational materials methods, are developed. The results prepare the Moments model for use in treating heterostructures and discrete energy level systems (e.g., quantum dots) proposed for decoupling the opposing metrics of performance that undermine the performance of advanced light sources like the x-ray Free Electron Laser. The consequences of the modified components on quantum yield, emittance, and emission models needed by beam optics codes are discussed.

2. Temperature responsive functional polymeric thin films obtained by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for cells attachment–detachment study

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rusen, L. [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, RO-077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Dinca, V., E-mail: dinali@nipne.ro [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, RO-077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Mitu, B. [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, RO-077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Mustaciosu, C. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, IFIN HH, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Dinescu, M. [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, RO-077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)

2014-05-01

Multifunctional thin films used as thermoresponsive substrate for engineering cell sheets represent an important area in tissue engineering. As the morphology and the chemical characteristics of the thin films directly control their interaction with cells, it is important to correlate these characteristics with the biological answer. In this study, thermally sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), (pNIPAAm) thin films were prepared by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation and utilized in L929 cell adhesion and detachment studies. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to determine the pNIPAAm thin films chemical and morphological characteristics. The FTIR data demonstrated that the functional groups in the MAPLE-deposited films remained intact for fluences in the range of 200–600 mJ cm{sup −2}. Within this fluence range, the AFM topographical studies showed that the roughness of the coatings was dependent on laser fluence and the obtained surfaces were characterized by a granular aspect. L929 cell viability studies onto the pNIPAAm coatings showed little or no toxic effect for fluences below 600 mJ cm{sup −2}, while for higher fluences, viability was decreased with more than 50%. The adhesion and detachment of the cell was found to be mainly dependent on the film surface morphology.

3. Design of 2-D rational digital filters

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Harris, D.B

1981-01-01

A novel 2-D rational filter design technique is presented which makes use of a reflection coefficient function (RCF) representation for the filter transfer function. The design problem is formulated in the frequency domain. A least-square error criterion is used though the usual error measure is augmented with barrier functions. These act to restrict the domain of approximation to the set of stable filters. Construction of suitable barrier functions is facilitated by the RCF characterization

4. Consumer rationality in choice

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Conlon, B.J.

2001-01-01

The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and

5. Universal and Relative Rationality

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Nathaniel Goldberg

2009-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper I illustrate how a basic kind of universal rationality can be profitably combined with undeniable instances of relativism. I do so by engaging Michael Friedman’s recent response to a challenge from Thomas Kuhn.

6. The rational complementarity problem

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Schumacher, J.M.; Weiland, S.

1999-01-01

An extension of the linear complementarity problem (LCP) of mathematical programming is the so-called rational complementarity problem (RCP). This problem occurs if complementarity conditions are imposed on input and output variables of linear dynamical input/state/output systems. The resulting

7. Rational equity bubbles

OpenAIRE

Zhou, Ge

2012-01-01

This paper discusses the existence of a bubble in the pricing of an asset that pays positive dividends. I show that rational bubbles can exist in a growing economy. The existence of bubbles depends on the relative magnitudes of risk aversion to consumption and to wealth. Furthermore, I examine how an exogenous shock in technology might trigger bubbles.

8. Ideal Theory, Real Rationality

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Flyvbjerg, Bent

Understanding rationality and power are key to understanding actual political and administrative behavior. Political and administrative theory that ignores this fact stand in danger of being at best irrelevant or, at worst part of the problem it whishes to solve. The paper presents Jürgen Habermas...

9. Diagnosis, Dogmatism, and Rationality.

Science.gov (United States)

Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Efron, Noah J.

1997-01-01

Presents findings suggesting that misdiagnoses frequently stem from flaws in human information processing, particularly in collecting and using information. Claims that improved diagnostic tools will not remedy the problem. Drawing on the work of Karl Popper and Robin Collingwood, proposes operational principles to ensure a rational diagnostic…

10. Rational Emotive Education

Science.gov (United States)

Knaus, William

1977-01-01

Rational Emotive Education--an outgrowth of theories developed by Albert Ellis--is a teaching design of mental health concepts and problem-solving activities designed to help students to approach and cope with their problems through experiential learning, via a structured, thematic sequence of emotive education lessons. (MJB)

11. Hegel's phenomenology of rationality

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Huggler, Jørgen

2009-01-01

The aim of this chapter is to elucidate Hegel's conception of rationality in the Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807), and to defend the thesis that he is an author engaged in discussion with a wide variety of sources. He uses sceptical reasoning to form a line of argument with a necessary progression...

12. Stiffness of hyaluronic acid gels containing liver extracellular matrix supports human hepatocyte function and alters cell morphology.

Science.gov (United States)

Deegan, Daniel B; Zimmerman, Cynthia; Skardal, Aleksander; Atala, Anthony; Shupe, Thomas D

2015-03-01

Tissue engineering and cell based liver therapies have utilized primary hepatocytes with limited success due to the failure of hepatocytes to maintain their phenotype in vitro. In order to overcome this challenge, hyaluronic acid (HA) cell culture substrates were formulated to closely mimic the composition and stiffness of the normal liver cellular microenvironment. The stiffness of the substrate was modulated by adjusting HA hydrogel crosslinking. Additionally, the repertoire of bioactive molecules within the HA substrate was bolstered by supplementation with normal liver extracellular matrix (ECM). Primary human hepatocyte viability and phenotype were determined over a narrow physiologically relevant range of substrate stiffnesses from 600 to 4600Pa in both the presence and absence of liver ECM. Cell attachment, viability, and organization of the actin cytoskeleton improved with increased stiffness up to 4600Pa. These differences were not evident in earlier time points or substrates containing only HA. However, gene expression for the hepatocyte markers hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) and albumin significantly decreased on the 4600Pa stiffness at day 7 indicating that cells may not have maintained their phenotype long-term at this stiffness. Function, as measured by albumin secretion, varied with both stiffness and time in culture and peaked at day 7 at the 1200Pa stiffness, slightly below the stiffness of normal liver ECM at 3000Pa. Overall, gel stiffness affected primary human hepatocyte cell adhesion, functional marker expression, and morphological characteristics dependent on both the presence of liver ECM in gel substrates and time in culture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

13. Solving the Rational Polynomial Coefficients Based on L Curve

Science.gov (United States)

Zhou, G.; Li, X.; Yue, T.; Huang, W.; He, C.; Huang, Y.

2018-05-01

The rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) model is a generalized sensor model, which can achieve high approximation accuracy. And it is widely used in the field of photogrammetry and remote sensing. Least square method is usually used to determine the optimal parameter solution of the rational function model. However the distribution of control points is not uniform or the model is over-parameterized, which leads to the singularity of the coefficient matrix of the normal equation. So the normal equation becomes ill conditioned equation. The obtained solutions are extremely unstable and even wrong. The Tikhonov regularization can effectively improve and solve the ill conditioned equation. In this paper, we calculate pathological equations by regularization method, and determine the regularization parameters by L curve. The results of the experiments on aerial format photos show that the accuracy of the first-order RPC with the equal denominators has the highest accuracy. The high order RPC model is not necessary in the processing of dealing with frame images, as the RPC model and the projective model are almost the same. The result shows that the first-order RPC model is basically consistent with the strict sensor model of photogrammetry. Orthorectification results both the firstorder RPC model and Camera Model (ERDAS9.2 platform) are similar to each other, and the maximum residuals of X and Y are 0.8174 feet and 0.9272 feet respectively. This result shows that RPC model can be used in the aerial photographic compensation replacement sensor model.

14. Structure and function of ameloblastin as an extracellular matrix protein: adhesion, calcium binding, and CD63 interaction in human and mouse.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Xu; Diekwisch, Thomas G H; Luan, Xianghong

2011-12-01

The functional significance of extracellular matrix proteins in the life of vertebrates is underscored by a high level of sequence variability in tandem with a substantial degree of conservation in terms of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion interactions. Many extracellular matrix proteins feature multiple adhesion domains for successful attachment to substrates, such as integrin, CD63, and heparin. Here we have used homology and ab initio modeling algorithms to compare mouse ameloblastin (mAMBN) and human ameloblastin (hABMN) isoforms and to analyze their potential for cell adhesion and interaction with other matrix molecules as well as calcium binding. Sequence comparison between mAMBN and hAMBN revealed a 26-amino-acid deletion in mAMBN, corresponding to a helix-loop-helix frameshift. The human AMBN domain (174Q-201G), homologous to the mAMBN 157E-178I helix-loop-helix region, formed a helix-loop motif with an extended loop, suggesting a higher degree of flexibility of hAMBN compared with mAMBN, as confirmed by molecular dynamics simulation. Heparin-binding domains, CD63-interaction domains, and calcium-binding sites in both hAMBN and mAMBN support the concept of AMBN as an extracellular matrix protein. The high level of conservation between AMBN functional domains related to adhesion and differentiation was remarkable when compared with only 61% amino acid sequence homology. © 2011 Eur J Oral Sci.

15. The Jost function and the S-matrix asymptotic expressions for large complex angular momenta in the presence of central and spin-orbital interaction

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pivovarchik, V.N.; Poplavskij, I.V.

1982-01-01

The asymptotic behaviour of the regular solution, the Yost function and the S-matrix of the Schrodinger equation is estimated by means of WKB quasiclassical method at a fixed physical value of energy (k>0) for lambda→infinity in the domain Re lambda→0 for central and spin-orbital interaction [ru

16. Optical excitation and electron relaxation dynamics at semiconductor surfaces: a combined approach of density functional and density matrix theory applied to the silicon (001) surface

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Buecking, N

2007-11-05

In this work a new theoretical formalism is introduced in order to simulate the phononinduced relaxation of a non-equilibrium distribution to equilibrium at a semiconductor surface numerically. The non-equilibrium distribution is effected by an optical excitation. The approach in this thesis is to link two conventional, but approved methods to a new, more global description: while semiconductor surfaces can be investigated accurately by density-functional theory, the dynamical processes in semiconductor heterostructures are successfully described by density matrix theory. In this work, the parameters for density-matrix theory are determined from the results of density-functional calculations. This work is organized in two parts. In Part I, the general fundamentals of the theory are elaborated, covering the fundamentals of canonical quantizations as well as the theory of density-functional and density-matrix theory in 2{sup nd} order Born approximation. While the formalism of density functional theory for structure investigation has been established for a long time and many different codes exist, the requirements for density matrix formalism concerning the geometry and the number of implemented bands exceed the usual possibilities of the existing code in this field. A special attention is therefore attributed to the development of extensions to existing formulations of this theory, where geometrical and fundamental symmetries of the structure and the equations are used. In Part II, the newly developed formalism is applied to a silicon (001)surface in a 2 x 1 reconstruction. As first step, density-functional calculations using the LDA functional are completed, from which the Kohn-Sham-wave functions and eigenvalues are used to calculate interaction matrix elements for the electron-phonon-coupling an the optical excitation. These matrix elements are determined for the optical transitions from valence to conduction bands and for electron-phonon processes inside the

17. Changes in resting-state functional connectivity after stroke in a mouse brain lacking extracellular matrix components.

Science.gov (United States)

Quattromani, Miriana Jlenia; Hakon, Jakob; Rauch, Uwe; Bauer, Adam Q; Wieloch, Tadeusz

2018-04-01

In the brain, focal ischemia results in a local region of cell death and disruption of both local and remote functional neuronal networks. Tissue reorganization following stroke can be limited by factors such as extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules that prevent neuronal growth and synaptic plasticity. The brain's ECM plays a crucial role in network formation, development, and regeneration of the central nervous system. Further, the ECM is essential for proper white matter tract development and for the formation of structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). PNNs mainly surround parvalbumin/GABA inhibitory interneurons, of importance for processing sensory information. Previous studies have shown that downregulating PNNs after stroke reduces the neurite-inhibitory environment, reactivates plasticity, and promotes functional recovery. Resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) within and across hemispheres has been shown to correlate with behavioral recovery after stroke. However, the relationship between PNNs and RS-FC has not been examined. Here we studied a quadruple knock-out mouse (Q4) that lacks four ECM components: brevican, neurocan, tenascin-C and tenascin-R. We applied functional connectivity optical intrinsic signal (fcOIS) imaging in Q4 mice and wild-type (129S1 mice) before and 14 days after photothrombotic stroke (PT) to understand how the lack of crucial ECM components affects neuronal networks and functional recovery after stroke. Limb-placement ability was evaluated at 2, 7 and 14 days of recovery through the paw-placement test. Q4 mice exhibited significantly impaired homotopic RS-FC compared to wild-type mice, especially in the sensory and parietal regions. Changes in RS-FC were significantly correlated with the number of interhemispheric callosal crossings in those same regions. PT caused unilateral damage to the sensorimotor cortex and deficits of tactile-proprioceptive placing ability in contralesional fore- and hindlimbs, but the two

18. Functional proteomic of Matrix Metallo-proteinases (MMP) dedicated to the detection of active forms of MMP in complex proteome

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

David, A.

2007-07-01

The Matrix Metallo-proteinases (M.M.P.) represent a family of Zinc dependent extracellular proteinases able to cleave collectively all the proteins constituting the extracellular matrix. Currently, 23 human M.M.P. have been identified and are characterized by their sequence in amino-acids and their highly conserved 3 D structure. These enzymes are expressed constitutively during the tissue remodeling process. Their over-expression in various diseases tightly related to inflammatory processes (arthritis, emphysema, cancer) described M.M.P. as choice therapeutic targets. However, as the tissue remodeling implicates modification of cellular contacts, M.M.P. appear currently as proteins involved in signalling pathways. Recent works demonstrating that M.M.P. are able to cleave substrates, which are different than proteins constituting the extracellular matrix, reinforce this vision. In order to identify the individual role and the protein expression level of M.M.P. in pathological context, we developed a new technique of functional proteomics dedicated to the detection of active forms of M.M.P. in tumour samples. This technique relied on the development of a new photoaffinity probe, based on the structure of a potent phosphinic inhibitor of M.M.P., allowing targeting and isolating active forms of M.M.P. by photoaffinity labelling. Furthermore, as the new developed probe incorporated a radioactive element, photoaffinity labelling permitted to radiolabel the targeted proteins. This probe demonstrated in vitro its remarkable ability to covalently modify the h M.M.P.-12, with a singular cross-linking yield, determined at 42 %, displaying an extremely sensitive detection (2.5 fmoles of h M.M.P.-12). When added to complex proteome, the photoaffinity probe presents the same sensibility of detection for the h M.M.P.-12 (5 fmoles); importantly, in this case, h M.M.P.-12 represents only 0.001 % of the totality of the proteins present in the sample. Moreover, this technique allows

19. [Inhibitory proteins of neuritic regeneration in the extracellular matrix: structure, molecular interactions and their functions. Mechanisms of extracellular balance].

