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Sample records for rational map ansatz

  1. Rational maps, monopoles and skyrmions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, C.J.; Manton, N.S.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the similarities between BPS monopoles and skyrmions, and point to an underlying connection in terms of rational maps between Riemann spheres. This involves the introduction of a new ansatz for Skyrme fields. We use this to construct good approximations to several known skyrmions, including all the minimal energy configurations up to baryon number nine, and some new solutions such as a baryon number seventeen Skyrme field with the truncated icosahedron structure of a buckyball. The new approach is also used to understand the low-lying vibrational modes of skyrmions, which are required for quantization. Along the way we discover an interesting Morse function on the space of rational maps which may be of use in understanding the Sen forms on the monopole moduli spaces. (orig.)

  2. Maps of Bounded Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Kahneman, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The work cited by the Nobel committee was done jointly with the late Amos Tversky (1937-1996) during a long and unusually close collaboration. Together, we explored the psychology of intuitive beliefs and choices and examined their bounded rationality. This essay presents a current perspective on the three major topics of our joint work: heuristics of judgment, risky choice, and framing effects. In all three domains we studied intuitions - thoughts and preferences that come to mind quickly an...

  3. The rational maps Fλ(z)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is proved that the rational maps in the family {z → zm +λ/zd : λ ∈ C\\{0}} for integers m, d ≥ 2 ... The problem of the existence of Herman rings of a rational map has been studied by. Lyubich in [9] ..... Surveys 41(4) (1986) 35–95. [10] Milnor J ...

  4. Integrable mappings via rational elliptic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Teruhisa

    2004-01-01

    We present a geometric description of the QRT map (which is an integrable mapping introduced by Quispel, Roberts and Thompson) in terms of the addition formula of a rational elliptic surface. By this formulation, we classify all the cases when the QRT map is periodic; and show that its period is 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6. A generalization of the QRT map which acts birationally on a pencil of K3 surfaces, or Calabi-Yau manifolds, is also presented

  5. Rational mapping (RAM) of in-core data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonalumi, R.A.; Kherani, N.P.

    1985-01-01

    A unique processing of in-core flux detector data is described and demonstrated, such that the detailed in-core power distribution can be derived with great accuracy by combining a speciall ''smoothed-out'' set of in-core data with neutron diffusion theory. Rational Mapping (RAM) is designed in such a way that erratic detector signals are recognized very efficiently and can be eliminated from the experimental data set: This is achieved by modal expansion of the difference between theoretical fluxes and experimental fluxes at the detector sites. Sensitivity studies have shown that RAM is quite stable, does not absorb the ''wild'' detector error in the mapping procedure, and results in mapped fluxes with errors about three times smaller than would be obtained by direct interpolation of detector readings. A new method is described to infer corrections to theoretical core parameters based on the difference between the RAM fluxes and the theoretical fluxes

  6. Topics in Bethe Ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunguang

    Integrable quantum spin chains have close connections to integrable quantum field. theories, modern condensed matter physics, string and Yang-Mills theories. Bethe. ansatz is one of the most important approaches for solving quantum integrable spin. chains. At the heart of the algebraic structure of integrable quantum spin chains is. the quantum Yang-Baxter equation and the boundary Yang-Baxter equation. This. thesis focuses on four topics in Bethe ansatz. The Bethe equations for the isotropic periodic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with N. sites have solutions containing ±i/2 that are singular: both the corresponding energy and the algebraic Bethe ansatz vector are divergent. Such solutions must be carefully regularized. We consider a regularization involving a parameter that can be. determined using a generalization of the Bethe equations. These generalized Bethe. equations provide a practical way of determining which singular solutions correspond. to eigenvectors of the model. The Bethe equations for the periodic XXX and XXZ spin chains admit singular. solutions, for which the corresponding eigenvalues and eigenvectors are ill-defined. We use a twist regularization to derive conditions for such singular solutions to bephysical, in which case they correspond to genuine eigenvalues and eigenvectors of. the Hamiltonian. We analyze the ground state of the open spin-1/2 isotropic quantum spin chain. with a non-diagonal boundary term using a recently proposed Bethe ansatz solution. As the coefficient of the non-diagonal boundary term tends to zero, the Bethe roots. split evenly into two sets: those that remain finite, and those that become infinite. We. argue that the former satisfy conventional Bethe equations, while the latter satisfy a. generalization of the Richardson-Gaudin equations. We derive an expression for the. leading correction to the boundary energy in terms of the boundary parameters. We argue that the Hamiltonians for A(2) 2n open quantum spin chains

  7. A universality test of the quantum string Bethe ansatz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freyhult, L.; Kristjansen, C.

    2006-01-01

    We show that the quantum corrected string Bethe ansatz passes an important universality test by demonstrating that it correctly incorporates the non-analytical terms in the string sigma model one-loop correction for rational three-spin strings with two out of the three spins identical. Subsequent......, we use the quantum corrected string Bethe ansatz to predict the exact form of the non-analytic terms for the generic rational three-spin string.......We show that the quantum corrected string Bethe ansatz passes an important universality test by demonstrating that it correctly incorporates the non-analytical terms in the string sigma model one-loop correction for rational three-spin strings with two out of the three spins identical. Subsequently...

  8. Hierarchy of rational order families of chaotic maps with an invariant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We introduce an interesting hierarchy of rational order chaotic maps that possess an invariant measure. In contrast to the previously introduced hierarchy of chaotic maps [1–5], with merely entropy production, the rational order chaotic maps can simultaneously produce and consume entropy. We compute the ...

  9. Monopoles and rational maps: A note on a theorem of Donaldson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtubise, J.

    1985-01-01

    In a recent paper, Donaldson gave a description of the moduli space of SU(2) monopoles in terms of rational maps; this was done indirectly, via the associated solution of Nahm's equations. We give here an interpretation of these rational maps in terms of the monopole's spectral curve, and then as ''scattering data'' for the monopole itself. (orig.)

  10. Large N and Bethe ansatz

    OpenAIRE

    Jurco, B.

    2003-01-01

    We describe an integrable model, related to the Gaudin magnet, and its relation to the matrix model of Brezin, Itzykson, Parisi and Zuber. Relation is based on Bethe ansatz for the integrable model and its interpretation using orthogonal polynomials and saddle point approximation. Lagre $N$ limit of the matrix model corresponds to the thermodynamic limit of the integrable system. In this limit (functional) Bethe ansatz is the same as the generating function for correlators of the matrix models.

  11. Spectral ansatz in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, D.; Slim, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    An ansatz of Delbourgo and Salam for the spectral representation of the vertex function in quantum electrodynamics. The Ward-Takahashi identity is respected, and the electron propagator does not have a ghost. The infra-red and ultraviolet behaviours of the electron propagator in this theory are considered, and a rigorous existence theorem for the propagator in the Yennie gauge is presented

  12. Common Fixed Points of Generalized Rational Type Cocyclic Mappings in Multiplicative Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujahid Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present fixed point result of mappings satisfying a generalized rational contractive condition in the setup of multiplicative metric spaces. As an application, we obtain a common fixed point of a pair of weakly compatible mappings. Some common fixed point results of pair of rational contractive types mappings involved in cocyclic representation of a nonempty subset of a multiplicative metric space are also obtained. Some examples are presented to support the results proved herein. Our results generalize and extend various results in the existing literature.

  13. Quadratic rational rotations of the torus and dual lattice maps

    CERN Document Server

    Kouptsov, K L; Vivaldi, F

    2002-01-01

    We develop a general formalism for computed-assisted proofs concerning the orbit structure of certain non ergodic piecewise affine maps of the torus, whose eigenvalues are roots of unity. For a specific class of maps, we prove that if the trace is a quadratic irrational (the simplest nontrivial case, comprising 8 maps), then the periodic orbits are organized into finitely many renormalizable families, with exponentially increasing period, plus a finite number of exceptional families. The proof is based on exact computations with algebraic numbers, where units play the role of scaling parameters. Exploiting a duality existing between these maps and lattice maps representing rounded-off planar rotations, we establish the global periodicity of the latter systems, for a set of orbits of full density.

  14. RAtional Mapping (RAM) of in-core data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonalumi, R.A.; Kherani, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes and demonstrates a unique processing of in-core flux detector data, such that the detailed in-core power distribution can be derived with great accuracy by combining a specially 'smoothed-out' set of in-core data with neutron diffusion theory. RAM is designed in such a way that erratic detector signals are recognized very efficiently and can be eliminated from the experimental data set: this is achieved by modal expansion of the difference between theoretical fluxes and experimental fluxes at the detector sites. Sensitivity studies have shown that RAM is quite stable, does not absorb the 'wild' detector errors in the mapping procedure and results in mapped fluxes with errors about three times smaller than would be obtained by direct interpolation of detector readings

  15. Hierarchy of rational order families of chaotic maps with an invariant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    scribe the dynamic behavior of chaotic maps using Kolmogorov–Sinai ... we have calculated the invariant measure of the rational order families of chaotic ... simultaneous production and consumption of entropy, we need to replace xn+1 ..... partition or, the average amount of information needed to locate the system in state.

  16. On an application of conformal maps to inequalities for rational functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinin, V N

    2002-01-01

    Using classical properties of conformal maps, we get new exact inequalities for rational functions with prescribed poles. In particular, we prove a new Bernstein-type inequality, an inequality for Blaschke products and a theorem that generalizes the Turan inequality for polynomials. The estimates obtained strengthen some familiar inequalities of Videnskii and Rusak. They are also related to recent results of Borwein, Erdelyi, Li, Mohapatra, Rodriguez, Aziz and others

  17. Generalization of the Davydov Ansatz by squeezing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossmann, Frank; Werther, Michael [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Chen, Lipeng; Zhao, Yang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-12-20

    We propose an extension of the Davydov Ansatz employing displaced squeezed states in the oscillator Hilbert space. The Dirac–Frenkel variational principle is used to derive the modified equations for the variational parameters. First numerical studies of the dynamics of the spin-boson model with a single bosonic degree of freedom reveal an overall improvement of the results as compared to the standard Davydov Ansatz.

  18. Back to the future: Rational maps for exploring acetylcholine receptor space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Christian J G; Emlaw, Johnathon R; Cao, Zhuo Qian; Pérez-Areales, F Javier; Salameh, Jean-Paul J; Prinston, Jethro E; McNulty, Melissa S; daCosta, Corrie J B

    2017-11-01

    Global functions of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, such as subunit cooperativity and compatibility, likely emerge from a network of amino acid residues distributed across the entire pentameric complex. Identification of such networks has stymied traditional approaches to acetylcholine receptor structure and function, likely due to the cryptic interdependency of their underlying amino acid residues. An emerging evolutionary biochemistry approach, which traces the evolutionary history of acetylcholine receptor subunits, allows for rational mapping of acetylcholine receptor sequence space, and offers new hope for uncovering the amino acid origins of these enigmatic properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rational Variety Mapping for Contrast-Enhanced Nonlinear Unsupervised Segmentation of Multispectral Images of Unstained Specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopriva, Ivica; Hadžija, Mirko; Popović Hadžija, Marijana; Korolija, Marina; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for nonlinear contrast-enhanced unsupervised segmentation of multispectral (color) microscopy images of principally unstained specimens. The methodology exploits spectral diversity and spatial sparseness to find anatomical differences between materials (cells, nuclei, and background) present in the image. It consists of rth-order rational variety mapping (RVM) followed by matrix/tensor factorization. Sparseness constraint implies duality between nonlinear unsupervised segmentation and multiclass pattern assignment problems. Classes not linearly separable in the original input space become separable with high probability in the higher-dimensional mapped space. Hence, RVM mapping has two advantages: it takes implicitly into account nonlinearities present in the image (ie, they are not required to be known) and it increases spectral diversity (ie, contrast) between materials, due to increased dimensionality of the mapped space. This is expected to improve performance of systems for automated classification and analysis of microscopic histopathological images. The methodology was validated using RVM of the second and third orders of the experimental multispectral microscopy images of unstained sciatic nerve fibers (nervus ischiadicus) and of unstained white pulp in the spleen tissue, compared with a manually defined ground truth labeled by two trained pathophysiologists. The methodology can also be useful for additional contrast enhancement of images of stained specimens. PMID:21708116

  20. An exponential multireference wave-function Ansatz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrath, Michael

    2005-01-01

    An exponential multireference wave-function Ansatz is formulated. In accordance with the state universal coupled-cluster Ansatz of Jeziorski and Monkhorst [Phys. Rev. A 24, 1668 (1981)] the approach uses a reference specific cluster operator. In order to achieve state selectiveness the excitation- and reference-related amplitude indexing of the state universal Ansatz is replaced by an indexing which is based on excited determinants. There is no reference determinant playing a particular role. The approach is size consistent, coincides with traditional single-reference coupled cluster if applied to a single-reference, and converges to full configuration interaction with an increasing cluster operator excitation level. Initial applications on BeH 2 , CH 2 , Li 2 , and nH 2 are reported

  1. Bethe Ansatz and supersymmetric vacua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekrasov, Nikita; Shatashvili, Samson

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetric vacua of two dimensional N = 4 gauge theories with matter, softly broken by the twisted masses down to N = 2, are shown to be in one-to-one correspondence with the eigenstates of integrable spin chain Hamiltonians. Examples include: the Heisenberg SU(2)XXX spin chain which is mapped to the two dimensional U(N) theory with fundamental hypermultiplets, the XXZ spin chain which is mapped to the analogous three dimensional super-Yang-Mills theory compactified on a circle, the XYZ spin chain and eight-vertex model which are related to the four dimensional theory compactified on T 2 . A consequence of our correspondence is the isomorphism of the quantum cohomology ring of various quiver varieties, such as cotangent bundles to (partial) flag varieties and the ring of quantum integrals of motion of various spin chains. The correspondence extends to any spin group, representations, boundary conditions, and inhomogeneity, it includes Sinh-Gordon and non-linear Schroedinger models as well as the dynamical spin chains like Hubbard model. Compactifications of four dimensional N = 2 theories on a two-sphere lead to the instanton-corrected Bethe equations.

  2. Thermodynamic Bethe ansatz with Haldane statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytsko, A.G.; Fring, A.

    1998-01-01

    We derive the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equation for the situation in which the statistical interaction of a multi-particle system is governed by Haldane statistics. We formulate a macroscopical equivalence principle for such systems. Particular CDD ambiguities play a distinguished role in compensating the ambiguity in the exclusion statistics. We derive Y-systems related to generalized statistics. We discuss several fermionic, bosonic and anyonic versions of affine Toda field theories and Calogero-Sutherland type models in the context of generalized statistics. (orig.)

  3. Introduction to the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tongeren, Stijn J.

    2016-08-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, a method that allows us to describe the thermodynamics of integrable models whose spectrum is found via the (asymptotic) Bethe ansatz. We set the stage by deriving the Fermi-Dirac distribution and associated free energy of free electrons, and then in a similar though technically more complicated fashion treat the thermodynamics of integrable models, focusing first on the one-dimensional Bose gas with delta function interaction as a clean pedagogical example, secondly the XXX spin chain as an elementary (lattice) model with prototypical complicating features in the form of bound states, and finally the {SU}(2) chiral Gross-Neveu model as a field theory example. Throughout this discussion we emphasize the central role of particle and hole densities, whose relations determine the model under consideration. We then discuss tricks that allow us to use the same methods to describe the exact spectra of integrable field theories on a circle, in particular the chiral Gross-Neveu model. We moreover discuss the simplification of TBA equations to Y systems, including the transition back to integral equations given sufficient analyticity data, in simple examples.

  4. Mapping out past and future minds: The perceived trajectory of rationality versus emotionality over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ed

    2015-06-01

    Who do we see when envisioning our "past self" and "future self"? Extant research finds a motivation to perceive improvement over time, such that past selves are seen as worse versions, and future selves as better versions, of current selves. However, the broader components comprising "worse" or "better" beyond domain-specific achievement (e.g., "Last year I failed at dieting, but next year I'll succeed") are less well understood. Are there more general qualities ascribed to the person we recall versus imagine being? Six studies suggest so, extending the 2-dimensional mind perception framework to the self: Past selves seem to possess highly emotional but not very rational minds, whereas future selves seem to possess highly rational but not very emotional minds (Studies 1a, 1b, 1c). Consistent with motivated improvement, this asymmetry does not emerge in evaluating others and applies uniquely to self-judgment (Study 2). Thus, our pervasive belief in changing for the "better" specifically means becoming more rational types of people. This observation has asymmetric consequences. Participants who brought to mind future selves sought intellectual enrichment (Study 3) and performed better on a self-control task (Study 4); however, participants who brought to mind past selves sought emotional enrichment and performed better on the same task when allegedly measuring enjoyment. These findings build a bridge between mind perception and intertemporal dynamics, raising novel implications for the present. Thinking about the future may not uniformly "improve" decisions and behaviors; rather, it mostly facilitates rational-related pursuits, whereas thinking about the past may enhance feeling-related experiences. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the Izergin-Korepin R matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, V.O.

    1989-01-01

    The authors propose a generalization of the algebraic Bethe ansatz for the Izergin-Korepin R matrix - the simplest unstudied odd-dimensional solution of the Yang-Baxter equation - and they discuss some related questions. The first section of the paper is an introduction. In the second they indicate a way of generalizing the algebraic Bethe ansatz to the case of the Izergin-Korepin R matrix. The simplest monodromy matrices (L operators) for this R matrix are described in the third section. The fourth section is devoted to the proof of the proposed generalization of the algebraic Bethe ansatz

  6. Off-diagonal Bethe ansatz for exactly solvable models

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yupeng; Cao, Junpeng; Shi, Kangjie

    2015-01-01

    This book serves as an introduction of the off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz method, an analytic theory for the eigenvalue problem of quantum integrable models. It also presents some fundamental knowledge about quantum integrability and the algebraic Bethe Ansatz method. Based on the intrinsic properties of R-matrix and K-matrices, the book introduces a systematic method to construct operator identities of transfer matrix.  These identities allow one to establish the inhomogeneous T-Q relation formalism to obtain Bethe Ansatz equations and to retrieve corresponding eigenstates. Several longstanding models can thus be solved via this method since the lack of obvious reference states is made up. Both the exact results and the off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz method itself may have important applications in the fields of quantum field theory, low-dimensional condensed matter physics, statistical physics and cold atom systems.

  7. Knitting Ansatz and solutions to Yang-Baxter equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun; Guo Hanying; Yan Hong

    1997-01-01

    The authors suggest a new method, named knitting Ansatz, to generate solutions to Yang-Baxter equation with lower dimensional representations of braid group. To support this Ansatz, the authors work out an example of a new 16 x 16 R-matrix constructed along this idea, with two 4 x 4 braid group representations of familiar 6-vertex type with different q-parameters

  8. Shifting of wrapped phase maps in the frequency domain using a rational number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdeisat, Munther A; Abushakra, Ahmad; Qaddoura, Maen; Burton, David R; Lilley, Francis; Arevalillo-Herráez, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The number of phase wraps in an image can be either reduced, or completely eliminated, by transforming the image into the frequency domain using a Fourier transform, and then shifting the spectrum towards the origin. After this, the spectrum is transformed back to the spatial domain using the inverse Fourier transform and finally the phase is extracted using the arctangent function. However, it is a common concern that the spectrum can be shifted only by an integer number, meaning that the phase wrap reduction is often not optimal. In this paper we propose an algorithm than enables the spectrum to be frequency shifted by a rational number. The principle of the proposed method is confirmed both by using an initial computer simulation and is subsequently validated experimentally on real fringe patterns. The technique may offer in some cases the prospects of removing the necessity for a phase unwrapping process altogether and/or speeding up the phase unwrapping process. This may be beneficial in terms of potential increases in signal recovery robustness and also for use in time-critical applications. (paper)

  9. Where are the roots of the Bethe Ansatz equations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, R.S., E-mail: rsvieira@df.ufscar.br; Lima-Santos, A., E-mail: dals@df.ufscar.br

    2015-10-02

    Changing the variables in the Bethe Ansatz Equations (BAE) for the XXZ six-vertex model we had obtained a coupled system of polynomial equations. This provided a direct link between the BAE deduced from the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz (ABA) and the BAE arising from the Coordinate Bethe Ansatz (CBA). For two magnon states this polynomial system could be decoupled and the solutions given in terms of the roots of some self-inversive polynomials. From theorems concerning the distribution of the roots of self-inversive polynomials we made a thorough analysis of the two magnon states, which allowed us to find the location and multiplicity of the Bethe roots in the complex plane, to discuss the completeness and singularities of Bethe's equations, the ill-founded string-hypothesis concerning the location of their roots, as well as to find an interesting connection between the BAE with Salem’s polynomials.

  10. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for 19-vertex models with reflection conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utiel, Wagner

    2003-01-01

    In this work we solve the 19-vertex models with the use of algebraic Bethe ansatz for diagonal reflection matrices (Sklyanin K-matrices). The eigenvectors, eigenvalues and Bethe equations are given in a general form. Quantum spin chains of spin one derived from the 19-vertex models were also discussed

  11. Exact tensor network ansatz for strongly interacting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletel, Michael P.

    It appears that the tensor network ansatz, while not quite complete, is an efficient coordinate system for the tiny subset of a many-body Hilbert space which can be realized as a low energy state of a local Hamiltonian. However, we don't fully understand precisely which phases are captured by the tensor network ansatz, how to compute their physical observables (even numerically), or how to compute a tensor network representation for a ground state given a microscopic Hamiltonian. These questions are algorithmic in nature, but their resolution is intimately related to understanding the nature of quantum entanglement in many-body systems. For this reason it is useful to compute the tensor network representation of various `model' wavefunctions representative of different phases of matter; this allows us to understand how the entanglement properties of each phase are expressed in the tensor network ansatz, and can serve as test cases for algorithm development. Condensed matter physics has many illuminating model wavefunctions, such as Laughlin's celebrated wave function for the fractional quantum Hall effect, the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer wave function for superconductivity, and Anderson's resonating valence bond ansatz for spin liquids. This thesis presents some results on exact tensor network representations of these model wavefunctions. In addition, a tensor network representation is given for the time evolution operator of a long-range one-dimensional Hamiltonian, which allows one to numerically simulate the time evolution of power-law interacting spin chains as well as two-dimensional strips and cylinders.

  12. Hopf structure and Green ansatz of deformed parastatistics algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneva, Boyka [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, bld. Tsarigradsko chaussee 72, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Popov, Todor [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, bld. Tsarigradsko chaussee 72, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-07-22

    Deformed parabose and parafermi algebras are revised and endowed with Hopf structure in a natural way. The noncocommutative coproduct allows for construction of parastatistics Fock-like representations, built out of the simplest deformed Bose and Fermi representations. The construction gives rise to quadratic algebras of deformed anomalous commutation relations which define the generalized Green ansatz.

  13. A model for the parabolic slices Per1(e2πip/q) in moduli space of quadratic rational maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The notion of relatedness loci in the parabolic slices Per1(e2πip/q) in moduli space of quadratic rational maps is introduced. They are counterparts of the disconnectedness or escape locus in the slice of quadratic polynomials. A model for these loci is presented, and a strategy of proof of the f......The notion of relatedness loci in the parabolic slices Per1(e2πip/q) in moduli space of quadratic rational maps is introduced. They are counterparts of the disconnectedness or escape locus in the slice of quadratic polynomials. A model for these loci is presented, and a strategy of proof...... of the faithfulness of the model is given....

  14. A Bethe ansatz solvable model for superpositions of Cooper pairs and condensed molecular bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibberd, K.E.; Dunning, C.; Links, J.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a general Hamiltonian describing coherent superpositions of Cooper pairs and condensed molecular bosons. For particular choices of the coupling parameters, the model is integrable. One integrable manifold, as well as the Bethe ansatz solution, was found by Dukelsky et al. [J. Dukelsky, G.G. Dussel, C. Esebbag, S. Pittel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 050403]. Here we show that there is a second integrable manifold, established using the boundary quantum inverse scattering method. In this manner we obtain the exact solution by means of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. In the case where the Cooper pair energies are degenerate we examine the relationship between the spectrum of these integrable Hamiltonians and the quasi-exactly solvable spectrum of particular Schrodinger operators. For the solution we derive here the potential of the Schrodinger operator is given in terms of hyperbolic functions. For the solution derived by Dukelsky et al., loc. cit. the potential is sextic and the wavefunctions obey PT-symmetric boundary conditions. This latter case provides a novel example of an integrable Hermitian Hamiltonian acting on a Fock space whose states map into a Hilbert space of PT-symmetric wavefunctions defined on a contour in the complex plane

  15. Bethe ansatz study for ground state of Fateev Zamolodchikov model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, S.

    1997-01-01

    A Bethe ansatz study of a self-dual Z N spin lattice model, originally proposed by V. A. Fateev and A. B. Zamolodchikov, is undertaken. The connection of this model to the Chiral Potts model is established. Transcendental equations connecting the zeros of Fateev endash Zamolodchikov transfer matrix are derived. The free energies for the ferromagnetic and the anti-ferromagnetic ground states are found for both even and odd spins. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  16. From tricritical Ising to critical Ising by thermodynamic Bethe ansatz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamolodchikov, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    A simple factorized scattering theory is suggested for the massless Goldstone fermions of the trajectory flowing from the tricritical Ising fixed point to the critical Ising one. The thermodynamic Bethe ansatz approach is applied to this scattering theory to support its interpretation both analytically and numerically. As a generalization a sequence of massless TBA systems is proposed which seems relevant for the trajectories interpolating between two successive minimal CFT models M p and M p-1 . (orig.)

  17. Spacetime Symmetries and Conformal Data in the Continuous Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Vidal, G.

    2017-07-01

    The generalization of the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) to continuous systems, or cMERA [Haegeman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 100402 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.100402], is expected to become a powerful variational ansatz for the ground state of strongly interacting quantum field theories. In this Letter, we investigate, in the simpler context of Gaussian cMERA for free theories, the extent to which the cMERA state |ΨΛ⟩ with finite UV cutoff Λ can capture the spacetime symmetries of the ground state |Ψ ⟩. For a free boson conformal field theory (CFT) in 1 +1 dimensions, as a concrete example, we build a quasilocal unitary transformation V that maps |Ψ ⟩ into |ΨΛ⟩ and show two main results. (i) Any spacetime symmetry of the ground state |Ψ ⟩ is also mapped by V into a spacetime symmetry of the cMERA |ΨΛ⟩. However, while in the CFT, the stress-energy tensor Tμ ν(x ) (in terms of which all the spacetime symmetry generators are expressed) is local, and the corresponding cMERA stress-energy tensor Tμν Λ(x )=V Tμ ν(x )V† is quasilocal. (ii) From the cMERA, we can extract quasilocal scaling operators OαΛ(x ) characterized by the exact same scaling dimensions Δα, conformal spins sα, operator product expansion coefficients Cα β γ, and central charge c as the original CFT. Finally, we argue that these results should also apply to interacting theories.

  18. Mapping an Emergent Field of "Computational Education Policy": Policy Rationalities, Prediction and Data in the Age of Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Webb, P. Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary education policy involves the integration of novel forms of data and the creation of new data platforms, in addition to the infusion of business principles into school governance networks, and intensification of socio-technical relations. In this paper, we examine how "computational rationality" may be understood as…

  19. Integrability in three dimensions: Algebraic Bethe ansatz for anyonic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Khachatryan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We extend basic properties of two dimensional integrable models within the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz approach to 2+1 dimensions and formulate the sufficient conditions for the commutativity of transfer matrices of different spectral parameters, in analogy with Yang–Baxter or tetrahedron equations. The basic ingredient of our models is the R-matrix, which describes the scattering of a pair of particles over another pair of particles, the quark-anti-quark (meson scattering on another quark-anti-quark state. We show that the Kitaev model belongs to this class of models and its R-matrix fulfills well-defined equations for integrability.

  20. Bethe ansatz equations for open spin chains from giant gravitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepomechie, Rafael I.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the open spin chain describing the scalar sector of the Y = 0 giant graviton brane at weak coupling. We provide a direct proof of integrability in the SU(2) and SU(3) sectors by constructing the transfer matrices. We determine the eigenvalues of these transfer matrices in terms of roots of the corresponding Bethe ansatz equations (BAEs). Based on these results, we propose BAEs for the full SO(6) sector. We find that, in the weak-coupling limit, the recently-proposed all-loop BAEs essentially agree with those proposed in the present work.

  1. Realization theory for rational systems: Minimal rational realizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Nemcová (Jana); J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractThe study of realizations of response maps is a topic of control and system theory. Realization theory is used in system identification and control synthesis. A minimal rational realization of a given response map p is a rational realization of p such that the dimension of its state

  2. Entwicklung von Cysteinproteaseinhibitoren - ein klassischer und ein kombinatorischer Ansatz zur Inhibitoroptimierung

    OpenAIRE

    Machon, Uwe Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Ziel der Dissertation „Entwicklung von Cysteinproteaseinhibitoren – ein klassischer und ein kombinatorischer Ansatz zur Inhibitoroptimierung“ war die Optimierung von neuen Inhibitoren von Falcipain-2 und Rhodesain als neue potentielle Wirkstoffe gegen Malaria bzw. die Schlafkrankheit über zwei verschiedene Methoden. Es handelt sich hierbei um einen klassischen und einen kombinatorischen Ansatz. Der klassische Ansatz basiert auf einer Struktur, deren Aktivität per Zufall entdeckt wurde. In Scr...

  3. Bethe ansatz solution of the closed anisotropic supersymmetric U model with quantum supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibberd, Katrina; Roditi, Itzhak; Links, Jon; Foerster, Angela

    1999-11-01

    The nested algebraic Bethe Ansatz is presented for the anisotropic supersymmetric U model maintaining quantum a supersymmetry. The Bethe Ansatz equations of the model are obtained on a one-dimensional closed lattice and an expression for the energy is given. (author)

  4. Off-diagonal Bethe ansatz solution of the XXX spin chain with arbitrary boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Junpeng [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Wen-Li, E-mail: wlyang@nwu.edu.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xian 710069 (China); Shi, Kangjie [Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xian 710069 (China); Wang, Yupeng, E-mail: yupeng@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Employing the off-diagonal Bethe ansatz method proposed recently by the present authors, we exactly diagonalize the XXX spin chain with arbitrary boundary fields. By constructing a functional relation between the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix and the quantum determinant, the associated T–Q relation and the Bethe ansatz equations are derived.

  5. Off-diagonal Bethe ansatz solution of the XXX spin chain with arbitrary boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Junpeng; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng

    2013-01-01

    Employing the off-diagonal Bethe ansatz method proposed recently by the present authors, we exactly diagonalize the XXX spin chain with arbitrary boundary fields. By constructing a functional relation between the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix and the quantum determinant, the associated T–Q relation and the Bethe ansatz equations are derived

  6. Algebraic geometry and Bethe ansatz. Part I. The quotient ring for BAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunfeng; Zhang, Yang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper and upcoming ones, we initiate a systematic study of Bethe ansatz equations for integrable models by modern computational algebraic geometry. We show that algebraic geometry provides a natural mathematical language and powerful tools for understanding the structure of solution space of Bethe ansatz equations. In particular, we find novel efficient methods to count the number of solutions of Bethe ansatz equations based on Gröbner basis and quotient ring. We also develop analytical approach based on companion matrix to perform the sum of on-shell quantities over all physical solutions without solving Bethe ansatz equations explicitly. To demonstrate the power of our method, we revisit the completeness problem of Bethe ansatz of Heisenberg spin chain, and calculate the sum rules of OPE coefficients in planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

  7. An ansatz for solving nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, M Ali; Ali, Norhashidah Hj Mohd

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we introduce an ansatz involving exact traveling wave solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations. To obtain wave solutions using direct method, the choice of an appropriate ansatz is of great importance. We apply this ansatz to examine new and further general traveling wave solutions to the (1+1)-dimensional modified Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation. Abundant traveling wave solutions are derived including solitons, singular solitons, periodic solutions and general solitary wave solutions. The solutions emphasize the nobility of this ansatz in providing distinct solutions to various tangible phenomena in nonlinear science and engineering. The ansatz could be more efficient tool to deal with higher dimensional nonlinear evolution equations which frequently arise in many real world physical problems.

  8. Ein Integraler Gestalt-Ansatz fuer Therapie und Beratung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Gremmler-Fuhr

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung: In diesem Text stellen wir unseren Ansatz für Psychotherapie und Beratung auf dem Hintergrund des integralen Paradigmas dar. Wir erläutern zunächst kurz vier Anforderungen an ein integrales Konzept in diesem professionellen Bereich: Umgang mit Komplexität und Vielperspektivität, Berücksichtigung gerichteter, vieldimensionaler Entwicklung, Orientierungs- und Sinngebungsfunktion, Realisierung relationaler Qualitäten in der Arbeit. Nach einer Begriffsbestimmung von „Therapie“, „Beratung“ und „Bildung“ charakterisieren wir das seit vielen Jahren von uns entwickelte Konzept für den Integralen Gestalt-Ansatz unter den Fragen nach (1 den Intentionen und Aufgaben von Therapie und Beratung, (2 der Gestaltung der Kommunikation und Beziehung, (3 der Art der Problemdefinition und dem Umgang mit Diagnostik sowie (4 den Strategien und Methoden – alle unter Rückkopplung an die zuvor erläuterten Anforderungen an ein integrales Konzept. Abstract: In this text we present our approach to psychotherapy and counseling on the background of the integral paradigm. We shortly explain four major requirements for such an integral concept: handling complexity and multi-perspectivity, considering directed and multi-dimensional development, offering orientation and meaning, relational qualities. After defining the terms „psychotherapy“, „counselling“, and „education“ we present our concept for the Integral Gestalt Approach which we have developed and evaluated for many years by dealing with four questions: (1 the intentions and tasks of therapy and counselling, (2 the formation of communication and relationship, (3 the specific way of defining problems and using diagnostics, and (4 the strategies and methods – all related back to the major requirements of an integral concept.

  9. Elliptic equation rational expansion method and new exact travelling solutions for Whitham-Broer-Kaup equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yong; Wang Qi; Li Biao

    2005-01-01

    Based on a new general ansatz and a general subepuation, a new general algebraic method named elliptic equation rational expansion method is devised for constructing multiple travelling wave solutions in terms of rational special function for nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs). We apply the proposed method to solve Whitham-Broer-Kaup equation and explicitly construct a series of exact solutions which include rational form solitary wave solution, rational form triangular periodic wave solutions and rational wave solutions as special cases. In addition, the links among our proposed method with the method by Fan [Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;20:609], are also clarified generally

  10. Pseudospectral methods on a semi-infinite interval with application to the hydrogen atom: a comparison of the mapped Fourier-sine method with Laguerre series and rational Chebyshev expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, John P.; Rangan, C.; Bucksbaum, P.H.

    2003-01-01

    The Fourier-sine-with-mapping pseudospectral algorithm of Fattal et al. [Phys. Rev. E 53 (1996) 1217] has been applied in several quantum physics problems. Here, we compare it with pseudospectral methods using Laguerre functions and rational Chebyshev functions. We show that Laguerre and Chebyshev expansions are better suited for solving problems in the interval r in R set of [0,∞] (for example, the Coulomb-Schroedinger equation), than the Fourier-sine-mapping scheme. All three methods give similar accuracy for the hydrogen atom when the scaling parameter L is optimum, but the Laguerre and Chebyshev methods are less sensitive to variations in L. We introduce a new variant of rational Chebyshev functions which has a more uniform spacing of grid points for large r, and gives somewhat better results than the rational Chebyshev functions of Boyd [J. Comp. Phys. 70 (1987) 63

  11. Pragmatics & rationality.

    OpenAIRE

    Allott, N. E.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is about the reconciliation of realistic views of rationality with inferential-intentional theories of communication. Grice (1957 1975) argued that working out what a speaker meant by an utterance is a matter of inferring the speaker's intentions on the presumption that she is acting rationally. This is abductive inference: inference to the best explanation for the utterance. Thus an utterance both rationalises and causes the interpretation the hearer constructs. Human rationality...

  12. Correlation functions of the spin chains. Algebraic Bethe Ansatz approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitanine, N.

    2007-09-01

    Spin chains are the basic elements of integrable quantum models. These models have direct applications in condense matter theory, in statistical physics, in quantum optics, in field theory and even in string theory but they are also important because they enable us to solve, in an exact manner, non-perturbative phenomena that otherwise would stay unresolved. The method described in this work is based on the algebraic Bethe Ansatz. It is shown how this method can be used for the computation of null temperature correlation functions of the Heisenberg 1/2 spin chain. The important point of this approach is the solution of the inverse quantum problem given by the XXZ spin chain. This solution as well as a simple formulae for the scalar product of the Bethe states, have enabled us to get the most basic correlation functions under the form of multiple integrals. The formalism of multiple integrals open the way for asymptotic analysis for a few physical quantities like the probability of vacuum formation. It is worth noticing that this formalism can give exact results for two-point functions that are the most important correlation functions for applications. A relationship has been discovered between these multiple integrals and the sum of the form factors. The results have been extended to dynamical correlation functions. (A.C.)

  13. Integrable Floquet dynamics, generalized exclusion processes and "fused" matrix ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanicat, Matthieu

    2018-04-01

    We present a general method for constructing integrable stochastic processes, with two-step discrete time Floquet dynamics, from the transfer matrix formalism. The models can be interpreted as a discrete time parallel update. The method can be applied for both periodic and open boundary conditions. We also show how the stationary distribution can be built as a matrix product state. As an illustration we construct parallel discrete time dynamics associated with the R-matrix of the SSEP and of the ASEP, and provide the associated stationary distributions in a matrix product form. We use this general framework to introduce new integrable generalized exclusion processes, where a fixed number of particles is allowed on each lattice site in opposition to the (single particle) exclusion process models. They are constructed using the fusion procedure of R-matrices (and K-matrices for open boundary conditions) for the SSEP and ASEP. We develop a new method, that we named "fused" matrix ansatz, to build explicitly the stationary distribution in a matrix product form. We use this algebraic structure to compute physical observables such as the correlation functions and the mean particle current.

  14. Site-occupation embedding theory using Bethe ansatz local density approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senjean, Bruno; Nakatani, Naoki; Tsuchiizu, Masahisa; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2018-06-01

    Site-occupation embedding theory (SOET) is an alternative formulation of density functional theory (DFT) for model Hamiltonians where the fully interacting Hubbard problem is mapped, in principle exactly, onto an impurity-interacting (rather than a noninteracting) one. It provides a rigorous framework for combining wave-function (or Green function)-based methods with DFT. In this work, exact expressions for the per-site energy and double occupation of the uniform Hubbard model are derived in the context of SOET. As readily seen from these derivations, the so-called bath contribution to the per-site correlation energy is, in addition to the latter, the key density functional quantity to model in SOET. Various approximations based on Bethe ansatz and perturbative solutions to the Hubbard and single-impurity Anderson models are constructed and tested on a one-dimensional ring. The self-consistent calculation of the embedded impurity wave function has been performed with the density-matrix renormalization group method. It has been shown that promising results are obtained in specific regimes of correlation and density. Possible further developments have been proposed in order to provide reliable embedding functionals and potentials.

