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Sample records for ratio values obtained

  1. Heritability estimates for different Kleiber ratios obtained from growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Kleiber ratio is a measurement for efficiency, independent of body size ... Data included the following performance traits: birth mass, 100-day-, 205-day-, .... classes of stock, were used in the development of this simula- tion program.

  2. Obtaining reliable likelihood ratio tests from simulated likelihood functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    2014-01-01

    Mixed models: Models allowing for continuous heterogeneity by assuming that value of one or more parameters follow a specified distribution have become increasingly popular. This is known as ‘mixing’ parameters, and it is standard practice by researchers - and the default option in many statistic...

  3. Remarks on the low value obtained for the Hubble constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaakkola, Toivo

    1975-01-01

    Some remarks are made on the basis of the data given by Sandage and Tamman, suggesting that these authors have over-estimated the distances to the most luminous galaxies and obtained a value too low for the Hubble constant [fr

  4. New space value of the solar oblateness obtained with PICARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irbah, Abdanour; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain; Bocquier, Maxime; Cisse, E. Momar [Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS), CNRS: UMR 8190-Université Paris VI-Pierre et Marie Curie-Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines-INSU, F-78280, Guyancourt (France); Djafer, Djelloul [Unité de Recherche Appliquée en Energies Renouvelables, URAER, Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables, CDER, 47133, Ghardaïa (Algeria); Corbard, Thierry, E-mail: Abdenour.Irbah@latmos.ipsl.fr [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, Bd. de l' Observatoire, F-06304 Nice (France)

    2014-04-20

    The PICARD spacecraft was launched on 2010 June 15 with the scientific objective of studying the geometry of the Sun. It is difficult to measure solar oblateness because images are affected by optical distortion. Rolling the satellite, as done in previous space missions, determines the contribution of the telescope by assuming that the geometry of the Sun is constant during the observations. The optical response of the telescope is considered to be time-invariant during the roll operations. This is not the case for PICARD because an orbital signature is clearly observed in the solar radius computed from its images. We take this effect into account and provide the new space value of solar oblateness from PICARD images recorded in the solar continuum at 535.7 nm on 2011 July 4-5. The equator-pole radius difference is 8.4 ± 0.5 mas, which corresponds to an absolute radius difference of 6.1 km. This coincides with the mean value of all solar oblateness measurements obtained during the last two decades from the ground, balloons, and space. It is also consistent with values determined from models using helioseismology data.

  5. Clinical value of renal images obtained incidentally to bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Y.; Machida, T.; Miki, M.; Kido, A.; Tanaka, A.

    1982-01-01

    Various studies were made on 400 renal (including 325 clinical cases) observed during whole-body bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-MDP. Asymmetrical renal images in bone scintigrams were obtained from 40% of the urologic patients and 7.5% of the nonurologic patients. Out of the asymmetrical images of the urologic patients, 50% provided nonvisualized kidneys and 35% showed unilateral renal high accumulation. It can be said from the above that renal images incidentally obtained during whole-body bone scintigraphy should not be overlooked

  6. The value of tax shields with a fixed book-value leverage ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    The value of tax shields depends only on the nature of the stochastic process of the net increases of debt. The value of tax shields in a world with no leverage cost is the tax rate times the current debt plus the present value of the net increases of debt. We develop valuation formulae for a company that maintains a fixed book-value leverage ratio and show that it is more realistic than to assume, as Miles-Ezzell (1980) do, a fixed market-value leverage ratio. We also show that Miles-Ezzell ...

  7. Net Stable Funding Ratio: Impact on Funding Value Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Siadat, Medya; Hammarlid, Ola

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between Funding Value Adjustment (FVA) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR). FVA is defined in a consistent way with NSFR such that the new framework of FVA monitors the costs due to keeping NSFR at an acceptable level, as well. In addition, the problem of choosing the optimal funding strategy is formulated as a shortest path problem where the proposed FVA framework is applied in the optimization process. The solution provides us with the optimal f...

  8. The metallic ratios as limits of complex valued transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcon, Sergio; Plaza, Angel

    2009-01-01

    We study the presence of the metallic ratios as limits of two complex valued transformations. These complex variable functions are introduced and related with the two geometric antecedents for each triangle in a particular triangle partition, the four-triangle longest-edge (4TLE) partition. In this way, the fractality of a geometric diagram for the classes of dissimilar generated triangles is also explained.

  9. Obtaining uranium and/or vanadium values from solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojkovic, M

    1982-04-22

    A process for the recovery of at least one of uranium and vanadium from an aqueous liquor is claimed. It comprises: (a) treating the liquor with a low molecular weight completely water-miscible solvent selected from the group consisting of methanol, iso-propyl alcohol or acetone to form at least two phases; (b) separating the phases; (c) recovering the solvent from the first phase as the azeotropic solvent/water mixture by simple, non-fractional distillation and recycling the mixture to step (a); and (d) recovering metal values from a second one of the phases.

  10. Diagnostic value of sectional images obtained by emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roucayrol, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    It is now possible to obtain clear images of the various planes in and around a structure with ultra-sounds (echotomography), X-rays (computerized tomography) and recently, gamma-rays from radioactive substances (emission tomography). Axial transverse tomography, which is described here, is to conventional scintigraphy what CT scan is to radiography. It provides images of any structure capable of concentrating sufficiently a radioactive substance administered intravenously. These images are perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body. As shown by examples in the liver, lungs and myocardium, lesions which had passed unnoticed with other exploratory techniques can now be demonstrated, and the location, shape and extension of known lesions can be more accurately assessed. Emission tomography already has its place in modern diagnostic procedures side by side with echotomography and CT scan [fr

  11. Value for money: Defining and measuring 'value' in MoD's acquisition policy of obtaining best value for money

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, A.

    2006-01-01

    Obtaining value for money is a keystone of UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) acquisition strategy embedded in its Smart Acquisition policy. This thesis examines how best to measure the relative value of competing tender submissions for major projects. There is a comprehensive discussion of a wide range of relevant definitions and over three dozen documents are scrutinised including just some sixteen published by the Government. Commercially available models, algorithms and software are examined as...

  12. Reserves to production ratios and present value relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayhow, I. G.; Lemee, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that reserves to production ratio, R/P, which optimizes development and maximizes present value, can be estimated using an equation containing the four variables of well initial production; rate, well costs, netback prices and discount rate. A sensitivity analysis of the optimization equation indicates that well costs and well productivity have the most influence on the optimum R/P. Improvements in technology beneficially affect well productivity and reduce costs, hence reducing capital requirements and producing an economic incentive to produce at low R/Ps. The influence of gas prices is considered less significant, but the expected increases in gas prices in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin will also act an an incentive to produce at low R/Ps. Recent gas discoveries in the Basin have been single well pools with high productivity and limited areal extent, which produce at low R/Ps. Continuation of this trend will cause further decrease in R/Ps. While this study assumed maximizing present value as the most likely objective, it is possible that regulators and producers have other objectives. It would be reasonable to expect that these alternative objectives will also favour producing at high rates and at low R/Ps. 2 tabs., 13 figs

  13. Standardized Uptake Value Ratio-Independent Evaluation of Brain Amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chincarini, Andrea; Sensi, Francesco; Rei, Luca; Bossert, Irene; Morbelli, Silvia; Guerra, Ugo Paolo; Frisoni, Giovanni; Padovani, Alessandro; Nobili, Flavio

    2016-10-18

    The assessment of in vivo18F images targeting amyloid deposition is currently carried on by visual rating with an optional quantification based on standardized uptake value ratio (SUVr) measurements. We target the difficulties of image reading and possible shortcomings of the SUVr methods by validating a new semi-quantitative approach named ELBA. ELBA involves a minimal image preprocessing and does not rely on small, specific regions of interest (ROIs). It evaluates the whole brain and delivers a geometrical/intensity score to be used for ranking and dichotomic assessment. The method was applied to adniimages 18F-florbetapir images from the ADNI database. Five expert readers provided visual assessment in blind and open sessions. The longitudinal trend and the comparison to SUVr measurements were also evaluated. ELBA performed with area under the roc curve (AUC) = 0.997 versus the visual assessment. The score was significantly correlated to the SUVr values (r = 0.86, p analysis estimated a test/retest error of ≃2.3%. Cohort and longitudinal analysis suggests that the ELBA method accurately ranks the brain amyloid burden. The expert readers confirmed its relevance in aiding the visual assessment in a significant number (85) of difficult cases. Despite the good performance, poor and uneven image quality constitutes the major limitation.

  14. The adenoid-nasopharynx ratio. Its clinical value in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Mingshun

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of adenoid-nasopharynx ratio (A/N ratio) measured on nasopharyngeal lateral plain film, 106 clinical cases of secretory otitis media were selected to measure the A/N ratio before treatment. For patients with A/N ratio of 0.50-0.70, the symptoms improved distinctly after conservative treatment, but one half of patients with A/N ratio ≥ 0.71 required adenoidectomy. A/N ratio is a practical and convenient method for evaluation of the adenoid. A/N ratio ≥ 0.71 indicates pathological enlarged adenoid

  15. Geochemical porosity values obtained in core samples from different clay-rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    . The Cl porosity is lower than the total physical porosity, because clays have different types of water (interlayer water, adsorbed water and free water), and ions can be affected by anionic exclusion processes. The geochemical porosity includes only the free water and some of the diffuse layer and surface-sorbed water; while the total physical porosity includes both the external and interlayer water. In order to calculate the Cl or geochemical porosity (n cl ), a relationship was used, which relates leaching data and the chloride content of the pore water extracted by the squeezing technique. Aqueous leaching tests were performed at anoxic conditions in order to obtain the chloride inventory in different core samples from each argillaceous formation. Besides, the chemical composition of the pore water was obtained by squeezing at high pressures. Taking into account the measured physical properties of the rock samples, such as water content, dry density, total porosity and degree of saturation; the geochemical porosity was calculated by using the above relationship. For Boom Clay core samples, the mean Cl porosity/water loss porosity ratio is 0.81. In the case of Opalinus Clay, the mean Cl porosity/water loss porosity ratio is 0.59. In Mont Terri core samples, this ratio ranges from 0.5 to 0.7, although a value of 0.55 is frequently used. As conclusion, for indurated mud-rock formations (Callovo-Oxfordian and Opalinus Clay), the mean geochemical porosity obtained was around 8-10 %vol. (0.5-0.6 porosity ratio), whereas in the plastic Boom Clay the geochemical porosity was around 29 %vol. (0.8 porosity ratio)

  16. Athletes and Sedentary Individuals: An Intergroup Comparison Utilizing a Pulmonary Function Ratio Obtained During Submaximal Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maud, Peter J.

    A pulmonary function ratio describing oxygen extraction from alveolar ventilation was used for an intergroup comparison between three groups of athletes (rugby, basketball, and football players) and one group of sedentary subjects during steady-state submaximal exercise. The ratio and its component parts are determined from only three gas…

  17. Confidence limits for regional cerebral blood flow values obtained with circular positron system, using krypton-77

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, E.; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Thompson, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    The 90% confidence limits have been determined for regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) values obtained in each cm 2 of a cross section of the human head after inhalation of radioactive krypton-77, using the MNI circular positron emission tomography system (Positome). CBF values for small brain tissue elements are calculated by linear regression analysis on the semi-logarithmically transformed clearance curve. A computer program displays CBF values and their estimated error in numeric and gray scale forms. The following typical results have been obtained on a control subject: mean CBF in the entire cross section of the head: 54.6 + - 5 ml/min/100 g tissue, rCBF for small area of frontal gray matter: 75.8 + - 9 ml/min/100 g tissue. Confidence intervals for individual rCBF values varied between + - 13 and + - 55% except for areas pertaining to the ventricular system where particularly poor statistics have been obtained. Knowledge of confidence limits for rCBF values improves their diagnostic significance, particularly with respect to the assessment of reduced rCBF in stroke patients. A nomogram for convenient determination of 90% confidence limits for slope values obtained in linear regression analysis has been designed with the number of fitted points (n) and the correlation coefficient (r) as parameters. (author)

  18. A new look on anomalous thermal gradient values obtained in South Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, M. R.; Malico, I.

    2012-04-01

    A NEW LOOK ON THE ANOMALOUS THERMAL GRADIENT VALUES OBTAINED IN SOUTH PORTUGAL Duque, M. R. and Malico, I. M. Physics Department, University of Évora, Rua Romão Ramalho, 59,7000-671, Évora, Portugal It is well known that soil temperatures can be altered by water circulation. In this paper, we study numerically this effect by simulating some aquifers occurring in South Portugal. At this location, the thermal gradient values obtained in boreholes with depths less than 200 m, range between 22 and 30 °C km-1. However, there, it is easy to find places where temperatures are around 30 °C, at depths of 100 m. The obtained thermal gradient values show an increase one day after raining and a decrease during the dry season. Additionally, the curve of temperature as function of depth showed no hot water inlet in the hole. The region studied shows a smooth topography due to intensive erosion, but it was affected by alpine and hercinian orogenies. As a result, a high topography in depth, with folds and wrinkles is present. The space between adjacent folds is now filled by small sedimentary basins. Aquifers existing in this region can reach considerable depths and return to depths near the surface, but hot springs in the area are scarce. Water temperature rises in depth, and when the speed is high enough high temperatures near the surface, due to water circulation, can be found. The ability of the fluid to flow through the system depends on topography relief, rock permeability and basal heat flow. In this study, the steady-state fluid flow and heat transfer by conduction and advection are modeled. Fractures in the medium are simulated by an equivalent porous medium saturated with liquid. Thermal conductivity values for the water and the rocks can vary in space .Porosities used have high values in the region of the aquifer, low values in the lower region of the model and intermediate values in the upper regions. The results obtained show that temperature anomaly values

  19. Comparing the rankings obtained from two biodiversity indices: the Fair Proportion Index and the Shapley Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, Kristina; Fischer, Mareike

    2017-10-07

    The Shapley Value and the Fair Proportion Index of phylogenetic trees have been frequently discussed as prioritization tools in conservation biology. Both indices rank species according to their contribution to total phylogenetic diversity, allowing for a simple conservation criterion. While both indices have their specific advantages and drawbacks, it has recently been shown that both values are closely related. However, as different authors use different definitions of the Shapley Value, the specific degree of relatedness depends on the specific version of the Shapley Value - it ranges from a high correlation index to equality of the indices. In this note, we first give an overview of the different indices. Then we turn our attention to the mere ranking order provided by either of the indices. We compare the rankings obtained from different versions of the Shapley Value for a phylogenetic tree of European amphibians and illustrate their differences. We then undertake further analyses on simulated data and show that even though the chance of two rankings being exactly identical (when obtained from different versions of the Shapley Value) decreases with an increasing number of taxa, the distance between the two rankings converges to zero, i.e., the rankings are becoming more and more alike. Moreover, we introduce our freely available software package FairShapley, which was implemented in Perl and with which all calculations have been performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Left ventricle ejection fraction obtained by radioisotopic angiocardiography. Correlation between the values of the conventional ventriclegraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascer, E.; Pimentel Filho, W.A.; Martins, L.R.F.; Marioni Filho, H.; Queiroga Filho, A.F.; Alonso, G.; Germek, O.A.; Thom, A.F.; Souza, J.E.M.R.

    1983-01-01

    Forty-two patients with clinical signs of coronary insuficiency underwent cineangiographic and radioisotopic examinations with the purpose of analysing the correlation between the values of left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) obtained by both methods. The values of EF obtained by the hemodynamic method (HEMO) ranged from 0.14 to 0.85 (x-bar = 0.566) and by radioisotopic method (RM) from 0.22 to 0.89 (x-bar = 0.573). The Student T test did not demonstrate statistically significant differences between the two methods (mean of differences = 0.007; t = 0.38 and p ≥ 0.353). A regression equation was obtained in order to estimate the EF by HEMO deriving from results obtained by RM (y = 0.11 + 0.80x) and to estimate the EF through RN from the results obtained by HEMO (x = 0.08 + 0.86y), where y = hemodynamic method and x = radioisotopic method. The authors conclude that the calculation of the EF by the methods used showed a good correlation and that this fact is evidenced by the elevated Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.833). (author) [pt

  1. Prognostic value of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in patients with acute pulmonary embolism: a restrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayrak, Mehmet; Erdoğan, Halil Ibrahim; Solak, Yalcin; Akilli, Hakan; Gül, Enes Elvin; Yildirim, Oğuzhan; Erer, Murat; Akilli, Nezire Belgin; Bekci, Taha Tahir; Aribaş, Alpay; Yazici, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious clinical condition characterised by a high mortality rate. Previous studies showed that leukocytosis was associated with recurrences of venous thromboemboli, major bleeding and increased mortality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients with acute PE during short term follow-up. A total of 640 patients were screened by I26 code of ICD-9 and 359 patients were included as cases of confirmed acute PE. Admission blood counts and clinical data were obtained from medical charts. The predictors of 30-day mortality were examined. Fifty-one out of 359 patients (14.2%) included in the study died during 30 days follow-up. In multivariate Cox regression analysis systolic blood pressure (HR:0.97 (0.94-0.99 CI95%), p=0.019), diabetes mellitus (HR:3.3 (1.30-8.39 CI95%), p=0.012), CK-MB(HR:1.03 (1.01-1.06 CI95%), p=0.024) and NLR (HR:1.03 (1.01-1.06 CI95%), p=0.008) were predictors of 30-day mortality. An optimal cut-off value of NLR was determined as 9.2 by using ROC curve. Hazards ratio of NLR>9.2 was found to be 3.60 (1.44-9.18 CI95%, p=0.006). NLR>9.2 had a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of 68.6%, 80.5%, 93.9% and 36.5%, respectively. NLR on hospital admission may be a predictor of 30-day mortality in acute PE. Since complete blood count is a part of the routine laboratory investigation in the most hospitalised patients use and preliminary promising results of this study, NLR should be investigated in future prospective randomised trials regarding prognostic value in acute PE. Copyright © 2013 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The prognostic value of lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio in retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xiang Hu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the associations between development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and serum lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed, involving infants who were screened for ROP from January 2015 to December 2015. Preterm newborns of ≤32 gestational weeks with ROP were enrolled as the observation group, and non-ROP infants were enrolled as the control group, whose complete blood cell were measured within the first 24h of life. The levels of NLR, LMR and PLR were determined in all groups. The data obtained were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: In this study, 40 cases of ROP were enrolled and 40 cases of non-ROP as controls. The LMR levels were significantly higher (P<0.001 in ROP group (3.96±1.16 compared to non-ROP group (2.85±0.79. The NLR levels were significantly lower (P=0.035 in ROP group {median [interquartile range (IQR], 0.88 (0.67-1.46} compared to non-ROP group [median (IQR, 1.20 (0.85-1.89]. The median PLR values were 61.99 (IQR, 50.23-75.98 in ROP group and 69.24 (IQR, 55.52-88.12 in non-ROP group (P=0.104. Logistic regression analysis suggested that LMR was an independent risk factor for ROP (OR: 0.275; 95% CI: 0.134-0.564; P=0.001. CONCLUSION: The findings demonstrate that higher LMR is independently and significantly associated with the development of ROP, and the LMR may be invoked as a predictive tool for identifying risk for ROP.

  3. Critical Values for Lawshe's Content Validity Ratio: Revisiting the Original Methods of Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayre, Colin; Scally, Andrew John

    2014-01-01

    The content validity ratio originally proposed by Lawshe is widely used to quantify content validity and yet methods used to calculate the original critical values were never reported. Methods for original calculation of critical values are suggested along with tables of exact binomial probabilities.

  4. Remote measurement of water color in coastal waters. [spectral radiance data used to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop procedure to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity in coastal waters by observing the changes in spectral radiance of the backscattered spectrum. The technique under consideration consists of Examining Exotech model 20-D spectral radiometer data and determining which radiance ratios best correlated with chlorophyll and turbidity measurements as obtained from analyses of water samples and sechi visibility readings. Preliminary results indicate that there is a correlation between backscattered light and chlorophyll concentration and secchi visibility. The tests were conducted with the spectrometer mounted in a light aircraft over the Mississippi Sound at altitudes of 2.5K, 2.8K and 10K feet.

  5. Obtaining Approximate Values of Exterior Orientation Elements of Multi-Intersection Images Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Li, S. W.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, an efficient global optimization algorithm in the field of artificial intelligence, named Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), is introduced into close range photogrammetric data processing. PSO can be applied to obtain the approximate values of exterior orientation elements under the condition that multi-intersection photography and a small portable plane control frame are used. PSO, put forward by an American social psychologist J. Kennedy and an electrical engineer R.C. Eberhart, is a stochastic global optimization method based on swarm intelligence, which was inspired by social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling. The strategy of obtaining the approximate values of exterior orientation elements using PSO is as follows: in terms of image coordinate observed values and space coordinates of few control points, the equations of calculating the image coordinate residual errors can be given. The sum of absolute value of each image coordinate is minimized to be the objective function. The difference between image coordinate observed value and the image coordinate computed through collinear condition equation is defined as the image coordinate residual error. Firstly a gross area of exterior orientation elements is given, and then the adjustment of other parameters is made to get the particles fly in the gross area. After iterative computation for certain times, the satisfied approximate values of exterior orientation elements are obtained. By doing so, the procedures like positioning and measuring space control points in close range photogrammetry can be avoided. Obviously, this method can improve the surveying efficiency greatly and at the same time can decrease the surveying cost. And during such a process, only one small portable control frame with a couple of control points is employed, and there are no strict requirements for the space distribution of control points. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, two experiments are

  6. OBTAINING APPROXIMATE VALUES OF EXTERIOR ORIENTATION ELEMENTS OF MULTI-INTERSECTION IMAGES USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an efficient global optimization algorithm in the field of artificial intelligence, named Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, is introduced into close range photogrammetric data processing. PSO can be applied to obtain the approximate values of exterior orientation elements under the condition that multi-intersection photography and a small portable plane control frame are used. PSO, put forward by an American social psychologist J. Kennedy and an electrical engineer R.C. Eberhart, is a stochastic global optimization method based on swarm intelligence, which was inspired by social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling. The strategy of obtaining the approximate values of exterior orientation elements using PSO is as follows: in terms of image coordinate observed values and space coordinates of few control points, the equations of calculating the image coordinate residual errors can be given. The sum of absolute value of each image coordinate is minimized to be the objective function. The difference between image coordinate observed value and the image coordinate computed through collinear condition equation is defined as the image coordinate residual error. Firstly a gross area of exterior orientation elements is given, and then the adjustment of other parameters is made to get the particles fly in the gross area. After iterative computation for certain times, the satisfied approximate values of exterior orientation elements are obtained. By doing so, the procedures like positioning and measuring space control points in close range photogrammetry can be avoided. Obviously, this method can improve the surveying efficiency greatly and at the same time can decrease the surveying cost. And during such a process, only one small portable control frame with a couple of control points is employed, and there are no strict requirements for the space distribution of control points. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm

  7. Obtaining S values for rectangular--solid tumors inside rectangular--solid host organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinchcomb, T.G.; Durham, J.S.; Fisher, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    A method is described for obtaining S values between a tumor and its host organ for use with the MIRD formalism. It applies the point-source specific absorbed fractions for an infinite water medium, tabulated by Berger, to a rectangular solid of arbitrary dimensions which contains a rectangular tumor of arbitrary dimensions. Contributions from pairs of source and target volume elements are summed for the S values between the tumor and itself, between the remaining healthy host organ and itself, and between the tumor and the remaining healthy host organ, with the reciprocity theorem assumed for the last. This method labeled MTUMOR, is interfaced with the widely used MIRDOSE program which incorporates the MIRD formalism. An example is calculated

  8. 41 CFR 102-75.305 - What type of appraisal value must be obtained for real property disposal transactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... either the fair market value or the fair annual rental value of the property available for disposal. ... value must be obtained for real property disposal transactions? 102-75.305 Section 102-75.305 Public...-75.305 What type of appraisal value must be obtained for real property disposal transactions? For all...

  9. Copper tin sulfide (CTS) absorber thin films obtained by co-evaporation: Influence of the ratio Cu/Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, V., E-mail: victor.robles@ciemat.es; Trigo, J.F.; Guillén, C.; Herrero, J.

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Copper tin sulfide (CTS) thin films were grown by co-evaporation at different Cu/Sn atomic ratios. • Smooth Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} layers with large grains are obtained at Cu/Sn ⩾ 1.5 and T ⩾ 350 °C. • At 450 °C, the cubic Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} phase changes to tetragonal phase. • Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} presents suitable optical and electrical properties for use as photovoltaic absorbers. - Abstract: Copper tin sulfide thin films have been grown on soda-lime glass substrates from the elemental constituents by co-evaporation. The synthesis was performed at substrate temperatures of 350 °C and 450 °C and different Cu/Sn ratios, adjusting the deposition time in order to obtain thicknesses above 1000 nm. The evolution of the morphological, structural, chemical, optical and electrical properties has been analyzed as a function of the substrate temperature and the Cu/Sn ratio. For the samples with Cu/Sn ⩽ 1, Cu{sub 2}Sn{sub 3}S{sub 7} and Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} have been observed by XRD. Increasing the Cu/Sn to 1.5, the Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} phase was the majority, being the formation completed at Cu/Sn ratio around 2. The increment of the substrate temperature leads to a change of cubic structure to tetragonal of the Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} phase. The chemical treatment with KCN was effective to eliminate CuS excess detected in the samples with Cu/Sn > 2.2. The samples with Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} structure show a band gap energy increasing from 0.9 to 1.25 eV and an electrical resistivity decreasing from 7 ∗ 10{sup −2} Ω cm to 3 ∗ 10{sup −3} Ω cm when the Cu/Sn atomic ratio increases from 1.5 to 2.2.

  10. Detecting and monitoring water stress states in maize crops using spectral ratios obtained in the photosynthetic domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.; Van Leeuwen, Spencer R.

    2017-07-01

    The reliable detection and monitoring of changes in the water status of crops composed of plants like maize, a highly adaptable C4 species in large demand for both food and biofuel production, are longstanding remote sensing goals. Existing procedures employed to achieve these goals rely predominantly on the spectral signatures of plant leaves in the infrared domain where the light absorption within the foliar tissues is dominated by water. It has been suggested that such procedures could be implemented using subsurface reflectance to transmittance ratios obtained in the visible (photosynthetic) domain with the assistance of polarization devices. However, the experiments leading to this proposition were performed on detached maize leaves, which were not influenced by the whole (living) plant's adaptation mechanisms to water stress. In this work, we employ predictive simulations of light-leaf interactions in the photosynthetic domain to demonstrate that the living specimens' physiological responses to dehydration stress should be taken into account in this context. Our findings also indicate that a reflectance to transmittance ratio obtained in the photosynthetic domain at a lower angle of incidence without the use of polarization devices may represent a cost-effective alternative for the assessment of water stress states in maize crops.

  11. Normal values of urine total protein- and albumin-to-creatinine ratios in term newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hamel, Chahrazed; Chianea, Thierry; Thon, Séverine; Lepichoux, Anne; Yardin, Catherine; Guigonis, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    It is important to have an accurate assessment of urinary protein when glomerulopathy or kidney injury is suspected. Currently available normal values for the neonate population have limited value, in part because they are based on small populations and obsolete creatinine assays. We have performed a prospective study with the aim to update the normal upper values of the urinary total protein-to-creatinine and albumin-to-creatinine ratios in term newborns. Urine samples were collected from 277 healthy, full-term newborns within the first 48 hours (D0-1) and between 72 and 120 h of life (D3-4). Total protein, albumin, creatinine and osmolality were measured and the upper limit of normal (upper-limit) values determined. At D0-1 and D3-4, the upper-limit values for the total protein-to-creatinine ratio were 1431 and 1205 mg/g (162 and 136 g/mol) and those for the albumin-to-creatinine ratio were 746 and 301 mg/g (84 and 34 g/mol), respectively. The upper-limit values were significantly higher at D0-1 than at D3-4 only for the albumin-to-creatinine ratio. This study determined the upper limit of normal values for urinary total protein-to-creatinine and albumin-to-creatinine ratios in the largest population of newborns studied to date. These values can therefore be considered as the most clinically relevant data currently available for the detection and diagnosis of glomerular injury in daily clinical practice in this population.

  12. Estimating the ratios of the stationary distribution values for Markov chains modeling evolutionary algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitavskiy, Boris; Cannings, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The evolutionary algorithm stochastic process is well-known to be Markovian. These have been under investigation in much of the theoretical evolutionary computing research. When the mutation rate is positive, the Markov chain modeling of an evolutionary algorithm is irreducible and, therefore, has a unique stationary distribution. Rather little is known about the stationary distribution. In fact, the only quantitative facts established so far tell us that the stationary distributions of Markov chains modeling evolutionary algorithms concentrate on uniform populations (i.e., those populations consisting of a repeated copy of the same individual). At the same time, knowing the stationary distribution may provide some information about the expected time it takes for the algorithm to reach a certain solution, assessment of the biases due to recombination and selection, and is of importance in population genetics to assess what is called a "genetic load" (see the introduction for more details). In the recent joint works of the first author, some bounds have been established on the rates at which the stationary distribution concentrates on the uniform populations. The primary tool used in these papers is the "quotient construction" method. It turns out that the quotient construction method can be exploited to derive much more informative bounds on ratios of the stationary distribution values of various subsets of the state space. In fact, some of the bounds obtained in the current work are expressed in terms of the parameters involved in all the three main stages of an evolutionary algorithm: namely, selection, recombination, and mutation.

  13. The aesthetic value of the golden ratio and rhythm of the photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Budimir

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the aesthetic value of rhythm of the photos as opposed to the form in which the rhythm is subjected. With the method of experimental aesthetics, the visual aesthetics experiment is conducted in which the tested quality of the different forms of proportional rhythm due to the shape and length of the interval as a part of the rhythmic matrix. The experimental part consisted of an assessment of visual quality of the 5 photos containing different variations of proportional rate. On all the photographs the rhythm is constituted of cigarettes situated on the surface of the old concrete. Spacing between cigarettes and interval length is successively reduced to accurately defined proportions. In one photograph, the relations between the neighboring intervals are in line with the ratio of the golden section. The experiment involved 32 subjects who had the task of assessing the level of the aesthetic qualities of rhythm on the Likert scale from 1 to 5 where the grades cannot be repeated. Measurement of the quality of a particular form of rhythm is defined as the arithmetic mean score of all respondents. The highest mean is given to the test image with uniform rhythm when the second place is reserved for a photograph whose rhythm is aligned with the golden section. Conducted analysis of repeated measures ANOVA showed that the obtained arithmetic means differ significantly (F = 3.430, p = 0.011 with a significance level of p 0.05.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF THE POSSIBILITY OF OBTAINING DRY BASES FROM PROCESSED FISH PRODUCTS OF LITTLE VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Dvoryaninova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Competitive advantages of this direction of researches are in justification of actions and offers on a technical provision of production of a dry fish basis from meat- and bone residue of pond fishes that will allow to produce fast foods of high quality and biological value (broths, soups, sauces, to expand the assortment taking into account market demand, to introduce the new forms of food convenient in storage and use at home and outside as well as for special food. The first courses on dry fish broth are easily digestible, with the high contents of micro and macro elements in the quantity of them they surpass meat broths. Their other advantage is the content of the polynonsaturated fatty acids neutralizing negative impact of substances, destroying tendons, ligaments and cartilage in the human body, thereby eliminating joint pains that is especially important for the determined groups of the population, for example, the military personnel, sportsmen, etc. In addition, this technology includes sparing modes of processing of raw materials, keeping thereby native properties of useful substances (protein, fat as much as possible. Researches on selection of an optimum ratio of the heads and the bones providing high organoleptic rates of broths on their basis were carried out to produce dry fish bases. Conditions and parameters of convective drying of little value products of cutting of silver carp and cod are determined. The results allow to draw a preliminary conclusion on the possibility of creation a new technology of powdery products for broths fast preparation. The developed technology is of great importance in the creation of waste-free and low-waste production at the enterprises of fishery industry of the Russian Federation.

  15. M1-E2 mixing ratios and B(E2) values for transitions in 131Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay Sai, K.; Deepa, S.; Ashish, T.; Venkataramaniah, K.; Madhusudan, K.

    2012-01-01

    The accuracies of M1-E2 mixing ratios calculated from the experimental conversion coefficients α i depend upon the accuracy with which the conversion coefficients are determined and also on the accuracy of the theoretical values. Recently a new calculation of ICCs by Band et al, BRICC has been published. The calculations are based on the relativistic DF method in which the exchange interactions between bound electrons and free electrons receding to infinity during the conversion process are treated exactly. Gerl et al showed that BRICC values are more closer to experimental values when compared to earlier theoretical values of Hager and Seltzer and Rosel. The availability of the BRICC values is expected to increase the accuracy with which the estimated quadrupole contents can be obtained

  16. Predictive value of C-reactive protein/albumin ratio in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Mustafa; Ates, Ihsan; Akpinar, Muhammed Yener; Yuksel, Mahmut; Kuzu, Ufuk Baris; Kacar, Sabite; Coskun, Orhan; Kayacetin, Ertugrul

    2017-08-15

    Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) increases and albumin decreases in patients with inflammation and infection. However, their role in patients with acute pancreatitis is not clear. The present study was to investigate the predictive significance of the CRP/albumin ratio for the prognosis and mortality in acute pancreatitis patients. This study was performed retrospectively with 192 acute pancreatitis patients between January 2002 and June 2015. Ranson scores, Atlanta classification and CRP/albumin ratios of the patients were calculated. The CRP/albumin ratio was higher in deceased patients compared to survivors. The CRP/albumin ratio was positively correlated with Ranson score and Atlanta classification in particular and with important prognostic markers such as hospitalization time, CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. In addition to the CRP/albumin ratio, necrotizing pancreatitis type, moderately severe and severe Atlanta classification, and total Ranson score were independent risk factors of mortality. It was found that an increase of 1 unit in the CRP/albumin ratio resulted in an increase of 1.52 times in mortality risk. A prediction value about CRP/albumin ratio >16.28 was found to be a significant marker in predicting mortality with 92.1% sensitivity and 58.0% specificity. It was seen that Ranson and Atlanta classification were higher in patients with CRP/albumin ratio >16.28 compared with those with CRP/albumin ratio ≤16.28. Patients with CRP/albumin ratio >16.28 had a 19.3 times higher chance of death. The CRP/albumin ratio is a novel but promising, easy-to-measure, repeatable, non-invasive inflammation-based prognostic score in acute pancreatitis. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prognostic value of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lung cancer: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongmei; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xuedong; Gu, Lan; Pei, Hao; Kuai, Shougang; Zhang, Yingying; Shang, Zhongbo

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a series of studies explored the correlation between the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and the prognosis of lung cancer. However, the current opinion regarding the prognostic role of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lung cancer is inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of published articles to investigate the prognostic value of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lung cancer. The hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. An elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio predicted worse overall survival, with a pooled HR of 1.243 (95%CI: 1.106-1.397; P(heterogeneity)=0.001) from multivariate studies and 1.867 (95%CI: 1.487-2.344; P(heterogeneity)=0.047) from univariate studies. Subgroup analysis showed that a high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio yielded worse overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (HR=1.192, 95%CI: 1.061-1.399; P(heterogeneity)=0.003) as well as small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (HR=1.550, 95% CI: 1.156-2.077; P(heterogeneity)=0.625) in multivariate studies. The synthesized evidence from this meta-analysis of published articles demonstrated that an elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was a predictor of poor overall survival in patients with lung cancer.

  18. Differences in liver stiffness values obtained with new ultrasound elastography machines and Fibroscan: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscaglia, Fabio; Salvatore, Veronica; Mulazzani, Lorenzo; Cantisani, Vito; Colecchia, Antonio; Di Donato, Roberto; Felicani, Cristina; Ferrarini, Alessia; Gamal, Nesrine; Grasso, Valentina; Marasco, Giovanni; Mazzotta, Elena; Ravaioli, Federico; Ruggieri, Giacomo; Serio, Ilaria; Sitouok Nkamgho, Joules Fabrice; Serra, Carla; Festi, Davide; Schiavone, Cosima; Bolondi, Luigi

    2017-07-01

    Whether Fibroscan thresholds can be immediately adopted for none, some or all other shear wave elastography techniques has not been tested. The aim of the present study was to test the concordance of the findings obtained from 7 of the most recent ultrasound elastography machines with respect to Fibroscan. Sixteen hepatitis C virus-related patients with fibrosis ≥2 and having reliable results at Fibroscan were investigated in two intercostal spaces using 7 different elastography machines. Coefficients of both precision (an index of data dispersion) and accuracy (an index of bias correction factors expressing different magnitudes of changes in comparison to the reference) were calculated. Median stiffness values differed among the different machines as did coefficients of both precision (range 0.54-0.72) and accuracy (range 0.28-0.87). When the average of the measurements of two intercostal spaces was considered, coefficients of precision significantly increased with all machines (range 0.72-0.90) whereas of accuracy improved more scatteredly and by a smaller degree (range 0.40-0.99). The present results showed only moderate concordance of the majority of elastography machines with the Fibroscan results, preventing the possibility of the immediate universal adoption of Fibroscan thresholds for defining liver fibrosis staging for all new machines. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical value of 201Tl lung/heart ratio during exercise in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Wei; He Guorong; Liu Jinhua; Huang Yuying

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between 201 Tl lung/heart ratio during exercise and left ventricular diastolic function and its diagnostic value on severity of coronary artery disease. Methods: One hundred and two patients with documented coronary artery disease were divided into three groups, including no hypertension, hypertension without or with left ventricular hypertrophy groups. Exercise/delay 201 Tl myocardial perfusion tomography was performed on all patients included. Lung/heart ratio was defined on the anterior planar image obtained during exercise tomography. Results: The lung/heart ratios during exercise in no hypertension (0.43 +- 0.09, P 0.05). The lung/heart ratios of multi-vessel disease subgroup in no hypertension (0.46 +- 0.10 vs 0.40 +- 0.09, P 0.05). When lung/heart ratio was≥0.45, the sensitivities for predicting the presence of multi-vessel disease were 82%, 90%, 40% and specificities were 75%, 75%, 45%, respectively, in no hypertension, hypertension without and with hypertrophy groups. In no hypertension (r=0.402, P 0.05). In no hypertension (r=-0.413, P<0.01), hypertension without (r=-0.662, P<0.01) and with hypertrophy groups (r=-0.408, P<0.05), lung/heart ratios all showed a significant reverse correlation with correspondent E/A ratios. Conclusions: The exercise lung/heart ratios has a better diagnostic value for multi-vessel disease and left ventricular diastolic function abnormalities of coronary artery disease with or without hypertension, but not for multi-vessel disease in hypertension patients complicated with myocardial hypertrophy

  20. Predictive value of IgE/IgG4 antibody ratio in children with egg allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Shindou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the role of specific IgG4 antibodies to hen’s egg white and determine their utility as a marker for the outcome of oral challenge test in children sensitized to hen’s egg Methods The hen’s egg oral food challenge test was performed in 105 sensitized children without atopic dermatitis, and the titers of egg white-specific immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4 and immunoglobulin E (IgE antibodies were measured. To set the cut-off values of IgG4, IgE, and the IgE/IgG4 ratio for predicting positive results in oral challenges, receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted and the area under the curves (AUC were calculated. Results Sixty-four of 105 oral challenges with whole eggs were assessed as positive. The AUC for IgE, IgG4, and IgE/IgG4 for the prediction of positive results were 0.609, 0.724, and 0.847, respectively. Thus, the IgE/IgG4 ratio generated significantly higher specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (%, and negative predictive value (% than the individual IgE and IgG4. The negative predictive value of the IgE/IgG4 ratio was 90% at a value of 1. Conclusions We have demonstrated that the egg white-specific serum IgE/IgG4 ratio is important for predicting reactivity to egg during food challenges.

  1. A study on the effect of size and ratio of book value to market value on excessive return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Tabatabaei Mozdabadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Stock market plays an important role on demonstrating economy direction and it provides good opportunities for people who wish to purchase a small portion of different firms' shares. In this paper, we propose an empirical study to measure the impact of the market size and the ratio of book value on market value on excessive return. The study gathers the necessary information from some of active stock shares traded on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period of 2010-2011. The proposed model of this paper uses linear regression analysis to investigate the relationship between the excessive return and other factors. The study divides the information into seven equal groups and fits the regression model using ordinary least square technique. The results indicate that there is a negative relationship between size and excessive return and a positive relationship between the ratio of BV/MV and excessive return. Although the results of both tests are positive, we have to be more cautious about what have reported on the second hypothesis.

  2. A fully MEMS-compatible process for 3D high aspect ratio micro coils obtained with an automatic wire bonder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratt, K; Badilita, V; Burger, T; Wallrabe, U; Korvink, J G

    2010-01-01

    We report the fabrication of 3D micro coils made with an automatic wire bonder. Using standard MEMS processes such as spin coating and UV lithography on silicon and Pyrex® wafers results in high aspect ratio SU-8 posts with diameters down to 100 µm that serve as mechanical stabilization yokes for the coils. The wire bonder is employed to wind 25 µm insulated gold wire around the posts in an arbitrary (e.g. solenoidal) path, yielding arrays of micro coils. Each micro coil is bonded directly on-chip, so that loose wire ends are avoided and, compared to other winding methods, coil re-soldering is unnecessary. The manufacturing time for a single coil is about 200 ms, and although the process is serial, it is batch fabrication compatible due to the high throughput of the machine. Despite the speed of manufacture we obtain high manufacturing precision and reliability. The micro air-core solenoids show an RF quality factor of over 50 when tested at 400 MHz. We present a flexible coil making method where the number of windings is only limited by the post height. The coil diameter is restricted by limits defined by lithography and the mechanical strength of the posts. Based on this technique we present coils ranging from 100 µm diameter and 1 winding up to 1000 µm diameter and 20 windings

  3. Obtaining and application of increased food and biological value iodinated products from lentils sprouted grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of research direction is related to the actual problem of production and distribution of functional purpose food products due to the spread of nutritional diseases and the lack of micronutrients in ordinary people and athletes diet. As an object for enrichment with iodine, it was suggested to use lentils, which is famous for its high protein content, low lipid and oligosaccharide content, and low inhibitory effect. The iodine accumulation occurs during germination, due to the use of a nutrient solution of the iodine inorganic form. In addition, the biochemical composition of the grain and the biological value of lentils are significantly improved: an increase in the content of total amino acids and vitamins is found to be 1.5-2.0 times, a mass fraction of the oligosaccharide fraction is observed. To determine the effect of technological processing on the degree of iodine conservation in lentils the grains were exposed to the following impact: grinding, extrusion, frying. An insignificant decrease in the amount of iodine during extrusion was noted and more significant one - during grinding. The obtained results of the determination of biological safety by the method of studying the effect of the investigated product on the growth response of ciliates allowed to confirm the safety of both fresh and dried sprouted grain of lentils. When studying the microbiology of grain by sowing on agarized selective diagnostic environments with subsequent identification of the qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora, including colony-forming units, deviations from the normative indices were not revealed. Experimental production of the extrudate was carried out, possible ways of its use in meat systems for improving the functional and technological properties of minced meat, as well as for independent use as snacks for the nutrition of athletes were suggested.

  4. The value of pulmonary vessel CT measuring and calculating of relative ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jiansong; Xu Xiaoxiong; Lv Suzhen; Zhao Zhongwei; Wang Zufei; Xu Min; Gong Jianping

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate value of CT measurement and calculation of vessels of isolate pig lung, by compare with measurement and calculation of resin cast of them. Methods: CT scanned and measured the four isolated pig lung which vessels were full with ABS liquid or self-solidification resin liquid, and calculate the relative ratio of superior/inferior order and vein/artery of same order. After resin cast were made, measure and calculate the same as CT did. Results: Second order of calculation of vein/artery of same order by the two method had statistic difference (P 0.05). Conclusion: CT has high value in calculation of the relative ratio of superior/inferior order

  5. The value of hip circumference/heightx ratio for identifying childhood hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Na; Wang, Rui; Ji, Meijing; Liu, Xiaoli; Qiang, Lu; Ma, Chunming; Yin, Fuzai

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the value of hip circumference related indexes for identifying childhood hypertension. In 2011, 1,352 Han children aged 7–12 years were recruited in our study. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure ≥95th percentile for all three screenings. We set the power value of the hip circumference/heightx ratio (x = 0, 0.8, 1 and 1.5) and studied the association with blood pressure. Hip circumference, hip circumference/height0.8, hip circumferenc...

  6. A systematic review of the angular values obtained by computerized photogrammetry in sagittal plane: a proposal for reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczky, Bruna; Pacheco, Antonio G; Mainenti, Míriam R M

    2014-05-01

    Reference values for postural alignment in the coronal plane, as measured by computerized photogrammetry, have been established but not for the sagittal plane. The objective of this study is to propose reference values for angular measurements used for postural analysis in the sagittal plane for healthy adults. Electronic databases (PubMed, BVS, Cochrane, Scielo, and Science Direct) were searched using the following key words: evaluation, posture, photogrammetry, and software. Articles published between 2006 and 2012 that used the PAS/SAPO (postural assessment software) were selected. Another inclusion criterion was the presentation of, at least, one of the following measurements: head horizontal alignment, pelvic horizontal alignment, hip angle, vertical alignment of the body, thoracic kyphosis, and lumbar lordosis. Angle samples of the selected articles were grouped 2 by 2 in relation to an overall average, which made possible total average, variance, and SD calculations. Six articles were included, and the following average angular values were found: 51.42° ± 4.87° (head horizontal alignment), -12.26° ± 5.81° (pelvic horizontal alignment), -6.40° ± 3.86° (hip angle), and 1.73° ± 0.94° (vertical alignment of the body). None of the articles contained the measurements for thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis. The reference values can be adopted as reference for postural assessment in future researches if the same anatomical points are considered. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prognostic value of serum heavy/light chain ratios in patients with POEMS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Su, Wei; Cai, Qian-Qian; Cai, Hao; Ji, Wei; Di, Qian; Duan, Ming-Hui; Cao, Xin-Xin; Zhou, Dao-Bin; Li, Jian

    2016-07-01

    POEMS syndrome is a rare plasma cell dyscrasia. Serum concentrations of the monoclonal protein in this disorder are typically low, and inapplicable to monitor disease activity in most cases, resulting in limited practical and prognostic values. Novel immunoassays measuring isotype-specific heavy/light chain (HLC) pairs showed its utility in disease monitoring and outcome prediction in several plasma cell dyscrasias. We report results of HLC measurements in 90 patients with POEMS syndrome. Sixty-six patients (73%; 95% confidence interval, 63-82%) had an abnormal HLC ratio at baseline. It could stratify the risk of disease relapse and was strongly associated with worse progression-free survival in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.021; hazard ratio [HR] 6.89, 95% CI 1.34-35.43). After therapy, HLC ratios improved, with 43 patients (48%) remaining abnormal. The post-therapeutic HLC ratio, if abnormal, also remained as an independent prognostic factor associated with worse progression-free survival (P = 0.019; HR 4.30, 95% CI 1.27-14.56). These results suggest the prognostic utility of HLC ratios in clinical management of POEMS patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Final results of the cadmium and spectral ratios obtained inside of the fuel rod positioned in the central position of the IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitelli, Ulysses d' Utra; Mura, Luiz Ernesto C.; Santos, Diogo Feliciano dos, E-mail: ubitelli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lambiasi, Beatriz G.N. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The spectral ratios are very important to determine some nuclear reactors parameters such as reaction rates, fuel lifetime, etc and some safety operational conditions. This study aims to determine the spectral ratios in 2 (two) spatial positions located inside the core of the Nuclear Reactor IPEN/MB-01. These places are at the central position of the nuclear reactor core in an asymptotic neutron flux region. The experiment consists in inserting different activation foil detectors inside an experimental fuel rod. The experimental rod is assembled at the central position of the reactor core. Activation neutron foil detectors of different elements such as {sup 197}Au, {sup 238}U, {sup 45}Sc, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 24}Mg, {sup 47}Ti and {sup 115m}In were used to cover a large range of neutron spectrum. Saturation activity per target nucleus was obtained by gamma spectrometry using a HPGe system. The experimental cadmium ratios compared with values computed by MCNP-4C code show good agreement. (author)

  9. Estimation of muscle fatigue by ratio of mean frequency to average rectified value from surface electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Jeffry Bonar; Yoshioka, Mototaka; Ozawa, Jun

    2016-08-01

    A new method to estimate muscle fatigue quantitatively from surface electromyography (EMG) is proposed. The ratio of mean frequency (MNF) to average rectified value (ARV) is used as the index of muscle fatigue, and muscle fatigue is detected when MNF/ARV falls below a pre-determined or pre-calculated baseline. MNF/ARV gives larger distinction between fatigued muscle and non-fatigued muscle. Experiment results show the effectiveness of our method in estimating muscle fatigue more correctly compared to conventional methods. An early evaluation based on the initial value of MNF/ARV and the subjective time when the subjects start feeling the fatigue also indicates the possibility of calculating baseline from the initial value of MNF/ARV.

  10. Validation of calculated tissue maximum ratio obtained from measured percentage depth dose (PPD) data for high energy photon beam ( 6 MV and 15 MV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, J.E.

    2014-07-01

    During external beam radiotherapy treatments, high doses are delivered to the cancerous cell. Accuracy and precision of dose delivery are primary requirements for effective and efficiency in treatment. This leads to the consideration of treatment parameters such as percentage depth dose (PDD), tissue air ratio (TAR) and tissue phantom ratio (TPR), which show the dose distribution in the patient. Nevertheless, tissue air ratio (TAR) for treatment time calculation, calls for the need to measure in-air-dose rate. For lower energies, measurement is not a problem but for higher energies, in-air measurement is not attainable due to the large build-up material required for the measurement. Tissue maximum ratio (TMR) is the quantity required to replace tissue air ratio (TAR) for high energy photon beam. It is known that tissue maximum ratio (TMR) is an important dosimetric function in radiotherapy treatment. As the calculation methods used to determine tissue maximum ratio (TMR) from percentage depth dose (PDD) were derived by considering the differences between TMR and PDD such as geometry and field size, where phantom scatter or peak scatter factors are used to correct dosimetric variation due to field size difference. The purpose of this study is to examine the accuracy of calculated tissue maximum ratio (TMR) data with measured TMR values for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beam at Sweden Ghana Medical Centre. With the help of the Blue motorize water phantom and the Omni pro-Accept software, Pdd values from which TMRs are calculated were measured at 100 cm source-to-surface distance (SSD) for various square field sizes from 5x5 cm to 40x40 cm and depth of 1.5 cm to 25 cm for 6 MV and 15 MV x-ray beam. With the same field sizes, depths and energies, the TMR values were measured. The validity of the calculated data was determined by making a comparison with values measured experimentally at some selected field sizes and depths. The results show that; the reference depth of maximum

  11. Effects of gender on screening value of aldosterone-renin ratio for primary aldosteronism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-qiong SONG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the potential influence of gender on screening value of aldosterone-renin ratio (ARR for primary aldosteronism (PA. Methods The biochemical parameters were collected of 451 PA patients and 300 essential hypertension (EH patients who were diagnosed in the General Hospital of PLA from 1992 to 2014. Each group was then divided into two groups by gender. The clinical characteristics were compared and then the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC was conducted to evaluate the best cut-off value. Results The plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC, serum sodium and ARR were much higher, but the plasma rennin activity (PRA, serum potassium and BMI were much lower in PA patients than in EH patients (P0.05. The best cut-off value of ARR in male PA patients was 19.11, the relevant area under the curve (AUC was 0.968, the sensitivity and specificity was 92.44% and 93.08%, and the Youden index (YI was 0.86. The best cut-off value of ARR in female PA patients was 27.26, with AUC 0.956, sensitivity 92.07%, specificity 90.00% and YI 0.82, respectively. If the cut-off value was set at 27.26 in males, the specificity would rise a little, but the sensitivity and YI would sharply decrease. Similarly, the sensitivity would increase a little but the specificity and YI would fall substantially if the cut-off value in females was set at 19.11. The best cut-off value of ARR in men was smaller than the official value recommended by guidelines. Conclusion Gender is an important factor should be considered while ARR is used in PA screening, and the cut-off value of ARR in screening female PA patients should be setting higher. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.10

  12. Prognostic value of lymph node-to-primary tumor standardized uptake value ratio in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hyun Hoon; Kim, Jae-Weon; Park, Noh-Hyun; Song, Yong Sang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Gi Jeong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-01-15

    To determine whether the relative metabolic activity of pelvic or para-aortic LN compared with that of primary tumor measured by preoperative [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT scan has prognostic value in patients with endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed patients with endometrioid endometrial carcinoma who underwent preoperative [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT scans. Prognostic values of PET/CT-derived metabolic variables such as maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of the primary endometrial carcinoma (SUV{sub Tumor}) and LN (SUV{sub LN}), and the LN-to-endometrial carcinoma SUV ratio (SUV{sub LN} / SUV{sub Tumor}) were assessed. Clinico-pathological data, imaging data, and treatment results were reviewed for 107 eligible patients. Median post-surgical follow-up was 23 months (range, 6-60), and 7 (6.5%) patients experienced recurrence. Regression analysis showed that SUV{sub LN} / SUV{sub Tumor} (P < 0.001), SUV{sub LN} (P = 0.003), International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (P = 0.006), and tumor grade (P = 0.011) were risk factors of recurrence. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that FIGO stage (P = 0.034) was the independent risk factor of recurrence. SUV{sub LN} / SUV{sub Tumor} showed significant correlation with FIGO stage (P < 0.001), LN metastasis (P < 0.001), lymphovascular space invasion (P < 0.001), recurrence (P = 0.001), tumor grade (P < 0.001), and deep myometrial invasion of tumor (P = 0.022). Patient groups categorized by SUV{sub LN} / SUV{sub Tumor} showed significant difference in progression-free survival (Log-rank test, P = 0.001). Preoperative SUV{sub LN} / SUV{sub Tumor} measured by [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT was significantly associated with recurrence, and may become a novel prognostic factor in patients with endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. (orig.)

  13. [Value of the albumin to globulin ratio in predicting severity and prognosis in myasthenia gravis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D H; Su, Z Q; Chen, Y; Chen, Z B; Ding, Z N; Weng, Y Y; Li, J; Li, X; Tong, Q L; Han, Y X; Zhang, X

    2016-03-08

    To assess the predictive value of the albumin to globulin ratio (AGR) in evaluation of disease severity and prognosis in myasthenia gravis patients. A total of 135 myasthenia gravis (MG) patients were enrolled between February 2009 and March 2015. The AGR was detected on the first day of hospitalization and ranked from lowest to highest, and the patients were divided into three equal tertiles according to the AGR values, which were T1 (AGR 1.53). The Kaplan-Meier curve was used to evaluate the prognostic value of AGR. Cox model analysis was used to evaluate the relevant factors. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to find the predictors of myasthenia crisis during hospitalization. The median length of hospital stay for each tertile was: for the T1 21 days (15-35.5), T2 18 days (14-27.5), and T3 16 days (12-22.5) (Pmyasthenia gravis. At the multivariate Cox regression analysis, the AGR (Pmyasthenia gravis patients. Respectively, the hazard ratio (HR) were 4.655 (95% CI: 2.355-9.202) and 0.596 (95% CI: 0.492-0.723). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed the AGR (Pmyasthenia crisis. The AGR may represent a simple, potentially useful predictive biomarker for evaluating the disease severity and prognosis of patients with myasthenia gravis.

  14. Mean value-based power allocation and ratio selection for MIMO cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a spectrum sharing cognitive radio system with ratio selection using a mean value-based power allocation strategy. We first provide the exact statistics in terms of probability density function and cumulative density function of the secondary channel gain as well as of the interference channel gain. These statistics are then used to derive exact closed form expression of the secondary outage probability. Furthermore, asymptotical analysis is derived and generalized diversity gain is deduced. We validate our analysis with simulation results in a Rayleigh fading environment. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Mean value-based power allocation and ratio selection for MIMO cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we consider a spectrum sharing cognitive radio system with ratio selection using a mean value-based power allocation strategy. We first provide the exact statistics in terms of probability density function and cumulative density function of the secondary channel gain as well as of the interference channel gain. These statistics are then used to derive exact closed form expression of the secondary outage probability. Furthermore, asymptotical analysis is derived and generalized diversity gain is deduced. We validate our analysis with simulation results in a Rayleigh fading environment. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Obtaining the Iodine Value of Various Oils via Bromination with Pyridinium Tribromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simurdiak, Michael; Olukoga, Olushola; Hedberg, Kirk

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory exercise was devised that allows students to rapidly and fairly accurately determine the iodine value of oleic acid. This method utilizes the addition of elemental bromine to the unsaturated bonds in oleic acid, due to bromine's relatively fast reaction rate compared to that of the traditional Wijs solution method. This method also…

  17. Obtaining value prior to pulping with diethyl oxalate and oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.R. Kenealy; E. Horn; C.J. Houtman; J. Laplaza; T.W. Jeffries

    2007-01-01

    Pulp and paper are converted to paper products with yields of paper dependent on the wood and the process used. Even with high yield pulps there are conversion losses and with chemical pulps the yields approach 50%. The portions of the wood that do not provide product are either combusted to generate power and steam or incur a cost in waste water treatment. Value prior...

  18. Normal Values of Tissue-Muscle Perfusion Indexes of Lower Limbs Obtained with a Scintigraphic Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manevska, Nevena; Stojanoski, Sinisa; Pop Gjorceva, Daniela; Todorovska, Lidija; Miladinova, Daniela; Zafirova, Beti

    2017-09-01

    Introduction Muscle perfusion is a physiologic process that can undergo quantitative assessment and thus define the range of normal values of perfusion indexes and perfusion reserve. The investigation of the microcirculation has a crucial role in determining the muscle perfusion. Materials and method The study included 30 examinees, 24-74 years of age, without a history of confirmed peripheral artery disease and all had normal findings on Doppler ultrasonography and pedo-brachial index of lower extremity (PBI). 99mTc-MIBI tissue muscle perfusion scintigraphy of lower limbs evaluates tissue perfusion in resting condition "rest study" and after workload "stress study", through quantitative parameters: Inter-extremity index (for both studies), left thigh/right thigh (LT/RT) left calf/right calf (LC/RC) and perfusion reserve (PR) for both thighs and calves. Results In our investigated group we assessed the normal values of quantitative parameters of perfusion indexes. Indexes ranged for LT/RT in rest study 0.91-1.05, in stress study 0.92-1.04. LC/RC in rest 0.93-1.07 and in stress study 0.93-1.09. The examinees older than 50 years had insignificantly lower perfusion reserve of these parameters compared with those younger than 50, LC (p=0.98), and RC (p=0.6). Conclusion This non-invasive scintigraphic method allows in individuals without peripheral artery disease to determine the range of normal values of muscle perfusion at rest and stress condition and to clinically implement them in evaluation of patients with peripheral artery disease for differentiating patients with normal from those with impaired lower limbs circulation.