Science.gov (United States)

Vargas, Javier; Uribe-Escamilla, Rebeca; Alfaro-Rodríguez, Alfonso

2013-01-01

After injury of the central nervous system (CNS) in higher vertebrates, neurons neither grow nor reconnect with their targets because their axons or dendrites cannot regenerate within the injured site. In the CNS, the signal from the environment regulating neurite regeneration is not exclusively generated by one molecular group. This signal is generated by the interaction of various types of molecules such as extracellular matrix proteins, soluble factors and surface membrane molecules; all these elements interact with one another generating the matrix's biological state: the extracellular balance. Proteins in the balanced extracellular matrix, support and promote cellular physiological states, including neuritic regeneration. We have reviewed three types of proteins of the extracellular matrix possessing an inhibitory effect and that are determinant of neuritic regeneration failure in the CNS: chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, keratan sulfate proteoglycans and tenascin. We also review some of the mechanisms involved in the balance of extracellular proteins such as isomerization, epimerization, sulfation and glycosylation as well as the assemblage of the extracellular matrix, the interaction between the matrix and soluble factors and its proteolytic degradation. In the final section, we have presented some examples of the matrix's role in development and in tumor propagation.

20. Rational Targeting of Cellular Cholesterol in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) Enabled by Functional Lipoprotein Nanoparticles: A Therapeutic Strategy Dependent on Cell of Origin.

Science.gov (United States)

Rink, Jonathan S; Yang, Shuo; Cen, Osman; Taxter, Tim; McMahon, Kaylin M; Misener, Sol; Behdad, Amir; Longnecker, Richard; Gordon, Leo I; Thaxton, C Shad

2017-11-06

Cancer cells have altered metabolism and, in some cases, an increased demand for cholesterol. It is important to identify novel, rational treatments based on biology, and cellular cholesterol metabolism as a potential target for cancer is an innovative approach. Toward this end, we focused on diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) as a model because there is differential cholesterol biosynthesis driven by B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in germinal center (GC) versus activated B-cell (ABC) DLBCL. To specifically target cellular cholesterol homeostasis, we employed high-density lipoprotein-like nanoparticles (HDL NP) that can generally reduce cellular cholesterol by targeting and blocking cholesterol uptake through the high-affinity HDL receptor, scavenger receptor type B-1 (SCARB1). As we previously reported, GC DLBCL are exquisitely sensitive to HDL NP as monotherapy, while ABC DLBCL are less sensitive. Herein, we report that enhanced BCR signaling and resultant de novo cholesterol synthesis in ABC DLBCL drastically reduces the ability of HDL NPs to reduce cellular cholesterol and induce cell death. Therefore, we combined HDL NP with the BCR signaling inhibitor ibrutinib and the SYK inhibitor R406. By targeting both cellular cholesterol uptake and BCR-associated de novo cholesterol synthesis, we achieved cellular cholesterol reduction and induced apoptosis in otherwise resistant ABC DLBCL cell lines. These results in lymphoma demonstrate that reduction of cellular cholesterol is a powerful mechanism to induce apoptosis. Cells rich in cholesterol require HDL NP therapy to reduce uptake and molecularly targeted agents that inhibit upstream pathways that stimulate de novo cholesterol synthesis, thus, providing a new paradigm for rationally targeting cholesterol metabolism as therapy for cancer.

1. Nonorthogonal orbital based N-body reduced density matrices and their applications to valence bond theory. I. Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted excited valence bond wave functions

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Zhenhua; Chen, Xun; Wu, Wei

2013-04-01

In this series, the n-body reduced density matrix (n-RDM) approach for nonorthogonal orbitals and their applications to ab initio valence bond (VB) methods are presented. As the first paper of this series, Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions are explicitly provided by means of nonorthogonal orbital based RDM approach. To this end, a more generalized Wick's theorem, called enhanced Wick's theorem, is presented both in arithmetical and in graphical forms, by which the deduction of expressions for the matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions is dramatically simplified, and the matrix elements are finally expressed in terms of tensor contractions of electronic integrals and n-RDMs of the reference VB self-consistent field wave function. A string-based algorithm is developed for the purpose of evaluating n-RDMs in an efficient way. Using the techniques presented in this paper, one is able to develop new methods and efficient algorithms for nonorthogonal orbital based many-electron theory much easier than by use of the first quantized formulism.

2. Atomic structure of embedded Fe nanoclusters as a function of host matrix material: a synchrotron radiation study

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Baker, S H; Roy, M; Gurman, S J; Louch, S; Bleloch, A; Binns, C

2004-01-01

The atomic structure of Fe nanoclusters embedded in a range of matrix materials has been studied using synchrotron radiation. In particular, the effect of embedding the clusters in Ag, amorphous carbon (a-C) and a porous C 60 matrix is investigated. The embedded cluster samples were prepared by co-deposition using a gas aggregation cluster source. Samples with both dilute and high-volume-filling fraction of clusters, at 4 and 40% respectively, were prepared. Fe K edge EXAFS measurements were used to probe the structure within the clusters. In a Ag matrix, the Fe clusters retain the b.c.c. structure of bulk Fe while in a-C there is evidence for both b.c.c. and f.c.c. structures in the clusters. These results are independent of cluster volume-filling fraction over the range investigated. When embedded in a porous C 60 matrix, the Fe clusters oxidize to Fe 2 O 3

KAUST Repository

Jiang, Caigui

2016-06-20

The emergence of freeform architecture provides interesting geometric challenges with regards to the design and manufacturing of large-scale structures. To design these architectural structures, we have to consider two types of constraints. First, aesthetic constraints are important because the buildings have to be visually impressive. Sec- ond, functional constraints are important for the performance of a building and its e cient construction. This thesis contributes to the area of architectural geometry. Specifically, we are interested in the geometric rationalization of freeform architec- ture with the goal of combining aesthetic and functional constraints and construction requirements. Aesthetic requirements typically come from designers and architects. To obtain visually pleasing structures, they favor smoothness of the building shape, but also smoothness of the visible patterns on the surface. Functional requirements typically come from the engineers involved in the construction process. For exam- ple, covering freeform structures using planar panels is much cheaper than using non-planar ones. Further, constructed buildings have to be stable and should not collapse. In this thesis, we explore the geometric rationalization of freeform archi- tecture using four specific example problems inspired by real life applications. We achieve our results by developing optimization algorithms and a theoretical study of the underlying geometrical structure of the problems. The four example problems are the following: (1) The design of shading and lighting systems which are torsion-free structures with planar beams based on quad meshes. They satisfy the functionality requirements of preventing light from going inside a building as shad- ing systems or reflecting light into a building as lighting systems. (2) The Design of freeform honeycomb structures that are constructed based on hex-dominant meshes with a planar beam mounted along each edge. The beams intersect without

4. How to deal with the high condition number of the noise covariance matrix of gravity field functionals synthesised from a satellite-only global gravity field model?

Science.gov (United States)

Klees, R.; Slobbe, D. C.; Farahani, H. H.

2018-03-01

The posed question arises for instance in regional gravity field modelling using weighted least-squares techniques if the gravity field functionals are synthesised from the spherical harmonic coefficients of a satellite-only global gravity model (GGM), and are used as one of the noisy datasets. The associated noise covariance matrix, appeared to be extremely ill-conditioned with a singular value spectrum that decayed gradually to zero without any noticeable gap. We analysed three methods to deal with the ill-conditioned noise covariance matrix: Tihonov regularisation of the noise covariance matrix in combination with the standard formula for the weighted least-squares estimator, a formula of the weighted least-squares estimator, which does not involve the inverse noise covariance matrix, and an estimator based on Rao's unified theory of least-squares. Our analysis was based on a numerical experiment involving a set of height anomalies synthesised from the GGM GOCO05s, which is provided with a full noise covariance matrix. We showed that the three estimators perform similar, provided that the two regularisation parameters each method knows were chosen properly. As standard regularisation parameter choice rules do not apply here, we suggested a new parameter choice rule, and demonstrated its performance. Using this rule, we found that the differences between the three least-squares estimates were within noise. For the standard formulation of the weighted least-squares estimator with regularised noise covariance matrix, this required an exceptionally strong regularisation, much larger than one expected from the condition number of the noise covariance matrix. The preferred method is the inversion-free formulation of the weighted least-squares estimator, because of its simplicity with respect to the choice of the two regularisation parameters.

5. MRI-based, wireless determination of the transfer function of a linear implant: Introduction of the transfer matrix.

Science.gov (United States)

Tokaya, Janot P; Raaijmakers, Alexander J E; Luijten, Peter R; van den Berg, Cornelis A T

2018-04-24

We introduce the transfer matrix (TM) that makes MR-based wireless determination of transfer functions (TFs) possible. TFs are implant specific measures for RF-safety assessment of linear implants. The TF relates an incident tangential electric field on an implant to a scattered electric field at its tip that generally governs local heating. The TM extends this concept and relates an incident tangential electric field to a current distribution in the implant therewith characterizing the RF response along the entire implant. The TM is exploited to measure TFs with MRI without hardware alterations. A model of rightward and leftward propagating attenuated waves undergoing multiple reflections is used to derive an analytical expression for the TM. This allows parameterization of the TM of generic implants, e.g., (partially) insulated single wires, in a homogeneous medium in a few unknowns that simultaneously describe the TF. These unknowns can be determined with MRI making it possible to measure the TM and, therefore, also the TF. The TM is able to predict an induced current due to an incident electric field and can be accurately parameterized with a limited number of unknowns. Using this description the TF is determined accurately (with a Pearson correlation coefficient R ≥ 0.9 between measurements and simulations) from MRI acquisitions. The TM enables measuring of TFs with MRI of the tested generic implant models. The MR-based method does not need hardware alterations and is wireless hence making TF determination in more realistic scenarios conceivable. © 2018 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

6. Capital Requirements and Credit Rationing

OpenAIRE

Itai Agur

2010-01-01

This paper analyzes the trade-off between financial stability and credit rationing that arises when increasing capital requirements. It extends the Stiglitz-Weiss model of credit rationing to allow for bank default. Bank capital structure then matters for lending incentives. With default and rationing endogenous, optimal capital requirements can be analyzed. Introducing bank financiers, the paper also shows that uninsured funding raises the sensitivity of rationing to capital requirements. In...

7. Rationality and ritual

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wynne, B.

1982-01-01

The book concerns the Windscale Public Inquiry, held to investigate the application by British Nuclear Fuels to build a 1200 tonne per year thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP) for spent nuclear fuels from Britain and overseas. The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (international dimensions; the Windscale Inquiry; conflict resolution and social drama; public debate and the sociology of knowledge); the decision-making legacy; oxide reprocessing - the background; the public inquiry tradition - a comparative perspective; the emergence of THORP from a private to a public issue (local and national planning politics); the process and impact of the Inquiry (opposition groups); judicial rationality, expert conflict, and political authority); the rationality and politics of analysis (proliferation; radiation risks; relative risks; the Ravenglass issue; discharge targets; general radiation protection arrangements); conclusion. (U.K.)

8. RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY IN TAKOTSUBO CARDIOMYOPATHY

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

S. Marchev

2012-01-01

Full Text Available Rational pharmacotherapy in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is based on clinical picture and data of functional and laboratory investigations of concrete patient. In patients with hypotension and moderate-to-severe left ventricle outflow tract obstruction inotropic agents must not to be used because they can worsen the degree of obstruction. In these patients beta blockers can improve hemodynamics by causing resolution of the obstruction. If intraventricular thrombus is detected, anticoagulation for at least 3 months is recommended. The duration of anticoagulant therapy may be modified depending on the extent of cardiac function recovery and thrombus resolution. For patients without thrombus but with severe left ventricular dysfunction, anticoagulation is recommended until the akinesis or dyskinesis has resolved but not more than 3 months.

9. The spherical sector of the Calogero model as a reduced matrix model

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hakobyan, Tigran, E-mail: hakob@yerphi.am [Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanyan Br., 0036 Yerevan (Armenia); Lechtenfeld, Olaf, E-mail: lechtenf@itp.uni-hannover.de [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Appelstr. 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Nersessian, Armen, E-mail: arnerses@ysu.am [Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia)

2012-05-11

We investigate the matrix-model origin of the spherical sector of the rational Calogero model and its constants of motion. We develop a diagrammatic technique which allows us to find explicit expressions of the constants of motion and calculate their Poisson brackets. In this way we obtain all functionally independent constants of motion to any given order in the momenta. Our technique is related to the valence-bond basis for singlet states.

10. Models for Rational Number Bases

Science.gov (United States)

Pedersen, Jean J.; Armbruster, Frank O.

1975-01-01

This article extends number bases to negative integers, then to positive rationals and finally to negative rationals. Methods and rules for operations in positive and negative rational bases greater than one or less than negative one are summarized in tables. Sample problems are explained and illustrated. (KM)

11. Rational Unified Process

OpenAIRE

Kopal, Nils

2016-01-01

In this German seminar paper, which was written in the year 2011 at the University of Duisburg for a Bachelor Colloquium in Applied computer science, we show a brief overview of the Rational Unified Process (RUP). Thus, interested students or generally interested people in software development gain a first impression of RUP. The paper includes a survey and overview of the underlying process structure, the phases of the process, its workflows, and describes the always by the RUP developers pos...

12. Maps of Bounded Rationality

OpenAIRE

Kahneman, Daniel

2002-01-01

The work cited by the Nobel committee was done jointly with the late Amos Tversky (1937-1996) during a long and unusually close collaboration. Together, we explored the psychology of intuitive beliefs and choices and examined their bounded rationality. This essay presents a current perspective on the three major topics of our joint work: heuristics of judgment, risky choice, and framing effects. In all three domains we studied intuitions - thoughts and preferences that come to mind quickly an...

13. Emotional Theory of Rationality

OpenAIRE

Garcés, Mario; Finkel, Lucila

2011-01-01

In recent decades, it has been definitely established the existence of a close relationship between the emotional phenomena and rational processes, but we still do not have a unified definition, or effective models to describe any of them well. To advance our understanding of the mechanisms governing the behavior of living beings we must integrate multiple theories, experiments and models from both fields. In this paper we propose a new theoretical framework that allows integrating and unders...

14. Excitation energies with linear response density matrix functional theory along the dissociation coordinate of an electron-pair bond in N-electron systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Meer, R. van; Gritsenko, O. V.; Baerends, E. J.

2014-01-01

Time dependent density matrix functional theory in its adiabatic linear response formulation delivers exact excitation energies ω α and oscillator strengths f α for two-electron systems if extended to the so-called phase including natural orbital (PINO) theory. The Löwdin-Shull expression for the energy of two-electron systems in terms of the natural orbitals and their phases affords in this case an exact phase-including natural orbital functional (PILS), which is non-primitive (contains other than just J and K integrals). In this paper, the extension of the PILS functional to N-electron systems is investigated. With the example of an elementary primitive NO functional (BBC1) it is shown that current density matrix functional theory ground state functionals, which were designed to produce decent approximations to the total energy, fail to deliver a qualitatively correct structure of the (inverse) response function, due to essential deficiencies in the reconstruction of the two-body reduced density matrix (2RDM). We now deduce essential features of an N-electron functional from a wavefunction Ansatz: The extension of the two-electron Löwdin-Shull wavefunction to the N-electron case informs about the phase information. In this paper, applications of this extended Löwdin-Shull (ELS) functional are considered for the simplest case, ELS(1): one (dissociating) two-electron bond in the field of occupied (including core) orbitals. ELS(1) produces high quality ω α (R) curves along the bond dissociation coordinate R for the molecules LiH, Li 2 , and BH with the two outer valence electrons correlated. All of these results indicate that response properties are much more sensitive to deficiencies in the reconstruction of the 2RDM than the ground state energy, since derivatives of the functional with respect to both the NOs and the occupation numbers need to be accurate

15. Probability and rational choice

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

David Botting

2014-05-01

Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2014v18n1p1 In this paper I will discuss the rationality of reasoning about the future. There are two things that we might like to know about the future: which hypotheses are true and what will happen next. To put it in philosophical language, I aim to show that there are methods by which inferring to a generalization (selecting a hypothesis and inferring to the next instance (singular predictive inference can be shown to be normative and the method itself shown to be rational, where this is due in part to being based on evidence (although not in the same way and in part on a prior rational choice. I will also argue that these two inferences have been confused, being distinct not only conceptually (as nobody disputes but also in their results (the value given to the probability of the hypothesis being not in general that given to the next instance and that methods that are adequate for one are not by themselves adequate for the other. A number of debates over method founder on this confusion and do not show what the debaters think they show.