  15. An exact conformal symmetry Ansatz on Kaluza-Klein reduced TMG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsopoulos, George; Ritter, Patricia

    2011-11-01

    Using a Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction, and further imposing a conformal Killing symmetry on the reduced metric generated by the dilaton, we show an Ansatz that yields many of the known stationary axisymmetric solutions to TMG.

  16. Bethe ansatz solutions of the τ{sub 2}-model with arbitrary boundary fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiaotian; Hao, Kun; Yang, Tao [Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University,Xian 710069 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Theoretical Physics Frontiers,Xian 710069 (China); Cao, Junpeng [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics,Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter,Beijing (China); School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing (China); Yang, Wen-Li [Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University,Xian 710069 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Theoretical Physics Frontiers,Xian 710069 (China); Beijing Center for Mathematics and Information Interdisciplinary Sciences,Beijing, 100048 (China); Shi, Kangjie [Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University,Xian 710069 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Theoretical Physics Frontiers,Xian 710069 (China)

    2016-11-11

    The quantum τ{sub 2}-model with generic site-dependent inhomogeneity and arbitrary boundary fields is studied via the off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz method. The eigenvalues of the corresponding transfer matrix are given in terms of an inhomogeneous T−Q relation, which is based on the operator product identities among the fused transfer matrices and the asymptotic behavior of the transfer matrices. Moreover, the associated Bethe Ansatz equations are also obtained.

  17. Datengeleitetes Lernen im studienbegleitenden Deutschunterricht am Beispiel des KoGloss-Ansatzes

    OpenAIRE

    Dubova, Agnese; Proveja, Egita

    2016-01-01

    Der vorliegende Aufsatz stellt den sprachdidaktischen Ansatz KoGloss vor und beschreibt die Möglichkeiten seines Einsatzes im studienbegleitenden Deutschunterricht. Als eine der Formen des datengeleiteten Lernens ermöglicht der KoGloss-Ansatz eine forschungsorientierte und lernerzentrierte Herangehensweise, die insbesondere im akademischen Sprachunterricht gefragt ist. Eine korpusbasierte Erschließung von (Fach-)Wörtern und komplexen sprachlichen Mustern, das learning by doing, die Kooperatio...

  18. Multifield stochastic particle production: beyond a maximum entropy ansatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Mustafa A.; Garcia, Marcos A.G.; Xie, Hong-Yi; Wen, Osmond, E-mail: mustafa.a.amin@gmail.com, E-mail: marcos.garcia@rice.edu, E-mail: hxie39@wisc.edu, E-mail: ow4@rice.edu [Physics and Astronomy Department, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We explore non-adiabatic particle production for N {sub f} coupled scalar fields in a time-dependent background with stochastically varying effective masses, cross-couplings and intervals between interactions. Under the assumption of weak scattering per interaction, we provide a framework for calculating the typical particle production rates after a large number of interactions. After setting up the framework, for analytic tractability, we consider interactions (effective masses and cross couplings) characterized by series of Dirac-delta functions in time with amplitudes and locations drawn from different distributions. Without assuming that the fields are statistically equivalent, we present closed form results (up to quadratures) for the asymptotic particle production rates for the N {sub f}=1 and N {sub f}=2 cases. We also present results for the general N {sub f} >2 case, but with more restrictive assumptions. We find agreement between our analytic results and direct numerical calculations of the total occupation number of the produced particles, with departures that can be explained in terms of violation of our assumptions. We elucidate the precise connection between the maximum entropy ansatz (MEA) used in Amin and Baumann (2015) and the underlying statistical distribution of the self and cross couplings. We provide and justify a simple to use (MEA-inspired) expression for the particle production rate, which agrees with our more detailed treatment when the parameters characterizing the effective mass and cross-couplings between fields are all comparable to each other. However, deviations are seen when some parameters differ significantly from others. We show that such deviations become negligible for a broad range of parameters when N {sub f}>> 1.

  19. Baseline rationing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...... the family is associated with a standard rule and we show that if the latter obeys some properties reflecting principles of impartiality, priority and solidarity, the former obeys them too....

  20. Adolescent rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshman, David

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are commonly seen as irrational, a position supported to varying degrees by many developmentalists, who often appeal to recent research on adolescent brains. Careful review of relevant evidence, however, shows that (1) adults are less rational than is generally assumed, (2) adolescents (and adults) are categorically different from children with respect to the attainment of advanced levels of rationality and psychological functioning, and (3) adolescents and adults do not differ categorically from each other with respect to any rational competencies, irrational tendencies, brain structures, or neurological functioning. Development often continues in adolescence and beyond but categorical claims about adolescents as distinct from adults cannot be justified. A review of U.S. Supreme Court decisions concerning intellectual freedom, reproductive freedom, and criminal responsibility shows ongoing ambivalence and confusion about the rationality of adolescents. Developmental theory and research suggest that adolescents should be conceptualized as young adults, not immature brains, with important implications for their roles, rights, and responsibilities.

  1. Embodying rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Mastrogiorgio, Antonio; Petracca, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The current notions of bounded rationality in economics share distinctive features with Simon’s original notion, which still influences the theoretical and experimental research in the fields of choice, judgment, decision making, problem solving, and social cognition. All these notions of bounded rationality are in fact equally rooted in the information-processing approach to human cognition, expressing the view that reasoning is disembodied and that it can be reduced to the processing of abs...

  2. Rational BRDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacanowski, Romain; Salazar Celis, Oliver; Schlick, Christophe; Granier, Xavier; Poulin, Pierre; Cuyt, Annie

    2012-11-01

    Over the last two decades, much effort has been devoted to accurately measuring Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) of real-world materials and to use efficiently the resulting data for rendering. Because of their large size, it is difficult to use directly measured BRDFs for real-time applications, and fitting the most sophisticated analytical BRDF models is still a complex task. In this paper, we introduce Rational BRDF, a general-purpose and efficient representation for arbitrary BRDFs, based on Rational Functions (RFs). Using an adapted parametrization, we demonstrate how Rational BRDFs offer 1) a more compact and efficient representation using low-degree RFs, 2) an accurate fitting of measured materials with guaranteed control of the residual error, and 3) efficient importance sampling by applying the same fitting process to determine the inverse of the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) generated from the BRDF for use in Monte-Carlo rendering.

  3. Rational emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshulam, Meir; Winter, Eyal; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon; Aharon, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    We present here the concept of rational emotions: Emotions may be directly controlled and utilized in a conscious, analytic fashion, enabling an individual to size up a situation, to determine that a certain "mental state" is strategically advantageous and adjust accordingly. Building on the growing body of literature recognizing the vital role of emotions in determining decisions, we explore the complementary role of rational choice in choosing emotional states. Participants played the role of "recipient" in the dictator game, in which an anonymous "dictator" decides how to split an amount of money between himself and the recipient. A subset of recipients was given a monetary incentive to be angry at low-split offers. That subset demonstrated increased physiological arousal at low offers relative to high offers as well as more anger than other participants. These results provide a fresh outlook on human decision-making and contribute to the continuing effort to build more complete models of rational behavior.

  4. Bethe ansatz approach to quantum sine Gordon thermodynamics and finite temperature excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotos, X.

    1982-01-01

    Takahashi and Suzuki (TS) using the Bethe ansatz method developed a formalism for the thermodynamics of the XYZ spin chain. Translating their formalism to the quantum sine-Gordon system, the thermodynamics and finite temperature elementary excitations are analyzed. Criteria imposed by TS on the allowed states simply correspond to the condition of normalizability of the wave functions. A set of coupled nonlinear integral equations for the thermodynamic equilibrium densities for particular values of the coupling constant in the attractive regime is derived. Solving numerically these Bethe ansatz equations, curves of the specific heat as a function of temperature are obtained. The soliton contribution peaks at a temperature of about 0.4 soliton masses shifting downward as the classical limit is approached. The weak coupling regime is analyzed by deriving the Bethe ansatz equations including the charged vacuum excitations. It is shown that they are necessary for a consistent presentation of the thermodynamics

  5. Confucian Rationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, there is still a widely held view that the Chinese and Western modes of thought are quite distinct from each other. In particular, the Chinese mode of thought derived from Confucianism is considered as comparatively less rational than the Western one. In this article, I first argue that although the analogical mode of argumentation,…

  6. Heisenberg XXX Model with General Boundaries: Eigenvectors from Algebraic Bethe Ansatz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Belliard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a generalization of the algebraic Bethe ansatz to obtain the eigenvectors of the Heisenberg spin chain with general boundaries associated to the eigenvalues and the Bethe equations found recently by Cao et al. The ansatz takes the usual form of a product of operators acting on a particular vector except that the number of operators is equal to the length of the chain. We prove this result for the chains with small length. We obtain also an off-shell equation (i.e. satisfied without the Bethe equations formally similar to the ones obtained in the periodic case or with diagonal boundaries.

  7. Generalized hedgehog ansatz and Gribov copies in regions with nontrivial topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Salgado-Rebolledo, Patricio

    2013-02-01

    In this paper the arising of Gribov copies both in Landau and Coulomb gauges in regions with nontrivial topologies but flat metric, (such as closed tubes S1×D2, or R×T2) will be analyzed. Using a novel generalization of the hedgehog ansatz beyond spherical symmetry, analytic examples of Gribov copies of the vacuum will be constructed. Using such ansatz, we will also construct the elliptic Gribov pendulum. The requirement of absence of Gribov copies of the vacuum satisfying the strong boundary conditions implies geometrical constraints on the shapes and sizes of the regions with nontrivial topologies.

  8. Multi-Regge limit of the n-gluon bubble ansatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, V.; Sprenger, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    We investigate n-gluon scattering amplitudes in the multi-Regge region of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at strong coupling. Through a careful analysis of the thermodynamic bubble ansatz (TBA) for surfaces in AdS{sub 5} with n-g(lu)on boundary conditions we demonstrate that the multi-Regge limit probes the large volume regime of the TBA. In reaching the multi-Regge regime we encounter wall-crossing in the TBA for all n>6. Our results imply that there exists an auxiliary system of algebraic Bethe ansatz equations which encode valuable information on the analytical structure of amplitudes at strong coupling.

  9. Rational valuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Spielthenner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuations are ubiquitous. We may be for or against genetically modified food; we find some politicians irresponsible; we prefer Beethoven to rock ‘n’ roll or vice versa; some enjoy bird-watching while others find it boring; and we may think that we have to tighten up on green-house gas emissions. Valuing is pervasive and often we are not even aware that we are valuing. However, many of ourvaluations are ill grounded and rationally defective. They are frequently based on misinformation, sloppy thinking, prejudice, and are biased in many ways as psychological research shows. For this reason there is widespread agreement among phi-losophers that we need an account of substantive valuational rationality, both for the theory of practical reasoning and for ethics as well. My main objectin this paper is to outline such an account and to present a principle that allows a non-technical rational criticism of valuations

  10. An interpolatory ansatz captures the physics of one-dimensional confined Fermi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Molte Emil Strange; Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Volosniev, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    beyond the Bethe ansatz and bosonisation allow us to predict the behaviour of one-dimensional confined systems with strong short-range interactions, and new experiments with cold atomic Fermi gases have already confirmed these theories. Here we demonstrate that a simple linear combination of the strongly...

  11. Five-dimensional Monopole Equation with Hedge-Hog Ansatz and Abel's Differential Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Kihara, Hironobu

    2008-01-01

    We review the generalized monopole in the five-dimensional Euclidean space. A numerical solution with the Hedge-Hog ansatz is studied. The Bogomol'nyi equation becomes a second order autonomous non-linear differential equation. The equation can be translated into the Abel's differential equation of the second kind and is an algebraic differential equation.

  12. Algebraic structure of the Green's ansatz and its q-deformed analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palev, T.D.

    1994-08-01

    The algebraic structure of the Green's ansatz is analyzed in such a way that its generalization to the case of q-deformed para-Bose and para-Fermi operators is becoming evident. To this end the underlying Lie (super) algebraic properties of the parastatistics are essentially used. (author). 41 refs

  13. Distinct solutions of infinite U Hubbard model through nested Bethe ansatz and Gutzwiller projection operator approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, A.K.; Kishore, R.

    2009-01-01

    The exact nested Bethe ansatz solution for the one dimensional (1-D) U infinity Hubbard model show that the state vectors are a product of spin-less fermion and spin wavefunctions, or an appropriate superposition of such factorized wavefunctions. The spin-less fermion component of the wavefunctions ensures no double occupancy at any site. It had been demonstrated that the nested Bethe ansatz wavefunctions in the U infinity limit obey orthofermi statistics. Gutzwiller projection operator formalism is the another well known technique employed to handle U infinity Hubbard model. In general, this approach does not lead to spin-less fermion wavefunctions. Therefore, the nested Bethe ansatz and Gutzwiller projection operator approach give rise to different kinds of the wavefunctions for the U infinity limit of 1-D Hubbard Hamiltonian. To compare the consequences of this dissimilarity in the wavefunctions, we have obtained the ground state energy of a finite system consisting of three particles on a four site closed chain. It is shown that in the nested Bethe ansatz implemented through orthofermion algebra, all the permissible 2 3 spin configurations are degenerate in the ground state. This eight fold degeneracy of the ground state is absent in the Gutzwiller projection operator approach. This finding becomes relevant in the context of known exact U infinity results, which require that all the energy levels are 2 N -fold degenerate for an N particle system.

  14. On the central quadric ansatz: integrable models and Painlevé reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferapontov, E V; Huard, B; Zhang, A

    2012-01-01

    It was observed by Tod (1995 Class. Quantum Grav.12 1535–47) and later by Dunajski and Tod (2002 Phys. Lett. A 303 253–64) that the Boyer–Finley (BF) and the dispersionless Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (dKP) equations possess solutions whose level surfaces are central quadrics in the space of independent variables (the so-called central quadric ansatz). It was demonstrated that generic solutions of this type are described by Painlevé equations P III and P II , respectively. The aim of our paper is threefold: (1) Based on the method of hydrodynamic reductions, we classify integrable models possessing the central quadric ansatz. This leads to the five canonical forms (including BF and dKP). (2) Applying the central quadric ansatz to each of the five canonical forms, we obtain all Painlevé equations P I –P VI , with P VI corresponding to the generic case of our classification. (3) We argue that solutions coming from the central quadric ansatz constitute a subclass of two-phase solutions provided by the method of hydrodynamic reductions. (paper)

  15. Leptonic CP violation phases using an ansatz for the neutrino mass matrix and application to leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasri, Salah; Schechter, Joseph; Moussa, Sherif

    2004-01-01

    We further study the previously proposed ansatz, Tr(M ν )=0, for a prediagonal light Majorana type neutrino mass matrix. If CP violation is neglected this enables one to use the existing data on squared mass differences to estimate (up to a discrete ambiguity) the neutrino masses themselves. If it is assumed that only the conventional CP phase is present, the ansatz enables us to estimate this phase in addition to all three masses. If it is assumed that only the two Majorana CP phases are present, the ansatz enables us to present a one parameter family of solutions for the masses and phases. This enables us to obtain a simple 'global' view of lepton number violation effects. Furthermore using an SO(10) motivation for the ansatz suggests an amusing toy (clone) model in which the heavy neutrinos have the same mixing pattern and mass ratios as the light ones. In this case only their overall mass scale is not known (although it is constrained by the initial motivation). Using this toy model we make a rough estimate of the magnitude of the baryon to photon ratio induced by the leptogenesis mechanism. Solutions close to the CP conserving cases seem to be favored

  16. Rational decisions

    CERN Document Server

    Binmore, Ken

    2008-01-01

    It is widely held that Bayesian decision theory is the final word on how a rational person should make decisions. However, Leonard Savage--the inventor of Bayesian decision theory--argued that it would be ridiculous to use his theory outside the kind of small world in which it is always possible to ""look before you leap."" If taken seriously, this view makes Bayesian decision theory inappropriate for the large worlds of scientific discovery and macroeconomic enterprise. When is it correct to use Bayesian decision theory--and when does it need to be modified? Using a minimum of mathematics,

  17. Rationalization: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Rationalization was studied by Sigmund Freud and was specifically labeled by Ernest Jones. Rationalization ought to be differentiated from rational, rationality, logical analysis, etc. On the one hand, rationalization is considered a defense mechanism, on the other hand, rationality is not. Haan has done much work with self-report inventories and…

  18. Rational inattention or rational overreaction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Smed, Sinne

    We investigate differences in how consumers of fish react to health information in the mass media. We specify a dynamic empirical model that allows for heterogeneity in all basic parameters of consumer behavior as well as in how consumers react to information. We estimate the model using a unique...... houshold panel tracking consumption, prices, news stories and media habits over 24 quarters. We fi nd that the consumers most likely to be ’rationally ignorant’ of health effects react more dramatically to health news than the consumers who most likely are well informed....

  19. Rationality of limited rationality : some aggregate implications

    OpenAIRE

    Uri M. Possen; Mikko Puhakka

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we let economic agents choose whether to become fully rational or stay boundedly rational. Boundedly rational agents are less sophisticated in their information processing abilities. It is costly to acquire information needed to become fully rational, and thus not all agents are willing to incur those costs. We then explore the aggregate effects of endogenizing the decision whether the agent should or should not become fully rational in handling information. Since fully and boun...

  20. Ansatz from nonlinear optics applied to trapped Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keceli, Murat; Ilday, F. Oe.; Oktel, M. Oe.

    2007-01-01

    A simple analytical ansatz, which has been used to describe the intensity profile of the similariton laser (a laser with self-similar propagation of ultrashort pulses), is used as a variational wave function to solve the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a wide range of interaction parameters. The variational form interpolates between the noninteracting density profile and the strongly interacting Thomas-Fermi profile smoothly. The simple form of the ansatz is modified for both cylindrically symmetric and completely anisotropic harmonic traps. The resulting ground-state density profile and energy are in very good agreement with both the analytical solutions in the limiting cases of interaction and the numerical solutions in the intermediate regime

  1. ODE/IM correspondence and Bethe ansatz for affine Toda field equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsushi Ito

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We study the linear problem associated with modified affine Toda field equation for the Langlands dual gˆ∨, where gˆ is an untwisted affine Lie algebra. The connection coefficients for the asymptotic solutions of the linear problem are found to correspond to the Q-functions for g-type quantum integrable models. The ψ-system for the solutions associated with the fundamental representations of g leads to Bethe ansatz equations associated with the affine Lie algebra gˆ. We also study the A2r(2 affine Toda field equation in massless limit in detail and find its Bethe ansatz equations as well as T–Q relations.

  2. Bethe Ansatz and exact form factors of the O(N) Gross Neveu-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babujian, Hrachya M.; Foerster, Angela; Karowski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We apply previous results on the O(N) Bethe Ansatz http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/45/5/055207, http://arxiv.org/abs/1204.3479, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2013)089 to construct a general form factor formula for the O(N) Gross-Neveu model. We examine this formula for several operators, such as the energy momentum, the spin-field and the current. We also compare these results with the 1/N expansion of this model and obtain full agreement. We discuss bound state form factors, in particular for the three particle form factor of the field. In addition for the two particle case we prove a recursion relation for the K-functions of the higher level Bethe Ansatz.

  3. Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz for the Spin-1/2 Staggered XXZ- Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mkhitaryan, V. V.; Sedrakyan, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    We develop the technique of Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz to investigate the ground state and the spectrum in the thermodynamic limit of the staggered $XXZ$ models proposed recently as an example of integrable ladder model. This model appeared due to staggered inhomogeneity of the anisotropy parameter $\\Delta$ and the staggered shift of the spectral parameter. We give the structure of ground states and lowest lying excitations in two different phases which occur at zero temperature.

  4. O(N)-matrix difference equations and a nested Bethe ansatz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babujian, Hrachya M; Foerster, Angela; Karowski, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A system of O(N)-matrix difference equations is solved by means of the off-shell version of the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz. In the nesting process, a new object, the Π-matrix, is introduced to overcome the complexities of the O(N)-group structure. The highest weight property of the solutions is proved and some explicit examples are discussed. (paper)

  5. Comment on 'New ansatz for metric operator calculation in pseudo-Hermitian field theory'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Benincasa, Gregorio; Jones, H. F.

    2009-01-01

    In a recent Brief Report by Shalaby, a new first-order perturbative calculation of the metric operator for an iφ 3 scalar field theory is given. It is claimed that the incorporation of derivative terms in the ansatz for the metric operator results in a local solution, in contrast to the nonlocal solution previously obtained by Bender, Brody, and Jones. Unfortunately, Shalaby's calculation is not valid because of sign errors.

  6. Random-fractal Ansatz for the configurations of two-dimensional critical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching Hua; Ozaki, Dai; Matsueda, Hiroaki

    2016-12-01

    Critical systems have always intrigued physicists and precipitated the development of new techniques. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the information contained in the configurations of classical critical systems, whose computation do not require full knowledge of the wave function. Inspired by holographic duality, we investigated the entanglement properties of the classical configurations (snapshots) of the Potts model by introducing an Ansatz ensemble of random fractal images. By virtue of the central limit theorem, our Ansatz accurately reproduces the entanglement spectra of actual Potts snapshots without any fine tuning of parameters or artificial restrictions on ensemble choice. It provides a microscopic interpretation of the results of previous studies, which established a relation between the scaling behavior of snapshot entropy and the critical exponent. More importantly, it elucidates the role of ensemble disorder in restoring conformal invariance, an aspect previously ignored. Away from criticality, the breakdown of scale invariance leads to a renormalization of the parameter Σ in the random fractal Ansatz, whose variation can be used as an alternative determination of the critical exponent. We conclude by providing a recipe for the explicit construction of fractal unit cells consistent with a given scaling exponent.

  7. Testing invisible momentum ansatze in missing energy events at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doojin; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Moortgat, Filip; Pape, Luc

    2017-08-01

    We consider SUSY-like events with two decay chains, each terminating in an invisible particle, whose true energy and momentum are not measured in the detector. Nevertheless, a useful educated guess about the invisible momenta can still be obtained by optimizing a suitable invariant mass function. We review and contrast several proposals in the literature for such ansatze: four versions of the M T 2-assisted on-shell reconstruction (MAOS), as well as several variants of the on-shell constrained M 2 variables. We compare the performance of these methods with regards to the mass determination of a new particle resonance along the decay chain from the peak of the reconstructed invariant mass distribution. For concreteness, we consider the event topology of dilepton t\\overline{t} events and study each of the three possible subsystems, in both a t\\overline{t} and a SUSY example. We find that the M 2 variables generally provide sharper peaks and therefore better ansatze for the invisible momenta. We show that the performance can be further improved by preselecting events near the kinematic endpoint of the corresponding variable from which the momentum ansatz originates.

  8. Rational kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Angeles, Jorge

    1988-01-01

    A rational study of kinematics is a treatment of the subject based on invariants, i.e., quantities that remain essentially unchanged under a change of observer. An observer is understood to be a reference frame supplied with a clock (Truesdell 1966). This study will therefore include an introduction to invariants. The language of these is tensor analysis and multilinear algebra, both of which share many isomorphic relations, These subjects are treated in full detail in Ericksen (1960) and Bowen and Wang (1976), and hence will not be included here. Only a short account of notation and definitions will be presented. Moreover, definitions and basic concepts pertaining to the kinematics of rigid bodies will be also included. Although the kinematics of rigid bodies can be regarded as a particular case of the kinematics of continua, the former deserves attention on its own merits for several reasons. One of these is that it describes locally the motions undergone by continua. Another reason is that a whole area of ...

  9. Rationality in Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Dijkstra, Jacob; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary theories of rational behavior in human society augment the orthodox model of rationality both by adding various forms of bounded rationality and relaxing the assumptions of self-interest and materialistic preferences. This entry discusses how these extensions of the theory of rational

  10. Asymptotic Bethe ansatz S-matrix and Landau-Lifshitz-type effective 2d actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roiban, R; Tirziu, A; Tseytlin, A A

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by the desire to relate Bethe ansatz equations for anomalous dimensions found on the gauge-theory side of the AdS/CFT correspondence to superstring theory on AdS 5 x S 5 we explore a connection between the asymptotic S-matrix that enters the Bethe ansatz and an effective two-dimensional quantum field theory. The latter generalizes the standard 'non-relativistic' Landau-Lifshitz (LL) model describing low-energy modes of ferromagnetic Heisenberg spin chain and should be related to a limit of superstring effective action. We find the exact form of the quartic interaction terms in the generalized LL-type action whose quantum S-matrix matches the low-energy limit of the asymptotic S-matrix of the spin chain of Beisert, Dippel and Staudacher (BDS). This generalizes to all orders in the 't Hooft coupling λ an earlier computation of Klose and Zarembo of the S-matrix of the standard LL model. We also consider a generalization to the case when the spin-chain S-matrix contains an extra 'string' phase and determine the exact form of the LL 4-vertex corresponding to the low-energy limit of the ansatz of Arutyunov, Frolov and Staudacher (AFS). We explain the relation between the resulting 'non-relativistic' non-local action and the second-derivative string sigma model. We comment on modifications introduced by strong-coupling corrections to the AFS phase. We mostly discuss the SU(2) sector but also present generalizations to the SL(2) and SU(1|1) sectors, confirming universality of the dressing phase contribution by matching the low-energy limit of the AFS-type spin-chain S-matrix with tree-level string-theory S-matrix

  11. Log-gamma directed polymer with fixed endpoints via the replica Bethe Ansatz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiery, Thimothée; Le Doussal, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We study the model of a discrete directed polymer (DP) on a square lattice with homogeneous inverse gamma distribution of site random Boltzmann weights, introduced by Seppalainen (2012 Ann. Probab. 40 19–73). The integer moments of the partition sum, Z n -bar , are studied using a transfer matrix formulation, which appears as a generalization of the Lieb–Liniger quantum mechanics of bosons to discrete time and space. In the present case of the inverse gamma distribution the model is integrable in terms of a coordinate Bethe Ansatz, as discovered by Brunet. Using the Brunet-Bethe eigenstates we obtain an exact expression for the integer moments of Z n -bar for polymers of arbitrary lengths and fixed endpoint positions. Although these moments do not exist for all integer n, we are nevertheless able to construct a generating function which reproduces all existing integer moments and which takes the form of a Fredholm determinant (FD). This suggests an analytic continuation via a Mellin–Barnes transform and we thereby propose a FD ansatz representation for the probability distribution function (PDF) of Z and its Laplace transform. In the limit of a very long DP, this ansatz yields that the distribution of the free energy converges to the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) Tracy-Widom distribution up to a non-trivial average and variance that we calculate. Our asymptotic predictions coincide with a result by Borodin et al (2013 Commun. Math. Phys. 324 215–32) based on a formula obtained by Corwin et al (2011 arXiv:1110.3489) using the geometric Robinson–Schensted–Knuth (gRSK) correspondence. In addition we obtain the dependence on the endpoint position and the exact elastic coefficient at a large time. We argue the equivalence between our formula and that of Borodin et al. As we will discuss, this provides a connection between quantum integrability and tropical combinatorics. (paper)

  12. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX chain with triangular boundaries and Gaudin model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirilo António, N., E-mail: nantonio@math.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Análise Funcional e Aplicações, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Manojlović, N., E-mail: nmanoj@ualg.pt [Grupo de Física Matemática da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, PT-1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Matemática, F.C.T., Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, PT-8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Salom, I., E-mail: isalom@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 57, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-12-15

    We implement fully the algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX Heisenberg spin chain in the case when both boundary matrices can be brought to the upper-triangular form. We define the Bethe vectors which yield the strikingly simple expression for the off shell action of the transfer matrix, deriving the spectrum and the relevant Bethe equations. We explore further these results by obtaining the off shell action of the generating function of the Gaudin Hamiltonians on the corresponding Bethe vectors through the so-called quasi-classical limit. Moreover, this action is as simple as it could possibly be, yielding the spectrum and the Bethe equations of the Gaudin model.

  13. Internal parity symmetry and degeneracy of Bethe Ansatz strings in the isotropic heptagonal magnetic ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewski, J., E-mail: jsmilew@wp.pl [Institute of Mathematics, Poznań University of Technology, Piotrowo 3A, 60-965 Poznań (Poland); Lulek, B., E-mail: barlulek@amu.edu.pl [East European State Higher School, ul. Tymona Terleckiego 6, 37-700 Przemyśl (Poland); Lulek, T., E-mail: tadlulek@prz.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); East European State Higher School, ul. Tymona Terleckiego 6, 37-700 Przemyśl (Poland); Łabuz, M., E-mail: labuz@univ.rzeszow.pl [University of Rzeszow, Institute of Physics, Rejtana 16a, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland); Stagraczyński, R., E-mail: rstag@prz.edu.pl [Rzeszow University of Technology, The Faculty of Mathematics and Applied Physics, Powstańców Warszawy 6, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland)

    2014-02-01

    The exact Bethe eigenfunctions for the heptagonal ring within the isotropic XXX model exhibit a doubly degenerated energy level in the three-deviation sector at the centre of the Brillouin zone. We demonstrate an explicit construction of these eigenfunctions by use of algebraic Bethe Ansatz, and point out a relation of degeneracy to parity conservation, applied to the configuration of strings for these eigenfunctions. Namely, the internal structure of the eigenfunctions (the 2-string and the 1-string, with opposite quasimomenta) admits generation of two mutually orthogonal eigenfunctions due to the fact that the strings which differ by their length are distinguishable objects.

  14. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX chain with triangular boundaries and Gaudin model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilo António, N.; Manojlović, N.; Salom, I.

    2014-12-01

    We implement fully the algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX Heisenberg spin chain in the case when both boundary matrices can be brought to the upper-triangular form. We define the Bethe vectors which yield the strikingly simple expression for the off shell action of the transfer matrix, deriving the spectrum and the relevant Bethe equations. We explore further these results by obtaining the off shell action of the generating function of the Gaudin Hamiltonians on the corresponding Bethe vectors through the so-called quasi-classical limit. Moreover, this action is as simple as it could possibly be, yielding the spectrum and the Bethe equations of the Gaudin model.

  15. Quantum quench dynamics of the attractive one-dimensional Bose gas via the coordinate Bethe ansatz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C. Zill, Tod M. Wright, Karen V. Kheruntsyan, Thomas Gasenzer, Matthew J. Davis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We use the coordinate Bethe ansatz to study the Lieb-Liniger model of a one-dimensional gas of bosons on a finite-sized ring interacting via an attractive delta-function potential. We calculate zero-temperature correlation functions for seven particles in the vicinity of the crossover to a localized solitonic state and study the dynamics of a system of four particles quenched to attractive interactions from the ideal-gas ground state. We determine the time evolution of correlation functions, as well as their temporal averages, and discuss the role of bound states in shaping the postquench correlations and relaxation dynamics.

  16. Nested Bethe Ansatz for Spin Ladder Model with Open Boundary Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Junfang; Zhang Chunmin; Yue Ruihong; Li Runling

    2005-01-01

    The nested Bethe ansatz (BA) method is applied to find the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of the transfer matrix for spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions. Based on the reflection equation, we find the general diagonal solution, which determines the general boundary interaction in the Hamiltonian. We introduce the spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions. By finding the solution K ± of the reflection equation which determines the nontrivial boundary terms in the Hamiltonian, we diagonalize the transfer matrix of the spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions in the framework of nested BA.

  17. The Generalized Coherent State ansatz: Application to quantum electron-vibrational dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrelli, Raffaele, E-mail: raffaele.borrelli@unito.it [DISAFA, Università di Torino, I-10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Gelin, Maxim F. [Departement of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, D-85747 Garching (Germany)

    2016-12-20

    A new ansatz for molecular vibronic wave functions based on a superposition of time-dependent Generalized Coherent States is developed and analysed. The methodology is specifically tailored to describe the time evolution of the wave function of a system in which several interacting electronic states are coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators. The equations of motion for the wave packet parameters are obtained by using the Dirac–Frenkel time-dependent variational principle. The methodology is used to describe the quantum dynamical behavior of a model polaron system and its scaling and convergence properties are discussed and compared with numerically exact results.

  18. Entanglement entropy in quantum many-particle systems and their simulation via ansatz states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    A main topic of this thesis is the development of efficient numerical methods for the simulation of strongly correlated quantum lattice models. For one-dimensional systems, the density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) is such a very successful method. The physical states of interest are approximated within a certain class of ansatz states. These ansatz states are designed in a way that the number of degrees of freedom are prevented from growing exponentially. They are the so-called matrix product states. The first part of the thesis, therefore, provides analytical and numerical analysis of the scaling of quantum nonlocality with the system size or time in different, physically relevant scenarios. For example, the scaling of Renyi entropies and their dependence on boundary conditions is derived within the 1+1-dimensional conformal field theory. Conjectures and analytical indications concerning the properties of entanglement entropy in critical fermionic and bosonic systems are confirmed numerically with high precision. For integrable models in the thermodynamic limit, general preconditions are derived under which subsystems converge to steady states. These steady states are non-thermal and retain information about the initial state. It is shown that the entanglement entropy in such steady states is extensive. For short times, the entanglement entropy grows typically linearly with time, causing an exponential increase in computation costs for the DMRG method. The second part of the thesis focuses on the development and improvement of the abovementioned numerical techniques. The time-dependent DMRG is complemented with an extrapolation technique for the evaluated observables. In this way, the problem of the entropy increase can be circumvented, allowing for a precise determination of spectral functions. The method is demonstrated using the example of the Heisenberg antiferromagnet and results are compared to Bethe-Ansatz data for T=0 and quantum Monte Carlo data

  19. Entanglement entropy in quantum many-particle systems and their simulation via ansatz states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, Thomas

    2009-12-10

    A main topic of this thesis is the development of efficient numerical methods for the simulation of strongly correlated quantum lattice models. For one-dimensional systems, the density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) is such a very successful method. The physical states of interest are approximated within a certain class of ansatz states. These ansatz states are designed in a way that the number of degrees of freedom are prevented from growing exponentially. They are the so-called matrix product states. The first part of the thesis, therefore, provides analytical and numerical analysis of the scaling of quantum nonlocality with the system size or time in different, physically relevant scenarios. For example, the scaling of Renyi entropies and their dependence on boundary conditions is derived within the 1+1-dimensional conformal field theory. Conjectures and analytical indications concerning the properties of entanglement entropy in critical fermionic and bosonic systems are confirmed numerically with high precision. For integrable models in the thermodynamic limit, general preconditions are derived under which subsystems converge to steady states. These steady states are non-thermal and retain information about the initial state. It is shown that the entanglement entropy in such steady states is extensive. For short times, the entanglement entropy grows typically linearly with time, causing an exponential increase in computation costs for the DMRG method. The second part of the thesis focuses on the development and improvement of the abovementioned numerical techniques. The time-dependent DMRG is complemented with an extrapolation technique for the evaluated observables. In this way, the problem of the entropy increase can be circumvented, allowing for a precise determination of spectral functions. The method is demonstrated using the example of the Heisenberg antiferromagnet and results are compared to Bethe-Ansatz data for T=0 and quantum Monte Carlo data

  20. On rationally supported surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Juttler, B.; Sir, Z.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the class of surfaces which are equipped with rational support functions. Any rational support function can be decomposed into a symmetric (even) and an antisymmetric (odd) part. We analyze certain geometric properties of surfaces with odd and even rational support functions....... In particular it is shown that odd rational support functions correspond to those rational surfaces which can be equipped with a linear field of normal vectors, which were discussed by Sampoli et al. (Sampoli, M.L., Peternell, M., Juttler, B., 2006. Rational surfaces with linear normals and their convolutions...... with rational surfaces. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 23, 179-192). As shown recently, this class of surfaces includes non-developable quadratic triangular Bezier surface patches (Lavicka, M., Bastl, B., 2007. Rational hypersurfaces with rational convolutions. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 24, 410426; Peternell, M...

  1. Long-range psu(2,2|4) Bethe ansatze for gauge theory and strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beisert, Niklas; Staudacher, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    We generalize various existing higher-loop Bethe ansatze for simple sectors of the integrable long-range dynamic spin chain describing planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory to the full psu(2,2|4) symmetry and, asymptotically, to arbitrary loop order. We perform a large number of tests of our conjectured equations, such as internal consistency, comparison to direct three-loop diagonalization and expected thermodynamic behavior. In the special case of the su(1|2) subsector, corresponding to a long-range t-J model, we are able to derive, up to three loops, the S-matrix and the associated nested Bethe ansatz from the gauge theory dilatation operator. We conjecture novel all-order S-matrices for the su(1|2) and su(1,1|2) subsectors, and show that they satisfy the Yang-Baxter equation. Throughout the paper, we muse about the idea that quantum string theory on AdS 5 xS 5 is also described by a psu(2,2|4) spin chain. We propose asymptotic all-order Bethe equations for this putative ''string chain'', which differ in a systematic fashion from the gauge theory equations

  2. A Rational Approach to Rational Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Describes suicide as reaction to internal and external sources of stress and the impact of life events. Notes that, in the elderly, these situations are prevalent in many who are not suicidal. Contends that much more is written about rational suicide than its alternative (rational nonsuicide). Reviews reasons for this and suggests rational…

  3. Bethe ansatz for two-magnon scattering states in 2D and 3D Heisenberg–Ising ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibikov, P. N.

    2018-04-01

    Two different versions of Bethe ansatz are suggested for evaluation of scattering two-magnon states in 2D and 3D Heisenberg–Ising ferromagnets on square and simple cubic lattices. It is shown that the two-magnon sector is subdivided on two subsectors related to non-interacting and scattering magnons. The former subsector possess an integrable regular dynamics and may be described by a natural modification of the usual Bethe Ansatz. The latter one is characterized by a non-integrable chaotic dynamics and may be treated only within discrete degenerative version of Bethe Ansatz previously suggested by the author. Some of these results are generalized for multi-magnon states of the Heisenberg–Ising ferromagnet on a D dimensional hyper cubic lattice. Dedicated to the memory of L D Faddeev.

  4. Correlation functions of the spin chains. Algebraic Bethe Ansatz approach; Fonctions de correlation des chaines de spin. Approche de l'ansatz de Bethe algebrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitanine, N

    2007-09-15

    Spin chains are the basic elements of integrable quantum models. These models have direct applications in condense matter theory, in statistical physics, in quantum optics, in field theory and even in string theory but they are also important because they enable us to solve, in an exact manner, non-perturbative phenomena that otherwise would stay unresolved. The method described in this work is based on the algebraic Bethe Ansatz. It is shown how this method can be used for the computation of null temperature correlation functions of the Heisenberg 1/2 spin chain. The important point of this approach is the solution of the inverse quantum problem given by the XXZ spin chain. This solution as well as a simple formulae for the scalar product of the Bethe states, have enabled us to get the most basic correlation functions under the form of multiple integrals. The formalism of multiple integrals open the way for asymptotic analysis for a few physical quantities like the probability of vacuum formation. It is worth noticing that this formalism can give exact results for two-point functions that are the most important correlation functions for applications. A relationship has been discovered between these multiple integrals and the sum of the form factors. The results have been extended to dynamical correlation functions. (A.C.)

