Bounded Rationality of Generalized Abstract Fuzzy Economies
Lei Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available By using a nonlinear scalarization technique, the bounded rationality model M for generalized abstract fuzzy economies in finite continuous spaces is established. Furthermore, by using the model M, some new theorems for structural stability and robustness to (λ,ϵ-equilibria of generalized abstract fuzzy economies are proved.
Rationality in a general model of choice
Somdeb Lahiri
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider choice correspondences which may be empty-valued. We study conditions under which such choice correspondences are rational, transitively rational, partially rational, partially almost transitive rational, partially almost quasi-transitive rational. This provides fresh impetus and understanding of multi-criteria decision making.
Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues
Warren, Jeffrey M.
2011-01-01
Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…
Generalized NLS Hierarchies from Rational $W$ Algebras
Toppan, F
1994-01-01
Finite rational $\\cw$ algebras are very natural structures appearing in coset constructions when a Kac-Moody subalgebra is factored out. In this letter we address the problem of relating these algebras to integrable hierarchies of equations, by showing how to associate to a rational $\\cw$ algebra its corresponding hierarchy. We work out two examples: the $sl(2)/U(1)$ coset, leading to the Non-Linear Schr\\"{o}dinger hierarchy, and the $U(1)$ coset of the Polyakov-Bershadsky $\\cw$ algebra, leading to a $3$-field representation of the KP hierarchy already encountered in the literature. In such examples a rational algebra appears as algebra of constraints when reducing a KP hierarchy to a finite field representation. This fact arises the natural question whether rational algebras are always associated to such reductions and whether a classification of rational algebras can lead to a classification of the integrable hierarchies.
Sentencing and Other Controversial Issues: Why We Need Rational Debate More Than Ever
Ian Gray
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The article seeks to demonstrate the importance of rational debate in the community on controversial issues. It focuses on the need for rationalism to prevail in community debates on controversial issues. Issues inclusive of sentencing, climate change, mental health and its prevalence in the prison system and ‘whether courts are out of touch’ with the community. The article recognises the difficulties faced by those engaged in community issues and concludes by promoting the need to maintain a tolerant and harmonious society by engaging in well informed rational debate.
The Rational Solutions to a Generalized Riccati Equation and Their Application
Liu, Qing; Shen, Shi-Yao; Wang, Zi-Hua
2013-02-01
Based on the rational solutions to a generalized Riccati equation, a new method which is called as rational function method is proposed. We apply this method to solve the coupled mKdV equations and derive a set of rational solutions. This method is also available for seeking their solutions to other NLPDEs. It shows that the rational function method is more universal and powerful than the auxiliary Riccati equation method.
Mădălina Bălău-Ariton
2013-05-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the issue of consumer choice seen from two quite diverging perspectives: rational choice theory and consumer empowerment as it is currently measured by available research at European Union level. The question we try to answer is: In what manner do the assumptions on consumer rational choice influence the actual understanding of choice and the improvement of the fairness of the choice? To this aim we review the basic theoretical ideas on rational choice and consumer empowerment, as well as the conclusions of previous research on Romanian consumers’ empowerment current situation. The main finding of this analysis is that Romanian consumer choice needs more awareness, an increase of consumer skills and more active individual involvement in discussing these issues.
Ethical Issues in the Assessment and Treatment of a Rational Suicidal Client.
Snipe, Rosetta M.
1988-01-01
Notes that rational client's decision to commit suicide may present complex ethical issues for therapist. Presents and discusses three-month account of therapy with client, from perspective of ethical values and principles upon which assessment and treatment decisions were made, and complex ethical dilemmas encountered as therapist juxtaposed…
General Issues in International and European Law
Gentian Zyberi
2015-08-01
Full Text Available As a former editor of the predecessor to this journal, namely Merkourios, it gives me great pleasure to write the editorial for the 81st issue of the Utrecht Journal of International and European Law (“UJIEL” on ‘General Issues in International and European Law’. After first providing a general overview of the materials contained in this issue, I will briefly highlight some of the main points made in, the five articles, the case note, two book reviews, and the interview.
A General Theory of Computational Scalability Based on Rational Functions
Gunther, Neil J
2008-01-01
The universal scalability law (USL) of computational capacity is a rational function C_p = P(p)/Q(p) with P(p) a linear polynomial and Q(p) a second-degree polynomial in the number of physical processors p, that has long been used for statistical modeling and prediction of computer system performance. We prove that C_p is equivalent to the synchronous throughput bound for a machine-repairman with state-dependent service rate. Simpler rational functions, such as Amdahl's law and Gustafson speedup, are corollaries of this queue-theoretic bound. C_p is both necessary and sufficient for modeling all practical characteristics of computational scalability.
New and More General Rational Formal Solutions to (2+1)-Dimensional Toda System
无
2007-01-01
With the aid of computerized symbolic computation and Riccati equation rational expansion approach, some new and more general rational formal solutions to (2+1)-dimensional Toda system are obtained. The method used here can also be applied to solve other nonlinear differential-difference equation or equations.
[Diagnostic rationalism. Views of general practitioners on fibromyalgia].
Daehli, B
1993-09-20
Clinical practice is characterized by having to make numerous important decisions, including the diagnosis. In this study, general practitioners were asked to agree or to disagree with statements of fibromyalgia. The main purpose was to test the usefulness of two well-known models for decision-making when studying diagnosis in cases of uncertainty and scepticism. The results show that the models are inadequate to explain the decisions.
Dynamic behavior of a nonlinear rational difference equation and generalization
Shi Qihong
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract This paper is concerned about the dynamic behavior for the following high order nonlinear difference equation x n = (x n-k + x n-m + x n-l /(x n-k x n-m + x n-m x n-l +1 with the initial data { x - l , x - l + 1 , … , x - 1 } ∈ ℝ + l and 1 ≤ k ≤ m ≤ l. The convergence of solution to this equation is investigated by introducing a new sequence, which extends and includes corresponding results obtained in the references (Li in J Math Anal Appl 312:103-111, 2005; Berenhaut et al. Appl. Math. Lett. 20:54-58, 2007; Papaschinopoulos and Schinas J Math Anal Appl 294:614-620, 2004 to a large extent. In addition, some propositions for generalized equations are reported.
Rational use of medicines--an important issue in pharmaceutical policy
Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine Marie
2005-01-01
and interpretations are presented and compared. This is followed by a presentation of the concerns associated with pharmaceutical marketing from a policy perspective, including the fear that the dominance of information produced by industry may lead to irrational drug use. Next, the authors review the tools...... to adapt its way of thinking to include the issue of context. They point out that clinical pharmacists today already adapt their decisons to each patient and patient group. Policy-makers are encouraged to adopt a similar approach because populations as well as particular market situations vary......In this article the authors deal with issues of drug utilisation from a clinical and policy perspective. They address the difficulties of managing drug therapy on a population level, which is known among professionals, as the problem of rational use of medicines. Various definitions...
Curseu, Petru Lucian; Schruijer, Sandra G. L.
2012-01-01
This study investigates the relationship between the five decision-making styles evaluated by the General Decision-Making Style Inventory, indecisiveness, and rationality in decision making. Using a sample of 102 middle-level managers, the results show that the rational style positively predicts rationality in decision making and negatively…
ON A GENERALIZED TAYLOR THEOREM: A RATIONAL PROOF OF THE VALIDITY OF THE HOMOTOPY ANALYSIS METHOD
廖世俊
2003-01-01
A generalized Taylor series of a complex function was derived and some relatedtheorems about its convergence region were given. The generalized Taylor theorem can beapplied to greatly enlarge convergence regions of approximation series given by othertraditional techniques. The rigorous proof of the generalized Taylor theorem also provides uswith a rational base of the validity of a new kind of powerful analytic technique for nonlinearproblems, namely the homotopy analysis method.
Potential of Technogenic Mineral Raw Materials in Russia and the Issues of its Rational Use
Larisa Ivanovna Goncharova
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The increasing negative impact of mining waste on natural ecosystems often leads to their irreversible destruction, a trend that is gradually becoming global. The particular relevance of the research is explained, on the one hand, by the possibilities of minimization of specific volumes of formation of mining waste in all types of industries; on the other hand, by the possibilities of maximization of comp rehensive use of their valuable components as secondary material resources on an economically rational basis and the possibilities of restoring the disturbed natural environment. The rational use of natural and technogenic mineral raw materials is greatly facilitated by the geological exploration and geological-economic evaluation of the resources, which requires the development of specific methodological approaches to the economic justification of resource estimation parameters for outlining and calculating the multicomponent commercial reserves of raw materials and separate valuable components in them. Analysis shows that researchers’ opinions on a number of methodological principles of sustainable mining, complex processing of multicomponent materials are often contradictory. Scientific publications do not consider the issue of the price valuation of mining waste as secondary material resources. Mining waste processing should be considered as an important part of the overall socio-ecological-economic system for rational nature management. The analysis of the existing practice of using the mining waste should be based on the system approach and take into consideration geological, technological, economic, environmental and social characteristics throughout the cycle of production, combined processing and treatment of secondary waste according to the principle “from the earth to the earth”. The article identifies the main barriers to the recycling of mining wastes, proposes several methodological guidelines for the sustainable mining and
On the Rational Approximation of Analytic Functions Having Generalized Types of Rate of Growth
Devendra Kumar
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the rational approximation of functions holomorphic on a domain G⊂C, having generalized types of rates of growth. Moreover, we obtain the characterization of the rate of decay of product of the best approximation errors for functions f having fast and slow rates of growth of the maximum modulus.
ON THE GENERALIZED INVERSE NEVILLE-TYPE MATRIX-VALUED RATIONAL INTERPOLANTS
Zhibing Chen
2003-01-01
A new kind of matrix-valued rational interpolants is recursively established by means of generalized Samelson inverse for matrices, with scalar numerator and matrix-valued denominator. In this respect, it is essentially different from that of the previous works [7,9], where the matrix-valued rational interpolants is in Thiele-type continued fraction form with matrix-valued numerator and scalar denominator. For both univariate and bivariate cases, sufficient conditions for existence, characterisation and uniqueness in some sense are proved respectively, and an error formula for the univariate interpolating function is also given. The results obtained in this paper are illustrated with some numerical examples.
BOUNDED RATIONALITY: AN ANALYSIS OF TEACHING MANUALS OF MANAGEMENT GENERAL THEORY
Daniela Teixeira Dias
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The objective of this article was to analyze how the concept of bounded rationality has been treated in the educational manuals of General Theory of Management, with the objective to analyze its quality, in terms of quality and complexity. Therefore, three educational manuals provided by the Central Library of the Alfa Federal University were used: “General Theory of Administration” authored by Motta and Vasconcelos (Manual A; “Introduction to Management” by Chiavenato (Manual B, and “Management: Theory and Processes” by Caravantes, Caravantes, and Kloeckener (Manual C. These were observed from the content analysis in four dimensions defined a priori: delimitation of the approach and quality of the references; historical-concrete dimension; relationship dimension; and theoretical dimension. The results showed that all manuals presented considerations about the bounded rationality assumption and made reference to Simon and Barnard, although they have not discussed their work and their contribution more widely. Manual A was the most complete in the axes analysis herein. Manual B turned to a summarized and synthetic theoretical discussion. Whereas C Manual defined and conceptualized bounded rationality and was the only one to describe the types of rationality presented by Simon.
A General Class of Derivative Free Optimal Root Finding Methods Based on Rational Interpolation
Fiza Zafar
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We construct a new general class of derivative free n-point iterative methods of optimal order of convergence 2n-1 using rational interpolant. The special cases of this class are obtained. These methods do not need Newton’s iterate in the first step of their iterative schemes. Numerical computations are presented to show that the new methods are efficient and can be seen as better alternates.
A rational cubic trigonometric approximation scheme of the generalized Cornu spirals.
Mahmood, Hira; Hussain, Maria; Hussain, Malik Zawwar
2016-01-01
The [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]-approximation schemes are introduced to approximate the popular generalized Cornu spirals with the help of the parametric rational cubic trigonometric Bézier curves. The [Formula: see text]-approximation scheme has two free parameters whereas [Formula: see text]-approximation scheme has four free parameters. To approximate the generalized Cornu spirals, the values of these free parameters are optimized by the minimization of the maximum relative curvature error of approximation. By comparing the relative curvature errors of approximation schemes, the developed approximation schemes are found less erroneous and more efficient than the existing GCS approximation schemes.
Bedside rationing by general practitioners: a postal survey in the Danish public healthcare system
Lauridsen, Sigurd; Norup, Michael; Rossel, Peter
2008-01-01
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It is ethically controversial whether medical doctors are morally permitted to ration the care of their patients at the bedside. To explore whether general practitioners in fact do ration in this manner we conducted a study within primary care in the Danish public healthcare...... of the study were twofold: an assessment of the proportion of GPs who, in a mainly hypothetical setting, would consider cost-quality trade-offs relevant to their clinical decision-making given their economic impact on the healthcare system; and a measure of the extent to which they would disclose...... this information to patients. RESULTS: In the hypothetical setting 95% of GPs considered cost-quality trade-offs relevant to their clinical decision-making given the economic impact of such trade-offs on the healthcare system. In all 90% stated that this consideration had been relevant in clinical decision...
Efficient Recursive Methods for Partial Fraction Expansion of General Rational Functions
Youneng Ma
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Partial fraction expansion (pfe is a classic technique used in many fields of pure or applied mathematics. The paper focuses on the pfe of general rational functions in both factorized and expanded form. Novel, simple, and recursive formulas for the computation of residues and residual polynomial coefficients are derived. The proposed pfe methods require only simple pure-algebraic operations in the whole computation process. They do not involve derivatives when tackling proper functions and require no polynomial division when dealing with improper functions. The methods are efficient and very easy to apply for both computer and manual calculation. Various numerical experiments confirm that the proposed methods can achieve quite desirable accuracy even for pfe of rational functions with multiple high-order poles or some tricky ill-conditioned poles.
Puig Soler, Rita; Perramon Colet, Meritxell; Yahni, Corinne Zara; Garcia Puig, Anna M
2015-01-01
Identify the level of knowledge, opinions and attitudes of medicines in general population. Descriptive transversal study realised in a sample of≥18 years old public health users from primary health centres in the city of Barcelona. Sample has been chosen using a two phases sampling, stratified by district, gender and age. Questionnaire administered face-to-face. SPSSv15 used for the analysis. December 2011. 484 surveys has been done (IC 95%, α=5%). 53% were women and 21,3% had university studies. Medicine use: 81% had taken medicines in the last 3 months; average of 2,34. 80% of medicated people know what they take and its indication. 55,6% don't know active ingredient concept. Only 35% recognise the active ingredient showed in the box of the medicine (3 cases shown) and 44,5% not one. 22,7% know the meaning of security concepts contraindication, adverse effect and drug interaction. 20% ignore. This fact grows with age and reduces with high study levels. Global rational use of medicines indicator obtains 5,03 from 10: 3,42 opinion and 6,51 attitude. 70% of people think there is no rational use of medicines in general and 21,3% would promote raising awareness. Low level of knowledge and poor attitude and opinion in rational use of medicines have been shown in this study. It is necessary involve citizens and improve their basic knowledge to promote rational use of medicines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Bouffard, Jeff; Bry, Jeff; Smith, Shamayne; Bry, Rhonda
2008-12-01
Much of the criminological literature testing rational choice theory has utilized hypothetical scenarios presented to university students. Although this research generally supports rational choice theory, a common criticism is that conclusions from these studies may not generalize to samples of actual offenders. This study proceeds to examine this issue in two steps. First, a traditional sample of university students is examined to determine how various costs and benefits relate to their hypothetical likelihood of offending. Then the same data collection procedures are employed with a somewhat different sample of younger, adjudicated, and institutionalized offenders to determine whether the conclusions drawn from the student sample generalize to this offender sample. Results generally suggest that the content and process of hypothetical criminal decision making differ in the sample of known offenders relative to the university students. Limitations of the current study, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed.
[General organizational issues in disaster health response].
Pacifici, L E; Riccardo, F; De Rosa, A G; Pacini, A; Nardi, L; Russo, G; Scaroni, E
2007-01-01
Recent studies show how in the 2004-2005 period there has been an increase in natural disasters of 18% worldwide. According to a renowned author planning for disaster response is as valid as the starting hypothesis. The study of an inductive mental process in disaster response planning is the key to avoiding the invention and re-invention of the wheel for each emergency. Research in this field however is hampered by different factors one of which is data collection that during disaster response requires specific training. Standardization of data collection models with limitation of the number of variables is required as is taking into account problems related to people migration and subsequent sampling problems and retrospective analysis. Moreover poor attention to the training of the volunteers employed on the field is an issue to be considered.
1978-09-01
general equilibrium model of an economy with market fritions. A market is said to have frictions if buyers and sellers have trouble finding each other, if it is costly for them to search for each other, and if it is costly to wait to buy or sell. Equilibrium is a stationary probability distribution over the set of possible time paths of states of the economy. This equilibrium reflects rational expectations if all agents know the stationary distribution of the variables they observe and if they exploit this information. Prices are fixed and are not necessarily equilibrium
Vass, M; Hendriksen, C
2005-01-01
people and to consider different approaches when evaluating evidence of risk and benefit for the individual. Old people are facing a considerable risk of adverse drug reactions and recent initiatives, including the Continuous Medical Educational Efforts Programme, address issues of inappropriate...... state that a number of pharmacological regimens for older people are outperformed by non-pharmacological treatment alternatives involving competent individualised counselling and public provision of easy (transportation) possibilities for joining centres offering staff and equipment for physical......This paper discusses GP perspectives on the principles underlying rational pharmacotherapy for older people. The rising use of prescription medicine forces the GP to balance the benefit of evidence group-based appropriate drug use against the problems arising when medication is given to older...
Norheim Ole
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The general practitioner in Norway is expected to ensure equity and effectiveness through fair rationing. At the same time, due to recent reforms of the Norwegian health care sector, both the role of economic incentives and patient autonomy have been strengthened. Studies indicate that modern general practitioners, both in Norway and in other countries are uncomfortable with the gatekeeper role, but there is little knowledge about how general practitioners experience rationing in practice. Methods Through focus group interviews with Norwegian general practitioners, we explore physicians' attitudes toward factors of influence on medical decision making and how rationing dilemmas are experienced in everyday practice. Results Four major concerns appeared in the group discussions: The obligation to ration health care, professional autonomy, patient autonomy, and competition. A central finding was that the physicians find rationing difficult because saying no in face to face relations often is felt uncomfortable and in conflict with other important objectives for the general practitioner. Conclusion It is important to understand the association between using economic incentives in the management of health care, increasing patient autonomy, and the willingness among physicians to contribute to efficient, fair and legitimate resource allocation.
Bergert, F. Bryan; Nosofsky, Robert M.
2007-01-01
The authors develop and test generalized versions of take-the-best (TTB) and rational (RAT) models of multiattribute paired-comparison inference. The generalized models make allowances for subjective attribute weighting, probabilistic orders of attribute inspection, and noisy decision making. A key new test involves a response-time (RT)…
Generalized and Stability Rational Functions for Dynamic Systems of Reactor Kinetics
Ahmed E. Aboanber
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The base of reactor kinetics dynamic systems is a set of coupled stiff ordinary differential equations known as the point reactor kinetics equations. These equations which express the time dependence of the neutron density and the decay of the delayed neutron precursors within a reactor are first order nonlinear and essentially describe the change in neutron density within the reactor due to a change in reactivity. Outstanding the particular structure of the point kinetic matrix, a semianalytical inversion is performed and generalized for each elementary step resulting eventually in substantial time saving. Also, the factorization techniques based on using temporarily the complex plane with the analytical inversion is applied. The theory is of general validity and involves no approximations. In addition, the stability of rational function approximations is discussed and applied to the solution of the point kinetics equations of nuclear reactor with different types of reactivity. From the results of various benchmark tests with different types of reactivity insertions, the developed generalized Padé approximation (GPA method shows high accuracy, high efficiency, and stable character of the solution.
How to rationally use information diagnostic technologies in family and general medicine practice.
Sivić, Suad; Masic, Izet; Petkovic, Darko; Huseinagic, Senad; Tandir, Salih; Zunic, Lejla
2009-01-01
NONE DECLARED New discoveries in technology indeed enabled significant improvement of health care in the last three decades. Only during the last few years a significant breakthrough is achieved in the field of antiviral drugs, biotechnology, digital diagnostic technology, molecular diagnosis, tissues and organs transplantation as well as surgical and information technologies, which all contributed to the improvement of health care. Rapid growth of medical technology has led to the increase in costs of health care, increased access to these technologies and improvement of health care that is permanently encouraging the further development of technology. Technology encompasses the skills, knowledge and ability to understand, use and create useful things. It is the practical application of knowledge. Evaluation of health technology is the systematic evaluation of characteristics, results or impact of health technologies. The primary purpose of evaluation is to provide information to responsible parties for the technology in the health care system, which will be used in decision-making and introduction of these technologies. Information technology in medicine and health care represents all medical and health technology in the process of work, monitoring and evaluation done using computer technology. Progress of medical science in recent years especially needs to thank to the development of information technologies. The health care system of Bosnia and Herzegovina is currently operating in the two sub-systems of primary health care. One is inherited from the past system, in which the primary health care is provided by general practitioners, specialists in general practice, as well as gynecologists, pediatricians and pulmologists, and the second subsystem occurs when in PHC is introduced the system of family medicine doctors and family medicine specialists. Family medicine, based on the concept of orientation towards the methods which are more effective, rational and
Aragon, Kathryn M.; Eaton, Shelley M.; McCornack, Marjorie Turner; Shannon, Sharon A.
2014-12-01
When a requirements engineering effort fails to meet expectations, often times the requirements management tool is blamed. Working with numerous project teams at Sandia National Laboratories over the last fifteen years has shown us that the tool is rarely the culprit; usually it is the lack of a viable information architecture with well- designed processes to support requirements engineering. This document illustrates design concepts with rationale, as well as a proven information architecture to structure and manage information in support of requirements engineering activities for any size or type of project. This generalized information architecture is specific to IBM's Rational DOORS (Dynamic Object Oriented Requirements System) software application, which is the requirements management tool in Sandia's CEE (Common Engineering Environment). This generalized information architecture can be used as presented or as a foundation for designing a tailored information architecture for project-specific needs. It may also be tailored for another software tool. Version 1.0 4 November 201
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave
The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims......, there exist baselines (to be interpreted as objective entitlements, ideal targets, or past consumption) that might play an important role in the allocation process. The model we present is able to accommodate real-life rationing situations, ranging from resource allocation in the public health care sector...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...
Kalmykov, M.Yu.; Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2008-07-15
We prove the following theorems: 1) The Laurent expansions in {epsilon} of the Gauss hypergeometric functions {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+(p)/(q)+c{epsilon};z), {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+(p)/(q)+a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+(p/q)+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+(p)/(q)+c{epsilon};z) and {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+(p)/(q)+ a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+(p)/(q)+c{epsilon};z), where I{sub 1},I{sub 2},I{sub 3},p,q are arbitrary integers, a,b,c are arbitrary numbers and {epsilon} is an infinitesimal parameter, are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms of q-roots of unity with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials; 2) The Laurent expansion of the Gauss hypergeometric function {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+(p)/(q)+a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+c{epsilon};z) is expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms of q-roots of unity times powers of logarithm with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials; 3) The multiple inverse rational sums {sigma}{sup {infinity}}{sub j=1}({gamma}(j))/({gamma}(1+j-(p)/(q))) (z{sup j})/(j{sup c}) S{sub a{sub 1}}(j-1).. S{sub a{sub p}}(j-1) and the multiple rational sums {sigma}{sup {infinity}}{sub j=1} ({gamma}(j+(p)/(q)))/({gamma}(1+j)) (z{sup j})/(j{sup c}) S{sub a{sub 1}}(j-1).. S{sub a{sub p}}(j-1), where S{sub a}(j)={sigma}{sup j}{sub k=1}(1)/(k{sup a}) is a harmonic series and c is an arbitrary integer, are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms; 4) The generalized hypergeometric functions {sub p}F{sub p.1}((vector)A+(vector)a{epsilon};(vector)B+(vector)b{epsilon},(p)/(q)+B{sub p-1};z) and {sub p}F{sub p-1}((vector)A+(vector)a{epsilon},(p)/(q)+A{sub p};(vector)B+(vector)b{epsilon};z) are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials. (orig.)
Rational bases and generalized barycentrics applications to finite elements and graphics
Wachspress, Eugene
2016-01-01
This three-part volume explores theory for construction of rational interpolation functions for continuous patchwork approximation. Authored by the namesake of the Wachspress Coordinates, the book develops construction of basis functions for a broad class of elements which have widespread graphics and finite element application. Part one is the 1975 book A Rational Finite Element Basis (with minor updates and corrections) written by Dr. Wachspress. Part two describes theoretical advances since 1975 and includes analysis of elements not considered previously. Part three consists of annotated MATLAB programs implementing theory presented in parts one and two.
L Bao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Hospital information system is widely used to improve work efficiency of hospitals in China. However, it is lack of the function providing pharmaceutical information service for clinical pharmacists. A novel clinical pharmacy management system developed by our hospital was introduced to improve the work efficiency of clinical pharmacists in our hospital and to carry out large sample statistical analyzes by providing pharmacy information services and promoting rational drug use. Clinical pharmacy management system was developed according to the actual situation. Taking prescription review in the department of general surgery as the example, work efficiency of clinical pharmacists, quality and qualified rates of prescriptions before and after utilizing clinical pharmacy management system were compared. Statistics of 48,562 outpatient and 5776 inpatient prescriptions of the general surgical department were analyzed. Qualified rates of both the inpatient and outpatient prescriptions of the general surgery department increased, and the use of antibiotics decreased. This system apparently improved work efficiency, standardized the level and accuracy of drug use, which will improve the rational drug use and pharmacy information service in our hospital. Meanwhile, utilization of prophylactic antibiotics for the aseptic operations also reduced.
Bergert, F Bryan; Nosofsky, Robert M
2007-01-01
The authors develop and test generalized versions of take-the-best (TTB) and rational (RAT) models of multiattribute paired-comparison inference. The generalized models make allowances for subjective attribute weighting, probabilistic orders of attribute inspection, and noisy decision making. A key new test involves a response-time (RT) approach. TTB predicts that RT is determined solely by the expected time required to locate the 1st discriminating attribute, whereas RAT predicts that RT is determined by the difference in summed evidence between the 2 alternatives. Critical test pairs are used that partially decouple these 2 factors. Under conditions in which ideal observer TTB and RAT strategies yield equivalent decisions, both the RT results and the estimated attribute weights suggest that the vast majority of subjects adopted the generalized TTB strategy. The RT approach is also validated in an experimental condition in which use of a RAT strategy is essentially forced upon subjects.
Li Wenting [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)], E-mail: lwt.wentinglee@yahoo.com.cn; Zhang Hongqing [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)
2009-03-15
Based on symbolic computation and the idea of rational expansion method, a new generalized compound Riccati equations rational expansion method (GCRERE) is suggested to construct a series of exact complexiton solutions for nonlinear evolution equations. Compared with most existing rational expansion methods and other sophisticated methods, the proposed method not only recover some known solutions, but also find some new and general complexiton solutions. The validity and reliability of the method is tested by its application to the (2+1)-dimensional Burgers equation. It is shown that more complexiton solutions can be found by this new method.
Alpay, Daniel; Dijksma, Aad; Langer, Heinz; Wanjala, Gerald
2006-01-01
We define and solve a boundary interpolation problem for generalized Schur functions s(z) on the open unit disk D which have preassigned asymptotics when z from D tends nontangentially to a boundary point z1 ∈ T. The solutions are characterized via a fractional linear parametrization formula. We als
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave
2013-01-01
We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....
On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups
Mingyuan, Gu
2014-01-01
Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…
Ethical issues in electronic health records: A general overview
Fouzia F Ozair
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Electronic health record (EHR is increasingly being implemented in many developing countries. It is the need of the hour because it improves the quality of health care and is also cost-effective. Technologies can introduce some hazards hence safety of information in the system is a real challenge. Recent news of security breaches has put a question mark on this system. Despite its increased usefulness, and increasing enthusiasm in its adoption, not much attention is being paid to the ethical issues that might arise. Securing EHR with an encrypted password is a probable option. The purpose of this article is to discuss the various ethical issues arising in the use of the EHRs and their possible solutions.
Glover, Rebecca J.; Natesan, Prathiba; Wang, Jie; Rohr, Danielle; McAfee-Etheridge, Lauri; Booker, Dana D.; Bishop, James; Lee, David; Kildare, Cory; Wu, Minwei
2014-01-01
Explorations of relationships between Haidt's Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) and indices of moral decision-making assessed by the Defining Issues Test have been limited to correlational analyses. This study used Harm, Fairness, Ingroup, Authority and Purity to predict overall moral judgment and individual Defining Issues Test-2 (DIT-2)…
29 CFR 102.19 - Appeal to the general counsel from refusal to issue or reissue.
2010-07-01
... Unfair Labor Practices 1 Complaint § 102.19 Appeal to the general counsel from refusal to issue or.... Consideration of an appeal untimely filed is within the discretion of the General Counsel upon good cause...
Ballester Pla, Coralio
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The observation of the actual behavior by economic decision makers in the lab and in the field justifies that bounded rationality has been a generally accepted assumption in many socio-economic models. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the difficulties involved in providing a correct definition of what a rational (or irrational agent is. In this paper we describe two frameworks that employ different approaches for analyzing bounded rationality. The first is a spatial segregation set-up that encompasses two optimization methodologies: backward induction and forward induction. The main result is that, even under the same state of knowledge, rational and non-rational agents may match their actions. The second framework elaborates on the relationship between irrationality and informational restrictions. We use the beauty contest (Nagel, 1995 as a device to explain this relationship.
La observación del comportamiento de los agentes económicos tanto en el laboratorio como en la vida real justifica que la racionalidad acotada sea un supuesto aceptado en numerosos modelos socio-económicos. El objetivo de este artículo es ilustrar las dificultades que conlleva una correcta definición de qué es un agente racional (irracional. En este artículo se describen dos marcos que emplean diferentes metodologías para analizar la racionalidad acotada. El primero es un modelo de segregación espacial donde se contrastan dos metodologías de optimización: inducción hacia atrás y hacia adelante. El resultado principal es que, incluso con el mismo nivel de conocimiento, tanto agentes racionales como irracionales podrían coincidir en sus acciones. El segundo marco trabaja sobre la relación entre irracionalidad y restricción de información. Se utiliza el juego llamado “beauty contest” (Nagel 1995 como mecanismo para explicar dicha relación.
GENERAL ISSUES CONSIDERING BRAND EQUITY WITHIN THE NATION BRANDING PROCESS
Denisa, COTÎRLEA
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The present work-paper was written in order to provide an overview of the intangible values that actively contribute to brand capital formation within the nation branding process; through this article, the author tried to emphasize the differences existent between brand capital and brand equity within the context of the nation branding process, which has became a widely approached subject both in the national and international literature. Also, the evolution of brand capital and brand equity was approached, in order to identify and explain their components and their role, by highlighting the entire process of their evolution under a sequence of steps scheme. The results of this paper are focused on the identification of a structured flowchart through which the process of nation branding -and the brand capital itself- are to be perceived as holistic concepts, integrator and inter-correlated ones, easily understood.The methodology used in order to write the present article resumes to all appropriate methods and techniques used for collecting and processing empirical data and information, respectively to observing, sorting, correlating, categorizing, comparing and analyzing data, so that the addressed theoretical elements could have been founded; in the center of the qualitative thematic research addressed in the present article lie general elements belonging to Romania's image and identity promotion.
General measures and quality of life issues in psoriasis
Rashmi Sarkar
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Psoriasis generally does not affect survival but has significant detrimental effect on quality of life (QOL, which may be comparable to that of ischemic heart disease, diabetes, depression, and cancer. The foremost important thing in the management of psoriasis is counseling of the patient. The clinician needs to be empathetic and spend adequate time with the patient and educating the patient about psoriasis. Clinicians should make it clear to the patient that the primary goal of treatment is control of the disease rather than cure. Eating a balanced and low glycemic diet could be an important adjuvant factor in the prevention and treatment of moderate nonpustular psoriasis. Obese people are more likely to have severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis than people with an average body mass index. Dietary supplementation with oily fish, rich in n-3 fatty acids, in psoriasis had shown mixed results in trials. Promising results have been documented for parenteral application of n-3 fatty acid, but not with oral supplementation. Increased smoking or alcohol abuse increases the risk of developing psoriasis and may influence disease severity, and hence must be avoided. Soaking in warm water with bath oil can be done in extensive psoriasis for hydration and emollient effect, and bland soaps or soap substitutes should be used; antiseptics should be avoided as they may irritate the skin. Relatively small, localized patches of psoriasis may improve with occlusion, i.e., waterproof adhesive dressings. The use of emollients is an internationally accepted standard adjunctive to the treatment of psoriasis. Dermatology Life Quality Index is a psychometrically sound and responsive measure of psoriasis-specific outcomes and most comprehensively captures the impact of clinical signs and symptoms on patient's well-being.
V. N. Romaniuk
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper considers organization of the industrial enterprise heat and power supply system (HPSS, to be rational from the structure and flow parameter standpoint. Developing HPSS is one of the main lines of implementing energy-saving potential in volumes complying with dictates of the time on reducing the production cost energy component, which is especially vital for the light industry enterprises of Belarus. To reduce the complexity of the task the authors employ the hierarchical structure of HPSS. With regard to textile and knitwear enterprises, they show the irregularity of energy supply on the one hand, and of energy use on the other. The finishing departments of the specified enterprises ensure their thermo-technological status. It is proverbial that accomplished in terms of energy thermo-technological enterprises should not consume the electric energy produced in condensation electric power plants. Instead, for their production needs, they should use thermal energy and electricity generated in the CHP. At the same time, steam turbine CHPs of low power, and consequently of low initial parameters, cannot provide the required electrical and heat energy flow generation balance. The indicated circumstance among others accounts for prevalence of condensation electric power plants in the scheme of electrogenerating capacities that provide work for the light industry enterprises. And this leads to irregularity of their energy supply. Transition to gas CHPs with required scheme of the energy flow generation is associated primarily with creation of inherent generating sources, which in its turn poses a number of challenges on modification of the thermal treatment schemes of technological flows. The problem is solved in package with developing energy consumption of the finishing department as well as the entire enterprise. The study shows the capability of utilizing low pressure hot water alongside with steam, which paves the way to the recuperative
Mayo, David J.
1998-01-01
The rational suicide paradigm is contrasted with the traditional view of the mental health professions. Historical background on suicide in western civilization is supplied and the concept of rationality elucidated. Parallels between the questions of refusing life-prolonging therapy and rational suicide are discussed, as are reasons for suicide.…
Seipel, Christian; Eifler, Stefanie
2010-01-01
In this article, deviant action is analyzed on the basis of ideas derived from Gottfredson and Hirschi's self-control theory. Presumedly, self-control in interaction with opportunities can explain deviant action. This assumption is elaborated using the concept of high- and low-cost situations from rational choice theory. From this point of view,…
Seipel, Christian; Eifler, Stefanie
2010-01-01
In this article, deviant action is analyzed on the basis of ideas derived from Gottfredson and Hirschi's self-control theory. Presumedly, self-control in interaction with opportunities can explain deviant action. This assumption is elaborated using the concept of high- and low-cost situations from rational choice theory. From this point of view,…
Building Literacy in Afterschool. Dollar General Afterschool Literacy Issue Brief. No. 67
Afterschool Alliance, 2015
2015-01-01
The Afterschool Alliance, in partnership with Dollar General Literacy Foundation, is proud to present this issue brief examining the vital role afterschool programs play to build students' literacy skills. This issue brief will explore the additional support needed to help students with their reading, writing and critical thinking skills, as well…
[Concepts of rational taxonomy].
Pavlinov, I Ia
2011-01-01
The problems are discussed related to development of concepts of rational taxonomy and rational classifications (taxonomic systems) in biology. Rational taxonomy is based on the assumption that the key characteristic of rationality is deductive inference of certain partial judgments about reality under study from other judgments taken as more general and a priory true. Respectively, two forms of rationality are discriminated--ontological and epistemological ones. The former implies inference of classifications properties from general (essential) properties of the reality being investigated. The latter implies inference of the partial rules of judgments about classifications from more general (formal) rules. The following principal concepts of ontologically rational biological taxonomy are considered: "crystallographic" approach, inference of the orderliness of organismal diversity from general laws of Nature, inference of the above orderliness from the orderliness of ontogenetic development programs, based on the concept of natural kind and Cassirer's series theory, based on the systemic concept, based on the idea of periodic systems. Various concepts of ontologically rational taxonomy can be generalized by an idea of the causal taxonomy, according to which any biologically sound classification is founded on a contentwise model of biological diversity that includes explicit indication of general causes responsible for that diversity. It is asserted that each category of general causation and respective background model may serve as a basis for a particular ontologically rational taxonomy as a distinctive research program. Concepts of epistemologically rational taxonomy and classifications (taxonomic systems) can be interpreted in terms of application of certain epistemological criteria of substantiation of scientific status of taxonomy in general and of taxonomic systems in particular. These concepts include: consideration of taxonomy consistency from the
Nakamura, Takashi
2012-01-01
In the present paper, we prove that self-approximation of $\\log \\zeta (s)$ with $d=0$ is equivalent to the Riemann Hypothesis. Next, we show self-approximation of $\\log \\zeta (s)$ with respect to all nonzero real numbers $d$. Moreover, we partially filled a gap existing in "The strong recurrence for non-zero rational parameters" and prove self-approximation of $\\zeta(s)$ for $0 \
[The issue of feasibility of a general theory of aging I. Generalized Gompertz-Makeham Law].
Golubev, A G
2009-01-01
Aging and longevity are interrelated so intimately that they should be treated with a unified theory. The longevity of every single cohort of living beings is determined by the rate of their dying-out. In most cases, mortality rates increase in accelerated fashions to reach values making the bulk of each finite cohort completely exhausted within a relatively narrow time interval shifted to the end of its resulting lifespan. Among simple functions with biologically interpretable parameters, the best fit to this pattern is demonstrated by the Gompertz-Makeham Law (GML): mu = C + lambda x e(gamma x t). A generalized form of GML mu = C(t) + lambda x e(-E(t)) is suggested and interpreted as a law of the dependency of mortality upon vitality rather than on age. It is reduced to the conventional GML when E depends linearly on t, that the age is an observable correlate of unobservable vitality. C(t) captures the inherently irresistible causes of death. The generalized GML can accommodate any mode of age-dependent functional decline, which should be placed into the exponent index to be translated into changes in mortality rate, and is compatible with any sort of cohort heterogeneity, which may be captured by substituting of GML parameters with relevant distributions or by combining of several generalized GML models. The generalized GML is suggested to result from the origin of life from the chemical world, which was associated with the transition of the role of the main variable in the Arrhenius equation k = A x exp[-Ea/(R x T)] for the dependency of chemical disintegration on temperature from T to Ea upon the transition from molecular to multimolecular prebiotic entities. Thus, the generalized GML is not a result of biological evolution but is a sort of chemical legacy of biology, which makes an important condition for life to evolve.