  19. Partial Adaptation of Obtained and Observed Value Signals Preserves Information about Gains and Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Christopher J; Baddeley, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-09-28

    Given that the range of rewarding and punishing outcomes of actions is large but neural coding capacity is limited, efficient processing of outcomes by the brain is necessary. One mechanism to increase efficiency is to rescale neural output to the range of outcomes expected in the current context, and process only experienced deviations from this expectation. However, this mechanism comes at the cost of not being able to discriminate between unexpectedly low losses when times are bad versus unexpectedly high gains when times are good. Thus, too much adaptation would result in disregarding information about the nature and absolute magnitude of outcomes, preventing learning about the longer-term value structure of the environment. Here we investigate the degree of adaptation in outcome coding brain regions in humans, for directly experienced outcomes and observed outcomes. We scanned participants while they performed a social learning task in gain and loss blocks. Multivariate pattern analysis showed two distinct networks of brain regions adapt to the most likely outcomes within a block. Frontostriatal areas adapted to directly experienced outcomes, whereas lateral frontal and temporoparietal regions adapted to observed social outcomes. Critically, in both cases, adaptation was incomplete and information about whether the outcomes arose in a gain block or a loss block was retained. Univariate analysis confirmed incomplete adaptive coding in these regions but also detected nonadapting outcome signals. Thus, although neural areas rescale their responses to outcomes for efficient coding, they adapt incompletely and keep track of the longer-term incentives available in the environment. Optimal value-based choice requires that the brain precisely and efficiently represents positive and negative outcomes. One way to increase efficiency is to adapt responding to the most likely outcomes in a given context. However, too strong adaptation would result in loss of precise

  20. UV-Visible intensity ratio (aggregates/single particles) as a measure to obtain stability of gold nanoparticles conjugated with protein A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios-Corripio, M. A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CIBA-Tlaxcala (Mexico); Garcia-Perez, B. E. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Inmunologia, ENCB (Mexico); Jaramillo-Flores, M. E. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, ENCB (Mexico); Gayou, V. L.; Rojas-Lopez, M., E-mail: marlonrl@yahoo.com.mx [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CIBA-Tlaxcala (Mexico)

    2013-05-15

    We have analyzed the titration process of gold nanoparticles with several amounts of protein A (0.3, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, and 9 {mu}g/ml) in the presence of NaCl, which induces aggregation if the surface of particles is not fully covered with protein A. The colloidal solutions with different particle size (16, 18, 20, 33 nm) were synthesized by citrate reduction to be conjugated with protein A. UV-Visible spectroscopy was used to measure the absorption of the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles as a function of the concentration of protein A. Such dependence shows an aggregation region (0 < x<6 {mu}g/ml), where the amount of protein A was insufficient to cover the surface of particles, obtaining aggregation caused by NaCl. The next part is the stability region (x {>=} 6 {mu}g/ml), where the amount of protein used covers the surface of particles and protects it from the aggregation. In addition to that the ratio between the intensities of both: the aggregates and of the gold nanoparticle bands was plotted as a function of the concentration of protein A. It was determined that 6 {mu}g/ml is a sufficient value of protein A to stabilize the gold nanoparticle-protein A system. This method provides a simple way to stabilize gold nanoparticles obtained by citrate reduction, with protein A.

  1. Prognostic value of pretreatment albumin/globulin ratio in digestive system cancers: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui-Wen; Yuan, Tang-Zhan; Chen, Jia-Xi; Zheng, Yang

    2018-01-01

    The albumin/globulin ratio (AGR) has been widely reported to be a potential predictor of prognosis in digestive system cancers (DSCs), but convincing conclusions have not been made. Therefore, herein, we performed a meta-analysis of relevant studies regarding this topic to evaluate the prognostic value of AGR in patients with DSCs. Three databases, including PubMed, EMBase, and Web of science, were searched comprehensively for eligible studies through September 8, 2017. The outcomes of interest included overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS). In our meta-analysis, pooled analysis of 13 studies with 9269 patients showed that a low AGR was significantly correlated with poor OS (HR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.57-2.38; P digestive system cancers. A low pretreatment AGR may be a useful predictive prognostic biomarker in human digestive system cancers.

  2. Evaluation of the prognostic value of platelet to lymphocyte ratio in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuchen; Attar, Bashar M; Fuentes, Harry E; Jaiswal, Palashkumar; Tafur, Alfonso J

    2017-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasingly common, potentially fatal cancer type globally. Platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as a biomarker for systemic inflammation has recently been recognized as a valuable prognostic marker in multiple cancer types. The aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic value of PLR in HCC patients and determine the optimal cut-off value for risk stratification. We retrospectively analyzed patients with diagnosis of HCC (screened by ICD-9 code, confirmed with radiographic examination and/or biopsy) at a large public hospital during 15 years (Jan 2000 through July 2015). PLR, among other serology laboratory values were collected at diagnosis of HCC. Its association with overall survival was evaluated with Cox proportional hazard model. Among 270 patients with HCC, 57 (21.1%) patients died within an average follow-up of 11.9 months. PLR at diagnosis was significantly different between survivors and deceased (128.9 vs. 186.7; P=0.003). In multivariate analysis, aspartate transaminase (AST) (HR 2.022, P<0.001) and PLR (HR 1.768, P=0.004) independently predicted mortality. The optimal cut-off value for PLR was determined to be 220 by receiver-operating characteristics curve, and high PLR group had significantly higher mortality (HR 3.42, P<0.001). Our results indicated that elevated PLR at diagnosis above 220 predicted poor prognosis in HCC patients. PLR is a low-cost and convenient tool, which may serve as a useful prognostic marker for HCC.

  3. [Correlation and interconversion between erythrocyte cholinesterase values obtained by the Michel and the EQM techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2006-12-01

    Several techniques are available to measure red cell cholinesterase; therefore, evaluations with several methods provide a measure of concordance. An equation was formulated to transform native data of reference values to reference units of cholinesterase activity as measured by Michel and EQM tests. The experimental design was descriptive, transversal and prospective. The group sampled was a representative adult working population, aged 18-75, without previous exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors pesticides. The individuals were affiliated to the Social Security System and resided in Valle de Aburrá and Cercano Oriente Antioqueño (Antioquia Province, northwestern Colombia). Of 827 individuals, quantitative erythrocytes (Michel y EQM) tests exhibited "r" coefficients between 0.67 and R2 coefficient of 44%.,This indicated that one test explained the results in other test in 44% of the cases. The corelation was higher in Aburrá than in Oriente. The linear model for the 827 individuals was as follows: EQM U/g oxy-hemoglobin = 9.575 U/ g oxy-hemoglobin + 29.791 (Michel delta pH/hour). Michel delta pH/hr = 0.3312 delta pH/hour + 0.0149 (EQM U/g oxy-hemoglobin), where EQM was expressed in U/g oxy-hemoglobin and Michel pH change/hr. Inter-sections (coefficient a) and inclines (coefficient b) were significant in this model. In the adjusted equations, after exclusion of 12 extreme data (1.5% of 827), the r coefficient increased from 0.67 to 0.72 The adjusted equations were as follows: EQM U/g oxy-hemoglobin = 8.1884 U/g oxy-hemoglobin + 31.3920 (Michel delta pH/hour); Michel delta pH/hr = 0.2925 delta pH/hr + 0.0161 (EQM U/g oxy-hemoglobin). This system of linear equations permitted the transformation of Michel (delta PH/ hr) units to EQM (U/g oxy-hemoglobin) units and vice versa. This will facilitate data comparisons by clinicians and epidemiologists who are using these methods of cholinesterase measurement.

  4. Clay Stabilization Using the Ash of Mount Sinabung in Terms of the Value of California Bearing Ratio (CBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuty, I. P.; Roesyanto, R.; Napitupulu, S. M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Most areas in Indonesia consist of clay soils with high plasticity so that to meet technical requirements the soil needs improvement, which is known as soil stabilization.There are three ways of soil stabilization process, i.e. mechanical, physical and chemical. In this study, chemical stabilization was performed, that was by adding stabilizing agents to the soil. The stabilizing agent used was the ash of Mount Sinabung. Since 2010 until now, Sinabung Mountain is still experiencing eruption that produces a lot of volcanic ash and it inconveniences the environment. So, it is expected that this research will be able to optimize the utilization of Sinabung ash. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the addition of Mount Sinabung ash to CBR (California Bearing Ratio) value, to determine the effect of the curing time of one day and fourteen days mixture on the CBR value, and to find the mixed content with effective curing time to produce the largest CBR value. Based on this study, the soil type CL (Clay - Low Plasticity) was obtained, based on the classification of USCS (Unified Soil Classification System) and categorized as A-6 (6) based on the classification of AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation officials) with the most effective mixed stabilizer material which was the variation of 10% Mount Sinabung ash with fourteen days of curing time. The CBR value resulted from the mixture of 10% Sinabung ash that was cured within fourteen days was 8.95%. By the increase of the content of the Sinabung ash, the CBR value always improved to the level of 10%, Sinabung ash then decreased and became constant at the mixture of higher volcanic ash mixture but remained above the CBR value of the original soil.

  5. The diagnosis value of endothelin, calcitonin gene-related peptide and the ratio in diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lusheng; Zhao Xin; Chi Liuying; Yang Xixiu; Mao Hongyu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnosis value of Endothelin (ET), Calcitonin gene-related peptide(CGRP) and theratio in diabetic nephropathy(DN). Methods: To choose 54 healthy as the control group and 124 patients with diabetes or DN as test group. According to urinary albumin excretion rate (uAER), the test group was divided into three groups, which were diabetes group of normalalbuminmia (group A), early DN (group B) and clinical DN and renal failure group( group C ). Plasma concentration of ET and CGRP were measured with radioimmunossay for those in the Control group and patients with diabetes or DN. Results: The level of ET was significantly higher in diabetic nephropathy than that in the control group (P<0.01), and there was positive correlation between ET and uAER(r=0.591, P<0.01). The plasma level of CGRP was significantly lower in diabetic nephropathy than that in the control group (P<0.01), and there was negative correlation between CGRP and uAER(r-0.389, P<0.05). The level of ET, CGRP and ET/CGRP ratio have evidently changed with the uAER rised. Conclusion: (1)The level of ET, CGRP and type 2 diabetic nephropathy are closely related, and which probably plays a role in the development of DN. (2)ET/CGRP ratio, as a new way for diagnosis, can even more reflecte the seriousness of DN. (3)This experiment provide us a new way for the prevention and treatment of DN with extrinsic CGRP. (authors)

  6. The effect of hexose ratios on metabolite production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains obtained from the spontaneous fermentation of mezcal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva Hernández, Amanda A; Taillandier, Patricia; Reséndez Pérez, Diana; Narváez Zapata, José A; Larralde Corona, Claudia Patricia

    2013-04-01

    Mezcal from Tamaulipas (México) is produced by spontaneous alcoholic fermentation using Agave spp. musts, which are rich in fructose. In this study eight Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates obtained at the final stage of fermentation from a traditional mezcal winery were analysed in three semi-synthetic media. Medium M1 had a sugar content of 100 g l(-1) and a glucose/fructose (G/F) of 9:1. Medium M2 had a sugar content of 100 g l(-1) and a G/F of 1:9. Medium M3 had a sugar content of 200 g l(-1) and a G/F of 1:1. In the three types of media tested, the highest ethanol yield was obtained from the glucophilic strain LCBG-3Y5, while strain LCBG-3Y8 was highly resistant to ethanol and the most fructophilic of the mezcal strains. Strain LCBG-3Y5 produced more glycerol (4.4 g l(-1)) and acetic acid (1 g l(-1)) in M2 than in M1 (1.7 and 0.5 g l(-1), respectively), and the ethanol yields were higher for all strains in M1 except for LCBG-3Y5, -3Y8 and the Fermichamp strain. In medium M3, only the Fermichamp strain was able to fully consume the 100 g of fructose l(-1) but left a residual 32 g of glucose l(-1). Regarding the hexose transporters, a high number of amino acid polymorphisms were found in the Hxt1p sequences. Strain LCBG-3Y8 exhibited eight unique amino acid changes, followed by the Fermichamp strain with three changes. In Hxt3p, we observed nine amino acid polymorphisms unique for the Fermichamp strain and five unique changes for the mezcal strains.

  7. Experimentally obtained values of electric field of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet impinging on a dielectric surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobota, A.; Guaitella, O.; Garcia-Caurel, E.

    2013-01-01

    We report on experimentally obtained values of the electric field magnitude on a dielectric surface induced by an impinging atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The plasma plume was striking the dielectric surface at an angle of 45¿, at 5mm from the surface measured at the axis of the jet. The results

  8. Analisis Pengaruh Economic Value Added, Price Earning Ratio, Debt to Equity Ratio, Price Book Value, Pertumbuhan Penjualan Terhadap Harga Saham dengan Dividend Per Share sebagai Variabel Moderating pada Perusahaan Manufaktur yang Terdaftar di BEI Tahun 2010-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Matondang, Puteri Utami

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Economic Value Added (EVA), Price Earning Ratio (PER), Debt to Equity Ratio (DER), Price Book Value (PBV), and Sales Growth to the stock price with Dividend Per Share (DPS) as moderating variable onmanufacturing company listed on Indonesian Stock Exchange from 2010 -2013. The population of this study was 124 manufacturing companies registered in the Indonesian Stock Exchange from 2010-2013 and 20 companies were selected to be the sample...

  9. Cephalometric analysis for the diagnosis of sleep apnea: a comparative study between reference values and measurements obtained for Brazilian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Superbi Lemos Maschtakow

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify if the reference values of Sleep Apnea cephalometric analysis of North American individuals are similar to the ones of Brazilian individuals presenting no craniofacial anomalies. The study also aimed to identify craniofacial alterations in Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS patients in relation to individuals without clinical characteristics of the disease through this cephalometric analysis. METHOD: It were used 55 lateral cephalograms consisting of 29 for the control group of adult individuals without clinical characteristics of OSAHS and 26 apneic adults. All radiographs were submitted to Sleep Apnea cephalometric analysis through Radiocef Studio 2.0. The standard values of this analysis were compared, by means of z test, to the ones obtained from the control group and these were compared to values from apneic group through Student's t test. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between values obtained from control group and standard values. On the group of OSAHS patients it was observed a decrease on the dimensions of upper airways and an increase on the soft palate length. CONCLUSIONS: The standard values of Sleep Apnea analysis can be used as reference in Brazilian individuals. Besides, through lateral cephalograms it was possible to identify craniofacial alterations in OSAHS patients.

  10. RESEARCH REGARDING SOME PHYSICAL QUALITY VALUES OF JAPANESE QUAIL EGGS OBTAINED AT THE MIDDLE OF THE LAYING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA TEUŞAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese quail is one of the smallest bird subspecies which has been tamed by man, being industrially raised in our days in many states over the world. This avian subspecies produces over 300 eggs, and though there are about 6 races and different varieties, there are very little data in the scientific literature regarding the quality values for eggs of Japanese quail hatching eggs collected from hens at the end of the laying – physical values (pH value of the eggs components, albumen index, yolk index The present paper wants to bring a series of data regarding some of these indicators. The pH values was determined with an portable pH-oximeter, and to establish the other two quality indexes we used a device fitted with callipers taking into account: height of the dense egg white (albumen, minimum and maximum diameter of the dense and fluid egg white, height and the diameter of the yolk. The albumen pH recorded values of 8.90, and the yolk pH values of 6.07. The statistical mean for the 130 values of albumen index taken in study was 0.048. The mean value of yolk index was 0.399. The obtained results are normal for the period of quail’s life.

  11. Value of digit ratio 2D:4D, a biomarker of prenatal hormone exposure, is stable across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Magdalena; Marcinkowska, Urszula M; Jasienska, Grazyna

    2017-07-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) is used as a marker of prenatal hormone exposure and, consequently, as a predictor of many characteristics throughout a woman's lifespan. A previous study has suggested that values of 2D:4D vary across menstrual cycles and further questioned the reliability of a single measurement of 2D:4D among cycling women, while another study failed to confirm these results. However, these studies estimated the timing of cycle phases based on a date of menstruation reported by participants and also had small sample sizes. For our study, we evaluated potential changes in 2D:4D values across a menstrual cycle in a group of women among whom the phases of the menstrual cycle were determined by hormonal (luteinizing hormone based) ovulation tests. We studied 32 naturally cycling women aged 22-37 from rural Poland. Lengths of second and fourth digits were measured based on scans of both hands taken three times (i.e. in the follicular phase, peri-ovulatory phase and luteal phase of the cycle) for each participant. No differences in 2D:4D value across the menstrual cycle were detected either when right-hand, left-hand, and mean 2D:4D for both hands were analysed, nor when difference in the 2D:4D value between hands (D left-right ) was evaluated. We documented that 2D:4D is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and these findings suggest that among naturally cycling women, a value of 2D:4D can be reliably obtained from measurements taken during any day of the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Importance of clean-up for comparison of TEQ-values obtained by CALUX and chemo-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wouwe, N; Windal, I; Vanderperren, H; Eppe, G; Xhrouet, C; De Pauw, E; Goeyens, L; Baeyens, W

    2004-08-08

    This paper presents Chemically Activated LUciferine gene eXpression (CALUX) TEQ-values obtained for nine plasma samples following two different purification procedures, one of them involving fractionation. CALUX results obtained for the dioxin (DX) and dioxin + PCB (DX + PCB) fractions were then compared to the GC-HRMS TEQ-values calculated for the 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (17 PCDD/F) and 17 PCDD/F + 4 cPCB congeners, respectively. The overestimation of the CALUX (DX fraction) TEQ-values in comparison with the chemo-analyses of the 17 PCDD/F is mainly explained by the presence of other AhR agonists, like brominated compounds. Otherwise, the constancy of the CALUX (DX + PCB fraction) TEQ-value which compares to increasing the GC-HRMS (17 PCDD/F + 4 cPCB) TEQ results raises questions concerning (1) the significance of CALUX results obtained without fractionation as well as (2) the toxicological effect of a cocktail of contaminants on the human health.

  13. Prognostic value of tumor-to-blood standardized uptake ratio in patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seung Hyeon; Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, In Joo [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan(Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Seong Jang [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Previously published studies showed that the standard tumor-to-blood standardized uptake value (SUV) ratio (SUR) was a more accurate prognostic method than tumor maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). This study evaluated and compared prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters and normalized value of PET parameters by blood pool SUV in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who received curative surgery.

  14. Prognostic value of tumor-to-blood standardized uptake ratio in patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Seung Hyeon; Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, In Joo; Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Seong Jang

    2017-01-01

    Previously published studies showed that the standard tumor-to-blood standardized uptake value (SUV) ratio (SUR) was a more accurate prognostic method than tumor maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). This study evaluated and compared prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters and normalized value of PET parameters by blood pool SUV in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who received curative surgery

  15. Patterns of international normalized ratio values among new warfarin patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Winnie W; Milentijevic, Dejan; Wang, Li; Baser, Onur; Damaraju, C V; Schein, Jeffrey R

    2016-12-01

    Limited information exists regarding the relationship between international normalized ratio (INR) control/stability and the discontinuation of warfarin therapy among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). This study evaluated the association between INR stabilization and warfarin discontinuation and assessed INR patterns before and after INR stabilization among patients (≥18 years) with NVAF who newly initiated warfarin (Veterans Health Administration datasets; October 1, 2007 through September 30, 2012). Achievement of INR stabilization (≥3 consecutive in-range therapeutic INR measurements ≥7 days apart) was examined from warfarin initiation through the end of warfarin exposure. Proportion of time in therapeutic range during warfarin exposure was calculated (Rosendaal method) and categorized as at least 60% or less than 60%. Among 34 346 patients, 49.4% achieved INR stabilization (mean time to stabilization, 98 days). Approximately 40% of INR values were out-of-range, even after achieving stabilization. During 30 days following an INR 4.0 or higher, patients had more INR testing than the overall mean (2.51 vs. 1.67 tests). Warfarin discontinuation was 4.2 times more likely among patients without INR stabilization versus those with INR stabilization (P < 0.00001). Patients with poor INR control (time in therapeutic range <60%) were 1.76 times more likely to discontinue warfarin within 1 year (P < 0.0001). INR stabilization is a better predictor of warfarin discontinuation than poor INR control. Improved approaches are necessary to maintain appropriate anticoagulation levels among patients with NVAF.

  16. The prognostic value of derived neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in oesophageal cancer treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Samantha; Hurt, Christopher; Grenader, Tal; Mukherjee, Somnath; Bridgewater, John; Crosby, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    The derived neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR) is a validated prognostic biomarker for cancer survival but has not been extensively studied in locally-advanced oesophageal cancer treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT). We aimed to identify the prognostic value of dNLR in patients recruited to the SCOPE1 trial. 258 patients were randomised to receive dCRT±cetuximab. Kaplan-Meier's curves and both univariable and multivariable Cox regression models were calculated for overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS), local PFS inside the radiation volume (LPFSi), local PFS outside the radiation volume (LPFSo), and distant PFS (DPFS). An elevated pre-treatment dNLR≥2 was significantly associated with decreased OS in univariable (HR 1.74 [95% CI 1.29-2.35], p<0.001) and multivariable analyses (HR 1.64 [1.17-2.29], p=0.004). Median OS was 36months (95% CI 27.8-42.4) if dNLR<2 and 18.4months (95% CI 14.1-24.9) if dNLR≥2. All measures of PFS were also significantly reduced with an elevated dNLR. dNLR was prognostic for OS in cases of squamous cell carcinoma with a non-significant trend for adenocarcinoma/undifferentiated tumours. An elevated pre-treatment dNLR may be an independent prognostic biomarker for OS and PFS in oesophageal cancer patients treated with definitive CRT. dNLR is a simple, inexpensive and readily available tool for risk-stratification and should be considered for use in future oesophageal cancer clinical trials. The SCOPE1 trial was an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial [number 47718479]. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictive value of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio in severe degenerative aortic valve stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efe Edem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aortic valve stenosis (AVS is the most common cause of left ventricular outflow obstruction, and its prevalence among elderly patients causes a major public health burden. Recently, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR has been recognized as a novel prognostic biomarker that offers information about both aggregation and inflammation pathways. Since PLR indicates inflammation, we hypothesized that PLR may be associated with the severity of AVS due to chronic inflammation pathways that cause stiffness and calcification of the aortic valve. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 117 patients with severe degenerative AVS, who underwent aortic valve replacement and 117 control patients in our clinic. PLR was defined as the absolute platelet count divided by the absolute lymphocyte count. Severe AVS was defined as calcification and sclerosis of the valve with a mean pressure gradient of >40 mmHg. Results: PLR was 197.03 ± 49.61 in the AVS group and 144.9 ± 40.35 in the control group, which indicated a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis demonstrated that PLR values over 188 predicted the severity of aortic stenosis with a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 70% (95% confidence interval = 0.734–0.882; P < 0.001; area under ROC curve: 0.808. Conclusion: We suggest that the level of PLR elevation is related to the severity of degenerative AVS, and PLR should be used to monitor patients' inflammatory responses and the efficacy of treatment, which will lead us to more closely monitor this high-risk population to detect severe degenerative AVS at an early stage.

  18. Objective guidelines for removing an external fixator after tibial lengthening using pixel value ratio: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Fan, Qing; Venkatesh, K P; Park, Man S; Song, Hae Ryong

    2009-12-01

    During limb lengthening over an intramedullary nail, decisions regarding external fixator removal and weightbearing depend on the amount of callus seen at the lengthening area on radiographs. However, this method is subjective and objective evaluation of the amount of callus likely would minimize nail or interlocking screw breakage and refracture after fixator removal. We asked how many cortices with full corticalization of the newly formed bone at the lengthening area are needed to allow fixator removal and full weightbearing and how to radiographically determine the stage of corticalization. We retrospectively reviewed 17 patients (34 lengthenings) who underwent bilateral tibial lengthenings over an intramedullary nail. The average gain in length was 7.2 +/- 3.4 cm. We determined the pixel value ratio (ratio of pixel value of regenerate versus the mean pixel value of adjacent bone) of the lengthened area on radiographs. There were no nail or screw breakage and refracture. Partial weightbearing with crutches was permitted when the pixel value ratio was 1 in two cortices and full weightbearing without crutches was permitted when the pixel value ratio was 1 in three cortices. The pixel value ratio on radiographs can be an objective parameter for callus measurement and may provide guidelines for the timing of external fixator removal. We cannot determine from our limited data the minimum pixel value in how many cortices would suggest safe removal, but we can say our criteria were not associated with subsequent refracture.

  19. Viscoplastic-dynamic analyses of small-scale fracture tests to obtain crack arrest toughness values for PTS conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanninen, M.F.; Hudak, S.J. Jr; Dexter, R.J.; Couque, H.; O'Donoghue, P.E.; Polch, E.Z.

    1988-01-01

    Reliable predictions of crack arrest at the high upper shelf toughness conditions involved in postulated pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events require procedures beyond those utilized in conventional fracture mechanics treatments. To develop such a procedure, viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element analyses, viscoplastic material characterization testing, and small-scale crack propagation and arrest experimentation are being combines in this research. The approach couples SwRI's viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element code VISCRK with experiments using duplex 4340/A533B steel compact specimens. The experiments are simulated by VISCRK computations employing the Bodner-Partom viscoplastic constitutive relation and the nonlinear fracture mechanics parameter T. The goal is to develop temperature-dependent crack arrest toughness values for A533B steel. While only room temperature K Ia values have been obtained so far, these have been found to agree closely with those obtained from wide plate tests. (author)

  20. Positive predictive value of albumin: globulin ratio for feline infectious peritonitis in a mid-western referral hospital population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Unity; Deitz, Krysta; Hostetter, Shannon

    2012-12-01

    Low albumin to globulin ratio has been found previously to have a high positive predictive value for feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in cats with clinical signs highly suggestive of the disease. However, FIP can have a more vague clinical presentation. This retrospective study found that the positive predictive value of an albumin:globulin (A:G) ratio of <0.8 and <0.6 was only 12.5% and 25%, respectively, in a group of 100 cats with one or more clinical signs consistent with FIP. The negative predictive value was 100% and 99% for an A:G ratio of <0.8 and A:G<0.6%, respectively. Therefore, when the prevalence of FIP is low, the A:G ratio is useful to rule out FIP but is not helpful in making a positive diagnosis of FIP.

  1. Comparison of oxygen saturation values obtained from fingers on physically restrained or unrestrained sides of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhan, Esra Akin; Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdioğlu; Khorshid, Leyla

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare semiexperimentally the pulse oximetry values obtained from a finger on restrained or unrestrained sides of the body. The pulse oximeter provides a noninvasive measurement of the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in arterial blood. One of the procedures most frequently applied to patients in intensive care units is the application of physical restraint. Circulation problems are the most important complication in patients who are physically restrained. Evaluation of oxygen saturation from body parts in which circulation is impeded or has deteriorated can cause false results. The research sample consisted of 30 hospitalized patients who participated in the study voluntarily and who were concordant with the inclusion criteria of the study. Patient information and patient follow-up forms were used for data collection. Pulse oximetry values were measured simultaneously using OxiMax Nellcor finger sensors from fingers on the restrained and unrestrained sides of the body. Numeric and percentile distributions were used in evaluating the sociodemographic properties of patients. A significant difference was found between the oxygen saturation values obtained from a finger of an arm that had been physically restrained and a finger of an arm that had not been physically restrained. The mean oxygen saturation value measured from a finger of an arm that had been physically restrained was found to be 93.40 (SD, 2.97), and the mean oxygen saturation value measured from a finger of an arm that had not been physically restrained was found to be 95.53 (SD, 2.38). The results of this study indicate that nurses should use a finger of an arm that is not physically restrained when evaluating oxygen saturation values to evaluate them correctly.

  2. Comparison of internal dose estimates obtained using organ-level, voxel S value, and Monte Carlo techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Joshua, E-mail: grimes.joshua@mayo.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V5Z 1L8 (Canada); Celler, Anna [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V5Z 1L8 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The authors’ objective was to compare internal dose estimates obtained using the Organ Level Dose Assessment with Exponential Modeling (OLINDA/EXM) software, the voxel S value technique, and Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo dose estimates were used as the reference standard to assess the impact of patient-specific anatomy on the final dose estimate. Methods: Six patients injected with{sup 99m}Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide were included in this study. A hybrid planar/SPECT imaging protocol was used to estimate {sup 99m}Tc time-integrated activity coefficients (TIACs) for kidneys, liver, spleen, and tumors. Additionally, TIACs were predicted for {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, and {sup 90}Y assuming the same biological half-lives as the {sup 99m}Tc labeled tracer. The TIACs were used as input for OLINDA/EXM for organ-level dose calculation and voxel level dosimetry was performed using the voxel S value method and Monte Carlo simulation. Dose estimates for {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, and {sup 90}Y distributions were evaluated by comparing (i) organ-level S values corresponding to each method, (ii) total tumor and organ doses, (iii) differences in right and left kidney doses, and (iv) voxelized dose distributions calculated by Monte Carlo and the voxel S value technique. Results: The S values for all investigated radionuclides used by OLINDA/EXM and the corresponding patient-specific S values calculated by Monte Carlo agreed within 2.3% on average for self-irradiation, and differed by as much as 105% for cross-organ irradiation. Total organ doses calculated by OLINDA/EXM and the voxel S value technique agreed with Monte Carlo results within approximately ±7%. Differences between right and left kidney doses determined by Monte Carlo were as high as 73%. Comparison of the Monte Carlo and voxel S value dose distributions showed that each method produced similar dose volume histograms with a minimum dose covering 90% of the volume (D90

  3. Size, Book-to-Market Ratio and Relativity of Accounting Information Value: Empirical Research on the Chinese Listed Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Cheng, Siwei; Xu, Bin

    Recently there are many literatures studying the effect of factors such as size or book-market ratio on fluctuation of accounting earnings, stock price or earnings respectively, but so far their affection on accounting information value relativity has been scarcely addressed. This paper presents the detail analyses of their effect of the two factors to the relativity of accounting information value respectively by taking Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets as sample. And the analyses supports the following two hypotheses, (1) The relativity of accounting information value of big size corporation is more than that of small size corporation. (2) The relativity of accounting information value of low B/M ratio corporation is more than that of low B/M ratio corporation.

  4. The influence of the maximal value and peak enhancement value of arterial and venous enhancement curve on CT perfusion parameters and signal-to-noise ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Haiyue; Gao Sijia; Xu Ke; Wang Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the influence of the maximal value and peak enhancement value of arterial and venous enhancement curve on CT perfusion parameters and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Methods: Seventeen patients underwent brain CT perfusion scanning. All row data were analyzed with perfusion software for 6 times, and get different arterial and venous enhancement curves for each patient. The maximal values and peak enhancement values of each arterial and venous enhancement curves, as well as mean perfusion parameters including cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), permeability surface area product (PS), and their standard deviations (SD) in homolateral white and gray matter were measured and recorded. SNR was calculated by dividing the mean perfusion parameter value by its SD. Pearson correlation analysis and two-tailed paired Student t test were used for statistics. Results: The maximal values and peak enhancement values of arterial and venous curves were correlated with mean SNR CBF , SNR CBV and SNR MTT in both white matter and gray matters (r value range: 0.332-0.922, P PS in white matter(r=0.256, P PS (in both white matter and gray matters) and arterial peak enhancement values, the maximal values and venous peak enhancement values, or between SNR PS (in gray matter) and the maximal values of venous curve(r value range: -0.058-0.210, P>0.05). (2) Mean CBF, CBV and PS values in the group with low venous peak enhancement values were significantly different from the group with high venous peak enhancement values in both white and gray matters (t value range: 3.830-5.337, P 0.05). Conclusions: The mean perfusion parameters and SNR are influenced by the maximal values and peak enhancement values of the arterial and venous curves. Peak enhancement of arterial and venous curves should be adjusted to higher level to make parameter values more reliable and increase the SNR. (authors)

  5. Brain perfusion ratios by 99mTc HMPAO SPECT utilizing a mean value of the visual cortex to the cerebellum ratio derived from normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Catasus, C.; Rodriguez, R.; Cisnero, M.; Palmero, R.; Diaz, O.; Aguila, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Previous results shows that the cerebellum (CER) is the best reference to calculate relative indexes of perfusion (IP) by brain SPECT. However, it can not be used on patients with bilateral cerebellar hypoperfusion. In such cases visual cortex (VC) or an average of the whole brain activity is recommended (WB). VC and WB are less reliable than CER, making it difficult to compare SPECT scans that have been normalized with different values. Materials and Methods: To overcome this difficulty, we developed a method to calculate IP utilizing a reference value defined as (VC / ), where is the mean value of the VC/CER ratio derived from a normal database which was assumed to be constant. We called the value VC/ the 'Pseudocerebellum' (PCER). For clinical validation, we first tested statistically the VC/CER ratio on a group of 60 [ 99m Tc]-HMPAO SPECT scans of 20 normal subjects and 40 neurological patients with positive SPECT but without involvement of VC and CER. To demonstrate that IP PCER approx. IP CER , we calculated the mean value of the absolute differences CER - IP PCER vertical bar> on two groups of scans from subjects without involvement of VC and CER: 10 normal subjects (GI); and 40 patients (GII). Finally, using an indirect procedure the method was tested on a third group of SPECT scans of 30 patients with bilateral cerebellar hypoperfusion (G III). Results: The VC/CER ratio was approximately constant with gender and age at a 95% confidence level; CER - IP PCER vertical bar> was 1.22%±0.35 and 1.20%±0.42 for GI and GII, respectively. This is less than the within-subject replicability of the HMPAO SPECT studies; and thus demonstrated by an indirect approach that IP PCER is a valid procedure by which to evaluate relative perfusion on patients with bilateral cerebellar hypoperfusion and quantitatively comparable to using CER as reference region. Conclusion: The VC/CER ratio has very little inter-subject variability in individuals where these regions are not

  6. The Ratio Evolution Analysis of the Non-Performing Loans Obtained by the Credit Institutions in Romania during the Period 2007-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Catalina Turkes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the ratio evolution of the non-performing loans obtained by the privately, Romanian and foreign-owned credit institutions, in Romania, during the period December 2007 - June 2015, depending on the change of the legislation regarding the reporting methodology for the purpose of the institutions surveillance according to the prudential regulations of BNR (National Bank of Romania and EU Regulation. The results of this analysis highlighted the fact that the non-performing loans ratio went through a spectacular increase during the period 2007-2013, reaching 21.87% following the promotion of a strategic plan based on the recovery of the debts by restructuring actions, rescheduling or enforcement. In 2014, the non-performing loans ratio decreases to 15.33% following the modification of the debt recovery strategic plan by taking them out from the balance sheet and by their integral provisioning.

  7. Prognostic value of the C-reactive protein to albumin ratio: a novel inflammation-based prognostic indicator in osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li YJ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Yong-Jiang Li,1,* Kai Yao,2,* Min-Xun Lu,2 Wen-Biao Zhang,1 Cong Xiao,2 Chong-Qi Tu2 1Department of Oncology, 2Department of Orthopedics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The prognostic role of the C-reactive protein to albumin ratio (CRP/Alb ratio in patients with osteosarcoma has not been investigated. A total of 216 osteosarcoma patients were enrolled in the study. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses between the groups were performed and Kaplan–Meier analysis was conducted to plot the survival curves. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated and areas under the curve (AUCs were compared to assess the discriminatory ability of the inflammation-based indicators, including CRP/Alb ratio, Glasgow prognostic score (GPS, neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR, and platelet–lymphocyte ratio (PLR. The optimal cutoff value was 0.210 for CRP/Alb ratio with a Youden index of 0.319. Higher values of CRP/Alb ratio were significantly associated with poorer overall survival in univariate (HR =2.62, 95% CI =1.70–4.03; P<0.001 and multivariate (HR =2.21, 95% CI =1.40–3.49; P=0.001 analyses. In addition, the CRP/Alb ratio had significantly higher AUC values compared with GPS (P=0.003, NLR (P<0.001, and PLR (P<0.001. The study demonstrated that the CRP/Alb ratio is an effective inflammation-based prognostic indicator in osteosarcoma, which potentially has a discriminatory ability superior to that of other inflammatory indicators including GPS, NLR, and PLR. Keywords: osteosarcoma, CRP to albumin ratio, prognosis

  8. The prognostic value of lymph node ratio in a national cohort of rectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, J; Jess, P; Roikjaer, O

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prognostic implications of the lymph node ratio (LNR) in curative resected rectal cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: It has been proposed that the LNR has a high prognostic impact in colorectal cancer, but the lymph node ratio has not been evaluated exclusively for rectal......-adjuvant treatment had been given. RESULTS: In a multivariate analysis the pN status, ypN status and lymph node yield were found to be independent prognostic factors for overall survival, irrespective of neo-adjuvant therapy. The LNR was also found to be a significant prognostic factor with a Hazard Ratio ranging...... cancer in a large national cohort study. METHODS: All 6793 patients in Denmark diagnosed with stage I to III adenocarcinoma of the rectum, and so treated in the period from 2003 to 2011, were included in the analysis. The cohort was divided into two groups according to whether or not neo...

  9. SU-E-J-249: Correlation of Mean Lung Ventilation Value with Ratio of Total Lung Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, N; Qu, H; Xia, P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Lung ventilation function measured from 4D-CT and from breathing correlated CT images is a novel concept to incorporate the lung physiologic function into treatment planning of radiotherapy. The calculated ventilation functions may vary from different breathing patterns, affecting evaluation of the treatment plans. The purpose of this study is to correlate the mean lung ventilation value with the ratio of the total lung volumes obtained from the relevant CTs. Methods: A ventilation map was calculated from the variations of voxel-to-voxel CT densities from two breathing phases from either 4D-CT or breathing correlated CTs. An open source image registration tool of Plastimatch was used to deform the inhale phase images to the exhale phase images. To calculate the ventilation map inside lung, the whole lung was delineated and the tissue outside the lung was masked out. With a software tool developed in house, the 3D ventilation map was then converted in the DICOM format associated with the planning CT images. The ventilation map was analyzed on a clinical workstation. To correlate ventilation map thus calculated with lung volume change, the total lung volume change was compared the mean ventilation from our method. Results: Twenty two patients who underwent stereotactic body irradiation for lung cancer was selected for this retrospective study. For this group of patients, the ratio of lung volumes for the inhale (Vin ) and exhale phase (Vex ) was shown to be linearly related to the mean of the local ventilation (Vent), Vin/Vex=1.+0.49*Vent (R2=0.93, p<0.01). Conclusion: The total lung volume change is highly correlated with the mean of local ventilation. The mean of local ventilation may be useful to assess the patient's lung capacity

  10. Predictive value of spot urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    diagnosed hypertensive patients. 1. 2. 1. 3. 4. 1. 1 ... Keywords: Hypertension, microalbuminuria, albumin-to-creatinine ratio, left ventricular hypertrophy .... an average blood pressure of ≥140mmHg .... be due to variation in methods of detecting .... Unexpectedly high prevalence of target organ damage in newly diagnosed.

  11. Evaluation of Absolute and Relative Reinforcer Value Using Progressive-Ratio Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Monica T.; Borrero, John C.; Sy, Jolene R.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated behavior exhibited by individuals with developmental disabilities using progressive-ratio (PR) schedules. High- and low-preference stimuli were determined based on the results of a paired-stimulus preference assessment and were evaluated in subsequent reinforcer and PR assessments using concurrent and single schedules of presentation.…

  12. On the Correspondence between Preference Assessment Outcomes and Progressive-Ratio Schedule Assessments of Stimulus Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Frank, Michelle A.; Gregory, Meagan K.; Allman, Melissa J.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined whether stimuli of different preference levels would be associated with different amounts of work maintained by the stimuli, as determined through progressive-ratio schedule break points. Using a paired-choice preference assessment, stimuli were classified as high, moderate, or low preference for 4 individuals with…

  13. Prognostic value of the serum free light chain ratio in newly diagnosed myeloma: proposed incorporation into the international staging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snozek, C L H; Katzmann, J A; Kyle, R A; Dispenzieri, A; Larson, D R; Therneau, T M; Melton, L J; Kumar, S; Greipp, P R; Clark, R J; Rajkumar, S V

    2008-10-01

    To determine if the serum free light chain (FLC) ratio has prognostic value in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM), baseline serum samples from a well-characterized cohort of 790 newly diagnosed MM patients were tested with the FLC assay. FLC ratio was calculated as kappa/lambda (reference range 0.26-1.65). On the basis of the distribution of values, a cutpoint kappa/lambda FLC ratio of 32 was chosen for further analysis. Overall survival was significantly inferior in patients with an abnormal FLC ratio of 32 (n=479) compared with those with an FLC ratio between 0.03 and 32 (n=311), with median survival of 30 versus 39 months, respectively. We incorporated abnormal FLC ratio with the International Staging System (ISS) risk factors (that is, albumin or=3.5 g/l), to create a risk stratification model with improved prognostic capabilities. Patients with 0, 1, 2 or 3 adverse risk factors had significantly different overall survival, with median survival times of 51, 39, 30 and 22 months, respectively (P<0.001). These findings suggest that the serum FLC ratio at initial diagnosis is an important predictor of prognosis in myeloma, and can be incorporated into the ISS for improved risk stratification.

  14. Vertebral heights and ratios are not only race-specific, but also gender- and region-specific: establishment of reference values for mainland Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Lei; Song, Li-Jiang; Fan, Shun-Wu; Zhao, Xing; Chen, Yi-Lei; Li, Zhao-Zhi; Hu, Zi-Ang

    2017-10-11

    This study established gender-specific reference values in mainland Chinese (MC) and is important for quantitative morphometry for diagnosis and epidemiological study of osteoporotic vertebral compressive fracture. Comparisons of reference values among different racial populations are then performed to demonstrate the MC-specific characteristic. Osteoporotic vertebral compressive fracture (OVCF) is a common complication of osteoporosis in the elder population. Clinical diagnosis and epidemiological study of OVCF often employ quantitative morphometry, which relies heavily on the comparison of patients' vertebral parameters to existing reference values derived from the normal population. Thus, reference values are crucial in clinical diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to establish reference values of the mainland Chinese (MC) for quantitative morphometry. Vertebral heights including anterior (Ha), middle (Hm), posterior (Hp) heights, and predicted posterior height (pp) from T4 to L5 were obtained; and ratios of Ha/Hp, Hm/Hp and Hp/pp. were calculated from 585 MC (both female and male) for establishing reference values and subsequent comparisons with other studies. Vertebral heights increased progressively from T4 to L3 but then decreased in L4 and L5. Both genders showed similar ratios of vertebral dimensions, but male vertebrae were statistically larger than those of female (P values for MC. Our results also indicated the necessity of establishing reference values that are not only race- and gender-specific, but also population- or region-specific for accurate quantitative morphometric assessment of OVCF.

  15. Prognostic value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio in acute pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Ma, Junfen; Jiang, Zhiyun; Ming, Liang

    2018-02-01

    Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been reported to predict prognosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the prognostic value of NLR and PLR remained inconsistent between studies. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the prognostic role of NLR and PLR in acute PE. We systematically searched Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science and CNKI for relative literature up to March 2017. The pooled statistics for all outcomes were expressed as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The statistical analyses were performed using Review Manager 5.3.5 analysis software and Stata software. Totally 7 eligible studies consisting of 2323 patients were enrolled in our meta-analysis. Elevated NLR was significantly associated with overall (short-term and long-term) mortality (OR 10.13, 95% CI 6.57-15.64, Panalysis revealed that NLR and PLR are promising biomarkers in predicting prognosis in acute PE patients. We suggest NLR and PLR be used routinely in the PE prognostic assessment.

  16. Washout ratio of NaCl particles by raindrops, snowflakes and fog particles obtained using the large artificial climate experiment chamber at ACEF in IES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Hitoshi; Kondo, Kunio; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Akata, Naofumi; Chikuchi, Yuki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro; Komagata, Yuuetsu

    2007-01-01

    Scavenging of NaCl particles by rainfall, snowfall and fog was examined in a large artificial climate experiment chamber in which the meteorological elements were controlled. The scavenging coefficient of Na by rainfall and snowfall were obtained using Na concentrations in air and precipitation. The washout ratio of Na by fog was also measured using Na concentrations in air and fog water. The scavenging coefficients by snowfall were found to be larger than those by rainfall, and showed that the removal efficiency of the former was higher than that of the latter. The coefficients by both rainfall and snowfall increased linearly with precipitation intensity. When the average diameters of fog droplets were the same, the washout ratio of Na by fog increased with fog liquid water content. On the other hand, when liquid water contents were the same, the washout ratio decreased with increasing average diameter of fog droplets. The washout ratio of Na by fog exponentially increased with the total surface area of fog droplets. (author)

  17. Biodegradation measurements confirm the predictive value of the O: C-ratio for biochar recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Mo; Wilske, Burkhard; Buegger, Franz

    2014-01-01

    Suitable predictors of degradability are sought to support the identification of biochars with large potential to increase C sequestration in soils. We determined the biodegradation of 9 chars from hydrothermal carbonization and pyrolysis in two agricultural soils. The 200- and 115-day degradation...... correlated strongly with the O:C- and slightly with the H:C-atomic ratio of 9 and 14 biochars, respectively. Highest temperature treatment and ash content did not show similar correlations. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim....

  18. Using the Climbing Drum Peel (CDP) Test to Obtain a G(sub IC) value for Core/Facesheet Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Gregory, Elizabeth D.; Jackson, Justin R.

    2006-01-01

    A method of measuring the Mode I fracture toughness of core/facesheet bonds in sandwich Structures is desired, particularly with the widespread use of models that need this data as input. This study examined if a critical strain energy release rate, G(sub IC), can be obtained from the climbing drum peel (CDP) test. The CDP test is relatively simple to perform and does not rely on measuring small crack lengths such as required by the double cantilever beam (DCB) test. Simple energy methods were used to calculate G(sub IC) from CDP test data on composite facesheets bonded to a honeycomb core. Facesheet thicknesses from 2 to 5 plies were tested to examine the upper and lower bounds on facesheet thickness requirements. Results from the study suggest that the CDP test, with certain provisions, can be used to find the GIG value of a core/facesheet bond.

  19. Valuing inter-sectoral costs and benefits of interventions in the healthcare sector: methods for obtaining unit prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Ruben M W A; Paulus, Aggie T G; Ruwaard, Dirk; Evers, Silvia M A A

    2017-02-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about methods for valuing health intervention-related costs and monetary benefits in the education and criminal justice sectors, also known as 'inter-sectoral costs and benefits' (ICBs). The objective of this study was to develop methods for obtaining unit prices for the valuation of ICBs. By conducting an exploratory literature study and expert interviews, several generic methods were developed. The methods' feasibility was assessed through application in the Netherlands. Results were validated in an expert meeting, which was attended by policy makers, public health experts, health economists and HTA-experts, and discussed at several international conferences and symposia. The study resulted in four methods, including the opportunity cost method (A) and valuation using available unit prices (B), self-constructed unit prices (C) or hourly labor costs (D). The methods developed can be used internationally and are valuable for the broad international field of HTA.

  20. Determination Of Oxygen Isotope Ratio (18O-/16O) and Sulfur (34S-/32S) Value Of BaSO4 Din 5033 For Internal Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evarista Ristin, P.I.; Sidauruk, Paston; Wibagoyo; Djiono; Satrio

    2000-01-01

    It has been done an experiment to determine of oxygen( 18 O-/ 16 O) and Sulfur ( 34 S-/ 32 S) ) isotop value of BaSO 4 DIN 5033 (merck) for internal standard. The used technique for preparation of CO 2 gas to measure oxygen isotop ratio ratio (stated as deltaδ 18 O) is based on Rafter on Rafte method using graphite for reduction of BaSO 4 . Where the used technique for preparation of SO 2 gas to measure isotope sulphur ratio (started as δ 34 S) is based on Robinson - Kasakabe method using Cupro oxide to oxidize Ag 2 S. The result of this experiment is 11,48±0,41 0/00 and 5,00 plus minus ±0,33 o/oo for deltaδ 18 O and δ 34 S value respectively. Based on this experiment. BaSO 4 DIN 5033 can be used as internal standard because is values both oxygen and sulphur lie in the middle of range of its variation in nature. The result of interlab comparison shows that the value of this experiment is nearly similar to the value obtained from laboratorium of Pinstech-Pakistan. To acquire the result, it is necessary to carry out more interlab comparison

  1. Predictive value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in diabetic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatankhah, Nasibeh; Jahangiri, Younes; Landry, Gregory J; McLafferty, Robert B; Alkayed, Nabil J; Moneta, Gregory L; Azarbal, Amir F

    2017-02-01

    The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been used as a surrogate marker of systemic inflammation. We sought to investigate the association between NLR and wound healing in diabetic wounds. The outcomes of 120 diabetic foot ulcers in 101 patients referred from August 2011 to December 2014 were examined retrospectively. Demographic, patient-specific, and wound-specific variables as well as NLR at baseline visit were assessed. Outcomes were classified as ulcer healing, minor amputation, major amputation, and chronic ulcer. The subjects' mean age was 59.4 ± 13.0 years, and 67 (66%) were male. Final outcome was complete healing in 24 ulcers (20%), minor amputation in 58 (48%) and major amputation in 16 (13%), and 22 chronic ulcers (18%) at the last follow-up (median follow-up time, 6.8 months). In multivariate analysis, higher NLR (odds ratio, 13.61; P = .01) was associated with higher odds of nonhealing. NLR can predict odds of complete healing in diabetic foot ulcers independent of wound infection and other factors. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. All rights reserved.

  2. Prognostic value of the urea:creatinine ratio in decompensated heart failure and its relationship with acute kidney damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josa-Laorden, C; Sola, A; Giménez-López, I; Rubio-Gracia, J; Garcés-Horna, V; Pérez-Calvo, J I

    Worsening renal function is associated with an adverse prognosis for patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Urea-creatinine ratio (U:C ratio) might be useful for measuring renal function and could help stratify patients with AHF. An observational and prospective study was conducted to analyse the prognostic value of the U:C ratio, measured during the first 24-28 hours of admission, for patients hospitalised for decompensated Heart failure, and its relationship with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and acute kidney injury (AKI). The study included 204 patients, with a mean age of 79.3 years, and a median eGFR of 55 mL/min/1.73m 2 . In the multivariate analysis, an U:C ratio above the median (50) was related to the development of AKI (36.5% vs. 21.9%) and to increased mortality, both overall (OR 2.75) and by HF (OR 3.50) in long term. In combination with eGFR, the U:C ratio showed prognostic value in patients with normal eGFR (mortality of 4.4% for an U:C ratio ≤ 50 vs. 22% for U:C ratio > 50; p=0.01), as well as a better predictive capacity for AKI than each of them separately (AUC, 0.718; 95% CI 0.643-0.793; p>.000). An U:C ratio > 50 is a predictor of increased long-term mortality for patients hospitalised for decompensated HF and with normal eGFR. Given the simplicity of this biomarker, its use in clinical practice should be more systematic. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  3. Predictive value of serum apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio in metabolic syndrome risk: a Chinese cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yu-Ching; Kuan, Jen-Chun; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Yang, Tsan; Chou, Wan-Yun; Hsieh, Po-Chien; You, San-Lin; Hwang, Lee-Ching; Chen, Chien-Hua; Wei, Cheng-Yu; Sun, Chien-An

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I (apoB/apoA-I) ratio is a promising risk predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to determine the optimal cut-off value of this ratio in detecting subjects with MetS in a Chinese population. A prospective study was conducted using a representative sample of non-institutionized people in Taiwan. A total of 3,343 participants with mean age (±SD) of 39.86 (±15.61) years old were followed up from 2002 to 2007. The primary outcome was the incidence of MetS. The MetS was defined according to a unified criterion established by several major organizations. There were 462 cases of incident MetS during a mean follow-up period of 5.26 years. A significantly stepwise increase in the incidence of MetS across quartiles of the apoB/apoA-I ratio was noted in both sexes after adjustment for potential confounders (p for trend risk of MetS in both men [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 6.29, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.79-9.13] and women (adjusted HR = 3.82, 95 % CI = 1.06-6.63). Comparisons of receiver operating characteristics curves indicated that the predictive ability of apoB/apoA-I ratio to detect MetS was better than conventional lipid ratio measurements. Furthermore, the optimal cut-off value of apoB/apoA-I ratio for MetS diagnosis was 0.71 in men and 0.56 in women. These results suggest that an elevated apoB/apoA-I ratio might constitute a potentially crucial measure linked to the risk of developing MetS.

  4. Incremental Predictive Value of Serum AST-to-ALT Ratio for Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The ARIRANG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Song Vogue; Baik, Soon Koo; Cho, Youn zoo; Koh, Sang Baek; Huh, Ji Hye; Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang Young

    2016-01-01

    Aims The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is of great interest as a possible novel marker of metabolic syndrome. However, longitudinal studies emphasizing the incremental predictive value of the AST-to-ALT ratio in diagnosing individuals at higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome are very scarce. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the AST-to-ALT ratio as an incremental predictor of new onset metabolic syndrome in a population-based cohort study. Material and Methods The population-based cohort study included 2276 adults (903 men and 1373 women) aged 40–70 years, who participated from 2005–2008 (baseline) without metabolic syndrome and were followed up from 2008–2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome. Serum concentrations of AST and ALT were determined by enzymatic methods. Results During an average follow-up period of 2.6-years, 395 individuals (17.4%) developed metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for new onset of metabolic syndrome, comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile of the AST-to-ALT ratio, was 0.598 (0.422–0.853). The AST-to-ALT ratio also improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting new cases of metabolic syndrome (0.715 vs. 0.732, P = 0.004). The net reclassification improvement of prediction models including the AST-to-ALT ratio was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.124–0.337, Pmetabolic syndrome and had incremental predictive value for incident metabolic syndrome. PMID:27560931

  5. Facial width-to-height ratio differs by social rank across organizations, countries, and value systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Tim; Winter, Nils R; Anderl, Christine; Notebaert, Karolien; Wuttke, Alina Marie; Clément, Celina Chantal; Windmann, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Facial Width-to-Height Ratio (fWHR) has been linked with dominant and aggressive behavior in human males. We show here that on portrait photographs published online, chief executive officers (CEOs) of companies listed in the Dow Jones stock market index and the Deutscher Aktienindex have a higher-than-normal fWHR, which also correlates positively with their company's donations to charitable causes and environmental awareness. Furthermore, we show that leaders of the world's most influential non-governmental organizations and even the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church, the popes, have higher fWHR compared to controls on public portraits, suggesting that the relationship between displayed fWHR and leadership is not limited to profit-seeking organizations. The data speak against the simplistic view that wider-faced men achieve higher social status through antisocial tendencies and overt aggression, or the mere signaling of such dispositions. Instead they suggest that high fWHR is linked with high social rank in a more subtle fashion in both competitive as well as prosocially oriented settings.

  6. Evaluation of the prognostic value of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in patients with hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuchen; Fuentes, Harry E; Attar, Bashar M; Jaiswal, Palash; Demetria, Melchor

    Recent studies attribute promising prognostic values to various inflammatory biomarkers in acute pancreatitis, including the following: the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and red cell distribution width (RDW). We aimed to determine the performance of these biomarkers for detecting disease severity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis (HTG-AP). We retrospectively reviewed 110 patients with HTG-AP and compared the NLR, PLR, and RDW in different severity groups. We performed receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to identify the optimal cut-off value for NLR to predict severe AP. NLR was significantly higher in patients with severe AP than mild and moderately severe AP (14.6 vs. 6.9, p analysis (Odds ratio 6.71, p = 0.019). NLR represents an inexpensive, readily available test with a promising value to predict disease severity in HTG-AP. Among the three inflammatory biomarkers, NLR has the highest discriminatory capacity for severe HTG-AP, with an optimal cut-off value of 10. Copyright © 2017 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Intraocular pressure values obtained by ocular response analyzer, dynamic contour tonometry, and goldmann tonometry in keratokonic corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Atilla; Sahin, Afsun; Hürmeriç, Volkan; Ozge, Gökhan

    2010-01-01

    To determine the agreement between dynamic contour tonometer (DCT), Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), and Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) in keratoconic corneas and to find out the effect of corneal biomechanics on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements obtained by these devices. IOP was measured with the ORA, DCT, and GAT in random order in 120 eyes of 61 keratoconus patients. Central corneal thickness (CCT) and keratometry were measured after all IOP determinations had been made. The mean IOP measurement by the ORA and DCT was compared with the measurement by the GAT, using Student t test. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to assess the clinical agreement between these methods. The effect of corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), and CCT on measured IOP was explored by multiple backward stepwise linear regression analysis. The mean±SD patient age was 30.6±11.2 years. The mean±SD IOP measurement obtained with GAT, ORA Goldmann-correlated IOP (IOPg), ORA corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc), and DCT was 10.96±2.8, 10.23±3.5, 14.65±2.8, and 15.42±2.7 mm Hg, respectively. The mean±SD CCT was 464.08±58.4 microns. The mean difference between IOPcc and GAT (P<0.0001), IOPcc and DCT (P<0.001), GAT and DCT (P<0.0001), IOPg and GAT (P<0.002), and IOPg and DCT (P<0.0001), was highly statistically significant. In multivariable regression analysis, DCT IOP and GAT IOP measurements were significantly associated with CH and CRF (P<0.0001 for both). DCT seemed to be affected by CH and CRF, and the IOP values tended to be higher when compared with GAT. ORA-measured IOPcc was found to be independent of CCT and suitable in comparison to the DCT in keratoconic eyes.