  5. Rationing medical education.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different ... Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. ... state-of-the-art resources, technology and tutors con-.

  6. Rationing with baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....

  7. CONTRIBUTIONS TO RATIONAL APPROXIMATION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the key results of linear Chebyshev approximation theory are extended to generalized rational functions. Prominent among these is Haar’s...linear theorem which yields necessary and sufficient conditions for uniqueness. Some new results in the classic field of rational function Chebyshev...Furthermore a Weierstrass type theorem is proven for rational Chebyshev approximation. A characterization theorem for rational trigonometric Chebyshev approximation in terms of sign alternation is developed. (Author)

  8. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the quantum group invariant open XXZ chain at roots of unity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azat M. Gainutdinov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For generic values of q, all the eigenvectors of the transfer matrix of the Uqsl(2-invariant open spin-1/2 XXZ chain with finite length N can be constructed using the algebraic Bethe ansatz (ABA formalism of Sklyanin. However, when q is a root of unity (q=eiπ/p with integer p≥2, the Bethe equations acquire continuous solutions, and the transfer matrix develops Jordan cells. Hence, there appear eigenvectors of two new types: eigenvectors corresponding to continuous solutions (exact complete p-strings, and generalized eigenvectors. We propose general ABA constructions for these two new types of eigenvectors. We present many explicit examples, and we construct complete sets of (generalized eigenvectors for various values of p and N.

  9. The q-deformed analogue of the Onsager algebra: Beyond the Bethe ansatz approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseilhac, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    The spectral properties of operators formed from generators of the q-Onsager non-Abelian infinite-dimensional algebra are investigated. Using a suitable functional representation, all eigenfunctions are shown to obey a second-order q-difference equation (or its degenerate discrete version). In the algebraic sector associated with polynomial eigenfunctions (or their discrete analogues), Bethe equations naturally appear. Beyond this sector, where the Bethe ansatz approach is not applicable in related massive quantum integrable models, the eigenfunctions are also described. The spin-half XXZ open spin chain with general integrable boundary conditions is reconsidered in light of this approach: all the eigenstates are constructed. In the algebraic sector which corresponds to special relations among the parameters, known results are recovered

  10. First-principles momentum-dependent local ansatz wavefunction and momentum distribution function bands of iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakehashi, Yoshiro; Chandra, Sumal

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a first-principles local ansatz wavefunction approach with momentum-dependent variational parameters on the basis of the tight-binding LDA+U Hamiltonian. The theory goes beyond the first-principles Gutzwiller approach and quantitatively describes correlated electron systems. Using the theory, we find that the momentum distribution function (MDF) bands of paramagnetic bcc Fe along high-symmetry lines show a large deviation from the Fermi–Dirac function for the d electrons with e g symmetry and yield the momentum-dependent mass enhancement factors. The calculated average mass enhancement m*/m = 1.65 is consistent with low-temperature specific heat data as well as recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data. (author)

  11. First-Principles Momentum-Dependent Local Ansatz Wavefunction and Momentum Distribution Function Bands of Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehashi, Yoshiro; Chandra, Sumal

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a first-principles local ansatz wavefunction approach with momentum-dependent variational parameters on the basis of the tight-binding LDA+U Hamiltonian. The theory goes beyond the first-principles Gutzwiller approach and quantitatively describes correlated electron systems. Using the theory, we find that the momentum distribution function (MDF) bands of paramagnetic bcc Fe along high-symmetry lines show a large deviation from the Fermi-Dirac function for the d electrons with eg symmetry and yield the momentum-dependent mass enhancement factors. The calculated average mass enhancement m*/m = 1.65 is consistent with low-temperature specific heat data as well as recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data.

  12. Applying the Coupled-Cluster Ansatz to Solids and Surfaces in the Thermodynamic Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thomas; Liao, Ke; Tsatsoulis, Theodoros; Hummel, Felix; Grüneis, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    Modern electronic structure theories can predict and simulate a wealth of phenomena in surface science and solid-state physics. In order to allow for a direct comparison with experiment, such ab initio predictions have to be made in the thermodynamic limit, substantially increasing the computational cost of many-electron wave-function theories. Here, we present a method that achieves thermodynamic limit results for solids and surfaces using the "gold standard" coupled cluster ansatz of quantum chemistry with unprecedented efficiency. We study the energy difference between carbon diamond and graphite crystals, adsorption energies of water on h -BN, as well as the cohesive energy of the Ne solid, demonstrating the increased efficiency and accuracy of coupled cluster theory for solids and surfaces.

  13. Bounded Rationality and Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mukdad

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the theory of bounded rationality which had been introduced by Herbert Simon in the 1950s. Simon introduced the notion of bounded rationality stating that while decision-makers strive for rationality, they are limited by the effect of the environment, their information process capacity and by the constraints on their information storage and retrieval capabilities. Moreover, this article tries to specifically blend this notion into budgeting, using the foundations of inc...

  14. Rational Multiparty Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Wallrabenstein, John Ross

    2014-01-01

    The field of rational cryptography considers the design of cryptographic protocols in the presence of rational agents seeking to maximize local utility functions. This departs from the standard secure multiparty computation setting, where players are assumed to be either honest or malicious. ^ We detail the construction of both a two-party and a multiparty game theoretic framework for constructing rational cryptographic protocols. Our framework specifies the utility function assumptions neces...

  15. Determinants of Actor Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer-supplier...... relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse...

  16. Free energy calculations, enhanced by a Gaussian ansatz, for the "chemical work" distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulougouris, Georgios C

    2014-05-15

    The evaluation of the free energy is essential in molecular simulation because it is intimately related with the existence of multiphase equilibrium. Recently, it was demonstrated that it is possible to evaluate the Helmholtz free energy using a single statistical ensemble along an entire isotherm by accounting for the "chemical work" of transforming each molecule, from an interacting one, to an ideal gas. In this work, we show that it is possible to perform such a free energy perturbation over a liquid vapor phase transition. Furthermore, we investigate the link between a general free energy perturbation scheme and the novel nonequilibrium theories of Crook's and Jarzinsky. We find that for finite systems away from the thermodynamic limit the second law of thermodynamics will always be an inequality for isothermal free energy perturbations, resulting always to a dissipated work that may tend to zero only in the thermodynamic limit. The work, the heat, and the entropy produced during a thermodynamic free energy perturbation can be viewed in the context of the Crooks and Jarzinsky formalism, revealing that for a given value of the ensemble average of the "irreversible" work, the minimum entropy production corresponded to a Gaussian distribution for the histogram of the work. We propose the evaluation of the free energy difference in any free energy perturbation based scheme on the average irreversible "chemical work" minus the dissipated work that can be calculated from the variance of the distribution of the logarithm of the work histogram, within the Gaussian approximation. As a consequence, using the Gaussian ansatz for the distribution of the "chemical work," accurate estimates for the chemical potential and the free energy of the system can be performed using much shorter simulations and avoiding the necessity of sampling the computational costly tails of the "chemical work." For a more general free energy perturbation scheme that the Gaussian ansatz may not be

  17. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)

  18. Two Concepts of Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dominant tradition in Western philosophy sees rationality as dictating. Thus rationality may require that we believe the best explanation and simple conceptual truths and that we infer in accordance with evident rules of inference. I argue that, given what we know about the growth of knowledge, this authoritarian concept of rationality leads to absurdities and should be abandoned. I then outline a libertarian concept of rationality, derived from Popper, which eschews the dictates and which sees a rational agent as one who questions, criticises, conjectures and experiments. I argue that, while the libertarian approach escapes the absurdities of the authoritarian, it requires two significant developments and an important clarification to be made fully consistent with itself.

  19. Exploring rationality in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Meth...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality.......Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...

  20. Irrational Rationality of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nalbandov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with the ontological problem of applying the rational choice frameworks to the study of terrorism. It testing the application of the rational choice to the “old” (before the end of the Cold War and the “new” (after the end of the Cold War terrorisms. It starts with analyzing the fundamentals of rationality and applies it at two levels: the individual (actors and group (collective via two outlooks: tactical (short-term and strategic (long-term. The main argument of the article is that while the “old” terrorism can be explained by the rational choice theory its “new” version represents a substantial departure from rationality.

  1. Respect for rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca L

    2009-12-01

    The standard notion of autonomy in medical ethics does not require that autonomous choices not be irrational. The paper gives three examples of seemingly irrational patient choices and discusses how a rational autonomy analysis differs from the standard view. It then considers whether a switch to the rational autonomy view would lead to overriding more patient decisions but concludes that this should not be the case. Rather, a determination of whether individual patient decisions are autonomous is much less relevant than usually considered in determining whether health care providers must abide by these decisions. Furthermore, respect for rational autonomy entails strong positive requirements of respect for the autonomy of the person as a rational decision maker. The rationality view of autonomy is conceptually stronger than the standard view, allows for a more nuanced understanding of the practical moral calculus involved in respecting patient autonomy, and promotes positive respect for patient autonomy.

  2. On the path integral representation of the Wigner function and the Barker–Murray ansatz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sels, Dries; Brosens, Fons; Magnus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The propagator of the Wigner function is constructed from the Wigner–Liouville equation as a phase space path integral over a new effective Lagrangian. In contrast to a paper by Barker and Murray (1983) , we show that the path integral can in general not be written as a linear superposition of classical phase space trajectories over a family of non-local forces. Instead, we adopt a saddle point expansion to show that the semiclassical Wigner function is a linear superposition of classical solutions for a different set of non-local time dependent forces. As shown by a simple example the specific form of the path integral makes the formulation ideal for Monte Carlo simulation. -- Highlights: ► We derive the quantum mechanical propagator of the Wigner function in the path integral representation. ► We show that the Barker–Murray ansatz is incomplete, explain the error and provide an alternative. ► An example of a Monte Carlo simulation of the semiclassical path integral is included.

  3. XY vs X Mixer in Quantum Alternating Operator Ansatz for Optimization Problems with Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Rubin, Nicholas; Rieffel, Eleanor G.

    2018-01-01

    Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm, further generalized as Quantum Alternating Operator Ansatz (QAOA), is a family of algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems. It is a leading candidate to run on emerging universal quantum computers to gain insight into quantum heuristics. In constrained optimization, penalties are often introduced so that the ground state of the cost Hamiltonian encodes the solution (a standard practice in quantum annealing). An alternative is to choose a mixing Hamiltonian such that the constraint corresponds to a constant of motion and the quantum evolution stays in the feasible subspace. Better performance of the algorithm is speculated due to a much smaller search space. We consider problems with a constant Hamming weight as the constraint. We also compare different methods of generating the generalized W-state, which serves as a natural initial state for the Hamming-weight constraint. Using graph-coloring as an example, we compare the performance of using XY model as a mixer that preserves the Hamming weight with the performance of adding a penalty term in the cost Hamiltonian.

  4. Mass matrix ansatz and lepton flavor violation in the two-Higgs doublet model-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Cruz, J.L.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Rosado, A.

    2004-01-01

    Predictive Higgs-boson-fermion couplings can be obtained when a specific texture for the fermion mass matrices is included in the general two-Higgs doublet model. We derive the form of these couplings in the charged lepton sector using a Hermitian mass matrix ansatz with four-texture zeros. The presence of unconstrained phases in the vertices φ i l i l j modifies the pattern of flavor-violating Higgs boson interactions. Bounds on the model parameters are obtained from present limits on rare lepton flavor-violating processes, which could be extended further by the search for the decay τ→μμμ and μ-e conversion at future experiments. The signal from Higgs boson decays φ i →τμ could be searched for at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, while e-μ transitions could produce a detectable signal at a future eμ collider, through the reaction e + μ - →h 0 →τ + τ -

  5. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for U(1) invariant integrable models: Compact and non-compact applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, M.J.; Melo, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    We apply the algebraic Bethe ansatz developed in our previous paper [C.S. Melo, M.J. Martins, Nucl. Phys. B 806 (2009) 567] to three different families of U(1) integrable vertex models with arbitrary N bond states. These statistical mechanics systems are based on the higher spin representations of the quantum group U q [SU(2)] for both generic and non-generic values of q as well as on the non-compact discrete representation of the SL(2,R) algebra. We present for all these models the explicit expressions for both the on-shell and the off-shell properties associated to the respective transfer matrices eigenvalue problems. The amplitudes governing the vectors not parallel to the Bethe states are shown to factorize in terms of elementary building blocks functions. The results for the non-compact SL(2,R) model are argued to be derived from those obtained for the compact systems by taking suitable N→∞ limits. This permits us to study the properties of the non-compact SL(2,R) model starting from systems with finite degrees of freedom.

  6. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for U(1) invariant integrable models: Compact and non-compact applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, M. J.; Melo, C. S.

    2009-10-01

    We apply the algebraic Bethe ansatz developed in our previous paper [C.S. Melo, M.J. Martins, Nucl. Phys. B 806 (2009) 567] to three different families of U(1) integrable vertex models with arbitrary N bond states. These statistical mechanics systems are based on the higher spin representations of the quantum group U[SU(2)] for both generic and non-generic values of q as well as on the non-compact discrete representation of the SL(2,R) algebra. We present for all these models the explicit expressions for both the on-shell and the off-shell properties associated to the respective transfer matrices eigenvalue problems. The amplitudes governing the vectors not parallel to the Bethe states are shown to factorize in terms of elementary building blocks functions. The results for the non-compact SL(2,R) model are argued to be derived from those obtained for the compact systems by taking suitable N→∞ limits. This permits us to study the properties of the non-compact SL(2,R) model starting from systems with finite degrees of freedom.

  7. Direct test of the Gaussian auxiliary field ansatz in nonconserved order parameter phase ordering dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Chuck

    2018-06-01

    The assumption that the local order parameter is related to an underlying spatially smooth auxiliary field, u (r ⃗,t ) , is a common feature in theoretical approaches to non-conserved order parameter phase separation dynamics. In particular, the ansatz that u (r ⃗,t ) is a Gaussian random field leads to predictions for the decay of the autocorrelation function which are consistent with observations, but distinct from predictions using alternative theoretical approaches. In this paper, the auxiliary field is obtained directly from simulations of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation in two and three dimensions. The results show that u (r ⃗,t ) is equivalent to the distance to the nearest interface. In two dimensions, the probability distribution, P (u ) , is well approximated as Gaussian except for small values of u /L (t ) , where L (t ) is the characteristic length-scale of the patterns. The behavior of P (u ) in three dimensions is more complicated; the non-Gaussian region for small u /L (t ) is much larger than that in two dimensions but the tails of P (u ) begin to approach a Gaussian form at intermediate times. However, at later times, the tails of the probability distribution appear to decay faster than a Gaussian distribution.

  8. Calculation of scalar products of wave functions and form factors in the framework of the algebraic Bethe ansatz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Bethe ansatz method is widely used to investigate two-dimensional completely integrable models. In the framework of the quantum inverse scattering method it has proved to be possible to construct an algebraic scheme of the Bethe ansatz, and this has been successfully applied to calculation of correlation functions. One of the important questions of the method is that of the scalar products of the wave functions. In particular, knowledge of the properties of the scalar products is necessary for investigating the form factors and correlation function. In the present paper the author considers a generalized model with R matrix of the model of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The main formulas and notation are given in Sec. 2. In Sec. 3 he calculates the scalar product of an arbitrary function and an eigenfunction of the Hamiltonian. The generalized two-site model is introduced in Sec. 4. In Sec. 5 he calculates the form factor of the particle number operator

  9. Algebraic entropy for algebraic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, A N W; Ragnisco, Orlando; Zullo, Federico

    2016-01-01

    We propose an extension of the concept of algebraic entropy, as introduced by Bellon and Viallet for rational maps, to algebraic maps (or correspondences) of a certain kind. The corresponding entropy is an index of the complexity of the map. The definition inherits the basic properties from the definition of entropy for rational maps. We give an example with positive entropy, as well as two examples taken from the theory of Bäcklund transformations. (letter)

  10. History of Economic Rationalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book concentrates upon how economic rationalities have been embedded into particular historical practices, cultures, and moral systems. Through multiple case-studies, situated in different historical contexts of the modern West, the book shows that the development of economic rationalities...... takes place in the meeting with other regimes of thought, values, and moral discourses. The book offers new and refreshing insights, ranging from the development of early economic thinking to economic aspects and concepts in the works of classical thinkers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Karl Marx......, to the role of economic reasoning in contemporary policies of art and health care. With economic rationalities as the read thread, the reader is offered a unique chance of historical self-awareness and recollection of how economic rationality became the powerful ideological and moral force that it is today....

  11. Rationing medical education.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different ... Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at .... Walsh K. Online educational tools to improve the.

  12. Crab Rationalization Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crab Rationalization Program (Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities. The North Pacific Fishery Management...

  13. THE HICKSIAN RATIONAL CONSUMER

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel FERNÁNDEZ-GRELA

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to trace the evolution of the concept of ''rational consumer'' in Hicks's writings. After being one of the pioneers in the introduction of rationality assumptions about consumer behaviour in economic models, Hicks gradually developed a sceptical view about some of the uses to which those assumptions were put into. The focus of the paper is on continuity in Hicksian views, providing a picture of gradual changes in the long series of Hicks's works

  14. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan. Contingency gasoline rationing regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The Economic Regulatory Administration issues final rules with respect to standby gasoline rationing. The plan is designed for and would be used only in the event of a severe gasoline shortage. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations. DOE will mail government ration checks to the parties named in a national vehicle registration file to be maintained by DOE. Ration recipients may cash these checks for ration coupons at various designated coupon issuance points. Retail outlets and other suppliers will be required to redeem the ration coupons received in exchange for gasoline sold. Supplemental gas will be given to high-priority activities. A ration banking system will be established with two separate and distinct of ration accounts: retail outlets and other suppliers will open redemption accounts for the deposit of redeemed ration rights; and individuals or firms may open ration rights accounts, which will operate in much the same manner as monetary checking accounts. A white market will be permitted for the sale of transfer of ration rights. A percentage of the total ration rights to be issued will be reserved for distribution to the states as a State Ration Reserve, to be used by the states primarily for the relief of hardship. A National Ration Reserave will also be established. All sections of the Standby Gasoline Rationing Regulations are analyzed. (MCW)

  15. Atomic-accuracy prediction of protein loop structures through an RNA-inspired Ansatz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiju Das

    Full Text Available Consistently predicting biopolymer structure at atomic resolution from sequence alone remains a difficult problem, even for small sub-segments of large proteins. Such loop prediction challenges, which arise frequently in comparative modeling and protein design, can become intractable as loop lengths exceed 10 residues and if surrounding side-chain conformations are erased. Current approaches, such as the protein local optimization protocol or kinematic inversion closure (KIC Monte Carlo, involve stages that coarse-grain proteins, simplifying modeling but precluding a systematic search of all-atom configurations. This article introduces an alternative modeling strategy based on a 'stepwise ansatz', recently developed for RNA modeling, which posits that any realistic all-atom molecular conformation can be built up by residue-by-residue stepwise enumeration. When harnessed to a dynamic-programming-like recursion in the Rosetta framework, the resulting stepwise assembly (SWA protocol enables enumerative sampling of a 12 residue loop at a significant but achievable cost of thousands of CPU-hours. In a previously established benchmark, SWA recovers crystallographic conformations with sub-Angstrom accuracy for 19 of 20 loops, compared to 14 of 20 by KIC modeling with a comparable expenditure of computational power. Furthermore, SWA gives high accuracy results on an additional set of 15 loops highlighted in the biological literature for their irregularity or unusual length. Successes include cis-Pro touch turns, loops that pass through tunnels of other side-chains, and loops of lengths up to 24 residues. Remaining problem cases are traced to inaccuracies in the Rosetta all-atom energy function. In five additional blind tests, SWA achieves sub-Angstrom accuracy models, including the first such success in a protein/RNA binding interface, the YbxF/kink-turn interaction in the fourth 'RNA-puzzle' competition. These results establish all-atom enumeration as

  16. Consumer rationality in choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and

  17. Universal and Relative Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Goldberg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I illustrate how a basic kind of universal rationality can be profitably combined with undeniable instances of relativism. I do so by engaging Michael Friedman’s recent response to a challenge from Thomas Kuhn.

  18. The rational complementarity problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Schumacher, J.M.; Weiland, S.

    1999-01-01

    An extension of the linear complementarity problem (LCP) of mathematical programming is the so-called rational complementarity problem (RCP). This problem occurs if complementarity conditions are imposed on input and output variables of linear dynamical input/state/output systems. The resulting

  19. Rational equity bubbles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ge

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the existence of a bubble in the pricing of an asset that pays positive dividends. I show that rational bubbles can exist in a growing economy. The existence of bubbles depends on the relative magnitudes of risk aversion to consumption and to wealth. Furthermore, I examine how an exogenous shock in technology might trigger bubbles.

  20. Ideal Theory, Real Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Understanding rationality and power are key to understanding actual political and administrative behavior. Political and administrative theory that ignores this fact stand in danger of being at best irrelevant or, at worst part of the problem it whishes to solve. The paper presents Jürgen Habermas...

  1. Diagnosis, Dogmatism, and Rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Efron, Noah J.

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings suggesting that misdiagnoses frequently stem from flaws in human information processing, particularly in collecting and using information. Claims that improved diagnostic tools will not remedy the problem. Drawing on the work of Karl Popper and Robin Collingwood, proposes operational principles to ensure a rational diagnostic…

  2. Rational Emotive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, William

    1977-01-01

    Rational Emotive Education--an outgrowth of theories developed by Albert Ellis--is a teaching design of mental health concepts and problem-solving activities designed to help students to approach and cope with their problems through experiential learning, via a structured, thematic sequence of emotive education lessons. (MJB)

  3. Hegel's phenomenology of rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to elucidate Hegel's conception of rationality in the Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807), and to defend the thesis that he is an author engaged in discussion with a wide variety of sources. He uses sceptical reasoning to form a line of argument with a necessary progression...

  4. Quantum solitons and their classical relatives: Bethe Ansatz states in soliton sectors of the Sine--Gordon System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbaczewski, P.

    1982-01-01

    Previously we have found that the semiclassical sine--Gordon/Thirring spectrum can be received in the absence of quantum solitons via the spin 1/2 approximation of the quantized sine--Gordon system on a lattice. Later on, we have recovered the Hilbert space of quantum soliton states for the sine--Gordon system. In the present paper we present a derivation of the Bethe Ansatz eigenstates for the generalized ice model in this soliton Hilbert space. We demonstrate that via ''Wick rotation'' of a fundamental parameter of the ice model one arrives at the Bethe Ansatz eigenstates of the quantum sine--Gordon system. The latter is a ''local transition matrix'' ancestor of the coventional sine--Gordon/Thirring model, as derived by Faddeev et al. within the quantum inverse-scattering method. Our result is essentially based on the N< infinity,Δ = 1,m<<1 regime. Consequently, the spectrum received, though resembling the semiclassical one, does not coincide with it at all

  5. CIME-CIRM course Rationality Problems in Algebraic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Pirola, Gian

    2016-01-01

    Providing an overview of the state of the art on rationality questions in algebraic geometry, this volume gives an update on the most recent developments. It offers a comprehensive introduction to this fascinating topic, and will certainly become an essential reference for anybody working in the field. Rationality problems are of fundamental importance both in algebra and algebraic geometry. Historically, rationality problems motivated significant developments in the theory of abelian integrals, Riemann surfaces and the Abel–Jacobi map, among other areas, and they have strong links with modern notions such as moduli spaces, Hodge theory, algebraic cycles and derived categories. This text is aimed at researchers and graduate students in algebraic geometry.

  6. Geometry of minimal rational curves on Fano manifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J -M [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    This lecture is an introduction to my joint project with N. Mok where we develop a geometric theory of Fano manifolds of Picard number 1 by studying the collection of tangent directions of minimal rational curves through a generic point. After a sketch of some historical background, the fundamental object of this project, the variety of minimal rational tangents, is defined and various examples are examined. Then some results on the variety of minimal rational tangents are discussed including an extension theorem for holomorphic maps preserving the geometric structure. Some applications of this theory to the stability of the tangent bundles and the rigidity of generically finite morphisms are given. (author)

  7. Capital Requirements and Credit Rationing

    OpenAIRE

    Itai Agur

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trade-off between financial stability and credit rationing that arises when increasing capital requirements. It extends the Stiglitz-Weiss model of credit rationing to allow for bank default. Bank capital structure then matters for lending incentives. With default and rationing endogenous, optimal capital requirements can be analyzed. Introducing bank financiers, the paper also shows that uninsured funding raises the sensitivity of rationing to capital requirements. In...

  8. Rationality and ritual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynne, B.

    1982-01-01

    The book concerns the Windscale Public Inquiry, held to investigate the application by British Nuclear Fuels to build a 1200 tonne per year thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP) for spent nuclear fuels from Britain and overseas. The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (international dimensions; the Windscale Inquiry; conflict resolution and social drama; public debate and the sociology of knowledge); the decision-making legacy; oxide reprocessing - the background; the public inquiry tradition - a comparative perspective; the emergence of THORP from a private to a public issue (local and national planning politics); the process and impact of the Inquiry (opposition groups); judicial rationality, expert conflict, and political authority); the rationality and politics of analysis (proliferation; radiation risks; relative risks; the Ravenglass issue; discharge targets; general radiation protection arrangements); conclusion. (U.K.)

  9. Rational management of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Venkataraman

    2014-09-01

    Management of epilepsies in children has improved considerably over the last decade, all over the world due to the advances seen in the understanding of the patho-physiology of epileptogenesis, availability of both structural and functional imaging studies along with better quality EEG/video-EEG recordings and the availability of a plethora of newer anti-epileptic drugs which are tailormade to act on specific pathways. In spite of this, there is still a long way to go before one is able to be absolutely rational about which drug to use for which type of epilepsy. There have been a lot of advances in the area of epilepsy surgery and is certainly gaining ground for specific cases. Better understanding of the genetic basis of epilepsies will hopefully lead to a more rational treatment plan in the future. Also, a lot of work needs to be done to dispel various misunderstandings and myths about epilepsy which still exists in our country.

  10. Multivariate rational data fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte

    1992-12-01

    Sections 1 and 2 discuss the advantages of an object-oriented implementation combined with higher floating-point arithmetic, of the algorithms available for multivariate data fitting using rational functions. Section 1 will in particular explain what we mean by "higher arithmetic". Section 2 will concentrate on the concepts of "object orientation". In sections 3 and 4 we shall describe the generality of the data structure that can be dealt with: due to some new results virtually every data set is acceptable right now, with possible coalescence of coordinates or points. In order to solve the multivariate rational interpolation problem the data sets are fed to different algorithms depending on the structure of the interpolation points in then-variate space.

  11. Models for Rational Number Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jean J.; Armbruster, Frank O.

    1975-01-01

    This article extends number bases to negative integers, then to positive rationals and finally to negative rationals. Methods and rules for operations in positive and negative rational bases greater than one or less than negative one are summarized in tables. Sample problems are explained and illustrated. (KM)

  12. Rational Unified Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kopal, Nils

    2016-01-01

    In this German seminar paper, which was written in the year 2011 at the University of Duisburg for a Bachelor Colloquium in Applied computer science, we show a brief overview of the Rational Unified Process (RUP). Thus, interested students or generally interested people in software development gain a first impression of RUP. The paper includes a survey and overview of the underlying process structure, the phases of the process, its workflows, and describes the always by the RUP developers pos...

  13. Emotional Theory of Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés, Mario; Finkel, Lucila

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, it has been definitely established the existence of a close relationship between the emotional phenomena and rational processes, but we still do not have a unified definition, or effective models to describe any of them well. To advance our understanding of the mechanisms governing the behavior of living beings we must integrate multiple theories, experiments and models from both fields. In this paper we propose a new theoretical framework that allows integrating and unders...

  14. On hereditarily rational functions

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, Krzysztof Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short proof of a theorem by Koll\\'{a}r on hereditarily rational functions. This is an answer to his appeal to find an elementary proof which does not rely so much on resolution of singularities. Our approach does not make use of desingularization techniques. Instead, we apply a stronger version of the \\L{}ojasiewicz inequality. Moreover, this allows us to sharpen Koll\\'{a}r's theorem.

  15. Probability and rational choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Botting

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2014v18n1p1 In this paper I will discuss the rationality of reasoning about the future. There are two things that we might like to know about the future: which hypotheses are true and what will happen next. To put it in philosophical language, I aim to show that there are methods by which inferring to a generalization (selecting a hypothesis and inferring to the next instance (singular predictive inference can be shown to be normative and the method itself shown to be rational, where this is due in part to being based on evidence (although not in the same way and in part on a prior rational choice. I will also argue that these two inferences have been confused, being distinct not only conceptually (as nobody disputes but also in their results (the value given to the probability of the hypothesis being not in general that given to the next instance and that methods that are adequate for one are not by themselves adequate for the other. A number of debates over method founder on this confusion and do not show what the debaters think they show.

  16. A methodological approach to parametric product modelling in motor car development; Ein methodischer Ansatz zur parametrischen Produktmodellierung in der Fahrzeugentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, M.

    2004-07-01

    Continuos improvement of processes and methodologies is one key element to shorten development time, reduce costs, and improve quality, and therefore to answer growing customer demands and global competition. This work describes a new concept of introducing the principles of parametric modeling to the entire product data model in the area of automotive development. Based on the idea, that not only geometric dimensions can be described by parameters, the method of parametric modeling is applied to the complete product model. The concept assumes four major principles: First, the parameters of the product model are handled independently from their proprietary data formats. Secondly, a strictly hierarchical structure is required for the parametric description of the product. The third principle demands an object-based parameterization. Finally the use of parameter-sets for the description of logical units of the product model tree is part of the concept. Those four principles are addressing the following main objectives: Supporting and improving Simultaneous Engineering, achieving data consistency over all development phases, digital approval of product properties, and incorporation of the design intent into the product model. Further improvement of the automotive development process can be achieved with the introduction of parametric product modeling using the principles described in this paper. (orig.) [German] Die Forderung nach kuerzeren Entwicklungszeiten, Reduzierung der Kosten und verbesserter Qualitaet erfordert eine stetige Verbesserung von Prozessen und Methoden in der Produktentwicklung. In dieser Arbeit wird ein neuer Ansatz vorgestellt, der die Methodik des parametrischen Konstruierens auf das gesamte Produktmodell in der Fahrzeugentwicklung anwendet, und somit weitere Potentiale zur Verbesserung des Produktentstehungsprozesses erschliesst. Ausgehend von der Annahme, dass nicht nur geometrische Abmessungen als Parameter beschrieben werden koennen, wird die

  17. An extended Jacobi elliptic function rational expansion method and its application to (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qi; Chen Yong; Zhang Hongqing

    2005-01-01

    With the aid of computerized symbolic computation, a new elliptic function rational expansion method is presented by means of a new general ansatz, in which periodic solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations that can be expressed as a finite Laurent series of some of 12 Jacobi elliptic functions, is more powerful than exiting Jacobi elliptic function methods and is very powerful to uniformly construct more new exact periodic solutions in terms of rational formal Jacobi elliptic function solution of nonlinear partial differential equations. As an application of the method, we choose a (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation to illustrate the method. As a result, we can successfully obtain the solutions found by most existing Jacobi elliptic function methods and find other new and more general solutions at the same time. Of course, more shock wave solutions or solitary wave solutions can be gotten at their limit condition

  18. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXZ Heisenberg spin chain with triangular boundaries and the corresponding Gaudin model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlović, N.; Salom, I.

    2017-10-01

    The implementation of the algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXZ Heisenberg spin chain in the case, when both reflection matrices have the upper-triangular form is analyzed. The general form of the Bethe vectors is studied. In the particular form, Bethe vectors admit the recurrent procedure, with an appropriate modification, used previously in the case of the XXX Heisenberg chain. As expected, these Bethe vectors yield the strikingly simple expression for the off-shell action of the transfer matrix of the chain as well as the spectrum of the transfer matrix and the corresponding Bethe equations. As in the XXX case, the so-called quasi-classical limit gives the off-shell action of the generating function of the corresponding trigonometric Gaudin Hamiltonians with boundary terms.

  19. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXZ Heisenberg spin chain with triangular boundaries and the corresponding Gaudin model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manojlović, N.; Salom, I.

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of the algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXZ Heisenberg spin chain in the case, when both reflection matrices have the upper-triangular form is analyzed. The general form of the Bethe vectors is studied. In the particular form, Bethe vectors admit the recurrent procedure, with an appropriate modification, used previously in the case of the XXX Heisenberg chain. As expected, these Bethe vectors yield the strikingly simple expression for the off-shell action of the transfer matrix of the chain as well as the spectrum of the transfer matrix and the corresponding Bethe equations. As in the XXX case, the so-called quasi-classical limit gives the off-shell action of the generating function of the corresponding trigonometric Gaudin Hamiltonians with boundary terms.

  20. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXZ Heisenberg spin chain with triangular boundaries and the corresponding Gaudin model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Manojlović

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXZ Heisenberg spin chain in the case, when both reflection matrices have the upper-triangular form is analyzed. The general form of the Bethe vectors is studied. In the particular form, Bethe vectors admit the recurrent procedure, with an appropriate modification, used previously in the case of the XXX Heisenberg chain. As expected, these Bethe vectors yield the strikingly simple expression for the off-shell action of the transfer matrix of the chain as well as the spectrum of the transfer matrix and the corresponding Bethe equations. As in the XXX case, the so-called quasi-classical limit gives the off-shell action of the generating function of the corresponding trigonometric Gaudin Hamiltonians with boundary terms.

  1. Non-skew-symmetric classical r-matrices, algebraic Bethe ansatz, and Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-type integrable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrypnyk, T.

    2009-01-01

    We construct quantum integrable systems associated with non-skew-symmetric gl(2)-valued classical r-matrices. We find a new explicit multiparametric family of such the non-skew-symmetric classical r-matrices. We consider two classes of examples of the corresponding integrable systems, namely generalized Gaudin systems with and without an external magnetic field. In the case of arbitrary r-matrices diagonal in a standard gl(2)-basis, we calculate the spectrum of the corresponding quantum integrable systems using the algebraic Bethe ansatz. We apply these results to a construction of integrable fermionic models and obtain a wide class of integrable Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-type fermionic Hamiltonians containing the pairing and electrostatic interaction terms. We also consider special cases when the corresponding integrable Hamiltonians contain only pairing interaction term and are exact analogs of the 'reduced BCS Hamiltonian' of Richardson

  2. Self-consistent ansatz for energy levels of the anharmonic oscillator with an application to channeling radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, Biswanath

    1988-01-01

    An ansatz is developed to find out an analytical expression for energy levels of anharmonic oscillators of the type V(X) X/sup 2//2 + lambdaXsup(2m) (m = 2,3) which is valid for all values of n and all regimes of parameter space. The procedure is extended to find out an analytical expression for the energy levels of the oscillator V(X) X/sup 2//2 + lambda/sub 1/ X/sup 4/ + lambda/sub 2/ X/sup 6/. As a practical application, it has been applied to calculate the characteristics of radiation emitted due to channeling of relativistic positrons between (100) planes in silicon.

  3. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  4. Are security analysts rational? a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Peixinho, Rúben; Coelho, Luís; Taffler, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Rational choice theory and bounded rationality constitute the basis for the discussion in several areas regarding human rationality. In finance, this discussion has been made between traditional finance and behavioural finance approach, which have different perspectives concerning market agents’ rationality. This paper reviews several studies addressing rationality among security analysts. The analysis shows that analysts’systematic optimism seems to be inconsistent with rationality....

  5. Rational Approximations to Rational Models: Alternative Algorithms for Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Adam N.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Navarro, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Rational models of cognition typically consider the abstract computational problems posed by the environment, assuming that people are capable of optimally solving those problems. This differs from more traditional formal models of cognition, which focus on the psychological processes responsible for behavior. A basic challenge for rational models…

  6. Rationality in children: the first steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Woodfield

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Not all categorization is conceptual. Many of the experimental findings concerning infant and animal categorization invite the hypothesis that the subjects form abstract perceptual representations, mental models or cognitive maps that are not composed of concepts. The paper is a reflection upon the idea that conceptual categorization involves the ability to make categorical judgements under the guidance of norms of rationality. These include a norm of truth-seeking and a norm of good evidence. Acceptance of these norms implies willingness to defer to cognitive authorities, unwillingness to commit oneself to contradictions, and knowledge of how to reorganize one's representational system upon discovering that one has made a mistake. It is proposed that the cognitive architecture required for basic rationality is similar to that which underlies pretend-play. The representational system must be able to make room for separate 'mental spaces' in which alternatives to the actual world are entertained. The same feature underlies the ability to understand modalities, time, the appearance-reality distinction, other minds, and ethics. Each area of understanding admits of degrees, and mastery (up to normal adult level takes years. But rational concept-management, at least in its most rudimentary form, does not require a capacity to form second-order representations. It requires knowledge of how to operate upon, and compare, the contents of different mental spaces.

  7. Rational customs clearance technology choice

    OpenAIRE

    Shramenko, N.; Andriets, V.

    2008-01-01

    Issues concerning cargo delivery efficiencyincrease by choice of rational customs clearance technology have been considered. Three possible variants of customs clearance andmethods which allow to define the most rational version of cargo delivery in international road communication based on main efficiency criteria for definite distance have been presented.

  8. Differential Rationality and Personal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Cameron

    This publication discusses differential rationality; it asserts that the development of institutions, professions, and individuals involves the differentiation of forms and styles of thinking and knowing that are, in various ways, idiosyncratic. Based on this understanding, differential rationality can be seen as a developmental construct that…

  9. Rationality problem for algebraic tori

    CERN Document Server

    Hoshi, Akinari

    2017-01-01

    The authors give the complete stably rational classification of algebraic tori of dimensions 4 and 5 over a field k. In particular, the stably rational classification of norm one tori whose Chevalley modules are of rank 4 and 5 is given. The authors show that there exist exactly 487 (resp. 7, resp. 216) stably rational (resp. not stably but retract rational, resp. not retract rational) algebraic tori of dimension 4, and there exist exactly 3051 (resp. 25, resp. 3003) stably rational (resp. not stably but retract rational, resp. not retract rational) algebraic tori of dimension 5. The authors make a procedure to compute a flabby resolution of a G-lattice effectively by using the computer algebra system GAP. Some algorithms may determine whether the flabby class of a G-lattice is invertible (resp. zero) or not. Using the algorithms, the suthors determine all the flabby and coflabby G-lattices of rank up to 6 and verify that they are stably permutation. The authors also show that the Krull-Schmidt theorem for G-...

  10. Product differentiation under bounded rationality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Poutré, La J.A.; Kok, de A.G.; Pyka, A.; Handa, H.; Ishibuchi, H.; Ong, Y.-S.; Tan, K.-C.