16. On Chern-Simons Matrix Models

CERN Document Server

Garoufalidis, S; Garoufalidis, Stavros; Marino, Marcos

2006-01-01

The contribution of reducible connections to the U(N) Chern-Simons invariant of a Seifert manifold $M$ can be expressed in some cases in terms of matrix integrals. We show that the U(N) evaluation of the LMO invariant of any rational homology sphere admits a matrix model representation which agrees with the Chern-Simons matrix integral for Seifert spheres and the trivial connection.

17. The solid-state signaling pathway from extracellular matrix to nuclear matrix: The critical role of three-dimensional architecture for functional differentiation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lelievre, S.; Bissell, M.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-02-01

Breast cells are useful experimental subjects for cell biologists because the mammary gland is one of the few tissues that undergoes dramatic changes in form and function after adulthood. Recently, the study in our laboratory of a human breast tumor progression series has allowed for the analysis of changes in cellular architecture (including nuclear architecture) when phenotypically normal cells become tumorigenic. This research aims to participate in the battle against breast cancer by helping to understand tumor progression and to identify new therapeutic markers for cancer treatment. This article explores the advantages and challenges of using high resolution X-ray computed microtomography for the study of 3-dimensional organization of breast tissue architecture.

18. Rational and Mechanistic Perspectives on Reinforcement Learning

Science.gov (United States)

Chater, Nick

2009-01-01

This special issue describes important recent developments in applying reinforcement learning models to capture neural and cognitive function. But reinforcement learning, as a theoretical framework, can apply at two very different levels of description: "mechanistic" and "rational." Reinforcement learning is often viewed in mechanistic terms--as…

19. A rational approximation of the effectiveness factor

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Wedel, Stig; Luss, Dan

1980-01-01

A fast, approximate method of calculating the effectiveness factor for arbitrary rate expressions is presented. The method does not require any iterative or interpolative calculations. It utilizes the well known asymptotic behavior for small and large Thiele moduli to derive a rational function...

20. Matrix analysis

CERN Document Server

Bhatia, Rajendra

1997-01-01

A good part of matrix theory is functional analytic in spirit. This statement can be turned around. There are many problems in operator theory, where most of the complexities and subtleties are present in the finite-dimensional case. My purpose in writing this book is to present a systematic treatment of methods that are useful in the study of such problems. This book is intended for use as a text for upper division and gradu­ ate courses. Courses based on parts of the material have been given by me at the Indian Statistical Institute and at the University of Toronto (in collaboration with Chandler Davis). The book should also be useful as a reference for research workers in linear algebra, operator theory, mathe­ matical physics and numerical analysis. A possible subtitle of this book could be Matrix Inequalities. A reader who works through the book should expect to become proficient in the art of deriving such inequalities. Other authors have compared this art to that of cutting diamonds. One first has to...

1. "Rationality" as a Moderator Between Life Events and Illness.

Science.gov (United States)

Pekarik, Gene

1986-01-01

The author examined the theory of rational beliefs as a moderator between life events and illness using a sample of 283 college students. Results suggested that rationality functioned to prevent stress and illness when there were few stressors, but did not reduce the effect of high levels of life events. (Author/MT)

2. Matrix theory

CERN Document Server

Franklin, Joel N

2003-01-01

Mathematically rigorous introduction covers vector and matrix norms, the condition-number of a matrix, positive and irreducible matrices, much more. Only elementary algebra and calculus required. Includes problem-solving exercises. 1968 edition.

3. Matrix pentagons

Science.gov (United States)

Belitsky, A. V.

2017-10-01

The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multi-particle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unraveled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4) matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

4. Matrix pentagons

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A.V. Belitsky

2017-10-01

Full Text Available The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multi-particle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unraveled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4 matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

5. Influence of matrix nature on the functional efficacy of biomedical cell product for the regeneration of damaged liver (experimental model of acute liver failure

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

S. V. Gautier

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Aim. A comparative analysis of the functional efficacy of biomedical cell products (BMCP for the regeneration of damaged liver based on biopolymer scaffolded porous and hydrogel matrices was performed on the experimental model of acute liver failure. Materials and methods. Matrices allowed for clinical use were employed for BMCP in the form of a sponge made from biopolymer nanostructured composite material (BNCM based on a highly purified bacterial copolymers of poly (β-hydroxybutyrate-co-β-oxyvalerate and polyethylene glycol and a hydrogel matrix from biopolymer microheterogeneous collagen-containing hydrogel (BMCH. Cellular component of BMCP was represented by liver cells and multipotent mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells. The functional efficacy of BMCP for the regeneration of damaged liver was evaluated on the experimental model of acute liver failure in Wistar rats (n = 40 via biochemical, morphological, and immunohistochemical methods. Results. When BMCP was implanted to regenerate the damaged liver on the basis of the scaffolded BNCM or hydrogel BMCH matrices, the lethality in rats with acute liver failure was absent; while in control it was 66.6%. Restoration of the activity of cytolytic enzyme levels and protein-synthetic liver function began on day 9 after modeling acute liver failure, in contrast to the control group, where recovery occurred only by days 18–21. Both matrices maintained the viability and functional activity of liver cells up to 90 days with the formation of blood vessels in BMCP. The obtained data confirm that scaffolded BNCM matrix and hydrogel BMCH matrix retain for a long time (up to 90 days the vital activity of the adherent cells in the BMCP composition, which allows using them to correct acute liver failure. At the same time, hydrogel matrix due to the presence of bioactive components contributes to the creation of the best conditions for adhesion and cell activity which accelerate the regeneration processes

6. Spectral transfer functions of body waves propagating through a stratified medium. Part 1: Basic theory by means of matrix propagators

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Macia, R.; Correig, A.M.

1987-01-01

Seismic wave propagation is described by a second order differential equation for medium displacement. By Fourier transforming with respect to time and space, wave equation transforms into a system of first order linear differential equations for the Fourier transform of displacement and stress. This system of differential equations is solved by means of Matrix Propagator and applied to the propagation of body waves in stratified media. The matrix propagators corresponding to P-SV and SH waves in homogeneous medium are found as an intermediate step to obtain the spectral response of body waves propagating through a stratified medium with homogeneous layers. (author) 14 refs

7. The Effect of a Short-term Glucose Deprivation on Neuron Net Functioning of Hippocampus Primary Culture on a Multi-electrode Matrix

OpenAIRE

Vedunova M.V.; Korotchenko S.A.; Balashova A.N.; Isakova A.O.; Khaspekov L.G.; Kazantsev V.B.; Mukhina I.V.

2011-01-01

There has been studied the effect of a short-term glucose deprivation on neuron net functioning of hippocampus primary culture developing within 32 days on a multi-electrode matrix MED64 (Alpha MED Sciences Company, Japan) in an early and remote periods after deprivation. A short-term glucose deprivation (20 min) has been shown to result in the increase of electrobiological activity of neuron net of hippocampus primary culture, with the cascade of metabolic reactions being activated leading t...

8. J(l)-unitary factorization and the Schur algorithm for Nevanlinna functions in an indefinite setting

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Alpay, D.; Dijksma, A.; Langer, H.

2006-01-01

We introduce a Schur transformation for generalized Nevanlinna functions and show that it can be used in obtaining the unique minimal factorization of a class of rational J(l)-unitary 2 x 2 matrix functions into elementary factors from the same class. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

9. Parallelism in matrix computations

CERN Document Server

Gallopoulos, Efstratios; Sameh, Ahmed H

2016-01-01

This book is primarily intended as a research monograph that could also be used in graduate courses for the design of parallel algorithms in matrix computations. It assumes general but not extensive knowledge of numerical linear algebra, parallel architectures, and parallel programming paradigms. The book consists of four parts: (I) Basics; (II) Dense and Special Matrix Computations; (III) Sparse Matrix Computations; and (IV) Matrix functions and characteristics. Part I deals with parallel programming paradigms and fundamental kernels, including reordering schemes for sparse matrices. Part II is devoted to dense matrix computations such as parallel algorithms for solving linear systems, linear least squares, the symmetric algebraic eigenvalue problem, and the singular-value decomposition. It also deals with the development of parallel algorithms for special linear systems such as banded ,Vandermonde ,Toeplitz ,and block Toeplitz systems. Part III addresses sparse matrix computations: (a) the development of pa...

10. Measurement of angular scattering function and degree of linear polarization of bentonite clay particles embedded in cylindrical epoxy matrix

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A. Gogoi

2011-09-01

Full Text Available Scattering properties of bentonite clay particles were investigated at 543.5 nm incident laser wavelength by using a designed and fabricated light scattering setup. The scattering samples were held in front of a laser beam by using a transparent cylindrical thermosetting epoxy matrix.

11. Factorization of J-unitary matrix polynomials on the line and a Schur algorithm for generalized Nevanlinna functions

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Alpay, D.; Dijksma, A.; Langer, H.

2004-01-01

We prove that a 2 × 2 matrix polynomial which is J-unitary on the real line can be written as a product of normalized elementary J-unitary factors and a J-unitary constant. In the second part we give an algorithm for this factorization using an analog of the Schur transformation.

12. Are security analysts rational? a literature review

OpenAIRE

Peixinho, Rúben; Coelho, Luís; Taffler, Richard J.

2005-01-01

Rational choice theory and bounded rationality constitute the basis for the discussion in several areas regarding human rationality. In finance, this discussion has been made between traditional finance and behavioural finance approach, which have different perspectives concerning market agents’ rationality. This paper reviews several studies addressing rationality among security analysts. The analysis shows that analysts’systematic optimism seems to be inconsistent with rationality....

13. Five- and six-electron harmonium atoms: Highly accurate electronic properties and their application to benchmarking of approximate 1-matrix functionals

Science.gov (United States)

Cioslowski, Jerzy; Strasburger, Krzysztof

2018-04-01

Electronic properties of several states of the five- and six-electron harmonium atoms are obtained from large-scale calculations employing explicitly correlated basis functions. The high accuracy of the computed energies (including their components), natural spinorbitals, and their occupation numbers makes them suitable for testing, calibration, and benchmarking of approximate formalisms of quantum chemistry and solid state physics. In the case of the five-electron species, the availability of the new data for a wide range of the confinement strengths ω allows for confirmation and generalization of the previously reached conclusions concerning the performance of the presently known approximations for the electron-electron repulsion energy in terms of the 1-matrix that are at heart of the density matrix functional theory (DMFT). On the other hand, the properties of the three low-lying states of the six-electron harmonium atom, computed at ω = 500 and ω = 1000, uncover deficiencies of the 1-matrix functionals not revealed by previous studies. In general, the previously published assessment of the present implementations of DMFT being of poor accuracy is found to hold. Extending the present work to harmonically confined systems with even more electrons is most likely counterproductive as the steep increase in computational cost required to maintain sufficient accuracy of the calculated properties is not expected to be matched by the benefits of additional information gathered from the resulting benchmarks.

14. Heterogeneity and the (de)stabilizing role of rationality

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2015-01-01

Highlights: • We analyze Cournot oligopolies with heterogeneous firms of generic size. • Rational and naive players are considered. • Stability with respect to oligopoly composition is studied. • In some settings, increasing the rational firms fraction introduces instability. - Abstract: In this paper we study oligopolies of generic size consisting of heterogeneous firms, which adopt best response adjustment mechanisms with either perfect foresight (rational firms) or static expectations (naive firms). Assuming an isoelastic demand function and possibly different marginal costs for the two groups of firms, we focus on the local stability of the Nash equilibrium. We show that, with respect to the oligopoly composition, described in terms of the fraction of rational firms, different scenarios are possible. We find that a high rationality degree may not always guarantee stability, in particular when rational firms have sufficiently larger marginal costs. In fact, in this situation, increasing the fraction of rational firms can even introduce instability. Besides the usual scenarios in which replacing some naive firms with rational ones leads to a stabilization of (or at least keeps unchanged) the dynamics, we provide a family of situations, characterized by costs ratio favorable to naive firms, in which equilibrium loses its stability when naive firms are replaced by rational ones. The results we present are both analytical and simulative.

15. Computer-Supported Modelling of Multi modal Transportation Networks Rationalization

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ratko Zelenika

2007-09-01

Full Text Available This paper deals with issues of shaping and functioning ofcomputer programs in the modelling and solving of multimoda Itransportation network problems. A methodology of an integrateduse of a programming language for mathematical modellingis defined, as well as spreadsheets for the solving of complexmultimodal transportation network problems. The papercontains a comparison of the partial and integral methods ofsolving multimodal transportation networks. The basic hypothesisset forth in this paper is that the integral method results inbetter multimodal transportation network rationalization effects,whereas a multimodal transportation network modelbased on the integral method, once built, can be used as the basisfor all kinds of transportation problems within multimodaltransport. As opposed to linear transport problems, multimodaltransport network can assume very complex shapes. This papercontains a comparison of the partial and integral approach totransp01tation network solving. In the partial approach, astraightforward model of a transp01tation network, which canbe solved through the use of the Solver computer tool within theExcel spreadsheet inteiface, is quite sufficient. In the solving ofa multimodal transportation problem through the integralmethod, it is necessmy to apply sophisticated mathematicalmodelling programming languages which supp01t the use ofcomplex matrix functions and the processing of a vast amountof variables and limitations. The LINGO programming languageis more abstract than the Excel spreadsheet, and it requiresa certain programming knowledge. The definition andpresentation of a problem logic within Excel, in a manner whichis acceptable to computer software, is an ideal basis for modellingin the LINGO programming language, as well as a fasterand more effective implementation of the mathematical model.This paper provides proof for the fact that it is more rational tosolve the problem of multimodal transportation networks by

16. U-matrix approach in the investigation of the low-x behaviour of the nuclear structure function F2A(x,Q2)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Davidovs'kij, V.V.

2000-01-01

The U-matrix method is applied to build the amplitude for virtual photon absorption by nuclei which satisfies unitarity. This amplitude is utilized to obtain the expression for the structure function F 24 , which is convenient to perform analytic calculations. Profile functions of nuclei with the Gauss, Woods-Saxon, and constant density distributions are considered. It is shown that effects of quark-antiquark pair rescattering in a nucleus cause the change of a power-like behavior of F 24 to a logarithmic one at small x. Numerical estimations are given

17. Multireference configuration interaction theory using cumulant reconstruction with internal contraction of density matrix renormalization group wave function.