  8. Prognostic value of myocardial infarct size index, obtained with technetium-99m pyrophosphate and thallium-201 chloride scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, Masami [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-02-01

    In order to determine the usefulness of nuclear cardiology methods in evaluating infarction size and in predicting subsequent mortality, the infarction size index was calculated and their left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured for 136 patients with acute myocardial infarction, by means of sup(99m)Tc- and /sup 201/Tl-scintigraphy. Sensitivity of sup(99m)Tc-scintigraphy was 84% (of 44 cases). The hot sup(99m)Tc-areas were measured by planimetry only in anterior transmural infarctions. For 15 patients followed for 25 months on the average, hot areas were 13.8 +- 10.8 cm/sup 2/ in survivors and 31.7 +- 18.2 cm/sup 2/ in non-survivors. Both a doughnut pattern and persistent hot area in scintigraphs were signs of poor prognosis. Sensitivity of /sup 201/Tl-scintigraphy was 86% (of 95 cases). The extent of /sup 201/Tl perfusion defects was determined in three views by the average ratio of the length of perfusion defects to that of the left ventricle (LV). Interobserver correlation was high (r = 0.89). As the percent /sup 201/Tl defect index increased, the peak value of creatine phosphokinase, the grade of Peel index, incidence of congestion on initial chest X-ray, and LV aneurysma all gradually increased. In 48 patients followed for 23 months on the average after discharge, the incidence of congestive heart failure and mortality also increased with the larger degree of percent /sup 201/Tl defect index. In particular, the prognosis was poor in patients who had the percent /sup 201/Tl defect index larger than 40%. The LVEF, measured with a computerized multi-crystal gamma camera, was well correlated with that of contrast ventriculography (r = 0.92). The patients who had severe LV dysfunction and the LVEF less than 31% also showed poor prognosis.

  9. Prognostic value of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio in pancreatic cancer: a comprehensive meta-analysis of 17 cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongping; Cheng, Sijin; Fathy, Abdel Hamid; Qian, Haixin; Zhao, Yongzhao

    2018-01-01

    Several studies were conducted to explore the prognostic value of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in pancreatic cancer and have reported contradictory results. This study aims to summarize the prognostic role of PLR in pancreatic cancer. Embase, PubMed and Cochrane Library were completely searched. The cohort studies focusing on the prognostic role of PLR in pancreatic cancer were eligible. The overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. Fifteen papers containing 17 cohort studies with pancreatic cancer were identified. The results showed patients that with low PLR might have longer OS when compared to the patients with high PLR (hazard ratio=1.28, 95% CI=1.17-1.40, P analysis model, ethnicity, sample size and cut-off value. Further analyses based on the adjusted potential confounders were conducted, including CA199, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, modified Glasgow Prognostic Score, albumin, C-reactive protein, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, stage, tumor size, nodal involvement, tumor differentiation, margin status, age and gender, which confirmed that low PLR was a protective factor in pancreatic cancer. In addition, low PLR was significantly associated with longer PFS when compared to high PLR in pancreatic cancer (hazard ratio=1.27, 95% CI=1.03-1.57, P =0.03; I 2 =33%). In conclusion, it was found that high PLR is an unfavorable predictor of OS and PFS in patients with pancreatic cancer, and PLR is a promising prognostic biomarker for pancreatic cancer.

  10. Digital image analysis supports a nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio cutoff value of 0.5 for atypical urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Jen-Fan; Charu, Vivek; Zhang, M Lisa; VandenBussche, Christopher J

    2017-09-01

    An elevated nuclear-to-cytoplasmic (N:C) ratio of ≥0.5 is a required criterion for the diagnosis of atypical urothelial cells (AUC) in The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology. To validate the N:C ratio cutoff value and its predictive power for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC), the authors retrospectively reviewed the urinary tract cytology specimens of 15 cases of AUC with HGUC on follow-up (AUC-HGUC) and 33 cases of AUC without HGUC on follow-up (AUC-N-HGUC). The number of atypical cells in each case was recorded, and each atypical cell was photographed and digitally examined to calculate the nuclear size and N:C ratio. On average, the maximum N:C ratios of atypical cells were significantly different between the AUC-HGUC and AUC-N-HGUC cohorts (0.53 vs 0.43; P =.00009), whereas the maximum nuclear sizes of atypical cells (153.43 μM 2 vs 201.47 μM 2 ; P = .69) and the number of atypical cells per case (10.13 vs 7.88; P = .12) were not found to be significantly different. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the maximum N:C ratio alone had high discriminatory capacity (area under the curve, 79.19%; 95% confidence interval, 64.19%-94.19%). The optimal maximum N:C ratio threshold was 0.486, giving a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 84.8% for predicting HGUC on follow-up. The identification of AUC with an N:C ratio >0.486 has a high predictive power for HGUC on follow-up in AUC specimens. This justifies using the N:C ratio as a required criterion for the AUC category. Individual laboratories using different cytopreparation methods may require independent validation of the N:C ratio cutoff value. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:710-6. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  11. Value of the Strain Ratio on Ultrasonic Elastography for Differentiation of Benign and Malignant Soft Tissue Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Seok; Lee, Young Han; Lee, Seung Hyun; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the strain ratio provides additional value to conventional visual elasticity scores in the differentiation of benign and malignant soft tissue tumors by ultrasonic elastography. The Institutional Review Board approved the protocol of this retrospective review. Seventy-three patients who underwent elastography and had a soft tissue mass pathologically confirmed by ultrasound-guided core biopsy or surgical excision were enrolled from April 2012 through October 2014. On elastography, elasticity scores were determined with a 5-point visual scale, and the strain ratio to adjacent soft tissue at the same depth was calculated. Tumors were divided into benign and malignant groups according to the pathologic diagnoses. Elasticity scores and strain ratios were compared between benign and malignant groups, and diagnostic performance was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves. Of the 73 patients, 40 had benign tumors, and 33 had malignant tumors. Strain ratios (P = .003) and elasticity scores (P = .048) were significantly different between pathologic results. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.700 (95% confidence interval, 0.581-0.802) for the strain ratio and 0.623 (95% confidence interval, 0.515-0.746) for elastography. The strain ratios of malignant soft tissue tumors were lower than those of benign tumors and showed better diagnostic performance than did elasticity scores. The strain ratio can be used as a diagnostic indicator to predict the malignant potential of soft tissue tumors. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Annual Equivalent Value, Benefit Cost Ratio, and Composite Performance Index as Valuation Appraisal Support of Teakwood Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Soeleman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis L.f is a premium high-value hardwood species being viewed as the most preferred species for investment opportunity. Recently, there has been a gradual move away from state control of teakwood plantation toward the participation of private enterprises. Several enterprises offer investment opportunity of teakwood plantation in which one of the main selling points being offered is a quick harvesting schedule. A quick harvesting time, however, might not provide the best outcome to the investors. This research exercise and compare the valuation appraisal of different harvesting schedules. The research focused on project planning, enterprise budget, financial projection, and valuation measurements to arrive at overall appraisal. To avoid any possible bias of individual investor's preference on common valuation criteria such as total investment, net cash flow (NCF, net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR, profit on investment (P/I, and payback period (PBP, 3 otherS criteria namely benefit cost ratio (BCR, annual equivalent value (AEV, and composite performance index (CPI have been applied to arrive at a more fair valuation. It is concluded that the longer the harvesting schedule, the better valuation outcome could be achieved, and therefore, investors should critically review any investment proposal in accordance to their preference on valuation criteria. Keywords : annual equivalent value, benefit cost ratio, composite performance index, valuation appraisal

  13. Prognostic implication of the metastatic lesion-to-ovarian cancer standardised uptake value ratio in advanced serous epithelial ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hyun Hoon; Lee, Maria; Kim, Hee-Seung; Kim, Jae-Weon; Park, Noh-Hyun; Song, Yong Sang; Cheon, Gi Jeong

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic value of metabolic activity of metastatic lesions measured by 18 F-flurodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) uptake on preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with advanced serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Clinico-pathological variables and PET/CT parameters such as the maximum standardised uptake value of the ovarian cancer (SUV ovary ), metastatic lesions (SUV meta ), and the metastatic lesion-to-ovarian cancer standardised uptake value ratio (SUV meta /SUV ovary ) were assessed in International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage III, IV patients. Clinico-pathological data were retrospectively reviewed for 94 eligible patients. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 18.5 months (range, 6-90 months), and 57 (60.6%) patients experienced recurrence. Older age [P = 0.017, hazard ratio (HR) 1.036, 95% CI 1.006-1.066], residual disease after surgery (P = 0.024, HR 1.907, 95% CI 1.087-3.346), and high SUV meta /SUV ovary (P = 0.019, HR 2.321, 95% CI 1.148-4.692) were independent risk factors of recurrence. Patients with high SUV meta /SUV ovary showed a significantly worse PFS than those with low SUV meta /SUV ovary (P = 0.007, log-rank test). Preoperative SUV meta /SUV ovary was significantly associated with recurrence and has an incremental prognostic value for PFS in patients with advanced serous EOC. (orig.)

  14. Thermospheric O/N2 ratio observations obtained over more than four years with the GUVI instrument in the TIMED spacecraft mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, J. D.; Christensen, A. B.; Paxton, L. J.; Strickland, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    GUVI observations of the thermospheric column density ratio, O/N2, in the sunlit hemisphere have been made continuously from about Day 50 of 2002 to the present as part of the TIMED spacecraft mission. From these observations have been created organized databases to be used in the creation of analytic models for this parameter. Undesirable attributes within the GUVI data are being eliminated; sun glint at particular solar orientations and penetrating radiation from the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly. The large-scale basic spatial structure includes variations with local time (greater values before local noon), Universal Time (modulation at high latitudes as the dayside auroral oval varies in solar zenith angle due to the offset magnetic dipole), and season (greater values in the local winter hemisphere). Superposed on this well- behaved background structure are the complex, transient perturbations of auroral substorm and geomagnetic storm driven heating events at the high latitudes. These are more difficult to analyze, but are of great interest, as changes in neutral composition, for example, drive changes in ionospheric electron density. The current state of these efforts is to be presented.

  15. Diagnostic value of serum free PSA and the ratio of free to total PSA in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Ningyan; Zhang Jingxin; Wu Jinchang; Gong Yiming; Li Huiping

    2005-01-01

    In order to evaluate the value of free prostate specific antigen (FPSA) and F/T PSA ratio in differential diagnosis of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) from prostate cancer (PC), serum FPSA and TPSA levels were measured in 85 patients with PC, 97 BPH and 89 healthy volunteers by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA), and the ratio of F/T PSA was calculated. The results showed that serum FPSA and TPSA levels were increased in healthy volunteers of 41-88 years old and were significantly higher in healthy volunteers of 61-88 years old than that in 20-40 gear old (P 10.0 μg/L were 65.0%, 30.9% and 4.1%, respectively, while they were 5.9%, 20.0% and 74.1% in PC patients (P<0.01). When the TPSA value was between 4.0-10.0 μg/L and the ratio of F/T PSA was at 0.10 and below, the probability of PC was larger(88.9%). But the ratio of F/T PSA was at 0.25 and above, the probability of PC was smaller(6.20%). Serum FPSA and TPSA both increased with age in healthy volunteers of 41-88 years old and were positively correlated with age. There were about 30.9% of BPH and 20.0% of PC patients with overlapping of TPSA level. Our conclusion is that the F/T PSA ratio can significantly enhance the specificity for PC diagnosis, especially when the TPSA is within the diagnostic gray zone. (authors)

  16. Review of titanium dioxide nanoparticle phototoxicity: Developing a phototoxicity ratio to correct the endpoint values of toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are photoactive and produce reactive oxygen species under natural sunlight. Reactive oxygen species can be detrimental to many organisms, causing oxidative damage, cell injury, and death. Most studies investigating TiO2 nanoparticle toxicity did not consider photoactivation and performed tests either in dark conditions or under artificial lighting that did not simulate natural irradiation. The present study summarizes the literature and derives a phototoxicity ratio between the results of nano‐titanium dioxide (nano‐TiO2) experiments conducted in the absence of sunlight and those conducted under solar or simulated solar radiation (SSR) for aquatic species. Therefore, the phototoxicity ratio can be used to correct endpoints of the toxicity tests with nano‐TiO2 that were performed in absence of sunlight. Such corrections also may be important for regulators and risk assessors when reviewing previously published data. A significant difference was observed between the phototoxicity ratios of 2 distinct groups: aquatic species belonging to order Cladocera, and all other aquatic species. Order Cladocera appeared very sensitive and prone to nano‐TiO2 phototoxicity. On average nano‐TiO2 was 20 times more toxic to non‐Cladocera and 1867 times more toxic to Cladocera (median values 3.3 and 24.7, respectively) after illumination. Both median value and 75% quartile of the phototoxicity ratio are chosen as the most practical values for the correction of endpoints of nano‐TiO2 toxicity tests that were performed in dark conditions, or in the absence of sunlight. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1070–1077. © 2015 The Author. Published by SETAC. PMID:25640001

  17. In vitro evaluation of resonance frequency analysis values to different implant contact ratio and stiffness of surrounding material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Mu-Seung; Kim, Seok-Gyu

    2013-11-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the influence of implant contact ratio and stiffness of implant-surrounding materials on the resonance frequency analysis (RFA) values. Seventy resin blocks that had the different amounts (100, 50, 30, 15%) of resin-implant contact (RIC) were fabricated. Ten silicone putty blocks with 100% silicone-implant contact were also made. The implants with Ø5.0 mm × 13.0 mm were placed on eighty specimen blocks. The RFA value was measured on the transducer that was connected to each implant by Osstell Mentor. Kruskal-Wallis and Scheffe's tests (α=.05) were done for statistical analysis. The control resin group with 100% RIC had the highest RFA value of 83.9, which was significantly different only from the resin group with 15% RIC among the resin groups. The silicone putty group with 100% contact had the lowest RFA value of 36.6 and showed statistically significant differences from the resin groups. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, there was no significant difference in the RFA values among the resin groups with different RIC's except when the RIC difference was more than 85%. A significant increase in the RFA value was observed related to the increase in stiffness of material around implant.

  18. Lost in interpretation: should the highest VC value be used to calculate the FEV1/VC ratio?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortis S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spyridon FortisDepartment of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Occupational Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USAAirflow obstruction or obstructive ventilatory defect (OVD is defined as low forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 to vital capacity (VC ratio. VC can be measured in various ways, and the definition of “low FEV1/VC” ratio varies.     VC can be measured during forced expiration before bronchodilators (forced vital capacity [FVC] and after bronchodilators (post-FVC, and during slow expiration (slow vital capacity [SVC] and during inspiration (inspiratory vital capacity [IVC]. Theoretically, in a healthy person, VC values should be the same regardless of the maneuver used. Nevertheless, SVC is usually larger than FVC except in patients with no OVD and body mass index <25 kg/m2.1 In obstructive lung diseases, FVC may be reduced, which may result in an increase of FEV1/FVC ratio and misdiagnosis.2 For that reason, American Thoracic Society–European Respiratory Society recommends using SVC or IVC to calculate the FEV1/VC ratio.2 Approximately, 10% of smokers have FEV1% predicted <80% and FEV1/FVC >70%, a pattern known as preserved ratio impaired spirometry.3 Of all the subjects with FVC below the lower limit of normal (LLN and FEV1/FVC > LLN, only 64% have restriction in lung volumes. The rest 36% have a nonspecific Pulmonary Function Test pattern.4 Approximately, 15% of patients with this nonspecific PFT pattern develop OVD in follow-up PFTs.4 It is possible that a portion of patients with obstructive lung disease remain underdiagnosed when FVC is used to compute FEV1/FVC ratio.View the original paper by Torén and colleagues.

  19. What is the optimal value of the g-ratio for myelinated fibers in the rat CNS? A theoretical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Chomiak

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological process underlying axonal myelination is complex and often prone to injury and disease. The ratio of the inner axonal diameter to the total outer diameter or g-ratio is widely utilized as a functional and structural index of optimal axonal myelination. Based on the speed of fiber conduction, Rushton was the first to derive a theoretical estimate of the optimal g-ratio of 0.6 [1]. This theoretical limit nicely explains the experimental data for myelinated axons obtained for some peripheral fibers but appears significantly lower than that found for CNS fibers. This is, however, hardly surprising given that in the CNS, axonal myelination must achieve multiple goals including reducing conduction delays, promoting conduction fidelity, lowering energy costs, and saving space.In this study we explore the notion that a balanced set-point can be achieved at a functional level as the micro-structure of individual axons becomes optimized, particularly for the central system where axons tend to be smaller and their myelin sheath thinner. We used an intuitive yet novel theoretical approach based on the fundamental biophysical properties describing axonal structure and function to show that an optimal g-ratio can be defined for the central nervous system (approximately 0.77. Furthermore, by reducing the influence of volume constraints on structural design by about 40%, this approach can also predict the g-ratio observed in some peripheral fibers (approximately 0.6.These results support the notion of optimization theory in nervous system design and construction and may also help explain why the central and peripheral systems have evolved different g-ratios as a result of volume constraints.

  20. What is the optimal value of the g-ratio for myelinated fibers in the rat CNS? A theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomiak, Taylor; Hu, Bin

    2009-11-13

    The biological process underlying axonal myelination is complex and often prone to injury and disease. The ratio of the inner axonal diameter to the total outer diameter or g-ratio is widely utilized as a functional and structural index of optimal axonal myelination. Based on the speed of fiber conduction, Rushton was the first to derive a theoretical estimate of the optimal g-ratio of 0.6 [1]. This theoretical limit nicely explains the experimental data for myelinated axons obtained for some peripheral fibers but appears significantly lower than that found for CNS fibers. This is, however, hardly surprising given that in the CNS, axonal myelination must achieve multiple goals including reducing conduction delays, promoting conduction fidelity, lowering energy costs, and saving space. In this study we explore the notion that a balanced set-point can be achieved at a functional level as the micro-structure of individual axons becomes optimized, particularly for the central system where axons tend to be smaller and their myelin sheath thinner. We used an intuitive yet novel theoretical approach based on the fundamental biophysical properties describing axonal structure and function to show that an optimal g-ratio can be defined for the central nervous system (approximately 0.77). Furthermore, by reducing the influence of volume constraints on structural design by about 40%, this approach can also predict the g-ratio observed in some peripheral fibers (approximately 0.6). These results support the notion of optimization theory in nervous system design and construction and may also help explain why the central and peripheral systems have evolved different g-ratios as a result of volume constraints.

  1. Comparison between total lung capacity and residual volume values obtained by pletysmography and single breath methods with methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marques Dias

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed pulmonary function tests of twenty asthmatic patients from Gaffrée e Guinle University Hospital, classified according to Brazilian Guidelines for Asthma (2002, similar to GINA, into mild persistent or moderate (9 or severe (11 asthma. We obtained parameters from spirometry, plethysmograph(PL and single breath technique for diffusion capacity (SB, with methane. Total lung capacity and residual volume were called TLCPL and RVPL when measured by pletysmography and TLCSB and RVSB when determined by single breath test. There were 13 women and 7 men with mean age of 47.6 years. The pulmonary dysfunction degree to FEV1/FVC was 58.8% with CI95=53.9 to 63.6. The mean values in litres for TLCPL (5.94 and RVPL (2.55 were significantly higher than for TLCSB (4.73 and RVSB (1.66. Multiple regression equations were determined for TLCPL e RVPL using only single breath values, TLCSB or RVSB, and spirographic parameters, with significant regression coefficients. However, the inclusion of spirometric parameters, except for FVC, did not improve the predicted capacity for the equations. Considering only the TLCSB, r2=0.79, the equation is: TLCPL=(TLCSB*1.025+1.088, with EPE=0.64. The regression for RVPL, r2=0.23, is: RVPL=(RVSB*0.9268+1.012. The results obtained after bronchodilation with 400 mcg of salbutamol did not improve the regression. We concluded that the SB technique did not obtain the same results as pletysmography for TLC and RV, but for TLC this difference can be predicted. Resumo: Foram analisados exames de função pulmonar de 20 asmáticos, em acompanhamento no HU Gaffrée Guinle, classificados, segundo o Consenso Brasileiro (2002, em asma leve persistente ou moderada (9 e grave (11. Foram obtidos os valores dos parâmetros da espirografia, da pletismografia e da técnica de respiração única, com metano, para a medida da difusão pulmonar (DLco. Assim, a capacidade pulmonar total e o volume residual, quando

  2. Predictive value of elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in patients undergoing primary angioplasty for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergelen, Mehmet; Uyarel, Huseyin; Altay, Servet; Kul, Şeref; Ayhan, Erkan; Isık, Turgay; Kemaloğlu, Tuba; Gül, Mehmet; Sönmez, Osman; Erdoğan, Ercan; Turfan, Murat

    2014-05-01

    The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been investigated as a new predictor for cardiovascular risk. Admission NLR would be predictive of adverse outcomes after primary angioplasty for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). A total of 2410 patients with STEMI undergoing primary angioplasty were retrospectively enrolled. The study population was divided into tertiles based on the NLR values. A high NLR (n = 803) was defined as a value in the third tertile (>6.97), and a low NLR (n = 1607) was defined as a value in the lower 2 tertiles (≤6.97). High NLR group had higher incidence of inhospital and long-term cardiovascular mortality (5% vs 1.4%, P 6.97) was found as an independent predictor of inhospital cardiovascular mortality (odds ratio: 2.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.37-5.74, P = .005). High NLR level is associated with increased inhospital and long-term cardiovascular mortality in patients with STEMI undergoing primary angioplasty.

  3. [Evaluation of signal noise ratio on analysis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma using DWI with multi-b values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiule; Xing, Wei; Chen, Jie; Dai, Yongming; Sun, Jun; Li, Dengfa

    2014-01-21

    To explore the influence of signal noise ratio (SNR) on analysis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) using DWI with multi-b values. The images of 17 cases with CCRCC were analyzed, including 17 masses and 9 pure cysts. The signal intensity of the cysts and masses was measured separately on DWI for each b value. The minimal SNR, as the threshold, was recorded when the signal curve manifest as the single exponential line. The SNR of the CCRCC was calculated on DWI for each b value, and compared with the threshold by independent Two-sample t Test. The signal decreased on DWI with increased b factors for both pure cysts and CCRCC. The threshold is 1.29 ± 0.17, and the signal intensity of the cysts on DWI with multi-b values shown as a single exponential line when b ≤ 800 s/mm(2). For the CCRCC, the SNR is similar to the threshold when b = 1 000 s/mm(2) (t = 0.40, P = 0.69), and is lower when b = 1 200 s/mm(2) (t = -2.38, P = 0.03). The SNR should be sufficient for quantitative analysis of DWI, and the maximal b value is 1000 s/mm(2) for CCRCC.

  4. EFFECT OF THE PRODUCTION SEASON ON NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND TECHNOLOGICAL SUITABILITY OF MILK OBTAINED FROM INTENSIVE (TMR AND TRADITIONAL FEEDING SYSTEM OF COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Brodziak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variations in milk yield and its chemical composition arise mainly from changes in feeding of the cattle in different seasons of the year. A constant quantity of production and a similar quality of the raw material supply farms, where the feeding of cows is uniform throughout the year (TMR and PMR. The study included 1211 samples of milk obtained in the summer season (663 and in the winter season (548 from cows maintained in traditional and intensive (TMR system of production. Following parameters were determined: content of fat, protein, casein, lactose and dry matter; acidity (pH value; heat stability; rennet coagulation time; content of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin, lactoferrin, lysozyme and fatty acid profiles. Cows fed in the TMR system produced significantly (P≤0.01 more milk and of a better chemical composition regardless of the season of production. Milk obtained from cows fed traditionally had the most profitable protein to fat ratio (0,90 and the shortest time of rennet coagulation (3:26 min. It contained significantly (P≤0.01 more whey proteins and had better fatty acid profiles for health. In addition the differences were usually larger in the summer season than in the winter season. It is possible to state that in summer season, when the animals are maintained on the pasture, milk obtained from cows fed traditionally is more suitable for processing and contains more biologically active substances. The daily milk yield and other important quality features of milk, significant interactions between season of production and system of feeding were revealed.

  5. Prognostic implication of the metastatic lesion-to-ovarian cancer standardised uptake value ratio in advanced serous epithelial ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hyun Hoon; Lee, Maria; Kim, Hee-Seung; Kim, Jae-Weon; Park, Noh-Hyun; Song, Yong Sang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Gi Jeong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    To evaluate the prognostic value of metabolic activity of metastatic lesions measured by {sup 18}F-flurodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) uptake on preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with advanced serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Clinico-pathological variables and PET/CT parameters such as the maximum standardised uptake value of the ovarian cancer (SUV{sub ovary}), metastatic lesions (SUV{sub meta}), and the metastatic lesion-to-ovarian cancer standardised uptake value ratio (SUV{sub meta}/SUV{sub ovary}) were assessed in International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage III, IV patients. Clinico-pathological data were retrospectively reviewed for 94 eligible patients. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 18.5 months (range, 6-90 months), and 57 (60.6%) patients experienced recurrence. Older age [P = 0.017, hazard ratio (HR) 1.036, 95% CI 1.006-1.066], residual disease after surgery (P = 0.024, HR 1.907, 95% CI 1.087-3.346), and high SUV{sub meta}/SUV{sub ovary} (P = 0.019, HR 2.321, 95% CI 1.148-4.692) were independent risk factors of recurrence. Patients with high SUV{sub meta}/SUV{sub ovary} showed a significantly worse PFS than those with low SUV{sub meta}/SUV{sub ovary} (P = 0.007, log-rank test). Preoperative SUV{sub meta}/SUV{sub ovary} was significantly associated with recurrence and has an incremental prognostic value for PFS in patients with advanced serous EOC. (orig.)

  6. Theoretical calculations of L alpha one x-ray emission intensity ratios for uranium in various matrices: a comparison with experimental values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.D.

    1976-01-01

    The U L/sub α1/ x-ray emission intensity ratios (I/sub lambda/sub L//I sub lambda/sub L/, sub 100 percent/sub UO 2 /) in various matrices were calculated using the fundamental parameters formula of Criss and Birks and mass absorption coefficients calculated from a formula developed by Dewey. The use of the intensity ratio made it unnecessary to know the fluorescence yield for the U L/sub III/ level, the probability of emission of the U L/sub α1/ line, and the jump ratios for the three absorption edges of uranium. Also, since an intensity ratio was used, the results are independent of the x-ray tube current and the spectral distribution of the x-ray tube. A method is presented to calculate the intensity ratios for x-ray tube voltages other than the value (45 kV) used in the calculations. The theoretical results are calculated and compared with the experimental results obtained for 141 matrices. Difficulties due to oxidation of some of the metal powders used in the sample preparation, to small concentrations of uranium, and to an excessively large number of elements present in some of the samples resulted in the invalidation of the experimental results for 91 of the matrices. For the remaining 50 matrices, the theoretical and experimental values agreed to within +-5 percent relative error for 36 matrices; to within +-5 percent to +- 10 percent for 7 matrices; to within +-10 percent to +-20 percent for 6 matrices; and was greater than +-20 percent for 1 matrix

  7. [Simultaneous determination of delta13C values of glycerol and ethanol in wine by liquid chromatography coupled with isotope ratio mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuemin; Jia, Guangqun; Cao, Yanzhong; Zhang, Jinjie; Wang, Lei; Sun, Huiyuan

    2013-12-01

    A novel procedure was established for the characterization of delta13C values of glycerol and ethanol in wine by liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS). Several parameters influencing the separation of glycerol and ethanol from wine matrix were optimized. The precision and accuracy of the proposed method were 0.15 per thousand to 0.26 per thousand and 0.11 per thousand to 0.28 per thousand, respectively. The results obtained for 40 wine samples displayed that the delta13C value of glycerol ranged from--26.87 per thousand to--32.96 per thousand and that of ethanol ranged from--24.06 per thousand to--28.29 per thousand. Close correlations (R = 0.82) were obtained between the delta13C values of glycerol and ethanol. The proposed method didn't need complex sample treatment, and the delta13C values of glycerol and ethanol in wine can be simultaneously determined, thus improving the method in terms of simplicity and speed compared with traditional methods.

  8. A slope-ratio precision-fed rooster assay for determination of relative metabolizable energy values for fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aardsma, M P; Parsons, C M

    2017-01-01

    The precision-fed rooster assay (PFRA) frequently yields TME n values for fats and oils in excess of their gross energies. Six experiments were conducted to determine if the PFRA could be combined with a slope-ratio type assay to yield more useful lipid TME n values. In experiment (EXP) 1, refined corn oil (RCO) was fed to conventional and cecectomized roosters at zero, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of a ground corn diet. In EXP 2 through 6, lipids were fed to conventional roosters at zero, 5, and 10% in a ground corn diet. Palomys (a novel lipid), high stearidonic acid soybean oil (SDASO), 2 animal-vegetable blends (AV1, AV2), a vegetable-based oil blend (VB), and corn oil from an ethanol plant (DDGSCO) were evaluated and compared to refined soybean oil (RSO) or RCO as the reference lipid. Multiple linear regression of diet TME n on supplemental lipid level generated regression coefficients that were used to calculate relative bioavailability values (RBV). In EXP 1, RCO was a suitable reference material as TME n linearly increased up to 20% RCO inclusion. There were some minor differences in TME n of RCO between conventional and cecetomized bird types. In EXP 2, Palomys was found to have a lower (P rooster assay can detect differences among lipids and yields practically useful lipid TME n values. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Prognostic value of the pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in cervical cancer: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiayuan; Chen, Manyu; Liang, Caixia; Su, Wenmei

    2017-02-21

    The prognostic value of pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in cervical cancer remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis based on the data from 13 studies with 3729 patients to evaluate the association between the pretreatment NLR and the clinical outcomes of overall survival and progression-free survival in patients with cervical cancer. The relationship between NLR and clinicopathological parameters was also assessed. Hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the effect size estimate. Our analysis indicated that elevated pretreatment NLR was a poor prognostic marker for patients with cervical cancer because it predicted unfavorable overall survival (HR = 1.375, 95% CI: 1.200-1.576) and progression-free survival (HR = 1.646, 95% CI: 1.313-2.065). Increased NLR is also significantly associated with the larger tumor size (OR = 1.780, 95% CI: 1.090-2.908), advanced clinical stage (OR = 2.443, 95% CI: 1.730-3.451), and positive lymph node metastasis (OR = 2.380, 95% CI: 1.775-3.190). By these results, high pretreatment NLR predicted a shorter survival period for patients with cervical cancer, and it could be served as a novel index of prognostic evaluation in patients with cervical cancer.

  10. Discriminating the endogenous and exogenous urinary estrogens in human by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry and its potential clinical value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng; Zhang, Dapeng; Xu, Youxuan; Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Xin; Wang, Shan; Wang, Jingzhu; Wu, Moutian; He, Zhenwen; Zhao, Jian; Yuan, Hong

    2013-02-01

    Estrogens were prohibited in the food producing animals by European Union (96/22/EC directive) and added to the Report on Carcinogens in United States since 2002. Due to very low concentration in serum or urine (~pg/mL), the method of control its abuse had not been fully developed. The endogenous estrogens were separated from urines of 18 adult men and women. The exogenous estrogens were chemical reference standards and over the counter preparations. Two patients of dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) administered exogenous estradiol and the urines were collected for 72 h. The urinary estrogens were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and confirmed. The exogenous and exogenous estrogens were analyzed by gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) to determine the (13)C/(12)C ratio (δ(13)C‰). The δ(13)C‰ values of reference standard of E1, E2, and E3 were -29.36±0.72, -27.98±0.35, -27.62±0.51, respectively. The δ(13)C‰ values of the endogenous E1, E2, and E3 were -21.62±1.07, -22.14±0.98, and -21.88±1.16, with Pendogenous and exogenous urinary estrogen in human. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The stability of clay using Portland cement and calsium carbide residue with California bearing ratio (cbr) value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puji Hastuty, Ika; Roesyanto; Novia Sari, Intan; Simanjuntak, Oberlyn

    2018-03-01

    Clay is a type of soil which is often used for stabilization. This is caused by its properties which are very hard in dry conditions and plastic in the medium content of water. However, at a higher level of water, clay will be cohesive and very lenient causing a large volume change due to the influence of water and also causing the soil to expand and shrink for a short period of time. These are the reasons why stabilization is needed in order to increase bearing capacity value of the clay. Stabilization is one of the ways to the conditon of soil that has the poor index properties, for example by adding chemical material to the soil. One of the chemical materials than can be added to the soil is calsium carbide residue. The purpose of this research is to know the fixation of index properties as the effect of adding 2% PC and calsium carbide residue to the clay, and to know the bearing capacity value of CBR (California Bearing Ratio) as the effect of adding the stabilization agent and to know the optimum content of adding calsium carbide residue. The result of the research shows that the usage of 2% cement in the soil that has CBR value 5,76%, and adding 2% cement and 9% calsium carbide residue with a period of curing 14 days has the lagerst of CBR value that is 9,95%. The unsoaked CBR value shows the increase of CBR value upto the mixture content of calsium carbide residue 9% and, decreases at the mixture content of calsium carbide residue 10% and 11%.

  12. A comparison of specific effective energies values obtained for some radioactive element using 3 different decay data banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, J.E.C.; Bertelli Neto, L.

    1990-01-01

    The Specific Effective Energies (SEE) are the dose equivalents received by each of the body organs (targets organs) per nuclear transformation of a radionuclide deposited in an organ or tissue (source organ) after an intake of this isotope. The SEE values were calculated on basis of the dosimetric concepts of Publication 30 of the International Comission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The results were evaluated using two of the three most known decay data banks. This study shows considerables discrepancies in the evaluation of the SEE values for some radionuclides. In theses cases it is recommended the use of the most complete and detailed decay data bank to perform the SEE calculations. (author) [pt

  13. Estimating the impact of somatic cell count on the value of milk utilising parameters obtained from the published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Una; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; O'Brien, Bernadette; Garrick, Dorian J; Shalloo, Laurence

    2014-05-01

    The impact of mastitis on milk value per litre independent of the effect of mastitis on milk volume, was quantified for Ireland using a meta-analysis and a processing sector model. Changes in raw milk composition, cheese processing and composition associated with increased bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) were incorporated into the model. Processing costs and market values were representative of current industry values. It was assumed that as BMSCC increased (i) milk fat and milk protein increased and milk lactose decreased, (ii) fat and protein recoveries decreased, (iii) cheese protein decreased and cheese moisture increased. Five BMSCC categories were examined from ⩽100 000 to >400 000 cells/ml. The analysis showed that as BMSCC increased the production quantities reduced. An increase in BMSCC from 100 000 to >400 000 cells/ml saw a reduction in net revenue of 3·2% per annum (€51·3 million) which corresponded to a reduction in the value of raw milk of €0·0096 cents/l.

  14. The diagnostic value of pleural effusion ferritin and the ratio of it to serum ferritin in differentiating exudates from transudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Liu; Liu Junfeng; Yu Jiuru; Ju Ping; Ke Caiming

    2003-01-01

    To explore the diagnostic value of measuring the level of ferritin in pleural and peritoneal effusion for differentiating exudates from transudates, 128 effusion samples were initially detected for differentiating exudates from transudates by traditional method and Light's criteria. Ferritin in the effusions and serum ferritin were detected simultaneously, and the ratio of effusion ferritin (P Ft ) to serum ferritin (S Ft ) was counted. Based on the clinical data, the samples were divided into four groups and P Ft and P Ft /S Ft were compared. At the same time, the sensitivity and specificity of P Ft and P Ft /S Ft in differentiating exudates from transudates were compared with traditional method and Light's criteria. The results showed that in the groups of tuberculous pleurisy, non-tuberculous, benign pleurisy, and malignant tumor, the concentration of Ft in the effusions was significantly higher than that in the group of congestive heart failure and cirrhosis; and the Ft in exudates was significantly higher than that in transudates (P 0.05). If the cut-off value was set up for Ft in the effusion as 100 μg/L and P Ft /S Ft ratio as 0.5, respectively, the differentiating sensitivity and specificity were 94.2% and 87.0%, respectively. Conclusion was that the concentration of P Ft and P Ft /S Ft in exudates are higher than 100 μg/L and 0.5, respectively. On the contrary, they are lower than the cut-off level in transudates. P Ft and P Ft /S Ft have high sensitivity and high specificity in differentiating exudates from transudates, and have great diagnostic value

  15. Incidence of Artifacts and Deviating Values in Research Data Obtained from an Anesthesia Information Management System in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorweg, Anne-Lee J; Pasma, Wietze; van Wolfswinkel, Leo; de Graaff, Jurgen C

    2018-02-01

    Vital parameter data collected in anesthesia information management systems are often used for clinical research. The validity of this type of research is dependent on the number of artifacts. In this prospective observational cohort study, the incidence of artifacts in anesthesia information management system data was investigated in children undergoing anesthesia for noncardiac procedures. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of artifacts among deviating and nondeviating values, among the anesthesia phases, and among different anesthetic techniques. We included 136 anesthetics representing 10,236 min of anesthesia time. The incidence of artifacts was 0.5% for heart rate (95% CI: 0.4 to 0.7%), 1.3% for oxygen saturation (1.1 to 1.5%), 7.5% for end-tidal carbon dioxide (6.9 to 8.0%), 5.0% for noninvasive blood pressure (4.0 to 6.0%), and 7.3% for invasive blood pressure (5.9 to 8.8%). The incidence of artifacts among deviating values was 3.1% for heart rate (2.1 to 4.4%), 10.8% for oxygen saturation (7.6 to 14.8%), 14.1% for end-tidal carbon dioxide (13.0 to 15.2%), 14.4% for noninvasive blood pressure (10.3 to 19.4%), and 38.4% for invasive blood pressure (30.3 to 47.1%). Not all values in anesthesia information management systems are valid. The incidence of artifacts stored in the present pediatric anesthesia practice was low for heart rate and oxygen saturation, whereas noninvasive and invasive blood pressure and end-tidal carbon dioxide had higher artifact incidences. Deviating values are more often artifacts than values in a normal range, and artifacts are associated with the phase of anesthesia and anesthetic technique. Development of (automatic) data validation systems or solutions to deal with artifacts in data is warranted.

  16. Improving the corn-ethanol industry: studying protein separation techniques to obtain higher value added product options for distillers grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Bals, B.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Dale, B.

    2008-01-01

    Currently in America the biofuel ethanol is primarily being produced by the dry grind technique to obtain the starch contained in the corn grains and subsequently subjected to fermentation. This so-called 1st generation technology has two setbacks; first the lingering debate whether its life cycle

  17. Fat mass to fat-free mass ratio reference values from NHANES III using bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, J; Purcell, S A; Prado, C M; Gonzalez, M C

    2017-10-06

    Low fat-free mass (FFM) or high fat mass (FM) are abnormal body composition phenotypes associated with morbidity. These conditions in combination lead to worse health outcomes, and can be identified by a high FM/FFM ratio. Here, we developed sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) stratified, population-based FM/FFM reference values using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measurements. White, non-Hispanic individuals aged 18-90 years old with data for weight, stature and BIA resistance measures from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III were included. Previously validated and sex-specific BIA prediction equations were used to calculate FM and FFM. FM/FFM values were generated at 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles for each sex, age (18-39.9, 40-59.9, 60-69.9 and 70-90 years), and BMI category (underweight, normal weight, overweight, class I/II and class III obesity). A total of 6372 individuals who had estimated FM and FFM values were identified (3366 females, 3006 males). Median values of FM/FFM were 0.24 and 0.40 for young (≤39.9 years) males and females with normal BMI, and 0.34 for males and 0.59 for females who were overweight. For elderly individuals aged >70 years, median FM/FFM for males and females were respectively 0.28 and 0.45 for those with normal BMI, and 0.37 and 0.61 for those in the overweight category. These FM/FFM reference values provide information on body composition characteristics that account for age, sex and BMI, which can be useful to identify individuals at risk for body composition abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Annual Equivalent Value, Benefit Cost Ratio, and Composite Performance Index as Valuation Appraisal Support of Teakwood Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Soeleman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis L.f is a premium high-value hardwood species being viewed as the most preferred species for investment opportunity. Recently, there has been a gradual move away from state control of teakwood plantation toward the participation of private enterprises. Several enterprises offer investment opportunity of teakwood plantation in which one of the main selling points being offered is a quick harvesting schedule. A quick harvesting time, however, might not provide the best outcome to the investors. This research exercise and compare the valuation appraisal of different harvesting schedules. The research focused on project planning, enterprise budget, financial projection, and valuation measurements to arrive at overall appraisal. To avoid any possible bias of individual investor's preference on common valuation criteria such as total investment, net cash flow (NCF, net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR, profit on investment (P/I, and payback period (PBP, 3 otherS criteria namely benefit cost ratio (BCR, annual equivalent value (AEV, and composite performance index (CPI have been applied to arrive at a more fair valuation. It is concluded that the longer the harvesting schedule, the better valuation outcome could be achieved, and therefore, investors should critically review any investment proposal in accordance to their preference on valuation criteria.

  19. Maximal isometric muscle strength values obtained By hand-held dynamometry in children between 6 and 15 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Raul G; Munoz, Karin T; Dominguez, Angelica; Banados, Pamela; Bravo, Maria J

    2017-01-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the maximal isometric muscle strength of a healthy, normal-weight, pediatric population between 6 and 15 years of age using hand-held dynamometry to establish strength reference values. The secondary objective was determining the relationship between strength and anthropometric parameters. Four hundred normal-weight Chilean children, split into 10 age groups, separated by 1-year intervals, were evaluated. Each age group included between 35 and 55 children. The strength values increased with increasing age and weight, with a correlation of 0.83 for age and 0.82 for weight. The results were similar to those reported in previous studies regarding the relationships among strength, age, and anthropometric parameters, but the reported strength differed. These results provide normal strength parameters for healthy and normal-weight Chilean children between 6 and 15 years of age and highlight the relevance of ethnicity in defining reference values for muscle strength in a pediatric population. Muscle Nerve 55: 16-22, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Multi-stage IT project evaluation: The flexibility value obtained by implementing and resolving Berk, Green and Naik (2004) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Fathi; Guermazi, Dorra

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we evaluate a multi-stage information technology investment project, by implementing and resolving Berk, Green and Naik's (2004) model, which takes into account specific features of IT projects and considers the real option to suspend investment at each stage. We present a particular case of the model where the project value is the solution of an optimal control problem with a single state variable. In this case, the model is more intuitive and tractable. The case study confirms the practical potential of the model and highlights the importance of the real-option approach compared to classical discounted cash flow techniques in the valuation of IT projects.

  1. Value Retention, Service Life, Use Intensity and Long-Term Productivity of Wood Chippers as Obtained from Contractor Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Spinelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acknowledging the absence of up-to-date empirical data on the value retention, service life and annual use of chipping machinery, in 2017 the authors surveyed the records kept by 50 contractors offering biomass chipping services. The machine fleet and operations in this survey could be taken as representative for most of Europe, where the biomass sector is well established and is facing further expansion. Data collection included the whole chipping unit, comprised of chipper, carrier and loader. Manually-fed units were excluded from the survey. The data pointed at a service life up to and exceeding 10,000 h and 10 years, which relieved any concerns about poor durability. Value retention was good, and may exceed that of other mainstream forestry equipment. Engine power was the main explanatory variable in any models to predict purchase price and productivity. The effect of this variable could explain most of the variability (>80% in the purchase price and productivity data. Results also pointed at the essential equivalence in price and productivity between PTO-driven (i.e., tractor powered and independent-engine chippers, once differences in engine power are accounted for. However, the distribution of purchase price between different components of the chipping unit was different between the two unit types, with the chipper accounting for a larger proportion of the total investment in independent-engine units. Machine power was also different, with most PTO-driven units being significantly smaller than independent-engine units, due to the limitations of existing tractors. Furthermore, half of the carriers assigned to a PTO-driven unit were subject to flexible use, i.e., they were not solely used for chipping work.

  2. Fungicidal values of bio-oils and their lignin-rich fractions obtained from wood/bark fast pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Dinesh; Shi, Jenny; Nicholas, Darrel D; Pittman, Charles U; Steele, Philip H; Cooper, Jerome E

    2008-03-01

    Pine wood, pine bark, oak wood and oak bark were pyrolyzed in an auger reactor. A total of 16 bio-oils or pyrolytic oils were generated at different temperatures and residence times. Two additional pine bio-oils were produced at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in a fluidized-bed reactor at different temperatures. All these bio-oils were fractionated to obtain lignin-rich fractions which consist mainly of phenols and neutrals. The pyrolytic lignin-rich fractions were obtained by liquid-liquid extraction. Whole bio-oils and their lignin-rich fractions were studied as potential environmentally benign wood preservatives to replace metal-based CCA and copper systems that have raised environmental concerns. Each bio-oil and several lignin-rich fractions were tested for antifungal properties. Soil block tests were conducted using one brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and one white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor). The lignin-rich fractions showed greater fungal inhibition than whole bio-oils for a impregnation solution 10% concentration level. Water repellence tests were also performed to study wood wafer swelling behavior before and after bio-oil and lignin-rich fraction treatments. In this case, bio-oil fractions did not exhibit higher water repellency than whole bio-oils. Comparison of raw bio-oils in soil block tests, with unleached wafers, at 10% and 25% bio-oil impregnation solution concentration levels showed excellent wood preservation properties at the 25% level. The good performance of raw bio-oils at higher loading levels suggests that fractionation to generate lignin-rich fractions is unnecessary. At this more effective 25% loading level in general, the raw bio-oils performed similarly. Prevention of leaching is critically important for both raw bio-oils and their fractions to provide decay resistance. Initial tests of a polymerization chemical to prevent leaching showed some success.

  3. The influence of different referencing methods on the accuracy of δ(13) C value measurement of ethanol fuel by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Laura A; Rodrigues, Janaína M; Daroda, Romeu J; Silva, Paulo R M; Ferreira, Alexandre A; Aranda, Donato A G; Eberlin, Marcos N; Fasciotti, Maíra

    2015-11-15

    Brazil is the largest producer of sugar cane bioethanol in the world. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is the technique of choice to certify the origin/raw materials for ethanol production, but the lack of certified reference materials (CRMs) for accurate measurements of δ(13) C values traceable to Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB), the international zero point for (13) C/(12) C measurements, certified and compatible with gas chromatography (GC)/IRMS instruments may compromise the accuracy of δ(13) C determinations. We evaluated the influence of methods for the calibration and normalization of raw δ(13) C values of ethanol samples. Samples were analyzed by GC/C/IRMS using two different GC columns. Different substances were used as isotopic standards for the working gas calibration. The δ(13) C values obtained with the three methods of normalization were statistically compared with those obtained with elemental analyzer (EA)/IRMS, since the δ(13) C results obtained using EA are traceable to VPDB via the NBS 22 reference material. It was observed that both the isotopic reference material for CO2 calibration and the GC column have a major effect on the δ(13) C measurements, leading to a bias of almost 2-3 ‰ in the δ(13) C values. All three methods of normalization were equivalent in performance, enabling an improvement in the GC/C/IRMS accuracy, compared with the EA/IRMS reference values for the samples. All the methods of CO2 calibration, chromatography and normalization presented in this work demonstrated several sources of traceability and accuracy loss for the determination of δ(13) C values in ethanol fuel samples by GC/C/IRMS. This work has also shown the importance of using proper CRMs traceable to VPBD that should be compatible and certified using GC/C/IRMS, ideally in a wide range of δ(13) C values. This is important not only for bioethanol fuel samples, but also for many analytes commonly analyzed by IRMS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons

  4. Apparent diffusion coefficient maps obtained from high b value diffusion-weighted imaging in the preoperative evaluation of gliomas at 3T: comparison with standard b value diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qiang; Ling, Chenhan; Zhang, Jianmin [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Dong, Fei; Jiang, Biao [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Shi, Feina [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2017-12-15

    To assess whether ADC maps obtained from high b value DWI were more valuable in preoperatively evaluating the grade, Ki-67 index and outcome of gliomas. Sixty-three patients with gliomas, who underwent preoperative multi b value DWI at 3 T, were enrolled. The ADC{sub 1000}, ADC{sub 2000} and ADC{sub 3000} maps were generated. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were conducted to determine the area under the curve (AUC) in differentiating high-grade gliomas (HGG) from low-grade gliomas (LGG). Pearson correlation coefficients (R value) were calculated to investigate the correlation between parameters with the Ki-67 proliferation index. Survival analysis was conducted by using Cox regression. The AUC of the mean ADC{sub 1000} value (0.820) was lower than that of the mean ADC{sub 2000} value (0.847) and mean ADC{sub 3000} value (0.875) in differentiating HGG from LGG. The R value of the mean ADC{sub 1000} value (-0.499) was less negative than that of the mean ADC{sub 2000} value (-0.530) and mean ADC{sub 3000} value (-0.567). The mean ADC{sub 3000} value was an independent prognosis factor for gliomas (p = 0.008), while the mean ADC{sub 1000} and ADC{sub 2000} values were not. ADC maps obtained from high b value DWI might be a better imaging biomarker in the preoperative evaluation of gliomas. (orig.)

  5. Tropospheric mixing ratios of NO and NOy obtained during TROPOZ II in the latitude region 67 deg N-56 deg S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, F.; Bruening, D.; Ehhalt, D.H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    Tropospheric mixing ratios of NO and NOy were measured along the flight track of the TROPOZ II aircraft campaign. These measurements cover regions along the east coast of North America, the Pacific and Atlantic coast of South America and the Atlantic coast of North Africa and Europe. The meteorological conditions are close to the climatological mean: westerly winds at high and mid latitudes, variable and weak winds at low latitudes. (author) 2 refs.

  6. Tropospheric mixing ratios of NO and NOy obtained during TROPOZ II in the latitude region 67 deg N-56 deg S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, F; Bruening, D; Ehhalt, D H [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    Tropospheric mixing ratios of NO and NOy were measured along the flight track of the TROPOZ II aircraft campaign. These measurements cover regions along the east coast of North America, the Pacific and Atlantic coast of South America and the Atlantic coast of North Africa and Europe. The meteorological conditions are close to the climatological mean: westerly winds at high and mid latitudes, variable and weak winds at low latitudes. (author) 2 refs.

  7. Value of the regurgitant volume to end diastolic volume ratio to predict the regression of left ventricular dimensions after valve replacement in aortic insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); C. Tirtaman; E. Bos (Egbert); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to assess the value of regurgitant stroke volume (RSV) to end-diastolic volume (EDV) ratio to predict the regression of left ventricular (LV) dimensions after uncomplicated valve replacement in 34 patients with severe pure aortic insufficiency. The RSV/EDV ratio

  8. Radionuclide Data Centre. Tasks and problems of obtaining the most reliable values of the nuclear physics characteristics of radionuclides and radiation physics parameters of radionuclide sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chechev, V.P.

    1994-01-01

    Information is provided on the establishment of the Radionuclide Data Centre under the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute. Its functions and areas of activity are discussed. The paper focuses on the procedure of obtaining the evaluated values of the decay and radiative characteristics of the widely used radionuclides. (author)

  9. [The optimal cutoff value of waist-to-height ratio in Chinese: based on cardiovascular risk and metabolic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, A H; Xu, S Y; Ming, J; Zhou, J; Zhang, W C; Hao, P R; Ji, Q H

    2017-11-01

    Objective: Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), a measurement of the distribution of body fat, correlated with abdominal obesity indicating that it might be a better predictor of cardiovascular risk and metabolic disease. We, therefore, evaluated optimal WHtR cutoff points according to the risk of framingham risk score (FRS) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Chinese. Methods: The subjects were from China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Survey during 2007-2008. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to examine the optimal cutoff values of WHtR according to the risk of FRS and MS. Results: A total of 27 820 women and 18 419 men were included in the evaluation. The average age was (45.0±13.7) years. The proportions of FRS ≥10% and MS increased with WHtR both in men and women. The cutoff points of WHtR for the risk of FRS ≥10% and MS were 0.51, 0.52 in men, and 0.52, 0.53 in women, respectively. When FRS ≥10% and MS were taken into consideration with a certain weights, the pooled cutoffs of WHtR were 0.51 in men, and 0.53 in women, respectively. By using the similar method, the optimized cutoff points were 0.52, 0.51, 0.50 for men and 0.51, 0.53, 0.54 for women in age group 20-39, 40-59 and ≥60 years, respectively. Conclusions: The optimal cutoffs of WHtR are 0.51 in men, and 0.53 in women for FRS≥10% in combination with MS indicating that this WHtR cutoff points might be used as indexes to evaluate obesity and risk of obesity-related diseases.

  10. Estimation of optimal b-value sets for obtaining apparent diffusion coefficient free from perfusion in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Kishor; Hugo, Geoffrey D; Ford, John C; Olsen, Kathryn M; Saraiya, Siddharth; Groves, Robert; Weiss, Elisabeth

    2015-10-21

    The purpose of this study was to determine optimal sets of b-values in diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) for obtaining monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) close to perfusion-insensitive intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model ADC (ADCIVIM) in non-small cell lung cancer. Ten subjects had 40 DW-MRI scans before and during radiotherapy in a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Respiratory triggering was applied to the echo-planar DW-MRI with TR ≈ 4500 ms, TE  =  74 ms, eight b-values of 0-1000 μs μm(-2), pixel size  =  1.98 × 1.98 mm(2), slice thickness  =  6 mm, interslice gap  =  1.2 mm, 7 axial slices and total acquisition time ≈6 min. One or more DW-MRI scans together covered the whole tumour volume. Monoexponential model ADC values using various b-value sets were compared to reference-standard ADCIVIM values using all eight b-values. Intra-scan coefficient of variation (CV) of active tumour volumes was computed to compare the relative noise in ADC maps. ADC values for one pre-treatment DW-MRI scan of each of the 10 subjects were computed using b-value pairs from DW-MRI images synthesized for b-values of 0-2000 μs μm(-2) from the estimated IVIM parametric maps and corrupted by various Rician noise levels. The square root of mean of squared error percentage (RMSE) of the ADC value relative to the corresponding ADCIVIM for the tumour volume of the scan was computed. Monoexponential ADC values for the b-value sets of 250 and 1000; 250, 500 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; 250, 800 and 1000; and 250-1000 μs μm(-2) were not significantly different from ADCIVIM values (p > 0.05, paired t-test). Mean error in ADC values for these sets relative to ADCIVIM were within 3.5%. Intra-scan CVs for these sets were comparable to that for ADCIVIM. The monoexponential ADC values for other sets-0-1000; 50-1000; 100-1000; 500-1000; and 250 and 800 μs μm(-2) were significantly different from the ADCIVIM values. From Rician noise

  11. Trimming the fat: optimizing overall educational value by defining factors associated with overall educational value and service-to-education ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Caroline E; Kelz, Rachel R; Pray, Lori; Williams, Noel; Bleier, Joshua; Murayama, Kenric; Morris, Jon B

    2012-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work rules have forced programs to critically appraise the overall educational value (OEV) of rotations. Successful rotations must satisfy Residency Review Committee mandates and optimize the service-to-education ratio (SER). This study was designed to examine the relationship between the OEV and SER and identify rotation characteristics (RC) associated with both. The Division of Surgery Education at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania administered a survey in FY2011 to all residents detailing resident perceptions regarding OEV, SER, and other RC. Responses were linked to additional rotation data. The relationship between OEV and SER was examined before and after controlling for significant RC identified in univariate analyses. Subgroup analyses by junior (CY1-2) and senior (CY3-5) resident status were performed. The survey was sent to 85 residents participating in 48 general surgery rotations, with an overall response rate of 87%. OEV was inversely proportional to SER. All RC were significant predictors of OEV in univariate models except rotation length, patient care participation and the presence of fellows. SER alone was a significant predictor of OEV (coefficient = -1.24, p < 0.001) and explained 68% of the variation in OEV. After including other RC, SER remained a significant predictor (coefficient = -1.08, p < 0.001) and the model explained 85% of the variation in OEV. In subgroup analysis, SER remained a significant predictor of OEV for junior residents (coefficient = -1.27, p = < 0.001), but not for senior residents (coefficient = -0.46, p = 0.15). The SER is inversely correlated with the OEV of general surgery rotations for the aggregate group of surgical residents, but this relationship appears to be attenuated by other factors in the senior resident group. Identification of the factors that affect junior surgical residents may provide the ability to improve the SER for junior residents

  12. The Prognostic Value of 18F-FDG Uptake Ratio Between the Right and Left Ventricles in Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Wang, Lei; Xiong, Chang-Ming; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Yan; Gu, Qing; Yang, Yong; Ni, Xin-Hai; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Fang, Wei; He, Jian-Guo

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic changes occur in the right ventricle (RV) under increased afterload in pulmonary arterial hypertension. FDG PET imaging has potential to assess RV function. In this study, we aimed to determine the prognostic value of metabolic changes of RV using FDG PET imaging in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). In this prospective investigation, patients newly diagnosed with IPAH were recruited. Patients underwent right heart catheterization, FDG PET imaging, and cardiac MR (CMR) within 1 week. Right ventricle hemodynamics, glucose metabolism derived from the FDG uptake levels, and functional parameters were obtained. The FDG uptake ratio between the RV and the left ventricle (LV) and its relation with the patients' survival were analyzed. A total of 45 IPAH patients were enrolled in this study, which included 13 male (28.9%) and 32 female (71.1%). The median follow-up time of this study was 1043 days. At the end of the follow-up, 36 patients survived, whereas 9 patients were deceased because of right heart failure. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that the ratio between the corrected RV and LV FDG uptake (cRV/LV) in both glucose-loading (cRV/LVg) and fasting (cRV/LVf) conditions independently predicted the mortality after adjusting for pulmonary vascular resistance index, mean right atrial pressure, and World Health Organization functional class. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with cRV/LVf greater than 143.65% in fasting condition (log rank, P = 0.030) or cRV/LVg greater than 120.55% in glucose-loading condition (log rank, P = 0.014) had worse prognosis. The FDG uptake ratio between the RV and LV can be an independent predictor for long-term prognosis of IPAH patients.

  13. Pengaruh Indikator Rasio Keuangan Perusahaan Price Earning Ratio (PER dan Price to Book Value (PBV terhadap Return Portfolio Saham di Bursa Efek Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Gunawan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This emerged during a kind of perception that the financial statements do not quite believable as the basis of capital market investment decisions. Using the results of the ratio of the financial statements as an object to be examined, the study will look at the extent of the influence indicator Price Earning Ratio and Price to Book Value of the Return Portfolio Shares on the Jakarta Stock Exchange. The results showed that of the portfolio is formed, it turns out the low indicators of Price Earning Ratio and Price to Book Value does not affect the portfolio return.