    2015-01-01

    We study product differentiation equilibria and dynamics on the Salop circle under bounded rationality. Due to bounded rationality, firms tend to agglomerate in pairs. Upon adding a second tier of component suppliers, downstream assemblers may escape pairwise horizontal agglomeration. Moreover, we

  11. The concept of rational suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, D J

    1986-05-01

    Suicide has been condemned in our culture in one way or another since Augustine offered theological arguments against it in the sixth century. More recently, theological condemnation has given way to the view that suicidal behavior must always be symptomatic of emotional disturbance and mental illness. However, suicide has not always been viewed so negatively. In other times and cultures, it has been held that circumstances might befall a person in which suicide would be a perfectly rational course of action, in the same sense that any other course of action could be rational: that it could be sensible, i.e., defensible by good reasons, or that it could be in keeping with the agent's fundamental interests. Indiscriminate use of modern life-sustaining technologies has renewed interest in the possibility of rational suicide. Today proponents of rational suicide tend to equate the rationality of suicide with the competence of the decision to commit suicide.

  12. Limited rationality and strategic interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehr, Ernst; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2008-01-01

    Much evidence suggests that people are heterogeneous with regard to their abilities to make rational, forward-looking decisions. This raises the question as to when the rational types are decisive for aggregate outcomes and when the boundedly rational types shape aggregate results. We examine...... this question in the context of a long-standing and important economic problem: the adjustment of nominal prices after an anticipated monetary shock. Our experiments suggest that two types of bounded rationality-money illusion and anchoring-are important behavioral forces behind nominal inertia. However......, depending on the strategic environment, bounded rationality has vastly different effects on aggregate price adjustment. If agents' actions are strategic substitutes, adjustment to the new equilibrium is extremely quick, whereas under strategic complementarity, adjustment is both very slow and associated...

  13. [Rational use of medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helali, A

    2006-12-01

    Every body speaks about inappropriate use of medicines and each one gives his own explanation. Politicians are telling about the waste of medicines and the money of their national budget. Citizens are saying that the physicians prescribe more than necessary for treatment and blame them as one part of the financial burden weighting on their family budget. Physicians give different explanation and think that the rational use of medicines is a sort of pressure to limit their freedom to prescribe what it seems to them necessary and better for their patients. Pharmacists dispensing medicines consider the prescription as a physician's prerogative and prefer to stay neutral in this debate. Within this large range of opinions, it is difficult to find general consensus, so that every body take care to not declare his proper opinion about the subject, the causes and the adequate solutions. Finally no changes take place in this issue. However, neither the government as responsible for the citizen's health, nor the health professionals and international organisations, are facing their complete obligations toward the populations by ensuring to them that the medicines are administered according to the health need of the patients, efficacious and safe , in doses that meet their own individual requirements, for an adequate period of time, and at the lower cost, and be secured against misuse by the pharmacist before the delivery to the patients. This is a worthwhile programme, but unfortunately without designate takers or promoters until now.

  14. Rational points on varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Poonen, Bjorn

    2017-01-01

    This book is motivated by the problem of determining the set of rational points on a variety, but its true goal is to equip readers with a broad range of tools essential for current research in algebraic geometry and number theory. The book is unconventional in that it provides concise accounts of many topics instead of a comprehensive account of just one-this is intentionally designed to bring readers up to speed rapidly. Among the topics included are Brauer groups, faithfully flat descent, algebraic groups, torsors, étale and fppf cohomology, the Weil conjectures, and the Brauer-Manin and descent obstructions. A final chapter applies all these to study the arithmetic of surfaces. The down-to-earth explanations and the over 100 exercises make the book suitable for use as a graduate-level textbook, but even experts will appreciate having a single source covering many aspects of geometry over an unrestricted ground field and containing some material that cannot be found elsewhere. The origins of arithmetic (o...

  15. Plural rationalities and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, P.; Thompson, M.

    1989-01-01

    Like many social scientists, we attribute public unwillingness to accept certain low probability risks not to 'irrationality' but rather to the everyday application of qualitative as well as quantitative criteria. Just as most people buying a video or hi-fi do not base their decision solely on price or performance data but also consider such intangibles as design and the reputation of the manufacturer, individuals faced with a given risk take into account not merely the probability of harm but also the credibility and trustworthiness of whoever generates the information and manages the safety and other precautions which ensure its accuracy. To analyse these qualitative dimensions we utilise the grid/-group methodology developed by the cultural anthropologist Mary Douglas, and her co-workers. Douglas identifies four basic forms of society and four associated 'thought worlds' which serve to legitimise and reproduce them. Differences in concepts of human cognition, time and many other variables between the different thought worlds are so profound that they can be regarded as different kinds of rationality. The acceptability of risks is partially determined by the extent to which they support or threaten the existence of the different societies. (author)

  16. First-Principles Momentum Dependent Local Ansatz Approach to the Momentum Distribution Function in Iron-Group Transition Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehashi, Yoshiro; Chandra, Sumal

    2017-03-01

    The momentum distribution function (MDF) bands of iron-group transition metals from Sc to Cu have been investigated on the basis of the first-principles momentum dependent local ansatz wavefunction method. It is found that the MDF for d electrons show a strong momentum dependence and a large deviation from the Fermi-Dirac distribution function along high-symmetry lines of the first Brillouin zone, while the sp electrons behave as independent electrons. In particular, the deviation in bcc Fe (fcc Ni) is shown to be enhanced by the narrow eg (t2g) bands with flat dispersion in the vicinity of the Fermi level. Mass enhancement factors (MEF) calculated from the jump on the Fermi surface are also shown to be momentum dependent. Large mass enhancements of Mn and Fe are found to be caused by spin fluctuations due to d electrons, while that for Ni is mainly caused by charge fluctuations. Calculated MEF are consistent with electronic specific heat data as well as recent angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy data.

  17. Mapping the Relevance of Complex Decision Making to Canadian Forces Land Operations (Mappage de la pertinence de la prise de d cisions complexes pour les op rations terrestres des Forces canadiennes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    scenarios cr it was presen that scenari take into acco at the relativ of their exp rs. First, gene xamined in t nvironment were created...rating of “ t (i.e., relativ scenario to cenario to a r y as ratings a can be found ors (for the L rio mappings ity rating crit Rating (High t 1...Subcom to flexibi insufficie have join with peo misunde collabora collabora change r hidden a high turn collabora challeng share inf morale a a high le

  18. Discrete Choice and Rational Inattention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Melo, Emerson; de Palma, André

    2017-01-01

    This paper establishes a general equivalence between discrete choice and rational inattention models. Matejka and McKay (2015, AER) showed that when information costs are modelled using the Shannon entropy, the result- ing choice probabilities in the rational inattention model take the multinomial...... logit form. We show that when information costs are modelled using a class of generalized entropies, then the choice probabilities in any rational inattention model are observationally equivalent to some additive random utility discrete choice model and vice versa. This equivalence arises from convex...

  19. Testing bounded rationality against full rationality in job changing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Contini, Bruno; Morini, Matteo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we question the hypothesis of full rationality in the context of job changing behaviour, via simple econometric explorations on microdata drawn from WHIP (Worker Histories Italian Panel). Workers' performance is compared at the end of a three-year time window that starts when choices are expressed, under the accepted notion that the main driving forces of job change are future real wages and expected job quality. Bounded rationality suggests that individuals will search for new ...

  20. Testing Bounded Rationality Against Full Rationality in Job Changing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Contini

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I question the hypothesis of full rationality in the context of job changing behaviour, via simple econometric explorations on microdata drawn from WHIP (Worker Histories Italian Panel). Workers’ performance is compared at the end of a three-year time window that starts when choices are expressed, under the accepted notion that the main driving forces of job change are future real wages and expected job quality. Bounded rationality suggests that individuals will search for new o...

  1. Rational reconstructions of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittelstaedt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Newton’s classical physics and its underlying ontology are loaded with several metaphysical hypotheses that cannot be justified by rational reasoning nor by experimental evidence. Furthermore, it is well known that some of these hypotheses are not contained in the great theories of Modern Physics, such as the theory of Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. This book shows that, on the basis of Newton’s classical physics and by rational reconstruction, the theory of Special Relativity as well as Quantum Mechanics can be obtained by partly eliminating or attenuating the metaphysical hypotheses. Moreover, it is shown that these reconstructions do not require additional hypotheses or new experimental results. In the second edition the rational reconstructions are completed with respect to General Relativity and Cosmology. In addition, the statistics of quantum objects is elaborated in more detail with respect to the rational reconstruction of quantum mechanics. The new material completes the approach of t...

  2. Rational-Emotive Staff Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Susan G.; Forman, Bruce D.

    1980-01-01

    The application of Rational-Emotive Therapy principles and techniques in in-service education for school personnel is discussed. Teacher and counselor participation in a staff development program is described. (Author)

  3. Management between Rationality and Irrationality

    OpenAIRE

    Cene Bavec

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, we discuss theoretical and practical aspects of management and its rational and irrational behavior in the light of traditional management theories and contemporary social theories and theories of complexity. We exposed differences between middle and top management, where rationality is ascribed mainly to middle management, while top management often acts on seemingly irrational way. For the part of this irrationality, we cannot blame management because it originates from the na...

  4. Choice, internal consistency, and rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi Bhattacharyya; Prasanta K. Pattanaik; Yongsheng Xu

    2010-01-01

    The classical theory of rational choice is built on several important internal consistency conditions. In recent years, the reasonableness of those internal consistency conditions has been questioned and criticized, and several responses to accommodate such criticisms have been proposed in the literature. This paper develops a general framework to accommodate the issues raised by the criticisms of classical rational choice theory, and examines the broad impact of these criticisms from both no...

  5. Interpolation of rational matrix functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Joseph A; Rodman, Leiba

    1990-01-01

    This book aims to present the theory of interpolation for rational matrix functions as a recently matured independent mathematical subject with its own problems, methods and applications. The authors decided to start working on this book during the regional CBMS conference in Lincoln, Nebraska organized by F. Gilfeather and D. Larson. The principal lecturer, J. William Helton, presented ten lectures on operator and systems theory and the interplay between them. The conference was very stimulating and helped us to decide that the time was ripe for a book on interpolation for matrix valued functions (both rational and non-rational). When the work started and the first partial draft of the book was ready it became clear that the topic is vast and that the rational case by itself with its applications is already enough material for an interesting book. In the process of writing the book, methods for the rational case were developed and refined. As a result we are now able to present the rational case as an indepe...

  6. Cognitive science as an interface between rational and mechanistic explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick

    2014-04-01

    Cognitive science views thought as computation; and computation, by its very nature, can be understood in both rational and mechanistic terms. In rational terms, a computation solves some information processing problem (e.g., mapping sensory information into a description of the external world; parsing a sentence; selecting among a set of possible actions). In mechanistic terms, a computation corresponds to causal chain of events in a physical device (in engineering context, a silicon chip; in biological context, the nervous system). The discipline is thus at the interface between two very different styles of explanation--as the papers in the current special issue well illustrate, it explores the interplay of rational and mechanistic forces. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. Love and rationality: on some possible rational effects of love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ortiz-Millán

    Full Text Available In this paper I defend the idea that rather than disrupting rationality, as the common-sense conception has done it, love may actually help us to develop rational ways of thinking and acting. I make the case for romantic or erotic love, since this is the kind of love that is more frequently associated with irrationality in acting and thinking. I argue that this kind of love may make us develop epistemic and practical forms of rationality. Based on an analysis of its characteristic action tendencies, I argue that love may help us to develop an instrumental form of rationality in determining the best means to achieve the object of love. It may also narrow down the number of practical considerations that may help us to achieve our goals. Finally, love may generate rational ways of belief-formation by framing the parameters taken into account in perception and attention, and by bringing into light only a small portion of the epistemic information available. Love may make us perceive reality more acutely.

  8. Rational Decision Making as Performative Praxis: Explaining Rationality's Éternel Retour

    OpenAIRE

    Cabantous, L.; Gond, J-P.

    2011-01-01

    Organizational theorists built their knowledge of decision making through a progressive critique of rational choice theory. Their positioning towards rationality, however, is at odds with the observation of rationality persistence in organizational life. This paper addresses this paradox. It proposes a new perspective on rationality that allows the theorizing of the production of rational decisions by organizations. To account for rationality's éternel retour, we approach rational decision ma...

  9. Rationing medical education | Walsh | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at the prospect of rationing, the truth is that rationing has always occurred in one form or another in medical education and in healthcare more broadly. Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. For example rationing may ...

  10. Rationality, perception, and the all-seeing eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felin, Teppo; Koenderink, Jan; Krueger, Joachim I

    2017-08-01

    Seeing-perception and vision-is implicitly the fundamental building block of the literature on rationality and cognition. Herbert Simon and Daniel Kahneman's arguments against the omniscience of economic agents-and the concept of bounded rationality-depend critically on a particular view of the nature of perception and vision. We propose that this framework of rationality merely replaces economic omniscience with perceptual omniscience. We show how the cognitive and social sciences feature a pervasive but problematic meta-assumption that is characterized by an "all-seeing eye." We raise concerns about this assumption and discuss different ways in which the all-seeing eye manifests itself in existing research on (bounded) rationality. We first consider the centrality of vision and perception in Simon's pioneering work. We then point to Kahneman's work-particularly his article "Maps of Bounded Rationality"-to illustrate the pervasiveness of an all-seeing view of perception, as manifested in the extensive use of visual examples and illusions. Similar assumptions about perception can be found across a large literature in the cognitive sciences. The central problem is the present emphasis on inverse optics-the objective nature of objects and environments, e.g., size, contrast, and color. This framework ignores the nature of the organism and perceiver. We argue instead that reality is constructed and expressed, and we discuss the species-specificity of perception, as well as perception as a user interface. We draw on vision science as well as the arts to develop an alternative understanding of rationality in the cognitive and social sciences. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our arguments for the rationality and decision-making literature in cognitive psychology and behavioral economics, along with suggesting some ways forward.

  11. Metatheoriebildung in der dialogischen Konfliktbearbeitung – ein konzeptioneller Vorschlag am Beispiel der Konflikttransformation nach Galtung und des Konfliktmanagements nach Glasl und des Integralen Ansatzes nach Wilber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Fathi

    2010-07-01

    conflict management. c. The integral approach can be understood as a “Theory of Everything“ presupposing that no perspective can be 100% wrong (but “partially true”. Its methodology is based on “map making” by categorizing established paradigms, methods and theories in a holistic metacontext. By means of five categories – quadrants, levels, lines, types, states (altogether AQAL: All Quadrants All Lines – the integral approach claims to consider as many aspects of reality as possible in a holistic concept. 2. Outline of an integration model: a. Possibility of an epistemological integration of the introduced methods:The five AQAL-dimensions enable the epistemological foci of the approaches by Galtung and Glasl to be revealed. A point in which both approaches may complement each other becomes apparent by combining a vertical spectrum of escalation levels (Glasl and a horizontal axis of different fields of violence (Galtung. It might be of further research interest to analyse the potential extent of a correlation to evolution oriented level schemes (Wilber, e.g., referring to development psychology or evolution theory. Are there different development levels (Wilber of direct, cultural and structural violence (Galtung? Is there a correlation between levels of development (Wilber and regression (Glasl? This paper concludes for both cases a cautious “yes.” In doing so, the consideration of the other AQAL-dimensions (types, lines, states provides further information. b. Proposal for an integral heuristic:The consideration of vertical (levels and horizontal (quadrants, types, lines AQAL-categories is also useful to integrate heuristics. However, the integral approach itself does not represent a method of heuristic and practical effect, though it is useful to adapt the AQAL-categories and to consider new tools that are highly relevant for the Peace and Conflict Studies. The heuristic integral concept is based on the vertical conflict scheme by Galtung (three

  12. Strategy selection as rational metareasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieder, Falk; Griffiths, Thomas L

    2017-11-01

    Many contemporary accounts of human reasoning assume that the mind is equipped with multiple heuristics that could be deployed to perform a given task. This raises the question of how the mind determines when to use which heuristic. To answer this question, we developed a rational model of strategy selection, based on the theory of rational metareasoning developed in the artificial intelligence literature. According to our model people learn to efficiently choose the strategy with the best cost-benefit tradeoff by learning a predictive model of each strategy's performance. We found that our model can provide a unifying explanation for classic findings from domains ranging from decision-making to arithmetic by capturing the variability of people's strategy choices, their dependence on task and context, and their development over time. Systematic model comparisons supported our theory, and 4 new experiments confirmed its distinctive predictions. Our findings suggest that people gradually learn to make increasingly more rational use of fallible heuristics. This perspective reconciles the 2 poles of the debate about human rationality by integrating heuristics and biases with learning and rationality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. DISTRIBUTED RC NETWORKS WITH RATIONAL TRANSFER FUNCTIONS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    A distributed RC circuit analogous to a continuously tapped transmission line can be made to have a rational short-circuit transfer admittance and...one rational shortcircuit driving-point admittance. A subcircuit of the same structure has a rational open circuit transfer impedance and one rational ...open circuit driving-point impedance. Hence, rational transfer functions may be obtained while considering either generator impedance or load

  14. Ansatz for dynamical hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S.; Baas, N.A.; Mayer, B.

    2001-01-01

    Complex, robust functionalities can be generated naturally in at least two ways: by the assembly of structures and by the evolution of structures. This work is concerned with spontaneous formation of structures. We define the notion of dynamical hierarchies in natural systems and show...... the importance of this particular kind of organization for living systems. We then define a framework that enables us to formulate, investigate, and manipulate such dynamical hierarchies. This framework allows us to simultaneously investigate different levels of description together with them interrelationship...... three. Formulating this system as a simple two-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) lattice gas allows us within one dynamical system to demonstrate the successive emergence of two higher levels (three levels all together) of robust structures with associated properties. Second, we demonstrate how...

  15. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  16. Rationality in the Cryptographic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubacek, Pavel

    This thesis presents results in the field of rational cryptography. In the first part we study the use of cryptographic protocols to avoid mediation and binding commitment when implementing game theoretic equilibrium concepts. First, we concentrate on the limits of cryptographic cheap talk...... to implement correlated equilibria of two-player strategic games in a sequentially rational way. We show that there exist two-player games for which no cryptographic protocol can implement the mediator in a sequentially rational way; that is, without introducing empty threats. In the context of computational...... with appealing economic applications. Our implementation puts forward a notion of cryptographically blinded games that exploits the power of encryption to selectively restrict the information available to players about sampled action profiles, such that these desirable equilibria can be stably achieved...

  17. Rational choice in field archaelology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Pavel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present article I attempt to apply advances in the study of instrumental and epistemic rationality to field archaeology in order to gain insights into the ways archaeologists reason. The cognitive processes, particularly processes of decision making, that enable archaeologists to conduct the excavation in the trench have not been adequately studied so far. I take my cues from two different bodies of theory. I first inquire into the potential that rational choice theory (RCT may have in modeling archaeological behaviour, and I define subjective expected utility, which archaeologists attempt to maximize, in terms of knowledge acquisition and social gain. Following Elster’s criticism of RCT, I conclude that RCT’s standards for rational action do not correspond with those ostensibly used in field archaeology, but that instrumental rationality has a prominent role in the “archaeological experiment”. I further explore if models proposed as reaction to RCT may account for archaeological decision making. I focus on fast and frugal heuristics, and search for archaeological illustrations for some of the cognitive biases that are better documented in psychological literature. I document confirmation and congruence biases, the endowment effect, observer-expectancy bias, illusory correlation, clustering illusion, sunk cost bias, and anchoring, among others and I propose that some of these biases are used as cognitive tools by archaeologists at work and retain epistemic value. However, I find formal logic to be secondary in the development of archaeological reasoning, with default logic and defeasible logic being used instead. I emphasize scientific knowledge as an actively negotiated social product of human inquiry, and conclude that to describe rationality in field archaeology a bounded rationality model is the most promising avenue of investigation.

  18. Rationalizing the Promotion of Non-Rational Behaviors in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter A. C.; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2002-01-01

    Organizations must balance rational/technical efficiency and emotions. Action learning has been proven to be effective for developing emotional openness in the workplace. Facilitators of action learning should draw upon the disciplines of counseling, Gestalt, psychodynamics, and Eastern philosophies. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

  19. Re-visions of rationality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Ben R

    2005-01-01

    The appeal of simple algorithms that take account of both the constraints of human cognitive capacity and the structure of environments has been an enduring theme in cognitive science. A novel version of such a boundedly rational perspective views the mind as containing an 'adaptive toolbox' of specialized cognitive heuristics suited to different problems. Although intuitively appealing, when this version was proposed, empirical evidence for the use of such heuristics was scant. I argue that in the light of empirical studies carried out since then, it is time this 'vision of rationality' was revised. An alternative view based on integrative models rather than collections of heuristics is proposed.

  20. Mental health as rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1981-08-01

    Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.

  1. Public policy, rationality and reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Canto Sáenz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work suggests the incorporation of practical reason in the design, implementation and evaluation of public policies, alongside instrumental rationality. It takes two proposals that today point in this direction: Rawls distinction between reasonable (practical reason and rational (instrumental reason and what this author calls the CI Procedure (categorical imperative procedure and Habermas model of deliberative democracy. The main conclusion is that the analysis of public policies can not be limited to rather narrow limits of science, but requires the contribution of political and moral philosophy.

  2. Optimal public rationing and price response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Simona; Ma, Ching-To Albert

    2011-12-01

    We study optimal public health care rationing and private sector price responses. Consumers differ in their wealth and illness severity (defined as treatment cost). Due to a limited budget, some consumers must be rationed. Rationed consumers may purchase from a monopolistic private market. We consider two information regimes. In the first, the public supplier rations consumers according to their wealth information (means testing). In equilibrium, the public supplier must ration both rich and poor consumers. Rationing some poor consumers implements price reduction in the private market. In the second information regime, the public supplier rations consumers according to consumers' wealth and cost information. In equilibrium, consumers are allocated the good if and only if their costs are below a threshold (cost effectiveness). Rationing based on cost results in higher equilibrium consumer surplus than rationing based on wealth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Teaching Rational Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolever, Roberts

    1978-01-01

    Presented is an outline of a college course, "Education in American Society," that focused on teaching students rational decision-making skills while examining current issues in American Education. The outline is followed by student comments, reactions, and evaluations of the course. (JMD)

  4. Rational Suicide among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphry, Derek

    1992-01-01

    Contends that old age, in and of itself, should never need to be a cause for self-destruction. Further argues that suicide and assisted suicide carried out in the face of terminal illness causing unbearable suffering should be ethically and legally acceptable. Outlines a perspective on rational suicide among the elderly. (Author/NB)

  5. On a CO2 ration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, P.

    2003-01-01

    In 2 years all the large energy companies in the European Union will have a CO2 ration, including a system to trade a shortage or surplus of emission rights. A cost effective system to reduce emission, provided that the government does not auction the emission rights [nl

  6. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  7. Personal Autonomy and Rational Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, May A.; Shulman, Ernest

    That certain suicides (which can be designated as rational) ought not to be interfered with is closely tied to the notion of the "right to autonomy." Specifically it is because the individual in question has this right that interference is prohibited. A proper understanding of the right to autonomy, while essential to understanding why…

  8. Mapping out Map Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjan Ormeling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the requirements for map data quality, map users and their library/archives environment, the paper focuses on the metadata the user would need for a correct and efficient interpretation of the map data. For such a correct interpretation, knowledge of the rules and guidelines according to which the topographers/cartographers work (such as the kind of data categories to be collected, and the degree to which these rules and guidelines were indeed followed are essential. This is not only valid for the old maps stored in our libraries and archives, but perhaps even more so for the new digital files as the format in which we now have to access our geospatial data. As this would be too much to ask from map librarians/curators, some sort of web 2.0 environment is sought where comments about data quality, completeness and up-to-dateness from knowledgeable map users regarding the specific maps or map series studied can be collected and tagged to scanned versions of these maps on the web. In order not to be subject to the same disadvantages as Wikipedia, where the ‘communis opinio’ rather than scholarship, seems to be decisive, some checking by map curators of this tagged map use information would still be needed. Cooperation between map curators and the International Cartographic Association ( ICA map and spatial data use commission to this end is suggested.

  9. Density matrix renormalization group simulations of SU(N ) Heisenberg chains using standard Young tableaus: Fundamental representation and comparison with a finite-size Bethe ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataf, Pierre; Mila, Frédéric

    2018-04-01

    We develop an efficient method to perform density matrix renormalization group simulations of the SU(N ) Heisenberg chain with open boundary conditions taking full advantage of the SU(N ) symmetry of the problem. This method is an extension of the method previously developed for exact diagonalizations and relies on a systematic use of the basis of standard Young tableaux. Concentrating on the model with the fundamental representation at each site (i.e., one particle per site in the fermionic formulation), we have benchmarked our results for the ground-state energy up to N =8 and up to 420 sites by comparing them with Bethe ansatz results on open chains, for which we have derived and solved the Bethe ansatz equations. The agreement for the ground-state energy is excellent for SU(3) (12 digits). It decreases with N , but it is still satisfactory for N =8 (six digits). Central charges c are also extracted from the entanglement entropy using the Calabrese-Cardy formula and agree with the theoretical values expected from the SU (N) 1 Wess-Zumino-Witten conformal field theories.

  10. Molecular Properties by Quantum Monte Carlo: An Investigation on the Role of the Wave Function Ansatz and the Basis Set in the Water Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Andrea; Luo, Ye; Sorella, Sandro; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods are accurate and promising many body techniques for electronic structure calculations which, in the last years, are encountering a growing interest thanks to their favorable scaling with the system size and their efficient parallelization, particularly suited for the modern high performance computing facilities. The ansatz of the wave function and its variational flexibility are crucial points for both the accurate description of molecular properties and the capabilities of the method to tackle large systems. In this paper, we extensively analyze, using different variational ansatzes, several properties of the water molecule, namely, the total energy, the dipole and quadrupole momenta, the ionization and atomization energies, the equilibrium configuration, and the harmonic and fundamental frequencies of vibration. The investigation mainly focuses on variational Monte Carlo calculations, although several lattice regularized diffusion Monte Carlo calculations are also reported. Through a systematic study, we provide a useful guide to the choice of the wave function, the pseudopotential, and the basis set for QMC calculations. We also introduce a new method for the computation of forces with finite variance on open systems and a new strategy for the definition of the atomic orbitals involved in the Jastrow-Antisymmetrised Geminal power wave function, in order to drastically reduce the number of variational parameters. This scheme significantly improves the efficiency of QMC energy minimization in case of large basis sets. PMID:24526929

  11. Rationality, mental causation and social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of mental causation in the context of rational choice theory. The author defends psychological aspect of rational explanation against the challenge of contemporary reductive materialism.

  12. Rationality, mental causation and social sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenović Ivan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of mental causation in the context of rational choice theory. The author defends psychological aspect of rational explanation against the challenge of contemporary reductive materialism.

  13. Love and rationality: on some possible rational effects of love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ortiz-Millán

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I defend the idea that rather than disrupting rationality, as the common-sense conception has done it, love may actually help us to develop rational ways of thinking and acting. I make the case for romantic or erotic love, since this is the kind of love that is more frequently associated with irrationality in acting and thinking. I argue that this kind of love may make us develop epistemic and practical forms of rationality. Based on an analysis of its characteristic action tendencies, I argue that love may help us to develop an instrumental form of rationality in determining the best means to achieve the object of love. It may also narrow down the number of practical considerations that may help us to achieve our goals. Finally, love may generate rational ways of belief-formation by framing the parameters taken into account in perception and attention, and by bringing into light only a small portion of the epistemic information available. Love may make us perceive reality more acutely.Neste artigo defendo a idéia de que, em vez de perturbar a racionalidade, como a concepção do senso comum o faz, o amor pode, na verdade, ajudar-nos a desenvolver modos racionais de pensar e agir. Dou bons argumentos para o amor romântico ou erótico, uma vez que esse é o tipo de amor que é mais freqüentemente associado à irracionalidade no agir e no pensar. Argumento que esse tipo de amor pode fazer-nos desenvolver formas epistêmicas e práticas de racionalidade. Com base em uma análise de suas tendências características para a ação, argumento que o amor pode ajudar-nos a desenvolver uma forma instrumental de racionalidade para se determinar o melhor meio de atingir o objeto de amor. Ele também pode limitar o número de considerações práticas que podem ajudar-nos a atingir os nossos objetivos. Finalmente, o amor pode gerar modos racionais de formação de crenças ao estruturar os parâmetros considerados na percepção e na aten

  14. Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L

    2011-04-01

    Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome.

  15. Lessons from Learning to Have Rational Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Lindh, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews a growing literature investigating how economic agents may learn rational expectations. Fully rational learning requires implausible initial information assumptions, therefore some form of bounded rationality has come into focus. Such learning models often converge to rational expectations equilibria within certain bounds. Convergence analysis has been much simplified by methods from adaptive control theory. Learning stability as a correspondence principle show some promise...

  16. Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion*

    OpenAIRE

    Clore, Gerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome.

  17. Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome. PMID:25125770

  18. Rational use of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racoveanu, N.T.; Volodin, V.

    1992-01-01

    The escalating number of radiodiagnostic investigations has, as a consequence, an increase in medical irradiation of patients and of cost of radiological services. Radiologists in USA and UK have since early 1970 questioned the efficacy of various radiological investigations and produced substantial evidence that more rational approaches are necessary. WHO initiated, in 1977, a programme in this direction which has issued four technical reports which give practical recommendations on how to rationalize the use of radiological examinations. Three main directions are considered: (1) Abandonment of routine radiological examinations, as procedures with no clinical or epidemiologic significance and which represent a waste of resources and patient dose. (2) Patient selection for various radiological investigations based on clinical criteria (high, intermediate, low yield). Selected patients have an increased prevalence of the given disease and the predictive value of radiological investigation is much higher. (3) Use of diagnostic algorithms with higher cost/efficiency and risk/benefit ratios, improving the outcome of radiological examinations

  19. Electricity rationing and public response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Leonardo Rocha; Soares, Lacir Jorge

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the electricity load demand behavior during the 2001 rationing period, which was implemented because of the Brazilian energy crisis. The hourly data refers to a utility situated in the southeast of the country. We use the model proposed by Soares and Souza [Soares, L.J. and Souza, L.R. (2006), 'Forecasting electricity demand using generalized long memory', International Journal of Forecasting, 22, 17-28.], making use of generalized long memory to model the seasonal behavior of the load. The rationing period is shown to have imposed a structural break in the series, decreasing the load at about 20%. Even so, the forecast accuracy is decreased only marginally, and the forecasts rapidly readapt to the new situation. The structural break, as well as the forecast errors from this model, also permits verifying the public response to pieces of information released regarding the crisis. (Author)

  20. Bounded Rationality in Transposition Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2014-01-01

    Studies explaining the timeliness and correctness of the transposition of EU directives into national legislation have provided rather inconclusive findings. They do not offer a clear-cut prediction concerning the transposition of the patients’ rights directive, which is one of the first that con......Studies explaining the timeliness and correctness of the transposition of EU directives into national legislation have provided rather inconclusive findings. They do not offer a clear-cut prediction concerning the transposition of the patients’ rights directive, which is one of the first...... that concerns the organisation and financing of national healthcare systems. This article applies the perspective of bounded rationality to explain (irregularities in) the timely and correct transposition of EU directives. The cognitive and organisational constraints long posited by the bounded rationality...

  1. Rational approximations for tomographic reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Matthew; Beylkin, Gregory; Monzón, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    We use optimal rational approximations of projection data collected in x-ray tomography to improve image resolution. Under the assumption that the object of interest is described by functions with jump discontinuities, for each projection we construct its rational approximation with a small (near optimal) number of terms for a given accuracy threshold. This allows us to augment the measured data, i.e., double the number of available samples in each projection or, equivalently, extend (double) the domain of their Fourier transform. We also develop a new, fast, polar coordinate Fourier domain algorithm which uses our nonlinear approximation of projection data in a natural way. Using augmented projections of the Shepp–Logan phantom, we provide a comparison between the new algorithm and the standard filtered back-projection algorithm. We demonstrate that the reconstructed image has improved resolution without additional artifacts near sharp transitions in the image. (paper)

  2. Guidelines for Rational Cancer Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunghee Yoo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cancer therapy has relied on surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. In recent years, these interventions have become increasingly replaced or complemented by more targeted approaches that are informed by a deeper understanding of the underlying biology. Still, the implementation of fully rational patient-specific drug design appears to be years away. Here, we present a vision of rational drug design for cancer that is defined by two major components: modularity and image guidance. We suggest that modularity can be achieved by combining a nanocarrier and an oligonucleotide component into the therapeutic. Image guidance can be incorporated into the nanocarrier component by labeling with a specific imaging reporter, such as a radionuclide or contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. While limited by the need for additional technological advancement in the areas of cancer biology, nanotechnology, and imaging, this vision for the future of cancer therapy can be used as a guide to future research endeavors.

  3. Mapping 'Social Responsibility' in Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Cecilie; Horst, Maja

    2014-01-01

    This article employs the Foucauldian notion of ‘political rationality’ to map discussions and ideals about the responsibility of science toward society. By constructing and analyzing an archive of 263 journal papers, four political rationalities were identified: the Demarcation rationality, which......, which insists that responsible science should live up to public demands for innovation and democracy; and the Integration rationality, which advocates that science should be co-constructed with societal actors in order to be socially responsible. While each rationality is distinct, the article argues...... that all of them address the issue of a boundary (or integration) between science and society. Hence, it is not possible for scientists to avoid ‘a relationship’ with society. The political question is how this relationship is to be defined and regulated....

  4. Trees, maps, and theorems effective communication for rational minds

    CERN Document Server

    Doumont, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-01

    The book comprises five parts: first, fundamentals, then the written documents, oral presentations, and graphical displays, and finally the application of these ideas to more specific types of document.

  5. A Perspective on Judgment and Choice: Mapping Bounded Rationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahneman, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Early studies of intuitive judgment and decision making conducted with the late Amos Tversky are reviewed in the context of two related concepts: an analysis of accessibility, the ease with which thoughts come to mind; a distinction between effortless intuition and deliberate reasoning. Intuitive thoughts, like percepts, are highly accessible.…

  6. Rational Thinking in School-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mary Kristen; Flynn, Perry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We reflect on Alan Kamhi's (2011) prologue on balancing certainty and uncertainty as it pertains to school-based practice. Method: In schools, rational thinking depends on effective team processes, much like professional learning communities. We consider the conditions that are required for rational thinking and how rational team dialogue…

  7. Book Selection, Collection Development, and Bounded Rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews previously proposed schemes of classical rationality in book selection, describes new approaches to rational choice behavior, and presents a model of book selection based on bounded rationality in a garbage can decision process. The role of tacit knowledge and symbolic content in the selection process are also discussed. (102 references)…

  8. RATGRAPH: Computer Graphing of Rational Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minch, Bradley A.

    1987-01-01

    Presents an easy-to-use Applesoft BASIC program that graphs rational functions and any asymptotes that the functions might have. Discusses the nature of rational functions, graphing them manually, employing a computer to graph rational functions, and describes how the program works. (TW)

  9. Rationality and the Logic of Good Reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Walter R.

    This paper contends that the rationality of the logic of good reasons is constituted in its use. To support this claim, the paper presents an analysis of the relationship between being reasonable and being rational. It then considers how following the logic of good reasons leads to rationality in the behavior of individuals and groups; the latter…

  10. Information Transmission and Rational Inattention

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Tutino

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of optimal communication strategy between a fully informed agent and a rationally inattentive agent. The fully informed agent observes a sequence of shocks and transmits a message to the limited-capacity agent who takes a set of actions in response to the message. The problem of the informed agent is to seek the optimal signaling strategy that induces a behavior consistent with minimal welfare loss, uniformly over a given class of bounded utility functions. We characteriz...

  11. Rational Asset Pricing Bubbles Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Werner

    2012-01-01

    Price bubble arises when the price of an asset exceeds the asset's fundamental value, that is, the present value of future dividend payments. The important result of Santos and Woodford (1997) says that price bubbles cannot exist in equilibrium in the standard dynamic asset pricing model with rational agents as long as assets are in strictly positive supply and the present value of total future resources is finite. This paper explores the possibility of asset price bubbles when either one of ...

  12. Kant on empiricism and rationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Vanzo, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to correct some widely held misconceptions concerning Kant's role in the formation of a widespread narrative of early modern philosophy. According to this narrative, which dominated the English-speaking world throughout the twentieth century, the early modern period was characterized by the development of two rival schools: René Descartes's, Baruch Spinoza's, and G. W. Leibniz's rationalism; and John Locke's, George Berkeley's, and David Hume's empiricism. Empiricists and rati...

  13. Rational approximation of vertical segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Celis, Oliver; Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte

    2007-08-01

    In many applications, observations are prone to imprecise measurements. When constructing a model based on such data, an approximation rather than an interpolation approach is needed. Very often a least squares approximation is used. Here we follow a different approach. A natural way for dealing with uncertainty in the data is by means of an uncertainty interval. We assume that the uncertainty in the independent variables is negligible and that for each observation an uncertainty interval can be given which contains the (unknown) exact value. To approximate such data we look for functions which intersect all uncertainty intervals. In the past this problem has been studied for polynomials, or more generally for functions which are linear in the unknown coefficients. Here we study the problem for a particular class of functions which are nonlinear in the unknown coefficients, namely rational functions. We show how to reduce the problem to a quadratic programming problem with a strictly convex objective function, yielding a unique rational function which intersects all uncertainty intervals and satisfies some additional properties. Compared to rational least squares approximation which reduces to a nonlinear optimization problem where the objective function may have many local minima, this makes the new approach attractive.

  14. Coherent states and rational surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, Dorje C; Graefe, Eva-Maria

    2010-01-01

    The state spaces of generalized coherent states associated with special unitary groups are shown to form rational curves and surfaces in the space of pure states. These curves and surfaces are generated by the various Veronese embeddings of the underlying state space into higher dimensional state spaces. This construction is applied to the parameterization of generalized coherent states, which is useful for practical calculations, and provides an elementary combinatorial approach to the geometry of the coherent state space. The results are extended to Hilbert spaces with indefinite inner products, leading to the introduction of a new kind of generalized coherent states.

  15. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Jan R.; Peresetsky, Anatoly A.

    2018-01-01

    Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly. PMID:29375449

  16. Reappraisal of Rational Choice Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of rational choice theory (RCT for the social sciences has long been contested. Much time has been spent by economists and critics on the pervasive but elusive concept of rationality. The critiques mainly challenge the basis of the utility theorem. Several articles on the misuse of mathematics in economics have already appeared in the literature. As N. Bouleau stated, “On several occasions, however, one feels that the criticism is that the math is being misused and should be developed in some other direction (e.g. a statistical analysis of the financial tendencies that polarize wealth and income, or a study of the positive feedback mechanisms, etc.. This leaves certain dissatisfaction – on a philosophical level.” The aim of this paper is to present a decision theory, yields intention (logos and valuation (existence. Here we present a new mathematical representation of RCT, which leads to a dynamic economic theory. We discuss the philosophical or meta-economical problems, which are needed for the successful applications of mathematics.

  17. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (overconfidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (overconfidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.

  18. Simplifications of rational matrices by using UML

    OpenAIRE

    Tasić, Milan B.; Stanimirović, Ivan P.