Ståhl, Tomas; Zaal, Maarten P; Skitka, Linda J
2016-01-01
In the present article we demonstrate stable individual differences in the extent to which a reliance on logic and evidence in the formation and evaluation of beliefs is perceived as a moral virtue, and a reliance on less rational processes is perceived as a vice. We refer to this individual difference variable as moralized rationality. Eight studies are reported in which an instrument to measure individual differences in moralized rationality is validated. Results show that the Moralized Rationality Scale (MRS) is internally consistent, and captures something distinct from the personal importance people attach to being rational (Studies 1-3). Furthermore, the MRS has high test-retest reliability (Study 4), is conceptually distinct from frequently used measures of individual differences in moral values, and it is negatively related to common beliefs that are not supported by scientific evidence (Study 5). We further demonstrate that the MRS predicts morally laden reactions, such as a desire for punishment, of people who rely on irrational (vs. rational) ways of forming and evaluating beliefs (Studies 6 and 7). Finally, we show that the MRS uniquely predicts motivation to contribute to a charity that works to prevent the spread of irrational beliefs (Study 8). We conclude that (1) there are stable individual differences in the extent to which people moralize a reliance on rationality in the formation and evaluation of beliefs, (2) that these individual differences do not reduce to the personal importance attached to rationality, and (3) that individual differences in moralized rationality have important motivational and interpersonal consequences.
“双诊制”政策的伦理合理性及伦理问题%Ethics Rationality and Ethical Issues of "Two Consultation Systems"
冯泽永
2012-01-01
“双诊制”是健康守门人的基本政策.“双诊制”的伦理合理性在于,该政策是把公共利益放在首位的必然选择,它维护社会公平公正原则进而维护社会公共利益,有利于公共健康利益和公共经济利益.但涉及的伦理问题也需重视,存在公共利益与患者个人利益的关系,各项政策在协调利益时的统一整合,程序公正与实质公正的关系等问题.%As the "Health Gate-keeper" of basic policy, the ethics rationality of "Two Consultation Systems" mainly reflects in the following points. Firstly, the policy is the inevitable choice to put the public interest first. Then, it insists on the principals of fairness and justice so as to maintain public interest. And, it benefits the interests of public health and public economy. Meanwhile, the related ethical issues of the policy need to be paid attention, such as, the relationship between public interest and the patient's interest, integration of every policy for coordinating interests, the relationship between procedural justice and substantive justice, and so on.
Skitka, Linda J.
2016-01-01
In the present article we demonstrate stable individual differences in the extent to which a reliance on logic and evidence in the formation and evaluation of beliefs is perceived as a moral virtue, and a reliance on less rational processes is perceived as a vice. We refer to this individual difference variable as moralized rationality. Eight studies are reported in which an instrument to measure individual differences in moralized rationality is validated. Results show that the Moralized Rationality Scale (MRS) is internally consistent, and captures something distinct from the personal importance people attach to being rational (Studies 1–3). Furthermore, the MRS has high test-retest reliability (Study 4), is conceptually distinct from frequently used measures of individual differences in moral values, and it is negatively related to common beliefs that are not supported by scientific evidence (Study 5). We further demonstrate that the MRS predicts morally laden reactions, such as a desire for punishment, of people who rely on irrational (vs. rational) ways of forming and evaluating beliefs (Studies 6 and 7). Finally, we show that the MRS uniquely predicts motivation to contribute to a charity that works to prevent the spread of irrational beliefs (Study 8). We conclude that (1) there are stable individual differences in the extent to which people moralize a reliance on rationality in the formation and evaluation of beliefs, (2) that these individual differences do not reduce to the personal importance attached to rationality, and (3) that individual differences in moralized rationality have important motivational and interpersonal consequences. PMID:27851777
Blackett, S.A. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand). Dept of Engineering Science
1996-02-01
Numerical analysis is an important part of Engineering. Frequently relationships are not adequately understood, or too complicated to be represented by theoretical formulae. Instead, empirical approximations based on observed relationships can be used for simple fast and accurate evaluations. Historically, storage of data has been a large constraint on approximately methods. So the challenge is to find a sufficiently accurate representation of data which is valid over as large a range as possible while requiring the storage of only a few numerical values. Polynomials, popular as approximation functions because of their simplicity, can be used to represent simple data. Equation 1.1 shows a simple 3rd order polynomial approximation. However, just increasing the order and number of terms included in a polynomial approximation does not improve the overall result. Although the function may fit exactly to observed data, between these points it is likely that the approximation is increasingly less smooth and probably inadequate. An alternative to adding further terms to the approximation is to make the approximation rational. Equation 1.2 shows a rational polynomial, 3rd order in the numerator and denominator. A rational polynomial approximation allows poles and this can greatly enhance an approximation. In Sections 2 and 3 two different methods for fitting rational polynomials to a given data set are detailed. In Section 4, consideration is given to different rational polynomials used on adjacent regions. Section 5 shows the performance of the rational polynomial algorithms. Conclusions are presented in Section 6.
Information, Utility & Bounded Rationality
Ortega, Pedro A
2011-01-01
Perfectly rational decision-makers maximize expected utility, but crucially ignore the resource costs incurred when determining optimal actions. Here we employ an axiomatic framework for bounded rational decision-making based on a thermodynamic interpretation of resource costs as information costs. This leads to a variational "free utility" principle akin to thermodynamical free energy that trades off utility and information costs. We show that bounded optimal control solutions can be derived from this variational principle, which leads in general to stochastic policies. Furthermore, we show that risk-sensitive and robust (minimax) control schemes fall out naturally from this framework if the environment is considered as a bounded rational and perfectly rational opponent, respectively. When resource costs are ignored, the maximum expected utility principle is recovered.
Rational-Emotive Therapy and Self-Help Therapy.
Ellis, Albert
Unsupervised do-it-yourself therapy constitutes an exceptionally important issue that calls for more empirical and scientific investigation of the validity of publications in this field. Rational-emotive therapy (RET), one of the most popular forms of self-help treatment, has led to several generalizations. (1) Cognitive and cognitive-behavior…
Chaparro, Camila M; Dewey, Kathryn G
2010-01-01
The term 'lipid-based nutrient supplements' (LNS) refers generically to a range of fortified, lipid-based products, including products like Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) (a large daily ration with relatively low micronutrient concentration) as well as highly concentrated supplements (1-4 teaspoons/day, providing groups [e.g. infants and children between 6 and 24 months of age, and pregnant and lactating women (PLW)]. Currently, the main food and nutrition interventions in emergency settings include general food distribution (GFD) rations, which are provided to the affected population as a whole, and selective (or supplementary) feeding programs (SFP), which are to be provided to nutritionally vulnerable or malnourished individuals. In addition to logistical and operational challenges that may limit the intended effect of these programs, the nutritional quality of the food commodities provided may be insufficient to meet the needs of infants and young children and PLW. Because these subgroups have particularly high nutrient needs for growth and development, meeting these needs is challenging in settings where the ration is limited to a few food commodities, with little access to a diverse diet and bioavailable sources of micronutrients. In recent years, there has been increased attention to adding micronutrient interventions, on top of the other food-based interventions (such as GFDs and SFPs), to fill micronutrient gaps in diets in emergency settings. The focus of this document is the potential role of LNS in meeting the nutritional needs of these vulnerable subgroups, with the goal of preventing malnutrition in emergency-affected populations. The document addresses the desired nutritional formulation of LNS for these target groups, taking into account the expected bioavailability of relevant nutrients and toxicity concerns. It also discusses the recommended chemical forms of the fortificants in LNS; stability and shelf-life considerations; production
Tsung-han Tsai
2013-05-01
Full Text Available There is some confusion in political science, and the social sciences in general, about the meaning and interpretation of interaction effects in models with non-interval, non-normal outcome variables. Often these terms are casually thrown into a model specification without observing that their presence fundamentally changes the interpretation of the resulting coefficients. This article explains the conditional nature of reported coefficients in models with interactions, defining the necessarily different interpretation required by generalized linear models. Methodological issues are illustrated with an application to voter information structured by electoral systems and resulting legislative behavior and democratic representation in comparative politics.
General issues and precautions in the design for clinical trials of investigational new drugs.
Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei
2011-02-01
The general problems existing in the clinical trials of investigational new drugs involve some key aspects such as the guiding principles, research designs, quality controls and statistical analyses. This paper explores the eight general issues in the clinical trials of investigational new drugs and presents precautionary measures with high operability. Research on the clinical trials of investigational new drugs is a complex project, which should be carried out strictly according to the policies, laws, criteria and operating rules set by related agencies. The neglect of research designs and data analyses will lead clinical trials to failure.
Пересада, Сергей Михайлович; Дымко, Сергей Сергеевич; Ковбаса, Сергей Николаевич
2010-01-01
The paper reports a generalized solution of indirect vector control of induction motors with maximum torque per ampere ratio. A novel indirect field-oriented torque tracking controller is designed, which guarantees asymptotic torque and flux tracking with asymptotic field orientation. Results of simulation and experimental tests illustrate important features of the control proposed.
Macmillan, C. J. B.
1985-01-01
The recognition of teaching as a special relationship among individuals is currently being overlooked in much contemporary educational research and policymaking. The author examines the philosophy of rationality in teaching and relates it to the educational vision presented in George Orwell's novel, "Nineteen Eighty-Four." (CB)
Lam, Chi-Ming
2014-01-01
Nowadays, there is still a widely held view that the Chinese and Western modes of thought are quite distinct from each other. In particular, the Chinese mode of thought derived from Confucianism is considered as comparatively less rational than the Western one. In this article, I first argue that although the analogical mode of argumentation,…
Rutten, M.M.; Reed, G.
2009-01-01
This paper seeks to determine the macro-economic impacts of changes in health care provision. The resource allocation issues have been explored in theory, by applying the Rybczynski theorem, and empirically, using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for the UK with a detailed health compone
Schroyens, Walter; Fleerackers, Lieve; Maes, Sunile
2010-12-15
Two experiments (N(1) = 117 and N(2) = 245) on reasoning with knowledge-rich conditionals showed a main effect of logical validity, which was due to the negative effect of counter-examples being smaller for valid than for invalid arguments. These findings support the thesis that some people tend to inhibit background inconsistent with the hypothetical truth of the premises, while others tend to abandon the implicit truth-assumption when they have factual evidence to the contrary. Findings show that adhering to the truth-assumption in the face of conflicting evidence to the contrary requires an investment of time and effort which people with a higher general aptitude are more likely to do.
Schroyens, Walter; Fleerackers, Lieve; Maes, Sunile
2010-01-01
Two experiments (N1 = 117 and N2 = 245) on reasoning with knowledge-rich conditionals showed a main effect of logical validity, which was due to the negative effect of counter-examples being smaller for valid than for invalid arguments. These findings support the thesis that some people tend to inhibit background inconsistent with the hypothetical truth of the premises, while others tend to abandon the implicit truth-assumption when they have factual evidence to the contrary. Findings show that adhering to the truth-assumption in the face of conflicting evidence to the contrary requires an investment of time and effort which people with a higher general aptitude are more likely to do. PMID:21228921
Rational formality of mapping spaces
Felix, Yves
2010-01-01
Let X and Y be finite nilpotent CW complexes with dimension of X less than the connectivity of Y. Generalizing results of Vigu\\'e-Poirrier and Yamaguchi, we prove that the mapping space Map(X,Y) is rationally formal if and only if Y has the rational homotopy type of a finite product of odd dimensional spheres.
Georg Spielthenner
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Valuations are ubiquitous. We may be for or against genetically modified food; we find some politicians irresponsible; we prefer Beethoven to rock ‘n’ roll or vice versa; some enjoy bird-watching while others find it boring; and we may think that we have to tighten up on green-house gas emissions. Valuing is pervasive and often we are not even aware that we are valuing. However, many of ourvaluations are ill grounded and rationally defective. They are frequently based on misinformation, sloppy thinking, prejudice, and are biased in many ways as psychological research shows. For this reason there is widespread agreement among phi-losophers that we need an account of substantive valuational rationality, both for the theory of practical reasoning and for ethics as well. My main objectin this paper is to outline such an account and to present a principle that allows a non-technical rational criticism of valuations
课题成功申报之关键——理性创新%The Key of Success Issues Declaration: Rational Innovation
柴美群
2011-01-01
论文以大学在校本科生申请科研课题为研究对象,以做过学士、硕士学位论文,即将完成博士学位论文,并多次主研、完成省部级科研课题,具有相当研究能力的青年学者的身份,从课题研究内容、研究方法和研究创新等方面阐述如何撰写课题申报书.其新意在于,明确提出课题成功申报的关键是理性创新,并对创新,特别是理性创新的"理性"做出了富有创见的说明.%it is the subjects of this paper that the undergraduate students declare research project.The author who has done bachelor and master thesis, and is doing doctoral thesis which is nearing completion, and has host and completed the provincial research projects many times, and has considerable research capacity expounds how to write a declaration from the research content, research methods, research and innovation and other aspects.The novelty is that this paper proposes the key of success declaration is rational innovation, and makes a thoughtful note to the innovation,especially the "ration" of rational innovation.
The rationing agenda in the NHS. Rationing Agenda Group.
New, B
1996-06-22
The Rationing Agenda Group has been founded to deepen the British debate on rationing health care. It believes that rationing in health care is inevitable and that the public must be involved in the debate about issues relating to rationing. The group comprises people from all parts of health care, none of whom represent either their group or their institutions. RAG has begun by producing this document, which attempts to set an agenda of all the issues that need to be considered when debating the rationing of health care. We hope for responses to the document. The next stage will be to incorporate the responses into the agenda. Then RAG will divide the agenda into manageable chunks and commission expert, detailed commentaries. From this material a final paper will be published and used to prompt public debate. This stage should be reached early in 1997. While these papers are being prepared RAG is developing ways to involve the public in the debate and evaluate the whole process. We present as neutrally as possible all the issues related to rationing and priority setting in the NHS. We focus on the NHS for two reasons. Firstly, for those of us resident in the United Kingdom the NHS is the health care system with which we are most familiar and most concerned. Secondly, focusing on one system alone allows more coherent analysis than would be possible if issues in other systems were included as well. Our concern is with the delivery of health care, not its finance, though we discuss the possible effects of changing the financing system of the NHS. Finally, though our position is neutral, we hold two substantive views--namely, that rationing is unavoidable and that there should be more explicit debate about the principles and issues concerned. We consider the issues under four headings: preliminaries, ethics, democracy, and empirical questions. Preliminaries deal with the semantics of rationing, whether rationing is necessary, and with the range of services to which
Binmore, Ken
2008-01-01
It is widely held that Bayesian decision theory is the final word on how a rational person should make decisions. However, Leonard Savage--the inventor of Bayesian decision theory--argued that it would be ridiculous to use his theory outside the kind of small world in which it is always possible to ""look before you leap."" If taken seriously, this view makes Bayesian decision theory inappropriate for the large worlds of scientific discovery and macroeconomic enterprise. When is it correct to use Bayesian decision theory--and when does it need to be modified? Using a minimum of mathematics,
Rationalization: A Bibliography.
Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.
Rationalization was studied by Sigmund Freud and was specifically labeled by Ernest Jones. Rationalization ought to be differentiated from rational, rationality, logical analysis, etc. On the one hand, rationalization is considered a defense mechanism, on the other hand, rationality is not. Haan has done much work with self-report inventories and…
Postcolonial Sub-Saharan 1 State and Contemporary General Business Environment. Selected Issues
Tomasz W. Kolasinski
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the results of a qualitative analysis of selected aspects of general business environment. The author strives to answer the following question formulated in the context of postcolonial deliberations: has the general business environment been affected by European colonialism? Methodology: Semantic and semiotic analysis of primary sources (statistical data and research findings formulated by international organisations, such as the World Bank, OECD, UNIDO and secondary sources (scientific and research studies of Polish and foreign authors based on primary sources; literature review. Findings: In the postcolonial perspective, qualitative analysis shows neither a positive nor a negative impact of colonialism on the contemporary general business environment. If certain signs of its deterioration are observed, they are mostly due to the erosion of state capacity, whose origins can be traced back to the Berlin Conference. Originality: Papers on Postcolonial Management and Critical Management Studies (CMS bridge the gap in literaturę pertaining to management issues, especially in Poland. Due to their interdisciplinary nature, Postcolonial Management and CMS cover a broad range of research areas (i.e. theory of state and nation, sociology, economic history. They pertain to both economics an management, and are therefore difficult to classify.
Rational inattention or rational overreaction?
Browning, Martin; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Smed, Sinne
We investigate differences in how consumers of fish react to health information in the mass media. We specify a dynamic empirical model that allows for heterogeneity in all basic parameters of consumer behavior as well as in how consumers react to information. We estimate the model using a unique...... houshold panel tracking consumption, prices, news stories and media habits over 24 quarters. We fi nd that the consumers most likely to be ’rationally ignorant’ of health effects react more dramatically to health news than the consumers who most likely are well informed....
Rational inattention or rational overreaction?
Browning, Martin; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Smed, Sinne
We investigate differences in how consumers of fish react to health information in the mass media. We specify a dynamic empirical model that allows for heterogeneity in all basic parameters of consumer behavior as well as in how consumers react to information. We estimate the model using a unique...... houshold panel tracking consumption, prices, news stories and media habits over 24 quarters. We fi nd that the consumers most likely to be ’rationally ignorant’ of health effects react more dramatically to health news than the consumers who most likely are well informed....
2010-10-01
... principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). 1200.2 Section 1200.2 Transportation... COMMERCE ACT § 1200.2 Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial... Financial Accounting Standards by the FASB, and provided that the Office of Economics,...
Rutten, Martine; Reed, Geoffrey
2009-01-01
This paper seeks to determine the macro-economic impacts of changes in health care provision. The resource allocation issues have been explored in theory, by applying the Rybczynski theorem, and empirically, using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for the UK with a detailed health component. From the theory, changes in non-health outputs are shown to depend on factor-bias and scale effects, the net effects generally being indeterminate. From the applied model, a rise in the National Health Service (NHS) budget is shown to yield overall welfare gains, which fall by two-thirds assuming health care-specific factors. A nominally equivalent migration policy yields even higher welfare gains.
Angeles, Jorge
1988-01-01
A rational study of kinematics is a treatment of the subject based on invariants, i.e., quantities that remain essentially unchanged under a change of observer. An observer is understood to be a reference frame supplied with a clock (Truesdell 1966). This study will therefore include an introduction to invariants. The language of these is tensor analysis and multilinear algebra, both of which share many isomorphic relations, These subjects are treated in full detail in Ericksen (1960) and Bowen and Wang (1976), and hence will not be included here. Only a short account of notation and definitions will be presented. Moreover, definitions and basic concepts pertaining to the kinematics of rigid bodies will be also included. Although the kinematics of rigid bodies can be regarded as a particular case of the kinematics of continua, the former deserves attention on its own merits for several reasons. One of these is that it describes locally the motions undergone by continua. Another reason is that a whole area of ...
Liang Xue
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Reservoir simulations always involve a large number of parameters to characterize the properties of formation and fluid, many of which are subject to uncertainties owing to spatial heterogeneity and insufficient measurements. To provide solutions to uncertainty-related issues in reservoir simulations, a general package called GenPack has been developed. GenPack includes three main functions required for full stochastic analysis in petroleum engineering, generation of random parameter fields, predictive uncertainty quantifications and automatic history matching. GenPack, which was developed in a modularized manner, is a non-intrusive package which can be integrated with any existing commercial simulator in petroleum engineering to facilitate its application. Computational efficiency can be improved both theoretically by introducing a surrogate model-based probabilistic collocation method, and technically by using parallel computing. A series of synthetic cases are designed to demonstrate the capability of GenPack. The test results show that the random parameter field can be flexibly generated in a customized manner for petroleum engineering applications. The predictive uncertainty can be reasonably quantified and the computational efficiency is significantly improved. The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF-based automatic history matching method can improve predictive accuracy and reduce the corresponding predictive uncertainty by accounting for observations.
Teaching Rational Decision-Making.
Woolever, Roberts
1978-01-01
Presented is an outline of a college course, "Education in American Society," that focused on teaching students rational decision-making skills while examining current issues in American Education. The outline is followed by student comments, reactions, and evaluations of the course. (JMD)
Monodromy Substitutions and Rational Blowdowns
Endo, Hisaaki; van Horn-Morris, Jeremy
2010-01-01
We introduce several new families of relations in the mapping class groups of planar surfaces, each equating two products of right-handed Dehn twists. The interest of these relations lies in their geometric interpretation in terms of rational blowdowns of 4-manifolds, specifically via monodromy substitution in Lefschetz fibrations. The simplest example is the lantern relation, already shown by the first author and Gurtas to correspond to rational blowdown along a -4 sphere; here we give relations that extend that result to realize the "generalized" rational blowdowns of Fintushel-Stern and Park by monodromy subsitution, as well as several of the families of rational blowdowns discovered by Stipsicz-Szab\\'o-Wahl.
Rational reconstructions of modern physics
Mittelstaedt, Peter
2013-01-01
Newton’s classical physics and its underlying ontology are loaded with several metaphysical hypotheses that cannot be justified by rational reasoning nor by experimental evidence. Furthermore, it is well known that some of these hypotheses are not contained in the great theories of Modern Physics, such as the theory of Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. This book shows that, on the basis of Newton’s classical physics and by rational reconstruction, the theory of Special Relativity as well as Quantum Mechanics can be obtained by partly eliminating or attenuating the metaphysical hypotheses. Moreover, it is shown that these reconstructions do not require additional hypotheses or new experimental results. In the second edition the rational reconstructions are completed with respect to General Relativity and Cosmology. In addition, the statistics of quantum objects is elaborated in more detail with respect to the rational reconstruction of quantum mechanics. The new material completes the approach of t...
Mohamed Azmi Hassali; Shafie, Asrul A.; Fahad Saleem; Harith Al-Qazaz; Imran Masood; Muhammad Atif; Hisham Aljadhey
2012-01-01
Context: A better understanding of medication safety ensures better health state among healthcare consumers. Aim: The study aims to assess general public awareness toward issues related to medication safety. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among general public selected conveniently in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Materials and methods: A total of 500 respondents were approached and 476 consumers participated in the survey giving a response rate of 95.2%. Statistic...
Mørk, Trine; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; Taket, Ann
2014-01-01
were collected through individual and group interviews with a sample of three GPs and a diverse sample of 13 women, including both survivors of partner violence and those without any history of partner violence. An interpretative analysis was performed with the data. This study provides important...... practitioners to ask about violence in a respectful and non-judgemental manner. However, general practitioners are resistant towards such an inquiry and would benefit from training regarding how to respond to women who have been exposed to IPV. It is acceptable to inquire about IPV with women in Denmark...... in a non-judgemental and respectful way. Informing about IPV prevalence is important prior to the inquiry. However, general practitioners require more awareness and training before a favourable environment for this change in procedure can be created. Further large-scale research is needed to support...
Menzel, Paul T
1992-04-01
[In his review essay in this issue of Bioethics,] Julian Savulescu lucidly summarizes and assesses each essay in Strong Medicine. I would like to clarify a few important general points about prior consent as a conceptual framework for the ethical rationing of health care, correct several specific misreadings, and defend my basic claim despite some acknowledged problems.
Cohen, Harry I.; Hulse, William S.; Jones, Robert R.; Langer, Robert M.; Petrucelli, Paul J.; Schroeder, Robert J.
1979-11-01
The guide attempts to bring together two important and current issues: energy and consumer protection. Perhaps the most basic consumer-protection issue in the energy area is assuring adequate supplies at adequate prices. It is anticipated, though, that consumers will want to consider new ways to lower enegy consumption and cost, and will thus be susceptible to fraudulent energy claims. Information is prepared on insulation, solar, energy-saving devices for the home, and energy-saving devices for the automobile.
许真玉
2014-01-01
注册分类6的化学药品在注册申报过程中暴露了一些立题方面的问题。作为药物研发者，必须追踪药物最新的安全有效性和质量可控性信息，为药物研究开发提供扎实的立题基础。本文结合日常药品审评工作，从化合物、剂型、规格等方面对注册分类6化学药品立题合理性相关问题进行讨论。%Some issues about the rationality of subject selection are identified in the registration applications of chemical generic drugs. It should be the sponsor's responsibility to follow the latest information about safety, efficacy and quality control of the proposed drug, and provide a sound basis for subject selection. In this article, issues about the basis of the subject selection of chemical generic drugs are discussed from the aspects of compound, formulation and strength.
Axioms for Rational Reinforcement Learning
Sunehag, Peter
2011-01-01
We provide a formal, simple and intuitive theory of rational decision making including sequential decisions that affect the environment. The theory has a geometric flavor, which makes the arguments easy to visualize and understand. Our theory is for complete decision makers, which means that they have a complete set of preferences. Our main result shows that a complete rational decision maker implicitly has a probabilistic model of the environment. We have a countable version of this result that brings light on the issue of countable vs finite additivity by showing how it depends on the geometry of the space which we have preferences over. This is achieved through fruitfully connecting rationality with the Hahn-Banach Theorem. The theory presented here can be viewed as a formalization and extension of the betting odds approach to probability of Ramsey and De Finetti.
On rationally supported surfaces
Gravesen, Jens; Juttler, B.; Sir, Z.
2008-01-01
We analyze the class of surfaces which are equipped with rational support functions. Any rational support function can be decomposed into a symmetric (even) and an antisymmetric (odd) part. We analyze certain geometric properties of surfaces with odd and even rational support functions....... In particular it is shown that odd rational support functions correspond to those rational surfaces which can be equipped with a linear field of normal vectors, which were discussed by Sampoli et al. (Sampoli, M.L., Peternell, M., Juttler, B., 2006. Rational surfaces with linear normals and their convolutions...... with rational surfaces. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 23, 179-192). As shown recently, this class of surfaces includes non-developable quadratic triangular Bezier surface patches (Lavicka, M., Bastl, B., 2007. Rational hypersurfaces with rational convolutions. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 24, 410426; Peternell, M...
Barker, L. Randol
1998-01-01
Most of the 23 European providers of continuing medical education (CME) surveyed reported programming on the doctor-patient relationship and psychosocial issues. Visits to programs in France, the Netherlands, and Spain identified the formats used most often in small group instruction, intensive individual learning, and national-level CME. (SK)
Burchett, Shayna; Hayes, Jack; Pfaff, Annalise; Satterfield, Emmalou T.; Skyles, Amy; Woelk, Klaus
2016-01-01
Laboratory capacity is an issue that has plagued education for more than a century. New buildings, late night classes, and virtual laboratories have offered transitory relief at great expense. Missouri University of Science and Technology is employing blended strategies to increase capacity and student success. Blended strategies expand learning…
Burchett, Shayna; Hayes, Jack; Pfaff, Annalise; Satterfield, Emmalou T.; Skyles, Amy; Woelk, Klaus
2016-01-01
Laboratory capacity is an issue that has plagued education for more than a century. New buildings, late night classes, and virtual laboratories have offered transitory relief at great expense. Missouri University of Science and Technology is employing blended strategies to increase capacity and student success. Blended strategies expand learning…
Littlefield, Robert S.; Rick, Jessica M.; Currie-Mueller, Jenna L.
2016-01-01
This study explored the intersection between service learning and general education outcomes through the self-reported perceptions of 382 college students participating in an intercultural communication course that satisfied the general education requirement at a midsized Upper Plains research university for studying cultural diversity. The data…
Rational Suicide and the Crisis of Terminal Illness.
Lokhandwala, Tasneem M.; Westefeld, John S.
1998-01-01
Whether or not suicide may be considered a rational choice for clients with terminal illness is controversial. Rational suicide and the literature and statistics pertaining to suicide and terminal illness are reviewed. Implications of accepting rational suicide as a treatment option, including moral and ethical issues, are addressed. (Author/EMK)
Healthcare assistants in general practice: practical and conceptual issues of skill-mix change.
Bosley, Sara; Dale, Jeremy
2008-02-01
The emergence of healthcare assistants (HCAs) in general practice raises questions about roles and responsibilities, patients' acceptance, cost-effectiveness, patient safety and delegation, training and competence, workforce development, and professional identity. There has been minimal research into the role of HCAs and their experiences, as well as those of other staff working with HCAs in general practice. Lessons may be learned from their role and evidence of their effectiveness in hospital settings. Such research highlights blurred and contested role boundaries and threats to professional identity, which have implications for teamwork, quality of patient care, and patient safety. In this paper it is argued that transferability of evidence from hospital settings to the context of general practice cannot be assumed. Drawing on the limited research in general practice, the challenges and benefits of developing the HCA role in general practice are discussed. It is suggested that in the context of changing skill-mix models, viewing roles as fluid and dynamic is more helpful and reflective of individuals' experiences than endeavouring to impose fixed role boundaries. It is concluded that HCAs can make an increasingly useful contribution to the skill mix in general practice, but that more research and evaluation are needed to inform their training and development within the general practice team.
Linear parameter estimation of rational biokinetic functions
Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.
2009-01-01
For rational biokinetic functions such as the Michaelis-Menten equation, in general, a nonlinear least-squares method is a good estimator. However, a major drawback of a nonlinear least-squares estimator is that it can end up in a local minimum. Rearranging and linearizing rational biokinetic
Overgeneralization of validity generalization in personality inventories: applied issues in testing.
Tiffany, D W; Tiffany, P G
1999-04-01
Generalization of validity asserts that a predictor or criterion generalizes across studies and will continue to show similar parameters when the situation changes. Kurt Lewin explored situation-behavior relationships, and Mischel examined the situation-behavior association showing predictive accuracy between behaviors and contexts. Investigators have critically reproached the assumed generalization of assessment instruments that ignore contextual variance. The validity hypothesis confirmed that using nonsituation-specific scales does not focus on the contextual effects relevant to the criterion measured and consequently has no practical application for focused evaluation in clinical and employment settings. This study describes a model and technique for the measurement of contextual variance in personality dimensions thereby introducing situation-specificity in evaluation for more focused research, treatment, and a more specific job fit in employment settings.
Economics, Ecology and the Development and Use of GMOs: General Considerations and Biosafety Issues
Clement A. Tisdell
2008-01-01
This article outlines both ecological and socioeconomic issues involved in the development and use of GMOs. It’s argued that while initially new GMOs add to the global stock of biodiversity, in the long-term they result in a decline in biodiversity. Various mechanisms that bring about this decline in genetic diversity are identified. It is suggested that due to evolutionary forces, the desirable genetic properties of some GMO may be eroded in the long-term. They are unlikely to be sustained i...
National Standard of "General Request on Biological Safety" Was Officially Issued
无
2004-01-01
@@ May 28 2004, sponsored by Standardization Administration of P.R. China ( SAC ) and Certification and Accreditation Administration of P.R. China (CNCA), China National Accreditation Board For Laboratories (CNAL) organized the press conference on National Standard of "General Request on Biological Safety" in Beijing.
Atkins Christine
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately one in ten of the UK population are unpaid carers supporting a family member or friend who could not manage without their help, saving the UK economy an estimated £87 billion. This role is known to sometimes have a negative impact on carers and to require support both informally and from statutory services. General practice is a first point of contact for carers but research investigating general practitioners' (GPs' attitudes towards carers and awareness of issues facing carers is rare. This study therefore aimed to identify GPs' attitudes, awareness of issues, and perceptions of the barriers and enablers to provision of services. Methods Using a self-completion questionnaire distributed at a series of workshops, this study investigates GPs' attitudes to carers; awareness and knowledge of carers' issues; services offered in general practice and barriers to supporting carers. Results Seventy eight out of a total of 95 GPs (82% response rate from a variety of areas in England completed the questionnaires. The GPs identified time, resources and lack of knowledge as barriers, but only 9% agreed with the statement that there is little support they can offer carers. However, nine in ten GPs (89% feel they have insufficient training here and approximately half of them (47% lack confidence that they are meeting carers' needs. Confidence in identifying carers is also low (45%. Issues that GPs would look out for amongst carers include emotional and physical health problems and financial and isolation difficulties. GPs specifically highlighted educational and isolation issues for young carers. Few services were described that targeted carers. Conclusions GPs recognise that they have an important role to play in supporting carers but would like training and support. Further investigation is needed both to determine how best to train and facilitate GPs and general practice teams in their role in supporting carers and to
Boulton, M; Griffiths, J; Hall, D; McIntyre, M; Oliver, B; Woodward, J
1984-07-01
This paper describes a teaching programme, for use in general practice vocational training, which provides a theoretical and practical framework for exploring key aspects of the consultation with trainees. A particular emphasis is on the educational or 'cognitive' outcomes of the consultation and skills for improving them. The five stages of the programme are described and an example of experience of each stage is given. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the programme by the trainers, trainees and social scientist involved.
ISSUES OF INFORMING THE GENERAL PUBLIC ABOUT CONSEQUENCES OF PEACEFUL NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS
G. V. Arkhangelskaya
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The paper provides the results of a study of the local public attitude to the problem of peaceful nuclear explosions (PNE which were carried out in the Ivanovo, Murmansk and Perm regions and in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia in the last century. An estimate of the mass media information regarding consequences of the PNEs is given. The study shows that the local citizens are ready to deal with reliable sources of objective information about consequences of the PNEs. The recommendations on information of the general public about PNE are presented.
Pons, J M; Pons, Josep M.; Talavera, Pere
2004-01-01
We clarify the existence of two different types of truncations of the field content in a theory, the consistency of each type being achieved by different means. A proof is given of the conditions to have a consistent truncation in the case of dimensional reductions induced by independent Killing vectors. We explain in what sense the tracelessness condition found by Scherk and Scharwz is not only a necessary condition but also a {\\it sufficient} one for a consistent truncation. The reduction of the gauge group is fully performed showing the existence of a sector of rigid symmetries. We show that truncations originated by the introduction of constraints will in general be inconsistent, but this fact does not prevent the possibility of correct upliftings of solutions in some cases. The presence of constraints has dynamical consequences that turn out to play a fundamental role in the correctness of the uplifting procedure.
Bias towards publishing positive results in orthopedic and general surgery: a patient safety issue?
Ziran Bruce H
2007-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research articles reporting positive findings in the fields of orthopedic and general surgery appear to be represented at a considerably higher prevalence in the peer-reviewed literature, compared to published studies on negative or neutral data. This "publication bias" may alter the balance of the available evidence-based literature and may affect patient safety in surgery by depriving important information from unpublished negative studies. Methods A comprehensive review of all published articles in a defined 7-year period was performed in 12 representative journals in the fields of orthopedic and general surgery. Every article published in all volumes of these journals between January 2000 and December 2006 was reviewed and rated by three investigators. Rating of articles was performed according to a uniform, standardized algorithm. All original articles were stratified into "positive", "negative" or "neutral", depending on the reported results. All non-original papers were excluded from analysis. Results A total of 30,197 publications were reviewed over a 7-year time-period. After excluding all non-original articles, a total of 16,397 original papers were included in the final analysis. Of these, 12,251 (74% articles were found to report positive findings, 2,709 (17% reported negative results, and 1,437 (9% were neutral. A similar publication pattern was found among all years and all journals analyzed. Altogether, 91% of all original papers reported significant data (positive or negative, whereas only 9% were neutral studies that did not report any significant findings. Conclusion There is a disproportionately high number of articles reporting positive results published in the surgical literature. A bias towards publishing positive data will systematically overestimate the clinical relevance of treatment effects by disregarding important information derived from unpublished negative studies. This "publication bias
2008-01-01
A brand new design of integrated corrosion information system is introduced to meet the constantly increasing demands of material corrosion information. Two concepts, "general-purpose corrosion data model" and "public corrosion data ex-changing interface", are suggested to integrate a wide variety of corrosion data sources based on detailed analysis on characteristics of each source in order to promote the information sharing and data mining. The architecture of integrated corrosion information environment is blueprinted. The insight analysis is focused on 1) architecture of the system; 2) data flow and information sharing; 3) roles of system players and their interactions; 4) approaches to data integration. Several key issues are addressed in detail including coverage of data model, data source integration and mitigation, and data granularity from system performance and model acceptance points of view. At the end, the design and implementation ap-proach of general corrosion data model is presented based on cutting edge IT techniques.
TANG ZiLong
2008-01-01
A brand new design of integrated corrosion information system is introduced to meet the constantly increasing demands of material corrosion information. Two concepts, "general-purpose corrosion data model" and "public corrosion data ex- changing interface", are suggested to integrate a wide variety of corrosion data sources based on detailed analysis on characteristics of each source in order to promote the information sharing and data mining. The architecture of integrated corrosion information environment is blueprinted. The insight analysis is focused on 1) architecture of the system; 2) data flow and information sharing; 3) roles of system players and their interactions; 4) approaches to data integration. Several key issues are addressed in detail including coverage of data model, data source integration and mitigation, and data granularity from system performance and model acceptance points of view. At the end, the design and implementation ap- proach of general corrosion data model is presented based on cutting edge IT techniques.
Determinants of Actor Rationality
Ellegaard, Chris
Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer......-supplier relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse...
Reflections on Rational-Emotive Therapy.
Ellis, Albert
1993-01-01
Reflects rational-emotive therapy (RET) in 1955 and discusses some of its recent constructivist and humanist theories and practice. Distinguishes between general RET, called synonymous with general cognitive-behavioral therapy, from preferential RET, called unique kind of cognitive therapy that partially overlaps with general cognitive-behavioral…
Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan
None
1980-06-01
The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)
Irrational Rationality of Terrorism
Robert Nalbandov
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The present article deals with the ontological problem of applying the rational choice frameworks to the study of terrorism. It testing the application of the rational choice to the “old” (before the end of the Cold War and the “new” (after the end of the Cold War terrorisms. It starts with analyzing the fundamentals of rationality and applies it at two levels: the individual (actors and group (collective via two outlooks: tactical (short-term and strategic (long-term. The main argument of the article is that while the “old” terrorism can be explained by the rational choice theory its “new” version represents a substantial departure from rationality.
Perturbing rational harmonic functions by poles
Sète, Olivier; Liesen, Jörg
2014-01-01
We study how adding certain poles to rational harmonic functions of the form $R(z)-\\bar{z}$, with $R(z)$ rational and of degree $d\\geq 2$, affects the number of zeros of the resulting functions. Our results are motivated by and generalize a construction of Rhie derived in the context of gravitational microlensing (ArXiv e-print 2003). Of particular interest is the construction and the behavior of rational functions $R(z)$ that are {\\em extremal} in the sense that $R(z)-\\bar{z}$ has the maximal possible number of $5(d-1)$ zeros.
Yuriy M. Bogachkov
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In the article the problem of constructing a network of resource centers for Distance Education to meet the needs of general secondary schools is presented. Modern educational trends in the use of Internet services in education are viewed. Main contradictions, solution of which helps to create a network of resource centers, are identified. The definition of key terms related to the range of issues are given. The basic categories of participants, who implementation of e-learning and networking are oriented on. There are considered the basic tasks of distance education resource centers' functioning and types of supporting: personnel, regulatory, informative, systematic and technical etc. The review of possible models of implementation of students' distance education is reviewed . Three options for business models of resource centers, depending on funding sources are offered.
Exploring rationality in schizophrenia
Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth
2015-01-01
Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality....
Ciliberto, Ciro
2012-01-01
In this paper we study the gonality of the normalizations of curves in the linear system $|H|$ of a general primitively polarized complex $K3$ surface $(S,H)$ of genus $p$. We prove two main results. First we give a necessary condition on $p, g, r, d$ for the existence of a curve in $|H|$ with geometric genus $g$ whose normalization has a $g^ r_d$. Secondly we prove that for all numerical cases compatible with the above necessary condition, there is a family of \\emph{nodal} curves in $|H|$ of genus $g$ carrying a $g^1_k$ and of dimension equal to the \\emph{expected dimension} $\\min\\{2(k-1),g\\}$. Relations with the Mori cone of the hyperk\\"ahler manifold $\\Hilb^ k(S)$ and with conjectures by Hassett-Tschinkel and by Huybrechts-Sawon are discussed. This is an improved version of the preprint arXiv:1202.2701 with stronger main result and simplified degeneration argument.