Science.gov (United States)

Saitow, Masaaki; Kurashige, Yuki; Yanai, Takeshi

2013-07-28

We report development of the multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) method that can use active space scalable to much larger size references than has previously been possible. The recent development of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method in multireference quantum chemistry offers the ability to describe static correlation in a large active space. The present MRCI method provides a critical correction to the DMRG reference by including high-level dynamic correlation through the CI treatment. When the DMRG and MRCI theories are combined (DMRG-MRCI), the full internal contraction of the reference in the MRCI ansatz, including contraction of semi-internal states, plays a central role. However, it is thought to involve formidable complexity because of the presence of the five-particle rank reduced-density matrix (RDM) in the Hamiltonian matrix elements. To address this complexity, we express the Hamiltonian matrix using commutators, which allows the five-particle rank RDM to be canceled out without any approximation. Then we introduce an approximation to the four-particle rank RDM by using a cumulant reconstruction from lower-particle rank RDMs. A computer-aided approach is employed to derive the exceedingly complex equations of the MRCI in tensor-contracted form and to implement them into an efficient parallel computer code. This approach extends to the size-consistency-corrected variants of MRCI, such as the MRCI+Q, MR-ACPF, and MR-AQCC methods. We demonstrate the capability of the DMRG-MRCI method in several benchmark applications, including the evaluation of single-triplet gap of free-base porphyrin using 24 active orbitals.

18. Non-Muscle Myosin II Isoforms Have Different Functions in Matrix Rearrangement by MDA-MB-231 Cells.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Bridget Hindman

Full Text Available The role of a stiffening extra-cellular matrix (ECM in cancer progression is documented but poorly understood. Here we use a conditioning protocol to test the role of nonmuscle myosin II isoforms in cell mediated ECM arrangement using collagen constructs seeded with breast cancer cells expressing shRNA targeted to either the IIA or IIB heavy chain isoform. While there are several methods available to measure changes in the biophysical characteristics of the ECM, we wanted to use a method which allows for the measurement of global stiffness changes as well as a dynamic response from the sample over time. The conditioning protocol used allows the direct measurement of ECM stiffness. Using various treatments, it is possible to determine the contribution of various construct and cellular components to the overall construct stiffness. Using this assay, we show that both the IIA and IIB isoforms are necessary for efficient matrix remodeling by MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, as loss of either isoform changes the stiffness of the collagen constructs as measured using our conditioning protocol. Constructs containing only collagen had an elastic modulus of 0.40 Pascals (Pa, parental MDA-MB-231 constructs had an elastic modulus of 9.22 Pa, while IIA and IIB KD constructs had moduli of 3.42 and 7.20 Pa, respectively. We also calculated the cell and matrix contributions to the overall sample elastic modulus. Loss of either myosin isoform resulted in decreased cell stiffness, as well as a decrease in the stiffness of the cell-altered collagen matrices. While the total construct modulus for the IIB KD cells was lower than that of the parental cells, the IIB KD cell-altered matrices actually had a higher elastic modulus than the parental cell-altered matrices (4.73 versus 4.38 Pa. These results indicate that the IIA and IIB heavy chains play distinct and non-redundant roles in matrix remodeling.

19. National energy decisionmaking: rationalism and rationalization

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Roberts, M.J.

1980-01-01

This paper is an attempt at institutional engineering. Unlike many economic analyses of social choice, it does not explore the implications of various hypothetical voting schemes under highly simplified circumstances. Instead, it considers how current social and political arrangements for making energy policy have actually functioned, and how we might make them function more effectively. The first two sections of this paper present necessary theoretical preliminaries: first, the kinds of relations we can expect between the structure of institutions on the one hand, and social and political decisions on the other, and second, the criteria we can and should use for choosing among institutional alternatives. The third section reviews what is known about the consequences of current decisionmaking arrangements. The final section considers the implications of this review and argues for a series of changes in how we organize our affairs

20. Structure-function correlations in glaucoma using matrix and standard automated perimetry versus time-domain and spectral-domain OCT devices.

Science.gov (United States)

Pinto, Luciano Moreira; Costa, Elaine Fiod; Melo, Luiz Alberto S; Gross, Paula Blasco; Sato, Eduardo Toshio; Almeida, Andrea Pereira; Maia, Andre; Paranhos, Augusto

2014-04-10

We examined the structure-function relationship between two perimetric tests, the frequency doubling technology (FDT) matrix and standard automated perimetry (SAP), and two optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices (time-domain and spectral-domain). This cross-sectional study included 97 eyes from 29 healthy individuals, and 68 individuals with early, moderate, or advanced primary open-angle glaucoma. The correlations between overall and sectorial parameters of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) measured with Stratus and Spectralis OCT, and the visual field sensitivity obtained with FDT matrix and SAP were assessed. The relationship also was evaluated using a previously described linear model. The correlation coefficients for the threshold sensitivity measured with SAP and Stratus OCT ranged from 0.44 to 0.79, and those for Spectralis OCT ranged from 0.30 to 0.75. Regarding FDT matrix, the correlation ranged from 0.40 to 0.79 with Stratus OCT and from 0.39 to 0.79 with Spectralis OCT. Stronger correlations were found in the overall measurements and the arcuate sectors for both visual fields and OCT devices. A linear relationship was observed between FDT matrix sensitivity and the OCT devices. The previously described linear model fit the data from SAP and the OCT devices well, particularly in the inferotemporal sector. The FDT matrix and SAP visual sensitivities were related strongly to the RNFL thickness measured with the Stratus and Spectralis OCT devices, particularly in the overall and arcuate sectors. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

1. Efficient Computation of Sparse Matrix Functions for Large-Scale Electronic Structure Calculations: The CheSS Library.

Science.gov (United States)

Mohr, Stephan; Dawson, William; Wagner, Michael; Caliste, Damien; Nakajima, Takahito; Genovese, Luigi

2017-10-10

We present CheSS, the "Chebyshev Sparse Solvers" library, which has been designed to solve typical problems arising in large-scale electronic structure calculations using localized basis sets. The library is based on a flexible and efficient expansion in terms of Chebyshev polynomials and presently features the calculation of the density matrix, the calculation of matrix powers for arbitrary powers, and the extraction of eigenvalues in a selected interval. CheSS is able to exploit the sparsity of the matrices and scales linearly with respect to the number of nonzero entries, making it well-suited for large-scale calculations. The approach is particularly adapted for setups leading to small spectral widths of the involved matrices and outperforms alternative methods in this regime. By coupling CheSS to the DFT code BigDFT, we show that such a favorable setup is indeed possible in practice. In addition, the approach based on Chebyshev polynomials can be massively parallelized, and CheSS exhibits excellent scaling up to thousands of cores even for relatively small matrix sizes.

2. The O(αs3) massive operator matrix elements of O(nf) for the structure function F2(x,Q2) and transversity

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ablinger, J.; Bluemlein, J.; Klein, S.; Schneider, C.; Wissbrock, F.

2011-01-01

The contributions ∝n f to the O(α s 3 ) massive operator matrix elements describing the heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in the limit Q 2 >>m 2 are computed for the structure function F 2 (x,Q 2 ) and transversity for general values of the Mellin variable N. Here, for two matrix elements, A qq,Q PS (N) and A qg,Q (N), the complete result is obtained. A first independent computation of the contributions to the 3-loop anomalous dimensions γ qg (N), γ qq PS (N), and γ qq NS,(TR) (N) is given. In the computation advanced summation technologies for nested sums over products of hypergeometric terms with harmonic sums have been used. For intermediary results generalized harmonic sums occur, while the final results can be expressed by nested harmonic sums only.

3. The Rational Unconscious: Implications for Mental Illness and Psychotherapy.

Science.gov (United States)

2018-05-15

Rational and reality-congruent unconscious processes facilitate adaptive functioning and have implications for mental illness and psychotherapy. With this knowledge, psychotherapists can more effectively guide interventions to improve mental health.

4. Rational Approximations to Rational Models: Alternative Algorithms for Category Learning

Science.gov (United States)

Sanborn, Adam N.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Navarro, Daniel J.

2010-01-01

Rational models of cognition typically consider the abstract computational problems posed by the environment, assuming that people are capable of optimally solving those problems. This differs from more traditional formal models of cognition, which focus on the psychological processes responsible for behavior. A basic challenge for rational models…

5. Realization theory for rational systems: Minimal rational realizations

NARCIS (Netherlands)

J. Nemcová (Jana); J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)

2010-01-01

htmlabstractThe study of realizations of response maps is a topic of control and system theory. Realization theory is used in system identification and control synthesis. A minimal rational realization of a given response map p is a rational realization of p such that the dimension of its state

6. Racionalizam u arhitekturi: nekoliko modela instrumentalizacije / Rationalism in Architecture: Several Models of Instrumentalization

OpenAIRE

2014-01-01

Rationalism in architecture is a European concept which, from Enlightment to postmodern era, advocates values of order, clarity and logic, represented through primary geometrism, functionalism, profitability and absence of ornament. The text connects and analyzes (1) formal-stilistic manifestations of rationalism in architecture: French neoclassicism; Soviet constructivism, German new objectivity, Italian rationalism; postmodern Italian neorationalism in the context of (2) dominant paradigms ...

7. a Unified Matrix Polynomial Approach to Modal Identification

Science.gov (United States)

Allemang, R. J.; Brown, D. L.

1998-04-01

One important current focus of modal identification is a reformulation of modal parameter estimation algorithms into a single, consistent mathematical formulation with a corresponding set of definitions and unifying concepts. Particularly, a matrix polynomial approach is used to unify the presentation with respect to current algorithms such as the least-squares complex exponential (LSCE), the polyreference time domain (PTD), Ibrahim time domain (ITD), eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA), rational fraction polynomial (RFP), polyreference frequency domain (PFD) and the complex mode indication function (CMIF) methods. Using this unified matrix polynomial approach (UMPA) allows a discussion of the similarities and differences of the commonly used methods. the use of least squares (LS), total least squares (TLS), double least squares (DLS) and singular value decomposition (SVD) methods is discussed in order to take advantage of redundant measurement data. Eigenvalue and SVD transformation methods are utilized to reduce the effective size of the resulting eigenvalue-eigenvector problem as well.

8. [Effects on the lipid profile in humans of a polyphenol-rich carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) extract in a dairy matrix like a functional food; a pilot study].

Science.gov (United States)

Martínez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos; Fonollá-Joya, Juristo

2013-11-01

The design of functional foods enriched in nutrients that favorably alter the lipid profile to prevent cardiovascular diseases and stimulate bowel function is of great interest. We have assayed a non-extractable-tannates-rich carob-fiber (PF-1®) in a milk matrix developed by Biosearch S.A. to discover its effects on the lipid profile and bowel function of human volunteers. A 4-week interventional study (400 mL daily consumption of this functional food, containing 20 g of PF-1®/L), was conducted: blood samples were analyzed for lipid profile, glucose, transaminases, creatinine and fat-soluble vitamins. The body-mass index and bowel function of the participants in the study were also measured. A tendency for triglyceride levels to diminish was observed in all participants (P = 0.066), and in the normal-cholesterol group in particular (P = 0.078). Another tendency to total cholesterol levels fell in the hypercholesterolemic group (P = 0.061) was also found. In the normal-cholesterol group, total cholesterol (CT), HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels significantly increased with the consumption of the functional food (P function was also recorded by volunteers. This preliminary study highlights the possible positive influence of this functional food on the regulation of the lipid profile and bowel function in humans. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

9. Electrical percolation threshold of magnetostrictive inclusions in a piezoelectric matrix composite as a function of relative particle size

Science.gov (United States)

Barbero, Ever J.; Bedard, Antoine Joseph

2018-04-01

Magnetoelectric composites can be produced by embedding magnetostrictive particles in a piezoelectric matrix derived from a piezoelectric powder precursor. Ferrite magnetostrictive particles, if allowed to percolate, can short the potential difference generated in the piezoelectric phase. Modeling a magnetoelectric composite as an aggregate of bi-disperse hard shells, molecular dynamics was used to explore relationships among relative particle size, particle affinity, and electrical percolation with the goal of maximizing the percolation threshold. It is found that two factors raise the percolation threshold, namely the relative size of magnetostrictive to piezoelectric particles, and the affinity between the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric particles.

10. Establishing rational networking using the DL04 quantum secure direct communication protocol

Science.gov (United States)

Qin, Huawang; Tang, Wallace K. S.; Tso, Raylin

2018-06-01

The first rational quantum secure direct communication scheme is proposed, in which we use the game theory with incomplete information to model the rational behavior of the participant, and give the strategy space and utility function. The rational participant can get his maximal utility when he performs the protocol faithfully, and then the Nash equilibrium of the protocol can be achieved. Compared to the traditional schemes, our scheme will be more practical in the presence of rational participant.

11. Rational customs clearance technology choice

OpenAIRE

Shramenko, N.; Andriets, V.

2008-01-01

Issues concerning cargo delivery efficiencyincrease by choice of rational customs clearance technology have been considered. Three possible variants of customs clearance andmethods which allow to define the most rational version of cargo delivery in international road communication based on main efficiency criteria for definite distance have been presented.

12. Differential Rationality and Personal Development.

Science.gov (United States)

Fincher, Cameron

This publication discusses differential rationality; it asserts that the development of institutions, professions, and individuals involves the differentiation of forms and styles of thinking and knowing that are, in various ways, idiosyncratic. Based on this understanding, differential rationality can be seen as a developmental construct that…

13. Rationality problem for algebraic tori

CERN Document Server

Hoshi, Akinari

2017-01-01

The authors give the complete stably rational classification of algebraic tori of dimensions 4 and 5 over a field k. In particular, the stably rational classification of norm one tori whose Chevalley modules are of rank 4 and 5 is given. The authors show that there exist exactly 487 (resp. 7, resp. 216) stably rational (resp. not stably but retract rational, resp. not retract rational) algebraic tori of dimension 4, and there exist exactly 3051 (resp. 25, resp. 3003) stably rational (resp. not stably but retract rational, resp. not retract rational) algebraic tori of dimension 5. The authors make a procedure to compute a flabby resolution of a G-lattice effectively by using the computer algebra system GAP. Some algorithms may determine whether the flabby class of a G-lattice is invertible (resp. zero) or not. Using the algorithms, the suthors determine all the flabby and coflabby G-lattices of rank up to 6 and verify that they are stably permutation. The authors also show that the Krull-Schmidt theorem for G-...

14. Product differentiation under bounded rationality

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Vermeulen, B.; Poutré, La J.A.; Kok, de A.G.; Pyka, A.; Handa, H.; Ishibuchi, H.; Ong, Y.-S.; Tan, K.-C.

2015-01-01

We study product differentiation equilibria and dynamics on the Salop circle under bounded rationality. Due to bounded rationality, firms tend to agglomerate in pairs. Upon adding a second tier of component suppliers, downstream assemblers may escape pairwise horizontal agglomeration. Moreover, we

15. The concept of rational suicide.

Science.gov (United States)

Mayo, D J

1986-05-01

Suicide has been condemned in our culture in one way or another since Augustine offered theological arguments against it in the sixth century. More recently, theological condemnation has given way to the view that suicidal behavior must always be symptomatic of emotional disturbance and mental illness. However, suicide has not always been viewed so negatively. In other times and cultures, it has been held that circumstances might befall a person in which suicide would be a perfectly rational course of action, in the same sense that any other course of action could be rational: that it could be sensible, i.e., defensible by good reasons, or that it could be in keeping with the agent's fundamental interests. Indiscriminate use of modern life-sustaining technologies has renewed interest in the possibility of rational suicide. Today proponents of rational suicide tend to equate the rationality of suicide with the competence of the decision to commit suicide.