  14. Correlation of Lactic Acid and Base Deficit Values Obtained From Arterial and Peripheral Venous Samples in a Pediatric Population During Intraoperative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, Brianne M; Walia, Hina; Sebastian, Roby; Martin, David; Tumin, Dmitry; Tobias, Joseph D

    2017-12-01

    Lactic acid and base deficit (BD) values are frequently monitored in the intensive care unit and operating room setting to evaluate oxygenation, ventilation, cardiac output, and peripheral perfusion. Although generally obtained from an arterial cannula, such access may not always be available. The current study prospectively investigates the correlation of arterial and peripheral venous values of BD and lactic acid. The study cohort included 48 patients. Arterial BD values ranged from -8 to 4 mEq/L and peripheral venous BD values ranged from -8 to 4 mEq/L. Arterial lactic acid values ranged from 0.36 to 2.45 μmol/L and peripheral venous lactic acid values ranged from 0.38 to 4 μmol/L. The arterial BD (-0.4 ± 2.2 mEq/L) was not significantly different from the peripheral venous BD (-0.6 ± 2.2 mEq/L). The arterial lactic acid (1.0 ± 0.5 μmol/L) was not significantly different from the peripheral venous lactic acid (1.1 ± 0.6 μmol/L). Pearson correlation coefficients demonstrated a very high correlation between arterial and peripheral venous BD ( r = .88, P lactic acid ( r = .67, P lactic acid corresponded to a 0.9-unit increase in peripheral venous lactic acid (95% CI: 0.6-1.2; P lactic acid and BD values.

  15. Relative equilibrium plot improves graphical analysis and allows bias correction of standardized uptake value ratio in quantitative 11C-PiB PET studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Sojkova, Jitka; Resnick, Susan M; Wong, Dean F

    2012-04-01

    Both the standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) and the Logan plot result in biased distribution volume ratios (DVRs) in ligand-receptor dynamic PET studies. The objective of this study was to use a recently developed relative equilibrium-based graphical (RE) plot method to improve and simplify the 2 commonly used methods for quantification of (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PiB) PET. The overestimation of DVR in SUVR was analyzed theoretically using the Logan and the RE plots. A bias-corrected SUVR (bcSUVR) was derived from the RE plot. Seventy-eight (11)C-PiB dynamic PET scans (66 from controls and 12 from participants with mild cognitive impaired [MCI] from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging) were acquired over 90 min. Regions of interest (ROIs) were defined on coregistered MR images. Both the ROI and the pixelwise time-activity curves were used to evaluate the estimates of DVR. DVRs obtained using the Logan plot applied to ROI time-activity curves were used as a reference for comparison of DVR estimates. Results from the theoretic analysis were confirmed by human studies. ROI estimates from the RE plot and the bcSUVR were nearly identical to those from the Logan plot with ROI time-activity curves. In contrast, ROI estimates from DVR images in frontal, temporal, parietal, and cingulate regions and the striatum were underestimated by the Logan plot (controls, 4%-12%; MCI, 9%-16%) and overestimated by the SUVR (controls, 8%-16%; MCI, 16%-24%). This bias was higher in the MCI group than in controls (P bias and higher consistency of DVR estimates than of SUVR. The RE plot and the bcSUVR are practical quantitative approaches that improve the analysis of (11)C-PiB studies.

  16. Branched-chain amino acids to tyrosine ratio value as a potential prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Toru

    2012-05-07

    The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) depends on tumor extension as well as hepatic function. Hepatic functional reserve is recognized as a factor affecting survival in the treatment of HCC; the Child-Pugh classification system is the most extensively used method for assessing hepatic functional reserve in patients with chronic liver disease, using serum albumin level to achieve accurate assessment of the status of protein metabolism. However, insufficient attention has been given to the status of amino acid (AA) metabolism in chronic liver disease and HCC. Fischer's ratio is the molar ratio of branched-chain AAs (BCAAs: leucine, valine, isoleucine) to aromatic AAs (phenylalanine, tyrosine) and is important for assessing liver metabolism, hepatic functional reserve and the severity of liver dysfunction. Although this ratio is difficult to determine in clinical situations, BCAAs/tyrosine molar concentration ratio (BTR) has been proposed as a simpler substitute. BTR correlates with various liver function examinations, including markers of hepatic fibrosis, hepatic blood flow and hepatocyte function, and can thus be considered as reflecting the degree of hepatic impairment. This manuscript examines the literature to clarify whether BTR can serve as a prognostic factor for treatment of HCC.

  17. WE-G-18C-02: Estimation of Optimal B-Value Set for Obtaining Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Free From Perfusion in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karki, K; Hugo, G; Ford, J; Saraiya, S; Weiss, E [Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Olsen, K; Groves, R [Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) is increasingly being investigated for radiotherapy planning and response assessment. Selection of a limited number of b-values in DW-MRI is important to keep geometrical variations low and imaging time short. We investigated various b-value sets to determine an optimal set for obtaining monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) close to perfusion-insensitive intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model ADC (ADCIVIM) in nonsmall cell lung cancer. Methods: Seven patients had 27 DW-MRI scans before and during radiotherapy in a 1.5T scanner. Respiratory triggering was applied to the echo-planar DW-MRI with TR=4500ms approximately, TE=74ms, pixel size=1.98X1.98mm{sub 2}, slice thickness=4–6mm and 7 axial slices. Diffusion gradients were applied to all three axes producing traceweighted images with eight b-values of 0–1000μs/μm{sup 2}. Monoexponential model ADC values using various b-value sets were compared to ADCIVIM using all b-values. To compare the relative noise in ADC maps, intra-scan coefficient of variation (CV) of active tumor volumes was computed. Results: ADCIVIM, perfusion coefficient and perfusion fraction for tumor volumes were in the range of 880-1622 μm{sup 2}/s, 8119-33834 μm{sup 2}/s and 0.104–0.349, respectively. ADC values using sets of 250, 800 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; and 250–1000μs/μm{sup 2} only were not significantly different from ADCIVIM(p>0.05, paired t-test). Error in ADC values for 0–1000, 50–1000, 100–1000, 250–1000, 500–1000, and three b-value sets- 250, 500 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; and 250, 800 and 1000μs/μm{sup 2} were 15.0, 9.4, 5.6, 1.4, 11.7, 3.7, 2.0 and 0.2% relative to the reference-standard ADCIVIM, respectively. Mean intrascan CV was 20.2, 20.9, 21.9, 24.9, 32.6, 25.8, 25.4 and 24.8%, respectively, whereas that for ADCIVIM was 23.3%. Conclusion: ADC values of two 3 b-value sets

  18. Clinical value of the preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and red blood cell distribution width in patients with colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fuyan; Shang, Xuming; Wan, Furong; Liu, Zhanfeng; Tian, Wenjun; Wang, Dan; Liu, Yiqing; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Bingchang; Ju, Ying

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical value of the preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) in the peripheral blood of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients. Clinical data obtained from 240 patients with CRC undergoing radical surgical resection in Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University (Jinan, Shandong, China) between January 2011 and April 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Data were also collected from 110 patients with colon polyps and 48 healthy volunteers to serve as controls for comparative analysis. The clinicopathological characteristics of the patients in the low and high NLR and RDW groups were compared. The NLR and RDW values were compared prior to and following surgery. Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox regression modeling were performed to predict overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). The NLR and RDW levels in the CRC patients were markedly higher than those in the colon polyp patients and the healthy controls. The optimum NLR and RDW cutoff points for CRC were 2.06 and 13.45%, respectively. Significant differences were detected in tumor location, diameter, degree of differentiation, tumor depth, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 199 when comparing the high and low NLR groups (P0.05). CRC patients with an increased RDW had significantly worse OS and DFS rates, particularly those with metastatic CRC (P<0.05). Patients with a high NLR exhibited a reduced DFS time in CRC (P=0.053), although this difference was not significant, and a significantly worse DFS time in metastatic CRC (P=0.047). In conclusion, it is convenient to use preoperative NLR and RDW to predict prognosis following surgery for patients with CRC.

  19. The Predictive Value of Neutrophil-Lymphocyte and Platelet-Lymphocyte Ratio for the Effusion Viscosity in Otitis Media With Chronic Effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbistanli, Mustafa Suphi; Koçak, Hasan Emre; Acipayam, Harun; Yiğider, Ayşe Pelin; Keskin, Mehmet; Kayhan, Fatma Tülin

    2017-05-01

    The objective of the authors' study was to investigate the predictive value of the neutrophil-lymphocyte rate (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte rate (PLR) in otitis media with effusion and the correlation of the effusion type with these ratios. Retrospective case-control study. One hundred twenty-six pediatric patients diagnosed otitis media with chronic effusion and had ventilation tube inserted between October 2015 and July 2016 were included in the study group and 124 healthy children, who applied for the routine examination and had blood count analysis, were included in the control group. The patients in the study group were divided into 2 groups regarding the effusion viscosity, which was obtained from the patients' operation files. Seventy-one patients were included in the serous group and 55 patients in the mucous group. The NLR and PLR rates of the groups were compared and statistically evaluated. The average NLR and PLR rates were significantly higher in the study group than in the control group (P = 0.000, P = 0.004 respectively). Comparison of the serous and mucous groups with the control group revealed a significant difference between the control group and the serous group regarding the NLR and PLR (P = 0.000; P = 0.000 respectively), but not between the control group and mucous group (P = 0.694; P = 0.691 respectively). Neutrophil-lymphocyte rate and PLR had a predictive value for otitis media with effusion and additionally it was a laboratory indicator supporting the typing of the viscosity of the fluid accumulated in the middle ear.

  20. Half-life, branching-ratio, and Q-value measurement for the superallowed 0+→0+β+ emitter 42Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, T. Kurtukian; Souin, J.; Audirac, L.; Blank, B.; Giovinazzo, J.; Eronen, T.; Aeystoe, J.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Kessler, T.; Moore, I. D.; Penttilae, H.; Rahaman, S.; Reponen, M.; Rissanen, J.; Saastamoinen, A.

    2009-01-01

    The half-life, the branching ratio, and the decay Q value of the superallowed β emitter 42 Ti were measured in an experiment performed at the JYFLTRAP facility of the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae. 42 Ti is the heaviest T z =-1 nucleus for which high-precision measurements of these quantities have been tried. The half-life (T 1/2 =208.14±0.45 ms) and the Q value [Q EC =7016.83(25) keV] are close to or reach the required precision of about 0.1%. The branching ratio for the superallowed decay branch [BR=47.7(12)%], a by-product of the half-life measurement, does not reach the necessary precision yet. Nonetheless, these results allow one to determine the experimental ft value and the corrected Ft value to be 3114(79) and 3122(79) s, respectively.

  1. Determination of crack arrest toughness in A508 CL.3 forging steel from ASTM E1221-88 procedure. Comparison with the values obtained from thermal loading tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frund, J.M.; Difant, M.; Bethmont, M.

    1994-01-01

    A crack arrest study is under way at Electricite de France as part of the analysis of the risk of fast fracture of PWR vessels in emergency conditions. The first objective of this study is to evaluate the toughness which characterizes crack arrest through tests on reduced-size specimens. Some of the tests on a forging steel (A508 Cl.3) were conducted in conformity with two experimental methods. One method recommended by the ASTM calls for the use of an imposed-displacement mechanical loading on specimens kept under homogeneous temperature. Since the stress intensity factor K applied to the outside loading decreases along the crack growth, we can observe the arrest of the crack. In order to obtain brittle crack initiations in cleavage in the whole studied range of temperature and crack propagation of a sufficient length, the application of a weld point at the top of the notch is done. The other experimental method is based on a thermal loading. It requires the use of a disk or a cylinder with a longitudinal initial crack of the external surface. We dip this specimen in liquid nitrogen and we heat its internal surface with inducing current. There is a temperature gradient in the thickness of the specimen which produces a stress field which tends to open the crack. When the value of K is reached the crack initiation takes place. Several phenomena act to oppose the crack growth, they even go as far as stopping it. First the value of K, after increasing, gets steady then decreases, then, the rate of energy dissipated by plasticity at the top of the crack increases because the crack meets warmer and warmer areas on its way. The arrest toughness values which were obtained were then analyzed and compared to one another and with values proposed by RCC-m code. (authors). 12 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Water uptake in free films and coatings using the Brasher and Kingsbury equation: a possible explanation of the different values obtained by electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy and gravimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosgien Lacombre, C.; Bouvet, G.; Trinh, D.; Mallarino, S.; Touzain, S.

    2017-01-01

    For many years, the water uptake in organic coatings was measured by EIS and/or gravimetry but differences in water content values were found in almost all studies. The Brasher-Kingsbury equation used in the electrochemical analysis (EIS) is often criticized because elementary assumptions may be unvalid. The origin of the discrepancy between both methods is still of interest because many questions remain open and this study aims to provide new insights to these questions. In this work, free films and coatings of a model epoxy-amine system were immersed in a 3 wt.% NaCl solution. The water uptake in free films was evaluated using gravimetric measurements and EIS, using the Basher-Kingsbury equation. The mass of free-films used in the EIS tests was measured and compare to gravimetric measurements while the water uptake (EIS) in free films was compared to that obtained with coatings. It was found that the mass increase of free films tested with EIS was in agreement with gravimetric measurements but was always lower than the water uptake obtained by EIS. Moreover, the water uptake in free films (EIS) was different from that obtained with coatings. In all cases, it was found that the Basher-Kingsbury equation overestimated the water uptake. It appears that the differences between EIS and gravimetric measurements can be analyzed in terms of geometrical effects. Indeed, the swelling in free films and coatings can be monitored by DMA and SECM during ageing. Finally, by mixing the experimental swelling data and the Brasher-Kingsbury equation, the same value of water uptake was obtained by EIS and gravimetry for coatings.

  3. Opinion Paper: 'Likelihood-ratio' and 'odds' applied to monitoring of patients as a supplement to 'reference change value' (RCV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Sandberg, Sverre; Iglesias, Natàlia

    2007-01-01

    and odds used for diagnostic test evaluations is applied to monitoring by substituting measured concentrations with measured differences. Thus, two frequency distributions of differences are assumed, one for a stable, steady-state, situation and one for a certain change. Values exceeding a measured...

  4. Value of heart-lung ratio of 99Tcm N-NOET in detection of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanchun; Li Sijin; Liu Jianzhong; Hu Guang; Wang Jin; Lv Jiyuan

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the heart-lung ratio (HLR) assessed with exercise 99 Tc m N-NOET myocardial perfusion imaging and coronary artery disease (CAD), 10 normal volunteers (7 male and 3 female, aged 40.0 ± 5.8 years), and 40 suspected CAD patients (21 male and 19 female, aged 55.2 ± 8.5 years) underwent exercise (30 min)-delayed (2 and 4 h postinjection) 99 Tc m -NOET gated myocardial perfusion imaging, and the HLR at different time was calculated. 13 patients among them took the coronary angiography in two months. According to the exercise heart-lung ratio (EXHLR), 50 subjects were divided into two groups. G1(n=36, EXHLR≥2) included 10 normal volunteers, 5 patients with normal coronary arteries, and the rest 21 patients had no relevant symptom and cardiac event in the follow-up period of 4 to 12 months. The image was normal in all of the subjects in G1. In G2 (n=14, EXHLR 99 Tc m N-NOET may be useful as a diagnostic index in CAD because it is more sensitive than myocardial perfusion imaging. (authors)

  5. Pengaruh Return On Equity, Price Earning Ratio, Price To Book Value Dan Inflasi Terhadap Harga Saham PT Bhakti Investama Tbk Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pariang Siagian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Investment on stocks is a high-risky investment to make investors to possibly gain a lot of profit. On the other hand, those investors might experience some big loss. Data collecting comes from theoretical books and other related references. Secondary data including Return On Equity (ROE, Price Earnings Ratio (PER, Earning Per Share (EPS, Book Value (BV, Price To Book Value (PBV and Stock Prices of PT Bhakti Investama Tbk. This research is intended to find whether Return On Equity (ROE, Price Earnings Ratio (PER, Price To Book Value (PBV and Inflation, have some influences on the Stock Price of PT Bhakti Investama Tbk., both partially and entirely; and how much the influences are.

  6. Lipid ratios and appropriate cut off values for prediction of diabetes: a cohort of Iranian men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadaegh Farzad

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyslipidemia is a risk factor for incident type 2 diabetes; however, no study has specifically assessed the lipid ratios (i.e. total cholesterol (TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglyceride (TG/HDL-C as predictors of diabetes. We aimed to compare the independent association between the different lipid measures with incident diabetes over a median follow up of 6.4 years in Iranian men and women. Method The study population consisted of 5201 non diabetic (men = 2173, women = 3028 subjects, aged ≥20 years. The risk factor adjusted odds ratios (ORs for diabetes were calculated for every 1 standard deviation (SD change in TC, log-transformed TG, HDL-C, non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C and log-transformed TG/HDL-C using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to define the points of the maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity (MAXss of each lipid measure as a predictor of diabetes. Result We found 366 (146 men and 220 women new diabetes cases during follow-up. The risk-factor-adjusted ORs for a 1 SD increase in TG, TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C were 1.23, 1.27 and 1.25 in men; the corresponding risks in females were 1.36, 1.14, 1.39 respectively (all p Conclusion TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C showed similar performance for diabetes prediction in men population however; among women TG/HDL-C highlighted higher risk than did TC/HDL-C, although there was no difference in discriminatory power. Importantly, HDL-C had a protective effect for incident diabetes only among women.

  7. Comparison of the biometric values obtained by two different A-mode ultrasound devices (Eye Cubed vs. PalmScan): a transversal, descriptive, and comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Montoya, Raul; Shusterman, Eugene Mark; López-Miranda, Miriam Jessica; Mayorquin-Ruiz, Mariana; Salcedo-Villanueva, Guillermo; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio

    2010-03-24

    To assess the reliability of the measurements obtained with the PalmScan, when compared with another standardized A-mode ultrasound device, and assess the consistency and correlation between the two methods. Transversal, descriptive, and comparative study. We recorded the axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and lens thickness (LT) obtained with two A-mode ultrasounds (PalmScan A2000 and Eye Cubed) using an immersion technique. We compared the measurements with a two-sample t-test. Agreement between the two devices was assessed with Bland-Altman plots and 95% limits of agreement. 70 eyes of 70 patients were enrolled in this study. The measurements with the Eye Cubed of AL and ACD were shorter than the measurements taken by the PalmScan. The differences were not statistically significant regarding AL (p < 0.4) but significant regarding ACD (p < 0.001). The highest agreement between the two devices was obtained during LT measurement. The PalmScan measurements were shorter, but not statistically significantly (p < 0.2). The values of AL and LT, obtained with both devices are not identical, but within the limits of agreement. The agreement is not affected by the magnitude of the ocular dimensions (but only between range of 20 mm to 27 mm of AL and 3.5 mm to 5.7 mm of LT). A correction of about 0.5 D could be considered if an intraocular lens is being calculated. However due to the large variability of the results, the authors recommend discretion in using this conversion factor, and to adjust the power of the intraocular lenses based upon the personal experience of the surgeon.

  8. The Ratio of Instrumental and Terminal Values of Work Motivation of the Population (Case Study of Vologda Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Andrey, V.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses work motivation of Vologda region’s population with a special focus on defining the role of material needs as the major factor motivating to labor. The study shows that the majority of the population can be characterized by instrumental attitude to work. It is expressed by the predominant position of material needs over non-material in employment, labor, job change and searching for secondary employment, which consequently leads to employees‘ low level of social attitude, unwillingness of increasing labor activity. In conclusion it is stated that under such conditions the value of labor process itself decreases, which undoubtedly leads to losses in labor productivity.

  9. Diagnostic value of transmural perfusion ratio derived from dynamic CT-based myocardial perfusion imaging for the detection of haemodynamically relevant coronary artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, Adriaan; Lubbers, Marisa M.; Dedic, Admir; Chelu, Raluca G.; Geuns, Robert-Jan M. van; Nieman, Koen [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kurata, Akira; Kono, Atsushi; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rossi, Alexia [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Barts Health NHS Trust, NIHR Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit at Barts, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London and Department of Cardiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    To investigate the additional value of transmural perfusion ratio (TPR) in dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging for detection of haemodynamically significant coronary artery disease compared with fractional flow reserve (FFR). Subjects with suspected or known coronary artery disease were prospectively included and underwent a CT-MPI examination. From the CT-MPI time-point data absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) values were temporally resolved using a hybrid deconvolution model. An absolute MBF value was measured in the suspected perfusion defect. TPR was defined as the ratio between the subendocardial and subepicardial MBF. TPR and MBF results were compared with invasive FFR using a threshold of 0.80. Forty-three patients and 94 territories were analysed. The area under the receiver operator curve was larger for MBF (0.78) compared with TPR (0.65, P = 0.026). No significant differences were found in diagnostic classification between MBF and TPR with a territory-based accuracy of 77 % (67-86 %) for MBF compared with 70 % (60-81 %) for TPR. Combined MBF and TPR classification did not improve the diagnostic classification. Dynamic CT-MPI-based transmural perfusion ratio predicts haemodynamically significant coronary artery disease. However, diagnostic performance of dynamic CT-MPI-derived TPR is inferior to quantified MBF and has limited incremental value. (orig.)

  10. An Improved Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology to Obtain More Accurate Water and “Tar” Values: In Situ Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh David

    2014-07-01

    conventional cigarettes is required the in situ extraction methodology must be used for the aerosol of the PMI HTP to obtain accurate NFDPM/”tar” values. This would be for example the case if there were a need to print “tar” yields on packs or compare yields to ceilings. Failure to use the in situ extraction methodology will result in erroneous and overestimated NFDPM/”tar” values.

  11. Prognostic value of C-reactive protein and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Byong Sun; Jang, Jeong Won; Kwon, Jung Hyun; You, Chan Ran; Chung, Kyu Won; Kay, Chul Seung; Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Seungok

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that components of the systemic inflammatory response, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), have been associated with prognosis of various cancers. We aimed to elucidate whether CRP and NLR could serve as potential surrogate markers for response and survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The study population consisted of 318 consecutive patients with HCC. CRP and NLR were measured at baseline with follow-up measurements. With the mean follow-up of 13.9 months, the median survival time was 13.8 months. Child-Pugh class, tumor size > 5 cm, tumor multiplicity, presence of portal vein thrombosis, α-fetoprotein > 200 ng/mL, CRP > 6.3 mg/L and NLR > 2.3 were identified as independent factors for worse survival of HCC (all p < 0.05). Patients with elevated CRP (> 6.3 mg/L) and elevated NLR (> 2.3) had a significantly shorter overall survival than those with low CRP and low NLR (all p < 0.001). The combined use of CRP and NLR provided incremental prognostic information. With significant inter-correlations, levels of CRP and NLR escalated with aggravating Child-Pugh class from A to C or progressing tumor stage from I to IV. CRP and NLR on baseline and serial measurements were well predictive of treatment response (p < 0.001). CRP and NLR are independent indicators for survival in HCC patients, reflecting tumor burden and hepatic reserve. Their role in predicting tumor response and survival is more enhanced when used in combination. This study suggests that CRP and NLR are important prognostic biomarkers for HCC

  12. Arterial blood pressure but not serum albumin concentration correlates with ADC ratio values in pediatric posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Andre; Zuccoli, Giulio [Section of Neuroradiology Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hsu, Ariel [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); La Colla, Luca [University of Parma, Department of Anesthesiology, Parma (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiological entity affecting both adults and children characterized by neurotoxicity often in setting of hypertension coupled with distinct brain magnetic resonance imaging features. Decreased serum albumin level has been suggested to correlate with the presence of vasogenic brain edema in adult PRES. Serum albumin has thus been hypothesized to protect against neurotoxicity in PRES by reducing vasogenic brain edema through its role in maintaining plasma osmotic pressure and endothelial integrity. The purpose of our study was to investigate if such correlation between decreased serum albumin level and PRES-related vasogenic edema could be found in children. We conducted a retrospective study of 25 pediatric patients diagnosed with PRES. Underlying clinical conditions, presenting symptoms, blood pressures, and serum albumin levels at onset of symptoms were collected. Brain MR imaging studies were reviewed. We used a quantitative method to evaluate the degree of vasogenic edema by measuring apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the T2-FLAIR hyperintense brain lesions. No significant correlation was found between serum albumin level and degree of PRES-related vasogenic edema. A significant correlation was found between elevated blood pressure and degree of vasogenic edema in the temporal lobes (p = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively) but not in the other cerebral lobes or cerebellum. Our initial results suggest blood pressure, not serum albumin level, as a main biomarker for brain edema in children with PRES. Thus, our study does not suggest a protective role of serum albumin against PRES-related neurotoxicity in children. (orig.)

  13. Values of some topographic parameters of optic nerve head obtained by Heidelberg retina tomograph II in volunteers and different stage primary open-angle glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Anguelov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: То assess the values of the top five topographic parameters of optic nerve head (ONH obtained by Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT II in volunteers and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG patients with different stage of perimetric changes.Methods: 73 eyes (38 volunteers at the age of 56 years ±13, 11 men and 27 women and 170 eyes (90 patients at the age of 66 years ±12, 33 men and 57 women were examined. We performed the comprehensive ophthalmic examination, standard automated perimetry and measurement of the top five topographic parameters of ONH — rim area, rim volume, cup shape measure, height variation contour и mean RNFL thickness. For the purpose of this study we used HRT II.Results: We determine the values of the investigated topographic parameters of the ONH for healthy volunteers (rim area = 1.68±0.22 mm2, rim volume = 0.44±0.07 mm3, cup shape measure = –0.2±0.06, height variation contour = 0.38±0.08 mm and mean RNFL thickness = 0.24±0.03 mm and for the patients in different perimetric glaucoma stages (early stage: rim area = 1.52±0.47 mm2, rim volume = 0.38±0.17 mm3, cup shape measure = –0.14±0.1, height variation contour = 0.36±0.09 mm and mean RNFL thickness = 0.22±0.11 mm; moderate stage: rim area = 1.21±0.46 mm2, rim volume = 0.27±0.17 mm3, cup shape measure = –0.09±0.1, height variation contour = 0.36±0.17 mm and mean RNFL thickness = 0.16±0.12 mm; severe stage: rim area = 0.97±0.01 mm2, rim volume = 0.18±0.17 mm3, cup shape measure = –0.06±0.1, height variation contour = 0.28±0.11 mm and mean RNFL thickness = 0.17±0.11 mm. Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson (H-P-A ’s staging system includes three separate levels (early, moderate and severe of glaucoma according to visual field defects. Each stage is additionally characterized by the values of the top five topographic parameters of the ONH.Conclusion: Early diagnosis, staging and follow-up of POAG are based on both function and

  14. A comparison of intraocular pressure values obtained with the Tono-Pachymeter NT530P, iCare® rebound tonometer and Goldmann applanation tonometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rampersad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the intraocular pressure (IOP values measured with the Tono-Pachymeter NT530P (Tonopachy™ and the iCare® rebound tonometer (iCare® with those obtained by the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT. The right eyes of 105 subjects aged 18 to 82 years (mean age = 29.27 ± 14.67 years were assessed with the three tonometers. Central corneal thickness (CCT was measured first using the Tonopachy™ and then IOP was measured by Tonopachy™, iCare® and GAT. The data was analyzed with descriptive statistics, paired  t-test, correlation and regression analysis. The Bland-Altman method of analysis was used to evaluate agreements between the sets of data from the three devices. The CCT values ranged from 440 µm to 606 µm (mean= 518.49 ± 33.01 µm. There was little or no correlation between CCT and IOP for any of the instruments used in this study (r = 0.29 for Tonopachy™, r = 0.22 for iCare®, r = 0.17 for GAT. The mean IOP measured with the Tonopachy™ was 14.31 ± 3.57 mmHg (range 8.7 mmHg to 31 mmHg and 16.64 ± 4.38 mmHg (range 8 mmHg to 32 mmHg using the iCare®. The mean IOP measured with the GAT was 14.79 ± 3.09 mmHg (range 8.7 mmHg to 29.7 mmHg. Using the Bland-Altman method, the upper and lower limits of agreement between the Tonopachy™ and GAT, iCare® and GAT, iCare® and Tonopachy™ were 5.1 mmHg and –4.2 mmHg, 8.6 mmHg and –4.9 mmHg, 7.5 mmHg and –2.8 mmHg respectively. In 79.1% of the eyes studied, the mean IOP difference between Tonopachy™ and GAT was less than 3 mmHg and in 20.9% of the eyes, the difference was greater than 3 mmHg. However, mean IOP differences of greater than 3 mmHg were obtained by iCare® in comparison with GAT (40% and Tonopachy™ (34.3% respectively. Findings of this study suggest that the Tonopachy™ yielded IOP readings that were consistent with those of GAT values while iCare® yielded higher IOP values compared to both GAT and Tonopachy™. (S Afr

  15. Prognostic importance of lymph node-to-primary tumor standardized uptake value ratio in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hyun Hoon; Kim, Jae-Weon; Park, Noh-Hyun; Song, Yong Sang; Cheon, Gi Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Using integrated PET/CT, we evaluated the prognostic value of [ 18 F]FDG uptake ratio between pelvic lymph node (LN) and primary tumor in invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) of the uterine cervix. We retrospectively reviewed patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages IB to IIA cervical SCCA who underwent preoperative [ 18 F]FDG PET/CT scans. PET/CT parameters such as maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of the primary cervical cancer (SUV cervix ) and LN (SUV LN ), and the LN-to-cervical cancer SUV ratio (SUV LN /SUV cervix ) were assessed. Prognostic values of PET/CT-derived metabolic and volumetric variables and clinicopathology parameters were analyzed to predict progression-free survival (PFS) in regression analyses. Clinical data, treatment modalities, and results were reviewed for 103 eligible patients. Median post-surgical follow-up was 29 months (range, 6-89), and 19 (18.5%) patients experienced recurrence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that SUV LN / SUV cervix > 0.1747(P = 0.048) was the independent risk factor of recurrence. Patient group categorized by SUV LN /SUV cervix showed significant difference in PFS (log-rank test, P < 0.001). Preoperative SUV LN /SUV cervix measured by [ 18 F]FDG PET/CT was significantly associated with recurrence, and has an incremental prognostic value for PFS in patients with cervical SCCA. (orig.)

  16. [Seasonal variation patterns of NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio and delta 15 NH4(+) value in rainwater in Yangtze River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying-Xin; Zhang, Shu-Li; Zhao, Xu; Xiong, Zheng-Qin; Xing, Guang-Xi

    2008-09-01

    By using a customized manual rainwater sampler made of polyvinyl chloride plastic, the molar ratio of NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N and the natural 15N abundance of NH4(+) (delta 15 NH4(+) in rainwater was monitored all year round from June 2003 to July 2005 at three observation sites (Changshu, Nanjing, and Hangzhou) in the Yangtze River Delta. The results indicated that at the three sites, the NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio and the delta 15 NH4(+) value in rainwater had the similar seasonal variation trend, being more obvious in Changshu (rural monitoring type) site than in Nanjing (urban monitoring type) and Hangzhou (urban-rural monitoring type) sites. The NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio peaked from early June to early August, declined gradually afterwards, and reached the bottom in winter; while the delta 15 NH4(+) value was negative from late June to mid-August, turned positive from late August to mid or late November, became negative again when winter dominated from December to March, but turned positive again in next May and negative again in next July. These seasonal variation patterns of NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio and delta 15 NH4(+) value were found in relation to the application of chemical nitrogen fertilizers during different crop growth periods, and also, the alternation of seasons and the NH3 volatilization from other NH3 emission sources (including excrements of human and animals, nitrogen- polluted water bodies, and organic nitrogen sources, etc.), which could be taken as an indicator of defining the sources and form composition of NH4(+) in atmospheric wet deposition and the intensity of various terrestrial NH3 emission sources.

  17. Clinical Value of Dual-energy CT in Detection of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Investigation of the Best Pancreatic Tumor Contrast to Noise Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong-Lan; Zhang, Da-Ming; Xue, Hua-Dan; Jin, Zheng-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantitatively compare and determine the best pancreatic tumor contrast to noise ratio (CNR) in different dual-energy derived datasets. Methods In this retrospective, single center study, 16 patients (9 male, 7 female, average age 59.4±13.2 years) with pathologically diagnosed pancreatic cancer were enrolled. All patients received an abdominal scan using a dual source CT scanner 7 to 31 days before biopsy or surgery. After injection of iodine contrast agent, arterial and pancreatic parenchyma phase were scanned consequently, using a dual-energy scan mode (100 kVp/230 mAs and Sn 140 kVp/178 mAs) in the pancreatic parenchyma phase. A series of derived dual-energy datasets were evaluated including non-liner blending (non-linear blending width 0-500 HU; blending center -500 to 500 HU), mono-energetic (40-190 keV), 100 kVp and 140 kVp. On each datasets, mean CT values of the pancreatic parenchyma and tumor, as well as standard deviation CT values of subcutaneous fat and psoas muscle were measured. Regions of interest of cutaneous fat and major psoas muscle of 100 kVp and 140 kVp images were calculated. Best CNR of subcutaneous fat (CNRF) and CNR of the major psoas muscle (CNRM) of non-liner blending and mono-energetic datasets were calculated with the optimal mono-energetic keV setting and the optimal blending center/width setting for the best CNR. One Way ANOVA test was used for comparison of best CNR between different dual-energy derived datasets. Results The best CNRF (4.48±1.29) was obtained from the non-liner blending datasets at blending center -16.6±103.9 HU and blending width 12.3±10.6 HU. The best CNRF (3.28±0.97) was obtained from the mono-energetic datasets at 73.3±4.3 keV. CNRF in the 100 kVp and 140 kVp were 3.02±0.91 and 1.56±0.56 respectively. Using fat as the noise background, all of these images series showed significant differences (Pbest CNRF of mono-energetic image sets vs. CNRF of 100 kVp image (P=0.460). Similar results were

  18. Toward quantitative fast diffusion kurtosis imaging with b-values chosen in consideration of signal-to-noise ratio and model fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yen-Shu; Yang, Shun-Chung; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Wu, Wen-Chau

    2018-02-01

    Diffusion kurtosis (DK) imaging is a variant of conventional diffusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging that allows assessment of non-Gaussian diffusion. Fast DK imaging expedites the procedure by decreasing both scan time (acquiring the minimally required number of b-values) and computation time (obviating least-square curve fitting). This study aimed to investigate the applicability of fast DK imaging for both cerebral gray matter and white matter as a quantitative method. Seventeen healthy volunteers were recruited and each provided written informed consent before participation. On a 3-Tesla clinical MR system, diffusion imaging was performed with 12 b-values ranging from 0 to 4000 s/mm 2 . Diffusion encoding was along three orthogonal directions (slice selection, phase encoding, and frequency encoding) in separate series. Candidate b-values were chosen by first determining the maximum b-value (b max ) in the context of signal-to-noise ratio and then assessing the model fidelity for all b-value combinations within b max . Diffusion coefficient (D) and diffusion kurtosis coefficient (K) were derived from these candidates and assessed for their dependence on b-value combination. Our data suggested b max to be 2200 s/mm 2 as a trade-off between the percentage (~80%) of voxels statistically detectable against background and the sensitivity to non-Gaussian diffusion in both gray matter and white matter. The measurement dependence on b-value was observed predominantly in areas with a considerable amount of cerebrospinal fluid. In most gray matter and white matter, b-value combinations do not cause statistical difference in the calculated D and K. For fast DK imaging to be quantitatively applicable in both gray matter and white matter, b max should be chosen to ensure adequate signal-to-noise ratio in the majority of gray/white matter and the two nonzero b-values should be chosen in consideration of model fidelity to mitigate the dependence of derived indices on b-values

  19. Discussion about different cut-off values of conventional hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio used in hamstring injury prediction among professional male football players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Grygorowicz

    Full Text Available To measure the sensitivity and specificity of differences cut-off values for isokinetic Hcon/Qcon ratio in order to improve the capacity to evaluate (retrospectively the injury of hamstring muscles in professional soccer screened with knee isokinetic tests.Retrospective study.Medical and biomechanical data of professional football players playing for the same team for at least one season between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Hamstring strain injury cases and the reports generated via isokinetic testing were investigated. Isokinetic concentric(con hamstring(H and quadriceps(Q absolute strength in addition with Hcon/Qcon ratio were examined for the injured versus uninjured limbs among injured players, and for the injured and non-injured players. 2 x 2 contingency table was used for comparing variables: predicted injured or predicted uninjured with actual injured or actual uninjured. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for three different cut-off values (0.47 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.658 to compare the discriminative power of an isokinetic test, whilst examining the key value of Hcon/Qcon ratio which may indicate the highest level of ability to predispose a player to injury. McNemar's chi2 test with Yates's correction was used to determine agreement between the tests. PQStat software was used for all statistical analysis, and an alpha level of p <0.05 was used for all statistical comparisons.340 isokinetic test reports on both limbs of 66 professional soccer players were analysed. Eleven players suffered hamstring injuries during the analysed period. None of these players sustained recurrence of hamstring injury. One player sustained hamstring strain injury on both legs, thus the total number of injuries was 12. Application of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic test used as a tool for

  20. Histopathological Diagnostic Value of the IgG4+/IgG+ Ratio of Plasmacytic Infiltration for IgG4-Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chuiwen; Li, Wenli; Chen, Si; Zhang, Wen; Li, Jing; Hu, Chaojun; Wen, Xiaoting; Zhang, Fengchun; Li, Yongzhe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article aims to perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic value of the immunoglobulin G (IgG)4+/IgG+ ratio of plasmacytic infiltration for IgG4-related diseases. Four databases—EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library—were systematically searched. Approximately 200 participants from several studies were included in this research. STATA 11.2 software (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX) and Meta-DiSc 1.4 (Unit of Clinical Biostatistics, Ramon y Cajal Hospital, Madrid, Spain) were used to perform the meta-analysis. Nine studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio was 18.94 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.89–124.30]. The sensitivity was 58.80% (95% CI, 50.90–66.30) and the specificity was 90.20% (95% CI, 81.20–95.80). The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 3.12 (95% CI, 1.07–9.16) and 0.26 (95% CI, 0.09–0.70), respectively. The area under the curve of the summary receiver-operating characteristic was 0.88. To conclude, the IgG4+/IgG+ ratio of plasmacytic infiltration is modestly effective in diagnosing IgG-related disease. PMID:25738476

  1. Discussion about different cut-off values of conventional hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio used in hamstring injury prediction among professional male football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygorowicz, Monika; Michałowska, Martyna; Walczak, Tomasz; Owen, Adam; Grabski, Jakub Krzysztof; Pyda, Andrzej; Piontek, Tomasz; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    To measure the sensitivity and specificity of differences cut-off values for isokinetic Hcon/Qcon ratio in order to improve the capacity to evaluate (retrospectively) the injury of hamstring muscles in professional soccer screened with knee isokinetic tests. Retrospective study. Medical and biomechanical data of professional football players playing for the same team for at least one season between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Hamstring strain injury cases and the reports generated via isokinetic testing were investigated. Isokinetic concentric(con) hamstring(H) and quadriceps(Q) absolute strength in addition with Hcon/Qcon ratio were examined for the injured versus uninjured limbs among injured players, and for the injured and non-injured players. 2 x 2 contingency table was used for comparing variables: predicted injured or predicted uninjured with actual injured or actual uninjured. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for three different cut-off values (0.47 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.658) to compare the discriminative power of an isokinetic test, whilst examining the key value of Hcon/Qcon ratio which may indicate the highest level of ability to predispose a player to injury. McNemar's chi2 test with Yates's correction was used to determine agreement between the tests. PQStat software was used for all statistical analysis, and an alpha level of p hamstring injuries during the analysed period. None of these players sustained recurrence of hamstring injury. One player sustained hamstring strain injury on both legs, thus the total number of injuries was 12. Application of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic test used as a tool for muscle injury detection. The use of 0.47 of Hcon/Qcon as a discriminate value resulted in significantly lower sensitivity when compared to 0.658 threshold (sensitivity of 16.7% vs

  2. Recent advances in ratio primary reference measurement procedures (definitive methods) and their use in certification of reference materials and controlling assigned values in proficiency testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.S.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Chajduk, E.; Danko, B.; Pyszynska, M.

    2014-01-01

    Three very accurate (definitive) methods by RNAA for the determination of Se, As and Fe respectively, which were recently elaborated in our laboratory, are reviewed and their use in certification of reference materials and in checking the assigned values in proficiency tests is demonstrated on several examples. According to VIM 3 nomenclature these methods may be called: ratio primary reference measurement procedures (RPRMPs). RPRMPs with their expanded uncertainties of 2.7-3.6 % are comparable to ID-MS methods and are the only methods of such high metrological quality which can be used for the determination of trace amounts of monoisotopic elements. (author)

  3. The CD4/CD8 ratio of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes at the tumor-host interface has prognostic value in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Shen, Tiansheng; Siegal, Gene P; Wei, Shi

    2017-11-01

    Compelling evidence has demonstrated the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), especially in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, only a limited number of studies to investigate the importance of the subsets of T cells in TILs have been carried out, less so the significance of the location of these TILs. In this study, we explored in a cohort of 42 consecutive TNBC cases the prognostic significance of TIL subsets at the tumor-host interface (within 1 high-power field [0.5 mm] of the invasive front) and compared them with TILs within the intratumoral stroma. Given the reported importance of TILs in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer, a subset of such tumors was also included for comparison. The range was wide in both locations; nevertheless, the mean CD4 + and CD8 + T cell count was significantly higher at the tumor-host interface than that found within the intratumoral stroma (both P<.0001). The number of CD4 + or CD8 + T cells at either location was not significantly associated with distant relapse-free or overall survival. However, the CD4/CD8 ratio at the tumor-host interface was significantly associated with both relapse-free survival (hazard ratio 0.2, P=.002) and overall survival (hazard ratio 0.13, P=.002), whereas this association was not seen for the CD4/CD8 ratio within the intratumoral stroma. As expected, both tumor size and nodal status were significantly associated with survival outcomes. The findings further support the contention that TILs, as markers of regional immune escape, are of prognostic importance in TNBC progression and that the CD4/CD8 ratio of TILs at the tumor-host interface plays a distinctive role, thus appearing to be of clinical relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of reduction ratio on annealing texture and r-value directionality for a cold-rolled Al-5% Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Shi-Hoon; Choi, Jae-Kwon; Kim, Hyoung-Wook; Kang, Seok-Bong

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of the macrotexture and r-value directionality of cold-rolled Al-5% Mg alloys during annealing at various temperatures was investigated to seek an optimum annealing condition to improve the formability of TRBs. The change of volume fractions for the typical texture components of Al-5% Mg alloys was calculated using a misorientation approach in 3-D Euler space. A visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) polycrystal model was used to predict r-value directionality of the cold-rolled and annealed Al-5% Mg alloys. The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique was used to investigate a rapid change of the initial deformation texture in the specimen deformed by a reduction of 9% during annealing. The results showed that an optimum annealing temperature for achieving the low planar anisotropy was strongly dependent on the rolling reduction ratio.

  5. Prognostic importance of lymph node-to-primary tumor standardized uptake value ratio in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hyun Hoon; Kim, Jae-Weon; Park, Noh-Hyun; Song, Yong Sang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Gi Jeong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Using integrated PET/CT, we evaluated the prognostic value of [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake ratio between pelvic lymph node (LN) and primary tumor in invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) of the uterine cervix. We retrospectively reviewed patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages IB to IIA cervical SCCA who underwent preoperative [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT scans. PET/CT parameters such as maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of the primary cervical cancer (SUV{sub cervix}) and LN (SUV{sub LN}), and the LN-to-cervical cancer SUV ratio (SUV{sub LN}/SUV{sub cervix}) were assessed. Prognostic values of PET/CT-derived metabolic and volumetric variables and clinicopathology parameters were analyzed to predict progression-free survival (PFS) in regression analyses. Clinical data, treatment modalities, and results were reviewed for 103 eligible patients. Median post-surgical follow-up was 29 months (range, 6-89), and 19 (18.5%) patients experienced recurrence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that SUV{sub LN} / SUV{sub cervix} > 0.1747(P = 0.048) was the independent risk factor of recurrence. Patient group categorized by SUV{sub LN}/SUV{sub cervix} showed significant difference in PFS (log-rank test, P < 0.001). Preoperative SUV{sub LN}/SUV{sub cervix} measured by [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT was significantly associated with recurrence, and has an incremental prognostic value for PFS in patients with cervical SCCA. (orig.)

  6. Comparison of liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) and gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) for the determination of collagen amino acid δ13C values for palaeodietary and palaeoecological reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Philip J H; Honch, Noah V; Evershed, Richard P

    2011-10-30

    Results are presented of a comparison of the amino acid (AA) δ(13)C values obtained by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) and liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS). Although the primary focus was the compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of bone collagen AAs, because of its growing application for palaeodietary and palaeoecological reconstruction, the results are relevant to any field where AA δ(13)C values are required. We compare LC/IRMS with the most up-to-date GC/C/IRMS method using N-acetyl methyl ester (NACME) AA derivatives. This comparison involves the analysis of standard AAs and hydrolysates of archaeological human bone collagen, which have been previously investigated as N-trifluoroacetyl isopropyl esters (TFA/IP). It was observed that, although GC/C/IRMS analyses required less sample, LC/IRMS permitted the analysis of a wider range of AAs, particularly those not amenable to GC analysis (e.g. arginine). Accordingly, reconstructed bulk δ(13)C values based on LC/IRMS-derived δ(13)C values were closer to the EA/IRMS-derived δ(13)C values than those based on GC/C/IRMS values. The analytical errors for LC/IRMS AA δ(13)C values were lower than GC/C/IRMS determinations. Inconsistencies in the δ(13)C values of the TFA/IP derivatives compared with the NACME- and LC/IRMS-derived δ(13)C values suggest inherent problems with the use of TFA/IP derivatives, resulting from: (i) inefficient sample combustion, and/or (ii) differences in the intra-molecular distribution of δ(13)C values between AAs, which are manifested by incomplete combustion. Close similarities between the NACME AA δ(13)C values and the LC/IRMS-derived δ(13)C values suggest that the TFA/IP derivatives should be abandoned for the natural abundance determinations of AA δ(13)C values. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Predictive value of mutant p53 expression index obtained from nonenhanced computed tomography measurements for assessing invasiveness of ground-glass opacity nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wei Wang,1 Jian Li,2 Ransheng Liu,1 Aixu Zhang,1 Zhiyong Yuan1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To predict p53 expression index (p53-EI based on measurements from computed tomography (CT for preoperatively assessing pathologies of nodular ground-glass opacities (nGGOs. Methods: Information of 176 cases with nGGOs on high-resolution CT that were pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma was collected. Diameters, total volumes (TVs, maximum (MAX, average (AVG, and standard deviation (STD of CT attenuations within nGGOs were measured. p53-EI was evaluated through immunohistochemistry with Image-Pro Plus 6.0. A multiple linear stepwise regression model was established to calculate p53-EI prediction from CT measurements. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to compare the diagnostic performance of variables in differentiating preinvasive adenocarcinoma (PIA, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA, and invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC. Results: Diameters, TVs, MAX, AVG, and STD showed significant differences among PIAs, MIAs, and IACs (all P-values <0.001, with only MAX being incapable to differentiate MIAs from IACs (P=0.106. The mean p53-EIs of PIAs, MIAs, and IACs were 3.4±2.0, 7.2±1.9, and 9.8±2.7, with significant intergroup differences (all P-values <0.001. An equation was established by multiple linear regression as: p53-EI prediction =0.001* TVs +0.012* AVG +0.022* STD +9.345, through which p53-EI predictions were calculated to be 4.4%±1.0%, 6.8%±1.3%, and 8.5%±1.4% for PIAs, MIAs, and IACs (Kruskal–Wallis test P<0.001; Tamhane’s T2 test: PIA vs MIA P<0.001, MIA vs IAC P<0.001, respectively. Although not significant, p53-EI prediction

  8. Nutritive value of the elephant-grass obtained on different cut ages Valor nutritivo do capim-elefante obtido em diferentes idades de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanis Tilemahos Zervoudakis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to determine the chemical composition, the parameters of the dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF in situ degrability, the MS (IVDMD in vitro dry matter digestibility and the content of total digestible nutrients (NDT of grass-elephant obtained in different cut ages, in rainy season. The grass-elephant was submitted to the cut at the ages of 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 days, from December to March. The samples were analyzed for dry matter (MS, crude protein (PB, ash, ether extract (EE, total carbohydrates (CT, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid (FDA, indigestible NDF (INDF and insoluble protein in acid detergent (ADIP. Additionally, the samples were weighted in bags of nylon, incubated in the rumen of three bovine canulated, and the residues were analyzed for DM and NDF residual. Subsequently, it were submitted to in vitro incubation with liquid ruminal and solution of acid pepsin for dry matter in vitro digestibility (IVDMDdetermination, of which values were utilized for content of total digestible nutrients (NDT estimation. The content of CP was reduced in a linear way by the advancement of the cut age, while the contents of NDF, ADF, INDF and ADIP increased. The fraction “a” of the DM was reduced and the NDF I fraction was increased with the cut age advancement. The IVDMD and TDN presented quadratic behaviors (P<0,05, in function of cut age , with maximum values of 69.00% and 57.21%, to the ages of 19.64 and 48.98 days, respectively.Objetivou-se determinar a composição químico-bromatológica, os parâmetros da degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca (MS e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, a digestibilidade in vitro da MS (DIVMS e o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT do capim-elefante obtido em diferentes idades de corte, na época das águas. A forrageira foi submetida ao corte nas idades de 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 e 105 dias, de dezembro a março. As amostras foram analisadas para matéria seca

  9. Clinical value of spleen acoustic radiation force impulse, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio in predicting esophageal varices in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Dakun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the spleen stiffness of patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis by spleen acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI, and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR, as well as the clinical value of these three noninvasive techniques in predicting esophageal varices (EV in patients with liver cirrhosis. MethodsA total of 247 patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis were enrolled, and ARFI was used to measure real-time spleen stiffness. APRI and AAR were calculated. Gastroscopy was performed within one week before and after measurement to clarify the degree of EV. With the results of gastroscopy as the gold standard, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to compare the clinical value of spleen ARFI value, APRI, and AAR in the diagnosis of EV in patients with liver cirrhosis. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups. ResultsThere were significant differences between the EV group (n=169 and the non-EV group (n=78 in spleen ARFI stiffness (3.64±0.53 m/s vs 2.97±0.65 m/s, t=-7.93, P<0.001, APRI (0.87±091 vs 0.52±0.80, t=-2.90, P=0.004, and AAR (1.54±0.67 vs 1.29±0.55, t=-2.93, P=0.004. Spleen ARFI, APRI, and AAR had an area under the ROC curve of 0.80, 0.72, and 0.63, respectively, in predicting EV in patients with liver cirrhosis, there was a significant difference between spleen ARFI stiffness and AAR (P=0.005, while there was no significant difference between spleen ARFI stiffness and APRI (P=0.10. ConclusionARFI is a real-time ultrasound elastography technique, and compared with APRI and AAR, spleen stiffness measured by ARFI can predict EV in patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis more accurately and noninvasively and thus holds promise for clinical application.

  10. The ratio of ICRP103 to ICRP60 calculated effective doses from CT: Monte Carlo calculations with the ADELAIDE voxel paediatric model and comparisons with published values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caon, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The ADELAIDE voxel model of paediatric anatomy was used with the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code to compare effective dose from computed tomography (CT) calculated with both the ICRP103 and ICRP60 definitions which are different in their tissue weighting factors and in the included tissues. The new tissue weighting factors resulted in a lower effective dose for pelvis CT (than if calculated using ICRP60 tissue weighting factors), by 6.5 % but higher effective doses for all other examinations. ICRP103 calculated effective dose for CT abdomen + pelvis was higher by 4.6 %, for CT abdomen (by 9.5 %), for CT chest + abdomen + pelvis (by 6 %), for CT chest + abdomen (by 9.6 %), for CT chest (by 10.1 %) and for cardiac CT (by 11.5 %). These values, along with published values of effective dose from CT that were calculated for both sets of tissue weighting factors were used to determine single values for the ratio ICRP103:ICRP60 calculated effective doses from CT, for seven CT examinations. The following values for ICRP103:ICRP60 are suggested for use to convert ICRP60 calculated effective dose to ICRP103 calculated effective dose for the following CT examinations: Pelvis CT, 0.75; for abdomen CT, abdomen + pelvis CT, chest + abdomen + pelvis CT, 1.00; for chest + abdomen CT, and for chest CT. 1.15; for cardiac CT 1.25.

  11. Value of prostate specific antigen and prostatic volume ratio (PSA/V) as the selection criterion for US-guided prostatic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziano, S.; Paulica, P.; Querze', R.; Viglietta, G.; Trenta, A.

    1991-01-01

    US-guided biopsy was performed in 94 patients with suspected lesions at transerectal US. Histology demonstrated carcinoma in 43 cases, benign hyperplasia in 44, and prostatis in 7. In all cases the prostate specific antigen (PSA) was calculated, by means of US, together with prostatic volume (v). PSA was related to the corresponding gland volume, which resulted in PSA/V ratio. Our study showed PSA/V ration to have higher sensitivity and specificity than absolulute PSA value in the diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma. The authors believe prostate US-guided biopsy to be: a) necessary when the suspected area has PSA/V ratio >0.15, and especially when PSA/V >0.30; b) not indicated when echo-structural alterations are associated with PSA/V <0.15, because they are most frequently due to benign lesions. The combined use of PSA/V ratio and US is therefore suggested to select the patients in whom biopsy is to be performed

  12. Waist-to-height ratio: an accurate anthropometric index of abdominal adiposity and a predictor of high HOMA-IR values in nondialyzed chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Inês Barreto; Lemos, Carla Cavalheiro da Silva; Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Bregman, Rachel

    2014-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance (IR), mainly when associated with obesity and characterized by high abdominal adiposity (AbAd). Anthropometric measures are recommended for assessing AbAd in clinical settings, but their accuracies need to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision of different anthropometric measures of AbAd in patients with CKD. We also sought to determine the AbAd association with high homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values and the cutoff point for AbAd index to predict high HOMA-IR values. A subset of clinically stable nondialyzed patients with CKD followed at a multidisciplinary outpatient clinic was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The accuracy of the following anthropometric indices: waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, conicity index and waist-to-height ratio (WheiR) to assess AbAd, was evaluated using trunk fat, by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), as a reference method. HOMA-IR was estimated to stratify patients in high and low HOMA-IR groups. The total area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC-ROC; sensitivity/specificity) was calculated: AbAd with high HOMA-IR values (95% confidence interval [CI]). We studied 134 patients (55% males; 54% overweight/obese, body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2), age 64.9 ± 12.5 y, estimated glomerular filtration rate 29.0 ± 12.7 mL/min). Among studied AbAd indices, WheiR was the only one to show correlation with DXA trunk fat after adjusting for confounders (P HOMA-IR values (r = 0.47; P HOMA-IR values was 0.55 (AUC-ROC = 0.69 ± 0.05; 95% CI, 0.60-0.77; sensitivity/specificity, 68.9/61.9). WheiR is recommended as an effective and precise anthropometric index to assess AbAd and to predict high HOMA-IR values in nondialyzed patients with CKD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS COMPARING CARDIOPULMONARY EXERCISE TEST VALUES OBTAINED FROM THE ARM CYCLE AND THE LEG CYCLE RESPECTIVELY IN HEALTHY ADULTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus Tolstrup; Christensen, Jan; Tang, Lars Hermann

    2016-01-01

    a systematic review and meta-analysis of the difference in VO2max achieved by AC compared to LC in healthy adults and to explore factors that may be predictive of this difference. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro were searched in April 2015. The differences in VO2max (ACLCdiff) were pooled across....../min with a mean ACLCratio of 0.70. The ACLCdiff was lower in studies with higher mean age and lower aerobic capacity. CONCLUSION: There is linear association between the AC and LC values in healthy adults. The AC values were on average 70% of the LC values. The magnitude of this difference appeared to be reduced...

  14. The value of radiotherapy in colorectal and anal carcinomas, judged on the basis of radiation results obtained in Wuerzburg between 1977 and 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, H.

    1987-01-01

    Investigations were carried out into the effectiveness of radiotherapy in colorectal and anal carcinomas as well as metastases formed by those tumours. The relevance of changes in CT findings and CEA values is discussed in detail. (MBC) [de

  15. [Study of personal best value of peak expiratory flow in patients with asthma--comparison of the highest value of daily PEF under good control and the highest value of daily PEF obtained after using repeated inhaled beta2-agonist during high-dose inhaled steroid treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoto; Makino, Sohei; Kihara, Norio; Fukuda, Takeshi

    2008-12-01

    In the guideline for asthma management, it is important to find the personal best value of peak expiratory flow (best PEF). Recently, we have substituted the highest value of PEF in daily life under good control (daily highest PEF) for the best PEF. In the present study, we considered whether the daily highest PEF could be used as the best PEF or not. Subjects were 30 asthmatics who were well controlled but whose baseline PEF values were less than 80 percent of predicted values. We compared the daily highest PEF and the highest of PEF obtained after repeated inhaled beta2-agonist (salbutamol MDI every 20 minutes three times). All subjects then received 1600 microg/day of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) for 4 to 8 weeks. We studied the effect of high-dose inhaled steroid treatment on each PEF value and compared the daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after using repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose inhaled steroid therapy on the examination day again. The baseline PEF, daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after salbutamol MDI were significantly less than the each values obtained after high-dose BDP. The best PEF value of them was the value obtained after repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose BDP. We suggest that the daily highest PEF under good control is not a substitute for best PEF because it changes according to the degree of improvement of airway inflammation. We recommend that a course of high dose inhaled steroid is effective in finding the best value of PEF for each individual with moderate asthma.

  16. Fluid-Elastic Instability Tests on Parallel Triangular Tube Bundles with Different Mass Ratio Values under Increasing and Decreasing Flow Velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of increasing and decreasing flow velocities on the fluid-elastic instability of tube bundles, the responses of an elastically mounted tube in a rigid parallel triangular tube bundle with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.67 were tested in a water tunnel subjected to crossflow. Aluminum and stainless steel tubes were tested, respectively. In the in-line and transverse directions, the amplitudes, power spectrum density functions, response frequencies, added mass coefficients, and other results were obtained and compared. Results show that the nonlinear hysteresis phenomenon occurred in both tube bundle vibrations. When the flow velocity is decreasing, the tubes which have been in the state of fluid-elastic instability can keep on this state for a certain flow velocity range. During this process, the response frequencies of the tubes will decrease. Furthermore, the response frequencies of the aluminum tube can decrease much more than those of the stainless steel tube. The fluid-elastic instability constants fitted for these experiments were obtained from experimental data. A deeper insight into the fluid-elastic instability of tube bundles was also obtained by synthesizing the results. This study is beneficial for designing and operating equipment with tube bundles inside, as well as for further research on the fluid-elastic instability of tube bundles.