Uncertainty, rationality, and agency
Hoek, Wiebe van der
2006-01-01
Goes across 'classical' borderlines of disciplinesUnifies logic, game theory, and epistemics and studies them in an agent-settingCombines classical and novel approaches to uncertainty, rationality, and agency
Crab Rationalization Permit Program
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crab Rationalization Program (Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities. The North Pacific Fishery Management...
Janusz J. Charatonik
1994-05-01
Full Text Available Spaces which are metrizable completions of the space Q of rationals are described. A characterization of metrizable spaces having the same family of metrizable completions as Q is deduced.
Mohamed Azmi Hassali
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Context: A better understanding of medication safety ensures better health state among healthcare consumers. Aim: The study aims to assess general public awareness toward issues related to medication safety. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among general public selected conveniently in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Materials and methods: A total of 500 respondents were approached and 476 consumers participated in the survey giving a response rate of 95.2%. Statistical analysis: Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 12.0 and descriptive statistics were reported where appropriate. Results: Majority of the respondents (n=292, 61.3% stated that they were well aware of the possible side effects of their current medications. A total of 196 respondents (41.17% believed that all medicines registered in Malaysia are safe to use as these medicines have no side effects. About 40.33% (n=192 of the respondents claimed that they share their unused medicines with family and friends who are having similar illness. Majority of respondents 57.7% (n=275 were satisfied with the drug information provided by the healthcare professionals. This study also found that more than 80% of the respondents (n=409 did report that they read the labels of their medication before using. Conclusions: In this study, it was revealed that there is a moderate level of public knowledge regarding medication safety. It is evident that public underestimates the risk of their medications. There is a general lack of awareness and understanding among the public especially toward side effects.
Controllability under rational expectations.
Hughes Hallett Andrew; Di Bartolomeo Giovanni; Acocella Nicola
2008-01-01
We show that rational expectations do not affect the controllability of an economic system, either in its static or in its dynamic version, even though their introduction in many other circumstances may make it impossible for the policymaker to affect certain variables due to policy invariance, policy neutrality or time inconsistency problems. The controllability conditions stated by Tinbergen and subsequent authors continue to hold under rational expectations; and when they are satisfied rat...
Phronesis – hermeneutic rationality
Michał Januszkiewicz
2016-01-01
The paper is an attempt to rethink the problem of rationality in the humanities in the context of hermeneutics. The author argues that this concept of rationality must be founded on the Aristotelian concept of practical reason (phronesis). Phronesis is a need for discernment of the self or rather to find itself in its own, tangible, specific situation. This understanding concerns Being-inthe-world and belongs to what in Martin Heidegger’s ontohermeneutics we can determine precisely as underst...
Senior doctors' opinions of rational suicide.
Ginn, Stephen; Price, Annabel; Rayner, Lauren; Owen, Gareth S; Hayes, Richard D; Hotopf, Matthew; Lee, William
2011-12-01
The attitudes of medical professionals towards physician assisted dying have been widely discussed. Less explored is the level of agreement among physicians on the possibility of 'rational suicide'-a considered suicide act made by a sound mind and a precondition of assisted dying legislation. To assess attitudes towards rational suicide in a representative sample of senior doctors in England and Wales. A postal survey was conducted of 1000 consultants and general practitioners randomly selected from a commercially available database. The main outcome of interest was level of agreement with a statement about rational suicide. The corrected participation rate was 50%; 363 questionnaires were analysed. Overall 72% of doctors agreed with the possibility of rational suicide, 17% disagreed, and 11% were neutral. Doctors who identified themselves as being more religious were more likely to disagree. Some doctors who disagreed with legalisation of physician assisted suicide nevertheless agreed with the concept of rational suicide. Most senior doctors in England and Wales feel that rational suicide is possible. There was no association with specialty. Strong religious belief was associated with disagreement, although levels of agreement were still high in people reporting the strongest religious belief. Most doctors who were opposed to physician assisted suicide believed that rational suicide was possible, suggesting that some medical opposition is best explained by other factors such as concerns of assessment and protection of vulnerable patients.
Slort, Willemjan; Blankenstein, Annette H; Schweitzer, Bart P M; Knol, Dirk L; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; Aaronson, Neil K; Deliens, Luc
2014-09-01
Although communicating effectively with patients receiving palliative care can be difficult, it may contribute to maintaining or enhancing patients' quality of life. Little is known about the effect of training general practitioners in palliative care-specific communication. We hypothesized that palliative care patients of general practitioners exposed to the 'Availability, Current issues and Anticipation' communication training programme would report better outcomes than patients of control general practitioners. To evaluate the effectiveness of the Availability, Current issues and Anticipation training programme for general practitioners on patient-reported outcomes. In a controlled trial, general practitioners followed the Availability, Current issues and Anticipation programme or were part of the control group. Patients receiving palliative care of participating general practitioners completed the Palliative Care Outcome Scale, the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 15 Palliative, the Rest & Peace Scale, the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-III and the Availability, Current issues and Anticipation Scale, at baseline and 12 months follow-up. We analysed differences between groups using linear mixed models. ISRCTN56722368. General practitioners who attended a 2-year Palliative Care Training Course in the Netherlands. Questionnaire data were available for 145 patients (89 in intervention and 56 in control group). We found no significant differences over time between the intervention and control groups in any of the five outcome measures. Ceiling effects were observed for the Rest & Peace Scale, Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-III and Availability, Current issues and Anticipation Scale. General practitioner participation in the Availability, Current issues and Anticipation training programme did not have a measurable effect on any of the outcomes investigated. Patients reported high levels of
MINIMAL RATIONAL INTERPOLATION AND PRONYS METHOD
ANTOULAS, AC; WILLEMS, JC
1990-01-01
A new method is proposed for dealing with the rational interpolation problem. It is based on the reachability of an appropriately defined pair of matrices. This method permits a complete clarification of several issues raised, but not answered, by the so-called Prony method of fitting a linear model
Rational and Mechanistic Perspectives on Reinforcement Learning
Chater, Nick
2009-01-01
This special issue describes important recent developments in applying reinforcement learning models to capture neural and cognitive function. But reinforcement learning, as a theoretical framework, can apply at two very different levels of description: "mechanistic" and "rational." Reinforcement learning is often viewed in mechanistic terms--as…
Rationality and its limits in Arianism
Birjukov, Dmitry
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Having considered certain recurrent issues, such as the idea of comprehensibility of God and apopahtic theology, Dmitry Birjukov (Russian Christian Academy, St. Petersburg looks at the rational tendencies in Arianism and, on the basis of available data, shows how from Arius and Asterius to the Neo-Arians the rationalist tendencies in theology gradually increase while apophatic element virtually disappears.
Rationing in the presence of baselines
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter
2013-01-01
We analyze a general model of rationing in which agents have baselines, in addition to claims against the (insufficient) endowment of the good to be allocated. Many real-life problems fit this general model (e.g., bankruptcy with prioritized claims, resource allocation in the public health care...
Rational approximation of vertical segments
Salazar Celis, Oliver; Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte
2007-08-01
In many applications, observations are prone to imprecise measurements. When constructing a model based on such data, an approximation rather than an interpolation approach is needed. Very often a least squares approximation is used. Here we follow a different approach. A natural way for dealing with uncertainty in the data is by means of an uncertainty interval. We assume that the uncertainty in the independent variables is negligible and that for each observation an uncertainty interval can be given which contains the (unknown) exact value. To approximate such data we look for functions which intersect all uncertainty intervals. In the past this problem has been studied for polynomials, or more generally for functions which are linear in the unknown coefficients. Here we study the problem for a particular class of functions which are nonlinear in the unknown coefficients, namely rational functions. We show how to reduce the problem to a quadratic programming problem with a strictly convex objective function, yielding a unique rational function which intersects all uncertainty intervals and satisfies some additional properties. Compared to rational least squares approximation which reduces to a nonlinear optimization problem where the objective function may have many local minima, this makes the new approach attractive.
Rational Decisionmaking in Higher Education. An NCHEMS Executive Overview.
Chaffee, Ellen Earle
Five models of organizational decision-making are described, and a case study of the rational model as seen in the budget process at Stanford University during the 1970s is presented. Several issues are addressed to help administrators who are interested in increasing the organization's rational decision-making. The five models are as follows: the…
[Rational use of antibiotics].
Walger, P
2016-06-01
International and national campaigns draw attention worldwide to the rational use of the available antibiotics. This has been stimulated by the high prevalence rates of drug-resistant pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), a threatening spread of development of resistance in Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria and the selection of Clostridium difficile with a simultaneous clear reduction in the development of new antibiotics. The implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs aims to maintain their effectiveness by a rational use of the available antibiotics. The essential target of therapy with antibiotics is successful treatment of individual patients with bacterial infections. The optimal clinical treatment results can only be achieved when the toxicity, selection of pathogens and development of resistance are minimized. This article presents the principles of a rational antibiotic therapy.
Algebraic Topology, Rational Homotopy
1988-01-01
This proceedings volume centers on new developments in rational homotopy and on their influence on algebra and algebraic topology. Most of the papers are original research papers dealing with rational homotopy and tame homotopy, cyclic homology, Moore conjectures on the exponents of the homotopy groups of a finite CW-c-complex and homology of loop spaces. Of particular interest for specialists are papers on construction of the minimal model in tame theory and computation of the Lusternik-Schnirelmann category by means articles on Moore conjectures, on tame homotopy and on the properties of Poincaré series of loop spaces.
Phronesis – hermeneutic rationality
Michał Januszkiewicz
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to rethink the problem of rationality in the humanities in the context of hermeneutics. The author argues that this concept of rationality must be founded on the Aristotelian concept of practical reason (phronesis. Phronesis is a need for discernment of the self or rather to find itself in its own, tangible, specific situation. This understanding concerns Being-inthe-world and belongs to what in Martin Heidegger’s ontohermeneutics we can determine precisely as understanding in the hermeneutic sense.
Ideal Theory, Real Rationality
Flyvbjerg, Bent
Understanding rationality and power are key to understanding actual political and administrative behavior. Political and administrative theory that ignores this fact stand in danger of being at best irrelevant or, at worst part of the problem it whishes to solve. The paper presents Jürgen Haberma...
In Between Magic and Rationality, Vibeke Steffen, Steffen Jöhncke, and Kirsten Marie Raahauge bring together a diverse range of ethnographies that examine and explore the forms of reflection, action, and interaction that govern the ways different contemporary societies create and challenge...
Dryden, Windy
2010-01-01
In this title, highly respected author, Windy Dryden, discusses some of the ideas that are central to the theory underpinning rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT). Founded in 1955 by Albert Ellis (1913-2007) and developed in the intervening years, REBT was the first approach to be created within what is now known as the cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) tradition.
Diagnosis, Dogmatism, and Rationality.
Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Efron, Noah J.
1997-01-01
Presents findings suggesting that misdiagnoses frequently stem from flaws in human information processing, particularly in collecting and using information. Claims that improved diagnostic tools will not remedy the problem. Drawing on the work of Karl Popper and Robin Collingwood, proposes operational principles to ensure a rational diagnostic…
Ideal Theory, Real Rationality
Flyvbjerg, Bent
Understanding rationality and power are key to understanding actual political and administrative behavior. Political and administrative theory that ignores this fact stand in danger of being at best irrelevant or, at worst part of the problem it whishes to solve. The paper presents Jürgen Habermas...
Rationality and social behavior.
Tullberg, Jan
2003-10-21
This article penetrates the relationship between social behavior and rationality. A critical analysis is made of efforts to classify some behaviors as altruistic, as they simultaneously meet criteria of rationality by not truly being self-destructive. Newcomb's paradox is one attempt to create a hybrid behavior that is both irrational and still meets some criterion of rationality. Such dubious rationality is often seen as a source of altruistic behavior. Group selection is a controversial topic. Sober and Wilson (Unto Others--The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1998) suggest that a very wide concept of group selection might be used to explain altruism. This concept also includes kin selection and reciprocity, which blurs its focus. The latter mechanisms hardly need further arguments to prove their existence. This article suggests that it is group selection in a strict sense that should be investigated to limit semantic neologism and confusion. In evaluation, the effort to muster a mechanism for altruism out of group selection has not been successful. However, this is not the end to group selection, but rather a good reason to investigate more promising possibilities. There is little reason to burden group selection with the instability of altruism caused by altruistic members of a group having lower fitness than egoistic members. Group selection is much more likely to develop in combination with group egoism. A common project is supported by incitement against free riding, where conformist members joined in solidarity achieve a higher fitness than members pursuing more individualistic options. Group egoism is in no conflict with rationality, and the effects of group selection will be supported rather than threatened by individual selection. Empirical evidence indicates a high level of traits such as conformism and out-group antagonism in line with group egoism. These traits are also likely candidates for
Rationality, institutions and environmental policy
Vatn, Arild [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway)
2005-11-01
This paper is about how institutions determine choices and the importance of this for environmental policy. The model of individual rational choice from neoclassical economics is compared with the model of socially determined behavior. While in the first case, institutions are either exempted from or understood as mere economizing constraints on behavior, the latter perspective views institutions as basic structures necessary also to enable people to act. The paper develops a way to integrate the individualistic model into the wider perspective of social constructivism by viewing it as a special form of such construction. On the basis of this synthesis three issues with relevance for environmental economics are discussed. First, the role of institutional factors in the process of preference formation is emphasized. Next, the role of institutions for the choice of desired states of the environment is analyzed. Finally, the effect of various policy instruments to motivate people to produce these states is discussed. It is concluded that the core policy issue is to determine which institutional frameworks are most reasonable to apply to which kind of problem. Issues, which from the perspective of neoclassical economics are pure technical, become serious value questions if understood from an institutional perspective.
An Appraisal of Rational-Emotive Therapy.
Haaga, David A. F.; Davison, Gerald C.
1993-01-01
Scrutinizes rational-emotive therapy (RET) on conceptual and empirical grounds, including its reliance on constructive assessment and ethical stance. Notes that, although metanalytic reviews provide support for general utility of RET, more qualitative reviews question internal and external validity of much of published research. Notes that process…
Mørk, Trine; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; Taket, Ann
2014-01-01
general practitioners to ask about violence in a respectful and non-judgemental manner. However, general practitioners are resistant towards such an inquiry and would benefit from training regarding how to respond to women who have been exposed to IPV. Conclusions It is acceptable to inquire about IPV...
Planas Vilà, Mercedes
2014-01-01
The current economic situation is the reason for this conference that will be split in two main areas: first, we will focus on general concepts on rationalizing versus rationing in health care, and secondly, on rationing in the practice of clinical nutrition. According to the Spanish Royal Academy of the Language, to rationalize is to organize the production or the work in a manner such the yields are increased or the costs are reduced with the least effort. However, to ration is the action and effect of rationing or limiting the consumption of something to prevent negative consequences. In Europe, the percentage of the Gross National Product dedicated to health care progressively decreases whereas the costs of health care are ever increasing. From the economic viewpoint, this would be the main reason why the health care authorities have no other option but rationing. Until what extent the ethical principle of justice is compatible with rationing? Ethically, it seems that in order to accept rationing, not only a fair distribution of the limited resources should be achieved, but also a rational use of them. If we accept that limiting the health care allowances is necessary, we should then answer some questions: is it ethical not to limit? Who decides what is medically necessary? How is it decided? With no coherent answers to these questions it is ethically difficult to accept rationing from a healthcare viewpoint. When dealing with rationing in the practice of clinical nutrition, we should focus on how rationing impacts on hyponutrition, and more particularly on disease-related hyponutrition, since this is the focus of Clinical Nutrition. Given its importance and its implications, in several countries, including Spain, actions integrated in the European Union strategy "Together for health: a Strategic Approach for the EU 2008-2013", are being performed aimed at taking decisions for preventing and managing hyponutrition. However, restrictions persist with the
2010-01-01
@@ The announcement from General Office of the State Council about Issuing the "2009 Work Plan for Energy Saving and Emission Reduction" on July 19, 2009, requested that governments in all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, ministries and commissions under the State Council, departments directly under the State Council must strictly implement the work plan.
VT - Vermont Rational Service Areas
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Data Layer Name: Vermont Rational Service Areas (RSAs)Alternate Name: Vermont RSAsOverview:Rational Service Areas (RSAs), originally developed in 2001 and revised in...
Rational management of epilepsy.
Viswanathan, Venkataraman
2014-09-01
Management of epilepsies in children has improved considerably over the last decade, all over the world due to the advances seen in the understanding of the patho-physiology of epileptogenesis, availability of both structural and functional imaging studies along with better quality EEG/video-EEG recordings and the availability of a plethora of newer anti-epileptic drugs which are tailormade to act on specific pathways. In spite of this, there is still a long way to go before one is able to be absolutely rational about which drug to use for which type of epilepsy. There have been a lot of advances in the area of epilepsy surgery and is certainly gaining ground for specific cases. Better understanding of the genetic basis of epilepsies will hopefully lead to a more rational treatment plan in the future. Also, a lot of work needs to be done to dispel various misunderstandings and myths about epilepsy which still exists in our country.
Design rationalization and the logic of design: a case study
Galle, Per
1996-01-01
various ‘sources of credibility’ of premises, items of general background knowledge, and several (abductive and deductive) patterns of inference which suggest a possible ‘logic of design’. Rationalization of decisions is defined, and many decisions are found not to be fully rationalized, despite...
Alternative Disaster Feeding Ration
2012-06-08
is that a healthy person can last about a week without food, but children are more vulnerable lasting for just a few days. In these scenarios, the...ration bar could be edible across different health or dietary constrained populations. For example, diabetics or those with high cholesterol could...Hurricane Katrina was a powerful Category 5 storm that devastated the southeastern states along the Gulf of Mexico in 2005.2 Having seen the aftermath
Realization theory for rational systems
Ně mcová, J.; Schuppen, J.H. van
2008-01-01
In this paper we solve the problem of realization of response maps for rational systems. Sufficient and necessary conditions for a response map to be realizable by a rational system are presented. The properties of rational realizations such as observability, controllability, and minimality are stud
Computational Intelligence Determines Effective Rationality
无
2008-01-01
Rationality is a fundamental concept in economics. Most researchers will accept that human beings are not fully rational.Herbert Simon suggested that we are "bounded rational". However, it is very difficult to quantify "bounded rationality", and therefore it is difficult to pinpoint its impact to all those economic theories that depend on the assumption of full rationality. Ariel Rubinstein proposed to model bounded rationality by explicitly specifying the decision makers' decision-making procedures. This paper takes a computational point of view to Rubinstein's approach. From a computational point of view, decision procedures can be encoded in algorithms and heuristics. We argue that, everything else being equal, the effective rationality of an agent is determined by its computational power - we refer to this as the computational intelligence determines effective rationality (CIDER) theory. This is not an attempt to propose a unifying definition of bounded rationality. It is merely a proposal of a computational point of view of bounded rationality. This way of interpreting bounded rationality enables us to (computationally) reason about economic systems when the full rationality assumption is relaxed.
Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing
Gábor Orosz
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Conspiracy theory (CT beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample (N = 813: exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in reducing CT, whereas empathizing with the targets of CTs had no effect. Individual differences played no role in CT reduction, but the perceived intelligence and competence of the individual who conveyed the CT belief-reduction information contributed to the success of the CT belief reduction. Rational arguments targeting the link between the object of belief and its characteristics appear to be an effective tool in fighting conspiracy theory beliefs.
Rational drug design applied to myeloperoxidase inhibition.
Van Antwerpen, P; Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K
2015-06-01
Rational drug design is a general approach using protein-structure technique in which the discovery of a ligand can be driven either by chance, screening, or rational theory. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) was rapidly identified as a therapeutical target because of its involvement in chronic inflammatory syndromes. In this context, the research of MPO inhibitors was intensified and development of new chemical entities was rationally driven by the research of ligands that enter into the MPO catalytic pocket. Actually, as soon as crystallography data of MPO have become available and its structure was virtually designed, the rational drug design has been applied to this peroxidase. Pharmaceutical industries and academic laboratories apply rational drug design on MPO by either optimizing known inhibitors or searching new molecules by high-throughput virtual screening. By these ways, they were able to find efficient MPO inhibitors and understand their interactions with the enzyme. During this quest of MPO inhibition, it appears that Glu268 is a crucial residue in order to optimize ligand-target interaction. This amino acid should be carefully considered by medicinal chemist when they design inhibitors interfering with MPO activity.
Johnson, E. A.; Ball, T. C.
2014-12-01
An important objective in general education geoscience courses is to help students evaluate social and ethical issues based upon scientific knowledge. It can be difficult for instructors trained in the physical sciences to design effective ways of including ethical issues in large lecture courses where whole-class discussions are not practical. The Quality Enhancement Plan for James Madison University, "The Madison Collaborative: Ethical Reasoning in Action," (http://www.jmu.edu/mc/index.shtml) has identified eight key questions to be used as a framework for developing ethical reasoning exercises and evaluating student learning. These eight questions are represented by the acronym FOR CLEAR and are represented by the concepts of Fairness, Outcomes, Responsibilities, Character, Liberty, Empathy, Authority, and Rights. In this study, we use the eight key questions as an inquiry-based framework for addressing ethical issues in a 100-student general education Earth systems and climate change course. Ethical reasoning exercises are presented throughout the course and range from questions of personal behavior to issues regarding potential future generations and global natural resources. In the first few exercises, key questions are identified for the students and calibrated responses are provided as examples. By the end of the semester, students are expected to identify key questions themselves and justify their own ethical and scientific reasoning. Evaluation rubrics are customized to this scaffolding approach to the exercises. Student feedback and course data will be presented to encourage discussion of this and other approaches to explicitly incorporating ethical reasoning in general education geoscience courses.
Mørk, Trine; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; Taket, Ann
2014-01-01
Data were collected through individual and group interviews with a sample of three GPs and a diverse sample of 13 women, including both survivors of partner violence and those without any history of partner violence. An interpretative analysis was performed with the data. Results This study provides...... general practitioners to ask about violence in a respectful and non-judgemental manner. However, general practitioners are resistant towards such an inquiry and would benefit from training regarding how to respond to women who have been exposed to IPV. Conclusions It is acceptable to inquire about IPV...... with women in Denmark in a non-judgemental and respectful way. Informing about IPV prevalence is important prior to the inquiry. However, general practitioners require more awareness and training before a favourable environment for this change in procedure can be created. Further large-scale research...
Schwerdt, R
2005-08-01
The intraprofessional discourse about economical aspects in nursing from an ethical point of view has not taken place yet. To cope with the increasing restriction of resources, some preconditions have to be met: It is necessary to communicate issues in rationalizing and rationing in nursing openly. Person-oriented criteria in the nursing process indicate a high level of competence and user-oriented quality in nursing care. But nursing professionals do not decide in favor or against resources to perform this task on a high or poor quality level. Democratic decision-making on providing nursing services depends on a continuous societal discourse about allocation criteria.
Mehtap Sahingoz
2013-02-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: At this study to be aimed to assess status of the knowledge of nurses who working in public and private health institutions in Sivas province use of medication fort he treatment during their illnesses and patients and the attitudes of rational drug application. Matherials and methods: the researc planned to attend 750 nurses but it has been completed with participation of 641 nurses (Reaching rate 85,5%. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. in the study data were collected with a questionaire, percentages stated and chi square test was used for analysis. Results: %95,3 of nurses were females and mean age of them 29.21±4.85 years. The rate of contacting a doktor in case of illness is higher in 39.1% of nurses in the 21-30 age group and 48.6% of nurses working in primary care institutions. The level of self-treating is higher in 45.5 % of nurses working less than a year in profession .In the case of illness, 53% of nurses stated that they had left the medicine when signs of disease over. %98.8 of nurses expressed that they know effects of drugs used and 99.1% of them stated they know the side effects of drugs used. The entire group of postgraduate education status stated that they have not received the drug recommended by others. The level of suggesting a drug to someone else fort he same disease is higher in 65.8% of the group 31 years and older and group working over 40 hours per week. It were determined that used in consultation with the physician 65.2% of nurses antibiotics, 87.5% of them weiht loss drug and 82.7% of them contraceptive . 99.5% of the nurses have expressed that they inform to patients about use of their medications. Among the issues that expressed informations took place the application form of drugs (51.0 %and information of need to consult one if deemed one unexpected effect (59.6% . Also has been identified that of nurses acquired inform about drugs from drug book (vademecum (87.5 % and they
2014-01-01
Background Thirty-five percent of Danish women experience sexual or physical violence in their lifetime. However, health care professionals are not in the practice of asking about intimate partner violence (IPV) in Denmark. It is currently unknown what hinders general practitioners from asking about partner violence and how Danish women would perceive such an inquiry. This aspect has not previously been explored in Denmark. An exploratory study was conducted to examine what hinders general practitioners (GPs) from asking and what Danish women’s views and attitudes are regarding being asked about IPV. Methods Data were collected through individual and group interviews with a sample of three GPs and a diverse sample of 13 women, including both survivors of partner violence and those without any history of partner violence. An interpretative analysis was performed with the data. Results This study provides important knowledge regarding the barriers and attitudes towards inquiry about IPV in primary care in Denmark. Results indicate that Denmark is facing the same challenges when responding to survivors of IPV as other similar countries, including Sweden, Norway, the UK, USA, and Australia. Danish women want general practitioners to ask about violence in a respectful and non-judgemental manner. However, general practitioners are resistant towards such an inquiry and would benefit from training regarding how to respond to women who have been exposed to IPV. Conclusions It is acceptable to inquire about IPV with women in Denmark in a non-judgemental and respectful way. Informing about IPV prevalence is important prior to the inquiry. However, general practitioners require more awareness and training before a favourable environment for this change in procedure can be created. Further large-scale research is needed to support the evidence generated by this small study. PMID:24893567
Mørk, Trine; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; Taket, Ann
2014-06-03
Thirty-five percent of Danish women experience sexual or physical violence in their lifetime. However, health care professionals are not in the practice of asking about intimate partner violence (IPV) in Denmark. It is currently unknown what hinders general practitioners from asking about partner violence and how Danish women would perceive such an inquiry. This aspect has not previously been explored in Denmark. An exploratory study was conducted to examine what hinders general practitioners (GPs) from asking and what Danish women's views and attitudes are regarding being asked about IPV. Data were collected through individual and group interviews with a sample of three GPs and a diverse sample of 13 women, including both survivors of partner violence and those without any history of partner violence. An interpretative analysis was performed with the data. This study provides important knowledge regarding the barriers and attitudes towards inquiry about IPV in primary care in Denmark. Results indicate that Denmark is facing the same challenges when responding to survivors of IPV as other similar countries, including Sweden, Norway, the UK, USA, and Australia. Danish women want general practitioners to ask about violence in a respectful and non-judgemental manner. However, general practitioners are resistant towards such an inquiry and would benefit from training regarding how to respond to women who have been exposed to IPV. It is acceptable to inquire about IPV with women in Denmark in a non-judgemental and respectful way. Informing about IPV prevalence is important prior to the inquiry. However, general practitioners require more awareness and training before a favourable environment for this change in procedure can be created. Further large-scale research is needed to support the evidence generated by this small study.
Heterogeneous Parking Market Subject to Parking Rationing
Saeed Asadi Bagloee
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Different types of drivers and parking spaces delineate a heterogeneous parking market for which the literature has yet to provide a model applicable to the real world. The main obstacle is computational complexities of considering various parking restrictions along with traffic congestion on the road network. In this study, the heterogeneity aspects are considered within a Logit parking choice model. A mathematical programming problem was introduced to explicitly consider parking capacities and parking rationing constraints. The parking rationing is defined as any arrangement to reserve parking space for some specific demand such as parking permit, private parking, VIP parking, and different parking durations. Introduction of parking rationing in the presence of other constraints is a unique factor in this study which makes the model more realistic. The algorithm was tested on a central business district case study. The results prove that the algorithm is able to converge rapidly. Among the algorithm’s output are shadow prices of the parking capacity and parking rationing constraints. The shadow prices contain important information which is key to addressing a variety of parking issues, such as the location of parking shortages, identification of fair parking charges, viability of parking permits, and the size of reserved parking.
Fabac, Robert; Radošević, Danijel; Magdalenić, Ivan
2014-01-01
When considering strategic games from the conceptual perspective that focuses on the questions of participants' decision-making rationality, the very issues of modelling and simulation are rarely discussed. The well-known Rational Pigs matrix game has been relatively intensively analyzed in terms of reassessment of the logic of two players involved in asymmetric situations as gluttons that differ significantly by their attributes. This paper presents a successful attempt of using autogenerator for creating the framework of the game, including the predefined scenarios and corresponding payoffs. Autogenerator offers flexibility concerning the specification of game parameters, which consist of variations in the number of simultaneous players and their features and game objects and their attributes as well as some general game characteristics. In the proposed approach the model of autogenerator was upgraded so as to enable program specification updates. For the purpose of treatment of more complex strategic scenarios, we created the Rational Pigs Game Extended (RPGE), in which the introduction of a third glutton entails significant structural changes. In addition, due to the existence of particular attributes of the new player, "the tramp," one equilibrium point from the original game is destabilized which has an influence on the decision-making of rational players.
Wright, Anthony A; Katz, Jeffrey S
2007-11-01
The generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning was tested with a meta-analysis of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and pigeons (Columba livia) learning a same/different (S/D) task with expanding training sets. The generalization hypothesis states that as the number of training items increases, generalization from the training pairs will increase and could explain the subjects' accurate novel-stimulus transfer. By contrast, concept learning is learning the relationship between each pair of items; with more training items subjects learn more exemplars of the rule and transfer better. Having to learn the stimulus pairs (the generalization hypothesis) would require more training as the set size increases, whereas learning the concept might require less training because subjects would be learning an abstract rule. The results strongly support concept or rule learning despite severely relaxing the generalization-hypothesis parameters. Thus, generalization was not a factor in the transfer from these experiments, adding to the evidence that these subjects were learning the S/D abstract concept.
Mandal, Soma; Moudgil, Mee'nal; Mandal, Sanat K
2009-12-25
In this article, current knowledge of drug design is reviewed and an approach of rational drug design is presented. The process of drug development is challenging, expensive, and time consuming, although this process has been accelerated due to the development of computational tools and methodologies. The current target based drug design approach is incomplete because most of the drugs developed by structure guided approaches have been shown to have serious toxic side effects. Otherwise these drugs would have been an ideal choice for the treatment of diseases. Hence, rational drug design would require a multidisciplinary approach. In this regard, incorporation of gene expression technology and bioinformatics tools would be indispensable in the structure based drug design. Global gene expression data and analysis of such data using bioinformatics tools will have numerous benefits such as efficiency, cost effectiveness, time saving, and will provide strategies for combination therapy in addition to overcoming toxic side effects. As a result of incorporation of gene expression data, partial benefit of the structure based drug design is slowly emerging and rapidly changing the approach of the drug development process. To achieve the full benefit of developing a successful drug, multidisciplinary approaches (approaches such as computational chemistry and gene expression analysis, as discussed in this article) would be necessary. In the future, there is adequate room for the development of more sophisticated methodologies.
Rational top and its classical r-matrix
Aminov, G.; Arthamonov, S.; Smirnov, A.; Zotov, A.
2014-08-01
We construct a rational integrable system (the rational top) on a co-adjoint orbit of SL N Lie group. It is described by the Lax operator with spectral parameter and classical non-dynamical skew-symmetric r-matrix. In the case of the orbit of minimal dimension the model is gauge equivalent to the rational Calogero-Moser (CM) system. To obtain the results we represent the Lax operator of the CM model in two different factorized forms—without spectral parameter (related to the spinless case) and another one with the spectral parameter. The latter gives rise to the rational top while the first one is related to generalized Cremmer-Gervais r-matrices. The gauge transformation relating the rational top and CM model provides the classical rational version of the IRF-Vertex correspondence. From the geometrical point of view it describes the modification of SL(N,{C})-bundles over degenerated elliptic curve. In view of the Symplectic Hecke Correspondence the rational top is related to the rational spin CM model. Possible applications and generalizations of the suggested construction are discussed. In particular, the obtained r-matrix defines a class of KZB equations.
NOTES FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL RATIONALITY
Munir Jorge Felício
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The notes for the construction of Environmental Rationality proposed in this text were gathered from a contribution of an analysis of phenomenology, epistemology, and ontology relating to Marx. This initiative aims to broaden and deepen the understanding of environmental issues whose global changes raise challenges, especially for the scientific community. It is to question the development of the economic rationality from the degradation of natural resources engendered by the current socio-economic development model. This model is based on the increase of productivity, technological expansion and maintains the norm as if natural resources were still considered abundant and limitless. The transition of this Environmental Rationality is a development sought by using the knowledge gained from the analysis possibilities of phenomenology. Among these possibilities, the indicated interdisciplinary schools of thought, as required by epistemology, can become an interesting research strategy, since it has as the starting point the external demands, where the elements of the current environmental issue exist, and its consequences.
范菊华
2012-01-01
在一定程度上,制度是一种应对具体问题的行为选择的物化结果。以理性主义为理论基础的＂经济人＂模式重视理性预期对行为的决定作用,而以建构主义为理论基础的＂社会人＂模式强调认知结构对行为的建构作用。本文尝试把理性主义模式有机地融合到比较宽泛的建构主义模式之中,再以此为基础,阐述环境问题领域中的制度和行为的相互关系,并提出对环境制度建构的非经济价值思考。%To some degree,the construction of institutions is a behavioral choice to deal with concrete issuses.The model of ＂economic man＂,based on the methodological individualism,focuses on the determinative influence of rational anticipation on behavioral choices,while the model of ＂social man＂,based on the methodological constructivism,stresses on the normative influence of cognitive structure on behavioral choices.This paper integrates the individualistic model into the wider perspective of constructivist model,and then from the integrated perspective,illustrates interaction of institutional construction and behavioral choice in the environmental area,making a non-economic valuation of the construction of environmental institutions.
Ryndak, Diane Lea; Taub, Debbie; Jorgensen, Cheryl M.; Gonsier-Gerdin, Jean; Arndt, Katrina; Sauer, Janet; Ruppar, Andrea L.; Morningstar, Mary E.; Allcock, Heather
2014-01-01
Students with significant disabilities continue to be among the most segregated in schools. In this article, we argue that the principles of least restrictive environment and involvement and progress in the general curriculum have been interpreted in ways that perpetuate segregation, rather than increasing students' access to meaningful…
NONE
2000-04-01
These regulations and general advice are applicable to nuclear medicine within human medical care. The regulations are also applicable to activities where radioactive substances are administered to individuals in connection to medical or biomedical research and medical examinations for insurance or legal purposes.
Credit rationing and firm size
G. CALCAGNINI
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the likelihood of credit rationing faced by firms of different size. Contrary to common thought, several recent contributions on this topic argue that, when rationing credit, size alone is not a sufficient condition for discriminating between firms. We show that this result can be predicted using a framework based on the Stiglitz-Weiss model. In particular, in an environment of asymmetric information, we highlight how the likelihood of credit rationing depends upon the shape of the distribution function of project returns, especially its asymmetry and Kurtosis. Our empirical results do not support the hypothesis that small firms face more credit rationing than larger firms.
Hegel's phenomenology of rationality
Huggler, Jørgen
2009-01-01
The aim of this chapter is to elucidate Hegel's conception of rationality in the Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807), and to defend the thesis that he is an author engaged in discussion with a wide variety of sources. He uses sceptical reasoning to form a line of argument with a necessary progression......, although the various materials that he considers are not linked in a simple, compelling logical way. The paper discusses what Hegel aimed at and the methods he used to reach his goal (sect. 1). These considerations are then used to cast an eye on the development of the contents of the book (sect. 2). Last......, the paper presents a metaphysical interpretation of the course of experiences and discusses why Hegel's sceptical method is adequate to the metaphysics of spirit with which the book concludes (sect. 3)....
无
2007-01-01
Backward ball spinning was applied for manufacturing thin-walled tubular parts with longitudinal inner ribs. Rigid-plastic finite element method(FEM) was used for simulating the backward ball spinning process in order to calculate the height of the inner ribs. With a view to guarantee a better simulation accuracy, it is essential to enhance and improve some general problems of FEM,such as generation of initial velocity field, choice of penalty factor, determination of boundary conditions, treatment of rigid region and description of convergence criteria. It is evident that whether the problems with respect to FEM are dealt with appropriately or not, they have a significant influence on the modeling accuracy and efficiency. By reasonable solving the general problems,rigid-plastic FEM can successfully simulate the height of the inner ribs and the calculated values are in good agreement with the measured values.
Innovative process rational choice grounding in organization
S.M. Illiashenko
2015-01-01
The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to investigate and scientifically to ground recommendations concerning choice of the rational structure and innovative process content, depending on innovative development potential in the organization and innovation radicalization degree, which provides to coordinate interconnection between SRCCW and innovations marketing at its stages for various innovative business types. The results of the analysis. The generalized scheme of organizati...
Rational Convolution Roots of Isobaric Polynomials
Conci, Aura; Li, Huilan; MacHenry, Trueman
2014-01-01
In this paper, we exhibit two matrix representations of the rational roots of generalized Fibonacci polynomials (GFPs) under convolution product, in terms of determinants and permanents, respectively. The underlying root formulas for GFPs and for weighted isobaric polynomials (WIPs), which appeared in an earlier paper by MacHenry and Tudose, make use of two types of operators. These operators are derived from the generating functions for Stirling numbers of the first kind and second kind. Hen...
通用航空业发展若干问题%On Several Issues in General Aviation
单磊
2015-01-01
随着无人机技术的发展、国内外地缘政治、经济形势的演变和国内经济结构的调整，通用航空产业在未来20年内面临着极大的发展机遇和挑战。加快空域管理体制改革，完善无人机技术标准体系，保持通用航空飞行器的质量一致性以及运用可靠性验证方法和手段，是推动通用航空产业自主创新和转变升级的关键。%With the development of UAV technology, according to the evolutions of the domestic and international geopolitics, the changes of the economic situation and the needs of domestic economic restructuring, in the next twenty years, The General Aviation Industry is facing a great of developmental opportunities and challenges. Ability to promote the reforms of airspace management system, can be or not to improve the technical standard system and the verifying methods and tools of The General Aviation Aircraft's quality consistency and reliability, are the key of The General Aviation Industry to innovate and the national economic structure to become the mode such as green, low-carbon, Environmental Protection and sustainable development. The author analyzes it and gives advices.
Gheorghe DUCA
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Ten years ago, in 2006, CHEMISTRY JOURNAL OF MOLDOVA. General, Industrial and Ecological Chemistry was founded by the Institute of Chemistry of Academy of Sciences of Moldova and Moldova State University. Chemistry Journal of Moldova is an open access, international indexed and peer-reviewed journal that publishes papers of high quality containing original results in the areas of Chemical Sciences, such as analytical chemistry, ecological chemistry, food chemistry, industrial chemistry, inorganic and coordination chemistry, natural product chemistry and synthesis, organic chemistry, physical chemistry and chemical physics, as well as supramolecular chemistry. Chemistry Journal of Moldova seeks to publish experimental or theoretical research results of outstanding signifi cance and timeliness.
Rational Top and its Classical R-matrix
Aminov, G; Smirnov, A; Zotov, A
2014-01-01
We construct a rational integrable system (the rational top) on a coadjoint orbit of ${\\rm SL}_N$ Lie group. It is described by the Lax operator with spectral parameter and classical non-dynamical skew-symmetric $r$-matrix. In the case of the orbit of minimal dimension the model is gauge equivalent to the rational Calogero-Moser (CM) system. To obtain the results we represent the Lax operator of the CM model in two different factorized forms -- without spectral parameter (related to spinless case) and another one with the spectral parameter. The later gives rise to the rational top while the first one is related to generalized Cremmer-Gervais $r$-matrices. The gauge transformation relating the rational top and CM model provides a classical rational version of the IRF-Vertex correspondence. From a geometrical point of view it describes the modification of ${\\rm SL}(N,\\mathbb C)$-bundles over degenerated elliptic curve. In view of Symplectic Hecke Correspondence the rational top is related to the rational spin ...