16. Limited rationality and strategic interaction

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fehr, Ernst; Tyran, Jean-Robert

2008-01-01

Much evidence suggests that people are heterogeneous with regard to their abilities to make rational, forward-looking decisions. This raises the question as to when the rational types are decisive for aggregate outcomes and when the boundedly rational types shape aggregate results. We examine...... this question in the context of a long-standing and important economic problem: the adjustment of nominal prices after an anticipated monetary shock. Our experiments suggest that two types of bounded rationality-money illusion and anchoring-are important behavioral forces behind nominal inertia. However......, depending on the strategic environment, bounded rationality has vastly different effects on aggregate price adjustment. If agents' actions are strategic substitutes, adjustment to the new equilibrium is extremely quick, whereas under strategic complementarity, adjustment is both very slow and associated...

17. The hyaluronan and proteoglycan link proteins: Organizers of the brain extracellular matrix and key molecules for neuronal function and plasticity.

Science.gov (United States)

Oohashi, Toshitaka; Edamatsu, Midori; Bekku, Yoko; Carulli, Daniela

2015-12-01

The hyaluronan and proteoglycanbinding link protein (Hapln) is a key molecule in the formation and control of hyaluronan-based condensed perineuronal matrix in the adult brain. This review summarizes the recent advances in understanding the role of Haplns in the formation and control of two distinct types of perineuronal matrices, one for "classical" PNN and the other for the specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) at the node of Ranvier in the central nervous system (CNS). We introduce the structural components of each ECM organization including the basic concept of supramolecular structure named "HLT model". We furthermore summarize the developmental and physiological role of perineuronal ECMs from the studies of Haplns and related molecules. Finally, we also discuss the potential mechanism modulating PNNs in the adult CNS. This layer of organized matrices may exert a direct effect via core protein or sugar moiety from the structure or by acting as a binding site for biologically active molecules, which are important for neuronal plasticity and saltatory conduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

18. Robust extraction of basis functions for simultaneous and proportional myoelectric control via sparse non-negative matrix factorization

Science.gov (United States)

Lin, Chuang; Wang, Binghui; Jiang, Ning; Farina, Dario

2018-04-01

Objective. This paper proposes a novel simultaneous and proportional multiple degree of freedom (DOF) myoelectric control method for active prostheses. Approach. The approach is based on non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) of surface EMG signals with the inclusion of sparseness constraints. By applying a sparseness constraint to the control signal matrix, it is possible to extract the basis information from arbitrary movements (quasi-unsupervised approach) for multiple DOFs concurrently. Main Results. In online testing based on target hitting, able-bodied subjects reached a greater throughput (TP) when using sparse NMF (SNMF) than with classic NMF or with linear regression (LR). Accordingly, the completion time (CT) was shorter for SNMF than NMF or LR. The same observations were made in two patients with unilateral limb deficiencies. Significance. The addition of sparseness constraints to NMF allows for a quasi-unsupervised approach to myoelectric control with superior results with respect to previous methods for the simultaneous and proportional control of multi-DOF. The proposed factorization algorithm allows robust simultaneous and proportional control, is superior to previous supervised algorithms, and, because of minimal supervision, paves the way to online adaptation in myoelectric control.

19. Design of starch functionalized biodegradable P(MAA-co-MMA) as carrier matrix for l-asparaginase immobilization.

Science.gov (United States)

Ulu, Ahmet; Koytepe, Suleyman; Ates, Burhan

2016-11-20

We prepared biodegradable P(MAA-co-MMA)-starch composite as carrier matrix for the immobilization of l-asparaginase (l-ASNase), an important chemotherapeutic agent in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Chemical characteristics and thermal stability of the prepared composites were determined by FT-IR, TGA, DTA and, DSC, respectively. Also, biodegradability measurements of P(MAA-co-MMA)-starch composites were carried out to examine the effects of degradation of the starch. Then, l-ASNase was immobilized on the P(MAA-co-MMA)-starch composites. The surface morphology of the composite before and after immobilization was characterized by SEM, EDX, and AFM. The properties of the immobilized l-ASNase were investigated and compared with the free enzyme. The immobilized l-ASNase had better showed thermal and pH stability, and remained stable after 30days of storage at 25°C. Thus, based on the findings of the present work, the P(MAA-co-MMA)-starch composite can be exploited as the biocompatible matrix used for l-ASNase immobilization for medical applications due to biocompatibility and biodegradability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

20. A new construction of rational electromagnetic knots

Science.gov (United States)

Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Zhilin, Gleb

2018-06-01

We set up a correspondence between solutions of the Yang-Mills equations on R ×S3 and in Minkowski spacetime via de Sitter space. Some known Abelian and non-Abelian exact solutions are rederived. For the Maxwell case we present a straightforward algorithm to generate an infinite number of explicit solutions, with fields and potentials in Minkowski coordinates given by rational functions of increasing complexity. We illustrate our method with a nontrivial example.

1. Chimeric cellulase matrix for investigating intramolecular synergism between non-hydrolytic disruptive functions of carbohydrate-binding modules and catalytic hydrolysis.

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Yuguo; Tang, Rentao; Tao, Jin; Wang, Xiaonan; Zheng, Baisong; Feng, Yan

2012-08-24

The conversion of renewable cellulosic biomass is of considerable interest for the production of biofuels and materials. The bottleneck in the efficient conversion is the compactness and resistance of crystalline cellulose. Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), which disrupt crystalline cellulose via non-hydrolytic mechanisms, are expected to overcome this bottleneck. However, the lack of convenient methods for quantitative analysis of the disruptive functions of CBMs have hindered systematic studies and molecular modifications. Here we established a practical and systematic platform for quantifying and comparing the non-hydrolytic disruptive activities of CBMs via the synergism of CBMs and a catalytic module within designed chimeric cellulase molecules. Bioinformatics and computational biology were also used to provide a deeper understanding. A convenient vector was constructed to serve as a cellulase matrix into which heterologous CBM sequences can be easily inserted. The resulting chimeric cellulases were suitable for studying disruptive functions, and their activities quantitatively reflected the disruptive functions of CBMs on crystalline cellulose. In addition, this cellulase matrix can be used to construct novel chimeric cellulases with high hydrolytic activities toward crystalline cellulose.

2. Chimeric Cellulase Matrix for Investigating Intramolecular Synergism between Non-hydrolytic Disruptive Functions of Carbohydrate-binding Modules and Catalytic Hydrolysis*

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Yuguo; Tang, Rentao; Tao, Jin; Wang, Xiaonan; Zheng, Baisong; Feng, Yan

2012-01-01

The conversion of renewable cellulosic biomass is of considerable interest for the production of biofuels and materials. The bottleneck in the efficient conversion is the compactness and resistance of crystalline cellulose. Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), which disrupt crystalline cellulose via non-hydrolytic mechanisms, are expected to overcome this bottleneck. However, the lack of convenient methods for quantitative analysis of the disruptive functions of CBMs have hindered systematic studies and molecular modifications. Here we established a practical and systematic platform for quantifying and comparing the non-hydrolytic disruptive activities of CBMs via the synergism of CBMs and a catalytic module within designed chimeric cellulase molecules. Bioinformatics and computational biology were also used to provide a deeper understanding. A convenient vector was constructed to serve as a cellulase matrix into which heterologous CBM sequences can be easily inserted. The resulting chimeric cellulases were suitable for studying disruptive functions, and their activities quantitatively reflected the disruptive functions of CBMs on crystalline cellulose. In addition, this cellulase matrix can be used to construct novel chimeric cellulases with high hydrolytic activities toward crystalline cellulose. PMID:22778256

3. Model of a tunneling current in a p-n junction based on armchair graphene nanoribbons - an Airy function approach and a transfer matrix method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Suhendi, Endi; Syariati, Rifki; Noor, Fatimah A.; Khairurrijal; Kurniasih, Neny

2014-01-01

We modeled a tunneling current in a p-n junction based on armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) by using an Airy function approach (AFA) and a transfer matrix method (TMM). We used β-type AGNRs, in which its band gap energy and electron effective mass depends on its width as given by the extended Huckel theory. It was shown that the tunneling currents evaluated by employing the AFA are the same as those obtained under the TMM. Moreover, the calculated tunneling current was proportional to the voltage bias and inversely with temperature

4. A non-JKL density matrix functional for intergeminal correlation between closed-shell geminals from analysis of natural orbital configuration interaction expansions.

Science.gov (United States)

van Meer, R; Gritsenko, O V; Baerends, E J

2018-03-14

Almost all functionals that are currently used in density matrix functional theory have been created by some a priori ansatz that generates approximations to the second-order reduced density matrix (2RDM). In this paper, a more consistent approach is used: we analyze the 2RDMs (in the natural orbital basis) of rather accurate multi-reference configuration interaction expansions for several small molecules (CH 4 , NH 3 , H 2 O, FH, and N 2 ) and use the knowledge gained to generate new functionals. The analysis shows that a geminal-like structure is present in the 2RDMs, even though no geminal theory has been applied from the onset. It is also shown that the leading non-geminal dynamical correlation contributions are generated by a specific set of double excitations. The corresponding determinants give rise to non-JKL (non Coulomb/Exchange like) multipole-multipole dispersive attractive terms between geminals. Due to the proximity of the geminals, these dispersion terms are large and cannot be omitted, proving pure JKL functionals to be essentially deficient. A second correction emerges from the observation that the "normal" geminal-like exchange between geminals breaks down when one breaks multiple bonds. This problem can be fixed by doubling the exchange between bond broken geminals, effectively restoring the often physically correct high-spin configurations on the bond broken fragments. Both of these corrections have been added to the commonly used antisymmetrized product of strongly orthogonal geminals functional. The resulting non-JKL functional Extended Löwdin-Shull Dynamical-Multibond is capable of reproducing complete active space self-consistent field curves, in which one active orbital is used for each valence electron.

5. A non-JKL density matrix functional for intergeminal correlation between closed-shell geminals from analysis of natural orbital configuration interaction expansions

Science.gov (United States)

van Meer, R.; Gritsenko, O. V.; Baerends, E. J.

2018-03-01

Almost all functionals that are currently used in density matrix functional theory have been created by some a priori ansatz that generates approximations to the second-order reduced density matrix (2RDM). In this paper, a more consistent approach is used: we analyze the 2RDMs (in the natural orbital basis) of rather accurate multi-reference configuration interaction expansions for several small molecules (CH4, NH3, H2O, FH, and N2) and use the knowledge gained to generate new functionals. The analysis shows that a geminal-like structure is present in the 2RDMs, even though no geminal theory has been applied from the onset. It is also shown that the leading non-geminal dynamical correlation contributions are generated by a specific set of double excitations. The corresponding determinants give rise to non-JKL (non Coulomb/Exchange like) multipole-multipole dispersive attractive terms between geminals. Due to the proximity of the geminals, these dispersion terms are large and cannot be omitted, proving pure JKL functionals to be essentially deficient. A second correction emerges from the observation that the "normal" geminal-like exchange between geminals breaks down when one breaks multiple bonds. This problem can be fixed by doubling the exchange between bond broken geminals, effectively restoring the often physically correct high-spin configurations on the bond broken fragments. Both of these corrections have been added to the commonly used antisymmetrized product of strongly orthogonal geminals functional. The resulting non-JKL functional Extended Löwdin-Shull Dynamical-Multibond is capable of reproducing complete active space self-consistent field curves, in which one active orbital is used for each valence electron.

6. [Rational use of medicines].

Science.gov (United States)

Helali, A

2006-12-01

Every body speaks about inappropriate use of medicines and each one gives his own explanation. Politicians are telling about the waste of medicines and the money of their national budget. Citizens are saying that the physicians prescribe more than necessary for treatment and blame them as one part of the financial burden weighting on their family budget. Physicians give different explanation and think that the rational use of medicines is a sort of pressure to limit their freedom to prescribe what it seems to them necessary and better for their patients. Pharmacists dispensing medicines consider the prescription as a physician's prerogative and prefer to stay neutral in this debate. Within this large range of opinions, it is difficult to find general consensus, so that every body take care to not declare his proper opinion about the subject, the causes and the adequate solutions. Finally no changes take place in this issue. However, neither the government as responsible for the citizen's health, nor the health professionals and international organisations, are facing their complete obligations toward the populations by ensuring to them that the medicines are administered according to the health need of the patients, efficacious and safe , in doses that meet their own individual requirements, for an adequate period of time, and at the lower cost, and be secured against misuse by the pharmacist before the delivery to the patients. This is a worthwhile programme, but unfortunately without designate takers or promoters until now.

7. Rational points on varieties

CERN Document Server

Poonen, Bjorn

2017-01-01

This book is motivated by the problem of determining the set of rational points on a variety, but its true goal is to equip readers with a broad range of tools essential for current research in algebraic geometry and number theory. The book is unconventional in that it provides concise accounts of many topics instead of a comprehensive account of just one-this is intentionally designed to bring readers up to speed rapidly. Among the topics included are Brauer groups, faithfully flat descent, algebraic groups, torsors, étale and fppf cohomology, the Weil conjectures, and the Brauer-Manin and descent obstructions. A final chapter applies all these to study the arithmetic of surfaces. The down-to-earth explanations and the over 100 exercises make the book suitable for use as a graduate-level textbook, but even experts will appreciate having a single source covering many aspects of geometry over an unrestricted ground field and containing some material that cannot be found elsewhere. The origins of arithmetic (o...

8. Plural rationalities and risk

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

James, P.; Thompson, M.

1989-01-01

Like many social scientists, we attribute public unwillingness to accept certain low probability risks not to 'irrationality' but rather to the everyday application of qualitative as well as quantitative criteria. Just as most people buying a video or hi-fi do not base their decision solely on price or performance data but also consider such intangibles as design and the reputation of the manufacturer, individuals faced with a given risk take into account not merely the probability of harm but also the credibility and trustworthiness of whoever generates the information and manages the safety and other precautions which ensure its accuracy. To analyse these qualitative dimensions we utilise the grid/-group methodology developed by the cultural anthropologist Mary Douglas, and her co-workers. Douglas identifies four basic forms of society and four associated 'thought worlds' which serve to legitimise and reproduce them. Differences in concepts of human cognition, time and many other variables between the different thought worlds are so profound that they can be regarded as different kinds of rationality. The acceptability of risks is partially determined by the extent to which they support or threaten the existence of the different societies. (author)

9. Matrix Metalloproteinase Enzyme Family

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ozlem Goruroglu Ozturk

2013-04-01

Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases play an important role in many biological processes such as embriogenesis, tissue remodeling, wound healing, and angiogenesis, and in some pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, arthritis and cancer. Currently, 24 genes have been identified in humans that encode different groups of matrix metalloproteinase enzymes. This review discuss the members of the matrix metalloproteinase family and their substrate specificity, structure, function and the regulation of their enzyme activity by tissue inhibitors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 209-220

10. Matrix calculus

CERN Document Server

Bodewig, E

1959-01-01

Matrix Calculus, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition focuses on systematic calculation with the building blocks of a matrix and rows and columns, shunning the use of individual elements. The publication first offers information on vectors, matrices, further applications, measures of the magnitude of a matrix, and forms. The text then examines eigenvalues and exact solutions, including the characteristic equation, eigenrows, extremum properties of the eigenvalues, bounds for the eigenvalues, elementary divisors, and bounds for the determinant. The text ponders on approximate solutions, as well

11. Embedded Lattice and Properties of Gram Matrix

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Futa Yuichi

2017-03-01

Full Text Available In this article, we formalize in Mizar [14] the definition of embedding of lattice and its properties. We formally define an inner product on an embedded module. We also formalize properties of Gram matrix. We formally prove that an inverse of Gram matrix for a rational lattice exists. Lattice of Z-module is necessary for lattice problems, LLL (Lenstra, Lenstra and Lov´asz base reduction algorithm [16] and cryptographic systems with lattice [17].