  17. The differentiation of the character of solid lesions in the breast in the compression sonoelastography. Part II: Diagnostic value of BIRADS-US classification, Tsukuba score and FLR ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Dobruch-Sobczak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sonoelastography is a dynamically developing method of ultrasound examination used to differentiate the character of focal lesions in the breasts. The aim of the Part II of the study is to determine the usefulness of sonoelastography in the differentiation diagnosis of focal breast lesions including the evaluation of the diagnostic value of Tsukuba score and FLR ratio in characterizing solid lesions in the breasts. Furthermore, the paper provides a comparison of classic B-mode imaging and sonoelastography. Material and methods: From January to July 2010 in the Ultrasound Department of the Cancer Centre, The Institute of Maria Skłodowska-Curie, 375 breast ultrasound examinations were conducted. The examined group included patients who in B-mode examinations presented indications for pathological verification. They were 80 women aged between 17 and 83 (mean age was 50 with 99 solid focal lesions in the breasts. All patients underwent: the interview, physical examination, B-mode ultrasound examination and elastography of the mammary glands and axillary fossae. The visualized lesions were evaluated according to BIRADS-US classification and Tsukuba score as well as FLR ratio was calculated. In all cases, the histopathological and/or cytological verification of the tested lesions was obtained. Results: In the group of 80 patients, the examination revealed 39 malignant neoplastic lesions and 60 benign ones. The mean age of women with malignant neoplasms was 55.07 (SD=10.54, and with benign lesions – 46.9 (SD=15.47. In order to identify threshold values that distinguish benign lesions from malignant ones, a comparative analysis of statistical models based on BIRADS-US classification and Tsukuba score was conducted and the cut-off value for FLR was assumed. The sensitivity and specificity values for BIRADS-US 4/5 were 76.92% and 96.67% and for Tsukuba 3/4 – 64.1% and 98.33% respectively. The assumed FLR threshold value to differentiate between

  18. The differentiation of the character of solid lesions in the breast in the compression sonoelastography. Part II: Diagnostic value of BIRADS-US classification, Tsukuba score and FLR ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna

    2013-03-01

    Sonoelastography is a dynamically developing method of ultrasound examination used to differentiate the character of focal lesions in the breasts. The aim of the Part II of the study is to determine the usefulness of sonoelastography in the differentiation diagnosis of focal breast lesions including the evaluation of the diagnostic value of Tsukuba score and FLR ratio in characterizing solid lesions in the breasts. Furthermore, the paper provides a comparison of classic B-mode imaging and sonoelastography. From January to July 2010 in the Ultrasound Department of the Cancer Centre, The Institute of Maria Skłodowska-Curie, 375 breast ultrasound examinations were conducted. The examined group included patients who in B-mode examinations presented indications for pathological verification. They were 80 women aged between 17 and 83 (mean age was 50) with 99 solid focal lesions in the breasts. All patients underwent: the interview, physical examination, B-mode ultrasound examination and elastography of the mammary glands and axillary fossae. The visualized lesions were evaluated according to BIRADS-US classification and Tsukuba score as well as FLR ratio was calculated. In all cases, the histopathological and/or cytological verification of the tested lesions was obtained. In the group of 80 patients, the examination revealed 39 malignant neoplastic lesions and 60 benign ones. The mean age of women with malignant neoplasms was 55.07 (SD = 10.54), and with benign lesions - 46.9 (SD = 15.47). In order to identify threshold values that distinguish benign lesions from malignant ones, a comparative analysis of statistical models based on BIRADS-US classification and Tsukuba score was conducted and the cut-off value for FLR was assumed. The sensitivity and specificity values for BIRADS-US 4/5 were 76.92% and 96.67% and for Tsukuba 3/4 - 64.1% and 98.33% respectively. The assumed FLR threshold value to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions in the breasts equaled 3

  19. Recent advances in ratio primary reference measurement procedures (definitive methods) and their use in certification of reference materials and controlling assigned values in proficiency testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczyñski, R.S.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Chajduk, E.; Danko, B.; Pyszynska, M.

    2014-01-01

    The idea of definitive methods based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA), consists in combination of neutron activation with the highly selective and quantitative post-irradiation isolation of the desired radionuclide by column chromatography followed by γ-ray spectrometric measurement. The principles of construction of such methods, which were devised in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, are reminded and the significance of these methods for analytical quality assurance is emphasized. According to VIM 3 nomenclature these methods may be called: ratio primary reference measurement procedures (RPRMPs). RPRMP for the determination of Se is briefly presented and its use for checking the accuracy of 'assigned values' established by expert laboratories in some proficiency tests, is demonstrated

  20. The Optimal Cut-Off Value of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio for Predicting Prognosis in Adult Patients with Henoch–Schönlein Purpura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Hyuk; Han, Dong Soo; Jeong, Jae Yoon; Eun, Chang Soo; Yoo, Kyo-Sang; Jeon, Yong Cheol; Sohn, Joo Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) can be a concern in the management of Henoch–Schönlein purpura (HSP). We aimed to evaluate whether the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is associated with the prognosis of adult patients with HSP. Methods Clinical data including the NLR of adult patients with HSP were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were classified into three groups as follows: (a) simple recovery, (b) wax & wane without GI bleeding, and (c) development of GI bleeding. The optimal cut-off value was determined using a receiver operating characteristics curve and the Youden index. Results A total of 66 adult patients were enrolled. The NLR was higher in the GI bleeding group than in the simple recovery or wax & wane group (simple recovery vs. wax & wane vs. GI bleeding; median [IQR], 2.32 [1.61–3.11] vs. 3.18 [2.16–3.71] vs. 7.52 [4.91–10.23], P<0.001). For the purpose of predicting simple recovery, the optimal cut-off value of NLR was 3.18, and the sensitivity and specificity were 74.1% and 75.0%, respectively. For predicting development of GI bleeding, the optimal cut-off value was 3.90 and the sensitivity and specificity were 87.5% and 88.6%, respectively. Conclusions The NLR is useful for predicting development of GI bleeding as well as simple recovery without symptom relapse. Two different cut-off values of NLR, 3.18 for predicting an easy recovery without symptom relapse and 3.90 for predicting GI bleeding can be used in adult patients with HSP. PMID:27073884

  1. Optimal waist-to-height ratio values for cardiometabolic risk screening in an ethnically diverse sample of South African urban and rural school boys and girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandi E Matsha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The proposed waist-to-height ratio (WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less optimal for cardiometabolic risk screening in children in many settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal WHtR for children from South Africa, and investigate variations by gender, ethnicity and residence in the achieved value. METHODS: Metabolic syndrome (MetS components were measured in 1272 randomly selected learners, aged 10-16 years, comprising of 446 black Africans, 696 mixed-ancestry and 130 Caucasians. The Youden's index and the closest-top-left (CTL point approaches were used to derive WHtR cut-offs for diagnosing any two MetS components, excluding the waist circumference. RESULTS: The two approaches yielded similar cut-off in girls, 0.465 (sensitivity 50.0, specificity 69.5, but two different values in boys, 0.455 (42.9, 88.4 and 0.425 (60.3, 67.7 based on the Youden's index and the CTL point, respectively. Furthermore, WHtR cut-off values derived differed substantially amongst the regions and ethnic groups investigated, whereby the highest cut-off was observed in semi-rural and white children, respectively, Youden's index0.505 (31.6, 87.1 and CTL point 0.475 (44.4, 75.9. CONCLUSION: The WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less accurate for screening cardiovascular risk in South African children. The optimal value in this setting is likely gender and ethnicity-specific and sensitive to urbanization.

  2. Validation of the prognostic value of lymph node ratio in patients with cutaneous melanoma: a population-based study of 8,177 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Pasquali, Sandro; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo; Nitti, Donato

    2011-07-01

    The proportion of positive among examined lymph nodes (lymph node ratio [LNR]) has been recently proposed as an useful and easy-to-calculate prognostic factor for patients with cutaneous melanoma. However, its independence from the standard prognostic system TNM has not been formally proven in a large series of patients. Patients with histologically proven cutaneous melanoma were identified from the Surveillance Epidemiology End Results database. Disease-specific survival was the clinical outcome of interest. The prognostic ability of conventional factors and LNR was assessed by multivariable survival analysis using the Cox regression model. Eligible patients (n = 8,177) were diagnosed with melanoma between 1998 and 2006. Among lymph node-positive cases (n = 3,872), most LNR values ranged from 1% to 10% (n = 2,187). In the whole series (≥5 lymph nodes examined) LNR significantly contributed to the Cox model independently of the TNM effect on survival (hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.32; P < .0001). On subgroup analysis, the significant and independent prognostic value of LNR was confirmed both in patients with ≥10 lymph nodes examined (n = 4,381) and in those with TNM stage III disease (n = 3,658). In all cases, LNR increased the prognostic accuracy of the survival model. In this large series of patients, the LNR independently predicted disease-specific survival, improving the prognostic accuracy of the TNM system. Accordingly, the LNR should be taken into account for the stratification of patients' risk, both in clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Added value of cerebro-placental ratio and uterine artery Doppler at routine third trimester screening as a predictor of SGA and FGR in non-selected pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rial-Crestelo, M; Martinez-Portilla, R J; Cancemi, A; Caradeux, J; Fernandez, L; Peguero, A; Gratacos, E; Figueras, Francesc

    2018-03-04

    The objective of this study is to determine the added value of cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) and uterine Doppler velocimetry at third trimester scan in an unselected obstetric population to predict smallness and growth restriction. We constructed a prospective cohort study of women with singleton pregnancies attended for routine third trimester screening (32 +0 -34 +6 weeks). Fetal biometry and fetal-maternal Doppler ultrasound examinations were performed by certified sonographers. The CPR was calculated as a ratio of the middle cerebral artery to the umbilical artery pulsatility indices. Both attending professionals and patients were blinded to the results, except in cases of estimated fetal weight < p10. The association between third trimester Doppler parameters and small for gestational age (SGA) (birth weight <10th centile) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) (birth weight below the third centile) was assessed by logistic regression, where the basal comparison was a model comprising maternal characteristics and estimated fetal weight (EFW). A total of 1030 pregnancies were included. The mean gestational age at scan was 33 weeks (SD 0.6). The addition of CPR and uterine Doppler to maternal characteristics plus EFW improved the explained uncertainty of the predicting models for SGA (15 versus 10%, p < .001) and FGR (12 versus 8%, p = .03). However, the addition of CPR and uterine Doppler to maternal characteristics plus EFW only marginally improved the detection rates for SGA (38 versus 34% for a 10% of false positives) and did not change the predictive performance for FGR. The added value of CPR and uterine Doppler at 33 weeks of gestation for detecting defective growth is poor.

  4. Value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for predicting lung cancer prognosis: A meta-analysis of 7,219 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Qian, Lei; Cui, Jiuwei

    2017-09-01

    Current evidence suggests that the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) may be a biomarker for poor prognosis in lung cancer, although this association remains controversial. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between NLR and lung cancer outcome. A systematic literature search was performed through the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases (until July 30, 2016), to identify studies evaluating the association between NLR and overall survival (OS) and/or progression-free survival (PFS) among patients with lung cancer. Based on the results of this search, data from 18 studies involving 7,219 patients with lung cancer were evaluated. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) suggested that elevated pretreatment NLR predicted poor OS [HR=1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30-1.64] and poor PFS (HR=1.42, 95% CI: 1.15-1.75) among patients with lung cancer. Subgroup analysis revealed that the prognostic value of NLR for predicting poor OS increased among patients who underwent surgery (HR=1.50, 95% CI: 1.21-1.84) or patients with early-stage disease (HR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.37-1.97). An NLR cut-off value of ≥4 significantly predicted poor OS (HR=1.56, 95% CI: 1.31-1.85) and PFS (HR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.13-1.82), particularly in the cases of small-cell lung cancer. Thus, the results of the present meta-analysis suggested that an elevated pretreatment NLR (e.g., ≥4) may be considered as a biomarker for poor prognosis in patients with lung cancer.

  5. The value of N staging with the positive lymph node ratio, and splenectomy, for remnant gastric cancer: A multicenter retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sang-Yong; Kong, Seong-Ho; Ahn, Hye Seong; Park, Young Suk; Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Suh, Yun-Suhk; Park, Do Joong; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2017-12-01

    Surgery for remnant gastric cancer (RGC) frequently fails to obtain the >15 lymph nodes necessary for tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging. We aimed to evaluate the utility of the recently developed tumor-ratio-metastasis (TRM) staging system. We also examined the pattern of lymph node metastasis and the role of prophylactic splenectomy in RGC. Between May 2003 and December 2012, data from 170 patients who underwent surgery for RGC were retrospectively analyzed. RGC arising after previous benign disease (n = 46) was associated with retrieval of more lymph nodes (27.3 vs 10.0; P splenectomy and non-splenectomy groups at each stage (P = 0.751, 0.723, 0.151, and 0.706 for stage I, II, III, and IV, respectively). The analyses did not identify a survival benefit from prophylactic splenectomy or show an improvement in staging with the TRM system for RGC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Determination of wine authenticity and geographical origin by measuring non-exchangeable hydrogen stable isotopes in wine ethanol with EIM-IRMS® methodology in combination with δ18O values obtained from wine water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajlovic, Ivan; Glavanovic, Mirko; Sparks, Kimberlee L.; Sparks, Jed P.; Jovic, Slobodan

    2014-05-01

    drawn from the wine water δ18O value. If water is added prior or during alcoholic fermentation, final ethanol δDn value will fall outside of the range of -205 to -215 ‰ vs. V-SMOW, while wine water δ18O value may still appear valid for the wine origin. We are certain that measuring wine water δ18O alone could give wrong impression about wine origin. With the new set of ethanol δDn and wine water δ18O results obtained from genuine wine samples from different vintages and from different geographic destinations (Serbia and USA), we are more certain that EIM-IRMS® method can help in determination of geographical origin and give additional information about wine authenticity and also important information about illegal production practices (addition of sugar and/or dilution with water) in wine production. Keywords: Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS), Wine, Authenticity, determination of origin

  7. Value management : functional expression of the need and functional performance specification : requirements for expressing and validating the need to be satisfied within the process of purchasing or obtaining a product

    CERN Document Server

    Association Française de Normalisation. Paris

    2013-01-01

    Value management : functional expression of the need and functional performance specification : requirements for expressing and validating the need to be satisfied within the process of purchasing or obtaining a product

  8. Attempt to validate breakpoint MIC values estimated from pharmacokinetic data obtained during oxolinic acid therapy of winter ulcer disease in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coyne, R.; Bergh, Ø.; Samuelsen, O.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of oxolinic acid (OXA) were measured in the plasma, muscle, liver, and kidney of 48 Atlantic salmons (Salmo salar) 1 day after the end of an oral administration. OXA was administered over a period of 13 days to control an outbreak of winter ulcer disease in a commercial marine farm...... administration of OXA. A numerical description of the concentration of the antimicrobial agent achieved in therapy is necessary to determine the resistance or sensitivity of the bacteria involved in the infection. The degree of fish-to-fish variation in the concentrations of OXA, both within the healthy fish...... a useful parameter for describing the concentrations of agents achieved during therapy. The plasma data from this investigation were used to estimate clinically relevant breakpoint minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The validity of these breakpoint values was discussed with reference...

  9. Primary production of phytoplankton of Chascomus Pond (Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina)). Critical evaluation of photosynthesis values obtained by O2 and 14 C methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M.C.; Arenas, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    The primary production of the phytoplankton of Chascomus pound was estimated with the dissolved oxygen and the assimilation of 14 CO 2 techniques, the laboratory, at light saturation. The bicarbonate consumptions by the phytoplankton was corrected by the excretion values, anaplerotic uptake of CO 2 by heterotrophic bacteria and for adsorption on suspended material. Gross production primary values fluctuated within 619,5 and 168,9 mg C.m -3 . h -1 , the net primary production within 564,8 (summer) and 93,8 (winter) mg C.m -3 . h -1 . Steemann Nielsen's technique subestimated the primary production in an average of the 21%; during the months of December, January and February those differences were only of the 8,6 and 1% respectively, implying that carrying out the respective corrections, both methods equalize themselves. (author)

  10. A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing cardiopulmonary exercise test values obtained from the arm cycle and the leg cycle respectively in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus Tolstrup; Christensen, Jan; Tang, Lars Hermann

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) assesses maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and is commonly performed on a leg cycle ergometer (LC). However, some individuals would rather perform the CPET on an arm cycle ergometer (AC). OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to undertake...... in studies on older and less active populations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3a....... a systematic review and meta-analysis of the difference in VO2max achieved by AC compared to LC in healthy adults and to explore factors that may be predictive of this difference. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro were searched in April 2015. The differences in VO2max (ACLCdiff) were pooled across....../min with a mean ACLCratio of 0.70. The ACLCdiff was lower in studies with higher mean age and lower aerobic capacity. CONCLUSION: There is linear association between the AC and LC values in healthy adults. The AC values were on average 70% of the LC values. The magnitude of this difference appeared to be reduced...

  11. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Comparing Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test Values Obtained From the Arm Cycle and the Leg Cycle Respectively in Healthy Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus Tolstrup; Christensen, Jan; Tang, Lars Hermann

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) assesses maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and is commonly performed on a leg cycle ergometer (LC). However, some individuals would rather perform the CPET on an arm cycle ergometer (AC). OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to undertake...... in studies on older and less active populations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3a....... a systematic review and meta-analysis of the difference in VO2max achieved by AC compared to LC in healthy adults and to explore factors that may be predictive of this difference. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro were searched in April 2015. The differences in VO2max (ACLCdiff) were pooled across....../min with a mean ACLCratio of 0.70. The ACLCdiff was lower in studies with higher mean age and lower aerobic capacity. CONCLUSION: There is linear association between the AC and LC values in healthy adults. The AC values were on average 70% of the LC values. The magnitude of this difference appeared to be reduced...

  12. Prognostic Value of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Localized and Advanced Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Li, Xintao; Wang, Baojun; Luo, Guoxiong; Gu, Liangyou; Chen, Luyao; Liu, Kan; Gao, Yu; Zhang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation plays an essential role in cancer development and progression. The inflammation marker neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is correlated with prognosis across a wide variety of tumor types, but its prognostic value in prostate cancer (PCa) remains controversial. In the present meta-analysis, the prognostic value of NLR in PCa patients is investigated. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the predictive value of NLR for overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and clinical features in patients with PCa. We systematically searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Embase for relevant studies published up to October 2015. A total of 9418 patients from 18 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Elevated pretreatment NLR predicted poor OS (HR 1.628, 95% CI 1.410-1.879) and RFS (HR 1.357, 95% CI 1.126-1.636) in all patients with PCa. However, NLR was insignificantly associated with OS in the subgroup of patients with localized PCa (HR 1.439, 95% CI 0.753-2.75). Increased NLR was also significantly correlated with lymph node involvement (OR 1.616, 95% CI 1.167-2.239) but not with pathological stage (OR 0.827, 95% CI 0.637-1.074) or Gleason score (OR 0.761, 95% CI 0.555-1.044). The present meta-analysis indicated that NLR could predict the prognosis for patients with locally advanced or castration-resistant PCa. Patients with higher NLR are more likely to have poorer prognosis than those with lower NLR.

  13. The predictive value of the product of contrast medium volume and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio in contrast-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunrui; Ma, Shuai; Deng, Bo; Lu, Jianxin; Shen, Wei; Jin, Bo; Shi, Haiming; Ding, Feng

    2017-11-01

    Preexisting renal impairment and the amount of contrast media are the most important risk factors for contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). We aimed to investigate whether the product of contrast medium volume and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (CMV × UACR) would be a better predictor of CI-AKI in patients undergoing nonemergency coronary interventions. This was a prospective single-center observational study, and 912 consecutive patients who were exposed to contrast media during coronary interventions were investigated prospectively. CI-AKI is defined as a 44.2 μmol/L rise in serum creatinine or a 25% increase, assessed within 48 h after administration of contrast media in the absence of other causes. Fifty patients (5.48%) developed CI-AKI. The urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) (OR = 1.002, 95% CI = 1.000-1.003, p = .012) and contrast medium volume (CMV) (OR = 1.008, 95% CI = 1.001-1.014, p = .017) were independent risk factors for the development of CI-AKI. The area under the ROC curve of CMV, UACR and CMV × UACR were 0.662 (95% CI = 0.584-0.741, p < .001), 0.761 (95% CI = 0.674-0.847, p < .001) and 0.808 (95% CI = 0.747-0.896, p < .001), respectively. The cutoff value of CMV × UACR to predict CI-AKI was 1186.2, with 80.0% sensitivity and 62.2% specificity. The product of CMV and UACR (CMV × UACR) might be a predictor of CI-AKI in patients undergoing nonemergency coronary interventions, which was superior to CMV or UACR alone.

  14. High-precision measurement of phenylalanine δ15N values for environmental samples: a new approach coupling high-pressure liquid chromatography purification and elemental analyzer isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broek, Taylor A B; Walker, Brett D; Andreasen, Dyke H; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2013-11-15

    Compound-specific isotope analysis of individual amino acids (CSI-AA) is a powerful new tool for tracing nitrogen (N) source and transformation in biogeochemical cycles. Specifically, the δ(15)N value of phenylalanine (δ(15)N(Phe)) represents an increasingly used proxy for source δ(15)N signatures, with particular promise for paleoceanographic applications. However, current derivatization/gas chromatography methods require expensive and relatively uncommon instrumentation, and have relatively low precision, making many potential applications impractical. A new offline approach has been developed for high-precision δ(15)N measurements of amino acids (δ(15)N(AA)), optimized for δ(15)N(Phe) values. Amino acids (AAs) are first purified via high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), using a mixed-phase column and automated fraction collection. The δ(15)N values are determined via offline elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). The combined HPLC/EA-IRMS method separated most protein AAs with sufficient resolution to obtain accurate δ(15)N values, despite significant intra-peak isotopic fractionation. For δ(15)N(Phe) values, the precision was ±0.16‰ for standards, 4× better than gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS; ±0.64‰). We also compared a δ(15)N(Phe) paleo-record from a deep-sea bamboo coral from Monterey Bay, CA, USA, using our method versus GC/C/IRMS. The two methods produced equivalent δ(15)N(Phe) values within error; however, the δ(15)N(Phe) values from HPLC/EA-IRMS had approximately twice the precision of GC/C/IRMS (average stdev of 0.27‰ ± 0.14‰ vs 0.60‰ ± 0.20‰, respectively). These results demonstrate that offline HPLC represents a viable alternative to traditional GC/C/IMRS for δ(15)N(AA) measurement. HPLC/EA-IRMS is more precise and widely available, and therefore useful in applications requiring increased precision for data interpretation (e.g. δ(15)N paleoproxies

  15. Valores de energia metabolizável de alguns alimentos obtidos com aves de diferentes idades Metabolizable energy values of feedstuffs obtained from poultry at different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena de Carvalho Mello

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados quatro ensaios de metabolismo com a finalidade de determinar a energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e a energia metabolizável aparente corrigida (EMAn de dez alimentos em aves em diversas idades. Os alimentos testados foram: milho, farelo de soja, sorgo, farelo de trigo, farelo de arroz integral, duas farinhas de penas, duas farinhas de vísceras e plasma sangüíneo. Utilizou-se o método de coleta total de excretas, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 11 tratamentos (dez alimentos e uma ração-referência e seis repetições. No primeiro ensaio, foram utilizados 528 pintos de corte machos de 10 a 17 dias de idade, totalizando oito aves por repetição; no segundo ensaio, 396 frangos de corte machos de 26 a 33 dias de idade, com seis aves por repetição; no terceiro ensaio, 264 frangos de corte machos de 40 a 47 dias de idade, com quatro aves por repetição; e, no quarto ensaio, 132 galos, com duas aves por repetição. A idade das aves influenciou os valores de EMA e EMAn do farelo de soja, do sorgo, do farelo de arroz integral, das farinhas de penas e do plasma sangüíneo, enquanto, para o farelo de trigo, teve efeito apenas sobre a EMAn.Four assays were carried out to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME and the corrected apparent nitrogen metabolizable energy (AMEn of ten feeds for poultry at different poultry ages. The feeds studied were: corn grain, soybean meal, ground sorghum, wheat bran, integral rice bran, two kinds of feather meal, two kinds of poultry viscera meal and spray-dried plasma. The method of total excreta collection was used to determine the AME and AMEn values. The broiler chicks were distributed on a completely randomized experimental design, with 11 treatments, six replications, with different number of animals by replication according to the assay. In the first assay, 528 male broiler chicks in the period from 10 to 17 days of age were used, with eight animals

  16. Prognostic value of pretreatment albumin–globulin ratio in predicting long-term mortality in gastric cancer patients who underwent D2 resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu J

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Jianjun Liu,1,2,* Shangxiang Chen,1,2,* Qirong Geng,1,3 Xuechao Liu,1,2 Pengfei Kong,1,2 Youqing Zhan,1,2 Dazhi Xu1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 2Department of Gastric and Pancreatic Surgery, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, 3Department of Hematology Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Several studies have highlighted the prognostic value of the albumin–globulin ratio (AGR in various kinds of cancers. Our study was designed to assess whether AGR is associated with the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Patients and methods: A total of 507 gastric cancer patients between 2005 and 2012 were included. The AGR was defined as the ratio of serum albumin to nonalbumin and calculated by the equation: albumin/(total protein - albumin. Furthermore, AGR was divided into two groups (low and high using the X-tile software. Survival analysis stratified by AGR groups was performed. Results: The mean survival time for each group was 36.62 months (95% CI: 33.92–39.32 for the low AGR group and 48.95 months (95% CI: 41.93–55.96, P=0.003 for the high AGR group. Patients in the high group (AGR ≥1.93 had a significantly lower 5-year mortality in comparison with the low group (AGR <1.93 (52.4% vs 78.5%, P=0.003. The high AGR group showed obviously better overall survival than the low AGR group according to Kaplan–Meier curves (P=0.003. Multivariate analysis showed that AGR was an independent predictive factor of prognosis in gastric patients. Conclusion: Pretreatment AGR is a significant and independent predictive factor of prognosis. Keywords: gastric cancer, survival, inflammation, albumin–globulin ratio

  17. 3D High-definition anorectal manometry: Values obtained in asymptomatic volunteers, fecal incontinence and chronic constipation. Results of a prospective multicenter study (NOMAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mion, F; Garros, A; Brochard, C; Vitton, V; Ropert, A; Bouvier, M; Damon, H; Siproudhis, L; Roman, S

    2017-08-01

    3D-high definition anorectal manometry (3DARM) may aid the diagnosis of functional anorectal disorders, but data comparing asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects are scarce. We aimed to describe 3DARM values in asymptomatic volunteers and those with fecal incontinence (FI) or chronic constipation (CC), and identify which variables differentiate best these groups. Asymptomatic subjects were stratified by sex, age, and parity. Those with FI or CC were included according to anorectal symptom questionnaires. Endoanal ultrasound examination and 3DARM were performed the same day. Anal pressures were analyzed at rest, during voluntary squeeze, and during push maneuver, and compared between the 3 groups. Anal pressure defects were defined and compared to ultrasound defects. A total of 126 subjects (113 female, mean age 52 years, range 18-83) were included; 36 asymptomatic, 38 FI, 42 CC. Anal resting and squeeze pressures, and rectal sensitivity values were lower in FI women than in the other groups. Typical anal sphincter asymmetry during squeezing was less frequently observed in FI women. A dyssynergic pattern during push maneuver was found in 70% of asymptomatic subjects, and with a similar frequency in the 2 symptomatic groups. There was slight concordance between 3D-pressure defects and ultrasound defects. 3D anal pressures in asymptomatic women were significantly lower than in men, and in FI compared to asymptomatic women. The classical dyssynergic pattern during push maneuver was found as frequently in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Further studies should try to identify 3DARM variables that could reliably identify dyssynergic defecation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. UV irradiation of track membranes as a method for obtaining the necessary value of brittleness for good fractures of samples for sem observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartowska, B.; Nowicki, A.; Orelovitch, O.; )

    2006-01-01

    Synthesis of nano- and microstructures of materials inside the pores of specific template-track membranes can be used to obtain nano- and microwires or nano- and microtubes. It is important for these applications to know the inner geometry of the pores like sizes, shape and surface morphology. Scanning electron microscopy technique (SEM) was used predominantly for this kind of membrane characterisation. The use of other methods of sample preparation as electron, gamma rays or UV irradiation allows to make them more brittle. In present paper authors describe preliminary results of the tensile measurements of membranes after UV irradiation. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) membrane 10 μm thick with pore diameter 1.0 μm were prepared t the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia) using the standard procedure. The samples were irradiated with UV light with energy flux 2.8 W/cm 2 during different periods of time. The tensile measurements of the initial and irradiated materials were carried in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland). In conclusion, authors claim that it is possible to find the dose of UV irradiation that ensures the fracture without elastic deformation. In the case when the time of UV irradiation increases up to 90 h, the PET membrane breaks without distortion of its channel structure

  19. Clinical value of detection of HPL-expressing intermediate trophoblasts in abortion or curettage-obtained specimens for diagnosis of intrauterine or ectopic pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaomei; Wang Yuping; Wang Lisha; Yang Jingxiu; Gao Xueyan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of detection of HPL-expressing intermediate trophoblasts in endometrial specimens for diagnosis of intrauterine and ectopic pregnancies. Methods: The examined specimens included: (1) Group I, 35 specimens with suspected intermediate trophoblast in decidua (2) Group II, 30 specimens with decidua-like plump endometrial stroma cells and/ or A-S phenomena in glandular epithelium (3) 30 specimens from proven intrauterine pregnancies serving as controls. Histochemistry (SP method) was used for HPL detection in all these specimens. Results: In the 30 proven intrauterine pregnancies, decidua and villa were present in all the specimens. Only 24 of the 30 were found to be HPL(+) with 6 HPL negatives (20%). In Group I , 28 of the 35 specimens were found to be HPL(+) and all of 28 were from intrauterine pregnancies: Of the 7 HPL negative cases, 5 were later confirmed as with ectopic pregnancy, the remaining 2 were with intrauterine pregnancy. In Group II, 22 of 30 specimens were HPL(+) and all were from intrauterine pregnancy. Of the 8 HPL negative cases, 6 were later confirmed as with ectopic pregnancy and 2 were with intrauterine pregnancy. Combining the data from Group I and II, we could see that in the total 15 HPL negative cases, 11 were with ectopic pregnancy (11/15=73.3%) and 4 were with intrauterine pregnancy (4/15=26.7%). Conclusion: In specimens of intrauterine contents, demonstration of HPL (+) cells could be regarded as confirmative evidence of intrauterine pregnancy. However, the reverse did not hold true. Many of the HPL negative specimens were from intrauterine pregnancies (in this study 4/15 or 26.7%). Therefore, in HPL negative cases, there was a high possibility of ectopic pregnancy but further examinations were required to ascertain the diagnosis. (authors)

  20. Out-of-range international normalized ratio values and healthcare cost among new warfarin patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Winnie W; Wang, Li; Baser, Onur; Damaraju, C V; Schein, Jeffrey R

    2015-05-01

    Patients with out-of-range international normalized ratio (INR) values 3.0 have been associated with increased risk of thromboembolic and bleeding events. INR monitoring is costly, because of associated physician and nurse time, laboratory resource use, and dose adjustments. This study assessed the healthcare cost burden associated with out-of-range INR among warfarin initiator patients diagnosed with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) population. Adult NVAF patients (≥18 years) initiating warfarin were selected from the VHA dataset for the study period October 1, 2007-September 30, 2012. Only valid INR measurements (0.5 ≤ INR ≤ 20) were examined for the follow-up period, from the index date (warfarin initiation date) until the end of warfarin exposure or death. All-cause healthcare costs within 30 days were measured starting from the second month (31 days post-index date) to the end of the study period. Costs for inpatient stays, emergency room, outpatient facility, physician office visits, and other services were computed separately. Multiple regression was performed using the generalized linear model for overall cost analysis. In total, 29,463 patients were included in the study sample. Mean costs for out-of-range INR ranged from $3419 to $5126. Inpatient, outpatient, outpatient pharmacy, and total costs were significantly higher after patients experienced out-of-range results (INR  3), compared with in-range INR (2 ≤ INR ≤ 3). When exposed to out-of-range INR, patients also incurred higher mean total costs within 2-6 months ($3840-$5820) than after the first 6 months ($2789-$3503) of warfarin therapy. In the VHA population, INR measures outside of the 2-3 range were associated with significantly higher healthcare costs. Increased costs were especially apparent when INR values were below 2, although INR measures above 3 were also associated with higher costs relative to in

  1. Correlation analysis of expressions of PTEN and p53 with the value obtained by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and apparent diffusion coefficient in the tumor and the tumor-adjacent area in magnetic resonance imaging for glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunyun; Ji, Feng; Jiang, Yuzhi; Zhao, Ting; Xu, Chongfu

    2018-01-01

    To explore the correlation of the expression levels of phosphate and tension homology deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) and p53 of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with the value obtained by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the tumor and the tumor-adjacent area in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A total of 38 patients were operated for GBM. All the patients had received diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and MRS prior to surgery. ADC of water molecules and values of metabolite indexes of MRS, including n-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr), were recorded, and the ratios of Cho/NAA, Cho/Cr and NAA/Cr were calculated. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining was done to examine the morphology of tumor and of tumor-adjacent tissues; immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to examine the expressions of PTEN and p53 in the tumor and the tumor-adjacent area. Finally, the correlations of the expressions of PTEN and p53 with ADC, Cho/NAA, Cho/Cr and NAA/Cr of the tumor and the tumor-adjacent area were analyzed. H&E staining showed that GBM tissues had disordered morphology, different sizes of cells, large cell nuclei and significant cell heterogeneity. IHC indicated that the expression level of p53 protein in the tumor was significantly higher than in the tumor-adjacent tissues (pCorrelation analysis indicated that PTEN levels in the tumor and the tumor-adjacent area were positively correlated with ADC in the corresponding area, while p53 in the tumor and the tumor-adjacent area was negatively correlated with ADC in the corresponding area. Cho/NAA and Cho/Cr in the tumor were positively correlated with p53 in the tumor, but negatively correlated with PTEN in the tumor. However, NAA/Cr of the tumor was irrelevant to the levels of PTEN and p53. The test results of DWI and MRS of patients with GBM can accurately reflect the inactivation or mutation of PTEN and p53.

  2. Prognostic value of pretreatment serum alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Wang, Xue-Ping; Li, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Xin; Lin, Jian-Hua; Kang, Ting; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Pei-Song

    2017-08-14

    The levels of liver function tests (LFTs) are often used to assess liver injury and non-liver disease-related mortality. In our study, the relationship between pretreatment serum LFTs and overall survival (OS) was evaluated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Our purpose was to investigate the prognostic value of the preoperative alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) in ESCC patients. A retrospective study was performed in 447 patients with ESCC, and follow-up period was at least 60 months until death. The prognostic significance of serum LFTs were determined by univariate and multivariate Cox hazard models. LFTs including ALT, AST, LSR, GGT, TBA and LDH were analyzed. Serum LSR (HR: 0.592, 95% CI = 0.457-0.768, p < 0.001 and GGT (HR: 1.507, 95% CI = 1.163-1.953, p = 0.002) levels were indicated as significant predictors of OS. The 5-year OS among patients with higher LSR levels was longer compared with those patients with decreased LSR levels, not only in the whole cohort but also in the subgroups stratified by pathological stage (T1-T2 subgroup, T3-T4 subgroup, N0 subgroup and M0 subgroup). We also found that patients with a higher GGT might predict worse OS than patients with a normal GGT, not only in the whole cohort but also in the subgroups stratified by pathological stage (T3-T4 subgroup and N1-N2 subgroup). Both increased levels of LSR and decreased levels of GGT might predict shorter overall survival in ESCC patients. Our findings suggest that serum LSR and GGT levels could be used as a key predictor of survival in patients with ESCC.

  3. Clinical utility of apparent diffusion coefficient values obtained using high b-value when diagnosing prostate cancer using 3 tesla MRI: comparison between ultra-high b-value (2000 s/mm²) and standard high b-value (1000 s/mm²).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Satoru; Ueno, Yoshiko; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Obara, Makoto; Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained using b = 2000 s/mm(2) upon 3 Tesla (T) diffusion-weighted MRI is superior to b = 1000 s/mm(2) for discriminating malignant from normal prostate tissue and predicting the aggressiveness of prostate cancer, using histopathological findings of radical prostatectomy as a reference. Eighty prostate cancer patients underwent preoperative 3T MRI including diffusion weighted imaging with b-values of 0, 1000, and 2000 s/mm(2) . ADCs were measured for malignant lesions and normal sites on three sets of ADC maps calculated with monoexponential fitting between b = 0 and 1000, 0 and 2000, and 1000 and 2000, respectively. The relationship between the ADC and Gleason score was evaluated. The areas under the ROC curves for b = 0,1000, b = 0,2000, and b = 1000,2000 were 0.896, 0.937, and 0.857, respectively, in the peripheral zone (PZ) and 0.877, 0.889, and 0.731, respectively, in the transition zone (TZ). The difference between b = 0,1000 and b = 0,2000 was significant in PZ (P = 0.033), but not in TZ (P = 0.84). Weak but significant negative correlations were identified between ADCs and Gleason score in both PZ and TZ cancer at b = 0,1000 and b = 0,2000 (r = -0.323 to -0.341). For 3T MRI, ADCs using b = 0,2000 are more accurate than b = 0,1000 for diagnosing PZ cancer, and as accurate for TZ cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. An Evaluation of the Value of Choice-Making Opportunities in Single-Operant Arrangements: Simple Fixed- and Progressive-Ratio Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Toussaint, Karen A.; Roath, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    The current study compared the effects of choice and no-choice reinforcement conditions on the task responding of 3 children with autism across 2 single-operant paradigm reinforcer assessments. The first assessment employed simple fixed-ratio (FR) schedules; the second used progressive-ratio (PR) schedules. The latter assessment identified the…

  5. Prospective study on the behaviour of values obtained by organ function studies, in particular scintiscan studies of pulmonary perfusion, during treatment of little to moderately advanced tuberculosis, shown by X-rays to involve one lobe of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffartzik, W.

    1987-01-01

    Prospective study on the behaviour of values obtained by organ function studies, in particular scintiscan studies of pulmonary perfusion, during treatment of little to moderately advanced tuberculosis, shown by X-rays to involve one lobe of the lung. This prospective study analyses features of global and regional pulmonary function in 14 patients with little to moderately pronounced tuberculosis, shown by X-rays to involve one lobe of the lung. At the beginning of treatment, the global function values were not different from the values generally accepted as normal. Disturbed perfusion was determined in pulmonary sections where the X-ray pictures had revealed the presence of tuberculous foci. After therapy and inactivation of the tuberculosis the values were seen to remain unchanged. (MBC) [de

  6. Comparison of the T2-star Values of Placentas Obtained from Pre-eclamptic Patients with Those of a Control Group: an Ex-vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurttutan, Nursel; Bakacak, Murat; Kızıldağ, Betül

    2017-09-29

    Endotel dysfunction, vasoconstriction, and oxidative stress are described in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia, but its aetiology has not been revealed clearly. To examine whether there is a difference between the placentas of pre-eclamptic pregnant women and those of a control group in terms of their T2 star values. Case-control study. Twenty patients diagnosed with pre-eclampsia and 22 healthy controls were included in this study. The placentas obtained after births performed via Caesarean section were taken into the magnetic resonance imaging area in plastic bags within the first postnatal hour, and imaging was performed via modified DIXON-Quant sequence. Average values were obtained by performing T2 star measurements from four localisations on the placentas. T2 star values measured in the placentas of the control group were found to be significantly lower than those in the pre-eclampsia group (pstar value in the pre-eclamptic group was found to be 37.48 ms (standard deviation ± 11.3), this value was 28.74 (standard deviation ± 8.08) in the control group. The cut-off value for the T2 star value, maximising the accuracy of diagnosis, was 28.59 ms (area under curve: 0.741; 95% confidence interval: 0.592-0.890); sensitivity and specificity were 70% and 63.6%, respectively. This study, the T2 star value, which is an indicator of iron amount, was found to be significantly lower in the control group than in the pre-eclampsia group. This may be related to the reduction in blood flow to the placenta due to endothelial dysfunction and vasoconstriction, which are important in pre-eclampsia pathophysiology.

  7. Metrology for stable isotope reference materials: 13C/12C and 18O/16O isotope ratio value assignment of pure carbon dioxide gas samples on the Vienna PeeDee Belemnite-CO2 scale using dual-inlet mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Abneesh; Michael Verkouteren, R

    2018-05-25

    Isotope ratio measurements have been conducted on a series of isotopically distinct pure CO 2 gas samples using the technique of dual-inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometry (DI-IRMS). The influence of instrumental parameters, data normalization schemes on the metrological traceability and uncertainty of the sample isotope composition have been characterized. Traceability to the Vienna PeeDee Belemnite(VPDB)-CO 2 scale was realized using the pure CO 2 isotope reference materials(IRMs) 8562, 8563, and 8564. The uncertainty analyses include contributions associated with the values of iRMs and the repeatability and reproducibility of our measurements. Our DI-IRMS measurement system is demonstrated to have high long-term stability, approaching a precision of 0.001 parts-per-thousand for the 45/44 and 46/44 ion signal ratios. The single- and two-point normalization bias for the iRMs were found to be within their published standard uncertainty values. The values of 13 C/ 12 C and 18 O/ 16 O isotope ratios are expressed relative to VPDB-CO 2 using the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] notation, respectively, in parts-per-thousand (‰ or per mil). For the samples, value assignments between (-25 to +2) ‰ and (-33 to -1) ‰ with nominal combined standard uncertainties of (0.05, 0.3) ‰ for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively were obtained. These samples are used as laboratory reference to provide anchor points for value assignment of isotope ratios (with VPDB traceability) to pure CO 2 samples. Additionally, they serve as potential parent isotopic source material required for the development of gravimetric based iRMs of CO 2 in CO 2 -free dry air in high pressure gas cylinder packages at desired abundance levels and isotopic composition values. Graphical abstract CO 2 gas isotope ratio metrology.

  8. Left ventricle ejection fraction obtained by radioisotopic angiocardiography. Correlation between the values of the conventional ventriclegraphy. Fracao de ejecao do ventriculo esquerdo obtida por angiocardiografia radioisotopica. Correlacao com os valores fornecidos pela ventriculografia convencional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascer, E; Pimentel Filho, W A; Martins, L R.F.; Marioni Filho, H; Queiroga Filho, A F; Alonso, G; Germek, O A; Thom, A F; Souza, J E.M.R. [Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1983-02-01

    Forty-two patients with clinical signs of coronary insuficiency underwent cineangiographic and radioisotopic examinations with the purpose of analysing the correlation between the values of left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) obtained by both methods. The values of EF obtained by the hemodynamic method (HEMO) ranged from 0.14 to 0.85 (x-bar = 0.566) and by radioisotopic method (RM) from 0.22 to 0.89 (x-bar = 0.573). The Student T test did not demonstrate statistically significant differences between the two methods (mean of differences = 0.007; t = 0.38 and p {ge} 0.353). A regression equation was obtained in order to estimate the EF by HEMO deriving from results obtained by RM (y = 0.11 + 0.80x) and to estimate the EF through RN from the results obtained by HEMO (x = 0.08 + 0.86y), where y = hemodynamic method and x = radioisotopic method. The authors conclude that the calculation of the EF by the methods used showed a good correlation and that this fact is evidenced by the elevated Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.833). (author).

  9. Predictive value of glucose-insulin ratio in PCOS and profile of women who will benefit from metformin therapy: obese, lean, hyper or normoinsulinemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onalan, Gogsen; Goktolga, Umit; Ceyhan, Temel; Bagis, Tayfun; Onalan, Reside; Pabuçcu, Recai

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate sub-groups of PCOS patients who will benefit from metformin therapy and to find out any predictors of ovulation in PCOS sub-groups. In the current prospective-randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, PCOS patients (n = 116) were divided into six main groups according to glucose to insulin ratio (G-I ratio mg/10(-4) U) and body mass index (BMI kg/m2) as: Group 1: normoinsulinemic (G-I ratio > or = 4.5 mg/10(-4) U), lean (BMI or = 30) (n = 18); Group 4: hyperinsulinemic (G-I ratio lean (n = 28); Group 5: hyperinsulinemic, overweight (n = 17); Group 6: hyperinsulinemic, obese (n = 20). Patients in each group were randomized onto placebo or metformin treatments (850 mg two to three times per day according to BMI). The rate of ovulation, biochemical profile, hormonal profile and clinical symptoms of hyperandrogenism were evaluated before and after 6 months of metformin and placebo treatments. We observed a significant decrease in WHR following metformin therapy in the normoinsulinemic overweight sub-group (P lean women (P lean hyperinsulinemic and normoinsulinemic groups (P lean hyperinsulinemic women (P PCOS patients.

  10. [The diagnostic value of human chorionic gonadotrophin ratio compared to single measurements of S-human chorionic gonadotrophin on the outcome of pregnancy of unknown location].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Huda Galib; Lyngsø, Julie; Bor, Pinar

    2014-10-13

    Pregnancy of unknown location is defined by a positive pregnancy test, without visualizing of the intrauterine or extrauterine pregnancy by transvaginal sonography. We present the advantages of using human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) ratio instead of single measurements of S-hCG for predicting the outcomes of pregnancies of unknown location.

  11. Prognostic value of the CD4+/ CD8+ ratio of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes in colorectal cancer and HLA-DR expression on tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Hjelmborg, J v B; Christensen, Per B

    2003-01-01

    class II in 70 enzymatically dissociated colorectal cancers and the phenotype of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in 41 cases. There was no trend in 5-year survival between three levels (low, medium, high) of HLA-DR expression on the tumour cells. Patients with low CD4+/CD8+ ratios had a better...

  12. Complexity of nearshore strontium-to-calcium ratio variability in a core sample of the massive coral Siderastrea siderea obtained in Coral Bay, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Christopher D.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Hickey, T. Don; Morrison, Jennifer M.; Flannery, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Strontium-to-calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) were measured on the skeletal matrix of a core sample from a colony of the massive coral Siderastrea siderea collected in Coral Bay, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Strontium and calcium are incorporated into the coral skeleton during the precipitation of aragonite by the coral polyps and their ratio is highly temperature dependent. The robustness of this temperature dependence makes Sr/Ca a reliable proxy for sea surface temperature (SST). Details presented from the St. John S. siderea core indicate that terrestrial inputs of sediment and freshwater can disrupt the chemical balance and subsequently complicate the utility of Sr/Ca in reconstructing historical SST. An approximately 44-year-long record of Sr/Ca shows that an annual SST signal is recorded but with an increasing Sr/Ca trend from 1980 to present, which is likely the result of runoff from the mountainous terrain of St. John. The overwhelming influence of the terrestrial fingerprint on local seawater chemistry makes utilizing Sr/Ca as a SST proxy in nearshore environments very difficult.

  13. Comparison of the CoaguChek XS handheld coagulation analyzer and conventional laboratory methods measuring international normalised ratio (INR) values during the time to therapeutic range after mechanical valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakci, Hasmet; Altıntaş, Garip; Çiçek, Omer Faruk; Kervan, Umit; Yilmaz, Sevinc; Kaplan, Sadi; Birincioglu, Cemal Levent

    2013-05-01

    To compare the international normalised ratio (INR) value of patients evaluated using the CoaguChek XS versus conventional laboratory methods, in the period after open-heart surgery for mechanical valve replacement until a therapeutic range is achieved using vitamin K antagonists (VKA) together with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). One hundred and five patients undergoing open-heart surgery for mechanical valve replacement were enrolled. Blood samples were collected from patients before surgery, and on the second and fifth postoperative days, simultaneously for both the point of care device and conventional laboratory techniques. Patients were administered VKA together with LMWH at therapeutic doses (enoxaparin 100 IU/kg twice daily) subcutaneously, until an effective range was achieved on approximately the fifth day after surgery. The mean INR values using the CoaguChek XS preoperatively and on the second and fifth days postoperatively were 1.20 (SD ± 0.09), 1.82 (SD ± 0.45), and 2.55 (SD ± 0.55), respectively. Corresponding results obtained using conventional laboratory techniques were 1.18 (SD ± 0.1), 1.81 (SD ± 0.43), and 2.51 (SD ± 0.58). The correlation coefficient was r = 0.77 preoperatively, r = 0.981 on postoperative day 2, and r = 0.983 on postoperative day 5. Results using the CoaguChek XS Handheld Coagulation Analyzer correlated strongly with conventional laboratory methods, in the bridging period between open-heart surgery for mechanical valve replacement and the achievement of a therapeutic range on warfarin and LMWH. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. C2 Swan spectrum used as a molecular pyrometer in transferred arc and the influence noise to signal ratio on the temperature values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, H

    2014-01-01

    The C 2 Swan system molecular emission spectrum is frequently observed in arc plasmas containing hydrocarbons. The spectra emitted from 5 kw in the transferred arc reactor at atmospheric pressure by CH 4 /CO 2 /Ar mixture are recorded with the help of an optical system consisting of a linear CCD array coupled with 2m spectrometer. The rotational temperature of 4300±300 K is found from the experimental Abel inverted spectra in the arc center after a point-to-point comparison of the spectrum with a computer simulated one. The influence of the noise to signal ratio has been studied, if the noise to signal ratio is about 10% we found an error of 7% at temperature 3000 K and 10% at 6000 K.

  15. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  16. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...

  17. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  18. Effects of flavonoid glycosides obtained from a Ginkgo biloba extract fraction on the physical and oxidative stabilities of oil-in-water emulsions prepared from a stripped structured lipid with a low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Gan, Lu-Jing; Zhang, Hua; Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, Ki-Teak; Hong, Soon-Taek

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we have produced a structured lipid with a low ω6/ω3 ratio by lipase-catalysed interesterification with perilla and grape seed oils (1:3, wt/wt). A Ginkgo biloba leaf extract was fractionated in a column packed with HP-20 resin, producing a flavonoid glycoside fraction (FA) and a biflavone fraction (FB). FA exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than FB, showing 58.4 mmol gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g-of-total-phenol-content, 58.8 mg quercetin equivalent (QUE)/g-of-total-flavonoid-content, 4.5 mmol trolox/g-of-trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity, 0.14 mg extract/mL-of-free-radical-scavenging-activity (DPPH assay, IC50), and 2.3 mmol Fe2SO4 · 7H2O/g-of-ferric-reducing-antioxidant-power. The oil-in-water emulsion containing the stripped structured lipid as an oil phase with FA exhibited the highest stability and the lowest oil globule diameters (d43 and d32), where the aggregation was unnoticeable by Turbiscan and particle size analyses during 30 days of storage. Furthermore, FA was effective in retarding the oxidation of the emulsions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognostic value of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio in oncologic outcomes of esophageal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangwei; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Linping; Sang, Shaowei; Zhang, Lin

    2018-04-01

    The platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is a useful prognostic factor in several cancers. However, the prognostic role of PLR in esophageal cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between PLR and the oncologic outcome of esophageal cancer patients through a meta-analysis. Relevant articles were researched from Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. The meta-analysis was performed using hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as effect measures. Finally, 19 articles with 6134 patients were included in our study. The summary results indicated that the elevated PLR was negatively related to overall survival (HR= 1.263; 95% CI 1.094, 1.458). The subgroup analysis revealed that increased PLR was associated with poor overall survival in esophageal cancer patients for Asians (HR=1.252; 95% CI 1.141, 1.373) but not for Caucasians (HR=1.463; 95% CI 0.611, 3.502). When the patients were segregated by pathological type, sample size, and HR estimate method, high PLR was also significantly correlated with poor overall survival. In contrast, elevated PLR was not statistically associated with disease-free survival or cancer-specific survival. High PLR is associated with poor overall survival in patients with esophageal cancer. PLR may be a significant predictive biomarker in patients with esophageal cancer. Further large-cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  20. Automated simultaneous measurement of the δ(13) C and δ(2) H values of methane and the δ(13) C and δ(18) O values of carbon dioxide in flask air samples using a new multi cryo-trap/gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A; Rothe, Michael; Sperlich, Peter; Strube, Martin; Wendeberg, Magnus

    2016-07-15

    The isotopic composition of greenhouse gases helps to constrain global budgets and to study sink and source processes. We present a new system for high-precision stable isotope measurements of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide. The design is intended for analyzing flask air samples from existing sampling programs without the need for extra sample air for methane analysis. CO2 and CH4 isotopes are measured simultaneously using two isotope ratio mass spectrometers, one for the analysis of δ(13) C and δ(18) O values and the second one for δ(2) H values. The inlet carousel delivers air from 16 sample positions (glass flasks 1-5 L and high-pressure cylinders). Three 10-port valves take aliquots from the sample stream. CH4 from 100-mL air aliquots is preconcentrated in 0.8-mL sample loops using a new cryo-trap system. A precisely calibrated working reference air is used in parallel with the sample according to the Principle of Identical Treatment. It takes about 36 hours for a fully calibrated analysis of a complete carousel including extractions of four working reference and one quality control reference air. Long-term precision values, as obtained from the quality control reference gas since 2012, account for 0.04 ‰ (δ(13) C values of CO2 ), 0.07 ‰ (δ(18) O values of CO2 ), 0.11 ‰ (δ(13) C values of CH4 ) and 1.0 ‰ (δ(2) H values of CH4 ). Within a single day, the system exhibits a typical methane δ(13) C standard deviation (1σ) of 0.06 ‰ for 10 repeated measurements. The system has been in routine operation at the MPI-BGC since 2012. Consistency of the data and compatibility with results from other laboratories at a high precision level are of utmost importance. A high sample throughput and reliability of operation are important achievements of the presented system to cope with the large number of air samples to be analyzed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Multiple negative differential resistance devices with ultra-high peak-to-valley current ratio for practical multi-valued logic and memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunhae; Rok Kim, Kyung

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel multiple negative differential resistance (NDR) device with ultra-high peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) over 106 by combining tunnel diode with a conventional MOSFET, which suppresses the valley current with transistor off-leakage level. Band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) in tunnel junction provides the first peak, and the second peak and valley are generated from the suppression of diffusion current in tunnel diode by the off-state MOSFET. The multiple NDR curves can be controlled by doping concentration of tunnel junction and the threshold voltage of MOSFET. By using complementary multiple NDR devices, five-state memory is demonstrated only with six transistors.

  2. Preference-based measures to obtain health state utility values for use in economic evaluations with child-based populations: a review and UK-based focus group assessment of patient and parent choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstenholme, Jane L; Bargo, Danielle; Wang, Kay; Harnden, Anthony; Räisänen, Ulla; Abel, Lucy

    2018-03-21

    No current guidance is available in the UK on the choice of preference-based measure (PBM) that should be used in obtaining health-related quality of life from children. The aim of this study is to review the current usage of PBMs for obtaining health state utility values in child and adolescent populations, and to obtain information on patient and parent-proxy respondent preferences in completing PBMs in the UK. A literature review was conducted to determine which instrument is most frequently used for child-based economic evaluations and whether child or proxy responses are used. Instruments were compared on dimensions, severity levels, elicitation and valuation methods, availability of value sets and validation studies, and the range of utility values generated. Additionally, a series of focus groups of parents and young people (11-20 years) were convened to determine patient and proxy preferences. Five PBMs suitable for child populations were identified, although only the Health Utilities Index 2 (HUI2) and Child Heath Utility 9D (CHU-9D) have UK value sets. 45 papers used PBMs in this population, but many used non-child-specific PBMs. Most respondents were parent proxies, even in adolescent populations. Reported missing data ranged from 0.5 to 49.3%. The focus groups reported their experiences with the EQ-5D-Y and CHU-9D. Both the young persons' group and parent/proxy groups felt that the CHU-9D was more comprehensive but may be harder for a proxy to complete. Some younger children had difficulty understanding the CHU-9D questions, but the young persons' group nonetheless preferred responding directly. The use of PBMs in child populations is increasing, but many studies use PBMs that do not have appropriate value sets. Parent proxies are the most common respondents, but the focus group responses suggest it would be preferred, and may be more informative, for older children to self-report or for child-parent dyads to respond.