Rationality problem for algebraic tori
Hoshi, Akinari
2017-01-01
The authors give the complete stably rational classification of algebraic tori of dimensions 4 and 5 over a field k. In particular, the stably rational classification of norm one tori whose Chevalley modules are of rank 4 and 5 is given. The authors show that there exist exactly 487 (resp. 7, resp. 216) stably rational (resp. not stably but retract rational, resp. not retract rational) algebraic tori of dimension 4, and there exist exactly 3051 (resp. 25, resp. 3003) stably rational (resp. not stably but retract rational, resp. not retract rational) algebraic tori of dimension 5. The authors make a procedure to compute a flabby resolution of a G-lattice effectively by using the computer algebra system GAP. Some algorithms may determine whether the flabby class of a G-lattice is invertible (resp. zero) or not. Using the algorithms, the suthors determine all the flabby and coflabby G-lattices of rank up to 6 and verify that they are stably permutation. The authors also show that the Krull-Schmidt theorem for G-...
F-theory and All Things Rational: Surveying U(1) Symmetries with Rational Sections
Lawrie, Craig; Wong, Jin-Mann
2015-01-01
We study elliptic fibrations for F-theory compactifications realizing 4d and 6d supersymmetric gauge theories with abelian gauge factors. In the fibration these U(1) symmetries are realized in terms of additional rational sections. We obtain a universal characterization of all the possible U(1) charges of matter fields by determining the corresponding codimension two fibers with rational sections. In view of modelling supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories, one of the main examples that we analyze are U(1) symmetries for SU(5) gauge theories with \\bar{5} and 10 matter. We use a combination of constraints on the normal bundle of rational curves in Calabi-Yau three- and four-folds, as well as the splitting of rational curves in the fibers in codimension two, to determine the possible configurations of smooth rational sections. This analysis straightforwardly generalizes to multiple U(1)s. We study the flops of such fibers, as well as some of the Yukawa couplings in codimension three. Furthermore, we carry out a ...
F-theory and all things rational: surveying U(1) symmetries with rational sections
Lawrie, Craig; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura; Wong, Jin-Mann
2015-09-01
We study elliptic fibrations for F-theory compactifications realizing 4d and 6d supersymmetric gauge theories with abelian gauge factors. In the fibration these U(1) symmetries are realized in terms of additional rational section. We obtain a universal characterization of all the possible U(1) charges of matter fields by determining the corresponding codimension two fibers with rational sections. In view of modelling supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories, one of the main examples that we analyze are U(1) symmetries for SU(5) gauge theories with overline{5} and 10 matter. We use a combination of constraints on the normal bundle of rational curves in Calabi-Yau three- and four-folds, as well as the splitting of rational curves in the fibers in codimension two, to determine the possible configurations of smooth rational sections. This analysis straightforwardly generalizes to multiple U(1)s. We study the flops of such fibers, as well as some of the Yukawa couplings in codimension three. Furthermore, we carry out a universal study of the U(1)-charged GUT singlets, including their KK-charges, and determine all realizations of singlet fibers. By giving vacuum expectation values to these singlets, we propose a systematic way to analyze the Higgsing of U(1)s to discrete gauge symmetries in F-theory.
Quantum contextuality for rational vectors
Cabello, Adan
2010-01-01
The Kochen-Specker theorem states that noncontextual hidden variable models are inconsistent with the quantum predictions for every yes-no question on a qutrit, corresponding to every projector in three dimensions. It has been suggested [D. A. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3751 (1999)] that the inconsistency would disappear when we are restricted to projectors on unit vectors with rational components; that noncontextual hidden variables could reproduce the quantum predictions for rational vectors. Here we show that a qutrit state with rational components violates an inequality valid for noncontextual hidden-variable models [A. A. Klyachko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 020403 (2008)] using rational projectors. This shows that the inconsistency remains even when using only rational vectors.
Quantum contextuality for rational vectors
Cabello, Adan, E-mail: adan@us.e [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Larsson, Jan-Ake, E-mail: jan-ake.larsson@liu.s [Institutionen foer Systemteknik, Linkoepings Universitet, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)
2010-12-01
The Kochen-Specker theorem states that noncontextual hidden variable models are inconsistent with the quantum predictions for every yes-no question on a qutrit, corresponding to every projector in three dimensions. It has been suggested [D.A. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 3751] that the inconsistency would disappear when restricting to projectors on unit vectors with rational components; that noncontextual hidden variables could reproduce the quantum predictions for rational vectors. Here we show that a qutrit state with rational components violates an inequality valid for noncontextual hidden-variable models [A.A. Klyachko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 (2008) 020403] using rational projectors. This shows that the inconsistency remains even when using only rational vectors.
Limited rationality and strategic interaction
Fehr, Ernst; Tyran, Jean-Robert
2008-01-01
Much evidence suggests that people are heterogeneous with regard to their abilities to make rational, forward-looking decisions. This raises the question as to when the rational types are decisive for aggregate outcomes and when the boundedly rational types shape aggregate results. We examine...... this question in the context of a long-standing and important economic problem: the adjustment of nominal prices after an anticipated monetary shock. Our experiments suggest that two types of bounded rationality-money illusion and anchoring-are important behavioral forces behind nominal inertia. However......, depending on the strategic environment, bounded rationality has vastly different effects on aggregate price adjustment. If agents' actions are strategic substitutes, adjustment to the new equilibrium is extremely quick, whereas under strategic complementarity, adjustment is both very slow and associated...
Standby gasoline rationing plan: narrative
1979-02-01
The objectives of the rationing plan are to provide a mechanism capable of maintaining an orderly and equitable market for gasoline in a severe supply shortfall, and capable of rapid implementation; and to comply with requirements of EPCA, which mandates the development of a contingency rationing plan. Eligibility for ration allotments will be based principally on motor vehicle registration records, maintained in a national vehicle registration file. Supplemental allotments will be granted for certain priority activities to ensure the maintenance of essential public services. Supplemental allotments will also be granted to businesses and government organizations with significant off-highway gasoline requirements. Local rationing boards or other offices will be established by states, to provide special allotments to hardship applicants, within DOE guidelines. The background and history of the plan are described. The gasoline rationing plan operations, government operations, program costs, staffing, and funding are also detailed in this report. (MCW)
Byrne, Molly
2010-05-25
Abstract Background Sexual problems are common among people with coronary heart disease and can adversely affect patients\\' quality of life. GPs are ideally placed to deal with these problems. Research suggests that GPs are reluctant to address sexual problems but little is known about what currently takes place in practice. The aim of this study was to examine GPs\\' self-reported behaviour and attitudes to discussing sexual problems with people with coronary heart disease. Method Design: A cross-sectional survey which administered 230 postal questionnaires to a nationally representative, stratified random sample of GPs in the Republic of Ireland. GPs were asked about current practice, knowledge, awareness and confidence in dealing with sexual problems, barriers to addressing sexual problems, and about improving services in this area. Results Responses were available for 61 GPs (27% response rate). Seventy percent of GPs reported that they rarely or never discussed sexual problems with coronary patients. While all GPs believed addressing sexual problems was important, many GPs reported lacking awareness, knowledge and confidence in addressing sexual problems. The main barriers were lack of time, feeling the patient wasn\\'t ready and lack of training in the area. GPs wanted more training and guidelines for practice. Conclusions There is currently no standardised protocol for GPs for dealing with sexual problems among coronary patients. Awareness of these issues appears to be low among GPs. Services could be improved by developing practice guidelines for brief, effective actions or assessments, providing training in the area and improving information resources and support services for referral.
McGee Hannah M
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual problems are common among people with coronary heart disease and can adversely affect patients' quality of life. GPs are ideally placed to deal with these problems. Research suggests that GPs are reluctant to address sexual problems but little is known about what currently takes place in practice. The aim of this study was to examine GPs' self-reported behaviour and attitudes to discussing sexual problems with people with coronary heart disease. Method Design: A cross-sectional survey which administered 230 postal questionnaires to a nationally representative, stratified random sample of GPs in the Republic of Ireland. GPs were asked about current practice, knowledge, awareness and confidence in dealing with sexual problems, barriers to addressing sexual problems, and about improving services in this area. Results Responses were available for 61 GPs (27% response rate. Seventy percent of GPs reported that they rarely or never discussed sexual problems with coronary patients. While all GPs believed addressing sexual problems was important, many GPs reported lacking awareness, knowledge and confidence in addressing sexual problems. The main barriers were lack of time, feeling the patient wasn't ready and lack of training in the area. GPs wanted more training and guidelines for practice. Conclusions There is currently no standardised protocol for GPs for dealing with sexual problems among coronary patients. Awareness of these issues appears to be low among GPs. Services could be improved by developing practice guidelines for brief, effective actions or assessments, providing training in the area and improving information resources and support services for referral.
Hodge, Suzanne M.
2009-01-01
Abstract Background This paper uses Jürgen Habermas’s Theory of Communicative Action as a lens through which to examine the development of a local mental health charter. Objective To assess whether the Charter represents the product of a communicatively rational process. Research design and setting The paper is based on an analysis of the text of the Charter, and on documentation relating to its development, including notes of discussion groups used to identify its themes. Findings An analysis of the notes of the discussion groups against the text of the Charter shows that the Charter’s themes are based broadly on the views generated in the discussion groups. However, they also draw on norms derived from wider discourses not reflected in the discussion groups, and exclude other specific local issues. The strength of feeling expressed in the discussion groups is also toned down in the language of the Charter. Discussion The development of the Charter was based on a participatory process that can be said to have contained elements of both communicative and strategic rationality. The strategic rationality involved in translating service users’ views into language that would be acceptable to those working in the system can be seen as necessary for the Charter to succeed in bringing about change. In drawing also on communicatively generated norms from the wider public sphere the Charter can be seen as reflecting a form of generalized communicative rationality. Conclusion The Charter represents a ‘sluice’ by which communicative rationality is drawn into the mental health system. PMID:19754689
Implicitization of rational maps
Botbol, Nicolas
2011-01-01
Motivated by the interest in computing explicit formulas for resultants and discriminants initiated by B\\'ezout, Cayley and Sylvester in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and emphasized in the latest years due to the increase of computing power, we focus on the implicitization of hypersurfaces in several contexts. Our approach is based on the use of linear syzygies by means of approximation complexes, following [Bus\\'e Jouanolou 03], where they develop the theory for a rational map $f:P^{n-1}\\dashrightarrow P^n$. Approximation complexes were first introduced by Herzog, Simis and Vasconcelos in [Herzog Simis Vasconcelos 82] almost 30 years ago. The main obstruction for this approximation complex-based method comes from the bad behavior of the base locus of $f$. Thus, it is natural to try different compatifications of $A^{n-1}$, that are better suited to the map $f$, in order to avoid unwanted base points. With this purpose, in this thesis we study toric compactifications $T$ for $A^{n-1}$. We provide re...
Rational offset approximation of rational Bézier curves
CHENG Min; WANG Guo-jin
2006-01-01
The problem of parametric speed approximation of a rational curve is raised in this paper. Offset curves are widely used in various applications. As for the reason that in most cases the offset curves do not preserve the same polynomial or rational polynomial representations, it arouses difficulty in applications. Thus approximation methods have been introduced to solve this problem. In this paper, it has been pointed out that the crux of offset curve approximation lies in the approximation of parametric speed. Based on the Jacobi polynomial approximation theory with endpoints interpolation, an algebraic rational approximation algorithm of offset curve, which preserves the direction of normal, is presented.
Scalable Mechanisms for Rational Secret Sharing
Dani, Varsha; Saia, Jared
2012-01-01
We consider the classical secret sharing problem in the case where all agents are selfish but rational. In recent work, Kol and Naor show that, when there are two players, in the non-simultaneous communication model, i.e. when rushing is possible, there is no Nash equilibrium that ensures both players learn the secret. However, they describe a mechanism for this problem, for any number of players, that is an epsilon-Nash equilibrium, in that no player can gain more than epsilon utility by deviating from it. Unfortunately, the Kol and Naor mechanism, and, to the best of our knowledge, all previous mechanisms for this problem require each agent to send O(n) messages in expectation, where n is the number of agents. This may be problematic for some applications of rational secret sharing such as secure multi-party computation and simulation of a mediator. We address this issue by describing mechanisms for rational secret sharing that are designed for large n. Both of our results hold for n > 2, and are Nash equil...
Rosa, Renata Gualberto Cordeiro [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2008-07-01
Considering the activities of exploration and production of oil and natural gas and the concession regimen applicable to them in Brazil, the assignment of rights and obligations of the concession contract is analyzed from the points of view of the Petroleum Law and the contract itself. This paper intend to address the legal aspects that support the general legal authorization and the rules of the concession contract, as well as the role of ANP in the approval of the transfer and in the development of technical rules, regarding its function as a regulatory agency. Two controversial issues, the transfer with retroactive effects and the transfer of part of the concession area, are analyzed in light of the general features of the transfer of rights and obligations. Finally, the 'cessao de fato' and its consequences will be considered for the study of assignment of rights with retroactive effects and the operations of sole risk.. (author)
Multiple sine, multiple elliptic gamma functions and rational cones
Tizzano, Luigi
2015-01-01
We define generalizations of the multiple elliptic gamma functions and the multiple sine functions, labelled by rational cones in $\\mathbb{R}^r$. For $r=2,3$ we prove that the generalized multiple elliptic gamma functions enjoy a modular property determined by the cone. This generalizes the modular properties of the elliptic gamma function studied by Felder and Varchenko. The generalized multiple sine enjoy a related infinite product representation, generalizing the results of Narukawa for the ordinary multiple sine functions.
Rational Thinking and Reasonable Thinking in Physics
Isaeva E. A.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle's principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.
Rational Thinking and Reasonable Thinking in Physics
Isaeva E. A.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle’s principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.
Rational Instability in the Natural Coalition Forming
Vinogradova, Galina
2012-01-01
We are investigating a paradigm of instability in coalition forming among countries, which indeed is intrinsic to any collection of individual groups or other social aggregations. Coalitions among countries are formed by the respective attraction or repulsion caused by the historical bond propensities between the countries, which produced an intricate circuit of bilateral bonds. Contradictory associations into coalitions occur due to the independent evolution of the bonds. Those coalitions tend to be unstable and break down frequently. The model extends some features of the physical theory of Spin Glasses. Within the frame of this model, the instability is viewed as a consequence of decentralized maximization processes searching for the best coalition allocations. In contrast to the existing literature, a rational instability is found to result from forecast rationality of countries. Using a general theoretical framework allowing to analyze the countries' decision making in coalition forming, we feature a sys...
Rational Curves on Calabi-Yau Threefolds
Katz, S
1992-01-01
The point is to compare the mathematical meaning of the ``number of rational curves on a Calabi-Yau threefold'' to the meaning ascribed to the same notion by string theorists. By considering mirror symmetry applied to conformal field theories corresponding to strings propagating in quintic hypersurfaces in projective 4-space, Candelas, de la Ossa, Green and Parkes calculated the ``number of rational curves on the hypersurface'' by comparing three point functions. Actually, the number of curves may be infinite for special examples; what is really being calculated is a path integral. The point of this talk is to give mathematical techniques and examples for computing the finite number that ``should'' correspond to an infinite family of curves (which coincides with that given by the path integral in every known instance), and to suggest that these techniques should provide the answer to the not yet solved problem of how to calculate instanton corrections to the three point function in general.
Privacy-Enhancing Auctions Using Rational Cryptography
Miltersen, Peter Bro; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Triandopoulos, Nikolaos
2009-01-01
We consider enhancing with privacy concerns a large class of auctions, which include sealed-bid single-item auctions but also general multi-item multi-winner auctions, our assumption being that bidders primarily care about monetary payoff and secondarily worry about exposing information about...... show how to use rational cryptography to approximately implement any given ex interim individually strictly rational equilibrium of such an auction without a trusted mediator through a cryptographic protocol that uses only point-to-point authenticated channels between the players. By “ex interim...... close to the original equilibrium.Supported by the Center for Algorithmic Game Theory, funded by The Carlsberg Foundation....
Brothers, Kyle B
2011-04-01
Provider claims to conscientious objection have generated a great deal of heated debate in recent years. However, the conflicts that arise when providers make claims to the "conscience" are only a subset of the more fundamental challenges that arise in health care practice when patients and providers come into conflict. In this piece, the author provides an account of patient-provider conflict from within the moral tradition of St. Thomas Aquinas. He argues that the practice of health care providers should be understood as a form of practical reasoning and that this practical reasoning must necessarily incorporate both "moral" and "professional" commitments. In order to understand how the practical reasoning of provider should account for the needs and commitments of the patient and vice versa, he explores the account of dependence provided by Alasdair MacIntyre in his book Dependent Rational Animals. MacIntyre argues that St. Thomas' account of practical reasoning should be extended and adapted to account for the embodied vulnerability of all humans. In light of this insight, providers must view patients not only as the subjects of their moral reflection but also as fellow humans upon whom the provider depends for feedback on the effectiveness and relevance of her practical reasoning. The author argues that this account precludes responsive providers from adopting either moral or professional conclusions on the appropriateness of interventions outside the individual circumstances that arise in particular situations. The adoption of this orientation toward patients will neither eradicate provider-patient conflict nor compel providers to perform interventions to which they object. But this account does require that providers attend meaningfully to the suffering of patients and seek feedback on whether their intervention has effectively addressed that suffering.
Joh, Seung Hun; Dellink, Rob; Nam, Yunmi; Kim, Yong Gun; Song, Yang Hoon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)
2000-12-01
In the beginning of the 21st century, climate change is one of hottest issues in arena of both international environment and domestic one. During the COP6 meeting held in The Hague, over 10,000 people got together from the world. This report is a series of policy study on climate change in context of Korea. This study addresses on interactions of economy and environment in a perfect foresight dynamic computable general equilibrium with a focus on greenhouse gas mitigation strategy in Korea. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate greenhouse gas mitigation portfolios of changes in timing and magnitude with a particular focus on developing a methodology to integrate the bottom-up information on technical measures to reduce pollution into a top-down multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium framework. As a non-Annex I country Korea has been under strong pressure to declare GHG reduction commitment. Of particular concern is economic consequences GHG mitigation would accrue to the society. Various economic assessment have been carried out to address on the issue including analyses on cost, ancillary benefit, emission trading, so far. In this vein, this study on GHG mitigation commitment is a timely answer to climate change policy field. Empirical results available next year would be highly demanded in the situation. 62 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.
Collective action and rationality models
Luis Miguel Miller Moya
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The Olsonian theory of collective action (Olson, 1965 assumes a model of economic rationality, based on a simple calculus between costs and benefits, that can be hardly hold at present, given the models of rationality proposed recently by several fields of research. In relation to these fields, I will concentrate in two specific proposals, namely: evolutionary game theory and, over all, the theory of bounded rationality. Both alternatives are specially fruitful in order to propose models that do not need a maximizing rationality, or environments of complete and perfect information. Their approaches, based on the possibility of individual learning over the time, have contributed to the analysis of the emergence of social norms, which is something really necessary to the resolution of problems related to cooperation. Thus, this article asserts that these two new theoretical contributions make feasible a fundamental advance in the study of collective action.
Rationality in the Cryptographic Model
Hubacek, Pavel
This thesis presents results in the field of rational cryptography. In the first part we study the use of cryptographic protocols to avoid mediation and binding commitment when implementing game theoretic equilibrium concepts. First, we concentrate on the limits of cryptographic cheap talk....... The second part presents a study of the problem of verifiable delegation of computation in the rational setting. We define rational arguments, an extension of the recent concept of rational proofs into the computational setting, and give a single round delegation scheme for the class NC1, of search problems...... computable by log-space uniform circuits of logarithmic depth, with a sub-linear time verifier. While our approach provides a weaker (yet arguably meaningful) guarantee of soundness, it compares favorably with each of the known delegation schemes in at least one aspect. Our protocols are simple, rely...
Herbert A. Simon and the concept of rationality: boundaries and procedures
Gustavo Barros
2010-09-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses Herbert A. Simon's conception of rationality in two of its principal general definitions: bounded rationality and procedural rationality. It argues that the latter is the one that better synthesizes the author's view about rational behavior and that the former fills mainly a critical function. They are complementarily used by Simon in this sense. In spite of that, it is argued that it is the low degree of specificity of the concept of bounded rationality one of the reasons for its relatively greater success.
Is Polish Crime Economically Rational?
2010-01-01
This study investigates whether crime in Poland is governed by economic rationality. An economic model of rational behavior claims that the propensity to commit criminal activi-ties is negatively related to deterrence. The potential presence of higher risk profiles for certain population segments is investigated. Panel data aggregated to sub-regional levels and observed annually for the years 2003 to 2005 are applied. Controls for endogeneity among criminal activity level and deterrence, intr...
Rationality in the Social Mobility Process of Vietnamese Thai
Krishna Thongkaew
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Rationality is employed in explaining actions in various contents. Researchers had argument that in the social mobility process content having the rationality in action of all processes. It can be said that rationality is a key part of social mobility process and leads to the solution of family problem. This paper aims to study the social mobility process of Vietnamese Thai family by undertaking the qualitative research. The data were collected through observation, life history, in-depth interview, group interview of 10 families from 4 provinces: Udon Thani, NongKhai, SakonNakhon and Nakhon Phanom. The contents were analyzed and its result was presented by the descriptive analysis. The result found that the social mobility process of Vietnamese Thai people based on the rationality with three stages totally. Firstly, a practice for rationality followed by an abstract thinking and generalization; a disciplinable action, finally. The Vietnamese Thai has strict action and rationality so that it results in the upward mobility. On the other hand, family not being strict in rational action causes the downward mobility.
The Rationality Prohibition of Riba (Usury
Sofhian
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Usury (henceforth called as riba in fact has long been known and have been progressing in meaning. The study of riba was not only discussed seriously by Muslims but also other religions. If flashed back to more than two thousand years ago, the study of riba has been discussed by non-Muslims, such as Hindu, Buddhist, Jewish, Greek, Roman and Christian. In Islam, debate about riba and bank interest indicated that the problem of riba very closely related to the issue of muamalah especially those that occur in Banks and Non- Bank financial. Riba evolution concept toward interest cannot be separated from the development of the financial institutions. Therefore, this journal examine and analyze the substance of the issues of interest in a rational perspective, and at the end of this journal offers loss and profit sharing system as an alternative solution to the system of interest in transaction systems of bank and non- bank.
Interpolation of rational matrix functions
Ball, Joseph A; Rodman, Leiba
1990-01-01
This book aims to present the theory of interpolation for rational matrix functions as a recently matured independent mathematical subject with its own problems, methods and applications. The authors decided to start working on this book during the regional CBMS conference in Lincoln, Nebraska organized by F. Gilfeather and D. Larson. The principal lecturer, J. William Helton, presented ten lectures on operator and systems theory and the interplay between them. The conference was very stimulating and helped us to decide that the time was ripe for a book on interpolation for matrix valued functions (both rational and non-rational). When the work started and the first partial draft of the book was ready it became clear that the topic is vast and that the rational case by itself with its applications is already enough material for an interesting book. In the process of writing the book, methods for the rational case were developed and refined. As a result we are now able to present the rational case as an indepe...
Preservice Teachers' Beliefs: Nonrational to Irrational to Rational.
White, Bonita C.
This paper examines the problem that the beliefs with which preservice teachers leave colleges of education are virtually the same as when they entered. This issue is addressed by establishing that preservice teachers' belief formation regarding teaching, learning, students, and content should be a rational rather than nonrational or irrational…
Cases analysis of rational use of medicine (33)Comprehension Drills
杜金山
2009-01-01
@@ In the past issues, the cases have been described in the infected diseases and antimicrobial therapy, it is useful and necessary that nonperiodic comprehension drills of rational use of medicine in English be done to improve both pharmaceutical English and clinical pharmacy.
Abstract Rationality in Education: From Vygotsky to Brandom
Derry, Jan
2008-01-01
Abstract rationality has increasingly been a target of attack in contemporary educational research and practice and in its place practical reason and situated thinking have become a focus of interest. The argument here is that something is lost in this. In illustrating how we might think about the issue, this paper makes a response to the charge…
Abstract Rationality in Education: From Vygotsky to Brandom
Derry, Jan
2008-01-01
Abstract rationality has increasingly been a target of attack in contemporary educational research and practice and in its place practical reason and situated thinking have become a focus of interest. The argument here is that something is lost in this. In illustrating how we might think about the issue, this paper makes a response to the charge…
Ideology, Rationality and Reproduction in Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis
Lim, Leonel
2014-01-01
In undertaking a critical discourse analysis of the professed aims and objectives of one of the most influential curricula in the teaching of thinking, this article foregrounds issues of power and ideology latent in curricular discourses of rationality. Specifically, it documents the subtle but powerful ways in which political and class…
Love and rationality: on some possible rational effects of love
Gustavo Ortiz-Millán
Full Text Available In this paper I defend the idea that rather than disrupting rationality, as the common-sense conception has done it, love may actually help us to develop rational ways of thinking and acting. I make the case for romantic or erotic love, since this is the kind of love that is more frequently associated with irrationality in acting and thinking. I argue that this kind of love may make us develop epistemic and practical forms of rationality. Based on an analysis of its characteristic action tendencies, I argue that love may help us to develop an instrumental form of rationality in determining the best means to achieve the object of love. It may also narrow down the number of practical considerations that may help us to achieve our goals. Finally, love may generate rational ways of belief-formation by framing the parameters taken into account in perception and attention, and by bringing into light only a small portion of the epistemic information available. Love may make us perceive reality more acutely.
A Software Library for Reliable Online-Arithmetic with Rational Numbers
Miguel Casado, Gregorio de; García Chamizo, Juan Manuel
2008-01-01
An overview of a novel calculation framework for scientific computing in integrable spaces is introduced. This paper discusses some implementation issues adopted for a software library devoted to exact rational online-arithmetic operators for periodic rational operands codified in fractional positional notation.
Free-Form Deformation with Rational DMS-Spline Volumes
Gang Xu; Guo-Zhao Wang; Xiao-Diao Chen
2008-01-01
In this paper, we propose a novel free-form deformation (FFD) technique, RDMS-FFD (Rational DMS-FFD),based on rational DMS-spline volumes. RDMS-FFD inherits some good properties of rational DMS-spline volumes and combines more deformation techniques than previous FFD methods in a consistent framework, such as local deformation,control lattice of arbitrary topology, smooth deformation, multiresolution deformation and direct manipulation of deforma-tion. We first introduce the rational DMS-spline volume by directly generalizing the previous results related to DMS-splies.How to generate a tetrahedral domain that approximates the shape of the object to be deformed is also introduced in this paper. Unlike the traditional FFD techniques, we manipulate the vertices of the tetrahedral domain to achieve deformation results. Our system demonstrates that RDMS-FFD is powerful and intuitive in geometric modeling.
Rational cuspidal curves with four cusps on Hirzebruch surfaces
Torgunn Karoline Moe
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to shed light on the question of how many and what kind of cusps a rational cuspidal curve on a Hirzebruch surface can have. Our main result is a list of rational cuspidal curves with four cusps, their type, cuspidal congurations and the surfaces they lie on. We use birational transformations to construct these curves. Moreover, we find a general expression for and compute the Euler characteristic of the logarithmic tangent sheaf in these cases. Additionally, we show that there exists a real rational cuspidal curve with four real cusps. Last, we show that for rational cuspidal curves with two or more cusps on a Hirzebruch surface, there is a lower bound on one of the multiplicities.
TETRAHEDRAL Cm INTERPOLATION BY RATIONAL FUNCTIONS
Guo-liang Xu; Chuan I Chu; Wei-min Xue
2001-01-01
A general local Cm(m ≥ 0) tetrahedral interpolation scheme bypolynomials of degree 4m + l plus low order rational functions from the given data is proposed. The scheme can have either 4m + l order algebraic precision if C2m data at vertices and Cm data on faces are given or k + E[k/3] + 1 order algebraic precision if Ck (k ≤ 2m) data are given at vertices. The resulted interpolant and its partial derivatives of up to order m are polynomials on the boundaries of the tetrahedra.
The Gross conjecture over rational function fields
OUYANG; Yi
2005-01-01
We study the Gross conjecture for the cyclotomic function field extension k(∧f)/k where k = Fq(t) is the rational function field and f is a monic polynomial in Fq[t].We prove the conjecture in the Fermat curve case(i.e., when f = t(t - 1)) by a direct calculation. We also prove the case when f is irreducible, which is analogous to the Weil reciprocity law. In the general case, we manage to show the weak version of the Gross conjecture here.
On integrable rational potentials of the Dirac equation
Stachowiak, Tomasz, E-mail: stachowiak@cft.edu.pl [Center for Theoretical Physics PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Przybylska, Maria, E-mail: M.Przybylska@proton.if.uz.zgora.pl [Institute of Physics, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, 65-417 Zielona Góra (Poland)
2013-05-03
The one-dimensional Dirac equation with a rational potential is reducible to an ordinary differential equation with a Riccati-like coefficient. Its integrability can be studied with the help of differential Galois theory, although the results have to be stated with recursive relations, because in general the equation is of Heun type. The inverse problem of finding integrable rational potentials based on the properties of the singular points is also presented; in particular, a general class of integrable potentials leading to the Whittaker equation is found.
Rational points on elliptic curves
Silverman, Joseph H
2015-01-01
The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...
Epistemic Immodesty and Embodied Rationality
Giovanni Rolla
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Based on Pritchard's distinction (2012, 2016 between favoring and discriminating epistemic grounds, and on how those grounds bear on the elimination of skeptical possibilities, I present the dream argument as a moderate skeptical possibility that can be reasonably motivated. In order to block the dream argument skeptical conclusion, I present a version of phenomenological disjunctivism based on Noë's actionist account of perceptual consciousness (2012. This suggests that perceptual knowledge is rationally grounded because it is a form of embodied achievement - what I call embodied rationality -, which offers a way of dissolving the pseudo-problem of epistemic immodesty, namely, the seemingly counterintuitive thesis that one can acquire rationally grounded knowledge that one is not in a radical skeptical scenario.
Rational choice in field archaelology
Cătălin Pavel
2011-11-01
Full Text Available In the present article I attempt to apply advances in the study of instrumental and epistemic rationality to field archaeology in order to gain insights into the ways archaeologists reason. The cognitive processes, particularly processes of decision making, that enable archaeologists to conduct the excavation in the trench have not been adequately studied so far. I take my cues from two different bodies of theory. I first inquire into the potential that rational choice theory (RCT may have in modeling archaeological behaviour, and I define subjective expected utility, which archaeologists attempt to maximize, in terms of knowledge acquisition and social gain. Following Elster’s criticism of RCT, I conclude that RCT’s standards for rational action do not correspond with those ostensibly used in field archaeology, but that instrumental rationality has a prominent role in the “archaeological experiment”. I further explore if models proposed as reaction to RCT may account for archaeological decision making. I focus on fast and frugal heuristics, and search for archaeological illustrations for some of the cognitive biases that are better documented in psychological literature. I document confirmation and congruence biases, the endowment effect, observer-expectancy bias, illusory correlation, clustering illusion, sunk cost bias, and anchoring, among others and I propose that some of these biases are used as cognitive tools by archaeologists at work and retain epistemic value. However, I find formal logic to be secondary in the development of archaeological reasoning, with default logic and defeasible logic being used instead. I emphasize scientific knowledge as an actively negotiated social product of human inquiry, and conclude that to describe rationality in field archaeology a bounded rationality model is the most promising avenue of investigation.
Are investors rational, irrational or normal?
Md Al Mamun
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The nature of investor’s rationality vs. irrationality debate drawn attention of thousands of academic papers, hundreds of conferences, roundtables discussion leading to two ends: the classical theorist i.e. the proponents of efficient market hypothesis (EMH and the behaviorist. From Fisher’s (1906 Nature of Capital & Income to Ross (1977; investor’s rationality has been considered as the principal assumption in the development of theoretical finance. Unfortunately though, various studies have shown repeated form of investor’s irrationality and incompetence in their decision process. Even the very proponents of EMH, Fama (1965 has later on in 1993 advocated the lack of market efficiency! Indeed the story of black Monday in the USA to the global financial tsunami (2007-2012 has put the proponents of EMH into the cluelessness. While, the behaviorists argument that the financial markets can be best understood by studying the psychology is also subject to criticism that there will be no existence of standard models to study agent’s behavior in the market! Therefore, this study aims at finding out the true scenarios of investor’s behavior by working on 200 individual investors in Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE. Investors’ response to different questions relating to fundamental assumption of “rationality’ or ‘presence of irrationality." The result shows a complete absence of the assumption of rationality or irrationality in number of critical issues. Therefore, the idea of EMH or mere psychologically driven behavioral finance should become less acknowledgeable in understanding the agents of financial market i.e. the investors. Rather a combination of these two may give more insight in understanding the investor’s behavior in the financial market.
Rationalizing the Promotion of Non-Rational Behaviors in Organizations.
Smith, Peter A. C.; Sharma, Meenakshi
2002-01-01
Organizations must balance rational/technical efficiency and emotions. Action learning has been proven to be effective for developing emotional openness in the workplace. Facilitators of action learning should draw upon the disciplines of counseling, Gestalt, psychodynamics, and Eastern philosophies. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)
Mental health as rational autonomy.
Edwards, R B
1981-08-01
Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.
Public policy, rationality and reason
Rodolfo Canto Sáenz
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This work suggests the incorporation of practical reason in the design, implementation and evaluation of public policies, alongside instrumental rationality. It takes two proposals that today point in this direction: Rawls distinction between reasonable (practical reason and rational (instrumental reason and what this author calls the CI Procedure (categorical imperative procedure and Habermas model of deliberative democracy. The main conclusion is that the analysis of public policies can not be limited to rather narrow limits of science, but requires the contribution of political and moral philosophy.
Rational Reconstructions of Modern Physics
Mittelstaedt, Peter
2011-01-01
Newton’s classical physics and its underlying ontology are loaded with several metaphysical hypotheses that cannot be justified by rational reasoning nor by experimental evidence. Furthermore, it is well known that some of these hypotheses are not contained in the great theories of modern physics, such as the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. This book shows that, on the basis of Newton’s classical physics and by rational reconstruction, the theory of relativity as well as quantum mechanics can be obtained by partly eliminating or attenuating the metaphysical hypotheses. Moreover, it is shown that these reconstructions do not require additional hypotheses or new experimental results.
Clintin P. Davis-Stober
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The Recognition Heuristic (Gigerenzer and Goldstein, 1996; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 makes the counter-intuitive prediction that a decision maker utilizing less information may do as well as, or outperform, an idealized decision maker utilizing more information. We lay a theoretical foundation for the use of single-variable heuristics such as the Recognition Heuristic as an optimal decision strategy within a linear modeling framework. We identify conditions under which over-weighting a single predictor is a mini-max strategy among a class of a priori chosen weights based on decision heuristics with respect to a measure of statistical lack of fit we call ``risk''. These strategies, in turn, outperform standard multiple regression as long as the amount of data available is limited. We also show that, under related conditions, weighting only one variable and ignoring all others produces the same risk as ignoring the single variable and weighting all others. This approach has the advantage of generalizing beyond the original environment of the Recognition Heuristic to situations with more than two choice options, binary or continuous representations of recognition, and to other single variable heuristics. We analyze the structure of data used in some prior recognition tasks and find that it matches the sufficient conditions for optimality in our results. Rather than being a poor or adequate substitute for a compensatory model, the Recognition Heuristic closely approximates an optimal strategy when a decision maker has finite data about the world.
Rationality, morality and Economic Coordination: The Contours of Interaction
Sushentsova Maria, S.
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The article represents an overview of general tendencies in interaction between the notions of rationality and morality, and their influence on the foundations of economic coordination. Firstly, two main directions of evolution of rationality model are considered: the theory of perspectives of D. Kahneman and A. Tverski (the empirical restriction and economic imperialism of G. Becker (the conceptual widening, the role of the modern institutionalism being emphasized. The theoretical evolution of economic rationality had mainly instrumental character and didn’t change its ethical core – the central idea of welfare in economic motivation. In this regard, the two main ways of integration of rationality and morality in modern discussion are considered: conceptions of “multiple preferences” (1 and “moral obligations” (2. The first conception assumes the existence of stable beliefs or “meta-preferences”, which range ordinal desires or preferences. According to the second approach, a distinction of a qualitative nature is drawn between rational behavior, motivated by personal benefit or “sympathy”, and exclusively moral behavior, underlain by “obligation”. An approach according to which a distinction between rational and moral arguments is drawn, directly determines the principles of economic coordination, including the foundations of social justice. Among the latter, there are two ethical grounds – mutual benefit, based on the “sympathy” principle, and impartiality, grounded on the “obligation of power”. These conceptions imply the corresponding types of economic coordination: market-evolutional (focused on effectiveness and constructivist (focused on redistribution.
Bounded rationality alters the dynamics of paediatric immunization acceptance.
Oraby, Tamer; Bauch, Chris T
2015-06-02
Interactions between disease dynamics and vaccinating behavior have been explored in many coupled behavior-disease models. Cognitive effects such as risk perception, framing, and subjective probabilities of adverse events can be important determinants of the vaccinating behaviour, and represent departures from the pure "rational" decision model that are often described as "bounded rationality". However, the impact of such cognitive effects in the context of paediatric infectious disease vaccines has received relatively little attention. Here, we develop a disease-behavior model that accounts for bounded rationality through prospect theory. We analyze the model and compare its predictions to a reduced model that lacks bounded rationality. We find that, in general, introducing bounded rationality increases the dynamical richness of the model and makes it harder to eliminate a paediatric infectious disease. In contrast, in other cases, a low cost, highly efficacious vaccine can be refused, even when the rational decision model predicts acceptance. Injunctive social norms can prevent vaccine refusal, if vaccine acceptance is sufficiently high in the beginning of the vaccination campaign. Cognitive processes can have major impacts on the predictions of behaviour-disease models, and further study of such processes in the context of vaccination is thus warranted.
QUESTIONING AND DISCURSIVE RATIONALIZATION OF PRODUCTIVE PROCESSES IN ORGANIZATIONS
Clóvis Ricardo Montenegro de Lima
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In this article, the academic questioning and rationalization of productive processes in organizations are discussed. The organizational dynamics in Luhmann’s theory of systems that emphasize the relationship of the system with its surroundings is also discussed. This theory allows for the analysis of organizations complexity, including their dynamics and processes.The concept of organizational autopoiesis is highlighted in this study. The discussion of quality improvement and innovation of production processes is based on pedagogical issues of the organizations. The possibilities of Habermas’ communicative action theory is discussed, especially in the form of discursive rationalization of complex organizational processes In conclusion, discursive rationalization may be important to build effective and integrated organizations through an ethical and sympathetic basis.
A note on vector-valued rational interpolation
Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Gongqin
2006-10-01
Graves-Morris (see [P.R. Graves-Morris, Vector valued interpolants I, Numer. Math. 42 (1983) 331-348 and P.R. Graves-Morris and C.D. Jenkins, Vector valued rational interpolants III, Constr. Approx. 2 (1986) 263-289]) defined the generalized inverse rational interpolants (GIRIs) in the form of R(x)=N(x)/D(x) with the divisibility condition D(x)|||N(x)||2, and proved the Uniqueness Theorem for GIRIs. However, this condition is found not necessary in some cases. In this paper, we remove this divisibility condition, define the extended generalized inverse rational interpolants (EGIRIs) and establish the Uniqueness Theorem for EGIRIs. One can see that the Uniqueness Theorem for GIRIs is the special case of the one for EGIRIs.