12. A new matrix for scoring the functionality of national laboratory networks in Africa: introducing the LABNET scorecard

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Ondoa, Pascale; Datema, Tjeerd; Keita-Sow, Mah-Sere; Ndihokubwayo, Jean-Bosco; Isadore, Jocelyn; Oskam, Linda; Nkengasong, John; Lewis, Kim

2016-01-01

Functional national laboratory networks and systems are indispensable to the achievement of global health security targets according to the International Health Regulations. The lack of indicators to measure the functionality of national laboratory network has limited the efficiency of past and

13. Discrete Choice and Rational Inattention

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fosgerau, Mogens; Melo, Emerson; de Palma, André

2017-01-01

This paper establishes a general equivalence between discrete choice and rational inattention models. Matejka and McKay (2015, AER) showed that when information costs are modelled using the Shannon entropy, the result- ing choice probabilities in the rational inattention model take the multinomial...... logit form. We show that when information costs are modelled using a class of generalized entropies, then the choice probabilities in any rational inattention model are observationally equivalent to some additive random utility discrete choice model and vice versa. This equivalence arises from convex...

14. Testing bounded rationality against full rationality in job changing behavior

OpenAIRE

Contini, Bruno; Morini, Matteo

2007-01-01

In this paper we question the hypothesis of full rationality in the context of job changing behaviour, via simple econometric explorations on microdata drawn from WHIP (Worker Histories Italian Panel). Workers' performance is compared at the end of a three-year time window that starts when choices are expressed, under the accepted notion that the main driving forces of job change are future real wages and expected job quality. Bounded rationality suggests that individuals will search for new ...

15. Testing Bounded Rationality Against Full Rationality in Job Changing Behavior

OpenAIRE

Bruno Contini

2008-01-01

In this paper I question the hypothesis of full rationality in the context of job changing behaviour, via simple econometric explorations on microdata drawn from WHIP (Worker Histories Italian Panel). Workers’ performance is compared at the end of a three-year time window that starts when choices are expressed, under the accepted notion that the main driving forces of job change are future real wages and expected job quality. Bounded rationality suggests that individuals will search for new o...

16. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembling Gold Nanorods and Glucose Oxidase onto Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized Sol-Gel Matrix for an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor.

Science.gov (United States)

Wu, Baoyan; Hou, Shihua; Miao, Zhiying; Zhang, Cong; Ji, Yanhong

2015-09-18

A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was fabricated by layer-by-layer self-assembly of gold nanorods (AuNRs) and glucose oxidase (GOD) onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-functionalized three-dimensional sol-gel matrix. A thiolated aqueous silica sol containing SWCNTs was first assembled on the surface of a cleaned Au electrode, and then the alternate self-assembly of AuNRs and GOD were repeated to assemble multilayer films of AuNRs-GOD onto SWCNTs-functionalized silica gel for optimizing the biosensor. Among the resulting glucose biosensors, the four layers of AuNRs-GOD-modified electrode showed the best performance. The sol-SWCNTs-(AuNRs- GOD)₄/Au biosensor exhibited a good linear range of 0.01-8 mM glucose, high sensitivity of 1.08 μA/mM, and fast amperometric response within 4 s. The good performance of the proposed glucose biosensor could be mainly attributed to the advantages of the three-dimensional sol-gel matrix and stereo self-assembly films, and the natural features of one-dimensional nanostructure SWCNTs and AuNRs. This study may provide a new facile way to fabricate the enzyme-based biosensor with high performance.

17. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembling Gold Nanorods and Glucose Oxidase onto Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized Sol-Gel Matrix for an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Baoyan Wu

2015-09-01

Full Text Available A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was fabricated by layer-by-layer self-assembly of gold nanorods (AuNRs and glucose oxidase (GOD onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-functionalized three-dimensional sol-gel matrix. A thiolated aqueous silica sol containing SWCNTs was first assembled on the surface of a cleaned Au electrode, and then the alternate self-assembly of AuNRs and GOD were repeated to assemble multilayer films of AuNRs-GOD onto SWCNTs-functionalized silica gel for optimizing the biosensor. Among the resulting glucose biosensors, the four layers of AuNRs-GOD-modified electrode showed the best performance. The sol-SWCNTs-(AuNRs- GOD4/Au biosensor exhibited a good linear range of 0.01–8 mM glucose, high sensitivity of 1.08 μA/mM, and fast amperometric response within 4 s. The good performance of the proposed glucose biosensor could be mainly attributed to the advantages of the three-dimensional sol-gel matrix and stereo self-assembly films, and the natural features of one-dimensional nanostructure SWCNTs and AuNRs. This study may provide a new facile way to fabricate the enzyme-based biosensor with high performance.

18. Characterization of curdlan produced by Agrobacterium sp. IFO 13140 cells immobilized in a loofa sponge matrix, and application of this biopolymer in the development of functional yogurt.

Science.gov (United States)

Ortiz Martinez, Camila; Pereira Ruiz, Suelen; Carvalho Fenelon, Vanderson; Rodrigues de Morais, Gutierrez; Luciano Baesso, Mauro; Matioli, Graciette

2016-05-01

Agrobacterium sp. IFO 13140 cells were immobilized on a loofa sponge and used to produce curdlan over five successive cycles. The interaction between microbial cells and the loofa sponge as well as the produced curdlan were characterized by Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectrometry. The purity of the curdlan was also evaluated. The storage stability of the immobilized cells was assessed and the produced curdlan was used in a functional yogurt formulation. The average curdlan production by immobilized cells was 17.84 g L(-1) . The presence of the microorganism in the sponge was confirmed and did not cause alterations in the matrix, and the chemical structure of the curdlan was the same as that of commercial curdlan. The purity of both was similar. The immobilized cells remained active after 300 days of storage at -18 °C. The use of the produced curdlan in a functional yogurt resulted in a product with lower syneresis. A large number of cells physically adhered to the surface of loofa sponge fibers, and its use as an immobilization matrix to produce curdlan was effective. The use of the produced curdlan in yogurt allowed the development of a more stable product. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

19. A tree-decomposed transfer matrix for computing exact Potts model partition functions for arbitrary graphs, with applications to planar graph colourings

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bedini, Andrea; Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke

2010-01-01

Combining tree decomposition and transfer matrix techniques provides a very general algorithm for computing exact partition functions of statistical models defined on arbitrary graphs. The algorithm is particularly efficient in the case of planar graphs. We illustrate it by computing the Potts model partition functions and chromatic polynomials (the number of proper vertex colourings using Q colours) for large samples of random planar graphs with up to N = 100 vertices. In the latter case, our algorithm yields a sub-exponential average running time of ∼ exp(1.516√N), a substantial improvement over the exponential running time ∼exp (0.245N) provided by the hitherto best-known algorithm. We study the statistics of chromatic roots of random planar graphs in some detail, comparing the findings with results for finite pieces of a regular lattice.

20. Linear-scaling density-functional simulations of charged point defects in Al2O3 using hierarchical sparse matrix algebra.

Science.gov (United States)

Hine, N D M; Haynes, P D; Mostofi, A A; Payne, M C

2010-09-21

We present calculations of formation energies of defects in an ionic solid (Al(2)O(3)) extrapolated to the dilute limit, corresponding to a simulation cell of infinite size. The large-scale calculations required for this extrapolation are enabled by developments in the approach to parallel sparse matrix algebra operations, which are central to linear-scaling density-functional theory calculations. The computational cost of manipulating sparse matrices, whose sizes are determined by the large number of basis functions present, is greatly improved with this new approach. We present details of the sparse algebra scheme implemented in the ONETEP code using hierarchical sparsity patterns, and demonstrate its use in calculations on a wide range of systems, involving thousands of atoms on hundreds to thousands of parallel processes.

1. The static response function in Kohn-Sham theory: An appropriate basis for its matrix representation in case of finite AO basis sets

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kollmar, Christian; Neese, Frank

2014-01-01

The role of the static Kohn-Sham (KS) response function describing the response of the electron density to a change of the local KS potential is discussed in both the theory of the optimized effective potential (OEP) and the so-called inverse Kohn-Sham problem involving the task to find the local KS potential for a given electron density. In a general discussion of the integral equation to be solved in both cases, it is argued that a unique solution of this equation can be found even in case of finite atomic orbital basis sets. It is shown how a matrix representation of the response function can be obtained if the exchange-correlation potential is expanded in terms of a Schmidt-orthogonalized basis comprising orbitals products of occupied and virtual orbitals. The viability of this approach in both OEP theory and the inverse KS problem is illustrated by numerical examples

2. The extracellular matrix and focal adhesion kinase signaling regulate cancer stem cell function in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Asma Begum

Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs play an important role in the clonogenic growth and metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. A hallmark of PDAC is the desmoplastic reaction, but the impact of the tumor microenvironment (TME on CSCs is unknown. In order to better understand the mechanisms, we examined the impact of extracellular matrix (ECM proteins on PDAC CSCs. We quantified the effect of ECM proteins, β1-integrin, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK on clonogenic PDAC growth and migration in vitro and tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis in vivo in nude mice using shRNA and overexpression constructs as well as small molecule FAK inhibitors. Type I collagen increased PDAC tumor initiating potential, self-renewal, and the frequency of CSCs through the activation of FAK. FAK overexpression increased tumor initiation, whereas a dominant negative FAK mutant or FAK kinase inhibitors reduced clonogenic PDAC growth in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the FAK inhibitor VS-4718 extended the anti-tumor response to gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel in patient-derived PDAC xenografts, and the loss of FAK expression limited metastatic dissemination of orthotopic xenografts. Type I collagen enhances PDAC CSCs, and both kinase-dependent and independent activities of FAK impact PDAC tumor initiation, self-renewal, and metastasis. The anti-tumor impact of FAK inhibitors in combination with standard chemotherapy support the clinical testing of this combination.

3. Morphology and function in the Cambrian Burgess Shale megacheiran arthropod Leanchoilia superlata and the application of a descriptive matrix

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Haug Joachim T

2012-08-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background Leanchoilia superlata is one of the best known arthropods from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale of British Columbia. Here we re-describe the morphology of L. superlata and discuss its possible autecology. The re-description follows a standardized scheme, the descriptive matrix approach, designed to provide a template for descriptions of other megacheiran species. Results Our findings differ in several respects from previous interpretations. Examples include a more slender body; a possible hypostome; a small specialised second appendage, bringing the number of pairs of head appendages to four; a further sub-division of the great appendage, making it more similar to that of other megacheirans; and a complex joint of the exopod reflecting the arthropod’s swimming capabilities. Conclusions Different aspects of the morphology, for example, the morphology of the great appendage and the presence of a basipod with strong median armature on the biramous appendages indicate that L. superlata was an active and agile necto-benthic predator (not a scavenger or deposit feeder as previously interpreted.

4. Study of titania nanorod films deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation as a function of laser fluence

Science.gov (United States)

Caricato, A. P.; Belviso, M. R.; Catalano, M.; Cesaria, M.; Cozzoli, P. D.; Luches, A.; Manera, M. G.; Martino, M.; Rella, R.; Taurino, A.

2011-11-01

Chemically synthesized brookite titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods with average diameter and length dimensions of 3-4 nm and 35-50 nm, respectively, were deposited by the matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation technique. A toluene nanorod solution was frozen at the liquid-nitrogen temperature and irradiated with a KrF excimer laser ( λ=248 nm, τ=20 ns) at the repetition rate of 10 Hz, at different fluences (25 to 350 mJ/cm2). The deposited films were structurally characterized by high-resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy. single-crystal Si wafers and carbon-coated Cu grids were used as substrates. Structural analyses evidenced the occurrence of brookite-phase crystalline nanospheres coexisting with individually distinguishable TiO2 nanorods in the films deposited at fluences varying from 50 to 350 mJ/cm2. Nanostructured TiO2 films comprising only nanorods were deposited by lowering the laser fluence to 25 mJ/cm2. The observed shape and phase transitions of the nanorods are discussed taking into account the laser-induced heating effects, reduced melting temperature and size-dependent thermodynamic stability of nanoscale TiO2.

5. Rational reconstructions of modern physics

CERN Document Server

Mittelstaedt, Peter

2013-01-01

Newton’s classical physics and its underlying ontology are loaded with several metaphysical hypotheses that cannot be justified by rational reasoning nor by experimental evidence. Furthermore, it is well known that some of these hypotheses are not contained in the great theories of Modern Physics, such as the theory of Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. This book shows that, on the basis of Newton’s classical physics and by rational reconstruction, the theory of Special Relativity as well as Quantum Mechanics can be obtained by partly eliminating or attenuating the metaphysical hypotheses. Moreover, it is shown that these reconstructions do not require additional hypotheses or new experimental results. In the second edition the rational reconstructions are completed with respect to General Relativity and Cosmology. In addition, the statistics of quantum objects is elaborated in more detail with respect to the rational reconstruction of quantum mechanics. The new material completes the approach of t...

6. Rational-Emotive Staff Development.

Science.gov (United States)

Forman, Susan G.; Forman, Bruce D.

1980-01-01

The application of Rational-Emotive Therapy principles and techniques in in-service education for school personnel is discussed. Teacher and counselor participation in a staff development program is described. (Author)

7. Beyond the functional matrix hypothesis: a network null model of human skull growth for the formation of bone articulations.

Science.gov (United States)

Esteve-Altava, Borja; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

2014-09-01

Craniofacial sutures and synchondroses form the boundaries among bones in the human skull, providing functional, developmental and evolutionary information. Bone articulations in the skull arise due to interactions between genetic regulatory mechanisms and epigenetic factors such as functional matrices (soft tissues and cranial cavities), which mediate bone growth. These matrices are largely acknowledged for their influence on shaping the bones of the skull; however, it is not fully understood to what extent functional matrices mediate the formation of bone articulations. Aiming to identify whether or not functional matrices are key developmental factors guiding the formation of bone articulations, we have built a network null model of the skull that simulates unconstrained bone growth. This null model predicts bone articulations that arise due to a process of bone growth that is uniform in rate, direction and timing. By comparing predicted articulations with the actual bone articulations of the human skull, we have identified which boundaries specifically need the presence of functional matrices for their formation. We show that functional matrices are necessary to connect facial bones, whereas an unconstrained bone growth is sufficient to connect non-facial bones. This finding challenges the role of the brain in the formation of boundaries between bones in the braincase without neglecting its effect on skull shape. Ultimately, our null model suggests where to look for modified developmental mechanisms promoting changes in bone growth patterns that could affect the development and evolution of the head skeleton. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

8. Rational Solutions to the ABS List: Transformation Approach

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Danda; Zhang, Da-Jun

2017-10-01

In the paper we derive rational solutions for the lattice potential modified Korteweg-de Vries equation, and Q2, Q1(δ), H3(δ), H2 and H1 in the Adler-Bobenko-Suris list. Bäcklund transformations between these lattice equations are used. All these rational solutions are related to a unified τ function in Casoratian form which obeys a bilinear superposition formula.