  3. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  4. Enhancing the understanding of earthworm feeding behaviour via the use of fatty acid delta13C values determined by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungait, Jennifer A J; Briones, Maria J I; Bol, Roland; Evershed, Richard P

    2008-06-01

    Litter-dwelling (epigeic) Lumbricus rubellus and soil-dwelling (endogeic) Allolobophora chlorotica earthworms were observed aggregating under C(3) (delta(13)C = -31.3 per thousand; delta(15)N = 10.7 per thousand) and C(4) (delta(13)C = -12.6 per thousand; delta(15)N = 7.5 per thousand) synthetic dung pats applied to a temperate grassland (delta(13)C = -30.3 per thousand; delta(15)N = 5.7 per thousand) in an experiment carried out for 372 days. Bulk delta(13)C values of earthworms collected from beneath either C(3) or C(4) dung after 28, 56, 112 and 372 days demonstrated that (i) L. rubellus beneath C(4) dung were significantly (13)C-enriched after 56 days (delta(13)C = -23.8 per thousand) and 112 days (delta(13)C = -22.4 per thousand) compared with those from C(3) dung treatments (56 days, delta(13)C = -26.5 per thousand; 112 days, delta(13)C = -27.0 per thousand), and (ii) A. chlorotica were 2.1 per thousand (13)C-enriched (delta(13)C = -24.2 per thousand) relative to those from C(3) dung (delta(13)C = -26.3 per thousand) treatments after 372 days. Bulk delta(15)N values did not suggest significant uptake of dung N by either species beneath C(3) or C(4) dung, but showed that the endogeic species (total mean delta(15)N = 3.3 per thousand) had higher delta(15)N values than the epigeic species (total mean delta(15)N = 5.4 per thousand). Although the two species exhibited similar fatty acid profiles, individual fatty acid delta(13)C values revealed extensive routing of dietary C into body tissue of L. rubellus, but minor incorporation into A. chlorotica. In particular, the direct incorporation of microbial biomarker fatty acids (iC(17:0), aC(17:0)) from (13)C-labelled dung in situ, the routing of dung C into de novo synthesised compounds (iC(20:4)(omega)(6),C(20:5)(omega)(3), and the assimilation of essential fatty acids ((C(18:1)(omega)(9), C(18:1)(omega(7), C(18:2)(omega(6), C(18:3)(omega)(3)) derived from dung, were determined. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  5. Wastewater transformations and fertilizer value when co-digesting differing ratios of swine manure and used cooking grease in low-cost digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansing, Stephanie [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, 1445 Animal Sci./Ag. Eng. Bldg., College Park, MD 20742-2315 (United States); Martin, Jay F. [Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, 590 Woody Hayes Drive, Columbus, OH 43210-1057 (United States); Botero, Raul Botero; Nogueira da Silva, Tatiana; Dias da Silva, Ederson [EARTH University, Apartado Postal 4442 - 1000, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2010-12-15

    A nine-month co-digestion investigation was conducted in Costa Rica to optimize animal wastewater treatment, renewable energy production, and fertilizer creation using 12 Taiwanese-model, plug-flow digesters (250 L each) constructed of tubular polyethylene and PVC piping, operating without mechanical or heating components. The experiment tested three replications of four treatment groups: the control (T0), which contained only swine manure, and T2.5, T5, and T10, which contained 2.5%, 5%, and 10% used cooking grease (by volume) combined with swine manure. T2.5 had the greatest methane production (45 L d{sup -1}), a 124% increase from the control. No adverse effects were observed from co-digesting 2.5% grease in terms of organic matter removal, pathogen reduction, grease removal, and pH. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) was reduced 94.7% to 1.96 g L{sup -1}, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli were reduced 99.2 and 97.1%, respectively, and grease removal was 99.9%. The average effluent pH (7.05) and alkalinity in T2.5 was within the optimal range for methanogens and increased significantly during the nine-month experiment, likely due to adaptation of the methanogenic organisms to the influent grease concentrations. Total nitrogen concentration decreased 34.0%, and NH{sub 4}-N increased 97.1% during digestion in T2.5, with no significant differences between T2.5 and T0. There was less phosphorus reduction with co-digestion, with 181 mg g{sup -1} of total phosphorus (TP) in T2.5 and only 90.6 mg g{sup -1} of TP in T0, resulting in lower N:P ratios in the grease treatment groups due to the greater concentration of phosphorus in the effluent. (author)

  6. Determination of the atomic C/N assimilation ratio values of a pure culture of dunaliella and samples from rivers in Terengganu using the sup 14 C tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokman bin Shamsudin

    1990-01-01

    The C/N assimilation ratio has been defined by Chan and Raine as the ratio of carbon assimilated by a given algal population to that of the total inorganic nitrogen assimilated. The apparent carbon to nitrogen assimilation ratio for Dunaliella (pure algal culture) as well as subsurface water taken from some rivers in Terengganu was mainly attributed to the assimilation of the type of inorganic nitrogen, namely ammonium or nitrate found in the medium. The high C/N value for the various water samples was mainly attributed to the assimilation of ammonium nitrogen available in large amount in the tropical aquatic environment. The ammonium-nitrogen contents exceeds that of nitrate contents at the two stations

  7. Ratio of Pions to Protons & Neutral to Charged Interacting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Table I values for the NP ratio calculated on the basis of formula (2) are given in the second column within brackets. It is seen that the values obtained according to formula (2) are always higher than those according to formula (). It is seen from Table that the observed value of () 99 . . for NIP excludes the probability of ...

  8. Correlation of infrared reflectance ratios at 2.3 microns/1.6 micron and 1.1 micron/1.6 micron with delta O-18 values delineating fossil hydrothermal systems in the Idaho batholith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, A. R.; Criss, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Reflectance ratios from laboratory spectra and airborne multispectral images are found to be strongly correlated with delta O-18 values of granite rocks in the Idaho batholith. The correlation is largely a result of interactions between hot water and rock, which lowered the delta O-18 values of the rocks and produced secondary hydrous material. Maps of the ratio of reflectivities at 2.3 and 1.6 microns should delineate fossil hydrothermal systems and provide estimates of alteration intensity. However, hydrous minerals produced during deuteric alteration or weathering cannot be unambiguously distinguished in remotely sensed images from the products of propylitic alteration without the use of narrow-band scanners. The reflectivity at 1.6 micron is strongly correlated with rock density and may be useful in distinguishing rock types in granitic terranes.

  9. The differentiation of the character of solid lesions in the breast in the compression sonoelastography. Part II: Diagnostic value of BIRADS-US classification, Tsukuba score and FLR ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Sonoelastography is a dynamically developing method of ultrasound examination used to differentiate the character of focal lesions in the breasts. The aim of the Part II of the study is to determine the usefulness of sonoelastography in the differentiation diagnosis of focal breast lesions including the evaluation of the diagnostic value of Tsukuba score and FLR ratio in characterizing solid lesions in the breasts. Furthermore, the paper provides a comparison of classic B-mode imaging and son...

  10. Obtaining reliable Likelihood Ratio tests from simulated likelihood functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    It is standard practice by researchers and the default option in many statistical programs to base test statistics for mixed models on simulations using asymmetric draws (e.g. Halton draws). This paper shows that when the estimated likelihood functions depend on standard deviations of mixed param...

  11. Adjusted Money's Worth Ratios in Life Annuities

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Casassus; Eduardo Walker

    2013-01-01

    The Money's Worth Ratio (MWR) measures an annuity's actuarial fairness. It is calculated as the discounted present value of expected future payments divided by its cost. We argue that from the perspective of annuitants, this measure may overestimate the value-for-money obtained, since it does not adjust for liquidity or risk factors. Measuring these factors is challenging, requiring detailed knowledge of assets, liabilities, and of the stochastic processes followed by them. Using a multi-fact...

  12. Agreement between arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide and saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen values obtained by direct arterial blood measurements versus noninvasive methods in conscious healthy and ill foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David M; Alcott, Cody J; Wang, Chong; Bornkamp, Jennifer L; Young, Jessica L; Sponseller, Brett A

    2011-11-15

    To determine agreement between indirect measurements of end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PetCO(2)) and saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen as measured by pulse oximetry (SpO(2)) with direct measurements of PaCO(2) and calculated saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen in arterial blood (SaO(2)) in conscious healthy and ill foals. Validation study. 10 healthy and 21 ill neonatal foals. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed on healthy and ill foals examined at a veterinary teaching hospital to determine direct measurements of PaCO(2) and PaO(2) along with SaO(2). Concurrently, PetCO(2) was measured with a capnograph inserted into a naris, and SpO(2) was measured with a reflectance probe placed at the base of the tail. Paired values were compared by use of Pearson correlation coefficients, and level of agreement was assessed with the Bland-Altman method. Mean ± SD difference between PaCO(2) and PetCO(2) was 0.1 ± 5.0 mm Hg. There was significant strong correlation (r = 0.779) and good agreement between PaCO(2) and PetCO(2). Mean ± SD difference between SaO(2) and SpO(2) was 2.5 ± 3.5%. There was significant moderate correlation (r = 0.499) and acceptable agreement between SaO(2) and SpO(2). Both PetCO(2) obtained by use of nasal capnography and SpO(2) obtained with a reflectance probe are clinically applicable and accurate indirect methods of estimating and monitoring PaCO(2) and SaO(2) in neonatal foals. Indirect methods should not replace periodic direct measurement of corresponding parameters.

  13. Modified Cut-Off Value of the Urine Protein-To-Creatinine Ratio Is Helpful for Identifying Patients at High Risk for Chronic Kidney Disease: Validation of the Revised Japanese Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yoshida, Katsumi; Shindoh, Chiyohiko; Takeda, Kyoko; Monden, Masami; Izumo, Hiroko; Niinuma, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Yutaro; Niwa, Koichiro; Komatsu, Yasuhiro

    2015-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health issue, and strategies for its early detection and intervention are imperative. The latest Japanese CKD guideline recommends that patients without diabetes should be classified using the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (PCR) instead of the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR); however, no validation studies are available. This study aimed to validate the PCR-based CKD risk classification compared with the ACR-based classification and to explore more accurate classification methods. We analyzed two previously reported datasets that included diabetic and/or cardiovascular patients who were classified into early CKD stages. In total, 860 patients (131 diabetic patients and 729 cardiovascular patients, including 193 diabetic patients) were enrolled. We assessed the CKD risk classification of each patient according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate and the ACR-based or PCR-based classification. The use of the cut-off value recommended in the current guideline (PCR 0.15 g/g creatinine) resulted in risk misclassification rates of 26.0% and 16.6% for the two datasets. The misclassification was primarily caused by underestimation. Moderate to substantial agreement between each classification was achieved: Cohen's kappa, 0.56 (95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.69) and 0.72 (0.67-0.76) in each dataset, respectively. To improve the accuracy, we tested various candidate PCR cut-off values, showing that a PCR cut-off value of 0.08-0.10 g/g creatinine resulted in improvement in the misclassification rates and kappa values. Modification of the PCR cut-off value would improve its efficacy to identify high-risk populations who will benefit from early intervention.

  14. Some hematological parameters and the prognostic values of CD4, CD8 and total lymphocyte counts and CD4/CD8 cell count ratio in healthy HIV sero-negative, healthy HIV sero-positive and AIDS subjects in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Didia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study attempts to determine normal values of CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8 ratio, total WBC and differential counts, hematocrit and total lymphocyte count (TLC in healthy HIV sero-negative and sero-positive subjects, and to assess the prognostic significance of these parameters in these subjects as compared to AIDS subjects.METHODS: A total of 300 subjects (147 M, 153 F aged between 17 and 71 years were recruited into the study. Subjects were separated according to sex and divided into three groups: Group A: healthy HIV sero-negative subjects; Group B: healthy HIV sero-positive newly diagnosed ART-naïve subjects; and Group C: AIDS subjects. CD4 and CD8 counts were determined by flow cytometry; hematocrit was determined using Hawksley micro-capillary tubes; total WBC and differential counts were determined manually with the improved Neubauer counting chamber; and TLC was obtained by multiplying the percentage of lymphocytes by the total WBC count.RESULTS: For male subjects, significant differences were found in CD4 count, CD4/CD8 count ratio, hematocrit, total WBC and TLC, whereas for female subjects, significant differences were found only in CD4 and CD4/CD8 count ratio in the three groups of subjects. In both sexes, however, these parameters were found to be highest in healthy HIV sero-negative subjects and lowest in AIDS subjects, with HIV sero-positive subjects having intermediate values. CONCLUSION: The results confirm previous reports that the CD4 count and CD4/CD8 count ratio are fairly reliable indicators of the progression of HIV infection. In addition, the results also apparently suggest that the prognostic value of CD8 count is limited and that of TLC possibly sex-dependent. The results could be of importance in our environment since previous reports have been relatively scarce.

  15. Different percentages of false-positive results obtained using five methods for the calculation of reference change values based on simulated normal and ln-normal distributions of data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Fraser, Callum G

    2016-01-01

    a homeostatic set point that follows a normal (Gaussian) distribution. This set point (or baseline in steady-state) should be estimated from a set of previous samples, but, in practice, decisions based on reference change value are often based on only two consecutive results. The original reference change value......-positive results. The aim of this study was to investigate false-positive results using five different published methods for calculation of reference change value. METHODS: The five reference change value methods were examined using normally and ln-normally distributed simulated data. RESULTS: One method performed...... best in approaching the theoretical false-positive percentages on normally distributed data and another method performed best on ln-normally distributed data. The commonly used reference change value method based on two results (without use of estimated set point) performed worst both on normally...

  16. Evaluation of biodiesel obtained from cottonseed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Umer [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040 (Pakistan); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad-38000 (Pakistan); Anwar, Farooq [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040 (Pakistan); Knothe, Gerhard [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Esters from vegetable oils have attracted a great deal of interest as substitutes for petrodiesel to reduce dependence on imported petroleum and provide a fuel with more benign environmental properties. In this work biodiesel was prepared from cottonseed oil by transesterification with methanol, using sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium methoxide and potassium methoxide as catalysts. A series of experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the effects of reaction variables such as methanol/oil molar ratio (3:1-15:1), catalyst concentration (0.25-1.50%), temperature (25-65 C), and stirring intensity (180-600 rpm) to achieve the maximum yield and quality. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio (mol/mol), 0.75% sodium methoxide concentration (wt.%), 65 C reaction temperature, 600 rpm agitation speed and 90 min reaction time offered the maximum methyl ester yield (96.9%). The obtained fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The fuel properties of cottonseed oil methyl esters (COME), cetane number, kinematic viscosity, oxidative stability, lubricity, cloud point, pour point, cold filter plugging point, flash point, ash content, sulfur content, acid value, copper strip corrosion value, density, higher heating value, methanol content, free and bound glycerol were determined and are discussed in the light of biodiesel standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. (author)

  17. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  18. KERMA ratios in pediatric CT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Walter; Ogden, Kent M.; Lavallee, Robert L.; Roskopf, Marsha L.; Scalzetti, Ernest M.

    2012-01-01

    Patient organ doses may be estimated from CTDI values. More accurate estimates may be obtained by measuring KERMA (Kinetic Energy Released in Matter) in anthropomorphic phantoms and referencing these values to free-in-air X-ray intensity. To measure KERMA ratios (R K ) in pediatric phantoms at CT. CT scans produce an air KERMA K in a phantom and an air KERMA K CT at isocenter. KERMA ratios (R K ) are defined as (K/K CT ), measured using TLD chips in phantoms representing newborns to 10-year-olds. R K in the newborn is approximately constant. For the other phantoms, there is a peak R K value in the neck. The median R K values for the GE scanner at 120 kV were 0.92, 0.83, 0.77 and 0.76 for newborns, 1-year-olds, 5-year-olds and 10-year-olds, respectively. Organ R K values were 0.91 ± 0.04, 0.84 ± 0.07, 0.74 ± 0.09 and 0.72 ± 0.10 in newborns, 1-year-olds, 5-year-olds and 10-year-olds, respectively. At 120 kV, a Siemens Sensation 16 scanner had R K values 5% higher than those of the GE LightSpeed Ultra. KERMA ratios may be combined with air KERMA measurements at the isocenter to estimate organ doses in pediatric CT patients. (orig.)

  19. Obtaining of inulin acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  20. Comparing computing formulas for estimating concentration ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.

    1984-03-01

    This paper provides guidance on the choice of computing formulas (estimators) for estimating concentration ratios and other ratio-type measures of radionuclides and other environmental contaminant transfers between ecosystem components. Mathematical expressions for the expected value of three commonly used estimators (arithmetic mean of ratios, geometric mean of ratios, and the ratio of means) are obtained when the multivariate lognormal distribution is assumed. These expressions are used to explain why these estimators will not in general give the same estimate of the average concentration ratio. They illustrate that the magnitude of the discrepancies depends on the magnitude of measurement biases, and on the variances and correlations associated with spatial heterogeneity and measurement errors. This paper also reports on a computer simulation study that compares the accuracy of eight computing formulas for estimating a ratio relationship that is constant over time and/or space. Statistical models appropriate for both controlled spiking experiments and observational field studies for either normal or lognormal distributions are considered. 24 references, 15 figures, 7 tables

  1. Transport in a small aspect ratio torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gates, D.A.; Mynick, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    Transport theory in toroidal devices often assumes large aspect ratio and also assumes the poloidal field is small compared to the toroidal field. These assumptions result in transport which in the low collision rate limit is dominated by banana orbits, giving the largest collisionless excursion of a particle from an initial flux surface. However in a small aspect ratio device the gyro radius may be larger than the banana excursion, resulting in significant deviations from the standard neoclassical predictions. In this paper we report numerical simulation of diffusion in low and high beta low aspect ratio equilibria. We also sketch an analytic theory. The diffusion, which we refer to as omniclassical, is a combination of neoclassical and properly averaged classical effects, and can be two or three times the neoclassical value. Good agreement of the analytic theory with numerical simulations is obtained. (author)

  2. Studies in the determination of lead isotope ratios by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, A.R.; Yuk Ying Cheung

    1987-01-01

    The application of ICP-MS to the determination of lead isotope ratios in geological materials is described. Data presented for a series of lead mineral concentrates are compared with reference values obtained by conventional solid source thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. The simultaneous determination of lead isotope ratios and trace elements is carried out in a rapid analysis mode. The application of an electrothermal vaporisation technique for small solution aliquots is described. Lead isotope ratio data for the United States Geological Survey standard reference silicate rock BCR-1, obtained without separation of lead from the matrix, are compared with previously published values obtained after separation. (author)

  3. Postnatal follow-up of the oxygenation index, arterial to alveolar oxygen tension ratio and alveolar arterial oxygen tension difference values in neonates with the respiratory distress syndrome treated with conventional ventilatory support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, A; Despotova-Toleva, L

    1997-01-01

    Recent development of sophisticated intensive care technique for use in newborn infants with the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) has resulted in changes in the therapeutic strategies and moved the problem of neonatal survival into the realm of new therapeutic realities. At present, the mechanical ventilation methods form an integral part of the intensive care strategy of infants with RDS. They have come to the forefront of infant care because of their successful use in ventilatory support and children survival where other therapeutic modalities have failed. The present prospective observational longitudinal study was designed to assess the real-time convenience, reliability and accuracy of the changes in the oxygenation index (OI), arterial-to-alveolar oxygen tension ratio (a/A PO2) and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (A-a)DO2 in ventilator-dependent neonates with RDS, to analyze their feasibility and potential information yield in oxygen inhalation therapy as well as their prognostic implications and predictive value. Twenty neonates with RDS, heralded by respiratory failure which necessitated the initiation of oxygen inhalation therapy and ventilatory support within 24 hours of birth, were enrolled in the study. Ten of the infants survived and the remaining ten died. OI, (a/A PO2) and (A-a)DO2 were followed up sequentially and thoroughly analyzed as the primary outcome measures of the study. The indices were calculated on the basis of the complete monitoring of the ventilatory equipment parameters and acid-base status carried out on an hourly basis. Our results show that: 1. The combination of three indexes (OI, (a/A)PO2 and (A-a)DO2 we propose is a useful discriminating predictor of neonatal lung maturity reflecting arterial blood gas status in ventilator-dependent neonates with RDS. 2. The indices detect the efficacy of the modern conventional ventilatory support with real-time convenience and reliable accuracy forming the cornerstone of clinical decision

  4. Very high values of J{sub c} obtained in NdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} by use of the U/n process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy; Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Parks, Drew; Murakami, Masato; Mochida, Tadashi; Chikumoto, Noriko; Krabbes, Gernot; Bieger, Wolfgang

    2002-12-15

    The U/n process has been used to introduce quasi-columnar pinning centers into Nd123, textured in 1% O{sub 2}, 99% Ar. The process involves adding {sup 235}U to precursor powders of the superconductor, texturing, and irradiating with thermal neutrons. The two resulting ions, from each nuclear fission, cause aligned discontinuous electronic damage of length {approx}5.4 {mu}m, which acts as a pinning center. Best results for J{sub c} require U deposits spaced by s{<=}5.4 {mu}m. This has been achieved by deposits containing two foreign elements, U and Zr, and three native elements. The deposits of UZrNdBaO and Nd422 refined by the Zr, act as additional non-aligned pinning centers. The U/n process increases J{sub c} by a factor R{sub J}{>=}10, to values of J{sub c}{approx}274 kA/cm{sup 2} at T=77 K, B=666 G.

  5. The value of qualitative and quantitative assessment of lesion to cerebral cortex signal ratio on double inversion recovery sequence in the differentiation of demyelinating plaques from non-specific T2 hyperintensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamcan, Salih; Battal, Bilal; Akgun, Veysel; Sari, Sebahattin; Tasar, Mustafa [Gulhane Military Medical School, Department of Radiology, Etlik, Ankara (Turkey); Oz, Oguzhan; Tasdemir, Serdar [Gulhane Military Medical School, Department of Neurology, Ankara (Turkey); Bozkurt, Yalcin [Golcuk Military Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2017-02-15

    To assess the usefulness of the visual assessment and to determine diagnostic value of the lesion-to-cerebral cortex signal ratio (LCSR) measurement in the differentiation of demyelinating plaques and non-specific T2 hyperintensities on double inversion recovery (DIR) sequence. DIR and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences of 25 clinically diagnosed multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and 25 non-MS patients with non-specific T2-hyperintense lesions were evaluated visually and LCSRs were measured by two observers independently. On DIR sequence, the calculated mean LCSR ± SD for demyelinating plaques and non-specific T2-hyperintense lesions were 1.60 ± 0.26 and 0.75 ± 0.19 for observer1, and 1.61 ± 0.27 and 0.74 ± 0.19 for observer2. LCSRs of demyelinating plaques were significantly higher than other non-specific T2-hyperintense lesions on DIR sequence. By using the visual assessment demyelinating plaques were differentiated from non-specific T2-hyperintensities with 92.8 % sensitivity, 97.5 % specificity and 95.1 % accuracy for observer1 and 92.8 % sensitivity, 95 % specificity and 93.9 % accuracy for observer2. Visual assessment and LCSR measurement on DIR sequence seems to be useful for differentiating demyelinating MS plaques from supratentorial non-specific T2 hyperintensities. This feature can be used for diagnosis of MS particularly in patients with only supratentorial T2-hyperintense lesions who are categorized as radiologically possible MS. (orig.)

  6. Transformer ratio enhancement experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.; Power, J. G.; Kanareykin, A.; Neasheva, E.; Altmark, A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a multibunch scheme for efficient acceleration based on dielectric wakefield accelerator technology was outlined in J.G. Power, W. Gai, A. Kanareykin, X. Sun. PAC 2001 Proceedings, pp. 114-116, 2002. In this paper we present an experimental program for the design, development and demonstration of an Enhanced Transformer Ratio Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (ETR-DWA). The principal goal is to increase the transformer ratio R, the parameter that characterizes the energy transfer efficiency from the accelerating structure to the accelerated electron beam. We present here an experimental design of a 13.625 GHz dielectric loaded accelerating structure, a laser multisplitter producing a ramped bunch train, and simulations of the bunch train parameters required. Experimental results of the accelerating structure bench testing and ramped pulsed train generation with the laser multisplitter are shown as well. Using beam dynamic simulations, we also obtain the focusing FODO lattice parameters

  7. Utilização da relação albumina/creatinina no diagnóstico de microalbuminúria Diagnostic value of the albumin/creatinine ratio in detecting microalbuminuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Virgínia Bottini

    2005-04-01

    regression (least square method was used to evaluate the correlation between both methods. The accuracy of the albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR was assessed considering the decision level of 30mg/g. RESULTS: 33 patients had abnormal urinary albumin excretion (UAE > 20µg/min. There was a significant correlation between UAE and ACR (r = 0.902, p < 0.05. The ACR accuracy was 90%, with sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 90%. CONCLUSION: This study shows the diagnostic value of the albumin/creatinine ratio in detecting microalbuminuria.

  8. Determination of the isotopic ratio 235U/238U in UF6 using quadrupole mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusahara, Helena Sueco

    1979-01-01

    In this work measurements of isotope ratios 235 U / 23 '8U in uranium hexafluoride are carried out using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The operational parameters, which affect the final precision of the results, are standardized. Optimized procedures for the preparation of uranium hexafluoride samples by fluorination of uranium oxides using cobalt trifluoride method are established. Careful attention is given to the process of purification of uranium hexafluoride samples by fractional distillation. Adequate statistical methods for analysing the results obtained for single ratio measurements as well as the ratio ' of isotopic ratios of sample and standard ar.e developed. A precision of about 10 -4 for single ratio measurements and accuracy of about 0,3% for the ratio of sample and standard ratios are obtained. These results agree with the values which have been obtained using magnetic mass spectrometers. The procedures and methods established in this work can be employed in the systematic uranium isotope analysis in UF 6 form. (author)

  9. Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Dvoøáèek Jaroslav

    1997-01-01

    The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.

  10. Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvoøáèek Jaroslav

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.

  11. The analysis of optimal crack ratio for PWR pressure vessel cladding using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mike Susmikanti; Roziq Himawan; Jos Budi Sulistyo

    2018-01-01

    Several aspects of material failure have been investigated, especially for materials used in Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) cladding. One aspect that needs to be analyzed is the crack ratio. The crack ratio is a parameter that compares the depth of the gap to its width. The optimal value of the crack ratio reflects the material's resistance to the fracture. Fracture resistance of the material to fracture mechanics is indicated by the value of Stress Intensity Factor (SIF). This value can be obtained from a J-integral calculation that expresses the energy release rate. The detection of the crack ratio is conducted through the calculation of J-integral value. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) is one way to determine the optimal value for a problem. The purpose of this study is to analyze the possibility of fracture caused by crack. It was conducted by optimizing the crack ratio of AISI 308L and AISI 309L stainless steels using GA. Those materials are used for RPV cladding. The minimum crack ratio and J-Integral values were obtained for AISI 308L and AISI 309L. The SIF value was derived from the J-Integral calculation. The SIF value was then compared with the fracture toughness of those material. With the optimal crack ratio, it can be predicted that the material boundaries are protected from damaged events. It can be a reference material for the durability of a mechanical fracture event. (author)

  12. Global Carbon Reservoir Oxidative Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration move carbon and oxygen between the atmosphere and the biosphere at a ratio that is characteristic of the biogeochemical processes involved. This ratio is called the oxidative ratio (OR) of photosynthesis and respiration, and is defined as the ratio of moles of O2 per moles of CO2. This O2/CO2 ratio is a characteristic of biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes, much like the 13C signature of CO2 transferred between the biosphere and the atmosphere has a characteristic signature. OR values vary on a scale of 0 (CO2) to 2 (CH4), with most ecosystem values clustered between 0.9 and 1.2. Just as 13C can be measured for both carbon fluxes and carbon pools, OR can also be measured for fluxes and pools and can provide information about the processes involved in carbon and oxygen cycling. OR values also provide information about reservoir organic geochemistry because pool OR values are proportional to the oxidation state of carbon (Cox) in the reservoir. OR may prove to be a particularly valuable biogeochemical tracer because of its ability to couple information about ecosystem gas fluxes with ecosystem organic geochemistry. We have developed 3 methods to measure the OR of ecosystem carbon reservoirs and intercalibrated them to assure that they yield accurate, intercomparable data. Using these tools we have built a large enough database of biomass and soil OR values that it is now possible to consider the implications of global patterns in ecosystem OR values. Here we present a map of the natural range in ecosystem OR values and begin to consider its implications. One striking pattern is an apparent offset between soil and biospheric OR values: soil OR values are frequently higher than that of their source biomass. We discuss this trend in the context of soil organic geochemistry and gas fluxes.

  13. In-hospital and long-term outcomes of congestive heart failure: Predictive value of B-type and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptides and their ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yuxiang; Yang, Jun; Takagi, Atsutoshi; Konishi, Hakuoh; Miyazaki, Tetsuro; Masuda, Hiroshi; Shimada, Kazunori; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    Relative changes in B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and amino terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) levels may help to assess the risk of congestive heart failure (CHF). However, whether these levels at the time of admission enable the prediction of outcomes with acute exacerbation remains unknown. The current study determined the abilities of BNP, NT-proBNP and their ratio to predict in-hospital and long-term outcomes of patients with CHF. Patients who were admitted to the cardiac care unit of Juntendo University Hospital (Tokyo, Japan) with acute CHF onset were consecutively enrolled into the present observational study. Serum levels of BNP and NT-proBNP were immediately measured on admission, and other biomarkers and clinical data were also investigated. Of 195 enrolled patients, 16 (8.2%) succumbed to CHF in hospital and 124 (69.3%) reached the endpoint of mortality or readmission following a median follow-up of 14 months. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed body mass index, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin, estimated glomerular filtration rate and C-reactive protein as independent predictors of the NT-proBNP/BNP ratio. BNP, NT-proBNP and their ratio were significantly higher among those who succumbed to CHF than in those who remained alive in hospital (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the ratio was an independent predictor for in-hospital mortality and long-term outcomes. In conclusion, the ratio of NT-proBNP to BNP more effectively predicts in-hospital outcomes than either factor alone and it may also help to predict outcomes among patients with acute exacerbation of HF.

  14. MARKETING MIX BY BED OCCUPANCY RATIO (BOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muhith

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR in RSI Arafah Mojosari during the last three years are at under ideal rate and the lowest of the three existing hospitals in the area of Mojosari. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship marketing mix with Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Methods: This research uses analytic methods with crossectional approach. Variables in the study is marketing mix and Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR. The population in this study were all patients hospitalized in the RSI Arafah Mojosari. Samples amounted 44 respondents taken by the Stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using the questionnaire and analyzed using Fisher's Exact test. Result: The results obtained more than 50% of respondents (59.1% rate well against the marketing mix is developed by the hospital management and the majority of respondents (79.5% are in the treatment room that has a number BOR is not ideal. Fisher Exact test test results obtained probabililty value=0.02<0.05 so that H0 is rejected, which means there is a relationship marketing mix with the Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Discussion: Hospitals which able to develop the marketing mix very well, can attract consumers to use inpatient services at the hospital, with that BOR value will increase as the increased use of inpatient services. Hospital management must be able to formulate a good marketing mix strategy that hospital marketing objectives can be achieved. Conformity between service quality and service rates must be addressed, otherwise it extent of media promotions can attract patients to inpatient services.

  15. Ratios performance indicator evaluation of selected engineering enterprises in the northeast cohesion region

    OpenAIRE

    Šenec, Alexandr

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the performance indicator evaluation of selected industrial companies with a predominance of engineering production. Ratio indicators were used in order to measure business performance per unit of fixed assets and per employee. Analyzed data were obtained from companies annual reports. Trends ratio indicators were intended with the help of mathematical and statistical methods. These ratios indicator assessing the level of performance, value added and operating profit p...

  16. Intersecting-storage-rings inclusive data and the charge ratio of cosmic-ray muons

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, E

    1973-01-01

    The ( mu /sup +// mu /sup -/) ratio at sea level has been calculated by Frazer et al (1972) using the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation together with the inclusive data below 30 GeV/c. They obtained a value of mu /sup +// mu /sup -/ approximately=1.56, to be compared with experimental value of 1.2 to 1.4. The ratio has been calculated using the recent ISR (CERN Intersecting Storage Rings) data, and obtained a value of mu /sup +// mu /sup -/ approximately 1.40 in good agreement with the experimental result. (8 refs).

  17. Plasticity characteristic obtained by indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milman, Yu V

    2008-01-01

    A dimensionless parameter δ H = ε p /ε t (where ε p and ε t are the average values of plastic and total deformation of material on the contact area indenter-specimen) may be used as the plasticity characteristic of materials, which made it possible to characterize the plasticity of materials that are brittle in standard mechanical tests. δ H may be calculated from the values of microhardness HM, Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio ν. In instrumented indentation the plasticity characteristic δ A = A p /A t (A p and A t are the work of plastic and total deformation during indentation) may be calculated. δ A ∼ δ H for materials with δ H > 0.5, i.e. for all metals and the majority of ceramic materials. In this case, the theoretical equation δ A ∼ δ H = 1-10.2 · (1 - ν - 2ν 2 )(HM/E) is satisfied in experiments with the Berkovich indenter. The influence of the temperature and structural parameters (dislocation density and grain size including nanostructured materials) on δ H is discussed

  18. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  19. Determination of Light Water Reactor Fuel Burnup with the Isotope Ratio Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, David C.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.

    2007-01-01

    For the current project to demonstrate that isotope ratio measurements can be extended to zirconium alloys used in LWR fuel assemblies we report new analyses on irradiated samples obtained from a reactor. Zirconium alloys are used for structural elements of fuel assemblies and for the fuel element cladding. This report covers new measurements done on irradiated and unirradiated zirconium alloys, Unirradiated zircaloy samples serve as reference samples and indicate starting values or natural values for the Ti isotope ratio measured. New measurements of irradiated samples include results for 3 samples provided by AREVA. New results indicate: 1. Titanium isotope ratios were measured again in unirradiated samples to obtain reference or starting values at the same time irradiated samples were analyzed. In particular, 49Ti/48Ti ratios were indistinguishably close to values determined several months earlier and to expected natural values. 2. 49Ti/48Ti ratios were measured in 3 irradiated samples thus far, and demonstrate marked departures from natural or initial ratios, well beyond analytical uncertainty, and the ratios vary with reported fluence values. The irradiated samples appear to have significant surface contamination or radiation damage which required more time for SIMS analyses. 3. Other activated impurity elements still limit the sample size for SIMS analysis of irradiated samples. The sub-samples chosen for SIMS analysis, although smaller than optimal, were still analyzed successfully without violating the conditions of the applicable Radiological Work Permit

  20. Carbon isotope ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hitoshi; Kishima, Noriaki; Tsutaki, Yasuhiro.

    1982-01-01

    The delta 13 C values relative to PDB were measured for carbon dioxide in air samples collected at various parts of Japan and at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii in the periods of 1977 and 1978. The delta 13 C values of the ''clean air'' are -7.6 % at Hawaii and -8.1 per mille Oki and Hachijo-jima islands. These values are definitely lighter than the carbon isotope ratios (-6.9 per mille) obtained by Keeling for clean airs collected at Southern California in 1955 to 1956. The increase in 12 C in atmospheric carbon dioxide is attributed to the input of the anthropogenic light carbon dioxides (combustion of fossil fuels etc.) Taking -7.6 per mille to be the isotope ratio of CO 2 in the present clean air, a simple three box model predicts that the biosphere has decreased rather than increased since 1955, implying that it is acting as the doner of carbon rather than the sink. (author)

  1. Effects of variation in background mixing ratios of N2, O2, and Ar on the measurement of δ18O-H2O and δ2H-H2O values by cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer E.; Rella, Chris W.

    2017-08-01

    Cavity ring-down spectrometers have generally been designed to operate under conditions in which the background gas has a constant composition. However, there are a number of observational and experimental situations of interest in which the background gas has a variable composition. In this study, we examine the effect of background gas composition on a cavity ring-down spectrometer that measures δ18O-H2O and δ2H-H2O values based on the amplitude of water isotopologue absorption features around 7184 cm-1 (L2120-i, Picarro, Inc.). For background mixtures balanced with N2, the apparent δ18O values deviate from true values by -0.50 ± 0.001 ‰ O2 %-1 and -0.57 ± 0.001 ‰ Ar %-1, and apparent δ2H values deviate from true values by 0.26 ± 0.004 ‰ O2 %-1 and 0.42 ± 0.004 ‰ Ar %-1. The artifacts are the result of broadening, narrowing, and shifting of both the target absorption lines and strong neighboring lines. While the background-induced isotopic artifacts can largely be corrected with simple empirical or semi-mechanistic models, neither type of model is capable of completely correcting the isotopic artifacts to within the inherent instrument precision. The development of strategies for dynamically detecting and accommodating background variation in N2, O2, and/or Ar would facilitate the application of cavity ring-down spectrometers to a new class of observations and experiments.

  2. Effects of variation in background mixing ratios of N2, O2, and Ar on the measurement of δ18O–H2O and δ2H–H2O values by cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Johnson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cavity ring-down spectrometers have generally been designed to operate under conditions in which the background gas has a constant composition. However, there are a number of observational and experimental situations of interest in which the background gas has a variable composition. In this study, we examine the effect of background gas composition on a cavity ring-down spectrometer that measures δ18O–H2O and δ2H–H2O values based on the amplitude of water isotopologue absorption features around 7184 cm−1 (L2120-i, Picarro, Inc.. For background mixtures balanced with N2, the apparent δ18O values deviate from true values by −0.50 ± 0.001 ‰ O2 %−1 and −0.57 ± 0.001 ‰ Ar %−1, and apparent δ2H values deviate from true values by 0.26 ± 0.004 ‰ O2 %−1 and 0.42 ± 0.004 ‰ Ar  %−1. The artifacts are the result of broadening, narrowing, and shifting of both the target absorption lines and strong neighboring lines. While the background-induced isotopic artifacts can largely be corrected with simple empirical or semi-mechanistic models, neither type of model is capable of completely correcting the isotopic artifacts to within the inherent instrument precision. The development of strategies for dynamically detecting and accommodating background variation in N2, O2, and/or Ar would facilitate the application of cavity ring-down spectrometers to a new class of observations and experiments.

  3. Uncertainty in estimated values of forestry project: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The information obtained were analyzed using Net Present Value, Benefit-Cost Ratio, Economic Rate of Return and Sensitivity Analysis. The results of this study indicate that the NPV and B/C ratio were sensitive to increase in discount factor. The values of estimates for a direct and taungya plantatiomn at Ago-Owu forest ...

  4. Hubungan Analisis Ratio Keuangan dengan Kesehatan Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekarso Soekarso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the business world, companies develop a vision and mission to improve welfare in the future. The work program the company is to achieve productivity and profitability. Finance in the company is one of the strategic functions that includes wealth management and transformation of added value (added value and also the control of corporate health. The financial statements such as balance sheet (balance sheet, profit and loss statement (income statement, and financial ratio (financial ratios, reflects the company's performance and health. Financial ratio analysis relates to the health of the company through a ratio of effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, profitability, liquidity, and solvability. Analysis shows that whenever actual value of financial ratios is above standard it means the company is healthy, and when the actual value of financial ratios is below the standard, it reversely means that companies are not healthy.

  5. Determination of Optimum Compression Ratio: A Tribological Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yüksek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines are the primary energy conversion machines both in industry and transportation. Modern technologies are being implemented to engines to fulfill today's low fuel consumption demand. Friction energy consumed by the rubbing parts of the engines are becoming an important parameter for higher fuel efficiency. Rate of friction loss is primarily affected by sliding speed and the load acting upon rubbing surfaces. Compression ratio is the main parameter that increases the peak cylinder pressure and hence normal load on components. Aim of this study is to investigate the effect of compression ratio on total friction loss of a diesel engine. A variable compression ratio diesel engine was operated at four different compression ratios which were "12.96", "15:59", "18:03", "20:17". Brake power and speed was kept constant at predefined value while measuring the in- cylinder pressure. Friction mean effective pressure ( FMEP data were obtained from the in cylinder pressure curves for each compression ratio. Ratio of friction power to indicated power of the engine was increased from 22.83% to 37.06% with varying compression ratio from 12.96 to 20:17. Considering the thermal efficiency , FMEP and maximum in- cylinder pressure optimum compression ratio interval of the test engine was determined as 18.8 ÷ 19.6.

  6. 10 CFR 436.21 - Savings-to-investment ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... is the ratio of the present value savings to the present value costs of an energy or water conservation measure. The numerator of the ratio is the present value of net savings in energy or water and non... conservation measure. The denominator of the ratio is the present value of the net increase in investment and...

  7. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  8. Omniclassical Diffusion in Low Aspect Ratio Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.; White, R.B.; Gates, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently reported numerical results for axisymmetric devices with low aspect ratio A found radial transport enhanced over the expected neoclassical value by a factor of 2 to 3. In this paper, we provide an explanation for this enhancement. Transport theory in toroidal devices usually assumes large A, and that the ratio B p /B t of the poloidal to the toroidal magnetic field is small. These assumptions result in transport which, in the low collision limit, is dominated by banana orbits, giving the largest collisionless excursion of a particle from an initial flux surface. However in a small aspect ratio device one may have B p /B t ∼ 1, and the gyroradius may be larger than the banana excursion. Here, we develop an approximate analytic transport theory valid for devices with arbitrary A. For low A, we find that the enhanced transport, referred to as omniclassical, is a combination of neoclassical and properly generalized classical effects, which become dominant in the low-A, B p /B t ∼ 1 regime. Good agreement of the analytic theory with numerical simulations is obtained

  9. RATIO_TOOL - SOFTWARE FOR COMPUTING IMAGE RATIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, G. L.

    1994-01-01

    Geological studies analyze spectral data in order to gain information on surface materials. RATIO_TOOL is an interactive program for viewing and analyzing large multispectral image data sets that have been created by an imaging spectrometer. While the standard approach to classification of multispectral data is to match the spectrum for each input pixel against a library of known mineral spectra, RATIO_TOOL uses ratios of spectral bands in order to spot significant areas of interest within a multispectral image. Each image band can be viewed iteratively, or a selected image band of the data set can be requested and displayed. When the image ratios are computed, the result is displayed as a gray scale image. At this point a histogram option helps in viewing the distribution of values. A thresholding option can then be used to segment the ratio image result into two to four classes. The segmented image is then color coded to indicate threshold classes and displayed alongside the gray scale image. RATIO_TOOL is written in C language for Sun series computers running SunOS 4.0 and later. It requires the XView toolkit and the OpenWindows window manager (version 2.0 or 3.0). The XView toolkit is distributed with Open Windows. A color monitor is also required. The standard distribution medium for RATIO_TOOL is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. An electronic copy of the documentation is included on the program media. RATIO_TOOL was developed in 1992 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Sun, SunOS, and OpenWindows are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories.

  10. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What......As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency...... and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some...

  11. Minimum critical power ratio control device for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Tsuneo.

    1991-01-01

    Reactor core flowrate is determined by comparing a minimum critical power ratio calculated based on the status amount of a nuclear power plant and a control value for the minimum critical power ratio that depends on the reactor core flowrate. Further, the minimum critical power ratio and a control value for the minimum critical power ratio that depends on the reactor thermal power are compared to set a reactor thermal power converted to a reactor core flowrate. Deviation between the thus determined reactor core flowrate and the present reactor core flowrate is calculated. When the obtained deviation is lower than a rated value, a reactor core flowrate set signal is generated to a reactor flowrate control means, to control the reactor power by a recycling flowrate control system of the reactor. On the other hand, when the deviation exceeds the determined value, the reactor core flowrate set signal is converted into a reactor thermal power, to control the position of control rods and control the reactor power. Then, monitor and control can be conducted safely and automatically without depending on operator's individual ability over the entire operation range corresponding to load following operation. (N.H.)

  12. Oxygen isotope ratios of the Icelandic crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, K.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios of hydrothermally altered basalts from depth of up to approx.3 km are reported from three localities in Iceland: International Research Drilling Project (IRDP) core at Reydarfjordur, eastern Iceland (Tertiary age); drill cuttings from Reykjavik (Plio-Pleistocene age); and Halocene drill cuttings from the active Krafla central volcano. Whole rock samples from these three localities have delta 18 O values averaging +3.9 +- 1.3, +2.4 +- 1.1, and -7.7 +- 2.4%, respectively. The observed values in the deeper samples from Krafla are as low as the values for any rocks previously reported. There seems to be a slight negative gradient in delta 18 O with depth at the former two localities and a more pronounced one at Krafla. Oxygen isotope fractionations between epidote and quartz and those between calcite and fluid suggests that the basalts were altered at temperatures of 300 0 --400 0 C. Low deltaD and delta 18 O of epidote and low delta 34 S of anhydrite indicate that the altering fluids in all three areas originated as meteoric waters and have undergone varied 'oxygen shifts'. Differences in the 18 O shift of the fluids are attributed to differences in hydrothermal systems; low water/rock ratios ( 5) at Krafla. The convective hydrothermal activity, which is probably driven by silicic magma beneath the central volcanoes, has caused strong subsolidus depletion of 18 O in the rocks. The primary-magnetic delta 18 O value of the rocks in the Tertiary IRDP core was about +3.9%, which is lower than that obtained for fresh basalt from other places. Such exceptionally low delta 18 O magmas are common in Iceland and may occur as the result of oxygen isotope exchange with or assimilation of altered rocks that form a thick sequence beneath the island due to isostatic subsidence

  13. Arcjet nozzle area ratio effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  14. Arcjet Nozzle Area Ratio Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  15. Generic clearance values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document 'Safety Reports Series Nr 44' of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (author)

  16. Generic Clearance Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on the one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document Safety Reports Series 44 of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (authors) [es

  17. VVER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (author)

  18. WWER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (Authors)

  19. Sharpening Sharpe Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Jonathan E. Ingersoll Jr.; Matthew I. Spiegel; Ivo Welch

    2002-01-01

    It is now well known that the Sharpe ratio and other related reward-to-risk measures may be manipulated with option-like strategies. In this paper we derive the general conditions for achieving the maximum expected Sharpe ratio. We derive static rules for achieving the maximum Sharpe ratio with two or more options, as well as a continuum of derivative contracts. The optimal strategy has a truncated right tail and a fat left tail. We also derive dynamic rules for increasing the Sharpe ratio. O...

  20. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  2. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers

  3. Process for obtaining cobalt and lanthanum nickelate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapcov, V.; Samusi, N.; Gulea, A.; Horosun, I.; Stasiuc, V.; Petrenco, P.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to the process for obtaining polycrystalline ceramics of cobalt and lanthanum nickelate with the perovskite structure from coordinative hetero metallic compounds. The obtained products can be utilized in the industry in the capacity of catalysts. Summary of the invention consists in obtaining polycrystalline ceramics LaCoO 3 and LaNiO 3 with the perovskite structure by pyrolysis of the parent compounds, namely, the coordinative hetero metallic compounds of the lanthanum cobalt or lanthanum nickel. The pyrolysis of the parent compound runs during one hour at 800 C. The technical result of the invention consists in lowering the temperature of the parent compound pyrolysis containing the precise ratio of metals necessary for ceramics obtaining

  4. Remarks on 'Poisson ratio beyond the limits of the elasticity theory'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, K.W.

    2002-12-01

    The non-chiral, elastically isotropic model exhibits Poison ratios in the range -1 ≤ σ ≤ 1 without any molecular rotation. The centres of discs-atoms are replaced in the vertices of a perfect triangle of the side length equal to σ. The positive sign of the Lame constant λ is not necessary for the stability of an isotropic system at any dimensionality. As the upper limit for the Poisson ratio in 2D isotropic systems is 1, crystalline or polycrystalline 2D systems can be obtained having the Poisson ratio exceeding 1/2. Both the traditional theory of elasticity and the Cosserat one exclude Poisson ratios exceeding 1/2 in 3D isotropic systems. Neighter anisotropy nor rotation are necessary to obtain extreme values of the Poisson ratio (author)

  5. On the Reliability of Unit Value Ratios in International Comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Marcel P.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper reliability indicators are developed for the Laspeyres and Paasche index type currency conversion factors used in the industry of origin approach to international comparisons of output. Given the fact that these conversion factors are calculated on basis of a sampling technique,

  6. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....... hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...

  7. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provided under § 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider... thing of value; (6) If the service or services are being purchased as part of an aggregated purchase... submitted and select the most cost-effective alternative. (b) Receiving supported rate. Except with regard...

  8. Application of Performance Ratios in Portfolio Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Kresta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cornerstone of modern portfolio theory was established by pioneer work of Harry Markowitz. Based on his mean-variance framework, Sharpe formulated his well-known Sharpe ratio aiming to measure the performance of mutual funds. The contemporary development in computer’s computational power allowed to apply more complex performance ratios, which take into account also higher moments of return probability distribution. Although these ratios were proposed to help the investors to improve the results of portfolio optimization, we empirically demonstrated in our paper that this may not necessarily be true. On the historical dataset of DJIA components we empirically showed that both Sharpe ratio and MAD ratio outperformed Rachev ratio. However, for Rachev ratio we assumed only one level of parameters value. Different set-ups of parameters may provide different results and thus further analysis is certainly required.

  9. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... is a general tendency to focus on numerators and pay insufficient attention to denominators in ratios. Using a population-based survey experiment, I demonstrate how differently framed but logically equivalent representations of the exact same numerical value can have large effects on citizens’ preferences...... regarding salient political issues such as education and taxes. Furthermore, the effects of numerical framing are found across most groups of the population, largely regardless of their political predisposition and their general ability to understand and use numerical information. These findings have...

  10. Rotating spacetimes with asymptotic nonflat structure and the gyromagnetic ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, Alikram N.

    2008-01-01

    In general relativity, the gyromagnetic ratio for all stationary, axisymmetric, and asymptotically flat Einstein-Maxwell fields is known to be g=2. In this paper, we continue our previous works of examination of this result for rotating charged spacetimes with asymptotic nonflat structure. We first consider two instructive examples of these spacetimes: The spacetime of a Kerr-Newman black hole with a straight cosmic string on its axis of symmetry and the Kerr-Newman Taub-NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino) spacetime. We show that for both spacetimes the gyromagnetic ratio g=2 independent of their asymptotic structure. We also extend this result to a general class of metrics which admit separation of variables for the Hamilton-Jacobi and wave equations. We proceed with the study of the gyromagnetic ratio in higher dimensions by considering the general solution for rotating charged black holes in minimal five-dimensional gauged supergravity. We obtain the analytic expressions for two distinct gyromagnetic ratios of these black holes that are associated with their two independent rotation parameters. These expressions reveal the dependence of the gyromagnetic ratio on both the curvature radius of the AdS background and the parameters of the black holes: The mass, electric charge, and two rotation parameters. We explore some special cases of interest and show that when the two rotation parameters are equal to each other and the rotation occurs at the maximum angular velocity, the gyromagnetic ratio g=4 regardless of the value of the electric charge. This agrees precisely with our earlier result obtained for general Kerr-AdS black holes with a test electric charge. We also show that in the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) limit the gyromagnetic ratio for a supersymmetric black hole with equal rotation parameters ranges between 2 and 4

  11. Poisson's ratio of fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansson, Henrik; Helsing, Johan

    1996-05-01

    Poisson's ratio flow diagrams, that is, the Poisson's ratio versus the fiber fraction, are obtained numerically for hexagonal arrays of elastic circular fibers in an elastic matrix. High numerical accuracy is achieved through the use of an interface integral equation method. Questions concerning fixed point theorems and the validity of existing asymptotic relations are investigated and partially resolved. Our findings for the transverse effective Poisson's ratio, together with earlier results for random systems by other authors, make it possible to formulate a general statement for Poisson's ratio flow diagrams: For composites with circular fibers and where the phase Poisson's ratios are equal to 1/3, the system with the lowest stiffness ratio has the highest Poisson's ratio. For other choices of the elastic moduli for the phases, no simple statement can be made.

  12. Obtaining of ceramics biphasic dense and porous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallone, E.M.J.A.; Rigo, E.C.S.; Fraga, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Among the bioceramic hydroxyapatite (HAP) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) are materials commonly used in biomedical field. Their combined properties result in a material with absorbable and at the same time with bioactive surface. Called biphasic ceramics such materials respond more quickly when exposed to physiological environment. In this work, powders of HAP/beta-TCP were obtained by chemical precipitation. After obtaining the post-phase was added at a ratio of 0, 15% and 30w% aqueous solutions of corn starch in order to obtain porous bodies. After mixing the resulting solutions were dried, resigned in tablet form and sintered at 1300 deg C. The initial powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement to quantify the phases present. Bodies-of-evidence has been characterized by calculating the bulk density, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and diametral compression. (author)

  13. Isomeric cross section ratios in 55Mn(α, n)58m,gCo reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Xianguan; He Fuqing; Peng Xiufen; Liu Mantian

    1989-01-01

    The isomeric cross section ratios in 55 Mn(α, n) 58m,g Co reaction are measured for incident alpha-particle energies ranging from 10.4 to 26.5 MeV by using activation method and stacked-foil technique. The measured values are compared with theoretical calculations performed by using Huizenga and Vandenbosch method and the values of spin cutoff factor are obtained for product nucleus 58 Co

  14. Portfolio Optimization under Local-Stochastic Volatility: Coefficient Taylor Series Approximations & Implied Sharpe Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Lorig, Matthew; Sircar, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    We study the finite horizon Merton portfolio optimization problem in a general local-stochastic volatility setting. Using model coefficient expansion techniques, we derive approximations for the both the value function and the optimal investment strategy. We also analyze the `implied Sharpe ratio' and derive a series approximation for this quantity. The zeroth-order approximation of the value function and optimal investment strategy correspond to those obtained by Merton (1969) when the risky...

  15. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  16. Value of prostate specific antigen and prostatic volume ratio (PSA/V) as the selection criterion for US-guided prostatic biopsy. Importanza del rapporto tra antigene prostatico specifico e volume prostatico nella selezione dei pazienti da sottoporre a biopsia ecoguidata della prostata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veneziano, S; Paulica, P; Querze' , R; Viglietta, G; Trenta, A [Ospedale Melpighi, Bologna (Italy). Serv. di Radiologia

    1991-01-01

    US-guided biopsy was performed in 94 patients with suspected lesions at transerectal US. Histology demonstrated carcinoma in 43 cases, benign hyperplasia in 44, and prostatis in 7. In all cases the prostate specific antigen (PSA) was calculated, by means of US, together with prostatic volume (v). PSA was related to the corresponding gland volume, which resulted in PSA/V ratio. Our study showed PSA/V ration to have higher sensitivity and specificity than absolulute PSA value in the diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma. The authors believe prostate US-guided biopsy to be: a) necessary when the suspected area has PSA/V ratio >0.15, and especially when PSA/V >0.30; b) not indicated when echo-structural alterations are associated with PSA/V <0.15, because they are most frequently due to benign lesions. The combined use of PSA/V ratio and US is therefore suggested to select the patients in whom biopsy is to be performed. 20 refs.

  17. Reproducibility of isotope ratio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, D.

    1981-01-01

    The use of an accelerator as part of a mass spectrometer has improved the sensitivity for measuring low levels of long-lived radionuclides by several orders of magnitude. However, the complexity of a large tandem accelerator and beam transport system has made it difficult to match the precision of low energy mass spectrometry. Although uncertainties for accelerator measured isotope ratios as low as 1% have been obtained under favorable conditions, most errors quoted in the literature for natural samples are in the 5 to 20% range. These errors are dominated by statistics and generally the reproducibility is unknown since the samples are only measured once

  18. Silicon dioxide obtained by Polymeric Precursor Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.T.; Granado, S.R.; Lopes, S.A.; Cavalheiro, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Polymeric Precursor Method is able for obtaining several oxide material types with high surface area even obtained in particle form. Several MO 2 oxide types such as titanium, silicon and zirconium ones can be obtained by this methodology. In this work, the synthesis of silicon oxide was monitored by thermal analysis, XRD and surface area analysis in order to demonstrate the influence of the several synthesis and calcining parameters. Surface area values as higher as 370m2/g and increasing in the micropore volume nm were obtained when the material was synthesized by using ethylene glycol as polymerizing agent. XRD analysis showed that the material is amorphous when calcinated at 600°C in despite of the time of calcining, but the material morphology is strongly influenced by the polymeric resin composition. Using Glycerol as polymerizing agent, the pore size increase and the surface area goes down with the increasing in decomposition time, when compared to ethylene glycol. (author)

  19. Relation between D/H ratios and 18O /16O ratios in cellulose from linen and maize - Implications for paleoclimatology and for sindonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNiro, Michael J.; Sternberg, Leonel D.; Marino, Bruno D.; Druzik, James R.

    1988-09-01

    The 18O /16O ratios of cellulose and the D/H ratios of cellulose nitrate were determined for linen, a textile produced from the fibers of the flax plant Linum usitatissimum, and for maize ( Zea mays) from a variety of geographic locations in Europe, the Middle East, and North and South America. The regression lines of δD values on δ 18O values had slopes of 5.4 and 5.8 for the two species. Statistical analysis of results reported in the only other study in which samples of a single species (the silver fir Abies pindrow) that grew under a variety of climatic conditions were analyzed yielded slopes of ~6 when δD values of cellulose nitrate were regressed on δ 18O values of cellulose. The occurrence of this previously unrecognized relationship in three species suggests it may obtain in other plants as well. Determining the basis for this relationship, which is not possible given current understanding of fractionation of the isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen by plants, should lead to increased understanding of how D/H and 18O /16O ratios in cellulose isolated from fossil plants are related to paleoclimates. The separation of most linen samples from Europe from those originating in the Middle East when δD values are plotted against δ 18O values suggests it may be possible to use the isotope ratios of cellulose prepared from the Shroud of Turin to resolve the controversy concerning its geographic origin.

  20. Measurement and Study of Lidar Ratio by Using a Raman Lidar in Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We comprehensively evaluated particle lidar ratios (i.e., particle extinction to backscatter ratio at 532 nm over Wuhan in Central China by using a Raman lidar from July 2013 to May 2015. We utilized the Raman lidar data to obtain homogeneous aerosol lidar ratios near the surface through the Raman method during no-rain nights. The lidar ratios were approximately 57 ± 7 sr, 50 ± 5 sr, and 22 ± 4 sr under the three cases with obviously different pollution levels. The haze layer below 1.8 km has a large particle extinction coefficient (from 5.4e-4 m−1 to 1.6e-4 m−1 and particle backscatter coefficient (between 1.1e-05 m−1sr−1 and 1.7e-06 m−1sr−1 in the heavily polluted case. Furthermore, the particle lidar ratios varied according to season, especially between winter (57 ± 13 sr and summer (33 ± 10 sr. The seasonal variation in lidar ratios at Wuhan suggests that the East Asian monsoon significantly affects the primary aerosol types and aerosol optical properties in this region. The relationships between particle lidar ratios and wind indicate that large lidar ratio values correspond well with weak winds and strong northerly winds, whereas significantly low lidar ratio values are associated with prevailing southwesterly and southerly wind.

  1. Measurement and Study of Lidar Ratio by Using a Raman Lidar in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Gong, Wei; Mao, Feiyue; Pan, Zengxin; Liu, Boming

    2016-05-18

    We comprehensively evaluated particle lidar ratios (i.e., particle extinction to backscatter ratio) at 532 nm over Wuhan in Central China by using a Raman lidar from July 2013 to May 2015. We utilized the Raman lidar data to obtain homogeneous aerosol lidar ratios near the surface through the Raman method during no-rain nights. The lidar ratios were approximately 57 ± 7 sr, 50 ± 5 sr, and 22 ± 4 sr under the three cases with obviously different pollution levels. The haze layer below 1.8 km has a large particle extinction coefficient (from 5.4e-4 m(-1) to 1.6e-4 m(-1)) and particle backscatter coefficient (between 1.1e-05 m(-1)sr(-1) and 1.7e-06 m(-1)sr(-1)) in the heavily polluted case. Furthermore, the particle lidar ratios varied according to season, especially between winter (57 ± 13 sr) and summer (33 ± 10 sr). The seasonal variation in lidar ratios at Wuhan suggests that the East Asian monsoon significantly affects the primary aerosol types and aerosol optical properties in this region. The relationships between particle lidar ratios and wind indicate that large lidar ratio values correspond well with weak winds and strong northerly winds, whereas significantly low lidar ratio values are associated with prevailing southwesterly and southerly wind.

  2. Pengaruh Profitabilitas, Resiko Keuangan, Nilai Perusahaan, Struktur Kepemilikan dan Dividend Payout Ratio terhadap Perataan Laba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dika Fajar Pratama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to test empirically the effect of profitability, financial risk, firm value, ownership structure and dividend payout ratio to income smoothing. The sample in this research are 33 manufacture companies that have been listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in period of 2006 to 2009. Sample was obtained by purposive sampling method. Analysis tool uses regression analysis with logistic regression method.  The results of analysis indicate that profitability, financial risk, firm value, public ownership and dividend payout ratio do not influence income smoothing in manufacture companies except managerial ownership.