Marc Vanderhaeghen
2007-04-01
The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.
Optimal public rationing and price response.
Grassi, Simona; Ma, Ching-To Albert
2011-12-01
We study optimal public health care rationing and private sector price responses. Consumers differ in their wealth and illness severity (defined as treatment cost). Due to a limited budget, some consumers must be rationed. Rationed consumers may purchase from a monopolistic private market. We consider two information regimes. In the first, the public supplier rations consumers according to their wealth information (means testing). In equilibrium, the public supplier must ration both rich and poor consumers. Rationing some poor consumers implements price reduction in the private market. In the second information regime, the public supplier rations consumers according to consumers' wealth and cost information. In equilibrium, consumers are allocated the good if and only if their costs are below a threshold (cost effectiveness). Rationing based on cost results in higher equilibrium consumer surplus than rationing based on wealth.
On Counting the Rational Numbers
Almada, Carlos
2010-01-01
In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…
Rational Exponentials and Continued Fractions
Denny, J. K.
2012-01-01
Using continued fraction expansions, we can approximate constants, such as pi and e, using an appropriate integer n raised to the power x[superscript 1/x], x a suitable rational. We review continued fractions and give an algorithm for producing these approximations.
Personal Autonomy and Rational Suicide.
Webber, May A.; Shulman, Ernest
That certain suicides (which can be designated as rational) ought not to be interfered with is closely tied to the notion of the "right to autonomy." Specifically it is because the individual in question has this right that interference is prohibited. A proper understanding of the right to autonomy, while essential to understanding why suicide is…
Rational Normalization of Concentration Measures.
Bonckaert, P.; Egghe, L.
1991-01-01
Discusses normalization features of good concentration measures and extends the range of values of concentration measures that are population-size-independent. Rational normalization is described, and mathematical formulas for the coefficient of variation, Pratt's measure, the Gini index, Theil's measure, and Atkinson's indices are explained. (14…
The bounded rationality of the educational choices
Simone Digennaro
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, models adopted by the educational systems met with rigidities and doctrinal axioms that are limiting the efficacy of the interventions. This is due to a reduced capacity of adaptability to the reality. There is the tendency to apply a cage of false rationality, in which objectives, times, tools, etc. are defined with rigidity – often dogmatically supported – with the risk to level out the educational activity, without directly acting on the specific features of each individual and on the specific aspects that characterize one context from another. This is one of the main issue that the education is regarded to address today. It is also a topic that needs to be analysed since represents an important viaticum for lines of reasoning concerning the policies to be developed and the changes that might emerge in the educational praxis and in the long-term strategic and political decisions.
Rational Design of Biobetters with Enhanced Stability.
Courtois, Fabienne; Schneider, Curtiss P; Agrawal, Neeraj J; Trout, Bernhardt L
2015-08-01
Biotherapeutics are the fastest growing class of pharmaceutical with a rapidly evolving market facing the rise of biosimilar and biobetter products. In contrast to a biosimilar, which is derived from the same gene sequence as the innovator product, a biobetter has enhanced properties, such as enhanced efficacy or reduced immunogenicity. Little work has been carried out so far to increase the intrinsic stability of biotherapeutics via sequence changes, even though, aggregation, the primary degradation pathway of proteins, leads to issues ranging from manufacturing failure to immunological response and to loss of therapeutic activity. Using our spatial aggregation propensity tool as a first step to a rational design approach to identify aggregation-prone regions, biobetters of rituximab have been produced with enhanced stability by introducing site-specific mutations. Significant stabilization against aggregation was achieved for rituximab with no decrease in its binding affinity to the antigen.
Rationality District Policy Proliferation and Villages in Town Bandar Lampung
Novita Tresiana
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This study is based on the premise that regional growth is a product of public policy, as the government attempts to solve public problems. Within the framework of rationality, then the expansion policy should be the result of rational choice, including the selection of alternatives for the achievement of objectives, contain a fundamental value and appropriate to achieve the end result (outcome is desired. The purpose of this paper is: to describe the process of policy-making division and rationality that are used to describe the actors in the division policy. The method used is qualitative. This paper raised the research findings that the process of defining the division policy, not the solutif effort the problem for substantive society and rationality that are used in the determination of policy, dominated model of rationality dustbin, as a structural response to the interests of elite (political, transactional, not a system response (legislative and executive to address the factual issues relating to the welfare of society.
Innovative process rational choice grounding in organization
S.M. Illiashenko
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to investigate and scientifically to ground recommendations concerning choice of the rational structure and innovative process content, depending on innovative development potential in the organization and innovation radicalization degree, which provides to coordinate interconnection between SRCCW and innovations marketing at its stages for various innovative business types. The results of the analysis. The generalized scheme of organization innovative activity is investigated. It characterizes interconnections between innovative process, innovative business and innovative strategies types. The peculiarities of the works conduct concerning innovative process distinguished types are confirmed by scheme: works essence, type (types of the innovative business, innovative strategy (strategies, which is realized. Recommendations concerning works conduct reasonability of the several stages in the innovative process for organizations, which have innovative business combined type, are suggested. Essence and content of SRRCW works and innovations marketing works are confirmed at the innovative and life cycle stages of the new product. Table of decisions is developed to choose innovative process variants, which are reasonably to realize by concrete organization, depending on subsystems constituents state of its innovative development potential and innovative product radicalization degree. The enlarged block-scheme of the algorithm to choose rational structure in the innovative process within one or every innovative projects, realized by organization, is investigated. The recommendations concerning estimation of the innovative processes possible simultaneous conduct with various or similar variants of the innovative process structures by formal procedures are developed. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Author’s studies together allow to increase validity and decrease risk to choose
On a Graphical Technique for Evaluating Some Rational Expectations Models
Johansen, Søren; Swensen, Anders R.
2011-01-01
. In addition to getting a visual impression of the fit of the model, the purpose is to see if the two spreads are nevertheless similar as measured by correlation, variance ratio, and noise ratio. We extend these techniques to a number of rational expectation models and give a general definition of spread...
Some fixed point results for dualistic rational contractions
Muhammad Nazam
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a new contraction called dualistic contraction of rational type and obtain some fixed point results. These results generalize various comparable results appeared in the literature. We provide an example to show the superiority of our results over corresponding fixed point results proved in metric spaces.
Cognition, Technology and Rationality Interview to Eduardo Broncano
Fernando Broncano
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Cognition, technology and rationality are directly bound and constitute three domains of study. In the present paper we pretend to clarify some of the main general relationships which allow such binding. Thus, it specifies some relevant topics to frame a non-reductionist comprehension of such relationships
Eduardo Engel
1995-03-01
Full Text Available How consumers behave has important consequences when assessing the effectiveness of particular consumer protection policies. In this paper it is argued that policies that rely strongly on consumer rationality, such as information provision requirements, are considerable less effective in practice than what is foreseen under the usual assumptions of economic models. The relation between consumer behavior and a variety of consumer protection issues, such as unfair business practices, the benefits of standardization. informatioll regulation, education campaigne, large scale scams and advertising, is analyzed. How consumers behave has important consequences when assessing the effectiveness of particular consumer protection policies. In this paper it is argued that policies that rely strongly on consumer rationality, such as information provision requirements, are considerable less effective in practice than what is foreseen under the usual assumptions of economic models. The relation between consumer behavior and a variety of consumer protection issues, such as unfair business practices, the benefits of standardization. informatioll regulation, education campaigne, large scale scams and advertising, is analyzed.
Love and rationality: on some possible rational effects of love
Gustavo Ortiz-Millán
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper I defend the idea that rather than disrupting rationality, as the common-sense conception has done it, love may actually help us to develop rational ways of thinking and acting. I make the case for romantic or erotic love, since this is the kind of love that is more frequently associated with irrationality in acting and thinking. I argue that this kind of love may make us develop epistemic and practical forms of rationality. Based on an analysis of its characteristic action tendencies, I argue that love may help us to develop an instrumental form of rationality in determining the best means to achieve the object of love. It may also narrow down the number of practical considerations that may help us to achieve our goals. Finally, love may generate rational ways of belief-formation by framing the parameters taken into account in perception and attention, and by bringing into light only a small portion of the epistemic information available. Love may make us perceive reality more acutely.Neste artigo defendo a idéia de que, em vez de perturbar a racionalidade, como a concepção do senso comum o faz, o amor pode, na verdade, ajudar-nos a desenvolver modos racionais de pensar e agir. Dou bons argumentos para o amor romântico ou erótico, uma vez que esse é o tipo de amor que é mais freqüentemente associado à irracionalidade no agir e no pensar. Argumento que esse tipo de amor pode fazer-nos desenvolver formas epistêmicas e práticas de racionalidade. Com base em uma análise de suas tendências características para a ação, argumento que o amor pode ajudar-nos a desenvolver uma forma instrumental de racionalidade para se determinar o melhor meio de atingir o objeto de amor. Ele também pode limitar o número de considerações práticas que podem ajudar-nos a atingir os nossos objetivos. Finalmente, o amor pode gerar modos racionais de formação de crenças ao estruturar os parâmetros considerados na percepção e na aten
WAVELET RATIONAL FILTERS AND REGULARITY ANALYSIS
Zheng Kuang; Ming-gen Cui
2000-01-01
In this paper, we choose the trigonometric rational functions as wavelet filters and use them to derive various wavelets. Especially for a certain family of wavelets generated by the rational filters, the better smoothness results than Daubechies' are obtained.
Rationality, mental causation and social sciences
Mladenović Ivan
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of mental causation in the context of rational choice theory. The author defends psychological aspect of rational explanation against the challenge of contemporary reductive materialism.
Wang Qi [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Chen Yong [M.M. Key Lab, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Nonlinear Science Center and Department of Mathematics, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); E-mail: chenyong@dlut.edu.cn; Zhang Hongqing [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)
2005-09-01
In this paper, we present a new Riccati equation rational expansion method to uniformly construct a series of exact solutions for nonlinear evolution equations. Compared with most existing tanh methods and other sophisticated methods, the proposed method not only recover some known solutions, but also find some new and general solutions. The solutions obtained in this paper include rational triangular periodic wave solutions, rational solitary wave solutions and rational wave solutions. The efficiency of the method can be demonstrated on (2 + 1)-dimensional Burgers equation.
Werner-Type Matrix Valued Rational Interpolation and Its Recurrence Algorithms
顾传青; 王金波
2004-01-01
In this paper, a practical Werner-type continued fraction method for solving matrix valued rational interpolation problem isprovided by using a generalized inverse of matrices. In order to reduce the continued fraction form to rational function form of the in-terpolants, an efficient forward recurrence algorithm is obtained.
The latent rationality of risky decisions
Japp, K.P. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Faculty for Sociology
1999-12-01
The general question of rationality has changed from the old-fashioned difference of means and ends to the modern difference of system and environment. Organizations as social systems producing and reproducing decisions translate this difference into the difference of stability and variety. The question then is: In which way can the difference between stability and variety express rationality? - In the temporal dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'present futures' or 'future presences'. These expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicated by open futures, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. projected futures from the background of a known past. - In the material dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'stable flexibility' or 'flexible stability'. Again, these expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicted by open flexibilities, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. flexibility and stability after learning the respective costs of the single options. In the social dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'pragmatic dissent' or 'controversial pragmatism'. Again, these expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicated by open dissent or controversies, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. pragmatic agreements and irresolvable dissent. Again, all three asymmetries represent re-entries. The built-in preferences simply do not work without the subtleties of re-entries, at least when these processes are described by sociologically informed observers. Who else should know that he or she is operating on the basis of something called re-entries? In everyday life communication, no one sees a thing like that since every observation has an in-built bias for one side of a distinction
Schizophrenia, mental capacity, and rational suicide.
Hewitt, Jeanette
2010-02-01
A diagnosis of schizophrenia is often taken to denote a state of global irrationality within the psychiatric paradigm, wherein psychotic phenomena are seen to equate with a lack of mental capacity. However, the little research that has been undertaken on mental capacity in psychiatric patients shows that people with schizophrenia are more likely to experience isolated, rather than constitutive, irrationality and are therefore not necessarily globally incapacitated. Rational suicide has not been accepted as a valid choice for people with schizophrenia due in part to a belief that characteristic irrationality prevents autonomous decision-making. Since people with schizophrenia are often seen to lack insight into the nature of their disorder, both psychiatric and ethical perspectives generally presume that suicidal acts result directly from mental illness itself and not from second-order desires. In this article, I challenge notions of global irrationality conferred by a diagnosis of schizophrenia and argue that, where delusional beliefs are unifocal, schizophrenia does not necessarily lead to a state of mental incapacity. I then attempt to show that people with schizophrenia can sometimes be rational with regard to suicide, where this decision stems from a realistic appraisal of psychological suffering.
Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion*
Clore, Gerald L.
2011-01-01
Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome.
Kant on empiricism and rationalism
Vanzo, Alberto
2013-01-01
This paper aims to correct some widely held misconceptions concerning Kant's role in the formation of a widespread narrative of early modern philosophy. According to this narrative, which dominated the English-speaking world throughout the twentieth century, the early modern period was characterized by the development of two rival schools: René Descartes's, Baruch Spinoza's, and G. W. Leibniz's rationalism; and John Locke's, George Berkeley's, and David Hume's empiricism. Empiricists and rati...
Davidson on Turing: Rationality Misunderstood?
John-Michael Kuczynski
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Alan Turing advocated a kind of functionalism: A machine M is a thinker provided that it responds in certain ways to certain inputs. Davidson argues that Turing’s functionalism is inconsistent with a cer-tain kind of epistemic externalism, and is therefore false. In Davidson’s view, concepts consist of causal liasons of a certain kind between subject and object. Turing’s machine doesn’t have the right kinds of causal li-asons to its environment. Therefore it doesn’t have concepts. Therefore it doesn’t think. I argue that this reasoning is entirely fallacious. It is true that, in some cases, a causal liason between subject and object is part of one’s concept of that object. Consequently, to grasp certain propositions, one must have certain kids of causal ties to one’s environment. But this means that we must rethink some old views on what rationality is. It does not mean, pace Davidson, that a precondition for being rational is being causally embedded in one’s environment in a certain way. If Tur-ing’s machine isn’t capable of thinking (I leave it open whether it is or is not, that has nothing to do with its lacking certain kinds of causal con-nections to the environment. The larger significance of our discussion is this: rationality consists either in one’s ability to see the bearing of purely existential propositions on one another or rationality is simply not to be understood as the ability see the bearing that propositions have on one another.
Competency to stand trial: rationalism, "contextualism" and other modest theories.
Jan Brakel, S
2003-01-01
Determinations of competency to stand trial in criminal cases are complicated and rendered unpredictable by two sub-surface issues that are rarely articulated: (i) the place of the defendant's rationality in the substantive standard(s) for competency and (ii) the level or degree of incompetency required to stop the criminal process. The rare references to these issues, mostly indirect, that are made in the cases, commentary, and competency testing instruments devised (including those civil as well as criminal) are examined. The conclusion that emerges is that the level of capacity and rationality required of the defendant depends much on context-the type of case, its relative complexity, and the values and stakes implicated in the outcome. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bounded rationality and heterogeneous expectations in macroeconomics
D. Massaro
2012-01-01
This thesis studies the effect of individual bounded rationality on aggregate macroeconomic dynamics. Boundedly rational agents are specified as using simple heuristics in their decision making. An important aspect of the type of bounded rationality described in this thesis is that the population of
Rational Solutions in a Coupled Burgers System
HUANG Ling
2006-01-01
Three types of the rational solutions for a new coupled Burgers system are studied in detail in terms of the reduction and decoupled procedures. The first two types of rational solutions are singular and valid for one type of model parameter c＞0, and another type of rational solutions is nonsingular at any type and valid for another type of model parameter c＜0.
Rational Thinking in School-Based Practice
Clark, Mary Kristen; Flynn, Perry
2011-01-01
Purpose: We reflect on Alan Kamhi's (2011) prologue on balancing certainty and uncertainty as it pertains to school-based practice. Method: In schools, rational thinking depends on effective team processes, much like professional learning communities. We consider the conditions that are required for rational thinking and how rational team dialogue…
Overview of the Development of Australian Combat Ration Packs
2014-12-01
Bui Land Division Lan graduated from Victoria University of Technology (VUT) firstly with BSc (Hons) in 2000 and then a PhD in Food Science and...their nutritional efficacy and unnecessary waste . Related to the stripping of ration packs is their substitution with non-issue food items referred to...replaced or reformulated depending on feedback from soldiers and sensory evaluation of specific foods and beverages—has led to a steady improvement in
The scattering amplitude for rationally extended shape invariant Eckart potentials
Yadav, Rajesh Kumar, E-mail: rajeshastrophysics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India); Khare, Avinash, E-mail: khare@iiserpune.ac.in [Raja Ramanna Fellow, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Pune-411021 (India); Mandal, Bhabani Prasad, E-mail: bhabani.mandal@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India)
2015-01-23
Highlights: • Bound states of rationally extended Eckart potentials have been discussed. • These potentials exhibit extended shape invariant properties. • The potentials which are isospectral to the conventional Eckart potential are considered. • The scattering amplitude of these potentials has been obtained. • For a check, m=0 provide the scattering amplitude for the conventional potential. - Abstract: We consider the rationally extended exactly solvable Eckart potentials which exhibit extended shape invariance property. These potentials are isospectral to the conventional Eckart potential. The scattering amplitude for these rationally extended potentials is calculated analytically for the generalized mth (m=1,2,3,...) case by considering the asymptotic behavior of the scattering state wave functions which are written in terms of some new polynomials related to the Jacobi polynomials. As expected, in the m=0 limit, this scattering amplitude goes over to the scattering amplitude for the conventional Eckart potential.
Psychology of Game Playing: Introduction to a Special Issue
Andrew M. Colman
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Game theory has focused attention on different problems at different times in its history. Currently, attention is devoted to investigating how human decision makers with bounded rationality choose strategies in interactive decisions. Behavioral economics, and more generally experimental games, have appeared in the literature with accelerating frequency since 1990, and this cannot continue indefinitely without a proportional expansion of journal space. This Special Issue includes contributions to behavioral economics, experimental games, and evolutionary game theory, using theoretical, experimental, and agent-based modeling techniques.
Societal rationality; towards an understanding of decision making processes in society
Wahlstroem, Bjoern [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)
2001-07-01
In a search for new ways to structure decision making on complex and controversial issues it is necessary to build an understanding of why traditional decision making processes break down. One reason is connected to the issues themselves. They represent steps into the unknown and decisions should therefore be made with prudence. A second reason is connected to a track record according to which new technologies are seen as generating more problems than solutions. A third and more fundamental reason is connected to the decision making processes themselves and a need to find better ways to approach difficult questions in the society. One way to approach societal decision making processes is to investigate their hidden rationality in an attempt to understand causes of observed difficulties. The paper is based mainly on observations from the nuclear industry, but it builds also on controversies experienced in attempts to agree on global efforts towards sustainable approaches to development. It builds on an earlier paper, which discussed the basis of rationality both on an individual and a societal level. Research in societal decision making has to rely on a true multi-disciplinary approach. It is nor enough to understand the technical and scientific models by which outcomes are predicted, but it is also necessary to understand how people make sense of their environment and how they co-operate. Rationality is in this connection one of the key concepts, with an understanding that people always are rational in their own frame of action. The challenge in this connection is to understand how this subjective rationality is formed. Societal rationality has to do with the allocation of resources. There are decisions in which several conflicting views have to be considered. Spending time and resources ex ante may support a consensus ex post, but unfortunately there is no panacea for approaching difficult decisions. Decisions with an uncertain future have to be more robust than
Turner, Martin J
2016-01-01
In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957), the original cognitive behavioral therapy, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one's beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3) the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as highlighting research
Turner, Martin J.
2016-01-01
In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957), the original cognitive behavioral therapy, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one’s beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3) the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as highlighting research
Martin James Turner
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training (PST for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957, the original cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one’s beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1 the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2 the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3 the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as
Rational choice theory and suicide.
Lester, D
1988-12-01
The implications of viewing the decision to kill oneself as a rational choice, based on an analysis of the costs and benefits, were explored. Suicide is but one symptom for an individual in distress to choose, and if suicide is prevented, other symptoms may appear in its place. Similarly, a critical question to be asked in suicide prevention is whether restriction of the availability of one method for suicide (such as detoxifying domestic gas or car exhaust) will result in suicidal individuals switching to a different method for suicide or to a different symptom of distress.
Multi-soliton rational solutions for some nonlinear evolution equations
Osman Mohamed S.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The Korteweg-de Vries equation (KdV and the (2+ 1-dimensional Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov system (NNV are presented. Multi-soliton rational solutions of these equations are obtained via the generalized unified method. The analysis emphasizes the power of this method and its capability of handling completely (or partially integrable equations. Compared with Hirota’s method and the inverse scattering method, the proposed method gives more general exact multi-wave solutions without much additional effort. The results show that, by virtue of symbolic computation, the generalized unified method may provide us with a straightforward and effective mathematical tool for seeking multi-soliton rational solutions for solving many nonlinear evolution equations arising in different branches of sciences.
Common Fixed Point Theorem in Cone Metric Space for Rational Contractions
R. Uthayakumar
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper we prove the common fixed point theorem in cone metric space for rational expression in normal cone setting. Our results generalize the main result of Jaggi [10] and Dass, Gupta [11].
The effect of financial and educational incentives on rational prescribing : A state-space approach
Pechlivanoglou, Petros; Wieringa, Jaap E.; de Jager, Tim; Postma, Maarten J.
2014-01-01
In 2005, a Dutch health insurer introduced a financial incentive directed to general practitioners to promote rational prescribing of statins and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Concomitantly, a regional institution that develops pharmacotherapeutic guidelines implemented two educational intervention
The relational nature of rational numbers
Bruce Brown
2015-06-01
Full Text Available It is commonly accepted that the knowledge and learning of rational numbers is more complex than that of the whole number field. This complexity includes the broader range of application of rational numbers, the increased level of technical complexity in the mathematical structure and symbol systems of this field and the more complex nature of many conceptual properties of the rational number field. Research on rational number learning is divided as to whether children’s difficulties in learning rational numbers arise only from the increased complexity or also include elements of conceptual change. This article argues for a fundamental conceptual difference between whole and rational numbers. It develops the position that rational numbers are fundamentally relational in nature and that the move from absolute counts to relative comparisons leads to a further level of abstraction in our understanding of number and quantity. The argument is based on a number of qualitative, in-depth research projects with children and adults. These research projects indicated the importance of such a relational understanding in both the learning and teaching of rational numbers, as well as in adult representations of rational numbers on the number line. Acknowledgement of such a conceptual change could have important consequences for the teaching and learning of rational numbers.
Reappraisal of Rational Choice Theory
Katalin Martinas
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The value of rational choice theory (RCT for the social sciences has long been contested. Much time has been spent by economists and critics on the pervasive but elusive concept of rationality. The critiques mainly challenge the basis of the utility theorem. Several articles on the misuse of mathematics in economics have already appeared in the literature. As N. Bouleau stated, “On several occasions, however, one feels that the criticism is that the math is being misused and should be developed in some other direction (e.g. a statistical analysis of the financial tendencies that polarize wealth and income, or a study of the positive feedback mechanisms, etc.. This leaves certain dissatisfaction – on a philosophical level.” The aim of this paper is to present a decision theory, yields intention (logos and valuation (existence. Here we present a new mathematical representation of RCT, which leads to a dynamic economic theory. We discuss the philosophical or meta-economical problems, which are needed for the successful applications of mathematics.
Rational approximations to fluid properties
Kincaid, J. M.
1990-05-01
The purpose of this report is to summarize some results that were presented at the Spring AIChE meeting in Orlando, Florida (20 March 1990). We report on recent attempts to develop a systematic method, based on the technique of rational approximation, for creating mathematical models of real-fluid equations of state and related properties. Equation-of-state models for real fluids are usually created by selecting a function tilde p(T,rho) that contains a set of parameters (gamma sub i); the (gamma sub i) is chosen such that tilde p(T,rho) provides a good fit to the experimental data. (Here p is the pressure, T the temperature and rho is the density). In most cases, a nonlinear least-squares numerical method is used to determine (gamma sub i). There are several drawbacks to this method: one has essentially to guess what tilde p(T,rho) should be; the critical region is seldom fit very well and nonlinear numerical methods are time consuming and sometimes not very stable. The rational approximation approach we describe may eliminate all of these drawbacks. In particular, it lets the data choose the function tilde p(T,rho) and its numerical implementation involves only linear algorithms.
Plantinga\\\\\\'s Internal and External Approach toRationality of Belief in God
Mahdi Farajipak
2015-03-01
suggested an inductive- posteriori one. Based on this view, the cause behind thebasic nature of belief is an internal aspect and consequently is completely personal and relative. That means any kind of assessment of one's beliefs should be made by referring to his/her cognitional structure. Consequently, no general criterion can be determined for making a belief basic because every individual can offer a specific criterion based on his own cognitional structure which differs from others. Thus, based on this version, the only difference between Plantinga and other foundationalists is in his different view about the basic belief of the individuals. He believes that to determine the basic beliefs, first the person should make distinction between what he considers basic from non-basic ones and then he should introduce a criterion by which his belief becomes basic. Therefore, by looking at the issue from a different angle, he offered a new and more expanded version of the basic beliefs according to which the belief in God becomes quite rational. Plantinga, on the other hand, in his later works (three Warrantsemphasizes that instead of having an internal approach toward the rationality and justification one should have an external approach and consider the believers' beliefs as warranted. This shift in Plantinga's approach stemmed from his theory about epistemological justification of which was reflected in his two impressive works entitled:Warrant: the Current Debateand Warrant and Proper Function(published in 1993. Based on the external approach, he shifts from the notion of justification to Warrant. He considers the rationality of religious belief not in being justifiable, but warranted which can be a guarantee for the rationality of believing in God. On the other hand, he changed the third element of knowledge from "justifiable" to "warranted" and defined the knowledge as "a True Warranted Belief"In this new approach, he doesn't seek to define the justification and the
Progress report to Congress on the standby motor fuel rationing plans
None
1980-06-01
This report summarizes the standby gasoline rationing plan; describes the differences between this plan and the one that was transmitted by the President to the Congress on March 1, 1979; and cites some problems inherent in rationing gasoline. The mechanisms contained in the plan for meeting the gasoline needs of end users are described: the basic allotments for individuals, basic allotments for firms, hardship allotments, and the ration rights market. A discussion of the ration rights market, an analysis of the gains that result from permitting the exchange of coupons, and an estimate of what the price of a coupon would be in a 20% shortfall is included. The economic impacts of the plan are examined: how rationing would affect the average motorist in a 20% shortfall, how the plan would affect households in different income groups, and how rural, suburban and urban households would fare under rationing. An analysis is presented of the alternative of issuing allotments to all licensed drivers and compares this alternative with the allotment mechanism based on motor vehicles. A description of the measures taken to date, since the enactment of the EECA, to develop a gasoline rationing system, and the costs of these measures are provided. A discussion of the measures necessary to bring the system to a satisfactory state of readiness, the estimated costs of these measures, and a timetable for their completion are included. A brief discussion of diesel fuel rationing is also given.
S. V. Batsova
2010-01-01
The issues of improvement of energy consumption rating at industrial enterprise RUP “BMZ” are examined. The factors of economic stimulation for economy and energy resources rational usage are given.
S. V. Batsova
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The issues of improvement of energy consumption rating at industrial enterprise RUP “BMZ” are examined. The factors of economic stimulation for economy and energy resources rational usage are given.
Geometric Rationalization for Freeform Architecture
Jiang, Caigui
2016-06-20
The emergence of freeform architecture provides interesting geometric challenges with regards to the design and manufacturing of large-scale structures. To design these architectural structures, we have to consider two types of constraints. First, aesthetic constraints are important because the buildings have to be visually impressive. Sec- ond, functional constraints are important for the performance of a building and its e cient construction. This thesis contributes to the area of architectural geometry. Specifically, we are interested in the geometric rationalization of freeform architec- ture with the goal of combining aesthetic and functional constraints and construction requirements. Aesthetic requirements typically come from designers and architects. To obtain visually pleasing structures, they favor smoothness of the building shape, but also smoothness of the visible patterns on the surface. Functional requirements typically come from the engineers involved in the construction process. For exam- ple, covering freeform structures using planar panels is much cheaper than using non-planar ones. Further, constructed buildings have to be stable and should not collapse. In this thesis, we explore the geometric rationalization of freeform archi- tecture using four specific example problems inspired by real life applications. We achieve our results by developing optimization algorithms and a theoretical study of the underlying geometrical structure of the problems. The four example problems are the following: (1) The design of shading and lighting systems which are torsion-free structures with planar beams based on quad meshes. They satisfy the functionality requirements of preventing light from going inside a building as shad- ing systems or reflecting light into a building as lighting systems. (2) The Design of freeform honeycomb structures that are constructed based on hex-dominant meshes with a planar beam mounted along each edge. The beams intersect without
Rational Choice and the Framing of Decisions.
1986-05-29
Yellen, J. (1985). Can small deviations from rationality make significant differences to economic equilibria? American Economic Review , 75, 708-720...theory of choice and the preference reversal phenomenon. American Economic Review , 69, 623-38. Hagen, 0. (1979). Towards a positive theory of preferences...Publishing Co. Haltiwanger, J. & Waldman, M. (1985). Rational expectations and the limits of rationality: An analysis of heterogeneity. American Economic Review , 75
Rational Addiction Evidence From Carbonated Soft Drinks
Xiaoou, Liu
2009-01-01
This paper applies the Becker-Murphy (1988) theory of rational addiction to the case of carbonated soft drinks, using a time-varying parameter model and scanner data from 46 U.S. cities. Empirical results provide strong evidence that carbonated soft drinks are rationally addictive, thus opening the door to taxation and regulation. Taking rational addition into account, estimated demand elasticities are much lower than previous estimates using scanner data.
The structure of bivariate rational hypergeometric functions
Cattani, Eduardo; Villegas, Fernando Rodriguez
2009-01-01
We describe the structure of all codimension-two lattice configurations $A$ which admit a stable rational $A$-hypergeometric function, that is a rational function $F$ all whose partial derivatives are non zero, and which is a solution of the $A$-hypergeometric system of partial differential equations defined by Gel'fand, Kapranov and Zelevinsky. We show, moreover, that all stable rational $A$-hypergeometric functions may be described by toric residues and apply our results to study the rationality of bivariate series whose coefficients are quotients of factorials of linear forms.
RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY IN TAKOTSUBO CARDIOMYOPATHY
S. Marchev
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Rational pharmacotherapy in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is based on clinical picture and data of functional and laboratory investigations of concrete patient. In patients with hypotension and moderate-to-severe left ventricle outflow tract obstruction inotropic agents must not to be used because they can worsen the degree of obstruction. In these patients beta blockers can improve hemodynamics by causing resolution of the obstruction. If intraventricular thrombus is detected, anticoagulation for at least 3 months is recommended. The duration of anticoagulant therapy may be modified depending on the extent of cardiac function recovery and thrombus resolution. For patients without thrombus but with severe left ventricular dysfunction, anticoagulation is recommended until the akinesis or dyskinesis has resolved but not more than 3 months.
Dual Rationality and Deliberative Agents
Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles
Human agents deliberate using models based on reason for only a minute proportion of the decisions that they make. In stark contrast, the deliberation of artificial agents is heavily dominated by formal models based on reason such as game theory, decision theory and logic—despite that fact that formal reasoning will not necessarily lead to superior real-world decisions. Further the Nobel Laureate Friedrich Hayek warns us of the ‘fatal conceit’ in controlling deliberative systems using models based on reason as the particular model chosen will then shape the system’s future and either impede, or eventually destroy, the subtle evolutionary processes that are an integral part of human systems and institutions, and are crucial to their evolution and long-term survival. We describe an architecture for artificial agents that is founded on Hayek’s two rationalities and supports the two forms of deliberation used by mankind.
Essays on Rational Portfolio Theory
Nielsen, Simon Ellersgaard
This dissertation is comprised of five research papers written during the period January 2013 -December 2015. Their abstracts are: The Fundamental Theorem of Derivative Trading. When estimated volatilities are not inperfect agreement with reality, delta hedged option portfolios will incur a non...... is proportional to volatility, we can deriveclosed form expressions for the optimal portfolio using the formalism of Hamilton-JacobixiiiBellman. We also perform an empirical investigation, which strongly suggests that there inreality are no tangible welfare gains associated with hedging stochastic volatility...... in a bondstockeconomy. Stochastic Volatility for Utility Maximisers Part II. Using martingale methods we derivebequest optimising portfolio weights for a rational investor who trades in a bond-stockderivativeeconomy characterised by a generic stochastic volatility model. For illustrativepurposes we then proceed...
Corporate rationalization of American health care: a visitor's appraisal.
Pollitt, C
1982-01-01
This paper uses elements of the macrotheory of advanced capitalist societies developed by Jurgen Habermas and other "critical theorists" to locate and explore the implications of the containing corporatization of the U.S. health care sector. It questions the often-dominant view that cost is the major problem of current U.S. arrangements, and shows how most recent government policies have reinforced the corporate rationalization of health care, or at least proved neutral towards it. Yet it can be argued that it is precisely this "rationalization" which renders more difficult both cost-control and the much-needed broadening of the agenda of the health care debate to important issues other than cost.
Decision to commit crime: rational or nonrational
Glenn D. Walters
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Objective to prove the necessity to take into account the influence of emotions on decision making to describe a combined model of the decision making process which unites rational and irrational components of choice in crime commitment. Methods dialectic systemic historicallegal formaljuridical methods summarization. Results the paper gives a complex analysis of the criminal decisionmaking process and reveals the factors increasing the probability of antisocial actions. The value of the combined cognitiveemotive model is that emotions can give more significant information to the decisionmaker than reasoning. Scientific novelty the author proposes a theory of decision making which says that a person chooses to act or not to act under hedonistic or moral emotions while the irrelevant emotions are increased and the relevant ones are suppressed by cognitive and situational factors serving as a basis for criminal decision making. Practical significance studying the role of emotions in the criminal and noncriminal decision making will significantly contribute to the development of criminology. The research results will be useful for researchers and lawenforcement bodies as well as for all those who are interested in the issues of crime control and prevention.
Erich Selder
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The correspondence between right triangles with rational sides, triplets of rational squares in arithmetic succession and integral solutions of certain quadratic forms is well-known. We show how this correspondence can be extended to the generalized notions of rational θ-triangles, rational squares occurring in arithmetic progressions and concordant forms. In our approach we establish one-to-one mappings to rational points on certain elliptic curves and examine in detail the role of solutions of the θ-congruent number problem and the concordant form problem associated with nontrivial torsion points on the corresponding elliptic curves. This approach allows us to combine and extend some disjoint results obtained by a number of authors, to clarify some statements in the literature and to answer some hitherto open questions.
Kalberg, Stephen
1980-01-01
Explores rationality in Max Weber's works and identifies four types of rationality which play major roles in his writing--practical, theoretical, substantive, and formal. Implications for society and education are discussed. (DB)
Computing approximate (symmetric block) rational Krylov subspaces without explicit inversion
Mach, Thomas; Pranić, Miroslav S.; Vandebril, Raf
2013-01-01
It has been shown, see TW623, that approximate extended Krylov subspaces can be computed —under certain assumptions— without any explicit inversion or system solves. Instead the necessary products A-1v are obtained in an implicit way retrieved from an enlarged Krylov subspace. In this paper this approach is generalized to rational Krylov subspaces, which contain besides poles at infinite and zero also finite non-zero poles. Also an adaption of the algorithm to the block and the symmetric ...
Learning from mistakes in rational emotive behaviour therapy
2011-01-01
Mistakes are often an inevitable part of training; Learning from Mistakes in Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy encourages the trainee to pinpoint potential errors at the earliest possible stage in training, helping them to make fast progress towards becoming competent REBT practitioners. Windy Dryden and Michael Neenan have compiled 111 of the most common errors, explaining what has gone wrong and how to put it right, and have divided them into eight accessible parts: general mis...
Learning from mistakes in rational emotive behaviour therapy
Dryden, Windy; Neenan, Michael
2011-01-01
Mistakes are often an inevitable part of training; Learning from Mistakes in Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy encourages the trainee to pinpoint potential errors at the earliest possible stage in training, helping them to make fast progress towards becoming competent REBT practitioners.\\ud \\ud Windy Dryden and Michael Neenan have compiled 111 of the most common errors, explaining what has gone wrong and how to put it right, and have divided them into eight accessible parts:\\ud \\ud general m...
Research on Rationalization of Basketball Player Nutrition Dietary Pattern
Junsheng Zuo; Jia Li
2015-01-01
Reasonable nutritional dietary pattern is the good protection which can promote hoopster fatigue restoring, enhance exercise training effect and promote sport performance. This study analyzes necessity and significance of rationalizing research of hoopster nutritional dietary pattern by the summary of hoopster nutritional dietary pattern. And it concludes insufficient and drawback which current our country hoopster nutritional dietary pattern existing. And then it generalizes the unreasonable...
Rationality and Momentum in Real Estate Investment Forecasts
2014-01-01
This study examines the rationality and momentum in forecasts for rental, capital value and total returns for the real estate investment market in the United Kingdom. In order to investigate if forecasters are affected by the general economic conditions present at the time of forecast we incorporate into the analysis Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the Default Spread (DS). The empirical findings show high levels of momentum in the forecasts, with highly persistent forecast errors. The result...
Rationality and momentum in real estate investment forecasts\\ud
2014-01-01
This study examines the rationality and momentum in forecasts for rental, capital value and total returns for the real estate investment market in the United Kingdom. In order to investigate if forecasters are affected by the general economic conditions present at the time of forecast we incorporate into the analysis Gross Domestic Product(GDP) and the Default Spread (DS). The empirical findings show high levels of momentum in the forecasts, with highly persistent forecast errors. The results...
Rational design of semiconductors for photoelectrochemical water splitting
Wei, Su-Huai
2013-12-01
Using first-principles method as a tool, we discuss the general strategies for the rational design of semiconductors to simultaneously meet all of requirements for high-efficiency, solar-driven photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting devices. Our studies demonstrate that theoretical calculations, which provided deep understanding of the underlying physics behind these PEC materials, can greatly accelerate scientific discovery of new PEC materials in this exciting field.
Rationalization of work of leaders of physical-sports organizations
Galina Putiatina
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Purpose: to create the main ways of rationalization of the work of heads of physical-sports organizations in the structure of their scientific organization of the work. Material & Methods: the content of the administrative activity of representatives of the system of the regional government of the sphere of physical culture and sport of the Kharkov area, and also directors of sports schools of Kharkov (57 respondents are generalized. Methods – the analysis of references, the organizational analysis, the organizational diagnosis, the poll (questioning, the methods of mathematical statistics. Results: the essence and the content of rationalization of the administrative work in the sphere of physical culture and sport are considered. The integrated approach to certain objects of rationalization of the administrative work is established in physical-sports organizations. Conclusions: the main ways of rationalization of the work of heads of physical-sports organizations are: the organization of work concerning the development of motivational mechanisms of the activity of heads; the increase of the economic appeal of work; the formation of ideology of a healthy lifestyle.
The Rationality of Alcoholics Anonymous and the Spirituality of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.