9. MATLAB matrix algebra

CERN Document Server

Pérez López, César

2014-01-01

MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Matrix Algebra introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. Starting with a look at symbolic and numeric variables, with an emphasis on vector and matrix variables, you will go on to examine functions and operations that support vectors and matrices as arguments, including those based on analytic parent functions. Computational methods for finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices are detailed, leading to various matrix decompositions. Applications such as change of bases, the classification of quadratic forms and ...

10. Management between Rationality and Irrationality

OpenAIRE

Cene Bavec

2012-01-01

In the paper, we discuss theoretical and practical aspects of management and its rational and irrational behavior in the light of traditional management theories and contemporary social theories and theories of complexity. We exposed differences between middle and top management, where rationality is ascribed mainly to middle management, while top management often acts on seemingly irrational way. For the part of this irrationality, we cannot blame management because it originates from the na...

11. Choice, internal consistency, and rationality

OpenAIRE

Aditi Bhattacharyya; Prasanta K. Pattanaik; Yongsheng Xu

2010-01-01

The classical theory of rational choice is built on several important internal consistency conditions. In recent years, the reasonableness of those internal consistency conditions has been questioned and criticized, and several responses to accommodate such criticisms have been proposed in the literature. This paper develops a general framework to accommodate the issues raised by the criticisms of classical rational choice theory, and examines the broad impact of these criticisms from both no...

12. Matrix theory selected topics and useful results

CERN Document Server

1989-01-01

Matrices and operations on matrices ; determinants ; elementary operations on matrices (continued) ; eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization of normal matrices ; functions of a matrix ; positive definiteness, various polar forms of a matrix ; special matrices ; matrices with quaternion elements ; inequalities ; generalised inverse of a matrix ; domain of values of a matrix, location and dispersion of eigenvalues ; symmetric functions ; integration over matrix variables ; permanents of doubly stochastic matrices ; infinite matrices ; Alexander matrices, knot polynomials, torsion numbers.

13. Rational-driver approximation in car-following theory

Science.gov (United States)

Lubashevsky, Ihor; Wagner, Peter; Mahnke, Reinhard

2003-11-01

The problem of a car following a lead car driven with constant velocity is considered. To derive the governing equations for the following car dynamics a cost functional is constructed. This functional ranks the outcomes of different driving strategies, which applies to fairly general properties of the driver behavior. Assuming rational-driver behavior, the existence of the Nash equilibrium is proved. Rational driving is defined by supposing that a driver corrects continuously the car motion to follow the optimal path minimizing the cost functional. The corresponding car-following dynamics is described quite generally by a boundary value problem based on the obtained extremal equations. Linearization of these equations around the stationary state results in a generalization of the widely used optimal velocity model. Under certain conditions (the “dense traffic” limit) the rational car dynamics comprises two stages, fast and slow. During the fast stage a driver eliminates the velocity difference between the cars, the subsequent slow stage optimizes the headway. In the dense traffic limit an effective Hamiltonian description is constructed. This allows a more detailed nonlinear analysis. Finally, the differences between rational and bounded rational driver behavior are discussed. The latter, in particular, justifies some basic assumptions used recently by the authors to construct a car-following model lying beyond the frameworks of rationality.

14. Structure and representation of correlation functions and the density matrix for a statistical wave field in optics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Mukunda, N.

1978-03-01

A systematic structure analysis of the correlation functions of statistical quantum optics is carried out. From a suitably defined auxiliary two-point function identification of the excited modes in the wave field is found. The relative simplicity of the higher order correlation functions emerges as a by-product and the conditions under which these are made pure are derived. These results depend in a crucial manner on the notion of coherence indices aand of unimodular coherence indices. A new class of approximate expressions for the density operator of a statistical wave field is worked out based on discrete characteristic sets. These are even more economical than the diagonal coherent state representations. An appreciation of the subtleties of quantum theory obtains. Certain implications for the physics of light beams are cited. 28 references

15. Inferring Aggregated Functional Traits from Metagenomic Data Using Constrained Non-negative Matrix Factorization: Application to Fiber Degradation in the Human Gut Microbiota.

Science.gov (United States)

Raguideau, Sébastien; Plancade, Sandra; Pons, Nicolas; Leclerc, Marion; Laroche, Béatrice

2016-12-01

Whole Genome Shotgun (WGS) metagenomics is increasingly used to study the structure and functions of complex microbial ecosystems, both from the taxonomic and functional point of view. Gene inventories of otherwise uncultured microbial communities make the direct functional profiling of microbial communities possible. The concept of community aggregated trait has been adapted from environmental and plant functional ecology to the framework of microbial ecology. Community aggregated traits are quantified from WGS data by computing the abundance of relevant marker genes. They can be used to study key processes at the ecosystem level and correlate environmental factors and ecosystem functions. In this paper we propose a novel model based approach to infer combinations of aggregated traits characterizing specific ecosystemic metabolic processes. We formulate a model of these Combined Aggregated Functional Traits (CAFTs) accounting for a hierarchical structure of genes, which are associated on microbial genomes, further linked at the ecosystem level by complex co-occurrences or interactions. The model is completed with constraints specifically designed to exploit available genomic information, in order to favor biologically relevant CAFTs. The CAFTs structure, as well as their intensity in the ecosystem, is obtained by solving a constrained Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) problem. We developed a multicriteria selection procedure for the number of CAFTs. We illustrated our method on the modelling of ecosystemic functional traits of fiber degradation by the human gut microbiota. We used 1408 samples of gene abundances from several high-throughput sequencing projects and found that four CAFTs only were needed to represent the fiber degradation potential. This data reduction highlighted biologically consistent functional patterns while providing a high quality preservation of the original data. Our method is generic and can be applied to other metabolic processes in

16. Inferring Aggregated Functional Traits from Metagenomic Data Using Constrained Non-negative Matrix Factorization: Application to Fiber Degradation in the Human Gut Microbiota.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sébastien Raguideau

2016-12-01

Full Text Available Whole Genome Shotgun (WGS metagenomics is increasingly used to study the structure and functions of complex microbial ecosystems, both from the taxonomic and functional point of view. Gene inventories of otherwise uncultured microbial communities make the direct functional profiling of microbial communities possible. The concept of community aggregated trait has been adapted from environmental and plant functional ecology to the framework of microbial ecology. Community aggregated traits are quantified from WGS data by computing the abundance of relevant marker genes. They can be used to study key processes at the ecosystem level and correlate environmental factors and ecosystem functions. In this paper we propose a novel model based approach to infer combinations of aggregated traits characterizing specific ecosystemic metabolic processes. We formulate a model of these Combined Aggregated Functional Traits (CAFTs accounting for a hierarchical structure of genes, which are associated on microbial genomes, further linked at the ecosystem level by complex co-occurrences or interactions. The model is completed with constraints specifically designed to exploit available genomic information, in order to favor biologically relevant CAFTs. The CAFTs structure, as well as their intensity in the ecosystem, is obtained by solving a constrained Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF problem. We developed a multicriteria selection procedure for the number of CAFTs. We illustrated our method on the modelling of ecosystemic functional traits of fiber degradation by the human gut microbiota. We used 1408 samples of gene abundances from several high-throughput sequencing projects and found that four CAFTs only were needed to represent the fiber degradation potential. This data reduction highlighted biologically consistent functional patterns while providing a high quality preservation of the original data. Our method is generic and can be applied to other

17. Determination of the substrate repertoire of ADAMTS2, 3, and 14 significantly broadens their functions and identifies extracellular matrix organization and TGF-β signaling as primary targets.

Science.gov (United States)

Bekhouche, Mourad; Leduc, Cedric; Dupont, Laura; Janssen, Lauriane; Delolme, Frederic; Vadon-Le Goff, Sandrine; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Baiwir, Dominique; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel; Zanella-Cleon, Isabelle; Dubail, Johanne; De Pauw, Edwin; Nusgens, Betty; Hulmes, David J S; Moali, Catherine; Colige, Alain

2016-05-01

A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type I motif (ADAMTS)2, 3, and 14 are collectively named procollagen N-proteinases (pNPs) because of their specific ability to cleave the aminopropeptide of fibrillar procollagens. Several reports also indicate that they could be involved in other biological processes, such as blood coagulation, development, and male fertility, but the potential substrates associated with these activities remain unknown. Using the recently described N-terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrate approach, we analyzed the secretomes of human fibroblasts and identified 8, 17, and 22 candidate substrates for ADAMTS2, 3, and 14, respectively. Among these newly identified substrates, many are components of the extracellular matrix and/or proteins related to cell signaling such as latent TGF-β binding protein 1, TGF-β RIII, and dickkopf-related protein 3. Candidate substrates for the 3 ADAMTS have been biochemically validated in different contexts, and the implication of ADAMTS2 in the control of TGF-β activity has been further demonstrated in human fibroblasts. Finally, the cleavage site specificity was assessed showing a clear and unique preference for nonpolar or slightly hydrophobic amino acids. This work shows that the activities of the pNPs extend far beyond the classically reported processing of the aminopropeptide of fibrillar collagens and that they should now be considered as multilevel regulators of matrix deposition and remodeling.-Bekhouche, M., Leduc, C., Dupont, L., Janssen, L., Delolme, F., Vadon-Le Goff, S., Smargiasso, N., Baiwir, D., Mazzucchelli, G., Zanella-Cleon, I., Dubail, J., De Pauw, E., Nusgens, B., Hulmes, D. J. S., Moali, C., Colige, A. Determination of the substrate repertoire of ADAMTS2, 3, and 14 significantly broadens their functions and identifies extracellular matrix organization and TGF-β signaling as primary targets. © FASEB.

18. Elliptic equation rational expansion method and new exact travelling solutions for Whitham-Broer-Kaup equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chen Yong; Wang Qi; Li Biao

2005-01-01

Based on a new general ansatz and a general subepuation, a new general algebraic method named elliptic equation rational expansion method is devised for constructing multiple travelling wave solutions in terms of rational special function for nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs). We apply the proposed method to solve Whitham-Broer-Kaup equation and explicitly construct a series of exact solutions which include rational form solitary wave solution, rational form triangular periodic wave solutions and rational wave solutions as special cases. In addition, the links among our proposed method with the method by Fan [Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;20:609], are also clarified generally

19. Complex matrix model duality

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brown, T.W.

2010-11-01

The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

20. Complex matrix model duality

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brown, T.W.

2010-11-15

The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

1. Rational Approximations of the Inverse Gaussian Function.

Science.gov (United States)

Byars, Jackson A.; Roscoe, John T.

There are at least two situations in which the behavioral scientist wishes to transform uniformly distributed data into normally distributed data: (1) In studies of sampling distributions where uniformly distributed pseudo-random numbers are generated by a computer but normally distributed numbers are desired; and (2) In measurement applications…

2. Reduction theory for a rational function field

R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

Planck-Institut für Mathematik, Postfach 7280, D-53072 Bonn, Germany. MS received 9 September 2002; revised 16 October 2002. Abstract. Let G be a split reductive group over a finite field Fq . Let F = Fq (t) and let A denote the adeles of F. We ...

3. Love and rationality: on some possible rational effects of love

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Gustavo Ortiz-Millán

Full Text Available In this paper I defend the idea that rather than disrupting rationality, as the common-sense conception has done it, love may actually help us to develop rational ways of thinking and acting. I make the case for romantic or erotic love, since this is the kind of love that is more frequently associated with irrationality in acting and thinking. I argue that this kind of love may make us develop epistemic and practical forms of rationality. Based on an analysis of its characteristic action tendencies, I argue that love may help us to develop an instrumental form of rationality in determining the best means to achieve the object of love. It may also narrow down the number of practical considerations that may help us to achieve our goals. Finally, love may generate rational ways of belief-formation by framing the parameters taken into account in perception and attention, and by bringing into light only a small portion of the epistemic information available. Love may make us perceive reality more acutely.

4. Effect of S-1 combined with oxaliplatin on serum tumor markers, matrix metalloproteinase and immune function in elderly patients with gastric cancer

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yong-Feng Shan

2017-10-01

Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of Compound Tegafur and Oteracil Potassium Sustained Capsules (S-1 combined with oxaliplatin chemotherapy on serum tumor marker matrix metalloproteinase and immune function in elderly patients with gastric cancer. Methods: According to the random data table, 80 cases of elderly patients with gastric cancer were divided into control group and observation group (n=40, patients in the control group were treated with oxaliplatin combined with Capecitabine Tablets, and the observation group patients were treated with S-1 combined with oxaliplatin, all treated for 6 cycles, before and after treatment, levels of serum tumor markers, matrix metalloproteinase and immune function were compared between the two groups. Results: Before treatment, there was no significant difference in the levels of CEA, CA125, CA19-9, MMP-2, MMP-9, CD3 + , CD4 + , CD8 + and CD4 + /CD8 + between the two groups; After treatment, the levels of CEA, CA125, CA19-9, MMP-2, MMP-9 and CD8 + in the two groups were significantly lower than those in the same group before treatment, and the levels of the observation group[(7.79±2.78 ng/ mL, (22.56±7.31 U/mL, (13.48±3.05 U/mL, (57.84±8.93 ng/mL, (199.14±67.39 ng/ mL and (26.21±4.18%] were significantly lower than those in the control group; Compared with the group before treatment, the levels of CD3 + , CD4 + and CD4 + /CD8 + in the two groups were significantly increased, and the observation group [(66.89±5.84%, (41.63±5.24% and (1.37±0.29] was significantly higher than the control group. Conclusion: S-1 combined with oxaliplatin chemotherapy can effectively reduce serum tumor markers and matrix metalloproteinase levels, improve immune function, has an important clinical value.

5. Distribution of Cathepsin K in Late Stage of Tooth Germ Development and Its Function in Degrading Enamel Matrix Proteins in Mouse.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tao Jiang

Full Text Available Cathepsin K (CTSK is a member of cysteine proteinase family, and is predominantly expressed in osteoclastsfor degradationof bone matrix proteins. Given the similarity in physical properties of bone and dental mineralized tissues, including enamel, dentin and cementum, CTSK is likely to take part in mineralization process during odontogenesis. On the other hand, patients with pycnodysostosis caused by mutations of the CTSK gene displayedmultipledental abnormalities, such as hypoplasia of the enamel, obliterated pulp chambers, hypercementosis and periodontal disease. Thereforeitis necessary to study the metabolic role of CTSK in tooth matrix proteins. In this study, BALB/c mice at embryonic day 18 (E18, post-natal day 1 (P1, P5, P10 and P20 were used (5 mice at each time pointfor systematic analyses of CTSK expression in the late stage of tooth germ development. We found that CTSK was abundantly expressed in the ameloblasts during secretory and maturation stages (P5 and P10 by immunohistochemistry stainings.During dentinogenesis, the staining was also intense in the mineralization stage (P5 and P10,but not detectable in the early stage of dentin formation (P1 and after tooth eruption (P20.Furthermore, through zymography and digestion test in vitro, CTSK was proved to be capable of hydrolyzing Emdogain and also cleaving Amelogenininto multiple products. Our resultsshed lights on revealing new functions of CTSK and pathogenesis of pycnodysostosis in oral tissues.