  3. Influence of the cylindrical gear pairs parameters to the transverse contact ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag S. Dobratić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the field of transmission and power transformation from the power engine to the working machine, gear pairs, are mostly used in mechanical engineering due to their compactness of the structure, high reliability and capacity. One way of improving the performance characteristics of gear pairs, and thus the gear transmitters, is to increase the number of simultaneously meshed pairs of teeth, or increasing the transverse contact ratio. To this end, this paper analyzes in detail the partial and simultaneous influence of the number of teeth and tooth profile shapes, moving through shifting coefficient and pressure angle, to the number of simultaneously meshed pairs of teeth. The obtained results allow us to define the optimum parameters of cylindrical gear pairs, in terms of the size of the transverse contact ratio. Introduction The kinematic indicator of the existence of the transmitting continuity of a rotary movement is the total contact ratio. In order to achieve the transmitting continuity of a rotary movement, the total contact ratio must be higher than one. Based on the total contact ratio, the information on the number of simultaneously meshed pairs of the teeth which rotate during the contact period is obtained. For example, if the  – one and two pairs of teeth alternately take turn, and if the  – two and three pairs of teeth alternately take turn, etc. It should be noted that the  is a necessary but not sufficient condition for achieving multiple meshes. The next condition to meet is the compatibility between the accuracy of teeth production, the teeth rigidity and the intensity of the total load of the teeth pair. The influence of the addendum coefficient on the transverse contact ratio is shown in the paper (Li, 2008. It is shown that changes in the addendum coefficient in conjunction with the corresponding values of the shifting coefficient and gear ratio can achieve the transverse contact ratio value higher than four. The paper

  4. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  5. 41 CFR 109-27.5002 - Stores inventory turnover ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... turnover ratio. 109-27.5002 Section 109-27.5002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property....5002 Stores inventory turnover ratio. Comparison of investment in stores inventories to annual issues... comparison may be expressed either as a turnover ratio (dollar value of issues divided by dollar value of...

  6. Reference values for electrooculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos Castanno, Alberto; Herrera Mora, Maritza; Garcia Baez, Obel

    2012-01-01

    Obtain electrooculographic reference values based on the patterns set by the Standardization Committee of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). the lowest amplitude values of the potential ranged between 388 and 882 μv in the dark phase. The light peak was obtained between 9 and 10 minutes, and during this phase the potential reached an amplitude ranging between 808 and 1 963 μv. This amplitude variability may be related to the fact that the test was conducted without pupillary mydriasis. The reference value obtained for Arden index was 1,55 to 2,87

  7. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  8. Superconducting materials fabrication process and materials obtained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, M.O.; Magnier, C.

    1989-01-01

    The preparation process of a fine powder of YBaCuO type superconductors of easy sintering comprises: mixing in presence of alcohol an aqueous solution of rare earth nitrate or acetate, alkaline earth nitrate or acetate and copper nitrate or acetate and an oxalic acid solution, the pH value of the mixture is comprised between 2 and 4, the obtained precipitate is separated, dried, calcined and eventually crushed [fr

  9. Experimental results obtained at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrel, V.

    1993-01-01

    A review of experimental results obtained at GANIL on the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions with secondary radioactive beams is presented. Mass measurements by means of the GANIL cyclotrons are described. The possibilities of GANIL/LISE3 for the production and separation of radioactive beams are illustrated through a large variety of experiments. (author). 19 refs., 8 figs

  10. Anomalous dust to gas ratios in the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congiu, Emanuele; Geminale, Anna; Barbaro, Guido; Mazzei, Paola

    2005-01-01

    Lines of sight with E(B-V)/N(HI) considerably smaller than the average value for the solar neighbourhood have been selected from the catalogue of Diplas and Savage. In order to develop quantitative considerations, estimates of the molecular hydrogen column density were obtained using the relation of Savage et al. extended to E(B-V)>0.4 with the recent data of Rachford et al. Contrary to the prevaling opinion in the literature for lines of sight with similar behaviour, we found that only 22 per cent of our sample was characterized by both an average gas density larger than 1 cm -3 and a value of R V larger than that in the diffuse interstellar medium. By computing extinction models, we were able to fit the E(B-V)/N(HI) by changing the value of R V only for some lines of sight. For the remaining ones, a ρ d /ρ H ratio different from the average Galactic value must be invoked. The application of the Kramers-Kronig relation to the observed extinction curves confirmed this possibility. Moreover, attemps to fit such curves with models having grain volumes corresponding to the standard ρ d /ρ H ratio failed

  11. Values Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    that individualistic employees in individualistic organizations and collectivistic employees in collectivistic organizations show greater job...with Parsons’ causal assumption, in the nineties values were recognized on top of the cultural control –values control norms which in turn control...determines intention which may end in behavior. 7 Defining Human Values Cross- cultural theories on values emerged in the 80s developed by three main

  12. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  13. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The ‘prospective potential support ratio’ has been proposed by researchers as a measure that accurately quantifies the burden of ageing, by identifying the fraction of a population that has passed a certain measure of longevity, for example, 17 years of life expectancy. Nevertheless......, the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models...

  14. Geopolymer obtained from coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, V.; Bissari, E.S.; Uggioni, E.; Bernardin, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Geopolymers are three-dimensional alumino silicates that can be rapidly formed at low temperature from naturally occurring aluminosilicates with a structure similar to zeolites. In this work coal ash (Tractebel Energy) was used as source of aluminosilicate according a full factorial design in eight formulations with three factors (hydroxide type and concentration and temperature) and two-levels. The ash was dried and hydroxide was added according type and concentration. The geopolymer was poured into cylindrical molds, cured (14 days) and subjected to compression test. The coal ash from power plants belongs to the Si-Al system and thus can easily form geopolymers. The compression tests showed that it is possible to obtain samples with strength comparable to conventional Portland cement. As a result, temperature and molarity are the main factors affecting the compressive strength of the obtained geopolymer. (author)

  15. Truncated States Obtained by Iteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, W. B.; Almeida, N. G. de

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the concept of truncated states obtained via iterative processes (TSI) and study its statistical features, making an analogy with dynamical systems theory (DST). As a specific example, we have studied TSI for the doubling and the logistic functions, which are standard functions in studying chaos. TSI for both the doubling and logistic functions exhibit certain similar patterns when their statistical features are compared from the point of view of DST

  16. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  17. Particle ratios, quarks, and Chao-Yang statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, C K; Low, G B; Lo, S Y [Nanyang Univ. (Singapore). Dept. of Physics; Phua, K K [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)

    1980-01-01

    By introducing quarks into Chao-Yang statistics for 'violent' collisions, particle ratios are obtained which are consistent with the Chao-Yang results. The present method can also be extended to baryon-meson and baryon-antibaryon ratios.

  18. Isotopic ratios D/H and 15N/14N in giant planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marboeuf, Ulysse; Thiabaud, Amaury; Alibert, Yann; Benz, Willy

    2018-04-01

    The determination of isotopic ratios in planets is important since it allows us to investigate the origins and initial composition of materials. The present work aims to determine the possible range of values for isotopic ratios D/H and 15N/14N in giant planets. The main objective is to provide valuable theoretical assumptions on the isotopic composition of giant planets, their internal structure, and the main reservoirs of species. We use models of ice formation and planet formation that compute the composition of ices and gas accreted in the core and the envelope of planets. Assuming a single initial value for isotopic ratios in volatile species, and disruption of planetesimals in the envelope of gaseous planets, we obtain a wide variety of D/H and 15N/14N ratios in low-mass planets (≤100 Mearth) due to the migration pathway of planets, the accretion time of gas species whose relative abundance evolves with time, and isotope exchanges among species. If giant planets with mass greater than 100 Mearth have solar isotopic ratios such as Jupiter and Saturn due to their higher envelope mass, Neptune-type planets present values ranging between one and three times the solar value. It seems therefore difficult to use isotopic ratios in the envelope of these planets to get information about their formation in the disc. For giant planets, the ratios allow us to constrain the mass fraction of volatile species in the envelope needed to reproduce the observational data by assuming initial values for isotopic ratios in volatile species.

  19. Obtaining zircaloy powder through hydriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupim, Ivaldete da Silva; Moreira, Joao M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Zirconium alloys are good options for the metal matrix in dispersion fuels for power reactors due to their low thermal neutron absorption cross-section, good corrosion resistance, good mechanical strength and high thermal conductivity. A necessary step for obtaining such fuels is producing Zr alloy powder for the metal matrix composite material. This article presents results from the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation tests with the purpose to embrittle the alloy as a first step for comminuting. Several hydrogenation tests were performed and studied through thermogravimetric analysis. They included H 2 pressures of 25 and 50 kPa and temperatures ranging between from 20 to 670 deg C. X-ray diffraction analysis showed in the hydrogenated samples the predominant presence of ZrH 2 and some ZrO 2 . Some kinetics parameters for the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation reaction were obtained: the time required to reach the equilibrium state at the dwell temperature was about 100 minutes; the hydrogenation rate during the heating process from 20 to 670 deg C was about 21 mg/h, and at constant temperature of 670 deg C, the hydride rate was about 1.15 mg/h. The hydrogenation rate is largest during the heating process and most of it occurs during this period. After hydrogenated, the samples could easily be comminuted indicating that this is a possible technology to obtain Zircaloy powder. The results show that only few minutes of hydrogenation are necessary to reach the hydride levels required for comminuting the Zircaloy. The final hydride stoichiometry was between 2.7 and 2.8 H for each Zr atom in the sample (author)

  20. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  1. Reevaluation of the Solar Wind 36Ar/38Ar Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R. H.; Schlutter, D. J.; Rider, P. E.; Pepin, R. O.

    1996-03-01

    The isotopic composition of solar wind (SW) argon is an important parameter in the modeling of the evolution of the terrestrial planet atmospheres. Anders and Grevesse assumed a 36Ar/38Ar ratio for SW of 5.31, essentially equal to that of air. Considerable evidence has since developed which indicates that this ratio is too low. Benkert et al. have reported their best estimate for the recent SW as 5.48 +/- 0.05, determined from measurements of lunar soil 71501. Based on Ar data obtained from surface oxidation of a metal separate from the Weston meteorite and from an uncontrolled etch of lunar sample 67701, reported by our group previously, we consider even this value to be too low. Since values of 5.75 to 5.85 were reported by Black for initial low temperature (fairly high SW 36Ar/38Ar ratio (in the range of ~5.6 to ~5.7), we decided to analyze Kapoeta for its light solar wind gases using the acid-etching techniques developed in our laboratory based on the CSSE procedure of Benkert et al.

  2. On a radioimmunoassay ratio making the diagnosis of dysthyroidism easier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresson, Y.; Marty, D.; Moullart, V.

    1982-01-01

    The offered ratio is a dimensionless number, independant of kits, or units and usually fluctuates around one. We obtain it by [TBGsub(m)/Tsub(4m)].[T 4 ]/[TBG] and, divided by a constant, it represents the first term of the development in series of the free thyroxin index mathematical expression from which it gives a nearly perfect value. Using this ratio the discrimination between eu- and hyperthyroidism is very apparent as well as the distinction between hypo and euthyroidism. The children from two to fifteen years of age and the women under hormonal contraception treatment show normal value. These results have been confirmed by a statistical investigation including 184 normal subjects, 76 hyperthyroid subjects without treatment, 18 euthyroid women under hormonal contraception treatment and 32 children from birth to fifteen years of age. It is conclued from this statistical investigation that the offered ratio is more accurate and more reliable as a mean of diagnosis than the free thyroxin index when calculated from the T3 uptake test [fr

  3. The reaction index and positivity ratio revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Andersen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value of these st......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value...

  4. Default values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    In making calculations for the purposes of radiation protection, numerical values for parameters used in the calculations are selected. In some cases, data directly applicable to the set of conditions for which the calculations are to be made are unavailable. Therefore, the selection of the values for these parameters may be based on more general data available from the literature or other sources. These values may be referred to as 'default values', that is, values used in default of those based on directly applicable data. The following policy will be applied by Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) staff in reviewing the radiation protection aspects of submissions associated with licensing, in participating with other organizations in the development of codes and standards, and in any other work which relies to some extent on using default values

  5. A modified method of calculating the lateral build-up ratio for small electron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyner, E; McCavana, P; McClean, B

    2006-01-01

    This note outlines an improved method of calculating dose per monitor unit values for small electron fields using Khan's lateral build-up ratio (LBR). This modified method obtains the LBR directly from the ratio of measured, surface normalized, electron beam percentage depth dose curves. The LBR calculated using this modified method more accurately accounts for the change in lateral scatter with decreasing field size. The LBR is used along with Khan's dose per monitor unit formula to calculate dose per monitor unit values for a set of small fields. These calculated dose per monitor unit values are compared to measured values to within 3.5% for all circular fields and electron energies examined. The modified method was further tested using a small triangular field. A maximum difference of 4.8% was found. (note)

  6. Revisão da artroplastia total de joelho em dois tempos: o valor da cultura obtida por biópsia artroscópica Review of knee total arthroplasty in two steps: the value of culture obtained through arthroscopic biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Camargo Leonhardt

    2006-01-01

    risks of placing a new implant in an infected area. Our paper was aimed to determine the value of culture obtained through arthroscopic biopsy, in order to establish the appropriate moment for performing the second review step, and also the adequate time of spacer maintenance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve patients diagnosed with deep infection following primary knee total arthroplasty were submitted to the two-steps review protocol, and after six weeks of spacer placement and antibiotic therapy, the patient was submitted to arthroscopic biopsy of the infected knee through which samples were collected for culture in order to check if that was the appropriate moment to perform the second step of the review. RESULTS: The results of cultures for all patients submitted to arthroscopic biopsy were negative, with all patients being submitted to the second review step. From cultures collected during the new prosthesis implant, eleven confirmed the inexistence of active infectious process at surgical site; one culture was positive, with Staphyloccocus aureus sensitive to oxacilin being isolated in this patient. CONCLUSION: Although the small number of cases, we concluded that the culture obtained through arthroscopic biopsy is valuable and showed that six weeks is the adequate time for maintaining the spacer.

  7. Plasticity characteristic obtained by indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mil'man, Yu.V.; Chugunova, S.I.; Goncharova, I.V.

    2011-01-01

    Methods for determination plasticity characteristic δH in the measurement of hardness and nanohardness are considered. Parameter δH characterizes the plasticity of a material by the part of plastic deformation in the total elastic-plastic deformation. The value of δH is defined for metals with different types of crystal lattice, covalent and partially covalent crystals, intermetallics, metallic glasses and quasicrystals. It is discussed the dependence of the plasticity characteristic δH on structural factors and temperature. Parameter δH allows to analyze and compare the plasticity of materials which are brittle at standard mechanical tests. The combination of hardness H, as the strength characteristic, and the plasticity characteristic δH makes possible the better characterization of mechanical behavior of materials than only the hardness H. The examples of plasticity characteristic δH application are represented.

  8. Calculation of charge-state ratios for satellite Tor I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, D.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion of ions in a satellite plasma torus is presently modeled in terms of a one-dimensional random walk in which the particle source is at 0, the particle sink is at an N value that is an integer greater than 2, and the scale size of the diffusion cell is unity. The probability distribution function of the number of steps to exit for an ion is obtained and used in a model which incorporates ionization by electron impact to derive steady state expressions for the ratio of doubly to singly ionized ions, as well as the total number of ions in the torus. The results thus obtained are applied to the torus of the Jovian satellite Io, in order to predict mean residence times for sulfur and oxygen ions.

  9. The Liquidity Coverage Ratio: the need for further complementary ratios?

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers components of the Liquidity Coverage Ratio – as well as certain prevailing gaps which may necessitate the introduction of a complementary liquidity ratio. The definitions and objectives accorded to the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) highlight the focus which is accorded to time horizons for funding bank operations. A ratio which would focus on the rate of liquidity transformations and which could also serve as a complementary metric gi...

  10. Deep Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Liew, John M.; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    premium. Following these episodes, the value strategy has (1) high average returns; (2) low market betas, but high betas to a global value factor; (3) deteriorating fundamentals; (4) negative news sentiment; (5) selling pressure; (6) increased limits to arbitrage; and (7) increased arbitrage activity...

  11. Forestland values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Beuter; Ralph J. Alig

    2004-01-01

    This issue of the journal of Forestry is devoted to articles about forestland values. Viewed broadly, natural resources and humans are our two basic resources. An expression of the importance of land as a foundation for forest ecosystems is forestland value. Our attitudes about land and the forest ecosystems that they support have changed considerably in recent years....

  12. Extraordinary sex ratios: cultural effects on ecological consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Molnár

    Full Text Available We model sex-structured population dynamics to analyze pairwise competition between groups differing both genetically and culturally. A sex-ratio allele is expressed in the heterogametic sex only, so that assumptions of Fisher's analysis do not apply. Sex-ratio evolution drives cultural evolution of a group-associated trait governing mortality in the homogametic sex. The two-sex dynamics under resource limitation induces a strong Allee effect that depends on both sex ratio and cultural trait values. We describe the resulting threshold, separating extinction from positive growth, as a function of female and male densities. When initial conditions avoid extinction due to the Allee effect, different sex ratios cannot coexist; in our model, greater female allocation always invades and excludes a lesser allocation. But the culturally transmitted trait interacts with the sex ratio to determine the ecological consequences of successful invasion. The invading female allocation may permit population persistence at self-regulated equilibrium. For this case, the resident culture may be excluded, or may coexist with the invader culture. That is, a single sex-ratio allele in females and a cultural dimorphism in male mortality can persist; a low-mortality resident trait is maintained by father-to-son cultural transmission. Otherwise, the successfully invading female allocation excludes the resident allele and culture and then drives the population to extinction via a shortage of males. Finally, we show that the results obtained under homogeneous mixing hold, with caveats, in a spatially explicit model with local mating and diffusive dispersal in both sexes.

  13. Production ratio of pseudoscalar to vector mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chliapnikov, P.V.; Uvarov, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    The P/V ratio of directly produced pseudoscalar (P) to vector (V) mesons is analysed using the data on the K S 0 and K * (892) total inclusive cross sections in pp, π + p and K ± p reactions. The indication for a change of P/V from a value of about 1 at low energies, where the fragmentation processes dominate, to a value of 1/3, suggested by spin-statistics, at high energies is discussed. (orig.)

  14. Cereal Production Ratio and NDVI in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Recuero, Laura; Palacios, Alicia; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The use of remote sensing has proved to be very important in monitoring the growth of agricultural crops and trying to asses weather impact on crop loss. Several indices has been developed based in remote sensing data being one of them the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In this study we have focus to know the correlation between NDVI data and the looses of rain fed cereal in the Spanish area where this crop is majority. For this propose data from drought damage in cereal come from the pool of agricultural insurance in Spain (AGROSEGURO) including 2007/2008 to 2011/2012 (five agricultural campaigns). This data is given as a ratio between drought party claims against the insured value of production aggregated at the agrarian region level. Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same campaigns to estimate the eight-day composites NDVI at these locations. The NDVI values are accumulated following the normal cycle of the cereal taking in account the sowing date at different sites. At the same time, CORINE Land Cover (2006) was used to classify the pixels belonging to rain fed cereal use including a set of conditions such as pixels showing dry during summer, area in which there has been no change of use. Fallow presence is studied with particular attention as it imposes an inter annual variation between crop and bare soil and causes decreases in greenness in a pixel and mix both situations. This is more complex in the situation in which the avoid fallow and a continuous monoculture is performed. The results shown that around 40% of the area is subject to the regime of fallow while 60% have growing every year. In addition, another variation is detected if the year is humid (decrease of fallow) or dry (increase of fallow). The level of correlation between the drought damage ratios and cumulative NDVI for the

  15. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    technologies are packaged together to provide the greatest gains at the least cost. Aggressive engine downsizing with variable compression ratio and use of the extended Atkinson cycle can provide large fuel economy gains that are exceptionally cost effective. Analysis indicates that a 2.2L supercharged Envera VCR engine can match the torque of a larger V8 engine at 2000 rpm. The VCR engine's high torque value at low engine speed is beneficial for maintaining the driving feel and responsiveness of the larger V8 engine. The Envera VCR engine will attain high efficiency at {approx}100 Nm primarily due to the combination of engine down-sizing and use of the Atkinson cycle. Qualitatively the fuel economy gain realized from down-sizing from a V8 to an Atkinson-cycle I-4 is about twice as large as the benefits from down-sizing from a V8 to a Turbo V6 when evaluated at 100 Nm 2000 rpm.

  16. The Value of Value Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Christensen, Jesper

    The world over classrooms in business schools are being taught that corporate values can impact performance. The argument is typically that culture matter more than strategy plans and culture can be influenced and indeed changed by a shared corporate value set. While the claim seems intuitively a...... a unique contribution to the effects of investment in shared company values, and to whether agent rationality can be fundamentally changed by committed organizational efforts....

  17. Polypropylene obtained through zeolite supported catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, Queli C.; Marques, Maria de Fatima V.

    2004-01-01

    Propylene polymerizations were carried out with φ 2 C(Flu)(Cp)ZrCl 2 and SiMe 2 (Ind)2ZrCl 2 catalysts supported on silica, zeolite sodic mordenite (NaM) and acid mordenite (HM). The polymerizations were performed at different temperatures and varying aluminium/zirconium molar ratios ([Al]/[Zr]). The effect of these reaction parameters on the catalyst activity was investigated using a proposed statistical experimental planning. In the case of f 2 C(Flu)(Cp)ZrCl 2 , SiO 2 and NaM were used as support and the catalyst performance evaluated using toluene and pentane as polymerization solvent. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the polymers were examined. The results indicate very high activities for the syndiospecific heterogeneous system. Also, the polymers obtained had superior Mw and stereo regularity. (author)

  18. Polypropylene obtained through zeolite supported catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queli C. Bastos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Propylene polymerizations were carried out with f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2 and SiMe2(Ind2ZrCl2 catalysts supported on silica, zeolite sodic mordenite (NaM and acid mordenite (HM. The polymerizations were performed at different temperatures and varying aluminium/zirconium molar ratios ([Al]/[Zr]. The effect of these reaction parameters on the catalyst activity was investigated using a proposed statistical experimental planning. In the case of f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2, SiO2 and NaM were used as support and the catalyst performance evaluated using toluene and pentane as polymerization solvent. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the polymers were examined. The results indicate very high activities for the syndiospecific heterogeneous system. Also, the polymers obtained had superior Mw and stereoregularity.

  19. Value of apparent diffusion coefficients in patients with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Luca, Silvina; Stoisa, Daniela; Mondello, Eduardo; Vietti, Julio; Casas, Gabriel; Florenzano, Nestor; Eyheremendy, Eduardo; Martinez Boero, Macarena

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the utility of ADC values for the diagnosis of encephalic tumors. Material and method: Forty patients with encephalic tumors histopathologically confirmed, have been studied by conventional MR, diffusion and ADC maps. The intensities were measured in the solid tumor portion and the normal white matter, ratios were obtained and correlated in 13 patients with their respective cellularity indexes. Results: Seventeen were glial tumors, with lower ADC values in cases of greater malignancy. In 12 patients the diagnosis was secondary lesions in which the lowest ADC values were obtained. This feature was shared by the epidermoid cyst. The hamartomas, neurinomas, oligodendrogliomas and ependymomas have shown intermediate ADC values. Conclusion: The ADC map is a complement of conventional MR which provides additional information for the diagnosis of encephalic tumors. Low ADC values correlated with high grade malignant tumors. (author)

  20. Isotope analytics for the evaluation of the feeding influence on the isotope ratio in beef samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herwig, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Information about the origin of food and associated production systems has a high significance for food control. An extremely promising approach to obtain such information is the determination of isotope ratios of different elements. In this study the correlation of the isotope ratios C-13/C-12, N-15/N-14, Mg-25/Mg-24, and Sr-87/Sr-86 in bovine samples (milk and urine) and the corresponding isotope ratios in feed was investigated. It was shown that in the bovine samples all four isotope ratios correlate with the isotope composition of the feed. The isotope ratios of strontium and magnesium have the advantage that they directly reflect the isotope ratios of the ingested feed since there is no isotope fractionation in the bovine organism which is in contrast to the case of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. From the present feeding study it is evident, that a feed change leads to a significant change in the delta C-13 values in milk and urine within 10 days already. For the deltaN-15 values the feed change was only visible in the bovine urine after 49 days. Investigations of cows from two different regions (Berlin/Germany and Goestling/Austria) kept at different feeding regimes revealed no differences in the N-15/N-14 and Mg-26/Mg-24 isotope ratios. The strongest correlation between the isotope ratio of the bovine samples and the kind of ingested feed was observed for the carbon isotope ratio. With this ratio even smallest differences in the feed composition were traceable in the bovine samples. Since different regions usually coincide with different feeding regimes, carbon isotope ratios can be used to distinguish bovine samples from different regions if the delta C-13 values of the ingested feed are different. Furthermore, the determination of strontium isotope ratios revealed significant differences between bovine and feed samples of Berlin and Goestling due to the different geologic realities. Hence the carbon and strontium isotope ratios allow the best

  1. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  2. Energy Profit Ratio Compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

  3. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV, as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Mellitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos.

  4. Unravelling Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Matthew

    Paper presented in the symposium “What’s It All Worth? Material Possessions and Value in Past Societies” at 22nd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, Vilnius, Lithuania.......Paper presented in the symposium “What’s It All Worth? Material Possessions and Value in Past Societies” at 22nd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, Vilnius, Lithuania....

  5. Isotope ratio 87Sr/86Sr in limestones from Bambui group, Brazil (MG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashita, K.; Mizusaki, A.M.P.; Kiang, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    The Sr composition of ancient seawater can be estimated from the analysis of carbonate rocks and, in some cases, used to estimate the age of the analyzed carbonate. The normalized 87Sr/86Sr ratios in calcium carbonate fractions from 14 core samples in the Bambui Group near Montalvania, MG, were found to range between .7077 and .7280. The higher values are attributable to Sr isotopic exchange between silicate and carbonate phases during diagenesis. The ratio of .7077 obtained in two pure calcium carbonate samples is here suggested as the best aproximation for the 87Sr/86Sr value for the Bambui sea. This ratio is compatible with an age of about 700 Ma., estimated from the published 87Sr/86Sr curve of Veizer and others, an age in accordance with Quadros recent (1987, in preparation) identification of marine acritarchs from the latest Precambrian (Vendian). (author) [pt

  6. Prognostic significance of contrast-enhanced CT attenuation value in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asayama, Yoshiki [Kyushu University, Department of Advanced Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Nishie, Akihiro; Ishigami, Kousei; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Takayama, Yukihisa; Okamoto, Daisuke; Fujita, Nobuhiro; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Departments of Clinical Radiology, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohtsuka, Takao [Kyushu University, Departments of Surgery and Oncology, Fukuoka (Japan); Yoshizumi, Tomoharu [Kyushu University, Departments of Surgery and Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Aishima, Shinichi [Saga University, Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga (Japan); Kyushu University, Departments of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Oda, Yoshinao [Kyushu University, Departments of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    To determine whether washout characteristics of dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) could predict survival in patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHC). This study collected 46 resected cases. All cases were examined by dynamic contrast study on multidetector-row CT. Region-of-interest measurements were obtained at the non-enhanced, portal venous phase and delayed phase in the tumour and were used to calculate the washout ratio as follows: [(attenuation value at portal venous phase CT - attenuation value at delayed enhanced CT)/(attenuation value at portal venous phase CT - attenuation value at unenhanced CT)] x 100. On the basis of the median washout ratio, we classified the cases into two groups, a high-washout group and low-washout group. Associations between overall survival and various factors including washout rates were analysed. The median washout ratio was 29.4 %. Univariate analysis revealed that a lower washout ratio, venous invasion, lymphatic permeation and lymph node metastasis were associated with shorter survival. Multivariate analysis identified the lower washout ratio as an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio, 3.768; p value, 0.027). The washout ratio obtained from the contrast-enhanced CT may be a useful imaging biomarker for the prediction of survival of patients with EHC. (orig.)

  7. Decay ratio for third order Brownian oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, H.; Kanemoto, S.

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained the analytical expressions of the decay ratios for two types of third order Brownian oscillators which are generalizations of the second order Brownian oscillator driven by the Gaussian-white noise. The resulting expressions will provide us useful baseline information for more complicated practical problems and their applications

  8. Isotope ratio in stellar atmospheres and nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbuy, B.L.S.

    1987-01-01

    The determination of isotopic ratios in stellar atmospheres is studied. The isotopic shift of atomic and molecular lines of different species of a certain element is examined. CH and MgH lines are observed in order to obtain the 12 C: 13 C and 24 Mg: 25 Mg: 26 Mg isotpic ratios. The formation of lines in stellar atmospheres is computed and the resulting synthetic spectra are employed to determine the isotopic abundances. The results obtained for the isotopic ratios are compared to predictions of nucleosynthesis theories. Finally, the concept of primary and secondary element is discussed, and these definitions are applied to the observed variations in the abundance of elements as a function of metallicity. (author) [pt

  9. Heterogeneity in the 238U/235U Ratios of Angrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, F.; Dauphas, N.; Grove, T. L.

    2016-12-01

    Angrites are differentiated meteorites of basaltic composition, of either volcanic or plutonic origin, that display minimal post-crystallization alteration, metamorphism, shock or impact brecciation. Because quenched angrites cooled very rapidly, all radiochronometric systems closed simultaneously in these samples. Quenched angrites are thus often used as anchors for cross-calibrating short-lived dating methods (e.g., 26Al-26Mg) and the absolute dating techniques (e.g, Pb-Pb). Due to the constancy of the 238U/235U ratio in natural samples, Pb-Pb ages have long been calculated using a "consensus" 238U/235U ratio, but the discovery of resolvable variations in the 238U/235U ratio of natural samples, means that the U isotopic composition of the material to date also has to be determined in order to obtain high-precision Pb-Pb ages. We set out (a) to measure at high-precision the 238U/235U ratio of a large array of angrites to correct their Pb-Pb ages, and (b) to identify whether all angrites have a similar U isotopic composition, and, if not, what were the processes responsible for this variability. Recently, Brennecka & Wadhwa (2012) suggested that the angrite-parent body had a homogeneous 238U/235U ratio. They reached this conclusion partly because they propagated the uncertainties of the U isotopic composition of the various U double spikes that they used onto the final 238U/235U ratio the sample. Because this error is systematic (i.e., it affects all samples similarly), differences in the δ238U values of samples corrected by the same double spike are better known than one would be led to believe if uncertainties on the spike composition are propagated. At the conference, we will present the results of the high-precision U isotope analyses for six angrite samples: NWA 4590, NWA 4801, NWA 6291, Angra dos Reis, D'Orbigny, and Sahara 99555. We will show that there is some heterogeneity in the δ238U values of the angrites and will discuss the possible processes by

  10. Machining tools in AISI M2 high-speed steel obtained by spray forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Edilson Rosa Barbosa de.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present work was the obtention of AISI M2 high-speed steel by spray forming technique and the material evaluation when used as machining tool. The obtained material was hot rolled at 50% and 72% reduction ratios, and from which it was manufactured inserts for machining tests. The performance of inserts made of the spray formed material was compared to inserts obtained from conventional and powder metallurgy (MP) processed materials. The spray formed material was chemical, physical, mechanical and microstructural characterised. For further characterisation, the materials were submitted to machining tests for performance evaluation under real work condition. The results of material characterisation highlight the potential of the spray forming technique, in the obtention of materials with good characteristics and properties. Under the current processing, hot rolling and heat treatments condition, the analysis of the results of the machining tests revealed a very similar behaviour among the tested materials. Proceeding a criterious analysis of the machining results tests, it was verified that the performance presented by the powder metallurgy material (MP) was slight superior, followed by conventional obtained material (MConv), which presented a insignificant advantage over the spray formed and hot rolled (72% reduction ratio) material. The worst result was encountered for the spray forming and hot rolled (50% reduction ratio) material that presented the highest wear values. (author)

  11. C-12/C-13 isotope ratio of the interstellar medium in the neighborhood of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, I.; Jura, M.

    1987-01-01

    Data from observations of Xi Per, P Cyg, 20 Tau, and 23 Tau, obtained at 4232 and 3957 A using a coude spectrograph and a 1872-element reticon on the 3-m Shane telescope at Lick Observatory during 1984-1985, are combined with data on Zeta Oph (Hawkins et al., 1985) and used to estimate the C isotope ratio of the ISM near the sun. The results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail. The (C-12)H(+)/(C-13)H(+) abundance ratios toward the five stars are found to agree to within 12 percent and shown to be representative of the C-12/C-13 ratios in the gas, strongly indicating that the local ISM is homogeneous. The difference between the ISM ratio (43 + or - 4) and the solar-system value (89) is attributed to the chemical evolution of the ISM in the 4.9 Gyr since the formation of the sun. 78 references

  12. Effect of aspect ratio on the laminar-to-turbulent transition in rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chang; Gao Puzhen; Tan Sichao; Xu Chao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of aspect ratio on the transition Reynolds number in rectangular channel is studied. ► Prediction correlation for transition Reynolds number is proposed. ► The initiation location of flow transition is studied. - Abstract: The critical Reynolds number of the laminar-to-turbulent transition in the rectangular channel is investigated based on the energy gradient method. The results show that the critical Reynolds number decreases with the increasing aspect ratio. However, the relative location of laminar breakdown does not migrate significantly with the variation of the aspect ratio. In addition, a theoretical correlation as a function of the aspect ratio is proposed to calculate the transition Reynolds number, and the predicted values are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained in the published literatures.

  13. Urinary oxalate to creatinine ratios in healthy Turkish schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Ismail; Çelik, İlknur; Poyrazoglu, Hakan M; Köse, Kader; Tanrıkulu, Esen; Sahin, Habibe; Yılmaz, Kenan; Öztürk, Ahmet; Yel, Sibel; Gündüz, Zübeyde; Düşünsel, Ruhan

    2017-11-01

    we aimed to establish reference values for urinary oxalate to creatinine ratios in healthy children aged 6-15 years and to investigate the relationship between their nutritional habits and oxalate excretion. Random urine specimens from 953 healthy children aged 6-15 years were obtained and analyzed for oxalate and creatinine. Additionally, a 24-h dietary recall form was prepared and given to them. The ingredient composition of the diet was calculated. The children were divided into three groups according to age: Group I (69 years, n = 353), Group II (10-12 years, n = 335), and Group III (13-15 years, n = 265). The 95th percentile of the oxalate to creatinine ratio for subjects aged 6-9, 10-12, and 13-15 years were 0.048, 0.042, and 0.042 mg/mg, respectively. The oxalate to creatinine ratio was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 and Group 3. Urinary oxalate excretion was positively correlated with increased protein intake and negatively correlated with age. A significant positive correlation was determined between urinary oxalate excretion and the proline, serine, protein, and glycine content of diet. Dietary proline intake showed a positive correlation with the urine oxalate to creatinine ratio and was found to be an independent predictor for urinary oxalate. These data lend support to the idea that every country should have its own normal reference values to determine the underlying metabolic risk factor for kidney stone disease since regional variation in the dietary intake of proteins and other nutrients can affect normal urinary excretion of oxalate.

  14. Characterization of Wastewaters obtained from Hatay Tanneries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şana Sungur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The leather tanning industry is one of the most significant pollutants in terms of both conventional and toxic parameters. On the other hand, leather industry has an important economic role both in Turkey and in the World. In this study, wastewater samples were taken from 15 different tanneries in the Hatay Region. Wastewaters obtained from liming process and chromium tanning process was analyzed. Sulfide, chromium (III, chromium (VI, oil and grease, total suspended solids (TSS, organic matters, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, pH and alkalinity were determined according to Turkish Standard Methods. The determined averages values belong to wastewaters obtained from liming process were as following: pH 11.71; COD 16821 mg L-1; BOD 4357 mg L-1; TSS 39023 mg L-1; oil and grease 364 mg L-1; S-2 concentration 802 mg L-1; alkalinity 2115 mg L-1. The determined averages values belong to wastewaters obtained from chromium tanning process were also as following: pH 4.23; COD 6740 mg L-1; BOD 377 mg L-1; Cr+3 concentrations 372 mg L-1; Cr+6 concentrations 127 mg L-1; TSS 14553 mg L-1; oil and grease 343 mg L-1. The results of all analyzes were higher than wastewater discharge standards. As a result, it’s necessary to use more effective treatments in order to reduce the negative impacts of leather tanning industry that affect environment, natural water resources and at last human health and welfare.

  15. Exclusion probabilities and likelihood ratios with applications to mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slooten, Klaas-Jan; Egeland, Thore

    2016-01-01

    The statistical evidence obtained from mixed DNA profiles can be summarised in several ways in forensic casework including the likelihood ratio (LR) and the Random Man Not Excluded (RMNE) probability. The literature has seen a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of likelihood ratios and exclusion probabilities, and part of our aim is to bring some clarification to this debate. In a previous paper, we proved that there is a general mathematical relationship between these statistics: RMNE can be expressed as a certain average of the LR, implying that the expected value of the LR, when applied to an actual contributor to the mixture, is at least equal to the inverse of the RMNE. While the mentioned paper presented applications for kinship problems, the current paper demonstrates the relevance for mixture cases, and for this purpose, we prove some new general properties. We also demonstrate how to use the distribution of the likelihood ratio for donors of a mixture, to obtain estimates for exceedance probabilities of the LR for non-donors, of which the RMNE is a special case corresponding to L R>0. In order to derive these results, we need to view the likelihood ratio as a random variable. In this paper, we describe how such a randomization can be achieved. The RMNE is usually invoked only for mixtures without dropout. In mixtures, artefacts like dropout and drop-in are commonly encountered and we address this situation too, illustrating our results with a basic but widely implemented model, a so-called binary model. The precise definitions, modelling and interpretation of the required concepts of dropout and drop-in are not entirely obvious, and we attempt to clarify them here in a general likelihood framework for a binary model.

  16. Distribution ratios on Dowex 50W resins of metal leached in the caron nickel recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, B.A.; Metsa, J.C.; Mullins, M.E.

    1980-05-01

    Pressurized ion exchange on Dowex 50W-X8 and 50W-X12 resins was investigated using elution techniques to determine distribution ratios for copper, nickel, and cobalt complexes contained in ammonium carbonate solution, a mixture which approximates the waste liquor from the Caron nickel recovery process. Results were determined for different feed concentrations, as well as for different concentrations and pH values of the ammonium carbonate eluant. Distribution ratios were compared with those previously obtained from a continuous annular chromatographic system. Separation of copper and nickel was not conclusively observed at any of the conditions examined

  17. A measurement of the branching ratio Σ+→rhoγ/Σ+→rhoπ0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    In an experiment performed in the CERN SPS hyperon beam a value for the branching ratio, Σ + →rhoγ/Σ + →rhoπ 0 of (2.46 sub(-0.35)sup(+0.30))x10 -3 , has been obtained corresponding to a branching ratio Σ + →rhoγ/Σ + → all of (1.27 sub(-0.18)sup(+0.16))x10 -3 . This result is discussed in the context of present understanding of hyperon radiative decays. (author)

  18. Distribution ratios on Dowex 50W resins of metal leached in the caron nickel recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, B.A.; Metsa, J.C.; Mullins, M.E.

    1980-05-01

    Pressurized ion exchange on Dowex 50W-X8 and 50W-X12 resins was investigated using elution techniques to determine distribution ratios for copper, nickel, and cobalt complexes contained in ammonium carbonate solution, a mixture which approximates the waste liquor from the Caron nickel recovery process. Results were determined for different feed concentrations, as well as for different concentrations and pH values of the ammonium carbonate eluant. Distribution ratios were compared with those previously obtained from a continuous annular chromatographic system. Separation of copper and nickel was not conclusively observed at any of the conditions examined.

  19. Public Value: rethinking value creation

    OpenAIRE

    Meynhardt, Timo; Gomez, Peter; Strathoff, Pepe; Hermann, Carolin

    2014-01-01

    Managers might refute public criticism of their business as an attitude of taking everything for granted in a saturated society, but ignoring Public Value aspects can threaten the success of new products and even the survival of entire firms.

  20. Stress Ratios in Entire Mine Stopes with Cohesionless Backfill: A Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of stress states in backfilled mine stopes (or similar openings, using arching theory, can be largely impacted by the value selected for the earth pressure coefficient, K = σ′h/σ′v. Recently, the current study’s authors addressed the debate about the value of K near the opening center, based on Rankine’s active coefficient (Ka and at-rest coefficient (K0. Here, stress ratios in vertical backfilled stopes are numerically assessed (in two dimension, 2D, considering both the independent and related backfill internal friction angle (ϕ′ and Poisson’s ratio (ν. Emphasis is placed on the backfill state near stope walls, where local rotation of stresses occurs, so the coefficient (K and principal stress ratio, Kps (= σ′3/σ′1, should be distinguished. Parametric analyses indicate that values of K and Kps depend on the position and the relationship between ϕ′ and ν. Near the opening center, K (= Kps is close to Ka when ν or ϕ′ is below a critical value; otherwise the value approaches K0, defined from ν. Near both walls, Kps is always close to Ka, while K is near K0 for related ν − ϕ′ cases and depends on their respective values for independent ν and ϕ′. Additional simulations conducted with interface elements indicate that the stress ratios near the opening center line are insensitive to interface roughness and are almost identical to values obtained without interfaces, but the stress ratios near walls may change for less rough or smooth interfaces.

  1. Numerical analysis of energetic particle stabilization of ballooning modes in finite-aspect-ratio tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qibing; Peng Qiyang; Qu Wenxiao

    1993-09-01

    The effect of energetic trapped particles on the stabilization of ballooning modes in finite-aspect-ratio tokamaks is numerically analyzed. The numerical solution of boundary value problem of an integro-differential equation is successfully obtained by RKF integral method with variable step size. The results show that the instability domain of ballooning modes becomes small along with the increase of energetic particles pressure. The energetic trapped particles can partially or completely suppress the instability of ballooning modes

  2. Chaos and Hopf bifurcation of a hybrid ratio-dependent three species food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengyan; Pang Guoping

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and study a model of a hybrid ratio-dependent three species food chain, which is constituted by a hybrid type subsystem of prey and middle-predator and a middle-top predators' subsystem with Holling type-II functional response. We investigate the persistence and Hopf bifurcation of the system. Computer simulations are carried out to explain the mathematical conclusions. The chaotic attractor is obtained for suitable choice of parametric values

  3. The Improved Estimation of Ratio of Two Population Proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Ramkrishna S.; Singh, Housila P.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, first we obtained the correct mean square error expression of Gupta and Shabbir's linear weighted estimator of the ratio of two population proportions. Later we suggested the general class of ratio estimators of two population proportions. The usual ratio estimator, Wynn-type estimator, Singh, Singh, and Kaur difference-type…

  4. Usefulness of Eosinophil-Lymphocyte Ratio to Predict Stent Restenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zihni Bilik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stent restenosis (SR is an important compli­cation of percutaneous coronary intervention. There are many studies explored the relation of eosinophils with SR, however, there is no data about relationship between eo­sinophil-lymphocyte ratio (ELR and SR. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between the value of ELR on admission and SR. Methods: The study was included 314 patients who had been applied a coronary stent implantation and they were admitted to cardiology clinic with stabile angina and un­derwent repeat coronary angiography. The data obtained from patients were analyzed retrospectively. The patient group was consisted of 197 patients who were diagnosed as SR, and the control group was consisted of 117 pa­tients whose stents were patent angiographically. Results: The groups were similar in terms of age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, LDL-C, HDL-C, platelet count, platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR, hemoglobin and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF. White blood cell (WBC, neutrophil, eosinophil, C-reactive protein (CRP, ELR and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR on admission were higher in the SR group compared to the controls. All patients were categorized into two groups according to ELR values and SR was more frequent in the high ELR group compared to low ELR group. An ELR value of ≥0.745 predicted SR with 64% sensitivity and 61% specif­ity. Conclusion: In this study ELR was found statistically higher in SR patients compared to the controls. Accord­ing to our data ELR as an inexpensive and easy method, may contribute to determination of high risk patients and increased ELR can be used as a predictor of SR.

  5. Duality for Multitime Multiobjective Ratio Variational Problems on First Order Jet Bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Postolache

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a new class of multitime multiobjective variational problems of minimizing a vector of quotients of functionals of curvilinear integral type. Based on the efficiency conditions for multitime multiobjective ratio variational problems, we introduce a ratio dual of generalized Mond-Weir-Zalmai type, and under some assumptions of generalized convexity, duality theorems are stated. We prove our weak duality theorem for efficient solutions, showing that the value of the objective function of the primal cannot exceed the value of the dual. Direct and converse duality theorems are stated, underlying the connections between the values of the objective functions of the primal and dual programs. As special cases, duality results of Mond-Weir-Zalmai type for a multitime multiobjective variational problem are obtained. This work further develops our studies in (Pitea and Postolache (2011.

  6. Measurements of K/Π ratio in cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, J.R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of k/Π ratio in cosmic radiation by its half lives and its fluxes, were carried out. The kaon flux was obtained using the Cherenkov detector, and for pion flux scintillation detectors were used. The final results of K/Π ratio ∼ 0.2 was obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. MAGNESIUM ISOTOPE RATIOS IN ω CENTAURI RED GIANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Costa, G. S.; Norris, John E.; Yong, David

    2013-01-01

    We have used the high-resolution observations obtained at the Anglo-Australian Telescope with Ultra-High Resolution Facility (R ∼ 100,000) and at Gemini-S with b-HROS (R ∼ 150,000) to determine magnesium isotope ratios for seven ω Cen red giants that cover a range in iron abundance from [Fe/H] = –1.78 to –0.78 dex, and for two red giants in M4 (NGC 6121). The ω Cen stars sample both the ''primordial'' (i.e., O-rich, Na- and Al-poor) and the ''extreme'' (O-depleted, Na- and Al-rich) populations in the cluster. The primordial population stars in both ω Cen and M4 show ( 25 Mg, 26 Mg)/ 24 Mg isotopic ratios that are consistent with those found for the primordial population in other globular clusters with similar [Fe/H] values. The isotopic ratios for the ω Cen extreme stars are also consistent with those for extreme population stars in other clusters. The results for the extreme population stars studied indicate that the 26 Mg/ 24 Mg ratio is highest at intermediate metallicities ([Fe/H] 26 Mg in the extreme population stars is notably higher than that of 25 Mg, in contrast to model predictions. The 25 Mg/ 24 Mg isotopic ratio in fact does not show any obvious dependence on either [Fe/H] or [Al/Fe] nor, intriguingly, any obvious difference between the primordial and extreme population stars.

  8. Measurement of the natural variation of 13C/12C isotope ratio in organic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducatti, C.

    1977-01-01

    The isotopic ratio analysis for 13 C/ 12 C by mass spectrometry using a 'Working standard' allows the study of 13 C natural variation in organic material, with a total analytical error of less than 0,2%. Equations were derived in order to determine 13 C/ 12 C and 18 O/ 16 O ratios related to the 'working standard' CENA-std and to the international standard PDB. Isotope ratio values obtained with samples prepared in two different combustion apparatus were compared; also the values obtained preparing samples by acid decomposition of carbonaceous materials were compared with the values obtained in different international laboratories. Utilizing the methodology proposed, several leaves collected at different heights of different vegetal species, found 'inside' and 'outside' of the Ducke Forest Reserve, located in the Amazon region, are analysed. It is found that the 13 C natural variation depends upon metabolic process and environmental factors, both being factors which may be qualified as parcial influences on the CO 2 cycle in the forest. (author) [pt

  9. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: gbrion@engr.uky.edu

    2002-06-15

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  10. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  11. A Model Suggestion to Predict Leverage Ratio for Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Tüz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the nature, construction is an industry with high uncertainty and risk. Construction industry carries high leverage ratios. Firms with low equities work in big projects through progress payment system, but in this case, even a small negative in the planned cash flows constitute a major risk for the company.The use of leverage, with a small investment to achieve profit targets large-scale, high-profit, but also brings a high risk with it. Investors may lose all or the portion of the money. In this study, monitoring and measuring of the leverage ratio because of the displacement in cash inflows of construction projects which uses high leverage and low cash to do business in the sector is targeted. Cash need because of drifting the cash inflows may be seen due to the model. Work should be done in the early stages of the project with little capital but in the later stages, rapidly growing capital need arises.The values obtained from the model may be used to supply the capital held in the right time by anticipating the risks because of the delay in cashflow of construction projects which uses high leverage ratio.

  12. Direct uranium isotope ratio analysis of single micrometer-sized glass particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Boulyga, Sergei F; Prohaska, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    We present the application of nanosecond laser ablation (LA) coupled to a 'Nu Plasma HR' multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) for the direct analysis of U isotope ratios in single, 10-20 μm-sized, U-doped glass particles. Method development included studies with respect to (1) external correction of the measured U isotope ratios in glass particles, (2) the applied laser ablation carrier gas (i.e. Ar versus He) and (3) the accurate determination of lower abundant (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios (i.e. 10(-5)). In addition, a data processing procedure was developed for evaluation of transient signals, which is of potential use for routine application of the developed method. We demonstrate that the developed method is reliable and well suited for determining U isotope ratios of individual particles. Analyses of twenty-eight S1 glass particles, measured under optimized conditions, yielded average biases of less than 0.6% from the certified values for (234)U/(238)U and (235)U/(238)U ratios. Experimental results obtained for (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios deviated by less than -2.5% from the certified values. Expanded relative total combined standard uncertainties U(c) (k = 2) of 2.6%, 1.4% and 5.8% were calculated for (234)U/(238)U, (235)U/(238)U and (236)U/(238)U, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The ratio of structure functions for the neutron and the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballintijn, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the ratio of the structure functions F 2 of the deuteron and the proton. The structure function ratio is measured by the NMC with high precision due to a dedicated target setup. In this thesis the analysis is presented of the data taken in 1989, which were obtained using incident muon energies of 120, 200 and 280 GeV. These data complement the results from earlier measurements performed in 1986 and 1987 which were obtained at 90 and 280 GeV incident muon energy. The newly determined structure function ratio, in a slightly extended range of the scaling parameter x, is compared to the previous one and is found to be in good agreement. All data are combined to give the most accurate determination of the structure function ratio to date. The results are used to determine the dependence of the structure function ratio on the value of Q 2 , the scale at which the nucleon is probed. Finally, the structure function ratios obtained at four different incident muon energies separately, are used to determine the difference R d -R p , where R is the ratio of cross sections for the absorption of longitudinally and transversely polarized virtual photons. The difference in R for the deuteron and the proton is related to differences in the gluon distribution. The result is compatible with a gluon distribution that is identical for the deuteron and the proton. The degree of equality of R d and R p is a measure for the correctness of the procedure to extract structure function ratios. The present result is R d -R p =0.02±0.02 and hence compatible with zero. (orig.)

  14. Add Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbelgaard, Cecilie Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    "Add Value – kend din kunde" er et brætspil, som giver både offentlige og private virksomheder unikke muligheder for at forbedre deres service overfor kunderne. Spillet giver, på en alternativ og handlingsorienteret måde, mulighed for at blive skarpere på kundeoplevelsen – hvor er der værdi...... at hente, og hvor kan der spares på tid og ressourcer? Dette samtidig med, at kunderne får den oplevelse og service, de forventer. Når I spiller "Add Value – kend din kunde" sættes der fokus på Jeres kundeservice ud fra kundens perspektiv, og det er i alle Jeres kontaktflader med kunden. Lige fra kunden...

  15. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  16. Predictive value of peripheral blood neutrophil and lymphocyte ratio in patients withhypertension and cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension%高血压患者外周血中性粒细胞与淋巴细胞比例对高血压患者心脑血管事件的预测价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任慧玲

    2017-01-01

    目的 探讨高血压患者外周血中性粒细胞与淋巴细胞比值(N/L比值)对高血压患者心脑血管事件的预测价值.方法 选取2013年5月至2014年5月在该院治疗的高血压治疗的660例患者,记录患者纳入研究时外周血N/L比值,所有患者均随访到2016年5月31日,根据患者是否出现心脑血管事件,分为观察组和对照组,对比两组患者白细胞分类结果.采用Logistic回归模型探讨N/L比值对心脑血管事件的预测价值.结果 观察组患者吸烟、糖尿病、高脂血症发病率分别为87.5%、72.5%、77.5%,平均动脉压(MAP)水平为(95±12)mmHg,均明显高于对照组(P<0.05).观察组患者白细胞计数、中性粒细胞比例(N%)、单核细胞计数比例、N/L比值分别为(11.6±2.5)×109/L、(70.8±5.9)%、(8.3±5.5)%、3.7±1.5,均高于对照组患者(P<0.05).N/L上升10%(P=0.04)、MAP升高10 mmHg(P=0.02)、N%上升15%(P=0.03)是心脑血管事件的独立风险因素.结论 N/L比值、MAP是高血压患者心脑血管事件的独立风险因素.%Objective To investigate the predictive value of peripheral blood neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio(N/L ratio) in patients with hypertension.Methods A total of 660 cases hypertension patients were enrolled from May 2013 to May2014.Peripheral blood N/L ratio was recorded.All patients were followed up to May 31,2016.According to the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events,all patients divided into observation group(with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events) and control group(without cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events),and white blood cell classification was compared.Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the value of N/L to predict cardiovascular events.Results The incidence rates of smoking,diabetes and hyperlipidemia in patients of the observation group were 87.5%,72.5% and 77.5%,higher than those of the control group(P<0.05),and the level of mean arterial pressure(MAP) was(95±12) mm

  17. Word Class Ratios and Genres in Written Japanese: Revisiting the Modifier Verb Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor HODOŠČEK

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the variability of genres in the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese using the modifier-verb ratio proposed by Kabashima and Jukaku (1965. Using bagplots to quantifying the relation between noun and modifier-verb ratios, as well as some summary statistics obtain from them, we attempt to classify genres according to Kabashima and Jugaku (1965. Our initial analysis confirms previous research results, while at the same time uncovering some contradictions in the ratios of the genre of magazines.

  18. Measurement of K-shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios in some lanthanide elements using EDXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polat, Recep; İçelli, Orhan; Yalçın, Zeynel; Pesen, Erhan; Orak, Salim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mass attenuation coefficients, jump factor and jump ratio for lanthanide elements are obtained. ► The method used in this experiment is combined both transmission and scattering geometry. ► Secondary gamma rays energy is 59.5 keV. ► Experimental values of jump factor and jump ratio for K shell are new. ► The experimental values are in good agreement with those calculated theoretically. - Abstract: 59.5 keV gamma rays scattered by an aluminum foil have been used as a radiation source to measure the absorption jump factor and jump ratios for absorbers Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Tb. The theoretical and experimental values are compared with the corresponding ones in the literature

  19. Liquidity Analysis Using Cash Flow Ratios as Compared to Traditional Ratios in the Pharmaceutical Sector in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Sulayman H. Atieh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the liquidity position of the Jordanian pharmaceutical sector using the traditional ratios as compared to the more recently developed cash flow ratios. The research involved the comparison between traditional ratios and cash flow ratios of the big seven companies of the pharmaceutical industry in Jordan over six years period (2007¨C2012). The companies were all from the same sector, and the data was obtained from the annual reports of these companies. T...

  20. Order and chaos in predator to prey ratio-dependent food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gakkhar, Sunita; Naji, Raid Kamel

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the dynamical behavior and chaos of a realistic three species food chain model considering predator to prey ratio-dependence for the interaction together with type II functional response. The model, for biologically reasonable parameter values, exhibits stable, periodic and chaotic dynamics in long-time behavior. The bifurcation diagrams have been obtained; Lyapunov exponents and dimensions have been computed. The model shows the rich dynamics in the positive octant. The dynamics behavior is found to be very sensitive to parameter values and initial data

  1. Reference values for spirometry in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burity, Edjane F; Pereira, Carlos A C; Rizzo, José A; Brito, Murilo C A; Sarinho, Emanuel S C

    2013-01-01

    Reference values for lung function tests differ in samples from different countries, including values for preschoolers. The main objective of this study was to derive reference values in this population. A prospective study was conducted through a questionnaire applied to 425 preschool children aged 3 to 6 years, from schools and day-care centers in a metropolitan city in Brazil. Children were selected by simple random sampling from the aforementioned schools. Peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volumes (FEV1, FEV0.50), forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75) and FEV1/FVC, FEV0.5/FVC and FEF25-75/FVC ratios were evaluated. Of the 425 children enrolled, 321 (75.6%) underwent the tests. Of these, 135 (42.0%) showed acceptable results with full expiratory curves and thus were included in the regression analysis to define the reference values. Height and gender significantly influenced FVC values through linear and logarithmic regression analysis. In males, R(2) increased with the logarithmic model for FVC and FEV1, but the linear model was retained for its simplicity. The lower limits were calculated by measuring the fifth percentile residues. Full expiratory curves are more difficult to obtain in preschoolers. In addition to height, gender also influences the measures of FVC and FEV1. Reference values were defined for spirometry in preschool children in this population, which are applicable to similar populations. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy

  3. Effect of heterophoria measurement technique on the clinical accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Jaime Bernal; Rosenfield, Mark

    2006-05-01

    Measurement of the stimulus accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio is a standard procedure in clinical optometric practice. Typically, heterophoria is assessed at several accommodative stimulus levels, and the gradient of the vergence to accommodation function computed. A number of procedures are available for the subjective measurement of heterophoria, but it is unclear whether the use of different vergence measurement techniques will alter the obtained AC/A value. Accordingly, the current study compared AC/A ratios measured using 3 clinical subjective heterophoria tests, namely the von Graefe (VG), Maddox Rod (MR), and Modified Thorington (MT) procedures. The AC/A ratio was measured in 60 visually normal subjects between 20 and 25 years of age using each of the 3 procedures listed above. The accommodative stimulus was varied by the introduction of +/-1.00 diopter (D) spherical lenses over the distance refractive correction while subjects viewed a target at a viewing distance of 40 cm. To examine the repeatability of each procedure, the AC/A ratio was measured on 2 separate occasions for each measurement technique, with the 2 sessions being separated by at least 24 hours. Mean values of stimulus AC/A ratio measured using the VG, MR, and MT procedures were 3.47, 2.99, and 2.46Delta/D, respectively. These differences were significant (p=0.0001). In addition, the coefficient of repeatability for the 3 techniques was 2.22, 1.99, and 1.20 Delta/D, respectively. Ratios obtained using the Modified Thorington technique with +/-1.00 D lenses showed the best repeatability, whereas the poorest repeatability was found with the von Graefe technique when only +1.00 D lenses were used to vary the accommodative stimulus. Accordingly, we recommend that that Modified Thorington procedure with +/-1.00 D lenses be used to quantify heterophoria during clinical measurement of the stimulus AC/A ratio.