Velten, Emmett
1996-01-01
Argues that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) share important rational objectives and numerous cognitive-behavioral methods. Both emphasize a philosophical shift as a principal ingredient for change. Provides definitions of rationality and spirituality and explains how REBT and smart recovery are spiritual…
The Rationality of Alcoholics Anonymous and the Spirituality of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.
Velten, Emmett
1996-01-01
Argues that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) share important rational objectives and numerous cognitive-behavioral methods. Both emphasize a philosophical shift as a principal ingredient for change. Provides definitions of rationality and spirituality and explains how REBT and smart recovery are spiritual…
Cook, T. M; Andrade, J; Bogod, D. G; Hitchman, J. M; Jonker, W. R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J. H; Nimmo, A. F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E. P; Paul, R. G; Palmer, J. H. MacG; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J. J; Sury, M. R. J; Torevell, H. E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Pandit, J. J
2014-01-01
The 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland into accidental awareness during general anaesthesia yielded data...
Slort, W.; Blankenstein, A.H.; Schweitzer, B.P.M.; Knol, D.L.; van der Horst, H.E.; Aaronson, N.K.; Deliens, L.
2014-01-01
Background: Although communicating effectively with patients receiving palliative care can be difficult, it may contribute to maintaining or enhancing patients’ quality of life. Little is known about the effect of training general practitioners in palliative care-specific communication. We
Rationality and Belief in Learning Mathematics
Brown, Tony
2016-01-01
This paper argues that rationality and belief are mutually formative dimensions of school mathematics, where each term is more politically embedded than often depicted in the field of mathematics education research. School mathematics then presents not so much rational mathematical thought distorted by irrational beliefs but rather a particular…
曹俊鹏; 侯伯宇; 岳瑞宏
2001-01-01
We propose the eigenstates and eigenvalues of Hamiltonians of the rational SU(N) Gaudin model based onthe quasi-classical limit of the SU ( N) chain under the periodic boundary condition. Using the quantum inversescattering method, we also obtain the eigenvalues of the generation function of the rational SU ( N) Gaudin model.
Empirical Rationality in the Stock Market
Raahauge, Peter
2003-01-01
for this empiricalrationality on part of the agent, the resulting empirical model assignslikelihood to the data actually observed, unlike in the unmodified rational expectationscase. A Lucas (1978)-type asset pricing model which incorporatesempirical rationality is constructed and estimated using U.S. stock data...
Counting rational points on cubic curves
HEATH-BROWN; Roger; TESTA; Damiano
2010-01-01
We prove upper bounds for the number of rational points on non-singular cubic curves defined over the rationals.The bounds are uniform in the curve and involve the rank of the corresponding Jacobian.The method used in the proof is a combination of the "determinant method" with an m-descent on the curve.
Is facet analysis based on rationalism?
Hjørland, Birger
2014-01-01
, rationalism, historicism/hermeneutics, or pragmatism/critical theory (of which only the last position fully acknowledges the non-neutrality of knowledge organisation). Ranganathan – and the whole facet-analytic school – has formerly been exemplified as a rather clear example of rationalism. Some have objected...
Are Grade Expectations Rational? A Classroom Experiment
Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis
2015-01-01
This study examines students' expectations about their final grade. An attempt is made to determine whether students form expectations rationally. Expectations in economics, rational or otherwise, carry valuable information and have important implications in terms of both teaching effectiveness and the role of grades as an incentive structure for…
The Problem of Rational Moral Enlistment
Tillson, John
2017-01-01
How can one bring children to recognize the requirements of morality without resorting only to non-rational means of persuasion (i.e. what rational ground can be offered to children for their moral enlistment)? Michael Hand has recently defended a foundationalist approach to answering this question and John White has responded by (a) criticizing…
Neurophysiology and Rationality in Political Thinking.
Peterson, Steven A.
Research both in cognitive psychology and psychobiology suggests that political behavior is often less rational than individuals believe it to be. Information processing, memory, and decision making are interlinked processes. Studies in cognitive psychology reveal that even though decision making requires rationality, individuals often adopt…
Rationality and Belief in Learning Mathematics
Brown, Tony
2016-01-01
This paper argues that rationality and belief are mutually formative dimensions of school mathematics, where each term is more politically embedded than often depicted in the field of mathematics education research. School mathematics then presents not so much rational mathematical thought distorted by irrational beliefs but rather a particular…
Rationality : a social-epistemology perspective
Wenmackers, Sylvia; Vanpoucke, Danny E. P.; Douven, Igor
2014-01-01
Both in philosophy and in psychology, human rationality has traditionally been studied from an “individualistic” perspective. Recently, social epistemologists have drawn attention to the fact that epistemic interactions among agents also give rise to important questions concerning rationality. In pr
Information Theory - The Bridge Connecting Bounded Rational Game Theory and Statistical Physics
Wolpert, David H.
2005-01-01
A long-running difficulty with conventional game theory has been how to modify it to accommodate the bounded rationality of all red-world players. A recurring issue in statistical physics is how best to approximate joint probability distributions with decoupled (and therefore far more tractable) distributions. This paper shows that the same information theoretic mathematical structure, known as Product Distribution (PD) theory, addresses both issues. In this, PD theory not only provides a principle formulation of bounded rationality and a set of new types of mean field theory in statistical physics; it also shows that those topics are fundamentally one and the same.
Theory Construction in Second Language Acquisition In Favor of the Rationalism
Mehdi Shokouhi
2012-09-01
Full Text Available One of the most controversial issues in second language acquisition (SLA seems to be the issue of theory construction. There are mainly two opposing views considering the SLA theory construction namely the Rationalist view and the Relativist view. The former tries to reasons that there should be a few theories of SLA at work while the latter favors as many theories as possible. However, the present paper tries to take a supportive stance with regard to the rationalism reasoning that the rationalist view seems to be more fruitful, practical, and above all beneficial considering theory construction in SLA. Keywords: Rationalism, Relativism, SLA, Theory construction
[RATIONAL ASPECTS OF BACTERIOPHAGES USE].
Vakarina, A A; Kataeva, L V; Karpukhina, N F
2015-01-01
Analysis of existing aspects of bacteriophage use and study features of their lytic activity by using various techniques. Effect of monophages and associated bacteriophages (staphylococci, piopolyvalent and piocombined, intestiphage, pneumonia klebsiella and polyvalent klebsiella produced by "Microgen") was studied with 380 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 279 cultures of Klebsiella pneumoniae in liquid and solid nutrient media. From patients with intestinal disorder, sensitivity was analyzed to 184 strains of Salmonella genus bacteria 18 serological variants to salmonella bacteriophages, 137 strains of Escherichia coli (lactose-negative, hemolytic), as well as some members of OKA groups (21 serovars) to coli-proteic and piopolyvalent bacteriophages. Lytic ability of the piobacteriophage against Klebsiella and Proteus genus bacteria was determined. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to staphylococcus bacteriophage in 71.6% of cases and to piobacteriophage--in 86.15% of cases. A 100% lytic ability of salmonella bacteriophage against Salmonella spp. was established. Sensitivity of E. coli of various serogroups to coli-proteic and piobacteriophage was 66 - 100%. Klebsiella, Proteus genus bacteria were sensitive to piobacteriophage in only 35% and 43.15% of cases, respectively. A more rational use of bacteriophages is necessary: development of a technique, evaluation of sensitivity of bacteria to bacteriophage, introduction of corrections into their production (expansion of bacteriophage spectra, determination and indication of their concentration in accompanying documents).
Cosmin Toth
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Some of the most known and fertile models for understanding human behaviour are those which rest on the assumption of human rationality. These models have specific strategies for dealing with situations in which understanding human behaviour becomes difficult, i.e. cases of irrationality, and this, in turn, leads to particular methodological consequences. The aim of this article is to illustrate and systematize some of the typical theoretical approaches to the issues of rationality and irrationality and their methodological consequences, while warning, at the same time, against the risks of applying rationality models of a pronounced normative-evaluative nature. A number of important methodological consequences of applying the principle of charity to various degrees of strength are analysed and a taxonomic grid for the different ways of approaching rationality is presented.
Rationing in practice: the case of in vitro fertilisation.
Redmayne, S; Klein, R
1993-06-05
One of the few examples of explicit rationing in the National Health Service is provided by in vitro fertilisation. Of six purchasing authorities examined three have decided against buying in vitro fertilisation while three have decided in favour. The decisions reflect local factors such as the absence or presence of local providers and the views of the public and health professionals. But in vitro fertilisation also illustrates some of the wider issues involved in all decisions about purchasing: questions about what should be provided by the National Health Service, about what procedures should be compared when weighing up value for money, and whether equity demands national decisions about what to provide.
Environmental Management: the Ideology of Natural Resource Rational Use
Zolotukhin, V. M.; Gogolin, V. A.; Yazevich, M. Yu; Baumgarten, M. I.; Dyagileva, A. V.
2017-01-01
The article presents an analysis of the ontological and methodological principles of environmental management. These principles form the united ideology of natural resource rational use as the environment preservation basis. Consideration of environmental issues from the environmental management point of view is stipulated by the concern of the scientific community about the existence of mankind and the sphere of its inhabiting. The need to overcome the stereotypes existing in mass consciousness about safe and environmentally friendly consumption is stressed. The process of forming environmental management policy should contribute to the stabilization (balancing) of the consumers’ expectations and collective decision-making based on a public ecological consensus.
HOW RATIONAL ARE DRUGS USED IN MALAYSIAN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE SECTOR?
MOHAMED IZHAM MOHAMED IBRAHIM; KAMARUZAMAN SALEH
2006-01-01
Irrational drug use is a serious health problem and causes various consequences: medical, economic and social impacts. No study in Malaysia has been conducted extensively using World Health Organization (WHO) indicators to evaluate the rational drug use status in this country. The general aim of this study is to explore the country’s pharmaceutical situations with regard to the implementation of Essential Drug List (EDL). Specifically, the objective is to assess the WHO rational drug use indi...
Rationally reduced libraries for combinatorial pathway optimization minimizing experimental effort.
Jeschek, Markus; Gerngross, Daniel; Panke, Sven
2016-01-01
Rational flux design in metabolic engineering approaches remains difficult since important pathway information is frequently not available. Therefore empirical methods are applied that randomly change absolute and relative pathway enzyme levels and subsequently screen for variants with improved performance. However, screening is often limited on the analytical side, generating a strong incentive to construct small but smart libraries. Here we introduce RedLibs (Reduced Libraries), an algorithm that allows for the rational design of smart combinatorial libraries for pathway optimization thereby minimizing the use of experimental resources. We demonstrate the utility of RedLibs for the design of ribosome-binding site libraries by in silico and in vivo screening with fluorescent proteins and perform a simple two-step optimization of the product selectivity in the branched multistep pathway for violacein biosynthesis, indicating a general applicability for the algorithm and the proposed heuristics. We expect that RedLibs will substantially simplify the refactoring of synthetic metabolic pathways.
On category O for cyclotomic rational Cherednik algebras
Gordon, Iain
2011-01-01
We study equivalences for category O_p of the rational Cherednik algebras H_p of type G_l(n) = \\mu_l^n\\rtimes S_n: a highest weight equivalence between O_p and O_{\\sigma(p)} for \\sigma\\in S_l and an action of S_l on a non-empty Zariski open set of parameters p; a derived equivalence between O_p and O_{p'} whenever p and p' have integral difference; a highest weight equivalence between O_p and a parabolic category O for the general linear group, under a non-rationality assumption on the parameter p. As a consequence, we confirm special cases of conjectures of Etingof and of Rouquier.
The rational emotions of FC København
Storm, Rasmus K.
2009-01-01
Professional team sports clubs in Scandinavia and Europe operate in a complex combination of rational economic logic and emotional irrational behaviour. With a few exceptions most clubs favour winning over profit, thus producing a range of severe financial problems as a direct consequence...... performers in the sports business, I explain why only a few clubs are capable of combining economic gain with sporting success. The Danish soccer club FC K benhavn is chosen to be the case and turning point in this study, as it serves as a counter example illustrating how profit and championships can...... actually be combined in certain logic of 'rational emotionality'. The 'extremity' of the case in this respect serves as a way to expose the general rules of commercial sports....
Wilson, B G; Sonnad, V
2011-02-14
Precise electronic structure calculations of ions in plasmas benefit from optimized numerical radial meshes. A new closed form expression for obtaining non-linear parameters for the efficient generation of analytic log-linear radial meshes is presented. In conjunction with the (very simple) algorithm for the rapid high precision evaluation of Lambert's W-function, the above identity allows the precise construction of generalized log-linear radial meshes adapted to various constraints.
Rational Verification in Iterated Electric Boolean Games
Youssouf Oualhadj
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Electric boolean games are compact representations of games where the players have qualitative objectives described by LTL formulae and have limited resources. We study the complexity of several decision problems related to the analysis of rationality in electric boolean games with LTL objectives. In particular, we report that the problem of deciding whether a profile is a Nash equilibrium in an iterated electric boolean game is no harder than in iterated boolean games without resource bounds. We show that it is a PSPACE-complete problem. As a corollary, we obtain that both rational elimination and rational construction of Nash equilibria by a supervising authority are PSPACE-complete problems.
COMPUTATION OF VECTOR VALUED BLENDING RATIONAL INTERPOLANTS
檀结庆
2003-01-01
As we know, Newton's interpolation polynomial is based on divided differ-ences which can be calculated recursively by the divided-difference scheme while Thiele'sinterpolating continued fractions are geared towards determining a rational functionwhich can also be calculated recursively by so-called inverse differences. In this paper,both Newton's interpolation polynomial and Thiele's interpolating continued fractionsare incorporated to yield a kind of bivariate vector valued blending rational interpolantsby means of the Samelson inverse. Blending differences are introduced to calculate theblending rational interpolants recursively, algorithm and matrix-valued case are dis-cussed and a numerical example is given to illustrate the efficiency of the algorithm.
Positivity Preserving Interpolation Using Rational Bicubic Spline
Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the positivity preserving interpolation for positive surfaces data by extending the C1 rational cubic spline interpolant of Karim and Kong to the bivariate cases. The partially blended rational bicubic spline has 12 parameters in the descriptions where 8 of them are free parameters. The sufficient conditions for the positivity are derived on every four boundary curves network on the rectangular patch. Numerical comparison with existing schemes also has been done in detail. Based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, our partially blended rational bicubic spline is on a par with the established methods.
Bounded rational choice behaviour: applications in transport
Jensen, Anders Fjendbo
2016-01-01
rational choice behaviour focuses on how the latter approach can be seriously taken into account within transport applications. As the editors discuss in the introduction, a true optimal choice can only be made if an individual has full and perfect information of all relevant attributes in his/her choice......Even though the theory of rational behaviour has been challenged for almost 100 years, the dominant approach within the field of transport has been based upon the assumptions of neoclassical economics that we live in a world of rational decision makers who always have perfect knowledge and aim...
Height Estimates for Equidimensional Dominant Rational Maps
Silverman, Joseph H
2009-01-01
Let F : W --> V be a dominant rational map between quasi-projective varieties of the same dimension. We give two proofs that h_V(F(P)) >> h_W(P) for all points P in a nonempty Zariski open subset of W. For dominant rational maps F : P^n --> P^n, we give a uniform estimate in which the implied constant depends only on n and the degree of F. As an application, we prove a specialization theorem for equidimensional dominant rational maps to semiabelian varieties, providing a complement to Habegger's recent theorem on unlikely intersections.
Rational Solution To Income Gap
无
2006-01-01
While enjoying an economic boom, China has seen a widening income gap that has appeared like a chasm between its urban and rural citizens. What are the deep roots of this situation and what is the best way to deal with it? Ding Yuanzhu, researcher at the Macro-Economic Research Institute of the National Development and Reform Commission, shares his views on this issue in an article published in Wen Hui Bao. Excerpts follow:
Bruno Sciberras de Carvalho
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This article critically analyzes new sociological approaches to the rational choice theory which - beyond examining political or economic practices - link the notion of instrumental rationality to social issues and themes. The article begins by highlighting the issue of trust, indicating the functionality of certain social arrangements in collective problem-solving. The paper goes on to demonstrate that problems emerge with the theory when it attempts to explain the feasibility of social norms in impersonal, comprehensive contexts. Thus, the fundamental point that appears to be missing from rational choice theory is the perception that individual decisions and instrumental conduct itself incorporate dispositions that in a sense are beyond the actors' control.
Holomorphic Cartan geometries and rational curves
Biswas, Indranil
2010-01-01
We prove that any compact K\\"ahler manifold bearing a holomorphic Cartan geometry contains a rational curve just when the Cartan geometry is inherited from a holomorphic Cartan geometry on a lower dimensional compact K\\"ahler manifold.
Beyond rationality : Counterfactual thinking and behavior regulation
Epstude, Kai; Roese, Neal J.
2007-01-01
Counterfactual thinking may be described as disciplined realistic, and rational, but we move a step further to describe a theoretical perspective centering on behavior regulation. According to this perspective, counterfactual thinking primarily centers on coordination of ongoing behavior. In short,
Popper, Rationality and the Possibility of Social Science
Danny Frederick
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Social science employs teleological explanations which depend upon the rationality principle, according to which people exhibit instrumental rationality. Popper points out that people also exhibit critical rationality, the tendency to stand back from, and to question or criticise, their views. I explain how our critical rationality impugns the explanatory value of the rationality principle and thereby threatens the very possibility of social science. I discuss the relationship between instrumental and critical rationality and show how we can reconcile our critical rationality with the possibility of social science if we invoke Popper’s conception of limited rationality and his indeterminism.
Is crime in Turkey economically rational?
2014-01-01
The study investigates whether crime in Turkey is governed by economic rationality. An economic model of rational behaviour claims that the propensity to commit criminal activities is negatively related to risk of deterrence. Potential presence of higher risk profiles for certain population segments is investigated. Panel data aggregated to sub-regional levels and observed annually for the years 2008 to 2010 are applied. Controls for endogeneity among criminal activity level and risk of deter...
Multinode rational operators for univariate interpolation
Dell'Accio, Francesco; Di Tommaso, Filomena; Hormann, Kai
2016-10-01
Birkhoff (or lacunary) interpolation is an extension of polynomial interpolation that appears when observation gives irregular information about function and its derivatives. A Birkhoff interpolation problem is not always solvable even in the appropriate polynomial or rational space. In this talk we split up the initial problem in subproblems having a unique polynomial solution and use multinode rational basis functions in order to obtain a global interpolant.
2-rational Cubic Spline Involving Tension Parameters
M Shrivastava; J Joseph
2000-08-01
In the present paper, 1-piecewise rational cubic spline function involving tension parameters is considered which produces a monotonic interpolant to a given monotonic data set. It is observed that under certain conditions the interpolant preserves the convexity property of the data set. The existence and uniqueness of a 2-rational cubic spline interpolant are established. The error analysis of the spline interpolant is also given.
Is crime in Turkey economically rational?
Lauridsen, Jørgen T.; Zeren, Fatma; Ari, Ayse
2014-01-01
The study investigates whether crime in Turkey is governed by economic rationality. An economic model of rational behaviour claims that the propensity to commit criminal activities is negatively related to risk of deterrence. Potential presence of higher risk profiles for certain population segments is investigated. Panel data aggregated to sub-regional levels and observed annually for the years 2008 to 2010 are applied. Controls for endogeneity among criminal activity level and risk of deter...
Rational emotive behaviour therapy: distinctive features
Dryden, Windy
2008-01-01
Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) encourages the client to focus on their emotional problems in order to understand, challenge and change the irrational beliefs that underpin these problems. REBT can help clients to strengthen conviction in their alternative rational beliefs by acting in ways that are consistent with them and thus encourage a healthier outlook.\\ud \\ud This accessible and direct guide introduces the reader to REBT while indicating how it is different from other approac...
Artificial intelligence techniques for rational decision making
Marwala, Tshilidzi
2014-01-01
Develops insights into solving complex problems in engineering, biomedical sciences, social science and economics based on artificial intelligence. Some of the problems studied are in interstate conflict, credit scoring, breast cancer diagnosis, condition monitoring, wine testing, image processing and optical character recognition. The author discusses and applies the concept of flexibly-bounded rationality which prescribes that the bounds in Nobel Laureate Herbert Simon's bounded rationality theory are flexible due to advanced signal processing techniques, Moore's Law and artificial intellig
The neural basis of bounded rational behavior
Coricelli, Giorgio; Nagel, Rosemarie
2010-01-01
Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. ...
Integral Models of Extremal Rational Elliptic Surfaces
Jarvis, Tyler J; Ricks, Jeremy R
2009-01-01
Miranda and Persson classified all extremal rational elliptic surfaces in characteristic zero. We show that each surface in Miranda and Persson's classification has an integral model with good reduction everywhere (except for those of type X_{11}(j), which is an exceptional case), and that every extremal rational elliptic surface over an algebraically closed field of characteristic p > 0 can be obtained by reducing one of these integral models mod p.
RATIONAL SOLUTIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
Sokolov, A.; Sokolov, N.
2014-01-01
The number of complicated problems has to be solved during modernization of the telecommunication networks. Some problems can be defined as a search for rational solutions instead of the traditional approach that consists in finding the cost function optimum. This new approach minimizes the risk that inevitably arises when elaborating a long term plan for the telecommunication networks development. The article discusses the proposed methodological approach of finding rational solutions. Probl...
Rational emotive behavior therapy: disputing irrational philosophies.
Sacks, Susan Bendersky
2004-05-01
This article provides an overview of the concepts and techniques of rational emotive behavior therapy to distinguish it from cognitive-behavioral therapy. Rational emotive behavior therapy proposes that psychological disturbance is largely created and maintained through irrational philosophies consisting of internal absolutistic demands. This therapy strives to produce sustained and profound cognitive, emotive, and behavioral change through active, vigorous disputation of underlying irrational philosophies.
Simple Equational Specifications of Rational Arithmetic
Lawrence S. Moss
2001-12-01
Full Text Available We exhibit an initial specification of the rational numbers equipped with addition, subtraction, multiplication, greatest integer function, and absolute value. Our specification uses only the sort of rational numbers. It uses one hidden function; that function is unary. But it does not use an error constant, or extra (hidden sorts, or conditional equations. All of our work is elementary and self-contained.
Municipal management cooperation : managing multiple rationalities
Holmberg, Leif
2010-01-01
Multiple rationality organizations are characterized by the simultaneously incorporation of different kinds of logic and control systems. They have to provide not only for efficiency but also to comply with e.g. ideal of fairness, sportsmanship, equal rights, and aesthetic values. Elite sport clubs, theatres, and several municipality activities are examples of organizations that have to cope with multiple rationalities. These organizations are often governed through a combination of politica...
Strech, Daniel; Persad, Govind; Marckmann, Georg; Danis, Marion
2013-01-01
Background Several quantitative surveys have been conducted internationally to gather empirical information about physicians’ general attitudes towards health care rationing. Are physicians ready to accept and implement rationing, or are they rather reluctant? Do they prefer implicit bedside rationing that allows the physician–patient relationship broad leeway in individual decisions? Or do physicians prefer strategies that apply explicit criteria and rules? Objectives To analyse the range of survey findings on rationing. To discuss differences in response patterns. To provide recommendations for the enhancement of transparency and systematic conduct in reviewing survey literature. Methods A systematic search was performed for all English and non-English language references using CINAHL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE. Three blinded experts independently evaluated title and abstract of each reference. Survey items were extracted that match with: (i) willingness to ration health care or (ii) preferences for different rationing strategies. Results 16 studies were eventually included in the systematic review. Percentages of respondents willing to accept rationing ranged from 94% to 9%. Conclusions The conflicting findings among studies illustrate important ambivalence in physicians that has several implications for health policy. Moreover, this review highlights the importance to interpret survey findings in context of the results of all previous relevant studies. PMID:19070396
Alexey A. Dudarev
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Background . Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Study design and methods . Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000–2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized – underground and surface, and non-centralized and of drinking water. Results . Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40–80% and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions, mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically in 32–90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51% were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5–12% everywhere except Evenki AO (27%, and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly. The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages
Dudarev, Alexey A.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Evengard, Birgitta; Nilsson, Lena M.
2013-01-01
Background Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Study design and methods Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000–2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized – underground and surface, and non-centralized) and of drinking water. Results Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources) are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40–80%) and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions), mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically) in 32–90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51%) were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5–12%) everywhere except Evenki AO (27%), and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly). The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages – 0.2–2
"That's Not Fair!"--Using RET to Address the Issue of Fairness in Classroom Guidance.
Kelly, Forrest R., Jr.
1996-01-01
If school counselors give a typical Rational Emotive Therapy disputative response to the issue of fairness, students are not helped to develop a more reasonable and rational view on this issue. Describes discussion led by counselor emphasizing choice, acceptance, and the irrationality of the belief that the world is unfair. (LSR)
Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.
Vicente Martínez-Tur
Full Text Available The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.
Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.
Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín
2014-01-01
The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.
Proposed standby gasoline rationing plan: public comments
1978-12-01
Under the proposed plan, DOE would allocate ration rights (rights to purchase gasoline) to owners of registered vehicles. All vehicles in a given class would receive the same entitlement. Essential services would receive supplemental allotments of ration rights as pririty firms. Once every 3 months, ration checks would be mailed out to all vehicle registrants, allotting them a certain amount of ration rights. These checks would then be cashed at Coupon Issuance Points, where the bearer would receive ration coupons to be used at gasoline stations. Large users of gasoline could deposit their allotment checks in accounts at ration banks. Coupons or checks would be freely exchangeable in a white market. A certain percentage of the gasoline supply would be set aside in reserve for use in national emergencies. When the plan was published in the Federal Register, public comments were requested. DOE also solicited comments from private citizens, public interest groups, business and industry, state and local governments. A total of 1126 responses were reveived and these are analyzed in this paper. The second part of the report describes how the comments were classified, and gives a statistical breakdown of the major responses. The last section is a discussion and analysis of theissue raised by commenting agencies, firms, associations, and individuals. (MCW)
A Comparison of Rational Emotive Therapy and Tibetan Buddhism: Albert Ellis and the Dalai Lama
Holt, Susan A; Austad, Carol Shaw
2013-01-01
This article explores conceptual and methodological similarities between Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) and Tibetan Buddhism (TB). The authors examine some of the values and concepts they share. They compare the two systems on a number of issues: philosophical underpinnings, concepts of what causes human psychopathology, techniques to…
Opening the Door to Cloud-Cuckoo-Land: Hempel and Kuhn on Rationality
Alexander George
2012-04-01
Full Text Available A reading is offered of Carl Hempel’s and Thomas Kuhn’s positions on, and disagreements about, rationality in science that relates these issues to the debate between W.V. Quine and Rudolf Carnap on the analytic/synthetic distinction.
"Pretty Much Fear!!" Rationalizing Teacher (Dis)Engagement in Social Justice Education
Baily, Supriya; Katradis, Maria
2016-01-01
This article analyzes how teachers in U.S. classrooms navigate, dialogue, debate, and absorb the ideas of privilege, power, and the presence of various forms of injustices. Through their understanding of these topics, we explore how K-12 teachers engage, disengage, and rationalize issues of social justice in education, society, and their own…
CAO Jun-Peng; HOU Bo-Yu; YUE Rui-Hong
2001-01-01
The Hamiltonians of the SU(3) Gaudin model are constructed based on the nonrelativistic limit of the SU(3) chain. After the quantum determinant being well defined, the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the Hamiltonians of the SU(3) Gaudin model are given. These results can be generalized to any number of constituting spins (SU( N) ).
无
2001-01-01
The Hamiltonians of the SU(3) Gaudin model are constructed based on the nonrelativistic limit of the SU(3) chain.After the quantum determinant being well defined,the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the Hamiltonians of the SU(3) Geudin model are given.These results can be generalized to any number of constituting spins (SU(N)).
Formation of Rationally Heterogeneous Expectations
Pfajfar, D.
2012-01-01
Abstract: This paper models expectation formation by taking into account that agents produce heterogeneous expectations due to model uncertainty, informational frictions and different capacities for processing information. We show that there are two general classes of steady states within this frame
Linking patient satisfaction with nursing care: the case of care rationing - a correlational study.
Papastavrou, Evridiki; Andreou, Panayiota; Tsangari, Haritini; Merkouris, Anastasios
2014-01-01
Implicit rationing of nursing care is the withholding of or failure to carry out all necessary nursing measures due to lack of resources. There is evidence supporting a link between rationing of nursing care, nurses' perceptions of their professional environment, negative patient outcomes, and placing patient safety at risk. The aims of the study were: a) To explore whether patient satisfaction is linked to nurse-reported rationing of nursing care and to nurses' perceptions of their practice environment while adjusting for patient and nurse characteristics. b) To identify the threshold score of rationing by comparing the level of patient satisfaction factors across rationing levels. A descriptive, correlational design was employed. Participants in this study included 352 patients and 318 nurses from ten medical and surgical units of five general hospitals. Three measurement instruments were used: the BERNCA scale for rationing of care, the RPPE scale to explore nurses' perceptions of their work environment and the Patient Satisfaction scale to assess the level of patient satisfaction with nursing care. The statistical analysis included the use of Kendall's correlation coefficient to explore a possible relationship between the variables and multiple regression analysis to assess the effects of implicit rationing of nursing care together with organizational characteristics on patient satisfaction. The mean score of implicit rationing of nursing care was 0.83 (SD = 0.52, range = 0-3), the overall mean of RPPE was 2.76 (SD = 0.32, range = 1.28 - 3.69) and the two scales were significantly correlated (τ = -0.234, p < 0.001). The regression analysis showed that care rationing and work environment were related to patient satisfaction, even after controlling for nurse and patient characteristics. The results from the adjusted regression models showed that even at the lowest level of rationing (i.e. 0.5) patients indicated low satisfaction. The
Sheng Zhang; Hong-Qing Zhang
2011-04-01
A direct method, called the transformed rational function method, is used to construct more types of exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations by introducing new and more general rational functions. To illustrate the validity and advantages of the introduced general rational functions, the (3+1)-dimensional potential Yu–Toda–Sasa–Fukuyama (YTSF) equation is considered and new travelling wave solutions are obtained in a uniform way. Some of the obtained solutions, namely exponential function solutions, hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions, Jacobi elliptic function solutions and rational solutions, contain an explicit linear function of the independent variables involved in the potential YTSF equation. It is shown that the transformed rational function method provides more powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations.
How to legally define the plagiarism and rational use in academia
TANG Xiaotian
2006-01-01
With regard to the protection of copyright,a difficult issue is how to differentiate rational use and plagiarism reasonably.This paper focuses to analyze the commonly-seen academic transcription by making a proposition that the judgment to it shall be conducted by the time,content and the similarity,which briefly introduces some major means for judging it and points out several difficult issues concerned.
Rationing in Medicine: A Presupposition for Humanity and Justice
Gundolf Gubernatis
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Limited resources are the permanent condition in health care. Rationing, according to H. Kliemt, is the distribution of limited resources below market prices to all people in need for these resources. Therefore, rationing is a basic component of every kind of human health care system. However, the crucial problem is how to find just and fair rules for this distribution under the premise, that every patient should have the same chance. The allocation of organs for transplant can serve as a paradigmatic example for studying rationing problems, as shortage of organs cannot be denied nor abolished. H. Kliemt compared the situation with the classic decathlon. The selection of factors and the combination and weighing of these factors for 'winning a donor organ' should strictly be related to individuals. Non-medical criteria should generally be accepted and authorized as far as they are relevant to the question of justice and fairness. In this paper the so-called 'solidarity model', an example of joint research with Hartmut Kliemt, is introduced as an allocation system with the power to enhance justice and fairness.
Host defense mechanism-based rational design of live vaccine.
Yo Han Jang
Full Text Available Live attenuated vaccine (LAV, mimicking natural infection, provides an excellent protection against microbial infection. The development of LAV, however, still remains highly empirical and the rational design of clinically useful LAV is scarcely available. Apoptosis and caspase activation are general host antiviral responses in virus-infected cells. Utilizing these tightly regulated host defense mechanisms, we present a novel apoptosis-triggered attenuation of viral virulence as a rational design of live attenuated vaccine with desired levels of safety, efficacy, and productivity. Mutant influenza viruses carrying caspase recognition motifs in viral NP and the interferon-antagonist NS1 proteins were highly attenuated both in vitro and in vivo by caspase-mediated cleavage of those proteins in infected cells. Both viral replication and interferon-resistance were substantially reduced, resulting in a marked attenuation of virulence of the virus. Despite pronounced attenuation, the viruses demonstrated high growth phenotype in embryonated eggs at lower temperature, ensuring its productivity. A single dose vaccination with the mutant virus elicited high levels of systemic and mucosal antibody responses and provided complete protection against both homologous and heterologous lethal challenges in mouse model. While providing a practical means to generate seasonal or pandemic influenza live vaccines, the sensitization of viral proteins to pathogen-triggered apoptotic signals presents a potentially universal, mechanism-based rational design of live vaccines against many viral infections.
Host defense mechanism-based rational design of live vaccine.
Jang, Yo Han; Byun, Young Ho; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Park, Eun-Sook; Lee, Yun Ha; Lee, Yoon-Jae; Lee, Jinhee; Kim, Kyun-Hwan; Seong, Baik Lin
2013-01-01
Live attenuated vaccine (LAV), mimicking natural infection, provides an excellent protection against microbial infection. The development of LAV, however, still remains highly empirical and the rational design of clinically useful LAV is scarcely available. Apoptosis and caspase activation are general host antiviral responses in virus-infected cells. Utilizing these tightly regulated host defense mechanisms, we present a novel apoptosis-triggered attenuation of viral virulence as a rational design of live attenuated vaccine with desired levels of safety, efficacy, and productivity. Mutant influenza viruses carrying caspase recognition motifs in viral NP and the interferon-antagonist NS1 proteins were highly attenuated both in vitro and in vivo by caspase-mediated cleavage of those proteins in infected cells. Both viral replication and interferon-resistance were substantially reduced, resulting in a marked attenuation of virulence of the virus. Despite pronounced attenuation, the viruses demonstrated high growth phenotype in embryonated eggs at lower temperature, ensuring its productivity. A single dose vaccination with the mutant virus elicited high levels of systemic and mucosal antibody responses and provided complete protection against both homologous and heterologous lethal challenges in mouse model. While providing a practical means to generate seasonal or pandemic influenza live vaccines, the sensitization of viral proteins to pathogen-triggered apoptotic signals presents a potentially universal, mechanism-based rational design of live vaccines against many viral infections.
Rational subjects, marriage counselling and the conundrums of eugenics.
Gerodetti, Natalia
2008-06-01
Against the background of degeneration and the perceived threat to the nation's health and stock, family politics came to constitute an important site for eugenic discourses and interventions. Eugenic regulation of reproductive sexuality and marriage was not only pursued through 'negative' eugenics but also through educational policies targeted at young adults and youth. Switzerland serves as a useful case to explore a general idea, namely the limitations for eugenicists of exploiting the concept of a rational subject in order to achieve their ends. Practices of 'positive eugenics' crucially hinged on the utilitarian principle of rationality underpinning positive eugenics which this paper seeks to elaborate. Eugenicists devised tools to deal efficiently with social problems on a collective as well as an individual basis by deploying technologies of government which conceived individuals to be members of a population who were each held responsible for the generation of healthy future generations. As a form of 'sustaining, multiplying and ordering life' eugenics thus relied on the premise that its ideas would be adopted through an appeal to rationality and, where this was insufficient, through a series of coercive measures. Relying on conviction and education about the merits of eugenics, however, posed particular problems to positive eugenic thinking and practice.
Jacob D
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Dalia Jacob,1 Belén Marrón,2 Jay Ehrlich,1 Peter A Rutherford3 1Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL, USA; 2Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Madrid, Spain; 3Baxter Healthcare SA, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: Pharmacovigilance is instrumental in helping to ensure patient safety for both newly released drugs and those that are well established in the market. However, while pharmacovigilance procedures are strictly regulated in the clinical trial setting, post-marketing adverse event reporting is not well implemented or enforced. As such, the underreporting of adverse events, in relation to drugs that are on the market, is estimated to be in the region of 90%. The identification of drug safety issues in patients with complex diseases and extensive comorbidities is therefore particularly challenging. Dialysis patients – those with end-stage renal disease and often other comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease – are a population with significant treatment challenges. Patients receive dialysis using complex medical devices (eg, a peritoneal dialysis home cycler and also receive a range of pharmaceutical agents as part of dialysis itself (eg, peritoneal dialysis solutions. Many of the pharmaceutical agents used to treat these patients have been developed in populations without these complications and, therefore, an extensive knowledge of potential problems and contraindications in the dialysis population is lacking. It is important that the nephrology community understands the concept of pharmacovigilance – the pharmacologic science relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects, particularly long-term and short-term side effects, of medicines. Health care professionals (HCPs and providers, pharmaceutical companies, global regulatory agencies, and the patients themselves all play unique and critical roles in this process. This review defines the science of
A discussion of theoretical and practical rationality
Wahlstroem, B. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). VTT Automation
1999-12-01
Theoretical rationality as defined in Expected Utility Theory and amended with other considerations gives a good basis for decision making. One should however always keep in mind that practical rationality often is far more complicated. People use their everyday experience when placed before new problems and this may lead to apparently irrational choices which on a closer scrutiny may be completely rational. Theories in human decision making unfortunately becomes untestable, firstly because a theory taking all considerations into account would be to complex to be practical and secondly because the data needed to test the theory cannot be collected. The benefit of EUT is that it is simple and straightforward as compared with competing theories. In the natural sciences rationality is often seen simply as a problem of optimisation. This view is practical, but it has to include also psychological and sociological considerations. The apparent controversy between natural and behavioural sciences could at least in principle be resolved by a better understanding of the complexity of human rationality. The human mind does not work in isolation, but it is adapted to a social community and a continuously changing environment. Understanding all components of human rationality is a challenge which cannot be solved on a short term basis. An important part of human rationality is connected to the intricate balance between individual and societal utility. The human mind has over thousands of years learnt to resolve that balance, but in the modern society there are decisions which may not be solvable with an intuitive approach and a strategy of trial and error. For these decisions more solid theories of rationality will be needed. EUT can in spite of its dismerits be used as the backbone for such a theory, but it has to be extended with better explanations of both individual and social rationality. If this understanding of the practical aspects of human rationality can be reached
G??mez Garc??a, Ylenia
2016-01-01
A lo largo de los ??ltimos a??os, la publicidad se ha hecho indispensable, comprendiendo otros ??mbitos aparte del empresarial. El principal objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la publicidad empleada en el sector p??blico, concretamente, en el caso de la Direcci??n General de Tr??fico. En la primera parte del trabajo se har?? un repaso de la evoluci??n de la publicidad, enfoc??ndonos en la psicolog??a como un factor clave. Adicionalmente, se estudiar??n las diferencias entre la publicidad...
The perfect machine: Lorenz Böhler's rationalized fracture treatment in World War I.
Schlich, Thomas
2009-12-01
This essay examines Lorenz Böhler's modernist system of rationalized fracture care as a particular case of medical rationalization and standardization. Böhler's locally created culture of standardized practices is analyzed in the context of its concrete work environment but also situated in relation to aspects of its wider cultural environment. It will be described as part of a more general trend of body-based rationalization efforts in industry and health care, in which the machine metaphor was used to characterize both the body and the work process. The project's origins in World War I will be discussed, as well as its subsequent migration to a civilian setting and its resonance with postwar Viennese modernism, to which it contributed. The essay aims at contributing to a historically informed discussion of medical rationalization and standardization as a heterogeneous, value-laden, and historically contingent phenomenon.