6. Synthesis and characterization of new nanocomposites films using alanine-Cu-functionalized graphene oxide as nanofiller and PVA as polymeric matrix for improving of their properties

Science.gov (United States)

Abdolmaleki, Amir; Mallakpour, Shadpour; Karshenas, Azam

2017-09-01

In the synthesis of polymer-graphene nanocomposites, for improving properties of nanocomposites, two factors dispersion and strong interfacial interactions between graphene and the polymer, are essential. In the present work, poly(vinyl alcohol) PVA/GO-Cu-alanine nanocomposite films were manufactured using concentrations 0, 1, 3 and 5 wt% of GO-Cu-alanine in water solution. For this purpose, L-alanine amino acid was located on the surface and edges of GO through copper(II) ion as a coordinating function. Then, flexible PVA/GO-Cu-alanine nanocomposite films were fabricated using GO-Cu-alanine as filler and PVA as matrix. Due to the existence of affective interaction between GO-Cu-alanine and PVA matrix, the acquired PVA/GO-Cu-alanine nanocomposites demonstrated great thermal and mechanical properties. Properties of manufactured materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermal gravimetric analysis, elemental analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).

7. Functionalized agarose as an effective and novel matrix for immobilizing Cicer arietinum β-galactosidase and its application in lactose hydrolysis

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rukhsana Satar

Full Text Available Abstract The present study demonstrates the immobilization of β-galactosidase from Cicer arietinum on a simple and inexpensive matrix, glutaraldehyde functionalized agarose (GFA, to suggest its potential application in hydrolyzing whey lactose in biotechnology industries. The designed matrix provided large surface area for the immobilization of β-galactosidase, apart from exhibiting greater biocatalytic activity in terms of selectivity, loading and stability. GFA retained 83% enzyme activity as a result of immobilization. Soluble and GFA bound Cicer arietinum β-galactosidase showed the same pH and temperature-optima at pH 5.0 and at 50 °C, respectively. However, immobilized enzyme exhibited a greater fraction of activity at both acidic and basic pH, and at higher temperature ranges. GFA bound enzyme lost only 20 % enzyme in the presence of 3% galactose, and retained 70 % activity even after its sixth repeated use. Immobilized enzyme showed pronounced lactose hydrolysis from whey in batch processes at 55 °C as compared to enzyme in solution.

8. Rational Decision Making as Performative Praxis: Explaining Rationality's Éternel Retour

OpenAIRE

Cabantous, L.; Gond, J-P.

2011-01-01

Organizational theorists built their knowledge of decision making through a progressive critique of rational choice theory. Their positioning towards rationality, however, is at odds with the observation of rationality persistence in organizational life. This paper addresses this paradox. It proposes a new perspective on rationality that allows the theorizing of the production of rational decisions by organizations. To account for rationality's éternel retour, we approach rational decision ma...

9. A matrix model for WZW

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dorey, Nick; Tong, David; Turner, Carl

2016-01-01

We study a U(N) gauged matrix quantum mechanics which, in the large N limit, is closely related to the chiral WZW conformal field theory. This manifests itself in two ways. First, we construct the left-moving Kac-Moody algebra from matrix degrees of freedom. Secondly, we compute the partition function of the matrix model in terms of Schur and Kostka polynomials and show that, in the large N limit, it coincides with the partition function of the WZW model. This same matrix model was recently shown to describe non-Abelian quantum Hall states and the relationship to the WZW model can be understood in this framework.

10. Functionality and stability data of detergent purified nAChR from Torpedo using lipidic matrixes and macroscopic electrophysiology

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2016-03-01

Full Text Available The presented data provides additional information about the assessment of affinity purified nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR rich membrane solubilized with long chain (16 saturated carbons lysophospholipid with glycerol headgroup (LFG-16. The assessment of stability and functionality of solubilized membrane protein is a critical step prior to further crystallization trails. One of the key factors for this task is the appropriate choice of a detergent that can support nAChR activity and stability comparable to the crude membranes. The stability of the nAChR-LFG-16 complex incorporated into lipid cubic phase (LCP was monitored for a period of 30 days by means of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP and the functionality was evaluated after its incorporation into Xenopus oocyte by means of the two electrode voltage clamp technique. Keywords: Detergents, Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, Lipidic Cubic Phase, nAChR, Planar lipid bilayer, Two-electrode voltage clamp

11. Rationing medical education | Walsh | African Health Sciences

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at the prospect of rationing, the truth is that rationing has always occurred in one form or another in medical education and in healthcare more broadly. Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. For example rationing may ...

12. Who is (more) rational?

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Choi, S.; Kariv, S.; Müller, W.; Silverman, D.

Revealed preference theory offers a criterion for decision-making quality: if decisions are high quality then there exists a utility function the choices maximize. We conduct a large-scale experiment to test for consistency with utility maximization. Consistency scores vary markedly within and

13. Strategy selection as rational metareasoning.

Science.gov (United States)

Lieder, Falk; Griffiths, Thomas L

2017-11-01

Many contemporary accounts of human reasoning assume that the mind is equipped with multiple heuristics that could be deployed to perform a given task. This raises the question of how the mind determines when to use which heuristic. To answer this question, we developed a rational model of strategy selection, based on the theory of rational metareasoning developed in the artificial intelligence literature. According to our model people learn to efficiently choose the strategy with the best cost-benefit tradeoff by learning a predictive model of each strategy's performance. We found that our model can provide a unifying explanation for classic findings from domains ranging from decision-making to arithmetic by capturing the variability of people's strategy choices, their dependence on task and context, and their development over time. Systematic model comparisons supported our theory, and 4 new experiments confirmed its distinctive predictions. Our findings suggest that people gradually learn to make increasingly more rational use of fallible heuristics. This perspective reconciles the 2 poles of the debate about human rationality by integrating heuristics and biases with learning and rationality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

14. Functional relevance of protein glycosylation to the pro-inflammatory effects of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) on monocytes/macrophages.

Science.gov (United States)

Ge, Heng; Yuan, Wei; Liu, Jidong; He, Qing; Ding, Song; Pu, Jun; He, Ben

2015-01-01

Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is an important pro-inflammatory protein involved in the cellular functions of monocytes/macrophages. We have hypothesized that high-level heterogeneousness of protein glycosylation of EMMPRIN may have functional relevance to its biological effects and affect the inflammatory activity of monocytes/macrophages. The glycosylation patterns of EMMPRIN expressed by monocytes/macrophages (THP-1 cells) in response to different extracellular stimuli were observed, and the structures of different glycosylation forms were identified. After the purification of highly- and less-glycosylated proteins respectively, the impacts of different glycosylation forms on the pro-inflammatory effects of EMMPRIN were examined in various aspects, such as cell adhesion to endothelial cells, cell migrations, cytokine expression, and activation of inflammatory signalling pathway. 1) It was mainly the highly-glycosylated form of EMMPRIN (HG-EMMPRIN) that increased after being exposed to inflammatory signals (PMA and H2O2). 2) Glycosylation of EMMPRIN in monocytes/macrophages led to N-linked-glycans being added to the protein, with the HG form containing complex-type glycans and the less-glycosylated form (LG) the simple type. 3) Only the HG-EMMPRIN but not the LG-EMMPRIN exhibited pro-inflammatory effects and stimulated inflammatory activities of the monocytes/macrophages (i.e., activation of ERK1/2 and NF-κB pathway, enhanced monocyte-endothelium adhesion, cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase -9 expression). Post-transcriptional glycosylation represents an important mechanism that determines the biological effects of EMMPRIN in monocytes/macrophages. Glycosylation of EMMPRIN may serve as a potential target for regulating the inflammatory activities of monocytes/macrophages.

15. Functional relevance of protein glycosylation to the pro-inflammatory effects of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN on monocytes/macrophages.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Heng Ge

Full Text Available Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN is an important pro-inflammatory protein involved in the cellular functions of monocytes/macrophages. We have hypothesized that high-level heterogeneousness of protein glycosylation of EMMPRIN may have functional relevance to its biological effects and affect the inflammatory activity of monocytes/macrophages.The glycosylation patterns of EMMPRIN expressed by monocytes/macrophages (THP-1 cells in response to different extracellular stimuli were observed, and the structures of different glycosylation forms were identified. After the purification of highly- and less-glycosylated proteins respectively, the impacts of different glycosylation forms on the pro-inflammatory effects of EMMPRIN were examined in various aspects, such as cell adhesion to endothelial cells, cell migrations, cytokine expression, and activation of inflammatory signalling pathway.1 It was mainly the highly-glycosylated form of EMMPRIN (HG-EMMPRIN that increased after being exposed to inflammatory signals (PMA and H2O2. 2 Glycosylation of EMMPRIN in monocytes/macrophages led to N-linked-glycans being added to the protein, with the HG form containing complex-type glycans and the less-glycosylated form (LG the simple type. 3 Only the HG-EMMPRIN but not the LG-EMMPRIN exhibited pro-inflammatory effects and stimulated inflammatory activities of the monocytes/macrophages (i.e., activation of ERK1/2 and NF-κB pathway, enhanced monocyte-endothelium adhesion, cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase -9 expression.Post-transcriptional glycosylation represents an important mechanism that determines the biological effects of EMMPRIN in monocytes/macrophages. Glycosylation of EMMPRIN may serve as a potential target for regulating the inflammatory activities of monocytes/macrophages.

16. Exploiting multi-function Metal-Organic Framework nanocomposite Ag@Zn-TSA as highly efficient immobilization matrixes for sensitive electrochemical biosensing

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dong, Sheying, E-mail: dongsyy@126.com [College of Sciences, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an, 710055 (China); Zhang, Dandan; Suo, Gaochao; Wei, Wenbo [College of Sciences, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an, 710055 (China); Huang, Tinglin [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an, 710055 (China)

2016-08-31

A novel multi-function Metal-Organic Framework composite Ag@Zn-TSA (zinc thiosalicylate, Zn(C{sub 7}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}S), Zn-TSA) was synthesized as highly efficient immobilization matrixes of myoglobin (Mb)/glucose oxidase (GOx) for electrochemical biosensing. The electrochemical biosensors based on Ag@Zn-TSA composite and ionic liquid (IL) modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) were fabricated successfully. Furthermore, the properties of the sensors were discussed by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and amperometric current-time curve, respectively. The results showed the proposed biosensors had wide linear response to hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in the range of 0.3–20,000 μM, to nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup −}) for 1.3 μM–1660 μM and 2262 μM–1,33,000 μM, to glucose for 2.0–1022 μM, with a low detection limit of 0.08 μM for H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, 0.5 μM for NO{sub 2}{sup −}, 0.8 μM for glucose. The values of the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) for Mb and GOx were estimated as 2.05 s{sup −1} and 2.45 s{sup −1}, respectively. Thus, Ag@Zn-TSA was a kind of ideal material as highly efficient immobilization matrixes for sensitive electrochemical biosensing. In addition, this work indicated that MOF nanocomposite had a great potential for constructing wide range of sensing interface. - Highlights: • Novel Ag@Zn-TSA was used as highly efficient immobilization matrixes of Mb/glucose. • We exploited multi-function MOFs for a wide range of electrocatalytic sensing interface. • The proposed biosensors had an excellent catalytic effect on the small molecule (NO{sub 2}{sup −}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, glucose).

17. Exploiting multi-function Metal-Organic Framework nanocomposite Ag@Zn-TSA as highly efficient immobilization matrixes for sensitive electrochemical biosensing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dong, Sheying; Zhang, Dandan; Suo, Gaochao; Wei, Wenbo; Huang, Tinglin

2016-01-01

A novel multi-function Metal-Organic Framework composite Ag@Zn-TSA (zinc thiosalicylate, Zn(C_7H_4O_2S), Zn-TSA) was synthesized as highly efficient immobilization matrixes of myoglobin (Mb)/glucose oxidase (GOx) for electrochemical biosensing. The electrochemical biosensors based on Ag@Zn-TSA composite and ionic liquid (IL) modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) were fabricated successfully. Furthermore, the properties of the sensors were discussed by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and amperometric current-time curve, respectively. The results showed the proposed biosensors had wide linear response to hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) in the range of 0.3–20,000 μM, to nitrite (NO_2"−) for 1.3 μM–1660 μM and 2262 μM–1,33,000 μM, to glucose for 2.0–1022 μM, with a low detection limit of 0.08 μM for H_2O_2, 0.5 μM for NO_2"−, 0.8 μM for glucose. The values of the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k_s) for Mb and GOx were estimated as 2.05 s"−"1 and 2.45 s"−"1, respectively. Thus, Ag@Zn-TSA was a kind of ideal material as highly efficient immobilization matrixes for sensitive electrochemical biosensing. In addition, this work indicated that MOF nanocomposite had a great potential for constructing wide range of sensing interface. - Highlights: • Novel Ag@Zn-TSA was used as highly efficient immobilization matrixes of Mb/glucose. • We exploited multi-function MOFs for a wide range of electrocatalytic sensing interface. • The proposed biosensors had an excellent catalytic effect on the small molecule (NO_2"−, H_2O_2, glucose).

18. Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Test Rate for Various Ceramic Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

Science.gov (United States)

Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

2002-01-01

Ultimate tensile strength of five different continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, including SiC/BSAS (2D 2 types), SiC/MAS-5 (2D), SiC/SiC (2D enhanced), and C/SiC(2D) was determined as a function of test rate at I 100 to 1200 'C in air. All five composite materials exhibited a significant dependency of ultimate strength on test rate such that the ultimate strength decreased with decreasing test rate, similar to the behavior observed in many advanced monolithic ceramics at elevated temperatures. The application of the preloading technique as well as the prediction of life from one loading configuration (constant stress rate) to another (constant stress loading) for SiC/BSAS suggested that the overall macroscopic failure mechanism of the composites would be the one governed by a power-law type of damage evolution/accumulation, analogous to slow crack growth commonly observed in advanced monolithic ceramics.

19. Rational points on elliptic curves

CERN Document Server

Silverman, Joseph H

2015-01-01

The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

20. Rationality in the Cryptographic Model

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hubacek, Pavel

This thesis presents results in the field of rational cryptography. In the first part we study the use of cryptographic protocols to avoid mediation and binding commitment when implementing game theoretic equilibrium concepts. First, we concentrate on the limits of cryptographic cheap talk...... to implement correlated equilibria of two-player strategic games in a sequentially rational way. We show that there exist two-player games for which no cryptographic protocol can implement the mediator in a sequentially rational way; that is, without introducing empty threats. In the context of computational...... with appealing economic applications. Our implementation puts forward a notion of cryptographically blinded games that exploits the power of encryption to selectively restrict the information available to players about sampled action profiles, such that these desirable equilibria can be stably achieved...