    2013-01-01

    The simplification process on rational matrices consists of simplifying each entry represented by a rational function. We follow the classic approach of dividing the numerator and denominator polynomials by their common GCD polynomial, and provide the activity diagram in UML for this process. A rational matrix representation as the quotient of a polynomial matrix and a polynomial is also discussed here and illustrated via activity diagrams. Also, a class diagram giving the links between the c...

  19. Freedom and Rationality : Rousseau on Citizenship

    OpenAIRE

    Salvat, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with Rousseau's idea of freedom in terms of rationality and deliberation. It gives support to Berlin's interpretation of the general will as a rational and objective will but dismisses the idea that Rousseau's theory necessarily leads to authoritarianism. The general will, publicly expressed by the law, may be defined as the rational and self-regarding will agents would have if put in an independent and objective state, i.e. the state of nature. The general and the particular...

  20. Geometric Rationalization for Freeform Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2016-06-20

    The emergence of freeform architecture provides interesting geometric challenges with regards to the design and manufacturing of large-scale structures. To design these architectural structures, we have to consider two types of constraints. First, aesthetic constraints are important because the buildings have to be visually impressive. Sec- ond, functional constraints are important for the performance of a building and its e cient construction. This thesis contributes to the area of architectural geometry. Specifically, we are interested in the geometric rationalization of freeform architec- ture with the goal of combining aesthetic and functional constraints and construction requirements. Aesthetic requirements typically come from designers and architects. To obtain visually pleasing structures, they favor smoothness of the building shape, but also smoothness of the visible patterns on the surface. Functional requirements typically come from the engineers involved in the construction process. For exam- ple, covering freeform structures using planar panels is much cheaper than using non-planar ones. Further, constructed buildings have to be stable and should not collapse. In this thesis, we explore the geometric rationalization of freeform archi- tecture using four specific example problems inspired by real life applications. We achieve our results by developing optimization algorithms and a theoretical study of the underlying geometrical structure of the problems. The four example problems are the following: (1) The design of shading and lighting systems which are torsion-free structures with planar beams based on quad meshes. They satisfy the functionality requirements of preventing light from going inside a building as shad- ing systems or reflecting light into a building as lighting systems. (2) The Design of freeform honeycomb structures that are constructed based on hex-dominant meshes with a planar beam mounted along each edge. The beams intersect without

  1. Rational Drug Use of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Sahingoz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: At this study to be aimed to assess status of the knowledge of nurses who working in public and private health institutions in Sivas province use of medication fort he treatment during their illnesses and patients and the attitudes of rational drug application. Matherials and methods: the researc planned to attend 750 nurses but it has been completed with participation of 641 nurses (Reaching rate 85,5%. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. in the study data were collected with a questionaire, percentages stated and chi square test was used for analysis. Results: %95,3 of nurses were females and mean age of them 29.21±4.85 years. The rate of contacting a doktor in case of illness is higher in 39.1% of nurses in the 21-30 age group and 48.6% of nurses working in primary care institutions. The level of self-treating is higher in 45.5 % of nurses working less than a year in profession .In the case of illness, 53% of nurses stated that they had left the medicine when signs of disease over. %98.8 of nurses expressed that they know effects of drugs used and 99.1% of them stated they know the side effects of drugs used. The entire group of postgraduate education status stated that they have not received the drug recommended by others. The level of suggesting a drug to someone else fort he same disease is higher in 65.8% of the group 31 years and older and group working over 40 hours per week. It were determined that used in consultation with the physician 65.2% of nurses antibiotics, 87.5% of them weiht loss drug and 82.7% of them contraceptive . 99.5% of the nurses have expressed that they inform to patients about use of their medications. Among the issues that expressed informations took place the application form of drugs (51.0 %and information of need to consult one if deemed one unexpected effect (59.6% . Also has been identified that of nurses acquired inform about drugs from drug book (vademecum (87.5 % and they

  2. Rational Choice and the Framing of Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-29

    survival in a competitive environment , and a minority of rational individuals can sometimes impose rationality on the whole market. Third, the...intuitive appeal of the axioms of rational choice makes it plausible that the theory derived from these axioms should provide an acceptable account of choice...rn-use U? RATIONAL CHOICE AMD THE FINNING OF KCISIOUS(U mi/ STANFORD UNIV CR A TYERSEY ET AL. 29 NAYN4-S4-K-S61SWICLASS IF lED FO 5/10S IL EEEEEEEE

  3. Rationality in Machiavelli and in Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Chaly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains interpretation and comparative analysis of Machiavelli’s and Kant’s conceptions on rationality as two prime examples of “realist” and “idealist” modes of agency. Kantian model of rationality is viewed as an augmentation of the Machiavellian one, not an opposition to it. To elaborate the point, Robert Aumann’s model of act-rationality and rulerationality is applied to the two philosophical models. Kantian practical reason is interpreted as an addition to Aumann’s instrumental rationality, providing rules for rules, or “rule-rule-rationality”.

  4. Rational use of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racoveanu, N.T.; Volodin, V.

    1992-01-01

    Radiologists in USA and UK have since early 1970 questioned the efficacy of various radiological investigations and produced substantial evidence that more rational approaches are necessary. WHO initiated, in 1977, a programme which has issued four technical reports giving practical recommendations on how to rationalise the use of radiological examinations. Three main directions are considered: (1) Abandonment of routine radiological examinations, as procedures with no clinical or epidemiologic significance and which represent a waste of resources and patient dose. (2) Patient selection for various radiological investigations based on clinical criteria (high, intermediate, low yield). Selected patients have an increased prevalence of the given disease and the predictive value of radiological investigation is much higher. (3) Use of diagnostic algorithms with higher cost/efficiency and risk/benefit ratios, improving the outcome of radiological examinations. (author)

  5. RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY IN TAKOTSUBO CARDIOMYOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marchev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational pharmacotherapy in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is based on clinical picture and data of functional and laboratory investigations of concrete patient. In patients with hypotension and moderate-to-severe left ventricle outflow tract obstruction inotropic agents must not to be used because they can worsen the degree of obstruction. In these patients beta blockers can improve hemodynamics by causing resolution of the obstruction. If intraventricular thrombus is detected, anticoagulation for at least 3 months is recommended. The duration of anticoagulant therapy may be modified depending on the extent of cardiac function recovery and thrombus resolution. For patients without thrombus but with severe left ventricular dysfunction, anticoagulation is recommended until the akinesis or dyskinesis has resolved but not more than 3 months.

  6. Max Weber's Types of Rationality: Cornerstones for the Analysis of Rationalization Processes in History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberg, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    Explores rationality in Max Weber's works and identifies four types of rationality which play major roles in his writing--practical, theoretical, substantive, and formal. Implications for society and education are discussed. (DB)

  7. Inaugurating Rationalization: Three Field Studies Find Increased Rationalization When Anticipated Realities Become Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Kristin

    2018-04-01

    People will often rationalize the status quo, reconstruing it in an exaggeratedly positive light. They will even rationalize the status quo they anticipate, emphasizing the upsides and minimizing the downsides of sociopolitical realities they expect to take effect. Drawing on recent findings on the psychological triggers of rationalization, I present results from three field studies, one of which was preregistered, testing the hypothesis that an anticipated reality becoming current triggers an observable boost in people's rationalizations. San Franciscans rationalized a ban on plastic water bottles, Ontarians rationalized a targeted smoking ban, and Americans rationalized the presidency of Donald Trump, more in the days immediately after these realities became current compared with the days immediately before. Additional findings show evidence for a mechanism underlying these behaviors and rule out alternative accounts. These findings carry implications for scholarship on rationalization, for understanding protest behavior, and for policymakers.

  8. Is It Rational to Assume that Infants Imitate Rationally? A Theoretical Analysis and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that preverbal infants evaluate the efficiency of others' actions (by applying a "principle of rational action") and that they imitate others' actions rationally. The present contribution presents a conceptual analysis of the claim that preverbal infants imitate rationally. It shows that this ability rests on at least three…

  9. Rationing in health systems: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keliddar, Iman; Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad; Jafari-Sirizi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is difficult to provide health care services to all those in need of such services due to limited resources and unlimited demands. Thus, priority setting and rationing have to be applied. This study aimed at critically examining the concept of rationing in health sector and identifying its purposes, influencing factors, mechanisms, and outcomes. Methods: The critical interpretive synthesis methodology was used in this study. PubMed, Cochrane, and Proquest databases were searched using the related key words to find related documents published between 1970 and 2015. In total, 161 published reports were reviewed and included in the study. Thematic content analysis was applied for data analysis. Results: Health services rationing means restricting the access of some people to useful or potentially useful health services due to budgetary limitation. The inherent features of the health market and health services, limited resources, and unlimited needs necessitate health services rationing. Rationing can be applied in 4 levels: health care policy- makers, health care managers, health care providers, and patients. Health care rationing can be accomplished through fixed budget, benefit package, payment mechanisms, queuing, copayments, and deductibles. Conclusion: This paper enriched our understanding of health services rationing and its mechanisms at various levels and contributed to the literature by broadly conceptualizing health services rationing.

  10. Fiber sources for complete calf starter rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, F R; Wallenius, R W

    1980-11-01

    Complete calf starter rations containing either 1) alfalfa hay, 2) cottonseed hulls, or 3) alfalfa-beet pulp as sources of fiber were fed to Holstein heifer calves at two locations on a limited milk program from 3 days to 12 wk of age. Rations were isonitrogenous and similar in content of crude fiber and acid detergent fiber. Although growth and development were normal on all rations, calves fed the cottonseed hull ration consumed more starter and gained more body weight than calves fed the other sources of fiber. The similarity of feed efficiencies, rumen pH, and molar ratios of volatile fatty acids between rations indicated no appreciable differences in rumen development or function. The growth response of calves fed the cottonseed hull ration appeared to be a result of better ration acceptability for which no reason was evident. Calves raised at Puyallup gained more body weight than calves at Pullman, and these gains were made more efficiently. These location effects may be related to seasonal differences and greater demands for production of body heat. Although the incidence of scours was less for calves fed alfalfa hay starter, the incidence and severity of bloat were higher for that ration.

  11. The Problem of Rational Moral Enlistment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillson, John

    2017-01-01

    How can one bring children to recognize the requirements of morality without resorting only to non-rational means of persuasion (i.e. what rational ground can be offered to children for their moral enlistment)? Michael Hand has recently defended a foundationalist approach to answering this question and John White has responded by (a) criticizing…

  12. Neurophysiology and Rationality in Political Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Steven A.

    Research both in cognitive psychology and psychobiology suggests that political behavior is often less rational than individuals believe it to be. Information processing, memory, and decision making are interlinked processes. Studies in cognitive psychology reveal that even though decision making requires rationality, individuals often adopt…

  13. Privacy-Enhancing Auctions Using Rational Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Triandopoulos, Nikolaos

    2009-01-01

    show how to use rational cryptography to approximately implement any given ex interim individually strictly rational equilibrium of such an auction without a trusted mediator through a cryptographic protocol that uses only point-to-point authenticated channels between the players. By “ex interim...

  14. The Role of Rationality in University Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    1983-01-01

    Although empirical accounts of organizational decision making often show that the process is not a rational one, a study of budgeting at Stanford University during the 1970s, while not conclusive or comprehensive, supported the claim that the institution's process was rational and provided a procedure for testing a decision-making model. (MSE)

  15. Should Teachers Be Taught to Be Rational?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floden, Robert E.; Feiman, Sharon

    1981-01-01

    Teacher education programs have long attempted to teach students to follow a rational mode of thinking. Recent research on teacher thinking has shown that a gap exists between how teachers think and the rational model. Such research should be used to give teacher educators insight into how their students think and learn. (JN)

  16. MARSI: metabolite analogues for rational strain improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, João G. R.; Zeidan, Ahmad A; Jensen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    reactions in an organism can be used to predict effects of MAs on cellular phenotypes. Here, we present the Metabolite Analogues for Rational Strain Improvement (MARSI) framework. MARSI provides a rational approach to strain improvement by searching for metabolites as targets instead of genes or reactions...

  17. RATIONAL APPROXIMATIONS TO GENERALIZED HYPERGEOMETRIC FUNCTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under weak restrictions on the various free parameters, general theorems for rational representations of the generalized hypergeometric functions...and certain Meijer G-functions are developed. Upon specialization, these theorems yield a sequency of rational approximations which converge to the

  18. Decision Making: Rational, Nonrational, and Irrational.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Herbert A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the current state of knowledge about human decision-making and problem-solving processes, explaining recent developments and their implications for management and management training. Rational goal-setting is the key to effective decision making and accomplishment. Bounded rationality is a realistic orientation, because the world is too…

  19. Simple market equilibria with rationally inattentive consumers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip; McKay, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 3 (2012), s. 24-29 ISSN 0002-8282 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP402/11/P236 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational choice theory * bounded rationality * consumer research Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2012

  20. The Emotional and Moral Basis of Rationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boostrom, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the basis of rationality, arguing that critical thinking tends to be taught in schools as a set of skills because of the failure to recognize that choosing to think critically depends on the prior development of stable sentiments or moral habits that nourish a rational self. Primary among these stable sentiments are the…

  1. Argumentation, rationality, and psychology of reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Godden

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explicates an account of argumentative rationality by articulating the common, basic idea of its nature, and then identifying a collection of assumptions inherent in it. Argumentative rationality is then contrasted with dual-process theories of reasoning and rationality prevalent in the psychology of reasoning. It is argued that argumentative rationality properly corresponds only with system-2 reasoning in dual-process theories. This result challenges the prescriptive force of argumentative norms derives if they derive at all from their descriptive accuracy of our cognitive capacities. In response, I propose an activity-based account of reasoning which retains the assumptions of argumentative rationality while recontextualizing the relationship between reasoning as a justificatory activity and the psychological states and processes underlying that activity.

  2. Casebook on rationalization of power use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    This book introduces the cases on rationalization of power use, which is divided into four parts. The first part refers the goal of rational use of energy and the result. The second part deals with the excellent cases on rationalization of domestic power use, which list the name of the company, hotel and factory according to the field such as building, textile and food. The third part contains the outstanding cases on rationalization of foreign power use, which were listed by the specific way to reduce electricity use each section. The fourth part is comprised of two chapters, which deals with the cases of domestic technical data and foreign technical data for rational use of energy.

  3. Generalized NLS hierarchies from rational W algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toppan, F.

    1993-11-01

    Finite rational W algebras are very natural structures appearing in coset constructions when a Kac-Moody subalgebra is factored out. The problem of relating these algebras to integrable hierarchies of equations is studied by showing how to associate to a rational W algebra its corresponding hierarchy. Two examples are worked out, the sl(2)/U(1) coset, leading to the Non-Linear Schroedinger hierarchy, and the U(1) coset of the Polyakov-Bershadsky W algebra, leading to a 3-field representation of the KP hierarchy already encountered in the literature. In such examples a rational algebra appears as algebra of constraints when reducing a KP hierarchy to a finite field representation. This fact arises the natural question whether rational algebras are always associated to such reductions and whether a classification of rational algebras can lead to a classification of the integrable hierarchies. (author). 19 refs

  4. Ethics of rationing of nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooddehghan, Zahra; Yekta, Zohreh Parsa; Nasrabadi, Alireza N

    2016-09-21

    Rationing of various needed services, for example, nursing care, is inevitable due to unlimited needs and limited resources. Rationing of nursing care is considered an ethical issue since it requires judgment about potential conflicts between personal and professional values. The present research sought to explore aspects of rationing nursing care in Iran. This study applied qualitative content analysis, a method to explore people's perceptions of everyday life phenomena and interpret the subjective content of text data. Data collection was performed through in-depth, unstructured, face-to-face interviews with open-ended questions. The study population included Iranian nurses of all nursing positions, from clinical nurses to nurse managers. Purposive sampling was employed to select 15 female and 3 male nurses (11 clinical nurses, 3 supervisors, 1 matron, 1 nurse, and 2 members of the Nursing Council) working in hospitals of three cities in Iran. The study protocol was approved by Tehran University of Medical Sciences (91D1302870). Written informed consent was also obtained from all participants. According to the participants, rationing of nursing care consisted of two categories, that is, causes of rationing and consequences of rationing. The first category comprised three subcategories, namely, patient needs and demands, routinism, and VIP patients. The three subcategories forming the second category were missed nursing care, patient dissatisfaction, and nurses' feeling of guilt. Levels at which healthcare practices are rationed and clarity of the rationing are important structural considerations in the development of an equal, appropriate, and ethical healthcare system. Moreover, the procedure of rationing is critical as it not only influences people's lives but also reflects the values that dominate in the society. Therefore, in order to minimize the negative consequences of rationing of nursing care, further studies on the ethical dimensions of this phenomenon

  5. Definition of rational antiepileptic polypharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, B J; Homan, R W

    1996-01-01

    Rational polypharmacy is in its earliest stages of development and will require substantial additional development to realize its full potential. Indeed, despite the powerful appeal of the concept, clinical proof is not yet available that RP is superior to monotherapy. Important questions need to be addressed: 1. Will RP control seizures more effectively than monotherapy? 2. What data are needed to develop RP for a specific patient? 3. Will RP be cost effective? 4. Can RP be developed which will treat or prevent epilepsy while controlling seizures? Possible approaches to these questions could include: 1. The development of a data base for prospective use to monitor patients being treated at Epilepsy Centers using RP principles. 2. Use the data obtained from the above to construct more specific studies to compare identified combination therapies with monotherapy. 3. Prospectively compare in a placebo controlled, blinded study, the effect of the combination of an anti-ictal medication and a laboratory proven antiepileptic drug for prevention of the development of epilepsy in an at risk population such as head trauma or stroke.

  6. Rationality, institutions and environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatn, Arild [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway)

    2005-11-01

    This paper is about how institutions determine choices and the importance of this for environmental policy. The model of individual rational choice from neoclassical economics is compared with the model of socially determined behavior. While in the first case, institutions are either exempted from or understood as mere economizing constraints on behavior, the latter perspective views institutions as basic structures necessary also to enable people to act. The paper develops a way to integrate the individualistic model into the wider perspective of social constructivism by viewing it as a special form of such construction. On the basis of this synthesis three issues with relevance for environmental economics are discussed. First, the role of institutional factors in the process of preference formation is emphasized. Next, the role of institutions for the choice of desired states of the environment is analyzed. Finally, the effect of various policy instruments to motivate people to produce these states is discussed. It is concluded that the core policy issue is to determine which institutional frameworks are most reasonable to apply to which kind of problem. Issues, which from the perspective of neoclassical economics are pure technical, become serious value questions if understood from an institutional perspective.

  7. A systematic investigation of the link between rational number processing and algebra ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle; Cordes, Sara

    2018-02-01

    Recent research suggests that fraction understanding is predictive of algebra ability; however, the relative contributions of various aspects of rational number knowledge are unclear. Furthermore, whether this relationship is notation-dependent or rather relies upon a general understanding of rational numbers (independent of notation) is an open question. In this study, college students completed a rational number magnitude task, procedural arithmetic tasks in fraction and decimal notation, and an algebra assessment. Using these tasks, we measured three different aspects of rational number ability in both fraction and decimal notation: (1) acuity of underlying magnitude representations, (2) fluency with which symbols are mapped to the underlying magnitudes, and (3) fluency with arithmetic procedures. Analyses reveal that when looking at the measures of magnitude understanding, the relationship between adults' rational number magnitude performance and algebra ability is dependent upon notation. However, once performance on arithmetic measures is included in the relationship, individual measures of magnitude understanding are no longer unique predictors of algebra performance. Furthermore, when including all measures simultaneously, results revealed that arithmetic fluency in both fraction and decimal notation each uniquely predicted algebra ability. Findings are the first to demonstrate a relationship between rational number understanding and algebra ability in adults while providing a clearer picture of the nature of this relationship. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Few-particle quantum dynamics–comparing nonequilibrium Green functions with the generalized Kadanoff–Baym ansatz to density operator theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanns, S; Bonitz, M; Balzer, K

    2013-01-01

    The nonequilibrium description of quantum systems requires, for more than two or three particles, the use of a reduced description to be numerically tractable. Two possible approaches are based on either reduced density matrices or nonequilibrium Green functions (NEGF). Both concepts are formulated in terms of hierarchies of coupled equations—the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy for the reduced density operators and the Martin-Schwinger-hierarchy (MS) for the Green functions, respectively. In both cases, similar approximations are introduced to decouple the hierarchy, yet still many questions regarding the correspondence of both approaches remain open. Here we analyze this correspondence by studying the generalized Kadanoff–Baym ansatz (GKBA) that reduces the NEGF to a single-time theory. Starting from the BBGKY-hierarchy we present the approximations that are necessary to recover the GKBA result both, with Hartree-Fock propagators (HF-GKBA) and propagators in second Born approximation. To test the quality of the HF-GKBA, we study the dynamics of a 4-electron Hubbard nanocluster starting from a strong nonequilibrium initial state and compare to exact results and the Wang-Cassing approximation to the BBGKY hierarchy presented recently by Akbari et al. [1].

  9. Positivity Preserving Interpolation Using Rational Bicubic Spline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the positivity preserving interpolation for positive surfaces data by extending the C1 rational cubic spline interpolant of Karim and Kong to the bivariate cases. The partially blended rational bicubic spline has 12 parameters in the descriptions where 8 of them are free parameters. The sufficient conditions for the positivity are derived on every four boundary curves network on the rectangular patch. Numerical comparison with existing schemes also has been done in detail. Based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, our partially blended rational bicubic spline is on a par with the established methods.

  10. Towards a Characterization of Rational Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Itai Arieli

    2008-01-01

    R. J. Aumann and J. H. Drèze (2008) define a rational expectation of a player i in a game G as the expected payo of some type of i in some belief system for G in which common knowledge of rationality and common priors obtain. Our goal is to characterize the set of rational expectations in terms of the game's payoff matrix. We provide such a characterization for a specific class of strategic games, called semi-elementary, which includes Myerson's "elementary" games.

  11. Rational Verification in Iterated Electric Boolean Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssouf Oualhadj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric boolean games are compact representations of games where the players have qualitative objectives described by LTL formulae and have limited resources. We study the complexity of several decision problems related to the analysis of rationality in electric boolean games with LTL objectives. In particular, we report that the problem of deciding whether a profile is a Nash equilibrium in an iterated electric boolean game is no harder than in iterated boolean games without resource bounds. We show that it is a PSPACE-complete problem. As a corollary, we obtain that both rational elimination and rational construction of Nash equilibria by a supervising authority are PSPACE-complete problems.

  12. Positroids Induced by Rational Dyck Paths

    OpenAIRE

    Gotti, Felix

    2017-01-01

    A rational Dyck path of type $(m,d)$ is an increasing unit-step lattice path from $(0,0)$ to $(m,d) \\in \\mathbb{Z}^2$ that never goes above the diagonal line $y = (d/m)x$. On the other hand, a positroid of rank $d$ on the ground set $[d+m]$ is a special type of matroid coming from the totally nonnegative Grassmannian. In this paper we describe how to naturally assign a rank $d$ positroid on the ground set $[d+m]$, which we name rational Dyck positroid, to each rational Dyck path of type $(m,d...

  13. Many faces of rationality: Implications of the great rationality debate for clinical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Elqayam, Shira

    2017-10-01

    Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models. Rationality is typically classified under umbrella of normative (addressing the question how people "should" or "ought to" make their decisions) and descriptive theories of decision-making (which portray how people actually make their decisions). Normative theories of rational thought of relevance to medicine include epistemic theories that direct practice of evidence-based medicine and expected utility theory, which provides the basis for widely used clinical decision analyses. Descriptive theories of rationality of direct relevance to medical decision-making include bounded rationality, argumentative theory of reasoning, adaptive rationality, dual processing model of rationality, regret-based rationality, pragmatic/substantive rationality, and meta-rationality. For the first time, we provide a review of wide range of theories and models of rationality. We showed that what is "rational" behaviour under one rationality theory may be irrational under the other theory. We also showed that context is of paramount importance to rationality and that no one model of rationality can possibly fit all contexts. We suggest that in context-poor situations, such as policy decision-making, normative theories based on expected utility informed by best research evidence may provide the optimal approach to medical decision-making, whereas in the context

  14. Wildnisbildung als Möglichkeit zur Professionalisierung zukünftiger Geographielehrer/innen – ein neuer Ansatz zur Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung?. GW-Unterricht|GW-Unterricht 142/143|

    OpenAIRE

    Lindau, Anne-Kathrin; Hottenroth, Daniela; Lindner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Der in den deutschen Nationalparken seit mehreren Jahren thematisierte und praktizierte Ansatz der Wildnisbildung stellt möglicherweise einen neuen Zugang zur Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung (BNE) in der universitären Lehrer/innenbildung im Fach Geographie dar. Am Beispiel des DBU-geförderten Projektes „Wildnis macht stark“ wird eine Konzeption für die Umsetzung von Wildnisbildung im Rahmen des Geographie-Lehramtsstudiums vorgestellt und mit ersten Forschungsergebnissen zur Wirksamkeit in...

  15. The effectiveness of rational emotive therapy on achievement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of rational emotive therapy on achievement motivation of students. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy on Students Achievement Motivation.

  16. Popper, Rationality and the Possibility of Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Social science employs teleological explanations which depend upon the rationality principle, according to which people exhibit instrumental rationality. Popper points out that people also exhibit critical rationality, the tendency to stand back from, and to question or criticise, their views. I explain how our critical rationality impugns the explanatory value of the rationality principle and thereby threatens the very possibility of social science. I discuss the relationship between instrumental and critical rationality and show how we can reconcile our critical rationality with the possibility of social science if we invoke Popper’s conception of limited rationality and his indeterminism.

  17. Many faces of rationality: Implications of the great rationality debate for clinical decision‐making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elqayam, Shira

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models. Rationality is typically classified under umbrella of normative (addressing the question how people “should” or “ought to” make their decisions) and descriptive theories of decision‐making (which portray how people actually make their decisions). Normative theories of rational thought of relevance to medicine include epistemic theories that direct practice of evidence‐based medicine and expected utility theory, which provides the basis for widely used clinical decision analyses. Descriptive theories of rationality of direct relevance to medical decision‐making include bounded rationality, argumentative theory of reasoning, adaptive rationality, dual processing model of rationality, regret‐based rationality, pragmatic/substantive rationality, and meta‐rationality. For the first time, we provide a review of wide range of theories and models of rationality. We showed that what is “rational” behaviour under one rationality theory may be irrational under the other theory. We also showed that context is of paramount importance to rationality and that no one model of rationality can possibly fit all contexts. We suggest that in context‐poor situations, such as policy decision‐making, normative theories based on expected utility informed by best research evidence may provide the optimal approach to medical decision

  18. Smooth surfaces from rational bilinear patches

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jun; Pottmann, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Smooth freeform skins from simple panels constitute a challenging topic arising in contemporary architecture. We contribute to this problem area by showing how to approximate a negatively curved surface by smoothly joined rational bilinear patches

  19. Towards a classification of rational Hopf algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.; Ganchev, A.; Vecsernyes, P.

    1994-02-01

    Rational Hopf algebras, i.e. certain quasitriangular weak quasi-Hopf *-algebras, are expected to describe the quantum symmetry of rational field theories. In this paper methods are developed which allow for a classification of all rational Hopf algebras that are compatible with some prescribed set of fusion rules. The algebras are parametrized by the solutions of the square, pentagon and hexagon identities. As examples, we classify all solutions for fusion rules with not more than three sectors, as well as for the level three affine A 1 (1) fusion rules. We also establish several general properties of rational Hopf algebras and present a graphical description of the coassociator in terms of labelled tetrahedra. The latter construction allows to make contact with conformal field theory fusing matrices and with invariants of three-manifolds and topological lattice field theory. (orig.)

  20. Bounded rational choice behaviour: applications in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo

    2016-01-01

    Even though the theory of rational behaviour has been challenged for almost 100 years, the dominant approach within the field of transport has been based upon the assumptions of neoclassical economics that we live in a world of rational decision makers who always have perfect knowledge and aim...... rational choice behaviour focuses on how the latter approach can be seriously taken into account within transport applications. As the editors discuss in the introduction, a true optimal choice can only be made if an individual has full and perfect information of all relevant attributes in his/her choice...... set. An individual is said to demonstrate bounded rational behaviour if he/she does not systematically consider all attributes deemed relevant for the decision problem at hand, does not consider all choice options and/or does not choose the best choice alternative. Such simplified representation...

  1. Principles of Economic Rationality in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalan, Marion; Winter, York; Nachev, Vladislav

    2017-12-12

    Humans and non-human animals frequently violate principles of economic rationality, such as transitivity, independence of irrelevant alternatives, and regularity. The conditions that lead to these violations are not completely understood. Here we report a study on mice tested in automated home-cage setups using rewards of drinking water. Rewards differed in one of two dimensions, volume or probability. Our results suggest that mouse choice conforms to the principles of economic rationality for options that differ along a single reward dimension. A psychometric analysis of mouse choices further revealed that mice responded more strongly to differences in probability than to differences in volume, despite equivalence in return rates. This study also demonstrates the synergistic effect between the principles of economic rationality and psychophysics in making quantitative predictions about choices of healthy laboratory mice. This opens up new possibilities for the analyses of multi-dimensional choice and the use of mice with cognitive impairments that may violate economic rationality.

  2. Pandemic ventilator rationing and appeals processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrone, Daniel; Resnik, David

    2011-06-01

    In a severe influenza pandemic, hospitals will likely experience serious and widespread shortages of patient pulmonary ventilators and of staff qualified to operate them. Deciding who will receive access to mechanical ventilation will often determine who lives and who dies. This prospect raises an important question whether pandemic preparedness plans should include some process by which individuals affected by ventilator rationing would have the opportunity to appeal adverse decisions. However, the issue of appeals processes to ventilator rationing decisions has been largely neglected in state pandemic planning efforts. If we are to devise just and effective plans for coping with a severe influenza pandemic, more attention to the issue of appeals processes for pandemic ventilator rationing decisions is needed. Arguments for and against appeals processes are considered, and some suggestions are offered to help efforts at devising more rational pandemic preparedness plans.

  3. Rationally inattentive seller: sales and discrete pricing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 3 (2016), s. 1125-1155 ISSN 0034-6527 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity * sticky prices Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016

  4. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  5. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  6. Analytic aspects of rational conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiritsis, E.B.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1990-01-01

    The problem of deriving linear differential equations for correlation functions of Rational Conformal Field Theories is considered. Techniques from the theory of fuchsian differential equations are used to show that knowledge of the central charge, dimensions of primary fields and fusion rules are enough to fix the differential equations for one- and two-point functions on the tours. Any other correlation function can be calculated along similar lines. The results settle the issue of 'exact solution' of rational conformal field theories. (orig.)

  7. Rational emotive behaviour therapy: distinctive features

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, Windy

    2008-01-01

    Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) encourages the client to focus on their emotional problems in order to understand, challenge and change the irrational beliefs that underpin these problems. REBT can help clients to strengthen conviction in their alternative rational beliefs by acting in ways that are consistent with them and thus encourage a healthier outlook.\\ud \\ud This accessible and direct guide introduces the reader to REBT while indicating how it is different from other approac...

  8. Heterogeneity, Bounded Rationality and Market Dysfunctionality

    OpenAIRE

    Xue-Zhong He; Lei Shi

    2008-01-01

    As the main building blocks of the modern finance theory, homogeneity and rational expectation have faced difficulty in explaining many market anomalies, stylized factors, and market inefficiency in empirical studies. As a result, heterogeneity and bounded rationality have been used as an alterative paradigm of asset price dynamics and this paradigm has been widely recognized recently in both academic and financial market practitioners. Within the framework of Chiarella, Dieci and He (2006a, ...

  9. Rationally Addicted to Drinking and Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Bask, Mikael; Melkersson, Maria

    2001-01-01

    When modeling demand for addictive consumption goods, the most widely used framework is the rational addiction model proposed by Becker and Murphy (1988). In the present paper, we extend the rational addiction model to include two addictive consumption goods, alcohol and cigarettes. We estimate the aggregate demand for alcohol and cigarettes in Sweden, using aggregate annual time series on sales volumes for the period 1955-1999. OLS estimates are compared to GMM estimates allowing for possibl...

  10. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing

    OpenAIRE

    Orosz, Gábor; Krekó, Péter; Paskuj, Benedek; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample (N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in re...

  11. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  12. Proposed standby gasoline rationing plan: public comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    Under the proposed plan, DOE would allocate ration rights (rights to purchase gasoline) to owners of registered vehicles. All vehicles in a given class would receive the same entitlement. Essential services would receive supplemental allotments of ration rights as pririty firms. Once every 3 months, ration checks would be mailed out to all vehicle registrants, allotting them a certain amount of ration rights. These checks would then be cashed at Coupon Issuance Points, where the bearer would receive ration coupons to be used at gasoline stations. Large users of gasoline could deposit their allotment checks in accounts at ration banks. Coupons or checks would be freely exchangeable in a white market. A certain percentage of the gasoline supply would be set aside in reserve for use in national emergencies. When the plan was published in the Federal Register, public comments were requested. DOE also solicited comments from private citizens, public interest groups, business and industry, state and local governments. A total of 1126 responses were reveived and these are analyzed in this paper. The second part of the report describes how the comments were classified, and gives a statistical breakdown of the major responses. The last section is a discussion and analysis of theissue raised by commenting agencies, firms, associations, and individuals. (MCW)

  13. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martínez-Tur

    Full Text Available The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  14. Intergroup Conflict and Rational Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A.; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict –associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)– has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making. PMID:25461384

  15. Effective Entrepreneurial Choice: The Role of Rationality and Non-Rationality in Three Entrepreneurs Success Stories

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Anne Michele, Siang Yoon

    2007-01-01

    Good entrepreneurship is important for economic growth and productivity in any modern economy. The purpose of this dissertation is to research how good entrepreneurial decisions are made. In theory, optimal or rational decision making means choosing the best alternative in response to the problem. However, in reality, people do not act rationally because they often cannot make rational choices. The reason is that people do not have enough brain power, time or resources to process the compl...

  16. Lying for Strategic Advantage: Rational and Boundedly Rational Misrepresentation of Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Vincent P.

    2001-01-01

    Starting from Hendricks and McAfee's (2000) example of the Allies' decision to feint at Calais and attack at Normandy on D-Day, this paper models misrepresentation of intentions to competitors or enemies. Allowing for the possibility of bounded strategic rationality and rational players' responses to it yields a sensible account of lying via costless, noiseless messages. In many cases the model has generically unique pure-strategy sequential equilibria, in which rational players exploit bound...

  17. Rationality and institutions : an inquiry into the normative implications of rational choice theory

    OpenAIRE

    Engelen, Bart

    2007-01-01

    I aim to analyze in this dissertation what a desirable basic institutional structure looks like from the perspective of rationality. While the main topic is thus normative in nature, I start by clarifying in the first part what the notion of rationality exactly entails. I do so by focusing explicitly on the economic conception of rationality, according to which a rational individual is motivated to serve his self-interest on the basis of cost-benefit calculations. Such a Homo Economicus is ch...

  18. A discussion of theoretical and practical rationality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstroem, B. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). VTT Automation

    1999-12-01

    Theoretical rationality as defined in Expected Utility Theory and amended with other considerations gives a good basis for decision making. One should however always keep in mind that practical rationality often is far more complicated. People use their everyday experience when placed before new problems and this may lead to apparently irrational choices which on a closer scrutiny may be completely rational. Theories in human decision making unfortunately becomes untestable, firstly because a theory taking all considerations into account would be to complex to be practical and secondly because the data needed to test the theory cannot be collected. The benefit of EUT is that it is simple and straightforward as compared with competing theories. In the natural sciences rationality is often seen simply as a problem of optimisation. This view is practical, but it has to include also psychological and sociological considerations. The apparent controversy between natural and behavioural sciences could at least in principle be resolved by a better understanding of the complexity of human rationality. The human mind does not work in isolation, but it is adapted to a social community and a continuously changing environment. Understanding all components of human rationality is a challenge which cannot be solved on a short term basis. An important part of human rationality is connected to the intricate balance between individual and societal utility. The human mind has over thousands of years learnt to resolve that balance, but in the modern society there are decisions which may not be solvable with an intuitive approach and a strategy of trial and error. For these decisions more solid theories of rationality will be needed. EUT can in spite of its dismerits be used as the backbone for such a theory, but it has to be extended with better explanations of both individual and social rationality. If this understanding of the practical aspects of human rationality can be reached

  19. A discussion of theoretical and practical rationality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical rationality as defined in Expected Utility Theory and amended with other considerations gives a good basis for decision making. One should however always keep in mind that practical rationality often is far more complicated. People use their everyday experience when placed before new problems and this may lead to apparently irrational choices which on a closer scrutiny may be completely rational. Theories in human decision making unfortunately becomes untestable, firstly because a theory taking all considerations into account would be to complex to be practical and secondly because the data needed to test the theory cannot be collected. The benefit of EUT is that it is simple and straightforward as compared with competing theories. In the natural sciences rationality is often seen simply as a problem of optimisation. This view is practical, but it has to include also psychological and sociological considerations. The apparent controversy between natural and behavioural sciences could at least in principle be resolved by a better understanding of the complexity of human rationality. The human mind does not work in isolation, but it is adapted to a social community and a continuously changing environment. Understanding all components of human rationality is a challenge which cannot be solved on a short term basis. An important part of human rationality is connected to the intricate balance between individual and societal utility. The human mind has over thousands of years learnt to resolve that balance, but in the modern society there are decisions which may not be solvable with an intuitive approach and a strategy of trial and error. For these decisions more solid theories of rationality will be needed. EUT can in spite of its dismerits be used as the backbone for such a theory, but it has to be extended with better explanations of both individual and social rationality. If this understanding of the practical aspects of human rationality can be reached

  20. Was uns nicht umbringt, macht uns härter? Resilienzförderung bei armen Kindern aus Sicht des Capability-Ansatzes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutwald Rebecca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resilienz wird in der Psychologie und Sozialpädagogik häufig als positiv angesehen. In der Armutsbekämpfung ist diese Sichtweise durchaus nachvollziehbar, insbesondere in der Prävention von Kinderarmut: wenn Resilienz das ist, was ein Kind in die Lage versetzt, die Risiken und negativen Folgen von Armut besser zu bewältigen, scheint es sinnvoll, diese Fähigkeit bei Kindern zu fördern. Mein Beitrag befürwortet diesen Befund, plädiert aber dafür, dass die Resilienzdebatte der Untermauerung durch Argumente aus der praktischen Philosophie bedarf, da das, was häufig als Resilienz bezeichnet wird, nicht immer positiv zu bewerten ist. Ziel meines Beitrags ist es, den Resilienzdiskurs im Rahmen der Kinderarmutsbekämpfung in einer normativen Theorie zu verankern: im Capability Ansatz von Amartya Sen. Resilienz wird damit, so meine These, zu einem fundamental normativen Begriff. Mein Beitrag gliedert sich in drei Teile: Zuerst wird auf die Grundideen des CA und die Stellung von Kindheit darin eingegangen. Im zweiten Teil wird der Resilienzbegriff im Kontext von Kinderarmutsprävention charakterisiert. Der dritte Teil widmet sich den Verbindungslinien zwischen der Resilienzdiskussion und dem CA. Leitgedanke ist dabei, dass der CA die menschliche Handlungsfähigkeit als normativ grundlegend auszeichnet. Auf dieser Basis lässt sich überzeugend beurteilen, warum Armut bei Kindern höchst problematisch ist und welches Ziel in der Resilienzförderung verfolgt werden soll. Wie ich argumentieren werde, ist die Bereitstellung von capabilities auch die gerechtigkeitstheoretische Basis von Resilienzförderung in der Praxis. Der Beitrag schließt mit Impulsen, welche, so meine Hoffnung, für eine weitere Diskussion der Normativität von Resilienz dienlich sein können.