Reasoning strategies with rational numbers revealed by eye tracking.
Plummer, Patrick; DeWolf, Melissa; Bassok, Miriam; Gordon, Peter C; Holyoak, Keith J
2017-07-01
Recent research has begun to investigate the impact of different formats for rational numbers on the processes by which people make relational judgments about quantitative relations. DeWolf, Bassok, and Holyoak (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144(1), 127-150, 2015) found that accuracy on a relation identification task was highest when fractions were presented with countable sets, whereas accuracy was relatively low for all conditions where decimals were presented. However, it is unclear what processing strategies underlie these disparities in accuracy. We report an experiment that used eye-tracking methods to externalize the strategies that are evoked by different types of rational numbers for different types of quantities (discrete vs. continuous). Results showed that eye-movement behavior during the task was jointly determined by image and number format. Discrete images elicited a counting strategy for both fractions and decimals, but this strategy led to higher accuracy only for fractions. Continuous images encouraged magnitude estimation and comparison, but to a greater degree for decimals than fractions. This strategy led to decreased accuracy for both number formats. By analyzing participants' eye movements when they viewed a relational context and made decisions, we were able to obtain an externalized representation of the strategic choices evoked by different ontological types of entities and different types of rational numbers. Our findings using eye-tracking measures enable us to go beyond previous studies based on accuracy data alone, demonstrating that quantitative properties of images and the different formats for rational numbers jointly influence strategies that generate eye-movement behavior.
The minimal genus problem in rational surfaces
ZHAO; Xu'an
2006-01-01
[1]Kronheimer P B,Mrowka T S.The genus of embedding surfaces in the projective plane.Math Res Lett,1994,1:797-808[2]Lawson T.The minimal genus problem.Expo Math,1997,15:385-431[3]Li B H.Representing nonnegative homology classes of CP2#n-CP2 by minimal genus smooth embedding.Trans Amer Soc,1999,352(9):4155-4169[4]Ruberman D.The minimal genus of an embedding surface of non-negative square in a rational surface.Turkish J Math,1996,20:129-133[5]Wall C T C.On the orthogonal groups of unimodular quadratic forms Ⅱ.Crelle Jour,1963,213:122-136[6]Gao H.Representing homology classes of almost definite 4-manifolds.Topology Appl,1993,52:109-120[7]Kikuchi K.Positive 2-spheres in 4-manifolds of signature (1,n).Pacific Jour Math,1993,160:245-258[8]Li B H,Li T J.Smooth minimal genera for small negative classes in CP2#n-CP2 with n ≤ 9.Topology Appl,2003,132(1):1-15[9]Friedman R,Morgan J.On the diffeomorphism types of certain algebraic surfaces.Journal of Differential Geometry,1988,27(3):371-398[10]Kac V G.Infinite-Dimensional Lie Algebras.3rd ed.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1990[11]Li T J,Liu A.Symplectic structure on ruled surfaces and generalized adjunction formula.Math Res Lett,1995,2:453-471
Introduction to the special issue
Gisela Boehm
2008-01-01
Full Text Available (from the introduction Intuition and affect have been neglected topics in the literature on human judgment and decision making for a long time. Judgmental processes involved in risk perception and decision making have traditionally been conceptualized as cognitive in nature, being based upon a rational and deliberate evaluation of the alternatives at hand. This picture started to change in the early 1980s when decision researchers looked beyond rational, deliberate, and cognitive processes and began to investigate intuitive --- as opposed to deliberate --- and emotional --- as opposed to cognitive --- aspects of decision making. In sum, decision research has seen a proliferation of approaches that look beyond rational, deliberate, and purely cognitive processes in decision making and investigate intuitive and emotional judgments in this area. This seemed like a good point in time to reflect the state of this emerging field in a special issue that addresses the question of how intuition and affect are related to each other and how they shape risk perception and decision making. This special issue is the result of a workshop that was held at the University of Bergen in November, 2006.
Bevanger, Kjetil
2011-02-15
To achieve European-level policy goals on climate change challenges, as well securing the electricity supply within Norway, it will be necessary to increase power line construction efforts significantly, as well as to upgrade the existing grid. Statnett have estimated an approximately 40 billion NOK investment over the next 10 years will be required for the central grid. Although this is a huge investment, the length of the new transmission lines constructed will only comprise a small part of the Norwegian grid. Of approximately 193 000 km of overhead power lines in Norway the distribution grid (i.e. up to 24 kV) comprises 85%. In this report we discuss the ornithological challenges connected to the different elements of the Norwegian grid. All overhead wires pose a potential risk to flying birds; however, the risk increases with the number of lines and wire length per unit of land area. The central and regional grid, in general, represents no electrocution threat, as the distances between the phase conductors and/or the distance between a phase conductor and an earthed device is rather wide. Thus the electrocution problem is a distribution grid specific problem. Both the collision and the electrocution risk are highly species specific problems. Over the last years several research projects have collected data enabling an identification of the bird species and bird species groups facing a particular risk. However, there is still a lack of know-ledge in several respects, for example why the number of collisions is not evenly distributed along a power line section, but is frequently concentrated at a few spots. This type of knowledge is crucial to contribute to the selection of as environmentally friendly power line routing as possible when new power lines are constructed. This is also stressed in the new Energy Act of 2009. With respect to both upgrading, and to new power line constructions, underground cabling should be used to a much greater extent. This will
IDENTITIES INVOLVING RATIONAL SUMS BY INVERSION AND PARTIAL FRACTION DECOMPOSITION
Helmut Prodinger
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Identities appearing recentlyin: {sc J. L. D'{i}az-Barrero, J. Gibergans-B'agu-ena, P. G. Popescu:}{it Some identities involving rational sums}. Appl. Anal. Discrete Math., {f 1} (2007, 397--402, aretreated by inverting them; the resulting sums areevaluated using partial fraction decomposition, following{sc Wenchang Chu:} {it A binomial coefficient identity associated with {B}eukers' conjectureon {A}p'ery numbers.} Electron. J. Combin., {f 11} (1: Note 15, 3 pp. (electronic, 2004.This approach produces a general formula, not only special cases.
A New Curve Algebraically but not Rationally Uniformized by Radicals
Pirola, Gian Pietro; Schlesinger, Enrico
2010-01-01
We give a new example of a curve C algebraically, but not rationally, uniformized by radicals. This means that C has no map onto the projective line P^1 with solvable Galois group, while there exists a curve C' that maps onto C and has a finite morphism to P^1 with solvable Galois group. We construct such a curve C of genus 9 in the second symmetric product of a general curve of genus 2. It is also an example of a genus 9 curve that does not satisfy condition S(4,2,9) of Abramovich and Harris.
Interpolation and approximation by rational functions in the complex domain
Walsh, J L
1935-01-01
The present work is restricted to the representation of functions in the complex domain, particularly analytic functions, by sequences of polynomials or of more general rational functions whose poles are preassigned, the sequences being defined either by interpolation or by extremal properties (i.e. best approximation). Taylor's series plays a central role in this entire study, for it has properties of both interpolation and best approximation, and serves as a guide throughout the whole treatise. Indeed, almost every result given on the representation of functions is concerned with a generaliz
Rational design approach for landfill liner protective soil cover
Ruetten, M.G. [STS Consultants Ltd., Green Bay, WI (United States); Bandi, S.R. [Rust Environment & Infrastructure, Livonia, MI (United States); Reddy, K.R. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)
1995-12-31
This paper presents a rational approach for designing protective soil cover for landfill geomembrane liners in order to prevent damage to the liners. The present practice involves using a combination of geotextile and soil layer as protective cover. The geotextile is placed directly over the geomembrane and then a protective soil is placed on the geotextile. The protective soil layer generally consists of a free-draining granular soil which also serves as a drainage layer for the leachate collection and removal system. The degree of protection offered to the geomembrane depends on the type of geotextile, and the composition and thickness of the protective soil used.
On computing closed forms for summations. [polynomials and rational functions
Moenck, R.
1977-01-01
The problem of finding closed forms for a summation involving polynomials and rational functions is considered. A method closely related to Hermite's method for integration of rational functions derived. The method expresses the sum of a rational function as a rational function part and a transcendental part involving derivatives of the gamma function.
Using Rational-Emotive Therapy to Prevent Classroom Problems.
Webber, Jo; Coleman, Maggie
1988-01-01
Teachers are encouraged to utilize rational-emotive therapy to prevent and deal with classroom behavior problems. Rational-emotive therapy is defined, the ABC model of rational thinking briefly explained, types of irrational thinking identified, and suggestions for becoming a rational thinker are offered. Classroom examples are given. (DB)
Economic Rationality in the Ultimatum Game
Jan Fiala
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Rigorous application of experimental methodology to the interdisciplinary research of economic decision making is the main purpose of our work. In this paper, we introduce the main decisionmaking theories and outline economic rationality. We explain why we find it useful to discriminate between the “irrational” and “non-rational” components of decision making. We offer an oriented interdisciplinary point of view on economic rationality. In the applied section, we describe the main features of the Ultimatum game and summarize the up-to-date theories explaining the non-rational course of the game. We discuss in detail the reported relations between the nominal value of the stakes and the distribution of the offers and responses. We introduce the blinded, randomized Ultimatum game experiment that we conducted in our laboratory. We stress the importance of anonymity of the study subjects and the difference in salience of a factual reward against a hypothetical reward. We present the results of our study, showing that a duly chosen non-monetary reward, directly inconvertible into money, leads to a different offer distribution in the Ultimatum game without the necessity to invest excessive sums of money in the rewards. We compare our results to research published by other authors. According to our theory, the rational, non-rational and irrational components contribute to the decision making in Ultimatum differently depending on the different reward stakes.
Oligopolistic Banks, Bounded Rationality, and the Credit Cycle
Tobias F. Rötheli
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper studies how boundedly rational default expectations affect the credit cycle. I propose a simple model of oligopolistic bank competition which serves to compare situations with just a portion of boundedly rational banks to situations where either all banks are rational or all banks are boundedly rational. When all banks are boundedly rational, the credit cycle is most amplified relative to the situation where all banks are rational. However, the amplifying effect of bounded rationality on the side of banks largely remains even when only a portion of banks are boundedly rational. Hence, the interest rate decisions of a minority of boundedly rational banks induce the more rational competitors to aggravate the credit cycle.
WANG Mei-Jiao; WANG Qi
2006-01-01
In this work, by means of a new more general ansatz and the symbolic computation system Maple, we extend the Riccati equation rational expansion method [Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 25 (2005) 1019] to uniformly construct a series of stochastic nontravelling wave solutions for nonlinear stochastic evolution equation. To illustrate the effectiveness of our method, we take the stochastic mKdV equation as an example, and successfully construct some new and more general solutions including a series of rational formal nontraveling wave and coefficient functions' soliton-like solutions and trigonometric-like function solutions. The method can also be applied to solve other nonlinear stochastic evolution equation or equations.
Decision Making: Between Rationality and Reality
Marko Polič
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Almost by definition decision-making is typical human activity, and therefore important psychological subject. The starting point of its classical conception within psychology could be traced back to economy and mathematic, with ideas of human as rational economic being, and conceptualising decision making as choice between two or more alternatives, and as such being a separate event in space and time. Already in fifties Herbert Simon challenged such a view with his concept of bounded rationality, emerging from the joint effect of internal limitations of the human mind, and the structure of external environments in which the mind operates. During the last decades with the shift to the real word situations where decisions are embedded in larger tasks, becoming so part of the study of action, the lost rational human appeared again as efficient creature in the complex environment. Gigerenzer showed how heuristics help in this process.
Rational speculative bubbles: A critical view
Radonjić Ognjen
2007-01-01
Full Text Available According to the theory of rational bubbles, the bubble is present whenever asset prices progressively diverge from their fundamental value, which occurs because agents expect that asset prices will continue to grow exponentially (self-fulfilling prophecies far in the future and consistently, which promises the realization of ever larger capital gains. In our opinion, the basic shortcoming of this theory refers to the assumption that all market agents are perfectly informed and rational and, accordingly, form homogeneous expectations. The model does not explain decision-making processes or expectation formation, nor does it detect potential psychological and institutional factors that might significantly influence decision making processes and market participants’ reactions to news. Since assumptions of the model critically determine its validity, we conclude that comprehensiveness of the rational bubble model is, to put it mildly, limited.
Direct Extraction of One Loop Rational Terms
Badger, S D
2009-01-01
We present a method for the direct extraction of rational contributions to one-loop scattering amplitudes, missed by standard four-dimensional unitarity techniques. Working in D=4-2*epsilon dimensions, we interpret the dependence on the additional dimensions as equivalent to introducing an internal mass. We combine this with the use of generalised unitarity to write the loop amplitudes in terms of products of massive tree amplitudes. We find that the rational terms in 4-2*epsilon dimensions can be determined from quadruple, triple and double cuts without the need for independent pentagon contributions using a massive integral basis. The additional mass-dependent integral coefficients may then be extracted analytically or numerically using discrete Fourier projections. We check the method by computing the rational parts of all gluon helicity amplitudes with up to six external legs.
Does the Minimum Wage Cause Inefficient Rationing?
何满辉; 梁明秋
2008-01-01
By not allowing wages to dearthe labor market,the minimum wage could cause workers with low reservation wages to be rationed out while equally skilled woTkers with higher reservation wages are employed.I find that proxies for reservation wages of unskilled workers in high-impact stales did not rise relative to reservation wages in other states,suggesting that the increase in the minimum wage did not cause jobs to be allocated less efficiently.However,even if rationing is efficient,the minimum wage can still entail other efficiency costs.
[The role of economics in fair rationing].
Prenzler, A
2012-10-01
For several years academic disciplines have discussed the potential conflict between scarcity of funding and fair health care. This review article shows the necessity of involving economic scientists in this discussion as well as their contribution to rationalisation, prioritisation and rationing of health care services. Thereby, it becomes clear that rationing and justice are not a contradiction per se. The interdisciplinary discussion in Germany needs less disciplinary egotism and more willingness to seek solutions and compromises. In this context the procedures followed in other countries can serve as examples.
Medicinal cannabis: rational guidelines for dosing.
Carter, Gregory T; Weydt, Patrick; Kyashna-Tocha, Muraco; Abrams, Donald I
2004-05-01
The medicinal value of cannabis (marijuana) is well documented in the medical literature. Cannabinoids, the active ingredients in cannabis, have many distinct pharmacological properties. These include analgesic, anti-emetic, anti-oxidative, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as modulation of glial cells and tumor growth regulation. Concurrent with all these advances in the understanding of the physiological and pharmacological mechanisms of cannabis, there is a strong need for developing rational guidelines for dosing. This paper will review the known chemistry and pharmacology of cannabis and, on that basis, discuss rational guidelines for dosing.
Topological Field Theory and Rational Curves
Aspinwall, Paul S; Aspinwall, Paul S.; Morrison, David R.
1993-01-01
We analyze the superstring propagating on a Calabi-Yau threefold. This theory naturally leads to the consideration of Witten's topological non-linear sigma-model and the structure of rational curves on the Calabi-Yau manifold. We study in detail the case of the world-sheet of the string being mapped to a multiple cover of an isolated rational curve and we show that a natural compactification of the moduli space of such a multiple cover leads to a formula in agreement with a conjecture by Candelas, de la Ossa, Green and Parkes.
Rationalization with ruled surfaces in architecture
Steenstrup, Kasper Hornbak
This thesis addresses the problems of rationalizing and segmenting large scale 3D models, and how to handle difficult production constraints in this area. The design choices when constructing large scale architecture are influenced by the budget. Therefore I strive to minimize the amount of time...... and material needed for production. This makes advanced free form architecture viable for low cost projects, allowing the architects to realize their designs. By pre-cutting building blocks using hot wire robots, the amount of milling necessary can be reduced drastically. I do this by rationalizing...
Rationality: A Social-Epistemology Perspective
Sylvia eWenmackers
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Both in philosophy and in psychology, human rationality has traditionally been studied from an 'individualistic' perspective. Recently, social epistemologists have drawn attention to the fact that epistemic interactions among agents also give rise to important questions concerning rationality. In previous work, we have used a formal model to assess the risk that a particular type of social-epistemic interactions lead agents with initially consistent belief states into inconsistent belief states. Here, we continue this work by investigating the dynamics to which these interactions may give rise in the population as a whole.
The Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo Algorithm
Clark, M A
2006-01-01
The past few years have seen considerable progress in algorithmic development for the generation of gauge fields including the effects of dynamical fermions. The Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm, where Hybrid Monte Carlo is performed using a rational approximation in place the usual inverse quark matrix kernel is one of these developments. This algorithm has been found to be extremely beneficial in many areas of lattice QCD (chiral fermions, finite temperature, Wilson fermions etc.). We review the algorithm and some of these benefits, and we compare against other recent algorithm developements. We conclude with an update of the Berlin wall plot comparing costs of all popular fermion formulations.
The Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm
Clark, Michael
2006-12-01
The past few years have seen considerable progress in algorithmic development for the generation of gauge fields including the effects of dynamical fermions. The Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm, where Hybrid Monte Carlo is performed using a rational approximation in place the usual inverse quark matrix kernel is one of these developments. This algorithm has been found to be extremely beneficial in many areas of lattice QCD (chiral fermions, finite temperature, Wilson fermions etc.). We review the algorithm and some of these benefits, and we compare against other recent algorithm developements. We conclude with an update of the Berlin wall plot comparing costs of all popular fermion formulations.
Rational design of protein kinase inhibitors
Yarmoluk S. M.
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Modern methodological approaches to rational design of low molecular weight compounds with specific activity in relation to predetermined biomolecular targets are considered by example of development of high effective protein kinase inhibitors. The application of new computational methods that allow to significantly improve the quality of computational experiments (in, particular, accuracy of low molecular weight compounds activity prediction without increase of computational and time costs are highlighted. The effectiveness of strategy of rational design is demonstrated by examples of several own investigations devoted to development of new inhibitors that are high effective and selective towards protein kinases CK2, FGFR1 and ASK1.
Rational homotopy theory and differential forms
Griffiths, Phillip
2013-01-01
This completely revised and corrected version of the well-known Florence notes circulated by the authors together with E. Friedlander examines basic topology, emphasizing homotopy theory. Included is a discussion of Postnikov towers and rational homotopy theory. This is then followed by an in-depth look at differential forms and de Tham's theorem on simplicial complexes. In addition, Sullivan's results on computing the rational homotopy type from forms is presented. New to the Second Edition: *Fully-revised appendices including an expanded discussion of the Hirsch lemma*Presentation of a natu
A systematic investigation of the link between rational number processing and algebra ability.
Hurst, Michelle; Cordes, Sara
2017-02-27
Recent research suggests that fraction understanding is predictive of algebra ability; however, the relative contributions of various aspects of rational number knowledge are unclear. Furthermore, whether this relationship is notation-dependent or rather relies upon a general understanding of rational numbers (independent of notation) is an open question. In this study, college students completed a rational number magnitude task, procedural arithmetic tasks in fraction and decimal notation, and an algebra assessment. Using these tasks, we measured three different aspects of rational number ability in both fraction and decimal notation: (1) acuity of underlying magnitude representations, (2) fluency with which symbols are mapped to the underlying magnitudes, and (3) fluency with arithmetic procedures. Analyses reveal that when looking at the measures of magnitude understanding, the relationship between adults' rational number magnitude performance and algebra ability is dependent upon notation. However, once performance on arithmetic measures is included in the relationship, individual measures of magnitude understanding are no longer unique predictors of algebra performance. Furthermore, when including all measures simultaneously, results revealed that arithmetic fluency in both fraction and decimal notation each uniquely predicted algebra ability. Findings are the first to demonstrate a relationship between rational number understanding and algebra ability in adults while providing a clearer picture of the nature of this relationship. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
HUMAN REASON AND SOCIAL RATIONALITY IN ION UNGUREANU’S THINKING
LUCIEN V. CONSTANTIN
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Ion Ungureanu is one of the most important sociologists Romania has had in the last half a century. Leader of his generation, he contributed to the development of the paradigms of sociological thinking and he analyzed fundamental concepts of sociological theory. This study aims to expose comparatively and critically one of the most significant contributions of Ion Ungureanu – the concept of social rationality. Unlike Max Weber and Vilfredo Pareto, Ion Ungureanu makes the important distinction between human rationality and social rationality. Struck by this shortcoming, more or less, the two conceptions end up supporting the thesis of human and social action of landed irrationality, like V. Pareto or by opening the path to this irrationality, like Max Weber, taking into consideration the fact that comprehension and knowledge of the meaning of the action, condition of the possibility of initiation of a rational action, can seldom be known by the social actors. With Ion Ungureanu, the rationality of social action is understood through multiple criteria, depending on six ontological dimensions of social existence – social development, economic growth, social participation, social responsibility, social education and social rationality, each containing two aspects. All of these form what the Romanian sociologist calls “the generalized model of social rationality”, a theoretical referential that allows the optimization of social life
Rationalizing the Permissibility of Mosque Decoration
Spahic Omer
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the subject of mosque decoration and some of the criteria which determine its permissibility or otherwise. Some aspects of the matter are somewhat sensitive and double-edged. Thus, the paper presents an objective, balanced and scientific account of the theme, steering clear of the sentimental aspects of the evidences often put forth by both the proponents and opponents of mosque decoration. The main thrusts of the paper are the issues pertaining to the legitimacy of decoration in general, the subject of the function of mosques vis-à-vis their decoration, as well as the broad guidelines that regulate mosque decoration emphasizing the decoration of the mihrab (praying niche area and the qiblah wall. The paper concludes that in principle mosque decoration is permissible so long as it conforms to the requirements of the Islamic spirituality and the quintessence of genuine Islamic art and architecture.
Précis of bayesian rationality: The probabilistic approach to human reasoning.
Oaksford, Mike; Chater, Nick
2009-02-01
According to Aristotle, humans are the rational animal. The borderline between rationality and irrationality is fundamental to many aspects of human life including the law, mental health, and language interpretation. But what is it to be rational? One answer, deeply embedded in the Western intellectual tradition since ancient Greece, is that rationality concerns reasoning according to the rules of logic--the formal theory that specifies the inferential connections that hold with certainty between propositions. Piaget viewed logical reasoning as defining the end-point of cognitive development; and contemporary psychology of reasoning has focussed on comparing human reasoning against logical standards. Bayesian Rationality argues that rationality is defined instead by the ability to reason about uncertainty. Although people are typically poor at numerical reasoning about probability, human thought is sensitive to subtle patterns of qualitative Bayesian, probabilistic reasoning. In Chapters 1-4 of Bayesian Rationality (Oaksford & Chater 2007), the case is made that cognition in general, and human everyday reasoning in particular, is best viewed as solving probabilistic, rather than logical, inference problems. In Chapters 5-7 the psychology of "deductive" reasoning is tackled head-on: It is argued that purportedly "logical" reasoning problems, revealing apparently irrational behaviour, are better understood from a probabilistic point of view. Data from conditional reasoning, Wason's selection task, and syllogistic inference are captured by recasting these problems probabilistically. The probabilistic approach makes a variety of novel predictions which have been experimentally confirmed. The book considers the implications of this work, and the wider "probabilistic turn" in cognitive science and artificial intelligence, for understanding human rationality.
Introduction: Moving Beyond the ′Rational Actor′ in Environmental Governance and Conservation
Nicole D Peterson
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this brief introduction, we examine the themes and issues that link the three papers in this special section. In each case, neoliberal conservation practices appear to be predicated on a certain kind of individual subject with certain kinds of motives and behaviours-the rational actor. Taken together, these three papers challenge three assumptions of rational actor models, including that individuals are self-interested and attempt to maximise their own benefits, that they only respond to economic incentives, and that economic markets are free, mutual, and rational. Together these articles promote greater attention to how individuals are conceptualised in conservation efforts, and suggest alternative ways to think through conservation projects.
CSIR general news: December 2008 issues
CSIR
2008-12-01
Full Text Available stream_source_info CSIR e-NewsGen5_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2689 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name CSIR e-NewsGen5_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Siamon... Gordon appointed as CSIR fellow South African expatriate and Glaxo Wellcome Professor of Pathology at the University of Oxford in the UK, Siamon Gordon, has been appointed as a CSIR Fellow. The appointment came shortly before Gordon gave a lecture...
General aspects of immunotoxicology including validation issues
Frieke Kuper, C.
2006-01-01
Histologic examination of lymphoid organs has revealed immunotoxic effects of a broad range of substances. The thymus has proven especially sensitive. The relative lack of sensitivity of mucosa-associated lymphoid cells and tissues may be due to shortcomings in the way they are examined. Validation
CSIR general news: March 2008 issues
CSIR
2008-01-01
Full Text Available for a six. The team walked away the winners of the tournament, securing a place in the ICC Women's World Cup to be held in Australia next year. Performance analysts from the CSIR's sports technology centre were approached in 2006 to help... to be analysed using specialist reports and advanced database technologies. Crickstat enables coaches and players to analyse performance instantaneously and objectively, which gave the South African team a distinct competitive advantage in the 50-over...
Rational approximations and quantum algorithms with postselection
Mahadev, U.; de Wolf, R.
2015-01-01
We study the close connection between rational functions that approximate a given Boolean function, and quantum algorithms that compute the same function using post-selection. We show that the minimal degree of the former equals (up to a factor of 2) the minimal query complexity of the latter. We gi
Rational bargaining in games with coalitional externalities
Borm, Peter; Ju, Y.; Wettstein, D.
This paper provides a flexible strategic framework to analyze bargaining and values in environments with coalitional externalities. Within this framework we propose a new value that extends the Shapley value to partition function form games, the so-called Rational Belief Shapley (RBS) value. We
Dr. Strangelove and Irrational Collective Rationality
韩蕾
2012-01-01
Dr. Strangelove or: How I learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb is a 1964 black comedy film with satire of arm races and nuclear scare by the director Stanley Kubrick. In the movie, irrational practice and ideologies manifest them⁃selves as collective rationality and result in the destruction of the earth.
Hietarinta, Jarmo; Hietarinta, Jarmo; Kajiwara, Kenji
1997-01-01
We study the rational solutions of the discrete version of Painleve's fourth equation d-PIV. The solutions are generated by applying Schlesinger transformations on the seed solutions -2z and -1/z. After studying the structure of these solutions we are able to write them in a determinantal form that includes an interesting parameter shift that vanishes in the continuous limit.
Rational Voters in a Partisanship Model
O.H. Swank (Otto)
1995-01-01
textabstractThis paper examines a voter model for the US which is interconnected with the partisan theory. In our model, voters are rational and forward-looking. They are perfectly informed about the preferences of political parties and about the state of the economy. The predictions of our voter mo
CONSTRAINED RATIONAL CUBIC SPLINE AND ITS APPLICATION
Qi Duan; Huan-ling Zhang; Xiang Lai; Nan Xie; Fu-hua (Frank) Cheng
2001-01-01
In this paper, a kind of rational cubic interpolation functionwith linear denominator is constructed. The constrained interpolation with constraint on shape of the interpolating curves and on the second-order derivative of the interpolating function is studied by using this interpolation, and as the consequent result, the convex interpolation conditions have been derived.
Robust identification for rational fractional transfer functions
王书宁
1997-01-01
An algorithm is proposed for robust identification of a rational fractional transfer function with a fixed degree under the framework of worst-case/deterministic robust identification. The convergence of the algorithm is proven. Its feasibility is shown with a numerical example.
Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions
Volchik Vyacheslav, V.
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.
Multiple Equilibria in Noisy Rational Expectations Economies
Palvolgyi, Domotor; Venter, Gyuri
This paper studies equilibrium uniqueness in standard noisy rational expectations economies with asymmetric or differential information a la Grossman and Stiglitz (1980) and Hellwig (1980). We show that the standard linear equilibrium of Grossman and Stiglitz (1980) is the unique equilibrium...
The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves
Matt Ridley
2012-05-01
Full Text Available There is much debate about the state of the world. Matt Ridley argues in The Rational Optimist that we can solve problems such as economic crashes,population explosions, climate change and terrorism, of poverty, AIDS, depression and obesity. His trust of capitalism and progress is examined and challenged in this book review.
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy with Troubled Students.
Zionts, Paul; Zionts, Laura
1997-01-01
Based on the early work of Albert Ellis, seeks to identify and challenge irrational beliefs that underlie behavior problems. Outlines concepts and methods of Rational Emotive Behavior Theory and describes the application both in counseling and as a mental health curriculum for troubled children and youth. Offers classroom techniques. (RJM)
The Rational-Emotive Approach: A Critique
Morris, G. Barry
1976-01-01
The critique of Rational-Emotive Therapy aims criticism at Ellis' concept of irrationality, analysis of human behavior and therapeutic techniques. Ellis suggests that his critic's claims lack the support of experimental evidence. He further suggests that an "existential" bias pervades which differs from his own brand of "existentialism." (KRP)
Rational Suggestions for Pre-Marital Counseling.
Ball, J.D.; Henning, Lawrence H.
1981-01-01
To demonstrate the utility of Rational Emotive Therapy in pre-marital counseling, examples of specific irrational beliefs which clinicians can use to help couples are presented. Mental health practitioners are encouraged to apply these principles to other specific irrationalities they may discover in their own work experience. (Author)
Block Toeplitz operators with rational symbols (II)
Hwang, In Sung [Department of Mathematics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo Young [Department of Mathematics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ishwang@skku.edu, E-mail: wylee@math.snu.ac.kr
2008-09-26
In this paper we derive a formula for the rank of the self-commutator of hyponormal block Toeplitz operators T{sub {phi}} with matrix-valued rational symbols {phi} in L{sup {infinity}}(C{sup nxn}) via the classical Hermite-Fejer interpolation problem.
Block Toeplitz operators with rational symbols
Hwang, In Sung [Department of Mathematics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo Young [Department of Mathematics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ishwang@skku.edu, E-mail: wylee@math.snu.ac.kr
2008-05-09
In this paper we show that the hyponormality of block Toeplitz operators T{sub {phi}} with matrix-valued rational symbols {phi} in L{sup {infinity}}(C{sup nxn}) is completely determined by the tangential Hermite-Fejer interpolation problem.
Summary Report on Rational Cryptographic Protocols
Alwen, Joël; Cachin, Christian; Pereira, Olivier
This report gives an overview of some of the models and techniques in rational cryptography, an emerging research area which in particular uses the methodologies and techniques of game theory to analyze cryptographic protocols and which uses cryptographic protocol theory to implement game theoretic...
Macroeconomics after Two Decades of Rational Expectations.
McCallum, Bennett T.
1994-01-01
Discusses real business cycle analysis, growth theory, and other economic concepts in the context of the rational expectations revolution in macroeconomics. Focuses on post-1982 research. Concludes that the rejuvenation of growth analysis is an encouraging development because it could lead to changes in welfare policy. (CFR)
A characterization of quasi-rational polygons
Bedaride, Nicolas
2012-11-01
The aim of this paper is to study quasi-rational polygons related to the outer billiard. We compare different notions introduced in Gutkin and Simányi (1992 Commun. Math. Phys. 143 431-49) and Schwartz (2009 Outer Billiards on Kites (Annals of Mathematics Studies vol 171) (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press)) and make a synthesis of them.
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Humanism in Action.
Hill, Larry K.
1996-01-01
Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)
Critical Thinking and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.
Hatcher, Donald; Brown, Tony; Gariglietti, Kelli P.
2001-01-01
Notes limitations of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). Suggests that should these weaknesses be addressed, teachers of critical thinking would do well to incorporate REBT into their critical thinking courses. Relates that A. Ellis has suggested that the future of REBT is in integrating it into the educational curriculum as a way of…
Some Contemporary Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Songs.
Watts, Richard E.
1996-01-01
Presents several new rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) songs. Claims that the songs may be used in both academic and therapeutic settings as a humorous way to address cognitive distortions or irrational beliefs. Reports that students and clients have responded favorably to these songs. (RJM)
[Popper's critical rationalism and the biomedical sciences].
Havlícek, J
1993-11-08
Popper's rationalism makes an important contribution of the 20th century philosophy to the methodology of natural sciences. Through its criterion of falsification, it enabled the scientists to take a critical but constructive view on hypotheses, conjectures and theories. This attitude found its application also in medicine.
Viagra: : A success story for rationing?
Klein, R.; Sturm, H.
2002-01-01
The 1998 launch of Viagra prompted widespread fears about the budgetary consequences for insurers and governments, all the more so since Viagra was only the first of a new wave of so-called lifestyle drugs. The fears have turned out to be greatly exaggerated. This paper analyzes the rationing strate
Isomorphism, Homogeneity, and Rationalism in University Retrenchment.
Gates, Gordon S.
1997-01-01
Describes the process of retrenchment at a medium-sized state university (pseudonyms used) for the purpose of analyzing the isomorphic pressures (mimetic, coercive, normative) surfacing during the process and the role played by rationalism in decision-making. Draws on the literature of organizational theory and change, and makes comparisons with…
Disability and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT).
Gandy, Gerald L.
This article provides information on how Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) can be adapted for use in rehabilitation counseling. It states that although clients with an average range of intelligence have responded well to REBT, clients with borderline intellectual functioning are not suitable candidates for cognitive disputing but can be…
Critical Thinking and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.
Hatcher, Donald; Brown, Tony; Gariglietti, Kelli P.
2001-01-01
Notes limitations of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). Suggests that should these weaknesses be addressed, teachers of critical thinking would do well to incorporate REBT into their critical thinking courses. Relates that A. Ellis has suggested that the future of REBT is in integrating it into the educational curriculum as a way of…
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy with Troubled Students.
Zionts, Paul; Zionts, Laura
1997-01-01
Based on the early work of Albert Ellis, seeks to identify and challenge irrational beliefs that underlie behavior problems. Outlines concepts and methods of Rational Emotive Behavior Theory and describes the application both in counseling and as a mental health curriculum for troubled children and youth. Offers classroom techniques. (RJM)
Some Contemporary Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Songs.
Watts, Richard E.
1996-01-01
Presents several new rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) songs. Claims that the songs may be used in both academic and therapeutic settings as a humorous way to address cognitive distortions or irrational beliefs. Reports that students and clients have responded favorably to these songs. (RJM)
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Humanism in Action.
Hill, Larry K.
1996-01-01
Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)
CREDIT RATIONING AND SME DEVELOPMENT IN BOTSWANA ...
None
Heckman Probit Model with sample selection was used to estimate the ... is organized as follows: section 2 presents the detailed research problem, ... and joint ventures). .... It is at quantity- rationing stage that the bank fine tunes the loan contract ... This implies that firms with a lot of intangible assets, which are difficult to.
Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA and Rationality of Law – Legal Aspects
Jan Chmielewski
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The fundamental aim of this article is to verify an assumption according to which the proper Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA is a key factor in the rationality of law. Rational law is a law which is effective and able to realize and achieve social, economic and environmental aims determined and established by the lawmaker. Methodology: The scope of this paper – which determines its structure – encompasses the definition of RIA, including its specific (but non-legal forms such as benchmarking and evaluation. As far as we are concerned, these methods can provide – as a kind of Regulatory Impact Assessment a significant tool for measuring the rationality of regulations. Furthermore, the usefulness of benchmarking and evaluation has been recognised by representatives of jurisprudence. We will also explain the concept and the assumptions of the rationality of law on the grounds and in the light of the case law of the Polish Constitutional Tribunal and the Supreme Administrative Court. This should allow to countercheck the main thesis of this paper. The methodology encompasses primary legal methods such as literature, case law and legislation analysis. Findings: An indispensable condition of the rationality of law is actual elimination of irrational regulations which were not subjected to the Regulatory Impact Assessment. Practical implications: Although RIA is a problematic issue (in terms of its practical application,it is necessary to carry it out in order to assure the rationality of law. A good and desirable complement to Regulatory Impact Assessment are non-legal methods such as benchmarking and evaluation. Originality: Originality and value of this survey lies in taking into account the case law of the Polish Constitutional Tribunal and the Supreme Administrative Court. Additionally, this paper is original in that it considers non-legal methods in the examination of the rationality of law.
Space cutter compensation method for five-axis nonuniform rational basis spline machining
Yanyu Ding
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In view of the good machining performance of traditional three-axis nonuniform rational basis spline interpolation and the space cutter compensation issue in multi-axis machining, this article presents a triple nonuniform rational basis spline five-axis interpolation method, which uses three nonuniform rational basis spline curves to describe cutter center location, cutter axis vector, and cutter contact point trajectory, respectively. The relative position of the cutter and workpiece is calculated under the workpiece coordinate system, and the cutter machining trajectory can be described precisely and smoothly using this method. The three nonuniform rational basis spline curves are transformed into a 12-dimentional Bézier curve to carry out discretization during the discrete process. With the cutter contact point trajectory as the precision control condition, the discretization is fast. As for different cutters and corners, the complete description method of space cutter compensation vector is presented in this article. Finally, the five-axis nonuniform rational basis spline machining method is further verified in a two-turntable five-axis machine.
Legal and Ethical Issues in Evaluating Abortion Services.
Ferris, Lori E.
2000-01-01
Focuses on ethical and legal issues that arose in the evaluation of abortion services. Discusses the development of decision rules and tradeoffs in dealing with these issues to reach rational and objective decisions. Places the discussion in the context of balancing usefulness and propriety with respect to informed consent and privacy and makes…
Legal and Ethical Issues in Evaluating Abortion Services.
Ferris, Lori E.
2000-01-01
Focuses on ethical and legal issues that arose in the evaluation of abortion services. Discusses the development of decision rules and tradeoffs in dealing with these issues to reach rational and objective decisions. Places the discussion in the context of balancing usefulness and propriety with respect to informed consent and privacy and makes…
Diane Mulligan
2013-05-01
Full Text Available I am delighted to have been asked to be the consulting editor for this special issue on disability and diversity. It covers a range of interesting articles that are relevant for anybody working in community eye health specifically, as well as in the health sector generally.
Ethical issues in biotechnology.
Polkinghorne, J C
2000-01-01
New ethical questions have arisen from our ability to intervene in the structure of the genome. Responsible use of this technique requires ethical evaluation in which experts, potential beneficiaries and the general public should all participate. The examples of genetically modified food and of human genetics help to illustrate the issues involved.
Rational points, rational curves, and entire holomorphic curves on projective varieties
Gasbarri, Carlo; Roth, Mike; Tschinkel, Yuri
2015-01-01
This volume contains papers from the Short Thematic Program on Rational Points, Rational Curves, and Entire Holomorphic Curves and Algebraic Varieties, held from June 3-28, 2013, at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada. The program was dedicated to the study of subtle interconnections between geometric and arithmetic properties of higher-dimensional algebraic varieties. The main areas of the program were, among others, proving density of rational points in Zariski or analytic topology on special varieties, understanding global geometric properties of rationally connected varieties, as well as connections between geometry and algebraic dynamics exploring new geometric techniques in Diophantine approximation.
Pollack, Rachel H.
2000-01-01
Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…
Bourke, Thomas A.; And Others
1986-01-01
This special issue includes "The Microfilming of Newspapers: An Overview" (Thomas Bourke); "United States Newspaper Program: Progress and Propsects" (Larry Sullivan); "The Preservation of Canadian Newspapers" (Mary Jane Starr); "Current Filming of the New York Times at UMI" (Kenneth Tillman); and "The…
Fair and Square Computation of Inverse "Z"-Transforms of Rational Functions
Moreira, M. V.; Basilio, J. C.