  1. Emotions and Decisions: Beyond Conceptual Vagueness and the Rationality Muddle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Kirsten G; Hertwig, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, decision scholars paid little attention to emotions: Decisions were modeled in normative and descriptive frameworks with little regard for affective processes. Recently, however, an "emotions revolution" has taken place, particularly in the neuroscientific study of decision making, putting emotional processes on an equal footing with cognitive ones. Yet disappointingly little theoretical progress has been made. The concepts and processes discussed often remain vague, and conclusions about the implications of emotions for rationality are contradictory and muddled. We discuss three complementary ways to move the neuroscientific study of emotion and decision making from agenda setting to theory building. The first is to use reverse inference as a hypothesis-discovery rather than a hypothesis-testing tool, unless its utility can be systematically quantified (e.g., through meta-analysis). The second is to capitalize on the conceptual inventory advanced by the behavioral science of emotions, testing those concepts and unveiling the underlying processes. The third is to model the interplay between emotions and decisions, harnessing existing cognitive frameworks of decision making and mapping emotions onto the postulated computational processes. To conclude, emotions (like cognitive strategies) are not rational or irrational per se: How (un)reasonable their influence is depends on their fit with the environment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Using Rational-Emotive Therapy to Prevent Classroom Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Jo; Coleman, Maggie

    1988-01-01

    Teachers are encouraged to utilize rational-emotive therapy to prevent and deal with classroom behavior problems. Rational-emotive therapy is defined, the ABC model of rational thinking briefly explained, types of irrational thinking identified, and suggestions for becoming a rational thinker are offered. Classroom examples are given. (DB)

  3. Gravity with a cosmological constant from rational curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Tim

    2015-11-01

    We give a new formula for all tree-level correlators of boundary field insertions in gauged N=8 supergravity in AdS4; this is an analogue of the tree-level S-matrix in anti-de Sitter space. The formula is written in terms of rational maps from the Riemann sphere to twistor space, with no reference to bulk perturbation theory. It is polynomial in the cosmological constant, and equal to the classical scattering amplitudes of supergravity in the flat space limit. The formula is manifestly supersymmetric, independent of gauge choices on twistor space, and equivalent to expressions computed via perturbation theory at 3-point overline{MHV} and n-point MHV. We also show that the formula factorizes and obeys BCFW recursion in twistor space.

  4. Gravity with a cosmological constant from rational curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, Tim

    2015-01-01

    We give a new formula for all tree-level correlators of boundary field insertions in gauged N=8 supergravity in AdS_4; this is an analogue of the tree-level S-matrix in anti-de Sitter space. The formula is written in terms of rational maps from the Riemann sphere to twistor space, with no reference to bulk perturbation theory. It is polynomial in the cosmological constant, and equal to the classical scattering amplitudes of supergravity in the flat space limit. The formula is manifestly supersymmetric, independent of gauge choices on twistor space, and equivalent to expressions computed via perturbation theory at 3-point (MHV)-bar and n-point MHV. We also show that the formula factorizes and obeys BCFW recursion in twistor space.

  5. Economic Rationality in the Ultimatum Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Fiala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous application of experimental methodology to the interdisciplinary research of economic decision making is the main purpose of our work. In this paper, we introduce the main decisionmaking theories and outline economic rationality. We explain why we find it useful to discriminate between the “irrational” and “non-rational” components of decision making. We offer an oriented interdisciplinary point of view on economic rationality. In the applied section, we describe the main features of the Ultimatum game and summarize the up-to-date theories explaining the non-rational course of the game. We discuss in detail the reported relations between the nominal value of the stakes and the distribution of the offers and responses. We introduce the blinded, randomized Ultimatum game experiment that we conducted in our laboratory. We stress the importance of anonymity of the study subjects and the difference in salience of a factual reward against a  hypothetical reward. We present the results of our study, showing that a  duly chosen non-monetary reward, directly inconvertible into money, leads to a different offer distribution in the Ultimatum game without the necessity to invest excessive sums of money in the rewards. We compare our results to research published by other authors. According to our theory, the rational, non-rational and irrational components contribute to the decision making in Ultimatum differently depending on the different reward stakes.

  6. [Rationalization and rationing at the bedside. A normative and empirical status quo analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, D

    2014-02-01

    The topic of bedside rationing is increasingly discussed in Germany. Further need for clarification exists for the question how bedside rationing (e.g., in the area of overcare) can be justified despite coexistent inefficiencies. This paper outlines and analyses the relationship of waste avoidance and rationing from an ethical perspective. Empirical findings regarding the status quo of bedside rationing and rationalization are presented. These normative and empirical explorations will then be further specified regarding opportunities for future physician-driven activities to tackle overuse. The self-government partners in Germany should communicate more explicitly within their communities and to the public how and with which benchmarks they aim to reduce inefficient health care (overuse) in an appropriate manner. Physician-driven activities such as the "Choosing Wisely®" initiative in the USA could provide a first step to raise the awareness for overuse among physicians as well as in the public.

  7. Techno-Optimism and Rational Superstition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    our common understanding of reason and rationality? To adopt rational expectations about the world, after all, should we not attempt to avoid the emotional over-determination of our assessments? I show that applied reason is conceptually entangled with this superstitious optimism in the continued...... of retro-causation, where the future is held to somehow have a retroactive effect on the past. This suggests, I argue, that the underlying mechanism by which techno-optimism is supposed to be instrumental in bringing about the future is fundamentally superstitious. But does this superstition not go against...... successes of technology. The article thus reveals a curious sense in which reason is intrinsically superstitious. I offer an evolutionary explanation for this, showing that the biological origins of reason will by nature tend to produce rational agents which are superstitiously bound to realism...

  8. Autonomy, rationality and the wish to die.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D M

    1999-12-01

    Although suicide has traditionally carried a negative sanction in Western societies, this is now being challenged, and while there remains substantial public concern surrounding youth and elder suicide, there is a paradoxical push to relax the prohibition under certain circumstances. Central to the arguments behind this are the principles of respect for autonomy and the importance of rationality. It is argued here that the concepts of rationality and autonomy, while valuable, are not strong enough to substantiate a categorical "right to suicide" and that the concepts of "understandability" and "respect" are more useful and able to provide the foundation for responding to a person expressing a wish to die. Roman suicide, sometimes held as an example of "rational suicide", illustrates the effects of culture, tradition and values on the attitudes to, and the practice of, suicide.

  9. Rational speculative bubbles: A critical view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radonjić Ognjen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of rational bubbles, the bubble is present whenever asset prices progressively diverge from their fundamental value, which occurs because agents expect that asset prices will continue to grow exponentially (self-fulfilling prophecies far in the future and consistently, which promises the realization of ever larger capital gains. In our opinion, the basic shortcoming of this theory refers to the assumption that all market agents are perfectly informed and rational and, accordingly, form homogeneous expectations. The model does not explain decision-making processes or expectation formation, nor does it detect potential psychological and institutional factors that might significantly influence decision making processes and market participants’ reactions to news. Since assumptions of the model critically determine its validity, we conclude that comprehensiveness of the rational bubble model is, to put it mildly, limited.

  10. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Krekó, Péter; Paskuj, Benedek; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample ( N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in reducing CT, whereas empathizing with the targets of CTs had no effect. Individual differences played no role in CT reduction, but the perceived intelligence and competence of the individual who conveyed the CT belief-reduction information contributed to the success of the CT belief reduction. Rational arguments targeting the link between the object of belief and its characteristics appear to be an effective tool in fighting conspiracy theory beliefs.

  11. Rationality and Emotions in Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Markič

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision making is traditionally viewed as a rational process where reason calculates the best way to achieve the goal. Investigations from different areas of cognitive science have shown that human decisions and actions are much more influenced by intuition and emotional responses then it was previously thought. In this paper I examine the role of emotion in decision making, particularly Damasio’s hypothesis of somatic markers and Green’s dual process theory of moral judgment. I conclude the paper with the discussion of the threat that deliberation and conscious rationality is an illusion.

  12. Rationality and drug use: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondel, Serge; Lohéac, Youenn; Rinaudo, Stéphane

    2007-05-01

    In rational addiction theory, higher discount rates encourage drug use. We test this hypothesis in the general framework of rationality and behaviour under risk. We do so using an experimental design with real monetary incentives. The decisions of 34 drug addicts are compared with those of a control group. The decisions of drug users (DU) are not any less consistent with standard theories of behaviour over time and under risk. Further, there is no difference in the estimated discount rate between drug users and the control group, but the former do appear to be more risk-seeking.

  13. Rationalization with ruled surfaces in architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Kasper Hornbak

    This thesis addresses the problems of rationalizing and segmenting large scale 3D models, and how to handle difficult production constraints in this area. The design choices when constructing large scale architecture are influenced by the budget. Therefore I strive to minimize the amount of time...... and material needed for production. This makes advanced free form architecture viable for low cost projects, allowing the architects to realize their designs. By pre-cutting building blocks using hot wire robots, the amount of milling necessary can be reduced drastically. I do this by rationalizing...

  14. Towards a formal logic of design rationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1997-01-01

    Certain extensions to standard predicate logic are proposed and used as a framework for critical logical study of patterns of inference in design reasoning. It is shown that within this framework a modal logic of design rationalization (suggested by an empirical study reported earlier) can...... be formally defined in terms of quantification over a universe of discourse of ‘relevant points of view’. Five basic principles of the extended predicate logic are listed, on the basis of which the validity of ten modal patterns of inference encountered in design rationalization is tested. The basic idea...

  15. Were Neanderthals Rational? A Stoic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Whiting

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper adopts the philosophical approach of Stoicism as the basis for re-examining the cognitive and ethical relationship between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals. Stoicism sets out a clear criterion for the special moral status of human beings, namely rationality. We explore to what extent Neanderthals were sufficiently rational to be considered “human”. Recent findings in the fields of palaeoanthropology and palaeogenetics show that Neanderthals possessed high-level cognitive abilities and produced viable offspring with anatomically modern humans. Our discussion offers insights for reflecting on the relationship between humans and other forms of natural life and any moral obligations that result.

  16. Rational homotopy theory and differential forms

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    This completely revised and corrected version of the well-known Florence notes circulated by the authors together with E. Friedlander examines basic topology, emphasizing homotopy theory. Included is a discussion of Postnikov towers and rational homotopy theory. This is then followed by an in-depth look at differential forms and de Tham's theorem on simplicial complexes. In addition, Sullivan's results on computing the rational homotopy type from forms is presented.  New to the Second Edition: *Fully-revised appendices including an expanded discussion of the Hirsch lemma*Presentation of a natu

  17. Rational decisions, random matrices and spin glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluccio, Stefano; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Potters, Marc

    We consider the problem of rational decision making in the presence of nonlinear constraints. By using tools borrowed from spin glass and random matrix theory, we focus on the portfolio optimisation problem. We show that the number of optimal solutions is generally exponentially large, and each of them is fragile: rationality is in this case of limited use. In addition, this problem is related to spin glasses with Lévy-like (long-ranged) couplings, for which we show that the ground state is not exponentially degenerate.

  18. Rational Homological Stability for Automorphisms of Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Matthias

    In this thesis we prove rational homological stability for the classifying spaces of the homotopy automorphisms and block di↵eomorphisms of iterated connected sums of products of spheres of a certain connectivity.The results in particular apply to the manifolds       Npg,q  = (#g(Sp x Sq)) - int...... with coefficients in the homology of the universal covering, which is studied using rational homology theory. The result for the block di↵eomorphisms is deduced from the homological stability for the homotopy automorphisms upon using Surgery theory. Themain theorems of this thesis extend the homological stability...

  19. Rationing in the presence of baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a general model of rationing in which agents have baselines, in addition to claims against the (insufficient) endowment of the good to be allocated. Many real-life problems fit this general model (e.g., bankruptcy with prioritized claims, resource allocation in the public health care...... sector, water distribution in drought periods). We introduce (and characterize) a natural class of allocation methods for this model. Any method within the class is associated with a rule in the standard rationing model, and we show that if the latter obeys some focal properties, the former obeys them...

  20. Topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

  1. Models of bounded rationality under certainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This chapter reviews models of decision-making and choice under conditions of certainty. It allows readers to position the contribution of the other chapters in this book in the historical development of the topic area. Theory Bounded rationality is defined in terms of a strategy to simplify

  2. Suicide: rationality and responsibility for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Angela Onkay

    2014-03-01

    Death by suicide is widely held as an undesirable outcome. Most Western countries place emphasis on patient autonomy, a concept of controversy in relation to suicide. This paper explores the tensions between patients' rights and many societies' overarching desire to prevent suicide, while clarifying the relations between mental disorders, mental capacity, and rational suicide. A literature search was conducted using search terms of suicide and ethics in the PubMed and LexisNexis Academic databases. Article titles and abstracts were reviewed and deemed relevant if the paper addressed topics of rational suicide, patient autonomy or rights, or responsibility for life. Further articles were found from reference lists and by suggestion from preliminary reviewers of this paper. Suicidal behaviour in a person cannot be reliably predicted, yet various associations and organizations have developed standards of care for managing patients exhibiting suicidal behaviour. The responsibility for preventing suicide tends to be placed on the treating clinician. In cases where a person is capable of making treatment decisions--uninfluenced by any mental disorder--there is growing interest in the concept of rational suicide. There is much debate about whether suicide can ever be rational. Designating suicide as an undesirable event that should never occur raises the debate of who is responsible for one's life and runs the risk of erroneously attributing blame for suicide. While upholding patient rights of autonomy in psychiatric care is laudable, cases of suicidality warrant a delicate consideration of clinical judgment, duty of care, and legal obligations.

  3. Rationality, Motivation, Effectiveness: Bureaucracy's Triple Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William

    1984-01-01

    The United States has inherited an ideology concerning politics, culture, and the state that values the democratic distribution by the schools of rationality and of social motivation. Unfortunately, the bureaucratic organization of schools discourages this distribution, and the incentives for changing either the organization or the distribution…

  4. Rational approximations and quantum algorithms with postselection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahadev, U.; de Wolf, R.

    2015-01-01

    We study the close connection between rational functions that approximate a given Boolean function, and quantum algorithms that compute the same function using post-selection. We show that the minimal degree of the former equals (up to a factor of 2) the minimal query complexity of the latter. We

  5. [Popper's critical rationalism and the biomedical sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlícek, J

    1993-11-08

    Popper's rationalism makes an important contribution of the 20th century philosophy to the methodology of natural sciences. Through its criterion of falsification, it enabled the scientists to take a critical but constructive view on hypotheses, conjectures and theories. This attitude found its application also in medicine.

  6. Parity, Incomparability and Rationally Justified Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Martijn

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the possibility of a rationally justified choice between two options neither of which is better than the other while they are not equally good either (‘3NT’). Joseph Raz regards such options as incomparable and argues that reason cannot guide the choice between them. Ruth

  7. Heterogeneous Parking Market Subject to Parking Rationing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asadi Bagloee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of drivers and parking spaces delineate a heterogeneous parking market for which the literature has yet to provide a model applicable to the real world. The main obstacle is computational complexities of considering various parking restrictions along with traffic congestion on the road network. In this study, the heterogeneity aspects are considered within a Logit parking choice model. A mathematical programming problem was introduced to explicitly consider parking capacities and parking rationing constraints. The parking rationing is defined as any arrangement to reserve parking space for some specific demand such as parking permit, private parking, VIP parking, and different parking durations. Introduction of parking rationing in the presence of other constraints is a unique factor in this study which makes the model more realistic. The algorithm was tested on a central business district case study. The results prove that the algorithm is able to converge rapidly. Among the algorithm’s output are shadow prices of the parking capacity and parking rationing constraints. The shadow prices contain important information which is key to addressing a variety of parking issues, such as the location of parking shortages, identification of fair parking charges, viability of parking permits, and the size of reserved parking.

  8. Rationally inattentive seller: sales and discrete pricing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 3 (2016), s. 1125-1155 ISSN 0034-6527 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP402/11/P236 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity * sticky prices Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016

  9. Viagra: : A success story for rationing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, R.; Sturm, H.

    2002-01-01

    The 1998 launch of Viagra prompted widespread fears about the budgetary consequences for insurers and governments, all the more so since Viagra was only the first of a new wave of so-called lifestyle drugs. The fears have turned out to be greatly exaggerated. This paper analyzes the rationing

  10. Confucianism and Critical Rationalism: Friends or Foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    According to Karl Popper's critical rationalism, criticism is the only way we have of systematically detecting and learning from our mistakes so as to get nearer to the truth. Meanwhile, it is arguable that the emphasis of Confucianism on creating a hierarchical and harmonious society can easily lead to submission rather than opposition, producing…

  11. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  12. Rationalization of water consumption in paper industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarković Darja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper was to consider the possibilities of economical paper production with rationalization of water consumption. In accordance with the principles of viable development. The pulp & paper industry has had to face global market needs and strict regulation concerning the environment. The basic motive was to provide consistent and high product quality, which is competitive on the market. The pulp & paper industry is one of the largest consumers and pollutants of natural resources. In that light, the rationalization of raw material, water, energy and chemicals consumption with minimization of environmental impact is essential. The European directive on environmental protection obliges producers of pulp & paper to decrease the volume of wastewater and to increase the efficiency treatment. Pulp and paper industry in Serbia and Montenegro will also be faced with the demands for environmental protection. Numerous examples of water consumption rationalization and improvement of water quality in the pulp & paper industry could be found in different literature sources. It is necessary to increase water system closure and implement up-to-date treatment methods. The possibilities for water consumption rationalization, in a real system the paperboard mill UMKA, were examined.

  13. Macroeconomics after Two Decades of Rational Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Bennett T.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses real business cycle analysis, growth theory, and other economic concepts in the context of the rational expectations revolution in macroeconomics. Focuses on post-1982 research. Concludes that the rejuvenation of growth analysis is an encouraging development because it could lead to changes in welfare policy. (CFR)

  14. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2010), s. 1-40 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp409.pdf

  15. The Assessment of Rational Thinking: IQ ? RQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanovich, Keith E.; West, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors argue that distinguishing between rationality and intelligence helps explain how people can be, at the same time, intelligent and irrational (Stanovich, 2009). As such, researchers need to study separately the individual differences in cognitive skills that underlie intelligence and the individual differences in…

  16. Rational and Mechanistic Perspectives on Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This special issue describes important recent developments in applying reinforcement learning models to capture neural and cognitive function. But reinforcement learning, as a theoretical framework, can apply at two very different levels of description: "mechanistic" and "rational." Reinforcement learning is often viewed in mechanistic terms--as…

  17. Effecting attitudinal change towards rational drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T; Natu, M V

    1995-01-01

    Attitudes of 40 interns towards rational drug use (RDU) were assessed, using a standardized Likert type scale. The assessment was repeated after 4 months to evaluate the effect of usual working conditions of the hospital. After this period, the attitudes had slided towards negative side (p attitudes of test group returned towards positive side (p attitudes.

  18. Rationalizing Cooperation: Moroccan Craft, Politics, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Claire

    2018-01-01

    State attempts to rationalize Moroccan craft education reflect the ambivalent status of traditional knowledge in a modern economy. Female artisans, recently organized as a cooperative, navigate this ambivalence in a weaving "theory" class and in their "occupation" of the cooperative structure itself. During performances of…

  19. Feeling food: The rationality of perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, V.

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory bodies tend to treat people¿s emotional responses towards foods as a nuisance for rational opinion-formation and decision-making. This position is thought to be supported by such evidence as: (1) people showing negative emotional responses to the idea of eating meat products from

  20. CREDIT RATIONING AND SME DEVELOPMENT IN BOTSWANA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None

    have the negative effect of stifling the growth of potential firms, thereby .... credit market may explain the credit rationing behaviour of banks to ... derive policy implications to enhance access to bank credit by SMEs. 4. ..... The main challenges to SMEs identified by the study were non-payment of outstanding ... This decision is.

  1. The quantum symmetry of rational field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.

    1993-12-01

    The quantum symmetry of a rational quantum field theory is a finite-dimensional multi-matrix algebra. Its representation category, which determines the fusion rules and braid group representations of superselection sectors, is a braided monoidal C*-category. Various properties of such algebraic structures are described, and some ideas concerning the classification programme are outlined. (orig.)

  2. More Than the Ten Rational Thinking Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, E. Paul

    1980-01-01

    The 10 rational processes (which include recalling and imagining, classifying and generalizing, comparing and evaluating, analyzing and synthesizing, and deducting and inferring) are examined from a cultural and historical perspective, with particular emphasis on the suprarational aspects of creative thinking. A three stage model for facilitating…

  3. Rationality, Theory Acceptance and Decision Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nicolas Kaufmann

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Following Kuhn's main thesis according to which theory revision and acceptance is always paradigm relative, I propose to outline some possible consequences of such a view. First, asking the question in what sense Bayesian decision theory could serve as the appropriate (normative theory of rationality examined from the point of view of the epistemology of theory acceptance, I argue that Bayesianism leads to a narrow conception of theory acceptance. Second, regarding the different types of theory revision, i.e. expansion, contraction, replacement and residuals shifts, I extract from Kuhn's view a series of indications showing that theory replacement cannot be rationalized within the framework of Bayesian decision theory, not even within a more sophisticated version of that model. Third, and finally, I will point to the need for a more comprehensive model of rationality than the Bayesian expected utility maximization model, the need for a model which could better deal with the different aspects of theory replacement. I will show that Kuhn's distinction between normal and revolutionary science gives us several hints for a more adequate theory of rationality in science. I will also show that Kuhn is not in a position to fully articulate his main ideas and that he well be confronted with a serious problem concerning collective choice of a paradigm.

  4. On A System of Rational Difference Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Din Qamar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study local asymptotic stability, global character and periodic nature of solutions of the system of rational difference equations given by xn+1= , yn=, n=0, 1,…, where the parameters a; b; c; d; e; f ∊ (0; ∞), and with initial conditions x0; y0 ∊ (0; ∞). Some numerical examples are given to illustrate our results.

  5. Teachers\\' practical rationality of mathematics teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mathematics teaching as a practice and the way that teachers learn in such a practice. Conversations during interviews with the teachers in the sample indicate that SchoÈn\\'s notion of reflection-in-action is a key to understanding how teachers use their practical rationality as they try to understand nuanced meanings of the

  6. Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.

  7. The Rational-Emotive Approach: A Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, G. Barry

    1976-01-01

    The critique of Rational-Emotive Therapy aims criticism at Ellis' concept of irrationality, analysis of human behavior and therapeutic techniques. Ellis suggests that his critic's claims lack the support of experimental evidence. He further suggests that an "existential" bias pervades which differs from his own brand of…

  8. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Humanism in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Larry K.

    1996-01-01

    Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)

  9. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy with Troubled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zionts, Paul; Zionts, Laura

    1997-01-01

    Based on the early work of Albert Ellis, seeks to identify and challenge irrational beliefs that underlie behavior problems. Outlines concepts and methods of Rational Emotive Behavior Theory and describes the application both in counseling and as a mental health curriculum for troubled children and youth. Offers classroom techniques. (RJM)

  10. Bounded Rationality of Generalized Abstract Fuzzy Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By using a nonlinear scalarization technique, the bounded rationality model M for generalized abstract fuzzy economies in finite continuous spaces is established. Furthermore, by using the model M, some new theorems for structural stability and robustness to (λ,ϵ-equilibria of generalized abstract fuzzy economies are proved.

  11. Medicine, ethics and religion: rational or irrational?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, R D; Genesen, L B

    1998-12-01

    Savulescu maintains that our paper, which encourages clinicians to honour requests for "inappropriate treatment" is prejudicial to his atheistic beliefs, and therefore wrong. In this paper we clarify and expand on our ideas, and respond to his assertion that medicine, ethics and atheism are objective, rational and true, while religion is irrational and false.

  12. A rational approximation of the effectiveness factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedel, Stig; Luss, Dan

    1980-01-01

    A fast, approximate method of calculating the effectiveness factor for arbitrary rate expressions is presented. The method does not require any iterative or interpolative calculations. It utilizes the well known asymptotic behavior for small and large Thiele moduli to derive a rational function...

  13. Multiple Equilibria in Noisy Rational Expectations Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palvolgyi, Domotor; Venter, Gyuri

    This paper studies equilibrium uniqueness in standard noisy rational expectations economies with asymmetric or differential information a la Grossman and Stiglitz (1980) and Hellwig (1980). We show that the standard linear equilibrium of Grossman and Stiglitz (1980) is the unique equilibrium...

  14. Travel time variability and rational inattention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Jiang, Gege

    2017-01-01

    This paper sets up a rational inattention model for the choice of departure time for a traveler facing random travel time. The traveler chooses how much information to acquire about the travel time out-come before choosing departure time. This reduces the cost of travel time variability compared...

  15. Bounded Rationality in Individual Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this paper are: (i) To give a pithy, opinionated summary of what has been learned about bounded rationality in individual decision making from experiments in economics and psychology (drawing on my 1995 Handbook of Experimental Economics chapter); and (ii) mention some promising new directions for research which would be included if that chapter were written today.

  16. Rational points, rational curves, and entire holomorphic curves on projective varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Gasbarri, Carlo; Roth, Mike; Tschinkel, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains papers from the Short Thematic Program on Rational Points, Rational Curves, and Entire Holomorphic Curves and Algebraic Varieties, held from June 3-28, 2013, at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada. The program was dedicated to the study of subtle interconnections between geometric and arithmetic properties of higher-dimensional algebraic varieties. The main areas of the program were, among others, proving density of rational points in Zariski or analytic topology on special varieties, understanding global geometric properties of rationally connected varieties, as well as connections between geometry and algebraic dynamics exploring new geometric techniques in Diophantine approximation.

  17. Many faces of rationality: Implications of the great rationality debate for clinical decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Djulbegovic, B.; Elqayam, Shira

    2017-01-01

    open access article Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings fromThe Great Rationality Debate from t...

  18. Participatory Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    2016-01-01

    practice. In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human-made disasters has become one focal point for environmental knowledge production. This type of digital map has been highlighted as a processual turn in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism...... of a geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. InfoAmazonia is defined as a digitally created map-space within which journalistic practice can be seen as dynamic, performative interactions between journalists, ecosystems, space, and species...

  19. Spectral edge: gradient-preserving spectral mapping for image fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connah, David; Drew, Mark S; Finlayson, Graham D

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to image fusion for color display. Our goal is to generate an output image whose gradient matches that of the input as closely as possible. We achieve this using a constrained contrast mapping paradigm in the gradient domain, where the structure tensor of a high-dimensional gradient representation is mapped exactly to that of a low-dimensional gradient field which is then reintegrated to form an output. Constraints on output colors are provided by an initial RGB rendering. Initially, we motivate our solution with a simple "ansatz" (educated guess) for projecting higher-D contrast onto color gradients, which we expand to a more rigorous theorem to incorporate color constraints. The solution to these constrained optimizations is closed-form, allowing for simple and hence fast and efficient algorithms. The approach can map any N-D image data to any M-D output and can be used in a variety of applications using the same basic algorithm. In this paper, we focus on the problem of mapping N-D inputs to 3D color outputs. We present results in five applications: hyperspectral remote sensing, fusion of color and near-infrared or clear-filter images, multilighting imaging, dark flash, and color visualization of magnetic resonance imaging diffusion-tensor imaging.

  20. Cognitive distance, absorptive capacity and group rationality: a simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Lucian Curşeu

    Full Text Available We report the results of a simulation study in which we explore the joint effect of group absorptive capacity (as the average individual rationality of the group members and cognitive distance (as the distance between the most rational group member and the rest of the group on the emergence of collective rationality in groups. We start from empirical results reported in the literature on group rationality as collective group level competence and use data on real-life groups of four and five to validate a mathematical model. We then use this mathematical model to predict group level scores from a variety of possible group configurations (varying both in cognitive distance and average individual rationality. Our results show that both group competence and cognitive distance are necessary conditions for emergent group rationality. Group configurations, in which the groups become more rational than the most rational group member, are groups scoring low on cognitive distance and scoring high on absorptive capacity.

  1. Cognitive distance, absorptive capacity and group rationality: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curşeu, Petru Lucian; Krehel, Oleh; Evers, Joep H M; Muntean, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a simulation study in which we explore the joint effect of group absorptive capacity (as the average individual rationality of the group members) and cognitive distance (as the distance between the most rational group member and the rest of the group) on the emergence of collective rationality in groups. We start from empirical results reported in the literature on group rationality as collective group level competence and use data on real-life groups of four and five to validate a mathematical model. We then use this mathematical model to predict group level scores from a variety of possible group configurations (varying both in cognitive distance and average individual rationality). Our results show that both group competence and cognitive distance are necessary conditions for emergent group rationality. Group configurations, in which the groups become more rational than the most rational group member, are groups scoring low on cognitive distance and scoring high on absorptive capacity.

  2. Lying for the Greater Good: Bounded Rationality in a Team

    OpenAIRE

    Oktay Sürücü

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the interaction between fully and boundedly rational agents in situations where their interests are perfectly aligned. The cognitive limitations of the boundedly rational agent do not allow him to fully understand the market conditions and lead him to take non-optimal decisions in some situations. Using categorization to model bounded rationality, we show that the fully rational agent can nudge, i.e., he can manipulate the information he sends and decrease the exp...

  3. Thinking about acting logical foundations for rational decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Pollock, John L

    2006-01-01

    John Pollock aims to construct a theory of rational decision making for real agents--not ideal agents. Real agents have limited cognitive powers, but traditional theories of rationality have applied only to idealized agents that lack such constraints. Pollock argues that theories of ideal rationality are largely irrelevant to the decision making of real agents. Thinking about Acting aims to provide a theory of ""real rationality.""

  4. The anchoring bias reflects rational use of cognitive resources

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Noah; Huys, Quentin; Griffiths, Tom; Lieder, Falk

    2017-01-01

    © 2017, Psychonomic Society, Inc. Cognitive biases, such as the anchoring bias, pose a serious challenge to rational accounts of human cognition. We investigate whether rational theories can meet this challenge by taking into account the mind’s bounded cognitive resources. We asked what reasoning under uncertainty would look like if people made rational use of their finite time and limited cognitive resources. To answer this question, we applied a mathematical theory of bounded rationality to...

  5. Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  6. Rational Thinking and Reasonable Thinking in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaeva E. A.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle's principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.

  7. Rationally Irrational: The Case of Sexual Burglary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedneault, Amelie; Beauregard, Eric; Harris, Danielle A; Knight, Raymond A

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated rationality in sexually motivated burglaries. Specifically, we analyzed the situational cues identified by sexual burglars in their target selection. The research project investigated 224 individual incidents of residential burglary with apparent sexual motivations. Situational characteristics of the incidents were recorded and analyzed using forward sequential regressions. Results indicated that most sexually motivated burglaries occurred in occupied residences with deficient physical guardianship, when the victim was alone. Violence, theft, penetration, and fetishism were found to be committed in circumstances that increased the benefits and lowered the risks. Results showed that sexual burglary is rational in nature-sexual burglars chose residences that were easy to break into. We found little support for the premise that such opportunities arose while carrying out regular burglaries. Instead, the data indicated that sexual burglars acted opportunistically on situational cues that are markedly dissimilar to those of regular burglars. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Rationalism and Future Political Islam in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurus Shalihin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the Muslim rationality in legislative and executive election, and also to understand the reason why they choose national party, or Islamic party based on the alkali data of legislative and executive election in West Sumatera from 2004-2009 periods. The paradigm of research is a rational choice theory. This paradigm helps to understand the political behavior of Muslim in West Sumatera in legislative and executive election of 2004-2009 period. Finally, the research finds out that Muslim in West Sumatera always make a political choice rationale, and ignore the primordial consideration to choose the party. This fact is crucial factor why the Islamic party was lost in West Sumatera, and other places in Indonesia.

  9. On the rationality of Manx crabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Ahlbom

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper accepts the challenge posed by Godfrey Baldacchino in “Islands and despots”, published in Commonwealth & Comparative Politics in February 2012, to acknowledge and investigate the implications of the “expressions of harmony and solidarity” often observed in small island societies. To do so, aspects of the Isle of Man’s political and social life are discussed from the perspectives of popular rule and rationality. This paper argues that a homogeneity in preferences and the political practices of small island states might be a rational way of protecting a vulnerable economy and thus ensuring economic growth and a sufficient allocation to each island resident of the scarce resources required to survive. Such small island homogeneity and consensualism is therefore not necessarily indicating a deficient democratic practice, but might just connote another way of conducting democratic governance, spawned from a particular way of living and a particular range of needs

  10. . MODERN EDUCATION: FROM RATIONALITY TO REASONABLENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Anisimov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of modern education development and criticizes a pragmatic attitude to education. Based on the retrospective historical analysis, the author maintains that educational systems are generally focused on fostering the pragmatic intellect rather than reasoning, which leads to a superficial world perception, and undermines personal analytical potential and capability of strategic problem solving. Concentration on rationality is unlikely to provide a way out of the world crisis. In the author’s view, education demands both the deep and solid comprehension of existential concepts and the reference to the “absolute spirit” of Confucius, Plato, Kant and Hegel. The research is aimed at justifying the civilizational paradigm of education on the basis of Hegelian fundamental ideas of intellectual perception with the emphasis on reasonability instead of rationality. As the most adequate implementation instrument, the author suggests a game simulating technique that combines the benefits of philosophical, scientific and methodological thinking.

  11. Moral Credentialing and the Rationalization of Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan P.; Tamborski, Michael; Wang, Xiaoqian; Barnes, Collin D.; Mumford, Michael D.; Connelly, Shane; Devenport, Lynn D.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies lead to the paradoxical conclusion that the act of affirming one’s egalitarian or pro-social values and virtues might subsequently facilitate prejudiced or self-serving behavior, an effect previously referred to as “moral credentialing.” The present study extends this paradox to the domain of academic misconduct and investigates the hypothesis that such an effect might be limited by the extent to which misbehavior is rationalizable. Using a paradigm designed to investigate deliberative and rationalized forms of cheating (von Hippel, Lakin, & Shakarchi, 2005), we found that when participants had credentialed themselves (versus a non-close acquaintance) via a set of hypothetical moral dilemmas, they were more likely to cheat on a subsequent math task, but only if cheating was highly rationalizable. When cheating was difficult to rationalize, moral credentialing had almost no impact on cheating. PMID:21503267

  12. Is facet analysis based on rationalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2014-01-01

    In several writings I have claimed that the basis of knowledge organisation (KO) must be found in subject knowledge, and that researchers and practitioners in KO must achieve knowledge about the domains that they are organising. Domain knowledge is not neutral, but rather is based on competing...... epistemologies and worldviews, and the classifier is therefore participating in struggles related to worldviews. Different traditions, approaches and paradigms in knowledge organisation research (and practice) can best be understood as more or less associated with one of four epistemologies: empiricism......, rationalism, historicism/hermeneutics, or pragmatism/critical theory (of which only the last position fully acknowledges the non-neutrality of knowledge organisation). Ranganathan – and the whole facet-analytic school – has formerly been exemplified as a rather clear example of rationalism. Some have objected...

  13. Principles of ration formulation for ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    2002-01-01

    Feeding standards as practiced in developed countries could be misleading when non-conventional feed resources are used in formulating rations for ruminant livestock in developing countries. They tend to reject the poor quality feeds that are available in vast quantities. The non-availability of good quality forage throughout the year and the need to optimise the efficiency of utilisation of locally available feed resources have lead to the application of basic nutritional principles when considering ration formulation. The alternative approach to the use of feeding standards would be to ensure that the production system matches the available resources. The development of feed supplementation strategies based on locally available feed resources require the understanding of the relative roles and nutrient needs of the two-compartment system represented by the micro-organisms in the rumen and the host animal. (author)

  14. Rational noncompliance with prescribed medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Douglas O; DeMarco, Joseph P

    2010-09-01

    Despite the attention that patient noncompliance has received from medical researchers, patient noncompliance remains poorly understood and difficult to alter. With a better theory of patient noncompliance, both greater success in achieving compliance and greater respect for patient decision making are likely. The theory presented, which uses a microeconomic approach, bridges a gap in the extant literature that has so far ignored the contributions of this classic perspective on decision making involving the tradeoff of costs and benefits. The model also generates a surprising conclusion: that patients are typically acting rationally when they refuse to comply with certain treatments. However, compliance is predicted to rise with increased benefits and reduced costs. The prediction that noncompliance is rational is especially true in chronic conditions at the point that treatment begins to move closer to the medically ideal treatment level. Although the details of this theory have not been tested empirically, it is well supported by existing prospective and retrospective studies.

  15. Rational Thinking and Reasonable Thinking in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaeva E. A.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle’s principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.

  16. Rational solutions of the discrete time Toda lattice and the alternate discrete Painleve II equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Common, Alan K; Hone, Andrew N W

    2008-01-01

    The Yablonskii-Vorob'ev polynomials y n (t), which are defined by a second-order bilinear differential-difference equation, provide rational solutions of the Toda lattice. They are also polynomial tau-functions for the rational solutions of the second Painleve equation (P II ). Here we define two-variable polynomials Y n (t, h) on a lattice with spacing h, by considering rational solutions of the discrete time Toda lattice as introduced by Suris. These polynomials are shown to have many properties that are analogous to those of the Yablonskii-Vorob'ev polynomials, to which they reduce when h = 0. They also provide rational solutions for a particular discretization of P II , namely the so-called alternate discrete P II , and this connection leads to an expression in terms of the Umemura polynomials for the third Painleve equation (P III ). It is shown that the Baecklund transformation for the alternate discrete Painleve equation is a symplectic map, and the shift in time is also symplectic. Finally we present a Lax pair for the alternate discrete P II , which recovers Jimbo and Miwa's Lax pair for P II in the continuum limit h → 0

  17. Singularity theory and equivariant symplectic maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Thomas J

    1993-01-01

    The monograph is a study of the local bifurcations of multiparameter symplectic maps of arbitrary dimension in the neighborhood of a fixed point.The problem is reduced to a study of critical points of an equivariant gradient bifurcation problem, using the correspondence between orbits ofa symplectic map and critical points of an action functional. New results onsingularity theory for equivariant gradient bifurcation problems are obtained and then used to classify singularities of bifurcating period-q points. Of particular interest is that a general framework for analyzing group-theoretic aspects and singularities of symplectic maps (particularly period-q points) is presented. Topics include: bifurcations when the symplectic map has spatial symmetry and a theory for the collision of multipliers near rational points with and without spatial symmetry. The monograph also includes 11 self-contained appendices each with a basic result on symplectic maps. The monograph will appeal to researchers and graduate student...

  18. Normative and descriptive rationality: from nature to artifice and back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besold, T. R.; Uckelman, S. L.

    2018-03-01

    Rationality plays a key role in both the study of human reasoning and Artificial Intelligence (AI). Certain notions of rationality have been adopted in AI as guides for the development of intelligent machines and these notions have been given a normative function. The notions of rationality in AI are often taken to be closely related to conceptions of rationality in human contexts. In this paper, we argue that the normative role of rationality differs in the human and artificial contexts. While rationality in human-focused fields of study is normative, prescribing how humans ought to reason, the normative conception in AI is built on a notion of human rationality which is descriptive, not normative, in the human context, as AI aims at building agents which reason as humans do. In order to make this point, we review prominent notions of rationality used in psychology, cognitive science, and (the history of) philosophy, as well as in AI, and discuss some factors that contributed to rationality being assigned the differing normative statuses in the differing fields of study. We argue that while 'rationality' is a normative notion in both AI and in human reasoning, the normativity of the AI conception of 'rationality' is grounded in a descriptive account of human rationality.

  19. Design rationalization and the logic of design: a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1996-01-01

    various ‘sources of credibility’ of premises, items of general background knowledge, and several (abductive and deductive) patterns of inference which suggest a possible ‘logic of design’. Rationalization of decisions is defined, and many decisions are found not to be fully rationalized, despite...... the apparent rationality of the reasoning....

  20. Rationalization and the Role of the School Counselor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Arthur J.

    1995-01-01

    Examines rationalization in counselors' interactions with students, parents, and teachers--provides examples of each kind of interaction. Describes the dynamics of rationalization in the schools and outlines interventions that may be used with students, parents, and teachers. Also explores counselors' use of rationalization and gives examples of…

  1. Anxiety reduction through group instruction in rational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, J W; Wilkerson, J

    1982-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of group Rational Therapy in promoting rational thinking and self-enhancing emotions among 24 college students. Each subject was administered the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire as a pre- and post-test measurement. Results reveal that some aspects of personality are affected by Rational Therapy group programs while others are not.

  2. Should informed consent be based on rational beliefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, J; Momeyer, R W

    1997-10-01

    Our aim is to expand the regulative ideal governing consent. We argue that consent should not only be informed but also based on rational beliefs. We argue that holding true beliefs promotes autonomy. Information is important insofar as it helps a person to hold the relevant true beliefs. But in order to hold the relevant true beliefs, competent people must also think rationally. Insofar as information is important, rational deliberation is important. Just as physicians should aim to provide relevant information regarding the medical procedures prior to patients consenting to have those procedures, they should also assist patients to think more rationally. We distinguish between rational choice/action and rational belief. While autonomous choice need not necessarily be rational, it should be based on rational belief. The implication for the doctrine of informed consent and the practice of medicine is that, if physicians are to respect patient autonomy and help patients to choose and act more rationally, not only must they provide information, but they should care more about the theoretical rationality of their patients. They should not abandon their patients to irrationality. They should help their patients to deliberate more effectively and to care more about thinking rationally. We illustrate these arguments in the context of Jehovah's Witnesses refusing life-saving blood transfusions. Insofar as Jehovah's Witnesses should be informed of the consequences of their actions, they should also deliberate rationally about these consequences.

  3. Cognitive Rationality and Its Logic-Mathematical Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalova, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the cognitive (flexible) rationality, combining rational and irrational moments of the scientific search of the cognizing subject. Linguo-cognitive model of the concept as the flexible regulative rationality reveals the activity of the cognitive processes and the mentality of the epistemological-ontic subject, its leading…

  4. Coping More Effectively Through Rational Self-Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, George W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Rational Self-Counseling, a variation of rational-emotive therapy, is a self-help therapeutic technique in which students are encouraged to be responsible for their own behavior and emotions. The primary function of self-counseling is to evaluate whether thoughts are rational. A list of questions which students might ask themselves is presented.…

  5. From ancient Greek Logos to European rationality

    OpenAIRE

    APOSTOLOPOULOU GEORGIA

    2016-01-01

    Because of history, culture, and politics, European identity has its archetypical elements in ancient Greek culture. Ancient Greek philosophy brought Logos to fore and defined it as the crucial problem and the postulate of the human. We translate the Greek term Logos in English as reason or rationality. These terms, however, do not cover the semantic field of Logos since this includes, among other things, order of being, ground, language, argument etc. The juxtaposition of Logos (reason) to m...

  6. Rationality and Emotions in Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Markic

    2009-01-01

    Decision making is traditionally viewed as a rational process where reason calculates the best way to achieve the goal. Investigations from different areas of cognitive science have shown that human decisions and actions are much more influenced by intuition and emotional responses then it was previously thought. In this paper I examine the role of emotion in decision making, particularly Damasio’s hypothesis of somatic markers and Green’s dual process theory of moral judgment. I conclude the...

  7. [What did bachelard mean by "applied rationalism" ?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiles, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Bachelard was concerned with the processes whereby scientific knowledge is acquired, including the activity of knowing subjects. He did not equate reasoning with logic but rather argued that reasoning resulted from the use of mathematics in organizing both thought and experimental practices, which is why he conceived science as applied mathematics. This had material and technical implications, for Bachelard was concerned with the element of reason inherent in technical materialism as well as the concrete reality inherent in applied rationalism.

  8. Design of 2-D rational digital filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B

    1981-01-01

    A novel 2-D rational filter design technique is presented which makes use of a reflection coefficient function (RCF) representation for the filter transfer function. The design problem is formulated in the frequency domain. A least-square error criterion is used though the usual error measure is augmented with barrier functions. These act to restrict the domain of approximation to the set of stable filters. Construction of suitable barrier functions is facilitated by the RCF characterization

  9. A new construction of rational electromagnetic knots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Zhilin, Gleb

    2018-06-01

    We set up a correspondence between solutions of the Yang-Mills equations on R ×S3 and in Minkowski spacetime via de Sitter space. Some known Abelian and non-Abelian exact solutions are rederived. For the Maxwell case we present a straightforward algorithm to generate an infinite number of explicit solutions, with fields and potentials in Minkowski coordinates given by rational functions of increasing complexity. We illustrate our method with a nontrivial example.

  10. Strategic Capacity Rationing to Induce Early Purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Liu; Garrett J. van Ryzin

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic pricing offers the potential to increase revenues. At the same time, it creates an incentive for customers to strategize over the timing of their purchases. A firm should ideally account for this behavior when making its pricing and stocking decisions. In particular, we investigate whether it is optimal for a firm to create rationing risk by deliberately understocking products. Then, the resulting threat of shortages creates an incentive for customers to purchase early at higher price...

  11. Rational vs emotional content in mobile advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Mas Manchón, Lluis

    2014-01-01

    Advertising tries to find its place in the new consumer-centered paradigm for media communication. Consumers no longer are a uniform group, passive and powerless. Mobile technology has set some specific conditions that determine this particular sender-receiver relationship. In this context, there is a need for evidence about the effectiveness of traditional advertising strategies in this rather new channel. This study explores the relationship between the relevance of rational or emotional ...

  12. Social Networks: Rational Learning and Information Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    predecessor, Gale and Kariv (2003) who generalize the payoff equalization result of Bala and Goyal (1998) in connected social networks (discussed below...requires more notation. Using Bayes’ Rule and the assumption of equal priors on the state θ, we have that the social belief given by observing... Social Networks: Rational Learning and Information Aggregation by Ilan Lobel B.Sc., Pontif́ıcia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (2004

  13. On A System of Rational Difference Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Din Qamar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study local asymptotic stability, global character and periodic nature of solutions of the system of rational difference equations given by xn+1= , yn=, n=0, 1,…, where the parameters a; b; c; d; e; f ∊ (0; ∞, and with initial conditions x0; y0 ∊ (0; ∞. Some numerical examples are given to illustrate our results.

  14. Cognitive characteristics affecting rational decision making style

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Decision making is one of the most important and frequent tasks among managers and employees in an organization. Knowledge about more stable cognitive characteristics underlying decision making styles has been requested. This study aimed to examine the relationship between rational decision making style, cognitive style, self efficacy and locus of control. Possible interaction effects in relation to gender were also analyzed. 186 employees at the Ministry of Defence were surveyed...

  15. Price Changes, Resource Adjustments and Rational Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    This study investigates the relationship between the accuracy of managerial demand expectations, resource adjustment decisions and selling price changes. In line with rational expectation theory, it is argued that managers adjust resources and selling prices differently in response to expected...... that cost elasticity is higher when a demand decrease is expected among companies with similar exposure to demand uncertainty. Overall, this implies that managerial competences in predicting future demand significantly determines firms’ profitability; especially when demand uncertainty is high...

  16. A transformed rational function method and exact solutions to the 3+1 dimensional Jimbo-Miwa equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Wenxiu; Lee, J.-H.

    2009-01-01

    A direct approach to exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations is proposed, by using rational function transformations. The new method provides a more systematical and convenient handling of the solution process of nonlinear equations, unifying the tanh-function type methods, the homogeneous balance method, the exp-function method, the mapping method, and the F-expansion type methods. Its key point is to search for rational solutions to variable-coefficient ordinary differential equations transformed from given partial differential equations. As an application, the construction problem of exact solutions to the 3+1 dimensional Jimbo-Miwa equation is treated, together with a Baecklund transformation.

  17. Rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Renyuan

    2015-08-26

    The ever-increasing human demand for safe and clean water is gradually pushing conventional water treatment technologies to their limits and it is now a popular perception that the solutions to the existing and future water challenges will highly hinge upon the further development of nanomaterial sciences. The concept of rational design emphasizes ‘design-for-purpose’ and it necessitates a scientifically clear problem definition to initiate the nanomaterial design. The field of rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment has experienced a significant growth in the past decade and is poised to make its contribution in creating advanced next-generation water treatment technologies in the years to come. Within the water treatment context, this review offers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of the latest progress of the rational design, synthesis and applications of nanomaterials in adsorption, chemical oxidation and reduction reactions, membrane-based separation, oil/water separation, and synergistic multifunctional all-in-one nanomaterials/nanodevices. Special attention is paid on chemical concepts of the nanomaterial designs throughout the review.

  18. Rational quantitative safety goals: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unwin, S.D.; Hayns, M.R.

    1984-08-01

    We introduce the notion of a Rational Quantitative Safety Goal. Such a goal reflects the imprecision and vagueness inherent in any reasonable notion of adequate safety and permits such vagueness to be incorporated into the formal regulatory decision-making process. A quantitative goal of the form, the parameter x, characterizing the safety level of the nuclear plant, shall not exceed the value x 0 , for example, is of a non-rational nature in that it invokes a strict binary logic in which the parameter space underlying x is cut sharply into two portions: that containing those values of x that comply with the goal and that containing those that do not. Here, we utilize an alternative form of logic which, in accordance with any intuitively reasonable notion of safety, permits a smooth transition of a safety determining parameter between the adequately safe and inadequately safe domains. Fuzzy set theory provides a suitable mathematical basis for the formulation of rational quantitative safety goals. The decision-making process proposed here is compatible with current risk assessment techniques and produces results in a transparent and useful format. Our methodology is illustrated with reference to the NUS Corporation risk assessment of the Limerick Generating Station

  19. Regret and the rationality of choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois-Gironde, Sacha

    2010-01-27

    Regret helps to optimize decision behaviour. It can be defined as a rational emotion. Several recent neurobiological studies have confirmed the interface between emotion and cognition at which regret is located and documented its role in decision behaviour. These data give credibility to the incorporation of regret in decision theory that had been proposed by economists in the 1980s. However, finer distinctions are required in order to get a better grasp of how regret and behaviour influence each other. Regret can be defined as a predictive error signal but this signal does not necessarily transpose into a decision-weight influencing behaviour. Clinical studies on several types of patients show that the processing of an error signal and its influence on subsequent behaviour can be dissociated. We propose a general understanding of how regret and decision-making are connected in terms of regret being modulated by rational antecedents of choice. Regret and the modification of behaviour on its basis will depend on the criteria of rationality involved in decision-making. We indicate current and prospective lines of research in order to refine our views on how regret contributes to optimal decision-making.

  20. F-theory and all things rational: surveying U(1) symmetries with rational sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, Craig; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura; Wong, Jin-Mann

    2015-01-01

    We study elliptic fibrations for F-theory compactifications realizing 4d and 6d supersymmetric gauge theories with abelian gauge factors. In the fibration these U(1) symmetries are realized in terms of additional rational section. We obtain a universal characterization of all the possible U(1) charges of matter fields by determining the corresponding codimension two fibers with rational sections. In view of modelling supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories, one of the main examples that we analyze are U(1) symmetries for SU(5) gauge theories with 5̄ and 10 matter. We use a combination of constraints on the normal bundle of rational curves in Calabi-Yau three- and four-folds, as well as the splitting of rational curves in the fibers in codimension two, to determine the possible configurations of smooth rational sections. This analysis straightforwardly generalizes to multiple U(1)s. We study the flops of such fibers, as well as some of the Yukawa couplings in codimension three. Furthermore, we carry out a universal study of the U(1)-charged GUT singlets, including their KK-charges, and determine all realizations of singlet fibers. By giving vacuum expectation values to these singlets, we propose a systematic way to analyze the Higgsing of U(1)s to discrete gauge symmetries in F-theory.

  1. "Leaky" Rationality: How Research on Behavioral Decision Making Challenges Normative Standards of Rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Daniel J; Schwartz, Barry

    2007-06-01

    For more than 30 years, decision-making research has documented that people often violate various principles of rationality, some of which are so fundamental that theorists of rationality rarely bother to state them. We take these characteristics of decision making as a given but argue that it is problematic to conclude that they typically represent departures from rationality. The very psychological processes that lead to "irrational" decisions (e.g., framing, mental accounting) continue to exert their influence when one experiences the results of the decisions. That is, psychological processes that affect decisions may be said also to "leak" into one's experience. The implication is that formal principles of rationality do not provide a good enough normative standard against which to assess decision making. Instead, what is needed is a substantive theory of rationality-one that takes subjective experience seriously, considers both direct and indirect consequences of particular decisions, considers how particular decisions fit into life as a whole, and considers the effects of decisions on others. Formal principles may play a role as approximations of the substantive theory that can be used by theorists and decision makers in cases in which the formal principles can capture most of the relevant considerations and leakage into experience is negligible. © 2007 Association for Psychological Science.

  2. Technique on rationalization of using electricity and cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This book deals with rationalization of using electric and cases. It is divided into four parts. The first part introduces necessity and of progression rationalization of using electric. The second part describes the technique on rationalization of using electric with management of electric energy. The third part depicts domestic cases of rationalization on using of electric such as substation and motor. The last part also introduces foreign cases of rationalization on using of electric with measure of generator circuit, design of motor, design of lighting and design of other equipment.

  3. Mapping racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Donald B

    2006-01-01

    The author uses the metaphor of mapping to illuminate a structural feature of racist thought, locating the degraded object along vertical and horizontal axes. These axes establish coordinates of hierarchy and of distance. With the coordinates in place, racist thought begins to seem grounded in natural processes. The other's identity becomes consolidated, and parochialism results. The use of this kind of mapping is illustrated via two patient vignettes. The author presents Freud's (1905, 1927) views in relation to such a "mapping" process, as well as Adorno's (1951) and Baldwin's (1965). Finally, the author conceptualizes the crucial status of primitivity in the workings of racist thought.

  4. Research on Bounded Rationality of Fuzzy Choice Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlin Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rationality of a fuzzy choice function is a hot research topic in the study of fuzzy choice functions. In this paper, two common fuzzy sets are studied and analyzed in the framework of the Banerjee choice function. The complete rationality and bounded rationality of fuzzy choice functions are defined based on the two fuzzy sets. An assumption is presented to study the fuzzy choice function, and especially the fuzzy choice function with bounded rationality is studied combined with some rationality conditions. Results show that the fuzzy choice function with bounded rationality also satisfies some important rationality conditions, but not vice versa. The research gives supplements to the investigation in the framework of the Banerjee choice function.

  5. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... greatly advanced genetics research. The improved quality of genetic data has reduced the time required to identify a ... cases, a matter of months or even weeks. Genetic mapping data generated by the HGP's laboratories is freely accessible ...

  6. [The impact of ethical and moral competence in decision making on rationalism and rationing nursing interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdt, R

    2005-08-01

    The intraprofessional discourse about economical aspects in nursing from an ethical point of view has not taken place yet. To cope with the increasing restriction of resources, some preconditions have to be met: It is necessary to communicate issues in rationalizing and rationing in nursing openly. Person-oriented criteria in the nursing process indicate a high level of competence and user-oriented quality in nursing care. But nursing professionals do not decide in favor or against resources to perform this task on a high or poor quality level. Democratic decision-making on providing nursing services depends on a continuous societal discourse about allocation criteria.

  7. Strategy of Rational Use of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    In the decade of the eighty, especially in order to this decade and so far, the Rational Use of Energy have not constituted a high-priority option and of present time for Colombia. The last politicians were guided, to favor the energy consumption with low prices of the coal, of the electricity, of those derived of the petroleum, growing subsidy to the gasoline and transfer of the productive sector toward the social one. In the recovery of the electric sector, it is contributed alternatives to improve the quality of the service of the electric industries where measured technical and investments in the industrial, commercial sectors and public would allow to reduce short term the consumptions for 5 to 10%, without reducing the production levels or of service. In the construction sector , the efficient designs of buildings could avoid a growth too much express of the energy consumption. The rational use of energy and the handling of the electric demand, should be one of the tools bigger than the State and of the electric industry, as the technical measures of reduction of losses, to respond to the financial crisis of the energy public sector, while the private sector acquires capacity of enough investment. The Colombians companies, experience the necessity to improve their energy efficiency, like one of the important areas of reduction of their costs and of increase of their competitiveness, in front of other countries, especially Latin-American. As consequence of the economic opening, the companies should modernize their processes and administration methods, what means a reduction in the energy consumptions. The reduction of the polluting, specially atmospheric emissions (industries, vehicles), as well as to elimination of having undone dangerous and industrial residuals, it is a priority in Colombia all improvement of the energy efficiency, particularly in the industries, it is accompanied of a proportional reduction of polluting emissions. Then a politics of

  8. The latent rationality of risky decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Japp, K.P. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Faculty for Sociology

    1999-12-01

    The general question of rationality has changed from the old-fashioned difference of means and ends to the modern difference of system and environment. Organizations as social systems producing and reproducing decisions translate this difference into the difference of stability and variety. The question then is: In which way can the difference between stability and variety express rationality? - In the temporal dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'present futures' or 'future presences'. These expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicated by open futures, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. projected futures from the background of a known past. - In the material dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'stable flexibility' or 'flexible stability'. Again, these expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicted by open flexibilities, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. flexibility and stability after learning the respective costs of the single options. In the social dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'pragmatic dissent' or 'controversial pragmatism'. Again, these expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicated by open dissent or controversies, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. pragmatic agreements and irresolvable dissent. Again, all three asymmetries represent re-entries. The built-in preferences simply do not work without the subtleties of re-entries, at least when these processes are described by sociologically informed observers. Who else should know that he or she is operating on the basis of something called re-entries? In everyday life communication, no one sees a thing like that since every observation has an in-built bias for one side of a distinction

  9. Pattern of the rational worker incentive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopytova A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a model of rational incentive system with the structure consisting of three blocks. The first block (financial incentives provides monetary compensation to a worker. The second block (stimulating by comfortable living conditions is aimed to regulate the quality of a worker’s life in and outside the place he works. The third block (non-financial incentives takes into account cultural and social worker’s needs. The proposed structure of incentive system provides the most comprehensive coverage to the employee’s needs and organizes them in the way accessible both for specialists of labor economics and human resource management and for ordinary workers.

  10. Ananyeva Rational antibiotic use in rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sergeyevich Belov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To control infections and infectious complications is one of the most urgent challenges in medicine under present-day conditions. At the same time, rational therapy with anti-infective drugs occupies a highly importance place. In rheumatology, the necessity of using antibiotics is associated with at least two factors, such as eradication of a pathogen trigger (an infectious agent that triggers the immunopathological mechanisms of inflammation and treatment of comorbid infection. The paper gives information on etiological agents and detailed antimicrobial therapy regimens for the major infections observed in modern rheumatology.

  11. Ananyeva Rational antibiotic use in rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sergeyevich Belov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To control infections and infectious complications is one of the most urgent challenges in medicine under present-day conditions. At the same time, rational therapy with anti-infective drugs occupies a highly importance place. In rheumatology, the necessity of using antibiotics is associated with at least two factors, such as eradication of a pathogen trigger (an infectious agent that triggers the immunopathological mechanisms of inflammation and treatment of comorbid infection. The paper gives information on etiological agents and detailed antimicrobial therapy regimens for the major infections observed in modern rheumatology.

  12. Rational interpretation of the postulates in plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohua Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly focussed on revisited of the two well-known postulates of plasticity, i.e., the Drucker and the Il’iushin postulate, and it describes their rational interpretation within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics and using exterior calculus. It shows that the Il’iushin and the Drucker postulate is the integral form and local form of the irreversible thermodynamics of plastic deformation, respectively. The Drucker and Il’iushin postulate is equivalent for both soft and hardening materials.

  13. The latent rationality of risky decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japp, K.P.

    1999-01-01

    The general question of rationality has changed from the old-fashioned difference of means and ends to the modern difference of system and environment. Organizations as social systems producing and reproducing decisions translate this difference into the difference of stability and variety. The question then is: In which way can the difference between stability and variety express rationality? - In the temporal dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'present futures' or 'future presences'. These expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicated by open futures, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. projected futures from the background of a known past. - In the material dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'stable flexibility' or 'flexible stability'. Again, these expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicted by open flexibilities, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. flexibility and stability after learning the respective costs of the single options. In the social dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'pragmatic dissent' or 'controversial pragmatism'. Again, these expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicated by open dissent or controversies, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. pragmatic agreements and irresolvable dissent. Again, all three asymmetries represent re-entries. The built-in preferences simply do not work without the subtleties of re-entries, at least when these processes are described by sociologically informed observers. Who else should know that he or she is operating on the basis of something called re-entries? In everyday life communication, no one sees a thing like that since every observation has an in-built bias for one side of a distinction. So rationality will stay latent as the operation of re

  14. Slow relaxation in weakly open rational polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokshenev, Valery B; Vicentini, Eduardo

    2003-07-01

    The interplay between the regular (piecewise-linear) and irregular (vertex-angle) boundary effects in nonintegrable rational polygonal billiards (of m equal sides) is discussed. Decay dynamics in polygons (of perimeter P(m) and small opening Delta) is analyzed through the late-time survival probability S(m) approximately equal t(-delta). Two distinct slow relaxation channels are established. The primary universal channel exhibits relaxation of regular sliding orbits, with delta=1. The secondary channel is given by delta>1 and becomes open when m>P(m)/Delta. It originates from vertex order-disorder dual effects and is due to relaxation of chaoticlike excitations.

  15. Statistical Method to Overcome Overfitting Issue in Rational Function Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Moghaddam, S. H.; Mokhtarzade, M.; Alizadeh Naeini, A.; Alizadeh Moghaddam, S. A.

    2017-09-01

    Rational function models (RFMs) are known as one of the most appealing models which are extensively applied in geometric correction of satellite images and map production. Overfitting is a common issue, in the case of terrain dependent RFMs, that degrades the accuracy of RFMs-derived geospatial products. This issue, resulting from the high number of RFMs' parameters, leads to ill-posedness of the RFMs. To tackle this problem, in this study, a fast and robust statistical approach is proposed and compared to Tikhonov regularization (TR) method, as a frequently-used solution to RFMs' overfitting. In the proposed method, a statistical test, namely, significance test is applied to search for the RFMs' parameters that are resistant against overfitting issue. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated for two real data sets of Cartosat-1 satellite images. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method in term of the achievable level of accuracy. This technique, indeed, shows an improvement of 50-80% over the TR.

  16. Portfolio selection between rational and behavioral theories emergent markets case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouri Abdelfatteh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the determinants of Portfolio Choice under the investors, professionals and academics’ perception. We introduce an approach based on cognitive mapping technique with a series of semi-directive interviews. Among a sample of 30 Tunisian individuals, we propose tow different frameworks: a mean-variance framework and a behavioral framework. Each framework is oriented to capture the effect of some concepts as proposed by the mean-variance portfolio theory and the behavioral portfolio theory on the portfolio choice decision. The originality of this research paper is guaranteed since it traits the behavioral portfolio choice in emergent markets. In the best of our knowledge this is the first study in the Tunisian context that explores such area of research. Ours results show that the Tunisian investors behave as it prescribed by the behavioral portfolio theory. They use some concepts proposed by the rational mean-variance theory of portfolio choice but they are affected by their emotions and some others cognitive bias when constructing and managing they portfolio of assets.

  17. The Rationalization of Automatic Units for HPDC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with problem of optimal used automatic workplace for HPDC technology - mainly from aspects of operations sequence, efficiency of work cycle and planning of using and servicing of HPDC casting machine. Presented are possible ways to analyse automatic units for HPDC. The experimental part was focused on the rationalization of the current work cycle time for die casting of aluminium alloy. The working place was described in detail in the project. The measurements were carried out in detail with the help of charts and graphs mapped cycle of casting workplace. Other parameters and settings have been identified.The proposals for improvements were made after the first measurements and these improvements were subsequently verified. The main actions were mainly software modifications of casting center. It is for the reason that today's sophisticated workplaces have the option of a relatively wide range of modifications without any physical harm to machines themselves. It is possible to change settings or unlock some unsatisfactory parameters.

  18. Effects of Rational-Emotive Therapy, Rational Role Reversal, and Rational-Emotive Imagery on the Emotional Adjustment of Community Mental Health Center Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Marc J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results showed that rational-emotive therapy (RET), with the addition of rational role reversal, produced significantly better results than did relaxation training and support or no contact. This was the first study to demonstrate the efficacy of RET with multisymptomatic applicants to a community mental health center. (Author/BEF)

  19. Decision rules and group rationality: cognitive gain or standstill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curşeu, Petru Lucian; Jansen, Rob J G; Chappin, Maryse M H

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in group cognition points towards the existence of collective cognitive competencies that transcend individual group members' cognitive competencies. Since rationality is a key cognitive competence for group decision making, and group cognition emerges from the coordination of individual cognition during social interactions, this study tests the extent to which collaborative and consultative decision rules impact the emergence of group rationality. Using a set of decision tasks adapted from the heuristics and biases literature, we evaluate rationality as the extent to which individual choices are aligned with a normative ideal. We further operationalize group rationality as cognitive synergy (the extent to which collective rationality exceeds average or best individual rationality in the group), and we test the effect of collaborative and consultative decision rules in a sample of 176 groups. Our results show that the collaborative decision rule has superior synergic effects as compared to the consultative decision rule. The ninety one groups working in a collaborative fashion made more rational choices (above and beyond the average rationality of their members) than the eighty five groups working in a consultative fashion. Moreover, the groups using a collaborative decision rule were closer to the rationality of their best member than groups using consultative decision rules. Nevertheless, on average groups did not outperformed their best member. Therefore, our results reveal how decision rules prescribing interpersonal interactions impact on the emergence of collective cognitive competencies. They also open potential venues for further research on the emergence of collective rationality in human decision-making groups.

  20. Decision rules and group rationality: cognitive gain or standstill?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Lucian Curşeu

    Full Text Available Recent research in group cognition points towards the existence of collective cognitive competencies that transcend individual group members' cognitive competencies. Since rationality is a key cognitive competence for group decision making, and group cognition emerges from the coordination of individual cognition during social interactions, this study tests the extent to which collaborative and consultative decision rules impact the emergence of group rationality. Using a set of decision tasks adapted from the heuristics and biases literature, we evaluate rationality as the extent to which individual choices are aligned with a normative ideal. We further operationalize group rationality as cognitive synergy (the extent to which collective rationality exceeds average or best individual rationality in the group, and we test the effect of collaborative and consultative decision rules in a sample of 176 groups. Our results show that the collaborative decision rule has superior synergic effects as compared to the consultative decision rule. The ninety one groups working in a collaborative fashion made more rational choices (above and beyond the average rationality of their members than the eighty five groups working in a consultative fashion. Moreover, the groups using a collaborative decision rule were closer to the rationality of their best member than groups using consultative decision rules. Nevertheless, on average groups did not outperformed their best member. Therefore, our results reveal how decision rules prescribing interpersonal interactions impact on the emergence of collective cognitive competencies. They also open potential venues for further research on the emergence of collective rationality in human decision-making groups.

  1. Lying for the Greater Good: Bounded Rationality in a Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Sürücü

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the interaction between fully and boundedly rational agents in situations where their interests are perfectly aligned. The cognitive limitations of the boundedly rational agent do not allow him to fully understand the market conditions and lead him to take non-optimal decisions in some situations. Using categorization to model bounded rationality, we show that the fully rational agent can nudge, i.e., he can manipulate the information he sends and decrease the expected loss caused by the boundedly rational agent. Assuming different types for the boundedly rational agent, who differ only in the categories used, we show that the fully rational agent may learn the type of the boundedly rational agent along their interaction. Using this additional information, the outcome can be improved and the amount of manipulated information can be decreased. Furthermore, as the length of the interaction increases the probability that the fully rational agent learns the type of the boundedly rational agent grows

  2. WHO and rational reduction of patient dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.

    1995-01-01

    WHO activities aimed at reducing patient dose, while maintaining satisfactory image quality, include rational use of diagnostic imaging, effective choices for examination, equipment design and specification, quality assurance, and guidance for regulatory authorities and radiological personnel. To assist its Member States in developing a rational policy concerning imaging services WHO provides guidance through publications, its network of Collaborating Centres, and its expert advisers. Because approximately 2/3 of the world's population lacked diagnostic imaging services, early in the 1960s WHO became concerned with basic radiology. After several unsuccessful approaches WHO concentrated on development of the Basic Radiological System (WHO-BRS). Following a workshop held in Neuherberg, Germany, a guide for Quality Assurance in Diagnostic Radiology was published by WHO in 1982. A similar guide for Quality Assurance in Nuclear Medicine was also published in 1982. In collaboration with other international organisations WHO is preparing revised editions of both the Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection, and the five-volume Manual on Radiation Protection in Hospitals and General Practice. Regarding future needs, within any health care system there is a spectrum of imaging requirements ranging from the most essential to the most complex. Issues to be resolved involve the clinical decision-making process through which diagnostic imaging examinations are produced and the optimum mixture of imaging modalities. (Author)

  3. Rational Choice Theory and Addiction Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Krstić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the construct of student satisfaction and analyze its relationship with student loyalty in the context of state and private universities. The rational choice theory assumes that, when deciding whether to consume some goods or not, consumers use analysis in order to estimate the values of individual preference indicators. From this point of view, there are risk and time preferences. The former show aversion to a risk and are expressed through the risk aversion coefficient, while the latter measure the degree of preference for present satisfaction in relation to the same satisfaction in the future. The degree of preference for present satisfaction regarding the same satisfaction in the future is expressed by the time preference rate. Smokers with a low time preference rate and high risk aversion coefficient level can be expected to be successful in cessation. The aim of this paper is to study smokers from the perspective of rational choice theory, in order to detect factors influencing their behavior. The study (investigation found that the significant factors for smokers’ behavior are: gender, age, education, risk aversion coefficient, and the time preference rate. Analysis of smokers’ behavior, with appropriate limits and qualifications, is a well-developed and highly effective tool for exploring and interpreting reality.

  4. Liberal rationalism and medical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, Julian

    1997-04-01

    I contrast Robert Veatch's recent liberal vision of medical decision-making with a more rationalist liberal model. According to Veatch, physicians are biased in their determination of what is in their patient's overall interests in favour of their medical interests. Because of the extent of this bias, we should abandon the practice of physicians offering what they guess to be the best treatment option. Patients should buddy up with physicians who share the same values -- 'deep value pairing'. The goal of choice is maximal promotion of patient values. I argue that if subjectivism about value and valuing is true, this move is plausible. However, if objectivism about value is true -- that there really are states which are good for people regardless of whether they desire to be in them -- then we should accept a more rationalist liberal alternative. According to this alternative, what is required to decide which course is best is rational dialogue between physicians and patients, both about the patient's circumstances and her values, and not the seeking out of people, physicians or others, who share the same values. Rational discussion requires that physicians be reasonable and empathic. I describe one possible account of a reasonable physician.

  5. Probabilistic approach to rationalization of plants maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Masao; Notoya, Junichi; Uchimoto, Tetsuya; Miya, Kenzo

    2001-01-01

    Since there are a lot of equipments in large plants, their safety and reliability cannot be kept as high level as designed without maintenance activities. Then preventive maintenance is intensively executed in some large plants. However, it will be inefficient to perform the preventive maintenance blindly. To make maintenance activities effective, it is essential to identify the critical equipments influencing plant safety and/or reliability and carry out the maintenance by focusing attentions on these equipments. It needs quantitative analyses to identify the critical equipments based on the data of failure rates. However, complete data set of failure rates cannot necessarily be available for some plants such as nuclear power plants. In this study, we carry out the reliability analysis for generic LNG plant and calculate various quantitative risk importance measures for each equipment. We propose rather qualitative representations for some quantitative measures, considering the situation without complete data set and conclude that it is possible to rationalize maintenance procedure by using these rather qualitative measures, though the level of rationalization is of course limited. (author)

  6. Rational decision-making in inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Pradeep; Yu, Angela J

    2011-01-01

    An important aspect of cognitive flexibility is inhibitory control, the ability to dynamically modify or cancel planned actions in response to changes in the sensory environment or task demands. We formulate a probabilistic, rational decision-making framework for inhibitory control in the stop signal paradigm. Our model posits that subjects maintain a Bayes-optimal, continually updated representation of sensory inputs, and repeatedly assess the relative value of stopping and going on a fine temporal scale, in order to make an optimal decision on when and whether to go on each trial. We further posit that they implement this continual evaluation with respect to a global objective function capturing the various reward and penalties associated with different behavioral outcomes, such as speed and accuracy, or the relative costs of stop errors and go errors. We demonstrate that our rational decision-making model naturally gives rise to basic behavioral characteristics consistently observed for this paradigm, as well as more subtle effects due to contextual factors such as reward contingencies or motivational factors. Furthermore, we show that the classical race model can be seen as a computationally simpler, perhaps neurally plausible, approximation to optimal decision-making. This conceptual link allows us to predict how the parameters of the race model, such as the stopping latency, should change with task parameters and individual experiences/ability.

  7. Rational Decision-Making in Inhibitory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Pradeep; Yu, Angela J.

    2011-01-01

    An important aspect of cognitive flexibility is inhibitory control, the ability to dynamically modify or cancel planned actions in response to changes in the sensory environment or task demands. We formulate a probabilistic, rational decision-making framework for inhibitory control in the stop signal paradigm. Our model posits that subjects maintain a Bayes-optimal, continually updated representation of sensory inputs, and repeatedly assess the relative value of stopping and going on a fine temporal scale, in order to make an optimal decision on when and whether to go on each trial. We further posit that they implement this continual evaluation with respect to a global objective function capturing the various reward and penalties associated with different behavioral outcomes, such as speed and accuracy, or the relative costs of stop errors and go errors. We demonstrate that our rational decision-making model naturally gives rise to basic behavioral characteristics consistently observed for this paradigm, as well as more subtle effects due to contextual factors such as reward contingencies or motivational factors. Furthermore, we show that the classical race model can be seen as a computationally simpler, perhaps neurally plausible, approximation to optimal decision-making. This conceptual link allows us to predict how the parameters of the race model, such as the stopping latency, should change with task parameters and individual experiences/ability. PMID:21647306

  8. Rational and moral action : a critical survey of rational choice theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, J.P.R.

    2009-01-01

    This book is about rational choice theory from a different point of view. It is different for three reasons. First, it pays attention to the unintended consequences of intended actions. Second, it employs a non-instrumental approach to moral actions. And third, it argues that choice opportunities

  9. A crying shame : The over-rationalized conception of man in the rational choice perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, W.J.M.; Vos, J.

    The rational choice perspective explains all forms of crime by viewing offenders as reasoning criminals. In this article, we take this approach to task by trying out its heuristic potential. More specifically, we look at how well it works for one special type of crime, i.e. street robbery. On the

  10. The art of rationing - the need for a new approach to rationing health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A key element in dealing with HIV/AIDS in South Africa depends on the resolution of the antiretroviral therapy (ART) paradox: while a universal First-World-style ART programme is unaffordable, a rationed treatment programme that includes ART is not only affordable but also vital for basic human rights reasons, to enhance ...

  11. Projective mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus

    2012-01-01

    by the practical testing environment. As a result of the changes, a reasonable assumption would be to question the consequences caused by the variations in method procedures. Here, the aim is to highlight the proven or hypothetic consequences of variations of Projective Mapping. Presented variations will include...... instructions and influence heavily the product placements and the descriptive vocabulary (Dehlholm et.al., 2012b). The type of assessors performing the method influences results with an extra aspect in Projective Mapping compared to more analytical tests, as the given spontaneous perceptions are much dependent......Projective Mapping (Risvik et.al., 1994) and its Napping (Pagès, 2003) variations have become increasingly popular in the sensory field for rapid collection of spontaneous product perceptions. It has been applied in variations which sometimes are caused by the purpose of the analysis and sometimes...

  12. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  13. Boltzmann map for quantum oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streater, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors define a map tau on the space of quasifree states of the CCR or CAR of more than one harmonic oscillator which increases entropy except at fixed points of tau. The map tau is the composition of a double stochastic map T*, and the quasifree reduction Q. Under mixing conditions on T, iterates of tau take any initial state to the Gibbs states, provided that the oscillator frequencies are mutually rational. They give an example of a system with three degrees of freedom with energies omega 1 , omega 2 , and omega 3 mutually irrational, but obeying a relation n 1 omega 1 + n 2 omega 2 = n 3 omega 3 , n/sub i/epsilon Z. The iterated Boltzmann map converges from an initial state rho to independent Gibbs states of the three oscillators at betas (inverse temperatures) β 1 , β 2 , β 3 obeying the equation n 1 omega 1 β 1 + n 2 omega 3 β 1 number. The equilibrium state can be rewritten as a grand canonical state. They show that for two, three, or four fermions we can get the usual rate equations as a special case

  14. The anchoring bias reflects rational use of cognitive resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieder, Falk; Griffiths, Thomas L; M Huys, Quentin J; Goodman, Noah D

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive biases, such as the anchoring bias, pose a serious challenge to rational accounts of human cognition. We investigate whether rational theories can meet this challenge by taking into account the mind's bounded cognitive resources. We asked what reasoning under uncertainty would look like if people made rational use of their finite time and limited cognitive resources. To answer this question, we applied a mathematical theory of bounded rationality to the problem of numerical estimation. Our analysis led to a rational process model that can be interpreted in terms of anchoring-and-adjustment. This model provided a unifying explanation for ten anchoring phenomena including the differential effect of accuracy motivation on the bias towards provided versus self-generated anchors. Our results illustrate the potential of resource-rational analysis to provide formal theories that can unify a wide range of empirical results and reconcile the impressive capacities of the human mind with its apparently irrational cognitive biases.