2012-01-01
All methods presented in textbooks for computing inverse "Z"-transforms of rational functions have some limitation: 1) the direct division method does not, in general, provide enough information to derive an analytical expression for the time-domain sequence "x"("k") whose "Z"-transform is "X"("z"); 2) computation using the inversion integral…
a Multiple Riccati Equations Rational-Exponent Method and its Application to Whitham-Broer Equation
Liu, Qing; Wang, Zi-Hua; Jia, Dong-Li
2013-03-01
According to two dependent solutions to a generalized Riccati equation together with the equation itself, a multiple Riccati equations rational-exponent method is proposed and applied to Whitham-Broer-Kaup equation. It shows that this method is a more concise and efficient approach and can uniformly derive many types of combined solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations.
Bonatsos, Dennis; Kolokotronis, P; Lenis, D; Bonatsos, Dennis
1994-01-01
The symmetry algebra of the two-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator with rational ratio of frequencies is identified as a non-linear extension of the u(2) algebra. The finite dimensional representation modules of this algebra are studied and the energy eigenvalues are determined using algebraic methods of general applicability to quantum superintegrable systems.
Nonparametric Tests of Collectively Rational Consumption Behavior : An Integer Programming Procedure
Cherchye, L.J.H.; de Rock, B.; Sabbe, J.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.
2008-01-01
We present an IP-based nonparametric (revealed preference) testing proce- dure for rational consumption behavior in terms of general collective models, which include consumption externalities and public consumption. An empiri- cal application to data drawn from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring
Nine Experts Describe the Essence of Rational-Emotive Therapy while Standing on One Foot.
Weinrach, Stephen G.
1996-01-01
Determined extent of agreement among a panel of nine rational-emotive therapy (RET) experts about essence of RET. Responses were categorized as either general cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or RET-specific. A case can be made for subsuming many aspects of CBT under RET because of associated origins of CBT and RET. (FC)
实践理性辨析%Rational Practice:Discussion Praclice:Rational Discussion
王炳书
2001-01-01
The problem of the rationalities of practice in not only the necessary theoretical content included by the Marxist philosophy,but also a significant task of the present practice.This dissertation,by analysis of the inner relation between practice and rationality and comparison between rationalities of practice and rationalities of theory,is going to throw some light on the innate character and distiguish features of rationalities of practice and basic form of rationalities of practice.%实践理性问题既是马克思主义哲学中必然蕴含着的理论内容，更是当代实践提出的重大课题。实践是理性的真实之所，理性是实践的重要特征，因此,必须从实践与理性的内在结合中揭示实践理性的本质，从实践理性与理论理性的比较与对照中揭示实践理性的特点，从人与世界的关系中探寻实践理性的基本形式。
Meglino, Bruce M; Korsgaard, M Audrey
2006-11-01
The authors respond to C. K. W. De Dreu's (2006) critique of their article (B. M. Meglino & M. A. Korsgaard, 2004) published in the special section on Theoretical Models and Conceptual Analyses of the Journal of Applied Psychology. They maintain that De Dreu misinterprets their definitions and the psychological processes they addressed and thus raises a number of issues that are not relevant to their model. Meglino and Korsgaard's model focuses on the distinction between rational self-interest and other orientation, whereas the approach taken by De Dreu focuses on the distinction between rational self-interest and collective rationality. In this response, the authors clarify this distinction, address discrepancies between these two approaches, consider the effect of goals and rationality on other orientated behavior, and suggest directions for future research.
Generalizing: The descriptive struggle
Barney G Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.
2006-01-01
The literature is not kind to the use of descriptive generalizations. Authors struggle and struggle to find and rationalize a way to use them and then fail in spite of trying a myriad of work-arounds. And then we have Lincoln and Guba’s famous statement: “The only generalization is: there is no generalization” in referring to qualitative research. (op cit, p. 110) They are referring to routine QDA yielding extensive descriptions, but which tacitly include conceptual generalizations without an...
Development of the Rational Behavior Inventory: Initial Validity and Reliability
Shorkey, Clayton T.; Whiteman, Victor L.
1977-01-01
The results of initial validity and reliability studies on the Rational Behavior Inventory are presented. The instrument was developed to be used for assessment, treatment planning, and evaluation of clients by counselors who use Rational Emotive Therapy. (Author/JKS)
Rationality and Organization: the Multiple Aspects of an Enigma
Victor Natanael Schwetter Silveira
2008-10-01
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to make a theoretical discussion about the rationality concept and its impacts over the organization’s context. Starting from the philosophical influences by notions of reason and rationality, a brief historical and philosophical approach is making, discussing about the duality of two basics notions: logic (thought and pragmatic (action. On sequence, the rationality concept it’s considered with regard to Weber’s theory ofbureaucracy. After that, the cognitive boundaries of human rationality are considered and the relationships between rationality, legitimacy and institutionalization are overviewed. Finally, rationality is overviewed based on Critical Theory authors like Habermas (1987a, Horkheimer (2002 and Marcuse (1975. In conclusion, this discussion tries to evidence the range and implications of the multiple facets of rationality concept and also brings concepts to go forward the debates about rationality on organizational theory field.
Behaviorally rational expectations and almost self-fulfilling equilibria
Hommes, C.
2013-01-01
Rational expectations assumes perfect, model consistency between beliefs and market realizations. Here we discuss behaviorally rational expectations, characterized by an observable, parsimonious and intuitive form of consistency between beliefs and realizations. We discuss three case-studies.
Pierre’s Rational and Public Beliefs
Victor M. Verdejo
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Paradigmatic cases of disagreement seem not to be compatible with a widespread kind of solution to Kripke’s celebrated Pierre puzzle. As a result, the classical puzzle about rational belief is shown to be also a puzzle about public disagreement/agreement phenomena. In this paper, I defend that the new public version of the puzzle is substantial and challenging and conclude that a full solution to Kripke’s considerations must offer a satisfactory account of both the rational and public character of belief attributions. I then argue that a notion of non-belief-individuating understanding is plausibly the key notion that would allow us to arrest both versions of the Pierre puzzle.
On the Rationality of Pluralistic Ignorance
Bjerring, Jens Christian Krarup; Hansen, Jens Ulrik; Pedersen, Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding
2014-01-01
Pluralistic ignorance is a socio-psychological phenomenon that involves a systematic discrepancy between people’s private beliefs and public behavior in cer- tain social contexts. Recently, pluralistic ignorance has gained increased attention in formal and social epistemology. But to get clear...... on what precisely a formal and social epistemological account of pluralistic ignorance should look like, we need answers to at least the following two questions: What exactly is the phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance? And can the phenomenon arise among perfectly rational agents? In this paper, we propose...... and social interactive aspects of the phenomenon. Second, given our characterization of pluralistic ignorance, we argue that the phenomenon can indeed arise in groups of perfectly rational agents. This, in turn, ensures that the tools of formal epistemology can be fully utilized to reason about pluralistic...
On the rationality of Manx crabs
Tove Ahlbom
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This paper accepts the challenge posed by Godfrey Baldacchino in “Islands and despots”, published in Commonwealth & Comparative Politics in February 2012, to acknowledge and investigate the implications of the “expressions of harmony and solidarity” often observed in small island societies. To do so, aspects of the Isle of Man’s political and social life are discussed from the perspectives of popular rule and rationality. This paper argues that a homogeneity in preferences and the political practices of small island states might be a rational way of protecting a vulnerable economy and thus ensuring economic growth and a sufficient allocation to each island resident of the scarce resources required to survive. Such small island homogeneity and consensualism is therefore not necessarily indicating a deficient democratic practice, but might just connote another way of conducting democratic governance, spawned from a particular way of living and a particular range of needs
Rationalism and Future Political Islam in Indonesia
Nurus Shalihin
2013-02-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the Muslim rationality in legislative and executive election, and also to understand the reason why they choose national party, or Islamic party based on the alkali data of legislative and executive election in West Sumatera from 2004-2009 periods. The paradigm of research is a rational choice theory. This paradigm helps to understand the political behavior of Muslim in West Sumatera in legislative and executive election of 2004-2009 period. Finally, the research finds out that Muslim in West Sumatera always make a political choice rationale, and ignore the primordial consideration to choose the party. This fact is crucial factor why the Islamic party was lost in West Sumatera, and other places in Indonesia.
Health Care Rationing and Distributive Justice
Friedrich Breyer
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The rapid progress in medical technology makes it unavoidable to ration health care. In the discussion how to ration many people claim that principles of justice in distributing scarce resources should be applied. In this paper we argue that medical resources are not scarce as such but scarcity is a necessary by-product of collective financing arrangements such as social health insurance. So the right question to ask is the determination of the benefit package of such an institution. Hartmut Kliemt is currently involved in a commendable interdisciplinary research project in which principles of 'prioritization' of medical care are studied. This contribution adds a specific perspective to this endeavour: we ask how the goal of distributive justice can be interpreted in this context and compare different approaches to implementing 'just' allocation mechanisms.
Scattering in Three Dimensions from Rational Maps
Cachazo, Freddy; Yuan, Ellis Ye
2013-01-01
The complete tree-level S-matrix of four dimensional ${\\cal N}=4$ super Yang-Mills and ${\\cal N} = 8$ supergravity has compact forms as integrals over the moduli space of certain rational maps. In this note we derive formulas for amplitudes in three dimensions by using the fact that when amplitudes are dressed with proper wave functions dimensional reduction becomes straightforward. This procedure leads to formulas in terms of rational maps for three dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills and gravity theories. The integrand of the new formulas contains three basic structures: Parke-Taylor-like factors, Vandermonde determinants and resultants. Integrating out some of the Grassmann directions produces formulas for theories with less than maximal supersymmetry, which exposes yet a fourth kind of structure. Combining all four basic structures we start a search for consistent S-matrices in three dimensions. Very nicely, the most natural ones are those corresponding to ABJM and BLG theories. We also make a...
Vaccines: from empirical development to rational design.
Christine Rueckert
Full Text Available Infectious diseases are responsible for an overwhelming number of deaths worldwide and their clinical management is often hampered by the emergence of multi-drug-resistant strains. Therefore, prevention through vaccination currently represents the best course of action to combat them. However, immune escape and evasion by pathogens often render vaccine development difficult. Furthermore, most currently available vaccines were empirically designed. In this review, we discuss why rational design of vaccines is not only desirable but also necessary. We introduce recent developments towards specifically tailored antigens, adjuvants, and delivery systems, and discuss the methodological gaps and lack of knowledge still hampering true rational vaccine design. Finally, we address the potential and limitations of different strategies and technologies for advancing vaccine development.
Rational noncompliance with prescribed medical treatment.
Stewart, Douglas O; DeMarco, Joseph P
2010-09-01
Despite the attention that patient noncompliance has received from medical researchers, patient noncompliance remains poorly understood and difficult to alter. With a better theory of patient noncompliance, both greater success in achieving compliance and greater respect for patient decision making are likely. The theory presented, which uses a microeconomic approach, bridges a gap in the extant literature that has so far ignored the contributions of this classic perspective on decision making involving the tradeoff of costs and benefits. The model also generates a surprising conclusion: that patients are typically acting rationally when they refuse to comply with certain treatments. However, compliance is predicted to rise with increased benefits and reduced costs. The prediction that noncompliance is rational is especially true in chronic conditions at the point that treatment begins to move closer to the medically ideal treatment level. Although the details of this theory have not been tested empirically, it is well supported by existing prospective and retrospective studies.
Towards a formal logic of design rationalization
Galle, Per
1997-01-01
Certain extensions to standard predicate logic are proposed and used as a framework for critical logical study of patterns of inference in design reasoning. It is shown that within this framework a modal logic of design rationalization (suggested by an empirical study reported earlier) can...... be formally defined in terms of quantification over a universe of discourse of ‘relevant points of view’. Five basic principles of the extended predicate logic are listed, on the basis of which the validity of ten modal patterns of inference encountered in design rationalization is tested. The basic idea...... of reducing modality to quantification is traced back to the philosophy of von Wright, and the approach is compared to that of related work on logic in design....
Werner-Type Matrix Valued Rational Interpolation and Its Recurrence Algorithms%Werner型矩阵有理插值和递推算法
顾传青; 王金波
2004-01-01
In this paper, a practical Werner-type continued fraction method for solving matrix valued rational interpolation problem is provided by using a generalized inverse of matrices. In order to reduce the continued fraction form to rational function form of the interpolants, an efficient forward recurrence algorithm is obtained.
SONG Li-Na; ZHANG Hong-Qing
2007-01-01
In this work, by means of a generalized method and symbolic computation, we extend the Jacobi elliptic function rational expansion method to uniformly construct a series of stochastic wave solutions for stochastic evolution equations. To illustrate the effectiveness of our method, we take the (2+1)-dimensional stochastic dispersive long wave system as an example. We not only have obtained some known solutions, but also have constructed some new rational formal stochastic Jacobi elliptic function solutions.
Shape Designing of Engineering Images Using Rational Spline Interpolation
Muhammad Sarfraz
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In modern days, engineers encounter a remarkable range of different engineering problems like study of structure, structure properties, and designing of different engineering images, for example, automotive images, aerospace industrial images, architectural designs, shipbuilding, and so forth. This paper purposes an interactive curve scheme for designing engineering images. The purposed scheme furnishes object designing not just in the area of engineering, but it is equally useful for other areas including image processing (IP, Computer Graphics (CG, Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE, Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM, and Computer-Aided Design (CAD. As a method, a piecewise rational cubic spline interpolant, with four shape parameters, has been purposed. The method provides effective results together with the effects of derivatives and shape parameters on the shape of the curves in a local and global manner. The spline method, due to its most generalized description, recovers various existing rational spline methods and serves as an alternative to various other methods including v-splines, gamma splines, weighted splines, and beta splines.
Order of Meromorphic Maps and Rationality of the Image Space
Noguchi, Junjiro
2011-01-01
Let $\\iota : \\C^2 \\hookrightarrow S$ be a compactification of the two dimensional complex space $\\C^2$. By making use of Nevanlinna theoretic methods and the classification of compact complex surfaces K. Kodaira proved in 1971 (\\cite{ko71}) that $S$ is a rational surface. Here we deal with a more general meromorphic map $f: \\C^n \\to X$ into a compact complex manifold $X$ of dimension $n$, whose differential $df$ has generically rank $n$. Let $\\rho_f$ denote the order of $f$. We will prove that if $\\rho_f<2$, then every global symmetric holomorphic tensor must vanish; in particular, {\\it if $\\dim X=2$ and $X$ is k\\"ahler, then $X$ is a rational surface. Without the k\\"ahler condition there is no such conclusion, as we will show by a counter-example using a Hopf surface.} This may be the first instance that the k\\"ahler or non-k\\"ahler condition makes a difference in the value distribution theory.
Rationally convex sets on the unit sphere in ℂ2
Wermer, John
2008-04-01
Let X be a rationally convex compact subset of the unit sphere S in ℂ2, of three-dimensional measure zero. Denote by R( X) the uniform closure on X of the space of functions P/ Q, where P and Q are polynomials and Q≠0 on X. When does R( X)= C( X)? Our work makes use of the kernel function for the bar{δ}b operator on S, introduced by Henkin in [5] and builds on results obtained in Anderson Izzo Wermer [3]. We define a real-valued function ɛ X on the open unit ball int B, with ɛ X ( z, w) tending to 0 as ( z, w) tends to X. We give a growth condition on ɛ X ( z, w) as ( z, w) approaches X, and show that this condition is sufficient for R( X)= C( X) (Theorem 1.1). In Section 4, we consider a class of sets X which are limits of a family of Levi-flat hypersurfaces in int B. For each compact set Y in ℂ2, we denote the rationally convex hull of Y by widehat{Y}. A general reference is Rudin [8] or Aleksandrov [1].
[Rationality of commercial specification of rhubarb based on chemical analysis].
Wang, Jiabo; Zhang, Xueru; Xiao, Xiaohe; Chu, Xiaohui; Zhou, Canping; Jin, Cheng; Yan, Dan
2010-02-01
The differences of 34 rhubarb samples collected on the market and at producing area were investigated by chemical analysis on the contents of anthraquinones and chromatographic fingerprints, in order to assess the rationality of the commercial specification of rhubarb. The results indicated that the commercial specification of rhubarb was not correlated to the contents of anthraquinones as well as the price. The chromatographic fingerprints of rhubarb samples from different producing area were dissimilar, while the commercial specifications were difficult to be separated. Generally, the rhubarb samples produced in famous-region contained more anthraquinones. This demonstrated rationality on the traditional records of the famous-region of rhubarb from a chemical view. In this study, it was firstly reported that rhubarb could be categorized into two types, chrysophanol-type and rhein-type, based on the proportion of the two constituents in the total anthraquinones after acid hydrohysis. It was found that the rhubarb samples of rhein-type were mostly produced in famous-regions, such as Qinghai, Xizang, West Sichuan and Gansu. The literatures reported that rhein was superior to chrysophanol at many pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetic properties. Hence, we primarily considered that rhein-type rhubarb might be high-quality. These results were helpful to improve the commercial specification of rhubarb from a view of chemical information.
Thinking about acting logical foundations for rational decision making
Pollock, John L
2006-01-01
John Pollock aims to construct a theory of rational decision making for real agents--not ideal agents. Real agents have limited cognitive powers, but traditional theories of rationality have applied only to idealized agents that lack such constraints. Pollock argues that theories of ideal rationality are largely irrelevant to the decision making of real agents. Thinking about Acting aims to provide a theory of ""real rationality.""
Shape preserving rational bi-cubic function
Malik Zawwar Hussain
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The study is dedicated to the development of shape preserving interpolation scheme for monotone and convex data. A rational bi-cubic function with parameters is used for interpolation. To preserve the shape of monotone and convex data, the simple data dependent constraints are developed on these parameters in each rectangular patch. The developed scheme of this paper is confined, cheap to run and produce smooth surfaces.
NEVILLE-TYPE VECTOR VALUED RATIONAL INTERPOLANTS
陈之兵; 顾传青; 徐晨
2004-01-01
A new kind of vector valued rational interpolants is established by means of Samelson inverse, with scalar numerator and vector valued denominator. It is essen tially different from that of Graves-Morris(1983), where the interpolants are constructed by Thiele-type continued fractions with vector valued numerator and scalar denominator. The new approach is more suitable to calculate the value of a vector valued function for a given point. And an error formula is also given and proven.
Price Changes, Resource Adjustments and Rational Expectations
Hoffmann, Kira
This study investigates the relationship between the accuracy of managerial demand expectations, resource adjustment decisions and selling price changes. In line with rational expectation theory, it is argued that managers adjust resources and selling prices differently in response to expected...... that cost elasticity is higher when a demand decrease is expected among companies with similar exposure to demand uncertainty. Overall, this implies that managerial competences in predicting future demand significantly determines firms’ profitability; especially when demand uncertainty is high...
Qualitative behavior of a rational difference equation
Qian Xiao
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract This article is concerned with the following rational difference equation yn+1 = (yn + yn-1/(p + ynyn-1 with the initial conditions; y-1, y0 are arbitrary positive real numbers, and p is positive constant. Locally asymptotical stability and global attractivity of the equilibrium point of the equation are investigated, and non-negative solution with prime period two cannot be found. Moreover, simulation is shown to support the results.
Pattern of the rational worker incentive system
Kopytova A.V.
2017-01-01
The article presents a model of rational incentive system with the structure consisting of three blocks. The first block (financial incentives) provides monetary compensation to a worker. The second block (stimulating by comfortable living conditions) is aimed to regulate the quality of a worker’s life in and outside the place he works. The third block (non-financial incentives) takes into account cultural and social worker’s needs. The proposed structure of incentive system provides the most...
Uniform Ration Cost System - Summary Report
1975-06-01
of food util.ization data from five civil ian organizations judged to be comparable to DoD feeding. Common characteristics included the age, sex ...of this important linkage between the NRL and the FCI, a linkage affecting millions of dollars of subsistence funds annually, there is no legally...lake trout, pickerel, salmon, sole, swordfish , whitefish) or Scallops, fresh or frozen 76 Maximum Daily Ration (ounces) 12 9 9 9 12 12 12
The rational design of photocatalytic semiconductor nanoparticles
2014-01-01
This thesis reports the successful rational design of three highly active photocatalytic semiconductor nanocrystal (SNC) systems by exploiting morphology effects and the electronic properties of type II semiconductor heterojunctions. Novel architectures of colloidal SNCs are produced with the aim of suppressing exciton recombination and improving charge extraction for the successful initiation of desirable redox chemistry. Rod-shaped niobium pentoxide Nb2O5 nanocrystals (NCs) are shown to...
[What did bachelard mean by "applied rationalism" ?].
Tiles, Mary
2013-01-01
Bachelard was concerned with the processes whereby scientific knowledge is acquired, including the activity of knowing subjects. He did not equate reasoning with logic but rather argued that reasoning resulted from the use of mathematics in organizing both thought and experimental practices, which is why he conceived science as applied mathematics. This had material and technical implications, for Bachelard was concerned with the element of reason inherent in technical materialism as well as the concrete reality inherent in applied rationalism.
Talking back in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Rational dialogue or emotional shouting match?
Elie Friedman
2011-10-01
Full Text Available The Internet has facilitated a broad global conversation among citizens, enabling cross-cultural dialogue on a range of issues, in particular through Web 2.0 tools. This study analyzes the nature of the talkback discourse on news web sites within the framework of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. The study's findings demonstrated that several talkback writers engage in rational-critical discussion of issues essential to the conflict, although they often use rational arguments to de-legitimize conflicting opinions. Talkback dialogue is characterized by engaged discussion, though the majority of respondents engage in dialogue with the article, rather than with other talkback writers. The findings showed that talkback discourse enables a lively, eclectic, and inclusive version of a public sphere, which facilitates the exchange of heterogeneous opinions, though favoring exhibitionism over engagement.
Rationality in children: the first steps
Andrew Woodfield
1991-12-01
Full Text Available Not all categorization is conceptual. Many of the experimental findings concerning infant and animal categorization invite the hypothesis that the subjects form abstract perceptual representations, mental models or cognitive maps that are not composed of concepts. The paper is a reflection upon the idea that conceptual categorization involves the ability to make categorical judgements under the guidance of norms of rationality. These include a norm of truth-seeking and a norm of good evidence. Acceptance of these norms implies willingness to defer to cognitive authorities, unwillingness to commit oneself to contradictions, and knowledge of how to reorganize one's representational system upon discovering that one has made a mistake. It is proposed that the cognitive architecture required for basic rationality is similar to that which underlies pretend-play. The representational system must be able to make room for separate 'mental spaces' in which alternatives to the actual world are entertained. The same feature underlies the ability to understand modalities, time, the appearance-reality distinction, other minds, and ethics. Each area of understanding admits of degrees, and mastery (up to normal adult level takes years. But rational concept-management, at least in its most rudimentary form, does not require a capacity to form second-order representations. It requires knowledge of how to operate upon, and compare, the contents of different mental spaces.
Rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment
Li, Renyuan; Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng
2015-10-01
The ever-increasing human demand for safe and clean water is gradually pushing conventional water treatment technologies to their limits. It is now a popular perception that the solutions to the existing and future water challenges will hinge upon further developments in nanomaterial sciences. The concept of rational design emphasizes on `design-for-purpose' and it necessitates a scientifically clear problem definition to initiate the nanomaterial design. The field of rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment has experienced a significant growth in the past decade and is poised to make its contribution in creating advanced next-generation water treatment technologies in the years to come. Within the water treatment context, this review offers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of the latest progress in rational design, synthesis and applications of nanomaterials in adsorption, chemical oxidation and reduction reactions, membrane-based separation, oil-water separation, and synergistic multifunctional all-in-one nanomaterials/nanodevices. Special attention is paid to the chemical concepts related to nanomaterial design throughout the review.
Rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment
Li, Renyuan
2015-08-26
The ever-increasing human demand for safe and clean water is gradually pushing conventional water treatment technologies to their limits and it is now a popular perception that the solutions to the existing and future water challenges will highly hinge upon the further development of nanomaterial sciences. The concept of rational design emphasizes ‘design-for-purpose’ and it necessitates a scientifically clear problem definition to initiate the nanomaterial design. The field of rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment has experienced a significant growth in the past decade and is poised to make its contribution in creating advanced next-generation water treatment technologies in the years to come. Within the water treatment context, this review offers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of the latest progress of the rational design, synthesis and applications of nanomaterials in adsorption, chemical oxidation and reduction reactions, membrane-based separation, oil/water separation, and synergistic multifunctional all-in-one nanomaterials/nanodevices. Special attention is paid on chemical concepts of the nanomaterial designs throughout the review.
Rational suicide: philosophical perspectives on schizophrenia.
Hewitt, Jeanette
2010-02-01
Suicide prevention is a National Health Service priority in the United Kingdom. People with mental illness are seen to represent one of the most vulnerable groups for suicide and recent British Government policy has focused on prevention and management of perceived risk. This approach to suicide prevention is constructed under a biomedical model of psychiatry, which maintains that suicidal persons suffer from some form of disease or irrational drive towards self-destruction. Many react to the idea of self-inflicted death with instinctive revulsion, which has prevented serious discussion of the concept of rational suicide, particularly in relation to those with schizophrenia. The idea that there may be circumstances in which suicide can be viewed as rational is discussed within the biomedical approach to ethics and wider literature primarily in relation to physical disease, terminal states and chronic pain. It is not deemed a viable choice for those who are considered 'non-autonomous' due to the controlling forces of mental illness. I propose that suicide is not a consequence of mental illness per se, and that it may be seen as a rational response to a realistic perspective on the course and consequences of living with schizophrenia. The denial of dialogue about the validity of suicidal ideation for people with schizophrenia has led to negative consequences for people with serious mental illness in terms of justice and recognition of person-hood.
Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1985-1986 Progress (Annual) Report.
Bradford, C. Samuel
1987-04-01
This investigation tests the hypothesis that ration protein quality can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The general approach being used involves a comparison of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and commercial rations relying on commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of replicate brood-years of coded wire tagged test and control fish are being used to determine the influence of ration on survival. Project rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, and 1984-brood replicates of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984-brood replicates of fall chinook (tule stock salmon; and the 1985-brood of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. The 1985-brood year replicate of coho salmon is presently being reared and has been tagged for release in April 1987. The rearing of the 1986-brood replicate of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon has been initiated. This report covers the rearing and release of the 1984-brood coho and the 1985-brood fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. Plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T/sub 4/) level, gill Na/sup +//K/sup +/-ATPase, osmoregulatory performance, immunocompetency and total hepatic/gill microsomal lipid content were monitored from early June to mid-October 1986 to assess the physiological condition of fall chinook salmon. Results indicated that on several sampling dates early in the 1986 rearing period fish supplied the control ration were physiologically different than fish receiving the salmon meal ration. Incomplete recovery of coded wire tags from 1982 and 1983-broods of coho salmon (Sandy stock) revealed an improved (P greater than or equal to .05) survival for fish supplied test rations.
Should informed consent be based on rational beliefs?
Savulescu, J; Momeyer, R W
1997-01-01
Our aim is to expand the regulative ideal governing consent. We argue that consent should not only be informed but also based on rational beliefs. We argue that holding true beliefs promotes autonomy. Information is important insofar as it helps a person to hold the relevant true beliefs. But in order to hold the relevant true beliefs, competent people must also think rationally. Insofar as information is important, rational deliberation is important. Just as physicians should aim to provide relevant information regarding the medical procedures prior to patients consenting to have those procedures, they should also assist patients to think more rationally. We distinguish between rational choice/action and rational belief. While autonomous choice need not necessarily be rational, it should be based on rational belief. The implication for the doctrine of informed consent and the practice of medicine is that, if physicians are to respect patient autonomy and help patients to choose and act more rationally, not only must they provide information, but they should care more about the theoretical rationality of their patients. They should not abandon their patients to irrationality. They should help their patients to deliberate more effectively and to care more about thinking rationally. We illustrate these arguments in the context of Jehovah's Witnesses refusing life-saving blood transfusions. Insofar as Jehovah's Witnesses should be informed of the consequences of their actions, they should also deliberate rationally about these consequences. PMID:9358347
Coping More Effectively Through Rational Self-Counseling.
Rogers, George W., Jr.
1981-01-01
Rational Self-Counseling, a variation of rational-emotive therapy, is a self-help therapeutic technique in which students are encouraged to be responsible for their own behavior and emotions. The primary function of self-counseling is to evaluate whether thoughts are rational. A list of questions which students might ask themselves is presented.…
The Properties of Rational Modules and Coideal Subalgebras
张良云
2000-01-01
In this paper, we first prove that the dual module of a rational module is still, a rational module, and maximum rational modules keep their exact properties. Then, we give the Maschke theorem of the coideal subalgebra of quasi-Frobenius algebra, and give some equivalent conditions for the ideal subcoalgebra.
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Successes and Failures: Eight Personal Perspectives.
Weinrach, Stephen G.; Ellis, Albert; MacLaren, Catharine; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Vernon, Ann; Wolfe, Janet; Malkinson, Ruth; Backx, Wouter
2001-01-01
Eight experts in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) provide personal examples of their own successes and failures in applying REBT to themselves. The experts actively talked to themselves both rationally and irrationally. Rational self-talk was more prevalent in the examples of how REBT was successfully used by the experts. (GCP)
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Successes and Failures: Eight Personal Perspectives.
Weinrach, Stephen G.; Ellis, Albert; MacLaren, Catharine; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Vernon, Ann; Wolfe, Janet; Malkinson, Ruth; Backx, Wouter
2001-01-01
Eight experts in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) provide personal examples of their own successes and failures in applying REBT to themselves. The experts actively talked to themselves both rationally and irrationally. Rational self-talk was more prevalent in the examples of how REBT was successfully used by the experts. (GCP)
Dryden, Windy
2012-01-01
In this practical companion to the client manual, Windy Dryden draws on Rational-Emotive Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (RECBT) – a form of CBT that focuses on challenging and changing the irrational beliefs that largely determine emotional and behavioural issues – to encourage people to deal with their emotional problems.\\ud \\ud This Practitioner's Guide includes all of the information presented in the Client’s Guide with the addition of helpful hints and tips for the therapist, making it strai...
Managing manure from China's pigs and poultry: the influence of ecological rationality.
Zheng, Chaohui; Bluemling, Bettina; Liu, Yi; Mol, Arthur P J; Chen, Jining
2014-09-01
We have investigated manure management practices at three farm scales in Chinese pig and poultry production. The concept of ecological rationality was employed to explore empirically how environmental concerns drive adoption of environmental-friendly manure management technologies at different farm scales. The more developed Rudong County in Jiangsu Province and the less developed Zhongjiang County in Sichuan Province were chosen as cases for study of 258 animal breeders. On the contrary to our hypothesis, medium-scale farmers were not always found to be laggards in adoption of manure management technologies. Government ecological rationality played a key role to induce environmental-friendly technology adoption on its own, but also in cooperation with ecologically rational individual or network drivers. Authorities no longer applied their efforts in a conventional command-and-control way, but more in the form of incentives, stimulation, and information to farmers. Individual farmers in general showed low environmental responsibility in relation to manure handling.
The tools of rational product range support
A.I. Jakovlev
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the research is to improve the methodological approaches to support the rational range of products under today's market conditions. The results of the analysis. Planning and optimization of product mix does not lose its relevance under the current economic conditions. One of the most important tasks in planning is to determine the range of rational perspective to the enterprise product lines products. In this connection there is a need to expand the use of methodological approaches to support the range of products. Integrated application of methodological approaches for determining the rationality and balance the range of products increases the validity of economic decision-making in the field of marketing of the company by identifying the correlation between the profitability of product lines and their weight in the total production. Using the margin profit as a criterion for ranking groups of products with the construction of the Pareto chart allows for a more flexible product strategy, which under the current market conditions is a significant competitive advantage for the enterprise. The necessary conditions for the effective implementation of the proposals of the authors are the high level of consistency of the strategic, tactical and operational levels of management at the enterprise, as well as the analysis of the results of marketing research about customer satisfaction of product parameters. The using of Pareto charts and Spearman correlation coefficient provides increased sales volumes, increasing the target market share of the enterprise, improving the company's image, reducing the risk of marketing activities, increase the company's profit. The results of this study give the company an opportunity to identify deficiencies in a timely manner in the activities and to identify the main directions of improvement of management systems and production planning. Prospects of this study are to develop the
Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1986-1987 Progress (Annual) Report.
Bradford, C. Samuel
1987-12-01
The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and fitness of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, is subject to heat damage during drying and chemical interaction of fat oxidation products with proteins. Protein bioavailability is reduced and dietary stress may be introduced into hatchery feeds. This investigation tests the hypothesis that ration protein quality can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. Improved survival production would be better able to reestablish natural runs of salmon in the Columbia River system and maintain and improve the genetic integrity of specific stocks. The general approach being used involves a comparison of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and commercial rations relying on commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of replicate brood-years of coded wire tagged test and control fish are being used to determine the influence of ration on survival. Project rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985-broods of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984-broods of fall chinook (tule stock) salmon; and the 1985 and 1986-broods of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. This report covers the rearing and release of the 1985-brood coho and the 1986-brood fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon.
Monique Florenzano
2008-09-01
Full Text Available General equilibrium is a central concept of economic theory. Unlike partial equilibrium analysis which study the equilibrium of a particular market under the clause “ceteris paribus” that revenues and prices on the other markets stay approximately unaffected, the ambition of a general equilibrium model is to analyze the simultaneous equilibrium in all markets of a competitive economy. Definition of the abstract model, some of its basic results and insights are presented. The important issues of uniqueness and local uniqueness of equilibrium are sketched; they are the condition for a predictive power of the theory and its ability to allow for statics comparisons. Finally, we review the main extensions of the general equilibrium model. Besides the natural extensions to infinitely many commodities and to a continuum of agents, some examples show how economic theory can accommodate the main ideas in order to study some contexts which were not thought of by the initial model
RATIONAL CHOICE INSTITUTIONALISM AND THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY
Andreea Maha
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to highlight the main aspects regarding the rational choice theory in neo-institutionalism, and the role the EU Neighbourhood Policy has nowadays. The protagonist of the rational choice theory in the new institutionalism remains homo-economicus. The theory of rational choice institutionalism challenges the perfect rationality of the individual, rather than the principle of rational choice itself. ENP is a framework for consolidating the Union's relations with neighbouring countries and aims therefore intensifying cooperation with them in order to establish a zone of prosperity, good neighbourliness, stability and security.
What Information Theory Says about Bounded Rational Best Response
Wolpert, David H.
2005-01-01
Probability Collectives (PC) provides the information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to bounded rational games. Here an explicit solution to the equations giving the bounded rationality equilibrium of a game is presented. Then PC is used to investigate games in which the players use bounded rational best-response strategies. Next it is shown that in the continuum-time limit, bounded rational best response games result in a variant of the replicator dynamics of evolutionary game theory. It is then shown that for team (shared-payoff) games, this variant of replicator dynamics is identical to Newton-Raphson iterative optimization of the shared utility function.
[Ergonomics, hygiene and rationality: the "electric house" of Monza (1930)].
Colombo, A; Porro, A; Franchini, A F
2012-01-01
The "Electric House" of Monza is seen as one of the early example of rationalist architecture produced in Italy. Sponsored by the Italian Edison General Company for Electricity and produced by the Group 7, it was built for the "IV International Triennial Exhibition of Decorative and Modern Industry Arts", held in Monza in 1930. It was conceived as an environment in which the designers showed their interest towards new concepts of rationalist hygiene. Special care was taken to select the environments in relation to the surrounding nature and the needs of life of the house inhabitants: new materials more comfortable, hygienic and rational were inserted. In the kitchen, for example, the architect P. Bottoni, created a space in which the housewife's work was marked by lower energy expenditure, thanks to a careful study of the actions and movements according to the principles of taylorism, here applied to domestic work.
Interactions in multiagent systems fairness, social optimality and individual rationality
Hao, Jianye
2016-01-01
This book mainly aims at solving the problems in both cooperative and competitive multi-agent systems (MASs), exploring aspects such as how agents can effectively learn to achieve the shared optimal solution based on their local information and how they can learn to increase their individual utility by exploiting the weakness of their opponents. The book describes fundamental and advanced techniques of how multi-agent systems can be engineered towards the goal of ensuring fairness, social optimality, and individual rationality; a wide range of further relevant topics are also covered both theoretically and experimentally. The book will be beneficial to researchers in the fields of multi-agent systems, game theory and artificial intelligence in general, as well as practitioners developing practical multi-agent systems.
Rational design of functional and tunable oscillating enzymatic networks
Semenov, Sergey N.; Wong, Albert S. Y.; van der Made, R. Martijn; Postma, Sjoerd G. J.; Groen, Joost; van Roekel, Hendrik W. H.; de Greef, Tom F. A.; Huck, Wilhelm T. S.
2015-02-01
Life is sustained by complex systems operating far from equilibrium and consisting of a multitude of enzymatic reaction networks. The operating principles of biology's regulatory networks are known, but the in vitro assembly of out-of-equilibrium enzymatic reaction networks has proved challenging, limiting the development of synthetic systems showing autonomous behaviour. Here, we present a strategy for the rational design of programmable functional reaction networks that exhibit dynamic behaviour. We demonstrate that a network built around autoactivation and delayed negative feedback of the enzyme trypsin is capable of producing sustained oscillating concentrations of active trypsin for over 65 h. Other functions, such as amplification, analog-to-digital conversion and periodic control over equilibrium systems, are obtained by linking multiple network modules in microfluidic flow reactors. The methodology developed here provides a general framework to construct dissipative, tunable and robust (bio)chemical reaction networks.
Rational Design of Competitive Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Fuel Cells.
Stolbov, Sergey; Alcántara Ortigoza, Marisol
2012-02-16
The large-scale application of one of the most promising clean and renewable sources of energy, hydrogen fuel cells, still awaits efficient and cost-effective electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) occurring on the cathode. We demonstrate that truly rational design renders electrocatalysts possessing both qualities. By unifying the knowledge on surface morphology, composition, electronic structure, and reactivity, we solve that trimetallic sandwich-like structures are an excellent choice for optimization. Their constituting species are expected to couple synergistically yielding reaction-environment stability, cost-effectiveness, and tunable reactivity. This cooperative-action concept enabled us to predict two advantageous ORR electrocatalysts: Pd/Fe/W(110) and Au/Ru/W(110). Density functional theory calculations of the reaction free-energy diagrams suggest that these materials are more active toward ORR than the so-far best Pt-based catalysts. Our designing concept advances also a general approach for engineering advanced materials.
Magnitude comparison with different types of rational numbers.
DeWolf, Melissa; Grounds, Margaret A; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J
2014-02-01
An important issue in understanding mathematical cognition involves the similarities and differences between the magnitude representations associated with various types of rational numbers. For single-digit integers, evidence indicates that magnitudes are represented as analog values on a mental number line, such that magnitude comparisons are made more quickly and accurately as the numerical distance between numbers increases (the distance effect). Evidence concerning a distance effect for compositional numbers (e.g., multidigit whole numbers, fractions and decimals) is mixed. We compared the patterns of response times and errors for college students in magnitude comparison tasks across closely matched sets of rational numbers (e.g., 22/37, 0.595, 595). In Experiment 1, a distance effect was found for both fractions and decimals, but response times were dramatically slower for fractions than for decimals. Experiments 2 and 3 compared performance across fractions, decimals, and 3-digit integers. Response patterns for decimals and integers were extremely similar but, as in Experiment 1, magnitude comparisons based on fractions were dramatically slower, even when the decimals varied in precision (i.e., number of place digits) and could not be compared in the same way as multidigit integers (Experiment 3). Our findings indicate that comparisons of all three types of numbers exhibit a distance effect, but that processing often involves strategic focus on components of numbers. Fractions impose an especially high processing burden due to their bipartite (a/b) structure. In contrast to the other number types, the magnitude values associated with fractions appear to be less precise, and more dependent on explicit calculation.