  15. Competition Law and the Bounded Rationality of Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Shilpi

    2016-01-01

    Firm rationality plays a role in several aspects of competition law. Yet, the conception of the firm as a rational, profit maximizing entity has been disputed in different disciplines. This literature shows that neoclassical economic assumptions on which competition law is based can fall short of explaining the full range of observed firm behaviour. Accordingly, an alternative conception of the firm as boundedly rational can impact the understanding of firm conduct in competition law. Be...

  16. Dimension counts for singular rational curves via semigroups

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ethan; Feital, Lia; Martins, Renato Vidal

    2015-01-01

    We study singular rational curves in projective space, deducing conditions on their parametrizations from the value semigroups $\\sss$ of their singularities. In particular, we prove that a natural heuristic for the codimension of the space of nondegenerate rational curves of arithmetic genus $g>0$ and degree $d$ in $\\mb{P}^n$, viewed as a subspace of all degree-$d$ rational curves in $\\mb{P}^n$, holds whenever $g$ is small.

  17. Consumers' evaluations of ecological packaging - rational and emotional approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig-Lewis, Nicole; Palmer, Adrian; Dermody, Janine; Urbye, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Ecological marketing claims have been criticized for confusing or misleading buyers, leading to calls for more rationality in promoting and evaluating ‘green’ products. However, emotions are important drivers influencing pro-environmental purchase decisions. This study investigates consumers' emotional and rational evaluations of pro-environmental packaging. A conceptual model incorporates individuals' general environmental concerns, their rational beliefs about environmental effects of produ...

  18. Should informed consent be based on rational beliefs?

    OpenAIRE

    Savulescu, J; Momeyer, R W

    1997-01-01

    Our aim is to expand the regulative ideal governing consent. We argue that consent should not only be informed but also based on rational beliefs. We argue that holding true beliefs promotes autonomy. Information is important insofar as it helps a person to hold the relevant true beliefs. But in order to hold the relevant true beliefs, competent people must also think rationally. Insofar as information is important, rational deliberation is important. Just as physicians should aim to provide ...

  19. Positive Feedback Investment Strategies and Destabilizing Rational Speculation

    OpenAIRE

    J. Bradford De Long; Andrei Shleifer; Lawrence H. Summers; Robert J. Waldmann

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of the role of rational speculators in financial markets usually presume that such investors dampen price fluctuations by trading against liquidity or noise traders. This conclusion does not necessarily hold when noise traders follow positive-feedback investment strategies buy when prices rise and sell when prices fall. In such cases, it may pay rational speculators to try to jump on the bandwagon early and to purchase ahead of noise trader demand. If rational speculators' attempts t...

  20. Scattering theory of the hyperbolic BC{sub n} Sutherland and the rational BC{sub n} Ruijsenaars–Schneider–van Diejen models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusztai, B.G., E-mail: gpusztai@math.u-szeged.hu

    2013-09-11

    In this paper, we investigate the scattering properties of the hyperbolic BC{sub n} Sutherland and the rational BC{sub n} Ruijsenaars–Schneider–van Diejen many-particle systems with three independent coupling constants. Utilizing the recently established action-angle duality between these classical integrable models, we construct their wave and scattering maps. In particular, we prove that for both particle systems the scattering map has a factorized form.

  1. Cyborg pantocrator: international relations theory from decisionism to rational choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhot, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    International relations theory took shape in the 1950s in reaction to the behavioral social science movement, emphasizing the limits of rationality in a context of high uncertainty, weak rules, and the possibility of lethal conflict. Yet the same discipline rapidly developed "rational choice" models applied to foreign policy decision making or nuclear strategy. This paper argues that this transformation took place almost seamlessly around the concept of "decision." Initially associated with an antirationalist or "decisionist" approach to politics, the sovereign decision became the epitome of political rationality when it was redescribed as "rational choice," thus easing the cultural acceptance of political realism in the postwar years. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Does knowing that a suicide was "rational" influence grief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazda, Geoffrey F; Range, Lillian M; Remley, Theodore P; White, Carolyn C

    2018-03-15

    Counseling professionals and graduate students (N = 117) recruited online read a randomly assigned one-paragraph vignette about either a non-rational or rational suicide involving an imaginary loved one. Then, they completed the Grief Experiences Questionnaire (GEQ) about how they would feel. The non-rational suicide group expected significantly more search for explanation than the rational suicide group, but were not significantly different on the other six GEQ subscales. All participants expected few distressing reactions to either vignette, suggesting a one-paragraph vignette may not be sufficient to induce the kind of grief many experience when a loved one dies by suicide.

  3. Rationing critical care medicine: recent studies and current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Nicholas S

    2005-12-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the rationing of critical care resources. Although much has been written about the concept of rationing, there have been few scientific studies as to its prevalence. A recent meta-analysis reviewed all previously published studies on rationing access to intensive care units but little is known about practices within the intensive care unit. Much literature in the past few years has focused on the growing use of critical care resources and projections for the future. Several authors suggest there may be a crisis in financial or personnel resources if some rationing does not take place. Other papers have argued that the methods of rationing critical care previously proposed, such as limiting the care of dying patients or using cost-effectiveness analysis to determine care, may not be effective or viewed as ethical by some. Finally, several recent papers review how critical care is practiced and allocated in India and Asian countries that already practice open rationing in their health care systems. There is currently no published evidence that overt rationing is taking place in critical care medicine. There is growing evidence that in the future, the need for critical care may outstrip financial resources unless some form of rationing takes place. It is also clear from the literature that choosing how to ration critical care will be a difficult task.

  4. Physiological responses to rational-emotive self-verbalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, S; Gershman, L

    1983-12-01

    This study tested Albert Ellis' Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) theory which predicts that cognitive beliefs, not the stimulus situation, generate human emotions. According to RET, emotions created by rational beliefs are adaptive, while irrational beliefs result in an unadaptive anxiety level. Results demonstrated that at high levels of problem relevance there was (1) a significantly greater GSR in direct response to the stimulus situation, and also to irrational statements, than to rational and control statements, and (2) no significant difference between rational and neutral control statements. The authors argue that these results are more parsimoniously explained by conditioning theory than by RET theory.

  5. Heterogeneity and the (de)stabilizing role of rationality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalli, Fausto; Naimzada, Ahmad; Pireddu, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze Cournot oligopolies with heterogeneous firms of generic size. • Rational and naive players are considered. • Stability with respect to oligopoly composition is studied. • In some settings, increasing the rational firms fraction introduces instability. - Abstract: In this paper we study oligopolies of generic size consisting of heterogeneous firms, which adopt best response adjustment mechanisms with either perfect foresight (rational firms) or static expectations (naive firms). Assuming an isoelastic demand function and possibly different marginal costs for the two groups of firms, we focus on the local stability of the Nash equilibrium. We show that, with respect to the oligopoly composition, described in terms of the fraction of rational firms, different scenarios are possible. We find that a high rationality degree may not always guarantee stability, in particular when rational firms have sufficiently larger marginal costs. In fact, in this situation, increasing the fraction of rational firms can even introduce instability. Besides the usual scenarios in which replacing some naive firms with rational ones leads to a stabilization of (or at least keeps unchanged) the dynamics, we provide a family of situations, characterized by costs ratio favorable to naive firms, in which equilibrium loses its stability when naive firms are replaced by rational ones. The results we present are both analytical and simulative.

  6. Energetic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report explains the energetic map of Uruguay as well as the different systems that delimits political frontiers in the region. The electrical system importance is due to the electricity, oil and derived , natural gas, potential study, biofuels, wind and solar energy

  7. Necklace maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speckmann, B.; Verbeek, K.A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data associated with geographic regions is nowadays globally available in large amounts and hence automated methods to visually display these data are in high demand. There are several well-established thematic map types for quantitative data on the ratio-scale associated with regions:

  8. Participatory maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    towards a new political ecology. This type of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper...

  9. Integrating Work Environment Considerations Into Lean and Value Stream Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper

    (Spear & Bowen, 1999; Womack & Jones, 1996) and is based on standardisation, levelling, and optimisation of work flows through value stream mapping (VSM) (Rother & Shook, 2009) and eliminating waste. Lean is essentially a rationalization approach that will reduce waste and increase productivity thereby...

  10. Obesity, social inequality and economic rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Thea; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Kærgård, Niels

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the economic literature related to obesity and consumer decisions, pursuing the overall question, whether the current obesity epidemic and its social bias can be viewed as a result of rational consumption behaviour. We address a number of potential explanations based on consumers......' utility maximisation behaviour, which all may contribute to explain the ongoing rise in obesity prevalence in many western countries. In addition to standard neoclassical explanations of obesity, we discuss moral hazard aspects, the role of network externalities, self-control problems and habitual...... behaviour. We include all of these aspects of the individual weight decision in a unified theoretical framework and present existing empirical evidence for each effect. Based on our analysis, we discuss the different economic explanations and give suggestions for future research....

  11. Why humans deviate from rational choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewig, Johannes; Kretschmer, Nora; Trippe, Ralf H; Hecht, Holger; Coles, Michael G H; Holroyd, Clay B; Miltner, Wolfgang H R

    2011-04-01

    Rational choice theory predicts that humans always optimize the expected utility of options when making decisions. However, in decision-making games, humans often punish their opponents even when doing so reduces their own reward. We used the Ultimatum and Dictator games to examine the affective correlates of decision-making. We show that the feedback negativity, an event-related brain potential that originates in the anterior cingulate cortex that has been related to reinforcement learning, predicts the decision to reject unfair offers in the Ultimatum game. Furthermore, the decision to reject is positively related to more negative emotional reactions and to increased autonomic nervous system activity. These findings support the idea that subjective emotional markers guide decision-making and that the anterior cingulate cortex integrates instances of reinforcement and punishment to provide such affective markers. Copyright © 2010 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. Menopause: developing a rational treatment plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Danielle; Naftolin, Frederick; Naftoilin, Frederick; Taylor, Hugh S

    2007-12-01

    In recent years, growing importance has been afforded to assisting women in coping with the menopausal transition. Menopause is a normal stage of development and a woman's attitude toward this transition embodies biological, psychological and social influences. An enlarging body of conflicting data concerning menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) demands reassessment of established paradigms of disease prevention and menopausal health. Currently, a woman's decision to participate in or abstain from menopausal HT is personal. It involves not only consideration of risk stratification of potential harm and benefit, but also involves her expectations and attitudes toward perceived physical and emotional changes associated with this change. Through the use of extensive patient history, quality-of-life questionnaires and powerful biological profiling, we may be able to develop a rational approach to menopausal HT that safely guides our patients through this transition.

  13. Gerwirth's ethical rationalism and abortion: a response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, N

    2000-01-01

    In the preface to his seminal work, Reason and Morality (1978), Alan Gerwith writes: "The most important and difficult problem of philosophical ethics is whether a substantial moral principle can be rationally justified." After summarizing his methodology, I demonstrate that (1) Gerwith's attempt to quantify personhood is unrealistic; (2) that his position on abortion rests on the unintelligible notion of "comparable conflict" between mother and unborn; and (3) that he implicitly assumes that personhood is naturally, and not functionally, defined--thereby contradicting himself. Ultimately, I outline an alternative view of personhood, one which avoids the criticism to which Gerwith's theory is particularly susceptible--namely, that personhood is a natural component of human beings from the start, rather than a gradually acquired trait.

  14. Rationalization of some genetic anticodonic assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, J. C., Jr.; Hall, L. M.; Mullins, D. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrophobicity of most amino acids correlates well with that of their anticodon nucleotides, with Trp, Tyr, Ile, and Ser being the exceptions to this rule. Using previous data on hydrophobicity and binding constants, and new data on rates of esterification of polyadenylic acid with several N-acetylaminoacyl imidazolides, several of the anticodon assignments are rationalized. Chemical reasons are shown supporting the idea of the inclusion of the Ile in the catalog of biological amino acids late in the evolution, through a mutation of the existing tRNA and its aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase. It was found that an addition of hexane increases the incorporation of hydrophobic Ac-Phe into poly-A, in support of the Fox (1965) and Oparin (1965) emphasis on the biogenetic importance of phase-separated systems.

  15. Smooth surfaces from rational bilinear patches

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Smooth freeform skins from simple panels constitute a challenging topic arising in contemporary architecture. We contribute to this problem area by showing how to approximate a negatively curved surface by smoothly joined rational bilinear patches. The approximation problem is solved with help of a new computational approach to the hyperbolic nets of Huhnen-Venedey and Rörig and optimization algorithms based on it. We also discuss its limits which lie in the topology of the input surface. Finally, freeform deformations based on Darboux transformations are used to generate smooth surfaces from smoothly joined Darboux cyclide patches; in this way we eliminate the restriction to surfaces with negative Gaussian curvature. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Rational F-theory GUTs without exotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippendorf, Sven; Peña, Damián Kaloni Mayorga; Oehlmann, Paul-Konstantin; Ruehle, Fabian

    2014-07-01

    We construct F-theory GUT models without exotic matter, leading to the MSSM matter spectrum with potential singlet extensions. The interplay of engineering explicit geometric setups, absence of four-dimensional anomalies, and realistic phenomenology of the couplings places severe constraints on the allowed local models in a given geometry. In constructions based on the spectral cover we find no model satisfying all these requirements. We then provide a survey of models with additional U(1) symmetries arising from rational sections of the elliptic fibration in toric constructions and obtain phenomenologically appealing models based on SU(5) tops. Furthermore we perform a bottom-up exploration beyond the toric section constructions discussed in the literature so far and identify benchmark models passing all our criteria, which can serve as a guideline for future geometric engineering.

  17. Rational F-theory GUTs without exotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krippendorf, Sven; Pena, Damian Kaloni Mayorga; Oehlmann, Paul-Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    We construct F-theory GUT models without exotic matter, leading to the MSSM matter spectrum with potential singlet extensions. The interplay of engineering explicit geometric setups, absence of four-dimensional anomalies, and realistic phenomenology of the couplings places severe constraints on the allowed local models in a given geometry. In constructions based on the spectral cover we find no model satisfying all these requirements. We then provide a survey of models with additional U(1) symmetries arising from rational sections of the elliptic fibration in toric constructions and obtain phenomenologically appealing models based on SU(5) tops. Furthermore we perform a bottom-up exploration beyond the toric section constructions discussed in the literature so far and identify benchmark models passing all our criteria, which can serve as a guideline for future geometric engineering.

  18. Development of rationalized system treating floor drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Serizawa, Kenichi; Komatsu, Akihiro; Shimizu, Takayuki

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive liquid wastes generated at BWR plants are collected and treated as required. These days, however, generation of floor drain has deceased and HFF (Hollow Fiber Filter) has experienced a wide applicability to several kinds of liquid wastes. We should consider that the floor drain can be mixed and diluted with equipment drain and be purified by HFF. That enables some of the sumps and long priming pipes to be combined. From this point of view, we have developed a highly rationalized waste liquid system. We have evaluated the applicability of this system after an investigation into the generation and properties of floor drain and equipment drain at the latest BWR'S and an on-site test at a typical BWR. (author)

  19. Rational F-theory GUTs without exotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krippendorf, Sven; Peña, Damián Kaloni Mayorga; Oehlmann, Paul-Konstantin; Ruehle, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    We construct F-theory GUT models without exotic matter, leading to the MSSM matter spectrum with potential singlet extensions. The interplay of engineering explicit geometric setups, absence of four-dimensional anomalies, and realistic phenomenology of the couplings places severe constraints on the allowed local models in a given geometry. In constructions based on the spectral cover we find no model satisfying all these requirements. We then provide a survey of models with additional U1 symmetries arising from rational sections of the elliptic fibration in toric constructions and obtain phenomenologically appealing models based on SU(5) tops. Furthermore we perform a bottom-up exploration beyond the toric section constructions discussed in the literature so far and identify benchmark models passing all our criteria, which can serve as a guideline for future geometric engineering.

  20. Echinocandins for candidemia: a rational choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Menichetti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Among antifungal drugs, echinocandins (micafungin, caspofungin and anidulafungin represent a rational choice for the first-line therapy of candidemia/invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients. Among other properties characterizing echinocandins, it’s important to emphasize the broad spectrum of activity, the fungicidal activity against the majority of Candida spp., and the activity against the biofilm. Furthermore, echinocandins show greater efficacy than conventional amphotericin B and fluconazole, and similar efficacy to liposomal amphotericin B (but they are less toxic. Finally, echinocandins are recommended at the highest level of evidence (AI for the treatment of invasive candidiasis by IDSA and ESCMID guidelines.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i2s.872

  1. Volatility estimation using a rational GARCH model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Takaishi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The rational GARCH (RGARCH model has been proposed as an alternative GARCHmodel that captures the asymmetric property of volatility. In addition to the previously proposedRGARCH model, we propose an alternative RGARCH model called the RGARCH-Exp model thatis more stable when dealing with outliers. We measure the performance of the volatility estimationby a loss function calculated using realized volatility as a proxy for true volatility and compare theRGARCH-type models with other asymmetric type models such as the EGARCH and GJR models.We conduct empirical studies of six stocks on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and find that a volatilityestimation using the RGARCH-type models outperforms the GARCH model and is comparable toother asymmetric GARCH models.

  2. Towards compassionate care through aesthetic rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Pamela; Freshwater, Dawn

    2014-12-01

    The Francis Report, which was based on the investigation of complaints regarding standards of care in the Staffordshire NHS Trust in the UK, was published in 2013. The Report revealed that while the Trust appeared to be compliant with the standards set by official regulating bodies, the quality of care provided to patients was often appalling. While the Report constituted a 'critical moment' in health care, its findings resonated with widespread concern in the UK and elsewhere that health care is sometimes characterised by a lack of compassion. The Francis Report partially attributed this lack of compassion to a task-based culture which tended to prioritise the meeting of targets over the quality of care provided to patients. Older patients, in particular, were identified as being vulnerable to neglect. This qualitative study of hospice volunteers responds to concerns regarding the quality of organisational forms of care by considering how motivations to care may be sustained and enhanced within organisational contexts. Charitable and third sector organisations, such as the hospice in this study, have been identified as potentially relevant to other health and social care contexts precisely because they emphasise values such as altruism and goodwill. Our sociological approach suggests that altruism or compassion can be encouraged within contexts that emphasise a sociability of care. We argue that a sociability of care may be encouraged in organisational contexts if dominant understandings of rationality are extended through the incorporation of aesthetic rationality, a feminist perspective taken from Roslyn Bologh. This, however, would require a degree of authentic emotional engagement on the part of formal caregivers, which is more typically associated with relationships in the private sphere. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), irrational and rational beliefs, and the mental health of athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Martin James Turner

    2016-01-01

    In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training (PST) for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and main...

  4. MAPPING INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    By adopting a theoretical framework from strategic niche management research (SNM) this paper presents an analysis of the innovation system of the Danish Construction industry. The analysis shows a multifaceted landscape of innovation around an existing regime, built around existing ways of working...... and developed over generations. The regime is challenged from various niches and the socio-technical landscape through trends as globalization. Three niches (Lean Construction, BIM and System Deliveries) are subject to a detailed analysis showing partly incompatible rationales and various degrees of innovation...... potential. The paper further discusses how existing policymaking operates in a number of tensions one being between government and governance. Based on the concepts from SNM the paper introduces an innovation map in order to support the development of meta-governance policymaking. By mapping some...

  5. Mapping filmmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilje, Øystein; Frølunde, Lisbeth; Lindstrand, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus ...... is on their learning practices and how they create ‘learning paths’ in relation to resources in diverse learning contexts, whether formal, non-formal and informal contexts.......This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus...

  6. Rational Solutions and Lump Solutions of the Potential YTSF Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Qian; Chen, Ai-Hua

    2017-07-01

    By using of the bilinear form, rational solutions and lump solutions of the potential Yu-Toda-Sasa-Fukuyama (YTSF) equation are derived. Dynamics of the fundamental lump solution, n1-order lump solutions, and N-lump solutions are studied for some special cases. We also find some interaction behaviours of solitary waves and one lump of rational solutions.

  7. Developing and Testing Rational Models of Message Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Barbara J.

    1992-01-01

    Responds to an article in the same issue regarding research methods for conversational cognition. Argues for a noncognitive view of rational models in communication research. Sets out an analysis of the kinds of claims made by rational models of message design. Discusses the implications of this analysis for studies of the cognitive processes…

  8. Beyond Control and Rationality: Dewey, Aesthetics, Motivation, and Educative Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary perspectives in psychology and education characterize ideal students as rational and in control of their thinking and actions. The good student is often described as intentional, cognitive, metacognitive, critical, and reflective. I begin with a brief history of control and rationality to establish how "The Tradition" is deeply rooted…

  9. Local Choices: Rationality and the Contextuality of Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaev, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    Rational explanation is ubiquitous in psychology and social sciences, ranging from rational analysis, expectancy-value theories, ideal observer models, mental logic to probabilistic frameworks, rational choice theory, and informal “folk psychological” explanation. However, rational explanation appears to be challenged by apparently systematic irrationality observed in psychological experiments, especially in the field of judgement and decision-making (JDM). Here, it is proposed that the experimental results require not that rational explanation should be rejected, but that rational explanation is local, i.e., within a context. Thus, rational models need to be supplemented with a theory of contextual shifts. We review evidence in JDM that patterns of choices are often consistent within contexts, but unstable between contexts. We also demonstrate that for a limited, though reasonably broad, class of decision-making domains, recent theoretical models can be viewed as providing theories of contextual shifts. It is argued that one particular significant source of global inconsistency arises from a cognitive inability to represent absolute magnitudes, whether for perceptual variables, utilities, payoffs, or probabilities. This overall argument provides a fresh perspective on the scope and limits of human rationality. PMID:29301289

  10. How to manage enterprise? From creation to rational continuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans Broekhuis; Louise van Weerden

    2009-01-01

    There is a difference between enterprise and management. Enterprise is about creation and management is the rational continuation of enterprise. Being rational comes natural to entrepreneurs, but a good entrepreneur has to develop both aspects. To achieve this is an important aspect of management

  11. Economic Rationalism: Serving Tertiary Business Education Needs? The Australian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Ewa Maria; Buttery, Ernest Alan

    2004-01-01

    Economic rationalism is a major driver of the education system in many parts of the world. In the scramble to facilitate economic rationalism, the education needs required at national level to keep nations, like Australia, competitive into the twenty-first century have not been fully considered. Such countries have ignored the needs of education…

  12. Rational top and its classical r-matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminov, G; Arthamonov, S; Smirnov, A; Zotov, A

    2014-01-01

    We construct a rational integrable system (the rational top) on a co-adjoint orbit of SL N Lie group. It is described by the Lax operator with spectral parameter and classical non-dynamical skew-symmetric r-matrix. In the case of the orbit of minimal dimension the model is gauge equivalent to the rational Calogero–Moser (CM) system. To obtain the results we represent the Lax operator of the CM model in two different factorized forms—without spectral parameter (related to the spinless case) and another one with the spectral parameter. The latter gives rise to the rational top while the first one is related to generalized Cremmer–Gervais r-matrices. The gauge transformation relating the rational top and CM model provides the classical rational version of the IRF-Vertex correspondence. From the geometrical point of view it describes the modification of SL(N,C)-bundles over degenerated elliptic curve. In view of the Symplectic Hecke Correspondence the rational top is related to the rational spin CM model. Possible applications and generalizations of the suggested construction are discussed. In particular, the obtained r-matrix defines a class of KZB equations. (paper)

  13. Field Dependency of Argumentation Rationality in Decision-Making Debates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, O.

    2013-01-01

    This study argues that the rationality behind strategic decisions, which is characterized as expressive, social, or instrumental rational, has to be aligned with the argumentation field of the decision, which is characterized as subjective, intersubjective, or objective. A multiple case study

  14. "Rationality" as a Moderator Between Life Events and Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekarik, Gene

    1986-01-01

    The author examined the theory of rational beliefs as a moderator between life events and illness using a sample of 283 college students. Results suggested that rationality functioned to prevent stress and illness when there were few stressors, but did not reduce the effect of high levels of life events. (Author/MT)

  15. Working Memory Strategies during Rational Number Magnitude Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle; Cordes, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Rational number understanding is a critical building block for success in more advanced mathematics; however, how rational number magnitudes are conceptualized is not fully understood. In the current study, we used a dual-task working memory (WM) interference paradigm to investigate the dominant type of strategy (i.e., requiring verbal WM…

  16. A programme to rationalize film dosimetry by data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritzenhoff, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    Plan to realize the following intentions for monitoring appr. 45,000 persons per month: 1) Extending the data bank with evaluation results to a universal personnel dose register covering all persons monitored, 2) comprising the individual rationalization measures in an extensive rationalization model of the procedures in a personnel dose measuring service by using EDP-systems. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Rationality, perception, and the all-seeing eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felin, Teppo; Koenderink, Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070864543; Krueger, Joachim I

    Seeing-perception and vision-is implicitly the fundamental building block of the literature on rationality and cognition. Herbert Simon and Daniel Kahneman's arguments against the omniscience of economic agents-and the concept of bounded rationality-depend critically on a particular view of the

  18. Local Choices: Rationality and the Contextuality of Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaev, Ivo

    2018-01-02

    Rational explanation is ubiquitous in psychology and social sciences, ranging from rational analysis, expectancy-value theories, ideal observer models, mental logic to probabilistic frameworks, rational choice theory, and informal "folk psychological" explanation. However, rational explanation appears to be challenged by apparently systematic irrationality observed in psychological experiments, especially in the field of judgement and decision-making (JDM). Here, it is proposed that the experimental results require not that rational explanation should be rejected, but that rational explanation is local , i.e., within a context. Thus, rational models need to be supplemented with a theory of contextual shifts. We review evidence in JDM that patterns of choices are often consistent within contexts, but unstable between contexts. We also demonstrate that for a limited, though reasonably broad, class of decision-making domains, recent theoretical models can be viewed as providing theories of contextual shifts. It is argued that one particular significant source of global inconsistency arises from a cognitive inability to represent absolute magnitudes, whether for perceptual variables, utilities, payoffs, or probabilities. This overall argument provides a fresh perspective on the scope and limits of human rationality.

  19. The two-model problem in rational decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    A model of a decision problem frames that problem in three dimensions: sample space, target probability and information structure. Each specific model imposes a specific rational decision. As a result, different models may impose different, even contradictory, rational decisions, creating choice

  20. Passionate Rationalism: The Role of Emotion in Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakomski, Gabriele; Evers, Colin W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to argue that emotion has a central role to play in rational decision making based on recent research in the neuroanatomy of emotion. As a result, traditional rational decision-making theories, including Herbert Simon's modified model of satisficing that sharply demarcates emotions and values from rationality…

  1. CoPs Facing Rationalization: The Politics of Community Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilskar, Stine Skaufel; Ingvaldsen, Jonas A.; Valle, Nina

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the relationship between the contemporary forms of manufacturing rationalization and the reproduction of communities of practice (CoPs) centred on tasks and craft. Building on critical literature highlighting the tensions between CoPs and rationalization, this paper aims to develop a nuanced account of how CoPs…

  2. Cognitive distance, absorptive capacity and group rationality : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu, P.L.; Krehel, O.; Evers, J.H.M.; Muntean, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a simulation study in which we explore the joint effect of group absorptive capacity (as the average individual rationality of the group members) and cognitive distance (as the distance between the most rational group member and the rest of the group) on the emergence of

  3. Cognitive distance, absorptive capacity and group rationality : A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu, P.L.; Krehel, O.; Evers, J.H.M.; Muntean, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a simulation study in which we explore the joint effect of group absorptive capacity (as the average individual rationality of the group members) and cognitive distance (as the distance between the most rational group member and the rest of the group) on the emergence of

  4. Approximation of quadrilaterals by rational quadrilaterals in the plane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    diagonals and areas can be reduced to solving certain diophantine ... these problems into questions on the existence of infinitely many rational solutions on ... reduced the problem of finding rational quadrilaterals to the problem of finding ... Besicovitch [4] answered this question for the special cases of right-angled triangles.

  5. Imagination and the Pursuit of a Rational Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, David E.

    The works of certain rhetorical thinkers contain strategies directed at achieving assent or cooperation. Such writings demonstrate means by which readers' rational responses can be deliberately challenged and disrupted. While people often cite Aristotle's maxim "Man is a rational animal," critics have asserted that the statement…

  6. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Origins, Constructs, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joshua C.

    In 1956, Dr. Albert Ellis presented his seminal work on Rational Therapy, subsequently renamed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) in 1993. This paper explores the origins, theoretical foundations, applications, and implications of REBT and provides a look at the empirical research available in support of the approach's efficacy. REBT is…

  7. Counseling Children and Adolescents: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Humanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Describes specific parallels between rational emotive behavior therapy and humanism. Places specific emphasis on the application of these principles with children and adolescents. Concepts are illustrated with case studies and a description of the similarities between rational emotive and humanistic, or affective, education. Highlights emotional…

  8. Rationality and Integration in a Family Childrearing Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Mark S.

    This paper illuminates how concepts of rationality developed by Diesing in l962 are reflected in parents' childrearing decisions. After examining technical (TR), economic (ER), social (SR), legal (LR), and political (PR) rationalities or decision-making styles, consideration is given to integrative effects and the influence of parents' friends and…

  9. Bounded Rationality, Retaliation, and the Spread of Urban Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bruce A.; Wright, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from in-depth interviews with 52 active street criminals, this article examines the grounded theoretic implications of bounded rationality for retaliatory street violence. The bounds on rationality that this article explores are anger, uncertainty, and time pressure. These bounds create imperfections in the retaliatory decision-making…

  10. Realization and elimination in rational representations of behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottimukkala, Sasanka V.; Trentelman, Hendrikus; Fiaz, Shaik

    This article deals with the relationship between rational representations of linear differential systems and their state representations. In particular we study the relationship between rational representations on the one hand, and output nulling and driving variable representations on the other. In

  11. Génération Y : much ado about nothing ? Le talent des jeunes

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkin, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Baby Boomers, Génération X, Génération Y, Génération du Millénaire, Génération Z, Génération Nintendo, Génération Wii, Génération Internet, Génération C, Génération Google, Génération Mobile, Génération Powerpoint, Génération couper/coller, natifs et immigrants digitaux, Homo sapiens digital ou Homo-zappiens, les vocables ne manquent pas pour désigner, séparer, opposer et segmenter les générations. Celles-ci évoluent, dans les discours, au gré des révolutions proclamées qui survi...

  12. Mate choice in fruit flies is rational and adaptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuthnott, Devin; Fedina, Tatyana Y; Pletcher, Scott D; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2017-01-17

    According to rational choice theory, beneficial preferences should lead individuals to sort available options into linear, transitive hierarchies, although the extent to which non-human animals behave rationally is unclear. Here we demonstrate that mate choice in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster results in the linear sorting of a set of diverse isogenic female lines, unambiguously demonstrating the hallmark of rational behaviour, transitivity. These rational choices are associated with direct benefits, enabling males to maximize offspring production. Furthermore, we demonstrate that female behaviours and cues act redundantly in mate detection and assessment, as rational mate choice largely persists when visual or chemical sensory modalities are impaired, but not when both are impaired. Transitivity in mate choice demonstrates that the quality of potential mates varies significantly among genotypes, and that males and females behave in such a way as to facilitate adaptive mate choice.

  13. Rational first integrals of geodesic equations and generalised hidden symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Arata; Houri, Tsuyoshi; Tomoda, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    We discuss novel generalisations of Killing tensors, which are introduced by considering rational first integrals of geodesic equations. We introduce the notion of inconstructible generalised Killing tensors, which cannot be constructed from ordinary Killing tensors. Moreover, we introduce inconstructible rational first integrals, which are constructed from inconstructible generalised Killing tensors, and provide a method for checking the inconstructibility of a rational first integral. Using the method, we show that the rational first integral of the Collinson–O’Donnell solution is not inconstructible. We also provide several examples of metrics admitting an inconstructible rational first integral in two and four-dimensions, by using the Maciejewski–Przybylska system. Furthermore, we attempt to generalise other hidden symmetries such as Killing–Yano tensors. (paper)

  14. Cognitive rationalizations for tanning-bed use: a preliminary exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Smita C; Hay, Jennifer L; Greene, Kathryn

    2013-09-01

    To examine construct and predictive utility of an adapted cognitive rationalization scale for tanning-bed use. Current/former tanning-bedusing undergraduate students (N = 216; 87.6% females; 78.4% white) at a large northeastern university participated in a survey. A cognitive rationalization for tanning-bed use scale was adapted. Standardized self-report measures of past tanning-bed use, advantages of tanning, perceived vulnerability to photoaging, tanning-bed use dependence, and tanning-bed use intention were also administered. The cognitive rationalization scale exhibited strong construct and predictive validity. Current tanners and tanning-bed-use-dependent participants endorsed rationalizations more strongly than did former tanners and not-tanning-bed-use-dependent participants respectively. Findings indicate that cognitive rationalizations help explain discrepancy between inconsistent cognitions.

  15. RATIONAL-IRRATIONAL ELECTORAL PREFERENCES, ALTRUISM AND EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Ungureanu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Caplan (2000, 2001, 2006 proposed the rational-irrationality model arguing that irrationality is a good as any other, whose consumption is maximized in relation to its costs and benefits. Applying this model to the problem of electoral behavior Caplan implies that voters ‘afford’ many irrational beliefs, because the lack of individual decisiveness renders vote as a consequenceless act. This paper contributes to the development of knowledge by analyzing the compatibility of rational irrationality with active electoral behavior. Two important arguments are being proposed: First, Wittman’s (2008 intuition that rational irrationality is incompatible with voting could be supported only about a particular type of altruism, which Caplan actually seems to reject. Second, rational irrationality seems to be compatible with expressive motivations, reinforcing the conclusion that rational-irrational individuals are active voters in mass elections.

  16. Development of rations for the enhanced survival of salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.D.; Lagasse, J.P.

    1990-12-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and ''fitness'' of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, may be reduced in quality from poor drying techniques during manufacture. Dietary stress in the hatchery may result. This investigation tests the hypothesis that protein quality of fish rations can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The test involves a comparison between performances of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and those of fish reared on commercial rations, with commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of several brood years of test and control fish are used to measure the influence of ration on survival. This report includes recovery data from these marked fish collected 1982 through September 1990

  17. Rational use of medicines - Indian perspective!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, G P; Manna, P K

    2015-01-01

    India, the largest democracy in the world, is with a federal structure of 29 states and 7 union territories. With a population of more than 1.2 billion, resource is always a constraint and so is in the health system too. In the federal structure, providing healthcare is largely the responsibility of state governments. Medicines are important component of health care delivery system and quality care is dependent on the availability and proper use of quality medicines. In spite of being known as pharmacy of the third world, poor access to medicines in the country is always a serious concern. Realizing the need of quality use of medicines, several initiatives have been initiated. As early as 1994, seeds of rational use of medicines were sown in the country with two initiatives: establishment of a civil society, Delhi Society for Promoting Rational Use of Drugs (DSPURD) and establishment of government agency in Tamil Nadu, a southern state, called Tamil Medical Services Corporation Limited (TNMSCL). DSPUD was in official association with World Health Organization Country Office for implementing essential medicine programme in the country for two biennia. In addition to organizing sensitising and training programme for healthcare professionals throughout the country, it looked after the procurement and appropriate use of medicines in Delhi government health facilities. TNMSCL has made innovations in medicine management including procurement directly from manufacturers as a part of pooled procurement, establishing warehouses with modern storage facilities and Information Technology enabled management of whole process. TNMSCL Model is now replicated in almost the entire country and even in some small other countries as it is successful in improving access to medicines.The National Government and the State Governments have developed strategies to promote rational use of medicines as a part of improving access and quality care in public health facilities. National

  18. The neural basis of bounded rational behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coricelli, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. We apply a cognitive hierarchy model to classify subject’s choices in the experimental game according to the degree of strategic reasoning so that we can identify the neural substrates of different levels of strategizing. We found a correlation between levels of strategic reasoning and activity in a neural network related to mentalizing, i.e. the ability to think about other’s thoughts and mental states. Moreover, brain data showed how complex cognitive processes subserve the higher level of reasoning about others. We describe how a cognitive hierarchy model fits both behavioural and brain data.

    La racionalidad limitada es un fenómeno observado de manera frecuente tanto en juegos experimentales como en situaciones cotidianas. La Neuroeconomía puede mejorar la comprensión de los procesos mentales que caracterizan la racionalidad limitada; en paralelo nos puede ayudar a comprender comportamientos que violan el equilibrio. Nuestro trabajo presenta resultados recientes sobre la bases neuronales del razonamiento estratégico (y sus límite en juegos competitivos —como el juego del “beauty contest”. Estudiamos las bases neuronales del comportamiento estratégico en juegos con interacción entre sujetos usando resonancia magnética funcional (fMRI. Las decisiones de los participantes se clasifican acorde al grado de razonamiento estratégico: el llamado modelo de Jerarquías Cognitivas. Los resultados muestran una correlación entre niveles de

  19. Metabolic network prediction through pairwise rational kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche-Lima, Abiel; Domaratzki, Michael; Fristensky, Brian

    2014-09-26

    Metabolic networks are represented by the set of metabolic pathways. Metabolic pathways are a series of biochemical reactions, in which the product (output) from one reaction serves as the substrate (input) to another reaction. Many pathways remain incompletely characterized. One of the major challenges of computational biology is to obtain better models of metabolic pathways. Existing models are dependent on the annotation of the genes. This propagates error accumulation when the pathways are predicted by incorrectly annotated genes. Pairwise classification methods are supervised learning methods used to classify new pair of entities. Some of these classification methods, e.g., Pairwise Support Vector Machines (SVMs), use pairwise kernels. Pairwise kernels describe similarity measures between two pairs of entities. Using pairwise kernels to handle sequence data requires long processing times and large storage. Rational kernels are kernels based on weighted finite-state transducers that represent similarity measures between sequences or automata. They have been effectively used in problems that handle large amount of sequence information such as protein essentiality, natural language processing and machine translations. We create a new family of pairwise kernels using weighted finite-state transducers (called Pairwise Rational Kernel (PRK)) to predict metabolic pathways from a variety of biological data. PRKs take advantage of the simpler representations and faster algorithms of transducers. Because raw sequence data can be used, the predictor model avoids the errors introduced by incorrect gene annotations. We then developed several experiments with PRKs and Pairwise SVM to validate our methods using the metabolic network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a result, when PRKs are used, our method executes faster in comparison with other pairwise kernels. Also, when we use PRKs combined with other simple kernels that include evolutionary information, the accuracy

  20. Emotions as a Vehicle for Rationality: Rational Decision Making Models Based on Emotion-Related Valuing and Hebbian Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.; Umair, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an adaptive decision model based on predictive loops through feeling states is analysed from the perspective of rationality. Hebbian learning is considered for different types of connections in the decision model. To assess the extent of rationality, a measure is introduced reflecting