  4. D/H ratio for Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.; Schempp, W.V.; Baines, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of Jupiter's spectrum near the R5(0) HD line at 6063.88 A are reported. A feature with an equivalent width of 0.065 + or - 0.021 mA is coincident with the expected line. This feature is compared with HD profiles computed for inhomogeneous scattering models for Jupiter to yield a range for the Jovian D/H ratio of 1.0-2.9 x 10 to the -5th. This D/H ratio is in the lower range of previously reported D/H values for Jupiter and corresponds to an essentially solar D/H ratio for Jupiter. The detection of HD features in the presence of probable blends with spectral features of minor atmospheric hydrocarbon molecules is discussed. Such blends may make unambiguous identification of HD features difficult. 26 references

  5. Effect of anesthesia, positioning, time, and feeding on the proventriculus: keel ratio of clinically healthy parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Sophie E; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Yandell, Brian S; Adams, William M

    2010-01-01

    Healthy, adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) were imaged on three occasions to determine the effects of anesthesia, patient rotation, feeding, and short/long-term temporal factors on the proventriculus:keel ratio. Increasing rotation up to 15 degrees from right lateral resulted in increased inability to measure the proventriculus in up to 44% of birds, meaning that the proventriculus:keel ratio could not be calculated from those radiographs. There was a significant difference between the proventriculus:keel ratio for individual parrots when quantified 3 weeks apart. Despite this difference, all ratios remained within normal limits. No significant effect was identified due to anesthesia, feeding, fasting, or repeated imaging through an 8-h period. Interobserver agreement for measurability and correlation for the proventriculus:keel ratio values was high. It is recommended that the proventriculus:keel ratio be calculated from anesthetized parrots to attain images in true lateral recumbency. Ratio fluctuations within the normal range between radiographs obtained on different dates may be observed in normal parrots.

  6. Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1980-06-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated the potential for producing a viable longburn tokamak reactor by enhancing the volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer through the use of high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were assessed in the context of extended burn operation. Using a one-dimensional transport code plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the startup and shutdown portions of the tokamak cycle. A representative large aspect ratio tokamak with an aspect ratio of 8 was found to achieve a burn time of 3.5 h at capital cost only approx. 25% greater than that of a moderate aspect ratio design tokamak

  7. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  8. The high moderating ratio reactor using 100% MOX reloads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbrault, P.

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the concept of a High Moderating ratio Reactor, which should accept 100% MOX reloads. This reactor aims to be the plutonium version of the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR), which is developed jointly by French and German companies. A moderating ration of 2.5 (instead of the standard value of 2.0) is obtained by replacing several fuel rods by water holes. The core would contain 241 Fuel Assemblies. We present some advantages of over-moderation for plutonium fuel, a description of the core and assemblies, calculations of fuel reload schemes and Reactivity Shutdown Margins, and the behavior of the core during two occidental transients. (author). 2 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  9. The influence of external source intensity in accelerator/target/blanket system on conversion ratio and fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochurov, B.P. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    The analysis of neutron balance relation for a subcritical system with external source shows that a high ratio of neutron utilization (conversion ratio, breeding ratio) much exceeding similar values for nuclear reactors (both thermal or fast spectrum) is reachable in accelerator/target/blanket system with high external neutron source intensity. An accelerator/target/blanket systems with thermal power in blanket about 1850 Mwt and operating during 30 years have been investigated. Continual feed up by plutonium (fissile material) and Tc-99 (transmuted material) was assumed. Accelerator beam intensity differed 6.3 times (16 mA - Case 1, and 100 mA-Case 2). Conversion ratio (CR) was defined as the ratio of Tc-99 nuclei transmuted to the number of Pu nuclei consumed. High value of conversion ratio considerably exceeding 1 (CR=1.66) was obtained in the system with high source intensity as compared with low source system (CR=0.77). Net output of electric power of high source intensity system is about twice lower due to consumption of electric power for accelerator feed up. The loss of energy for Tc-99 transmutation is estimated as 40 Mev(el)/nuclei. Yet high conversion ratio (or breeding ratio) achievable in electronuclear installations with high intensity of external source can effectively be used to close fuel cycle (including incineration of wastes) or to develop growing nuclear power production system.

  10. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eGarnham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality.

  11. Valuing hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, John; Walker, Simon; Hope, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that hope is of value in clinical ethics and that it can be important for clinicians to be sensitive to both the risks of false hope and the importance of retaining hope. However, this sensitivity requires an understanding of the complexity of hope and how it bears on different aspects of a well-functioning doctor-patient relationship. We discuss hopefulness and distinguish it, from three different kinds of hope, or 'hopes for', and then relate these distinctions back to differing accounts of autonomy. This analysis matters because it shows how an overly narrow view of the ethical obligations of a clinician to their patient, and autonomy, might lead to scenarios where patients regret the choices they make.

  12. Statistical moments of the Strehl ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaitskova, Natalia; Esselborn, Michael; Gladysz, Szymon

    2012-07-01

    Knowledge of the statistical characteristics of the Strehl ratio is essential for the performance assessment of the existing and future adaptive optics systems. For full assessment not only the mean value of the Strehl ratio but also higher statistical moments are important. Variance is related to the stability of an image and skewness reflects the chance to have in a set of short exposure images more or less images with the quality exceeding the mean. Skewness is a central parameter in the domain of lucky imaging. We present a rigorous theory for the calculation of the mean value, the variance and the skewness of the Strehl ratio. In our approach we represent the residual wavefront as being formed by independent cells. The level of the adaptive optics correction defines the number of the cells and the variance of the cells, which are the two main parameters of our theory. The deliverables are the values of the three moments as the functions of the correction level. We make no further assumptions except for the statistical independence of the cells.

  13. THE EFFECT OF F/M RATIO TO THE ANAEROBIC DECOMPOSITION OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM FISH OFFAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Hadiyarto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a gas produced from the anaerobic decomposition of organic compounds. In the production of biogas from anaerobic digestion, value of F/M ratio shows a ratio between the mass of food available in the waste substrate with a mass of microorganisms that act as decomposers. F/M ratio is too small causing microbes could not metabolize perfectly and vice versa on the value of the ratio F / M overload resulting metabolic imbalance. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of F/M ratio to optimal production of biogas from fish offal waste. The process of anaerobic digestion is conducted in the biodigester with four-liter volume and batch system operated at ambient temperature for 38 days. As a raw material, fish offal and microbial sludge obtained from the curing of fish and river mud discharges in the region of Bandarharjo, Semarang, Central Java. F/M ratio is set at 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 are derived from sewage sludge VSS weight ratio of fish offal with sludge containing microbes. The addition of micronutrients supplied with a concentration of 0.4 mg/liter. Yield maximum methane gas obtained was 164,7 l/kg CODMn when the ratio F/M was 0.2. Based on the results of the study, found that the ratio F/M affect the amount of biogas produced. Meanwhile, the retention time (HRT is only influenced by the ratio F/M.

  14. Fair Value or Market Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies regarding the “fair value” concept and the “market value” concept. The paper aims to debate this issue, taking into account various opinions.

  15. R-values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, K.

    2009-01-01

    I'll try to keep this short and simple. R LANL = (beta cpm of X exp on system 'A')/ (beta cpm of 99 Mo exp on system 'A')/ (beta cpm of X on system 'A', from thermal on 235 U)/ (beta cpm of 99 Mo on system 'A', from thermal on 235 U). As I understand it, the above equation is the historical (as well as current) way of determining R-values using data from beta counting at LANL. The ratio in the denominator, a little 'r', is the 'baseline' or 'calibration' value for a specific beta detector. Over time, if the detector 'drifts' one would see a variation in this 'r' during a thermal calibration measurement. This baseline is what LANL likes to track to monitor specific detector performance - this is not relevant to LLNL where gamma detection is used for determining R-values. LANL states that uncertainty is only dependent upon the count statistics for the isotopes measured. If one tries to convert this to an atom basis, the uncertainties will increase due to the incorporation of the uncertainties in the nuclear data used to convert the cpm to atoms. LLNL switched to gamma detection methods in the 1970s thus replacing our beta counting effort. The equation below is how we have since determined R-values. The numerator ratios atom values of isotopes that are determined by measuring gamma cpm (usually? using several peaks per isotope) and then converting to particle decay in dpm using detector efficiency for each peak and the appropriate branch ratio for each gamma emission. Isotope decay is then converted to atoms using specific activity, mass or volume?, and Avogadro's number. The denominator is simply the ratio of published, cumulative fission product chain yields for isotopes produced in a thermal irradiation on 235U - values of England and Ryder are used by LLNL for the NTNF program. Uncertainties in LLNL R-values are dependent upon gamma counting statistics as well as the nuclear data for each isotope. R LLNL = (Atoms of X exp )/(Atoms of 99 Mo exp )/(Cumulative

  16. Direct uranium isotope ratio analysis of single micrometer-sized glass particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Boulyga, Sergei F.; Prohaska, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present the application of nanosecond laser ablation (LA) coupled to a ‘Nu Plasma HR’ multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) for the direct analysis of U isotope ratios in single, 10–20 μm-sized, U-doped glass particles. Method development included studies with respect to (1) external correction of the measured U isotope ratios in glass particles, (2) the applied laser ablation carrier gas (i.e. Ar versus He) and (3) the accurate determination of lower abundant 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios (i.e. 10 −5 ). In addition, a data processing procedure was developed for evaluation of transient signals, which is of potential use for routine application of the developed method. We demonstrate that the developed method is reliable and well suited for determining U isotope ratios of individual particles. Analyses of twenty-eight S1 glass particles, measured under optimized conditions, yielded average biases of less than 0.6% from the certified values for 234 U/ 238 U and 235 U/ 238 U ratios. Experimental results obtained for 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios deviated by less than −2.5% from the certified values. Expanded relative total combined standard uncertainties U c (k = 2) of 2.6%, 1.4% and 5.8% were calculated for 234 U/ 238 U, 235 U/ 238 U and 236 U/ 238 U, respectively. - Highlights: ► LA-MC-ICP-MS was fully validated for the direct analysis of individual particles. ► Traceability was established by using an IRMM glass particle reference material. ► Measured U isotope ratios were in agreement with the certified range. ► A comprehensive total combined uncertainty evaluation was performed. ► The analysis of 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios was improved by using a deceleration filter.

  17. Evaluation of neonatal brain myelination using the T1- and T2-weighted MRI ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soun, Jennifer E; Liu, Michael Z; Cauley, Keith A; Grinband, Jack

    2017-09-01

    To validate the T1- and T2-weighted (T1w/T2w) MRI ratio technique in evaluating myelin in the neonatal brain. T1w and T2w MR images of 10 term neonates with normal-appearing brain parenchyma were obtained from a single 1.5 Tesla MRI and retrospectively analyzed. T1w/T2w ratio images were created with a postprocessing pipeline and qualitatively compared with standard clinical sequences (T1w, T2w, and apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]). Quantitative assessment was also performed to assess the ratio technique in detecting areas of known myelination (e.g., posterior limb of the internal capsule) and very low myelination (e.g., optic radiations) using linear regression analysis and the Michelson Contrast equation, a measure of luminance contrast intensity. The ratio image provided qualitative improvements in the ability to visualize regional variation in myelin content of neonates. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant inverse relationship between the ratio intensity values and ADC values in the posterior limb of the internal capsule and the optic radiations (R 2  = 0.96 and P ratio images were 1.6 times higher than T1w, 2.6 times higher than T2w, and 1.8 times higher than ADC (all P ratio improved visualization of the corticospinal tract, one of the earliest myelinated pathways. The T1w/T2w ratio accentuates contrast between myelinated and less myelinated structures and may enhance our diagnostic ability to detect myelination patterns in the neonatal brain. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:690-696. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. The ratio of deuterium to hydrogen in interstellar space. IV - The lines of sight to Delta, Epsilon, and Iota Orionis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, C.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; York, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    Deuterium absorption features in spectra of Delta, Epsilon, and Iota Ori obtained with Copernicus are analyzed. The Iota Ori line-of-sight analysis, which is quite detailed because of the high-velocity H I components superposed on the deuterium features, gives a D/H ratio (which is uncertain because of a complex profile) of 0.000014. A D/H ratio of the order of 7 millionths is determined for Delta and Epsilon Ori. For the complex line profiles involved, one may regard this as a formal lower limit. Several attempts were made to increase the ratio N(D I)/N(H I) in the context of reasonable models for the line of sight, but with no success; the derived values are therefore regarded as actual values, not lower limits. Since the derived value is an average on the line of sight, the possibility cannot be ruled out that the true ratios N(D I)/N(H I) in individual nearby components differ from the mean values. The mean value for these two directions is lower by a factor of 4 than the best value for the Zeta Pup line of sight (the highest yet derived for path lengths greater than 50 pc).

  19. Ratio of deuterium to hydrogen in interstellar space. IV. The lines of sight to delta, epsilon, and iota Orionis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, C.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; York, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    We have analyzed the deuterium absorption features in the spectra of delta, epsilon, and iota Ori obtained with Copernicus. The iota Ori line-of-sight analysis, which is quite detailed because of the high-velocity H I components superposed on the deuterium features, gives a D/H ratio (which is uncertain because of a complex profile) of 1.4 x 10 -5 . We determined a D/H ratio of the order of 7 x 10 -6 for delta and epsilon Ori. For the complex line profiles involved, one may regard this as a formal lower limit. Several attempts were made to increase the ratio N (DI)/N (H I) in the context of reasonable models for the line of sight, but with no success; we therefore regard the derived values as actual values, not lower limits. Since our derived value is an average on the line of sight, we cannot rule out the possibility that the true ratios N (D I)/N (H I) in individual nearby components (Δν -1 ) differ from the mean values. Our mean value for these two directions is lower by a factor of 4 than our best value for the zeta Pup line of sight

  20. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  1. Isotopic ratio measurement using a double focusing magnetic sector mass analyser with an inductively coupled plasma as an ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, A.J.; Freedman, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma source was coupled to a magnetic sector mass analyser equipped with seven Faraday detectors. An electrostatic filter located between the plasma source and the magnetic sector was used to create a double focusing system. Isotopic ratio measurements of uranium and lead standards revealed levels of internal and external precision comparable to those obtained using thermal inonization mass spectrometry. An external precision of 0.014% was obtained from the 235 U: 238 U measurement of six samples of a National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Standard Reference Material (SRM) U-500, while an RSD of 0.022% was obtained from the 206 Pb: 204 Pb measurement of six samples of NBS SRM Pb-981. Measured isotopic ratios deviated from the NBS value by approximately 0.9% per atomic mass unit. This deviation approximates to a linear function of mass bias and can therefore be corrected for by the analysis of standards. The analysis of NBS SRM Sr-987 revealed superior levels of internal and external precision. The normalization of the 87 Sr: 86 Sr ratio to the 86 Sr: 88 Sr ratio reduced the RSD to approximately 0.008%. The measured ratio was within 0.01% of the NBS value and the day-to-day reproducibility was consistent within one standard deviation. (author)

  2. Valuing vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T; O'Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-08-26

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery.

  3. Neutronic evolution of SENA reactor during the first and second cycles. Comparison between the experimental power distributions obtained from the in-core instrumentation evaluation code CIRCE and the theoretical power values computed with the two-dimensional diffusion-evolution code EVOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, Chantal

    1976-03-01

    The neutronic evolution of the reacteur Sena during the first and second cycles is presented. The experimental power distributions, obtained from the in-core instrumentation evaluation code CIRCE are compared with the theoretical powers calculated with the two-dimensional diffusion-evolution code EVOE. The CIRCE code allows: the study of the evolution of the principal parameters of the core, the comparison of the results of measured and theoretical estimates. Therefore this study has a great interest for the knowledge of the neutronic evolution of the core, as well as the validation of the refinement of theoretical estimation methods. The core calculation methods and requisite data for the evaluation of the measurements are presented after a brief description of the SENA core and its inner instrumentation. The principle of the in-core instrumentation evaluation code CIRCE, and calculation of the experimental power distributions and nuclear core parameters are then exposed. The results of the evaluation are discussed, with a comparison of the theoretical and experimental results. Taking account of the approximations used, these results, as far as the first and second cycles at SENA are concerned, are satisfactory, the deviations between theoretical and experimental power distributions being lower than 3% at the middle of the reactor and 9% at the periphery [fr

  4. Analysis of an employment of a gear ratio rate in CVT control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegożek, W.; Szczepka, M.

    2016-09-01

    Continuously variable transmissions(CVTs) potentially ensure the selection of such a gear ratio that scooter fuel consumption can reach minimum value. Traditionally these CVT gearboxes are mechanically controlled, causing a gear ratio to be an engine revs function. This solution does not ensure optimum gear ratio. In this paper the solution for fuel optimal control problem is presented. The results obtained during brake stand research of scooter powertrains show the significant values of brake specific fuel consumption for the velocity that is maximum for a scooter according to highway code. With the introduction of CVT gearbox in which the selection of gear ratio can be controlled according to the worked out strategy the solution for fuel consumption problem is possible. Electromechanical actuators ensure the selection of a gear ratio independently of engine revs. Such type of construction solution makes working out the suitable control strategy that ensures decreasing of scooter fuel consumption possible. Presented strategies do not use precise optimization techniques. The CVT efficiency has a strong influence on transient operation. In the paper the control strategy owing to which fuel consumption decreases by over 40% is presented. The strategy was worked out on the basis of fuel consumption map for a defined scooter exploitation model. The possibilities of realization of the worked out strategy were tested on the brake test stand.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED AND MARKET VALUE ADDED ON CORPORATE VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taslim F.A.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the influence of economic value added and market value added on corporate value of manufacturing companies on sector consumer goods industry listed in Indonesia Stock Exchanges of 2011-2014. The sample of this research was 10 manufacturing companies on sector consumer goods industry listed in Indonesia Stock Exchanges. The method used was purposive sampling technique. This research used confirmatory factor analysis to form a combined proxy of corporate value comprised price earning ratio, price to book value and Tobin's Q.

  6. Montecarlo calculation of the isomeric cross sections ratio for the reaction 237Np(n,2n)236Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleri, F.

    1988-01-01

    A Montecarlo calculation of the isomeric cross section ratio for the (n,2n) reaction on 237 Np has been carried out based on the Hauser-Feshbach formulation. A standard energy-dependent optical model potential was used, with zero deformation parameters and no spin-orbit coupling. Investigation was made about the role of the energy cut-off value, of the higher multipole (E2) transition, of the gamma-ray versus second neutron emission, of the value of the spin cutt-off parameter. The results give the correct qualitative energy dependence of the branching ratio, with the assumption that the 1 - level is the ground state. The spin cut-off value obtained indicates a less pronounced deviation of the nuclear moment of inertia from the rigid-body value, with respect to older evaluations for high-mass nuclei. (author)

  7. Improving building performance using smart building concept: Benefit cost ratio comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berawi, Mohammed Ali; Miraj, Perdana; Sayuti, Mustika Sari; Berawi, Abdur Rohim Boy

    2017-11-01

    Smart building concept is an implementation of technology developed in the construction industry throughout the world. However, the implementation of this concept is still below expectations due to various obstacles such as higher initial cost than a conventional concept and existing regulation siding with the lowest cost in the tender process. This research aims to develop intelligent building concept using value engineering approach to obtain added value regarding quality, efficiency, and innovation. The research combined quantitative and qualitative approach using questionnaire survey and value engineering method to achieve the research objectives. The research output will show additional functions regarding technology innovation that may increase the value of a building. This study shows that smart building concept requires higher initial cost, but produces lower operational and maintenance costs. Furthermore, it also confirms that benefit-cost ratio on the smart building was much higher than a conventional building, that is 1.99 to 0.88.

  8. The peer performance ratios of hedge funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardia, David; Boudt, Kris

    2018-01-01

    We define the outperformance (resp. underperformance) of an investment fund as the percentage of funds in the peer universe for which the true performance of the focal fund is higher (resp. lower). We show that the p–values of the pairwise tests of equal performance can be used to obtain estimates

  9. Deriving aerosol scattering ratio using range-resolved lidar ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... ratio (LDR) are used to suggest the type of aerosols. The altitude-dependent ... to the station and the experimentally measured lidar data. The 'model ... The integrated aerosol extinction profile with altitude-dependent S and k.

  10. Factors which define the α/γ ratio in CsI:Tl crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudin, Alexander M.; Sysoeva, Elena P.; Sysoeva, Elena V.; Trefilova, Larisa N.; Zosim, Dmitry I.

    2005-01-01

    Dependences of light yield and α/γ ratio on the Tl concentration have been studied within a wide range of shaping times. It is shown that the α/γ ratio essentially depends on the Tl concentration. Proper combination of the Tl concentration and optimum shaping time in electronics allows to obtain detectors with rather high light output for γ-rays, α-particles and α/γ ratio values. It has been shown that both the light yield at α-excitation and the α/γ-ratio depend on the time of crystal storage after polishing. On the basis of the idea of the formation of deformation-induced point defects in a thin surface-adjacent layer, the causes of the temporary increasing in light yield for α-particle are explained. An explanation is given of the results obtained by Gwin and Murray concerning the fact that the α/γ ratio is practically independent on Tl concentration

  11. Decay rate ratios of Υ(5S)→B anti B reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dae Sung; Son, Hyungsuk

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the decay rate ratios for OZI allowed decays of Υ(5S) to two B mesons by using the decay amplitudes which incorporate the wave function of the Υ(5S) state. We obtain the result that the branching ratio of the Υ(5S) decay to B s * anti B s * is much larger than the branching ratio to B s anti B s * or anti B s B s * , in good agreement with the recent experimental results of CLEO and BELLE. This agreement with the experimental results is made possible since the nodes of the Υ(5S) radial wave function induce the nodes of the decay amplitude. We find that the results for the Υ(5S) decays to B u (*) anti B u (*) or B d (*) anti B d (*) pairs are sensitive to the parameter values used for the potential between heavy quarks. (orig.)

  12. Elevated sacroilac joint uptake ratios in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Smet, A.A.; Mahmood, T.; Robinson, R.G.; Lindsley, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint radiographs and radionuclide sacroiliac joint uptake ratios were obtained on 14 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Elevated joint ratios were found unilaterally in two patients and bilaterally in seven patients when their lupus was active. In patients whose disease became quiescent, the uptake ratios returned to normal. Two patients had persistently elevated ratios with continued clinical and laboratory evidence of active lupus. Mild sacroiliac joint sclerosis and erosions were detected on pelvic radiographs in these same two patients. Elevated quantitative sacroiliac joint uptake ratios may occur as a manifestation of active systemic lupus erythematosus

  13. Transient heating and entropy generation of a fluid inside a large aspect ratio cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajas, J.C.; Trevino, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the transient heating of a fluid inside a vertical cavity of large aspect ratio (height/length) was studied numerically by the use of the SIMPLE algorithm. The heat sources are two vertical plates localized in the side walls of the cavity near the bottom. Calculations were performed for a fixed value of the Prandtl number, Pr = 7, aspect ratio of 12 and six different Rayleigh numbers between 10 3 and 10 6 . The temperature and entropy production fields, the non-dimensional heat flux on the heated plates (given by the average Nusselt number) have been obtained. From a clear dependence on the Rayleigh number, different mechanisms of symmetry break and heat transfer in the cavity were found, where vortices dynamics play a very important role. A universal behavior of the mean values of the overall reduced entropy production rate was found, valid after a short initial transient. (authors)

  14. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  15. Output factors and scatter ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, P N; Summers, R E; Samulski, T V; Baird, L C [Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA); Ahuja, A S; Dubuque, G L; Hendee, W R; Chhabra, A S

    1979-07-01

    Reference is made to a previous publication on output factors and scatter ratios for radiotherapy units in which it was suggested that the output factor should be included in the definitions of scatter-air ratio and tissue-maximum ratio. In the present correspondence from other authors and from the authors of the previous publication, the original definitions and the proposed changes are discussed. Radiation scatter from source and collimator degradation of beam energy and calculation of dose in tissue are considered in relation to the objective of accurate dosimetry.

  16. Predictive values derived from lower wisdom teeth developmental stages on orthopantomograms to calculate the chronological age in adolescence and young adults as a prerequisite to obtain age-adjusted informed patient consent prior to elective surgical procedures in young patients with incomplete or mismatched personal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Reinhard E; Schmidt, Kirsten; Treszl, András; Kersten, Jan F

    2016-01-01

    . Using hierarchical multivariate analyses a formula was derived quantifying the development of the four parameters of wisdom tooth over time. This model took repeated measurements of the same persons into account and is only applicable when a person is assessed a second time. The second approach investigates a linear regression model in order to predict the age. In a third approach, a classification and regression tree (CART) was developed to derive cut-off values for the four parameters, resulting in a classification with estimates for sensitivity and specificity. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between parameters related to wisdom tooth localization (right or left side). In univariate analyses being of legal age was associated with consecutive stages of wisdom tooth development, the obliteration of the periodontal space, and tooth emergence, as well with alveolar bone loss; no association was found with tooth mineralization. Multivariate models without repeated measurements revealed imprecise estimates because of the unknown individual-related variability. The precision of these models is thus not very good, although it improves with advancing age. When calculating a CART-analysis and a receiver operating characteristics - area under the curve of 78% was achieved; when maximizing both specificity and sensitivity, a Youden's index of 47% was achieved (with 73% specificity and 74% sensitivity). Discussion: This study provides a basis to help determine whether a person is 18 years or older in individuals who are assumed to be between 15 and 24 years old. From repeated measurements, we found a linear effect of age on the four parameters in the individuals. However, this information can't be used for prognosis, because of the large intra-individual variability. Thus, although the development of the four parameters can be estimated over time, a direct conclusion with regard to age can't be drawn from the parameters without previous biographic

  17. Methods for obtaining sorption data from uranium-series disequilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnegan, D.L.; Bryant, E.A.

    1987-12-01

    Two possible methods have been identified for obtaining in situ retardation factors from measurements of uranium-series disequilibria at Yucca Mountain. The first method would make use of the enhanced 234 U/ 238 U ratio in groundwater to derive a signature for exchangeable uranium sorbed on the rock; the exchangeable uranium would be leached and assayed. The second method would use the ratio of 222 Rn to 234 U in solution, corrected for weathering, to infer the retardation factor for uranium. Similar methods could be applied to thorium and radium

  18. Asymptotic solutions of miscible displacements in geometries of large aspect ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1997-01-01

    Asymptotic solutions are developed for miscible displacements at Stokes flow conditions between parallel plates or in a cylindrical capillary, at large values of the geometric aspect ratio. The single integro-differential equation obtained is solved numerically for different values of the Pacute eclet number and the viscosity ratio. At large values of the latter, the solution consists of a symmetric finger propagating in the middle of the gap or the capillary. Constraints on conventional convection-dispersion-equation approach for studying miscible instabilities in planar Hele endash Shaw cells are obtained. The asymptotic formalism is next used to derive emdash in the limit of zero diffusion emdash a hyperbolic equation for the cross-sectionally averaged concentration, the solution of which is obtained by analytical means. This solution is valid as long as sharp shock fronts do not form. The results are compared with recent numerical simulations of the full problem and experiments of miscible displacement in a narrow capillary. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. Large aspect ratio tokamak study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Sardella, C.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) investigated the potential for producing a viable long burn tokamak reactor through enhanced volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer by employing high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were accessed in the context of extended burn operation. Plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed using a one-dimensional transport code. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the field in the ohmic heating coil and the wave shape of the ohmic heating discharge. A high aspect ratio reference reactor was chosen and configured

  20. Variability of bronchial measurements obtained by sequential CT using two computer-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Fetita, Catalin I.; Mitrea, Mihai; Preteux, Francoise; Capderou, Andre; Dreuil, Serge; Simon, Jean-Marc; Grenier, Philippe A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the variability of lumen (LA) and wall area (WA) measurements obtained on two successive MDCT acquisitions using energy-driven contour estimation (EDCE) and full width at half maximum (FWHM) approaches. Both methods were applied to a database of segmental and subsegmental bronchi with LA > 4 mm 2 containing 42 bronchial segments of 10 successive slices that best matched on each acquisition. For both methods, the 95% confidence interval between repeated MDCT was between -1.59 and 1.5 mm 2 for LA, and -3.31 and 2.96 mm 2 for WA. The values of the coefficient of measurement variation (CV 10 , i.e., percentage ratio of the standard deviation obtained from the 10 successive slices to their mean value) were strongly correlated between repeated MDCT data acquisitions (r > 0.72; p 2 , whereas WA values were lower for bronchi with WA 2 ; no systematic EDCE underestimation or overestimation was observed for thicker-walled bronchi. In conclusion, variability between CT examinations and assessment techniques may impair measurements. Therefore, new parameters such as CV 10 need to be investigated to study bronchial remodeling. Finally, EDCE and FWHM are not interchangeable in longitudinal studies. (orig.)

  1. Radionuclide ratios of cesium and strontium in Tarapur marine environment, west coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburajan, A.; Rao, D.D.; Chandramouli, S.; Iyer, R.S.; Hegde, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Marine environment of Tarapur located 100 km north of Mumbai on the west coast, receives low level liquid waste from Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) and Fuel Reprocessing Plant (FRP). Radionuclide ratios of cesium and strontium were obtained in source term (the quantum of radioactive liquid waste available for discharge) and different marine samples viz, seawater, sediment, seaweed and marine organisms. A constant ratio of 137 Cs: 134 Cs was observed in seawater and source term. But the ratio of 137 Cs: 90 Sr had wide variation due to selective scavenging of 137 Cs by sedimentary particles at the discharge location. Among the other matrices, sediment showed a higher value of 137 Cs: 134 Cs and 137 Cs: 90 Sr reflecting the cumulative effects of releases from TAPS and FRP and higher distribution coefficient of radiocesium from seawater to sediment. Marine algae indicate a discrimination against sorption of 90 Sr due to the isotopic dilution by stable strontium present in seawater (8mg/l). The marine organisms preying on sediment containing microflora and fauna exhibited radionuclide ratios similar to seawater as the sediment sorbed cesium is not available for assimilation due to the mineral nature of the sediment. The matrices other than sediment indicated the equilibrated activity ratio of radionuclides in seawater which is the recipient medium and reflected the influence of continuous discharge. The sedimentary radionuclide ratio is largely dependent on sorption characteristics of radionuclides and their retention. (author)

  2. An approach for measuring the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio in fish samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusuno, Haruka, E-mail: kusuno@um.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, 3-7-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki [The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, 3-7-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nagata, Toshi; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke [Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8564 (Japan); Ohkouchi, Naohiko [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 2-15, Natsushima-cho, Yokosuka-city, Kanagawa 237-0061 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    The {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio in marine fish samples was measured employing accelerator mass spectrometry. The measurement was successful because of the low experimental background of {sup 129}I. Pyrohydrolysis was applied to extract iodine from fish samples. The experimental background of pyrohydrolysis was checked carefully and evaluated as 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5} atoms {sup 129}I/combustion. The methodology employed in the present study thus required only 0.05–0.2 g of dried fish samples. The methodology was then applied to obtain the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio of marine fish samples collected from the Western Pacific Ocean as (0.63–1.2) × 10{sup −10}. These values were similar to the ratio for the surface seawater collected at the same station, 0.4 × 10{sup −10}. The {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio of IAEA-414, which was a mix of fish from the Irish Sea and the North Sea, was also measured and determined as 1.82 × 10{sup −7}. Consequently, fish from the Western Pacific Ocean and the North Sea were distinguished by their {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios. The {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio is thus a direct indicator of the area of habitat of fish.

  3. Discussion of isomeric ratios in (p, n) and (d, 2n) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhshiyan, T. M., E-mail: tiruhi44@mail.ru [Yerevan State University (Armenia)

    2016-01-15

    Isomeric ratios (IR) in the (p, n) and (d, 2n) reactions are considered. The dependence of IR values on the projectile type and energy, the target- and product-nucleus spin, the spin difference between the isomeric and ground states of products, and the product mass number is discussed. The isomeric ratios for 46 product nuclei (from {sup 44m,g}Sc to {sup 127m,g}Xe) obtained in reactions where target and product nuclei have identical mass numbers were calculated at energies from the reaction threshold to 50 MeV (with a step of ΔE = 1 MeV). The calculations in question were performed with the aid of the TALYS 1.4 code package. The calculated IR values were compared with their experimental counterparts available from the literature (EXFOR database). In the majority of cases, the calculated IR values agree well with the experimental data in question. It is noteworthy that the IR values obtained in (d, 2n) reactions are substantially greater than those in (p, n) reactions.

  4. The golden ratio in Schwarzschild-Kottler black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Santiago 2 (Chile); Olivares, Marco [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Villanueva, J.R. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper we show that the golden ratio is present in the Schwarzschild-Kottler metric. For null geodesics with maximal radial acceleration, the turning points of the orbits are in the golden ratio Φ = (√(5)-1)/2. This is a general result which is independent of the value and sign of the cosmological constant Λ. (orig.)

  5. Ultrasonographic elastography of thyroid nodules: Is adding strain ratio to colour mapping better?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Y.; Shin, J.H.; Ko, E.S.; Han, B.-K.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine the diagnostic performance of colour mapping and strain ratio for characterizing malignant thyroid nodules on ultrasonographic (US) elastography. Materials and methods: The study was approved by the institutional review board and written informed consent was obtained. One hundred and thirty-one patients with 142 thyroid nodules >0.5 cm were prospectively enrolled between July 2010 and January 2011. Seven radiologists performed US elastography (iU22 Vision 2010; Philips, Seattle, WA, USA) using colour mapping and strain ratio for thyroid nodules blinded to the cytopathological results. Diagnostic performances of colour mapping alone, strain ratio alone, colour mapping and strain ratio, and colour mapping or strain ratio were compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: Of the 142 nodules, 69 (48.6%) were benign and 73 (51.4%) were malignant. Colour mapping of elastography showed a more frequent blue colour in malignant nodules than in benign nodules (65.8% versus 24.6%, p < 0.0001). A higher ratio than 1.21 as the best cut-off value was found in 65.8% of malignant nodules and 46.4% of benign nodules (p = 0.030). Area under the ROC curve (AUC) of colour mapping alone was significantly greater than that of colour mapping or strain ratio (AUC = 0.706 versus AUC = 0.63, p = 0.0195) and similar to that of colour mapping and strain ratio (AUC = 0.673, p = 0.1364). Conclusion: US elastography is helpful to predict malignant thyroid nodules. However, adding strain ratio to colour mapping does not improve performance compared to colour mapping alone

  6. A random sampling approach for robust estimation of tissue-to-plasma ratio from extremely sparse data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hui-May; Ette, Ene I

    2005-09-02

    his study was performed to develop a new nonparametric approach for the estimation of robust tissue-to-plasma ratio from extremely sparsely sampled paired data (ie, one sample each from plasma and tissue per subject). Tissue-to-plasma ratio was estimated from paired/unpaired experimental data using independent time points approach, area under the curve (AUC) values calculated with the naïve data averaging approach, and AUC values calculated using sampling based approaches (eg, the pseudoprofile-based bootstrap [PpbB] approach and the random sampling approach [our proposed approach]). The random sampling approach involves the use of a 2-phase algorithm. The convergence of the sampling/resampling approaches was investigated, as well as the robustness of the estimates produced by different approaches. To evaluate the latter, new data sets were generated by introducing outlier(s) into the real data set. One to 2 concentration values were inflated by 10% to 40% from their original values to produce the outliers. Tissue-to-plasma ratios computed using the independent time points approach varied between 0 and 50 across time points. The ratio obtained from AUC values acquired using the naive data averaging approach was not associated with any measure of uncertainty or variability. Calculating the ratio without regard to pairing yielded poorer estimates. The random sampling and pseudoprofile-based bootstrap approaches yielded tissue-to-plasma ratios with uncertainty and variability. However, the random sampling approach, because of the 2-phase nature of its algorithm, yielded more robust estimates and required fewer replications. Therefore, a 2-phase random sampling approach is proposed for the robust estimation of tissue-to-plasma ratio from extremely sparsely sampled data.

  7. Company Value Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Nelson Guedes de Carvalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The seminal propositions by Modigliani and Miller started a new study area in modern finance theory. Over time, their basic assumptions were relaxed, to the extent that, nowadays, situations in which they can be fully applied, with consistent and satisfactory results, are rare. On the other hand, as this simple set of propositions became known worldwide and was easily applicable, it was adopted as a rule of thumb for general enterprise valuation. However, in situations without methodological bias, the resulting enterprise values obtained by traditional methodologies are abstruse and do not allow for the analysis and management of the individual values that make up the firm and own capital values. In order to avoid this kind of abstruseness in company valuation, this study theoretically deducts an alternative valuation methodology, which permits the identification of assets’ value independently of their financing; moreover, we identify the gain on debt value that the debt provides to the shareholders, the debt tax shield and the value loss of assets and tax shield due to the increase in shareholder risk because of the leverage capital structure.

  8. Anomalous vacuum expectation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.

    1986-01-01

    The anomalous vacuum expectation value is defined as the expectation value of a quantity that vanishes by means of the field equations. Although this value is expected to vanish in quantum systems, regularization in general produces a finite value of this quantity. Calculation of this anomalous vacuum expectation value can be carried out in the general framework of field theory. The result is derived by subtraction of divergences and by zeta-function regularization. Various anomalies are included in these anomalous vacuum expectation values. This method is useful for deriving not only the conformal, chiral, and gravitational anomalies but also the supercurrent anomaly. The supercurrent anomaly is obtained in the case of N = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four, six, and ten dimensions. The original form of the energy-momentum tensor and the supercurrent have anomalies in their conservation laws. But the modification of these quantities to be equivalent to the original one on-shell causes no anomaly in their conservation laws and gives rise to anomalous traces

  9. The CN/C15N isotopic ratio towards dark clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hily-Blant, P.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Faure, A.; Le Gal, R.; Padovani, M.

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the origin of the composition of solar system cosmomaterials is a central question, not only in the cosmochemistry and astrochemistry fields, and requires various approaches to be combined. Measurements of isotopic ratios in cometary materials provide strong constraints on the content of the protosolar nebula. Their relation with the composition of the parental dark clouds is, however, still very elusive. In this paper, we bring new constraints based on the isotopic composition of nitrogen in dark clouds, with the aim of understanding the chemical processes that are responsible for the observed isotopic ratios. We have observed and detected the fundamental rotational transition of C15N towards two starless dark clouds, L1544 and L1498. We were able to derive the column density ratio of C15N over 13CN towards the same clouds and obtain the CN/C15N isotopic ratios, which were found to be 500 ± 75 for both L1544 and L1498. These values are therefore marginally consistent with the protosolar value of 441. Moreover, this ratio is larger than the isotopic ratio of nitrogen measured in HCN. In addition, we present model calculations of the chemical fractionation of nitrogen in dark clouds, which make it possible to understand how CN can be deprived of 15N and HCN can simultaneously be enriched in heavy nitrogen. The non-fractionation of N2H+, however, remains an open issue, and we propose some chemical way of alleviating the discrepancy between model predictions and the observed ratios. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe reduced spectra (in FITS format) are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/557/A65

  10. 15N/14N isotopic ratio and statistical analysis: an efficient way of linking seized Ecstasy tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palhol, Fabien; Lamoureux, Catherine; Chabrillat, Martine; Naulet, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the 15 N/ 14 N isotopic ratios of 106 samples of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) extracted from Ecstasy tablets are presented. These ratios, measured using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS), show a large discrimination between samples with a range of δ 15 N values between -17 and +19%o, depending on the precursors and the method used in clandestine laboratories. Thus, δ 15 N values can be used in a statistical analysis carried out in order to link Ecstasy tablets prepared with the same precursors and synthetic pathway. The similarity index obtained after principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis appears to be an efficient way to group tablets seized in different places

  11. {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N isotopic ratio and statistical analysis: an efficient way of linking seized Ecstasy tablets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhol, Fabien; Lamoureux, Catherine; Chabrillat, Martine; Naulet, Norbert

    2004-05-10

    In this study, the {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N isotopic ratios of 106 samples of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) extracted from Ecstasy tablets are presented. These ratios, measured using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS), show a large discrimination between samples with a range of {delta}{sup 15}N values between -17 and +19%o, depending on the precursors and the method used in clandestine laboratories. Thus, {delta}{sup 15}N values can be used in a statistical analysis carried out in order to link Ecstasy tablets prepared with the same precursors and synthetic pathway. The similarity index obtained after principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis appears to be an efficient way to group tablets seized in different places.

  12. Hilar height ratio in normal Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kyung Ho; Lee, Nam Joon; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Kyoo Byung

    1979-01-01

    Hilar displacement is one of the significant sign of pulmonary volume change. The hilar height ratio (HHR) is a value that express the normal position of hilum in its hemithorax, and it is calculated by dividing the distance from the hilum to the lung apex by the distance from the hilum to the diaphragm. Displacement of one hilum is usually easy to detect but both are displaced in the same direction especially, recognition is more difficult. Knowledge of normal HHR allows evaluation of hilar positional change even when the relative hilar position are not altered. Normal chest PA views of 275 cases taken at Korea University Hospital during the period of April 1978 to Jun 1979 were analyzed. The right hilum is positioned in lower half of the right hemithorax, while the left hilum is situated in the upper half of left hemithorax. The difference of hilar ratio according to age group is slight, but there is significant difference between right-HHR and left-HHR. The value of right-HHR is 1.28 ± 0.14, the value of left-HHR is 0.88 ± 0.09.

  13. PAH diagnostic ratios for the identification of pollution emission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) diagnostic ratios have recently come into common use as a tool for identifying and assessing pollution emission sources. Some diagnostic ratios are based on parent PAHs, others on the proportions of alkyl-substituted to non-substituted molecules. The ratios are applicable to PAHs determined in different environmental media: air (gas + particle phase), water, sediment, soil, as well as biomonitor organisms such as leaves or coniferous needles, and mussels. These ratios distinguish PAH pollution originating from petroleum products, petroleum combustion and biomass or coal burning. The compounds involved in each ratio have the same molar mass, so it is assumed they have similar physicochemical properties. Numerous studies show that diagnostic ratios change in value to different extents during phase transfers and environmental degradation. The paper reviews applications of diagnostic ratios, comments on their use and specifies their limitations. - Highlights: ► PAH diagnostic ratios may identify pollution coming from petroleum spills, fuel combustion and coal or biomass burning. ► They are sensitive to changes during PAHs environmental fate processes. ► Some diagnostic ratios are of limited value due to fast photodegradation of one of the compounds. - The paper reviews PAH diagnostic ratios that are applied to identify pollution emission originating from petroleum products, fuel combustion or coal and biomass burning.

  14. Value of neutrophil to monocyte ratio in diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease%中性粒细胞单核细胞比值在非酒精性脂肪性肝病诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜潇; 孙梅; 王朝晖

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究中性粒细胞淋巴细胞比值(NLR)是否可作为非酒精性脂肪性肝病(NAFLD)临床诊断及监测的有效指标。方法选取107例临床明确诊断为NAFLD且未经过药物治疗的患者作为病例组,同时选取106例年龄及性别匹配的健康受试者作为对照组。检测外周血血常规并计算NLR。结果病例组体质量指数(BMI)为(25.99±3.35)kg/m2,高于对照组的(22.47±2.33)kg/m2,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。病例组外周血谷丙转氨酶(ALT)、白细胞(WBC)计数、中性粒细胞(N)计数、NLR平均值及标准差分别为(48.37±27.84)U/L、(6.09±1.42)×109/L、(3.47±1.06)×109/L、(1.84±0.68),显著高于对照组(29.57±18.61)U/L、(5.64±1.30)×109/L、(3.09±0.96)×109/L、(1.63±0.66),差异有统计学意义(P=0.000、0.046、0.007、0.005<0.05)。NLR的曲线下的面积为0.791,相应的95%置信区间0.706,0.876,当cutoff值取1.63时,敏感性为79.6%,特异性为69%。结论 NLR可能用于NAFLD患者诊断及肝功能损害预测,具有较高的特异性及敏感性。%Objective To research whether neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) can be an effective index in clinical diagnosis and monitoring of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods There were 107 patients with diagnosed NAFLD and no drug therapy as medical case group and another 106 healthy people as control group. Their peripheral blood routine was detected to calculate NLR. Results The medical case group had higher body mass index (BMI) as (25.99±3.35) kg/m2 than (22.47±2.33) kg/m2 of the control group, and the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). The medical case group had peripheral blood alanine transaminase (ALT), white blood cell (WBC) count, neutrophil (N) count, NLR mean value and standard deviation as (48.37±27.84) U/L, (6.09±1.42)×109/L, (3.47±1.06)×109/L and (1.84±0.68), which were all higher than (29.57±18.61) U/L, (5.64±1.30)×109/L, (3.09±0.96)×109/L, (1.63±0.66) in the

  15. Obtaining shale oil suitable for lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraudel, M

    1851-11-12

    Treats with sulphuric acid and then with soda, obtaining 57 per cent of products suitable for lighting in place of the usual 35 to 40 per cent as obtained by present processes. The product has a less disagreeable odor.

  16. Development path of low aspect ratio tokamak power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambaugh, R.D.; Chan, V.S.; Miller, R.L.

    1997-03-01

    Recent advances in tokamak physics indicate the spherical tokamak may offer a magnetic fusion development path that can be started with a small size pilot plant and progress smoothly to larger power plants. Full calculations of stability to kink and ballooning modes show the possibility of greater than 50% beta toroidal with the normalized beta as high as 10 and fully aligned 100% bootstrap current. Such beta values coupled with 2--3 T toroidal fields imply a pilot plant about the size of the present DIII-D tokamak could produce ∼ 800 MW thermal, 160 MW net electric, and would have a ratio of gross electric power over recirculating power (Q PLANT ) of 1.9. The high beta values in the ST mean that E x B shear stabilization of turbulence should be 10 times more effective in the ST than in present tokamaks, implying that the required high quality of confinement needed to support such high beta values will be obtained. The anticipated beta values are so high that the allowable neutron flux at the blanket sets the device size, not the physics constraints. The ST has a favorable size scaling so that at 2--3 times the pilot plant size the Q PLANT rises to 4--5, an economic range and 4 GW thermal power plants result. Current drive power requirements for 10% of the plasma current are consistent with the plant efficiencies quoted. The unshielded copper centerpost should have an adequate lifetime against nuclear transmutation induced resistance change and the low voltage, high current power supplies needed for the 12 turn TF coil appear reasonable. The favorable size scaling of the ST and the high beta mean that in large sizes, if the copper TF coil is replaced with a superconducting TF coil and a shield, the advanced fuel D-He 3 could be burned in a device with Q PLANT ∼ 4

  17. Recent increase in sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Z Guilmoto

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since the 1980s, sex ratio at birth (male births per 100 female births has increased in many Asian countries as a result of selective abortions, but to date there has been no such evidence for Viet Nam. Our aim in this paper is to ascertain the situation with respect to sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam over the past five years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original data were obtained from sample population surveys in Viet Nam recording annual birth rates since 2000 of about 450,000 women, as well as from two successive birth surveys conducted for the first time in 2007 (1.1 million births. The annual population surveys include specific information on birth history and mothers' characteristics to be used for the analysis of trends and differentials in sex ratio at birth. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Birth history statistics indicate that the SRB in Viet Nam has recorded a steady growth since 2001. Starting from a level probably close to the biological standard of 105, the SRB reached 108 in 2005 and 112 in 2006, a value significantly above the normal level. An independent confirmation of these results comes from the surveys of births in health facilities which yielded a SRB of 110 in 2006-07. High SRB is linked to various factors such as access to modern health care, number of prenatal visits, level of higher education and employment status, young age, province of residence and prenatal sex determination. These results suggest that prenatal sex determination followed by selective abortion has recently become more common in Viet Nam. This recent trend is a consequence of various factors such as preference for sons, declining fertility, easy access to abortion, economic development as well as the increased availability of ultrasonography facilities.

  18. Sequential boundaries approach in clinical trials with unequal allocation ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayatollahi Seyyed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical trials, both unequal randomization design and sequential analyses have ethical and economic advantages. In the single-stage-design (SSD, however, if the sample size is not adjusted based on unequal randomization, the power of the trial will decrease, whereas with sequential analysis the power will always remain constant. Our aim was to compare sequential boundaries approach with the SSD when the allocation ratio (R was not equal. Methods We evaluated the influence of R, the ratio of the patients in experimental group to the standard group, on the statistical properties of two-sided tests, including the two-sided single triangular test (TT, double triangular test (DTT and SSD by multiple simulations. The average sample size numbers (ASNs and power (1-β were evaluated for all tests. Results Our simulation study showed that choosing R = 2 instead of R = 1 increases the sample size of SSD by 12% and the ASN of the TT and DTT by the same proportion. Moreover, when R = 2, compared to the adjusted SSD, using the TT or DTT allows to retrieve the well known reductions of ASN observed when R = 1, compared to SSD. In addition, when R = 2, compared to SSD, using the TT and DTT allows to obtain smaller reductions of ASN than when R = 1, but maintains the power of the test to its planned value. Conclusion This study indicates that when the allocation ratio is not equal among the treatment groups, sequential analysis could indeed serve as a compromise between ethicists, economists and statisticians.

  19. Recent increase in sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmoto, Christophe Z; Hoàng, Xuyên; Van, Toan Ngo

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, sex ratio at birth (male births per 100 female births) has increased in many Asian countries as a result of selective abortions, but to date there has been no such evidence for Viet Nam. Our aim in this paper is to ascertain the situation with respect to sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam over the past five years. Original data were obtained from sample population surveys in Viet Nam recording annual birth rates since 2000 of about 450,000 women, as well as from two successive birth surveys conducted for the first time in 2007 (1.1 million births). The annual population surveys include specific information on birth history and mothers' characteristics to be used for the analysis of trends and differentials in sex ratio at birth. Birth history statistics indicate that the SRB in Viet Nam has recorded a steady growth since 2001. Starting from a level probably close to the biological standard of 105, the SRB reached 108 in 2005 and 112 in 2006, a value significantly above the normal level. An independent confirmation of these results comes from the surveys of births in health facilities which yielded a SRB of 110 in 2006-07. High SRB is linked to various factors such as access to modern health care, number of prenatal visits, level of higher education and employment status, young age, province of residence and prenatal sex determination. These results suggest that prenatal sex determination followed by selective abortion has recently become more common in Viet Nam. This recent trend is a consequence of various factors such as preference for sons, declining fertility, easy access to abortion, economic development as well as the increased availability of ultrasonography facilities.

  20. Fractal analysis of en face tomographic images obtained with full field optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Wanrong; Zhu, Yue [Department of Optical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Jiangsu (China)

    2017-03-15

    The quantitative modeling of the imaging signal of pathological areas and healthy areas is necessary to improve the specificity of diagnosis with tomographic en face images obtained with full field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT). In this work, we propose to use the depth-resolved change in the fractal parameter as a quantitative specific biomarker of the stages of disease. The idea is based on the fact that tissue is a random medium and only statistical parameters that characterize tissue structure are appropriate. We successfully relate the imaging signal in FFOCT to the tissue structure in terms of the scattering function and the coherent transfer function of the system. The formula is then used to analyze the ratio of the Fourier transforms of the cancerous tissue to the normal tissue. We found that when the tissue changes from the normal to cancerous the ratio of the spectrum of the index inhomogeneities takes the form of an inverse power law and the changes in the fractal parameter can be determined by estimating slopes of the spectra of the ratio plotted on a log-log scale. The fresh normal and cancer liver tissues were imaged to demonstrate the potential diagnostic value of the method at early stages when there are no significant changes in tissue microstructures. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Biodegradable Polyelectrolyte Obtained by Radiation Polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciun, G.; Martin, D.; Manaila, E.; Nemtanu, M.; Brasoveanu, M.; Ighigeanu, D.

    2009-01-01

    Poly electrolytes are water-soluble polymers carrying ionic charge along the polymer chain. Depending upon the charge, these polymers are anionic or cationic. The inherent solid - liquid separating efficiency makes these poly electrolytes a unique class of polymers which find extensive application in potable water, industrial raw and process water, municipal sewage treatment, mineral processing and metallurgy, oil drilling and recovery, etc. Also, due to their ability to produce advanced induced coagulation, a considerable amount of bacteria and viruses are precipitated together with the suspended solids. Especially the acrylamide polymers are very efficacious for water treatment but acrylamide is a toxic monomer and therefore their use are governed by international standards that provide the residual acrylamide monomer content (RAMC) in them be less than 0.05%. Under these circumstances our attention was focused on the following research steps that are presented in this paper: 1) Preparation of a special class of poly electrolytes, named Pn, with very low RAMC values, based on electron beam (EB), microwave (MW) and EB + MW induced co-polymerization of aqueous solutions containing appropriate mixtures of acrylamide (AMD) and acrylic acid (AA) monomers (AMD - AA co-polymers). The Pn were obtained by radiation technology with very small RAMC (under 0.01%) as well as in a wide range of molecular weights and charge densities. Very low AMD monomer content of Pn is due to the major advantages of radiation induced polymerization in aqueous solution containing monomers. Due to water presence in the EB irradiated system, irradiated water radicals facilitate the polymerization process and increase rate and level of monomers conversion in co-polymers. Also, once again, by the presence of water, which absorbs MW energy very strongly, the MW polymerization reaction rate is much enhanced resulting in a reaction time about 50-100 times lowers than by conventional heating. Also

  2. Unsteady aerodynamic coefficients obtained by a compressible vortex lattice method.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano Hernandes

    2009-01-01

    Unsteady solutions for the aerodynamic coefficients of a thin airfoil in compressible subsonic or supersonic flows are studied. The lift, the pitch moment, and pressure coefficients are obtained numerically for the following motions: the indicial response (unit step function) of the airfoil, i.e., a sudden change in the angle of attack; a thin airfoil penetrating into a sharp edge gust (for several gust speed ratios); a thin airfoil penetrating into a one-minus-cosine gust and sinusoidal gust...

  3. Stable isotope analysis of precipitation samples obtained via crowdsourcing reveals the spatiotemporal evolution of Superstorm Sandy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Good

    Full Text Available Extra-tropical cyclones, such as 2012 Superstorm Sandy, pose a significant climatic threat to the northeastern United Sates, yet prediction of hydrologic and thermodynamic processes within such systems is complicated by their interaction with mid-latitude water patterns as they move poleward. Fortunately, the evolution of these systems is also recorded in the stable isotope ratios of storm-associated precipitation and water vapor, and isotopic analysis provides constraints on difficult-to-observe cyclone dynamics. During Superstorm Sandy, a unique crowdsourced approach enabled 685 precipitation samples to be obtained for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis, constituting the largest isotopic sampling of a synoptic-scale system to date. Isotopically, these waters span an enormous range of values (> 21‰ for δ(18O, > 160‰ for δ(2H and exhibit strong spatiotemporal structure. Low isotope ratios occurred predominantly in the west and south quadrants of the storm, indicating robust isotopic distillation that tracked the intensity of the storm's warm core. Elevated values of deuterium-excess (> 25‰ were found primarily in the New England region after Sandy made landfall. Isotope mass balance calculations and Lagrangian back-trajectory analysis suggest that these samples reflect the moistening of dry continental air entrained from a mid-latitude trough. These results demonstrate the power of rapid-response isotope monitoring to elucidate the structure and dynamics of water cycling within synoptic-scale systems and improve our understanding of storm evolution, hydroclimatological impacts, and paleo-storm proxies.

  4. Stable isotope analysis of precipitation samples obtained via crowdsourcing reveals the spatiotemporal evolution of Superstorm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Stephen P; Mallia, Derek V; Lin, John C; Bowen, Gabriel J

    2014-01-01

    Extra-tropical cyclones, such as 2012 Superstorm Sandy, pose a significant climatic threat to the northeastern United Sates, yet prediction of hydrologic and thermodynamic processes within such systems is complicated by their interaction with mid-latitude water patterns as they move poleward. Fortunately, the evolution of these systems is also recorded in the stable isotope ratios of storm-associated precipitation and water vapor, and isotopic analysis provides constraints on difficult-to-observe cyclone dynamics. During Superstorm Sandy, a unique crowdsourced approach enabled 685 precipitation samples to be obtained for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis, constituting the largest isotopic sampling of a synoptic-scale system to date. Isotopically, these waters span an enormous range of values (> 21‰ for δ(18)O, > 160‰ for δ(2)H) and exhibit strong spatiotemporal structure. Low isotope ratios occurred predominantly in the west and south quadrants of the storm, indicating robust isotopic distillation that tracked the intensity of the storm's warm core. Elevated values of deuterium-excess (> 25‰) were found primarily in the New England region after Sandy made landfall. Isotope mass balance calculations and Lagrangian back-trajectory analysis suggest that these samples reflect the moistening of dry continental air entrained from a mid-latitude trough. These results demonstrate the power of rapid-response isotope monitoring to elucidate the structure and dynamics of water cycling within synoptic-scale systems and improve our understanding of storm evolution, hydroclimatological impacts, and paleo-storm proxies.

  5. The transverse Poisson's ratio of composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foye, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    An expression is developed that makes possible the prediction of Poisson's ratio for unidirectional composites with reference to any pair of orthogonal axes that are normal to the direction of the reinforcing fibers. This prediction appears to be a reasonable one in that it follows the trends of the finite element analysis and the bounding estimates, and has the correct limiting value for zero fiber content. It can only be expected to apply to composites containing stiff, circular, isotropic fibers bonded to a soft matrix material.

  6. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  7. Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang

    2012-01-01

    In a Fisher market, a market maker sells m items to n potential buyers. The buyers submit their utility functions and money endowments to the market maker, who, upon receiving submitted information, derives market equilibrium prices and allocations of its items. While agents may benefit...... by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....

  8. Measurement of relative L X-ray intensity ratio following radioactive decay and photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcin, P. [Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Erzincan University, 24030 Erzincan (Turkey)], E-mail: pasayalcin@hotmail.com; Porikli, S.; Kurucu, Y.; Sahin, Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2008-05-22

    The measurements of the L X-ray intensity ratio I(L{alpha})/I(L{beta}), I(L{alpha})/I(L{gamma}), I(L{alpha})/I(L{iota}), I(L{beta})/I(L{gamma}) and I(L{iota})/I(L{gamma}) for elements Dy, Ho, Yb, W, Hg, Tl and Pb were experimentally determined both by photon excitation, in which 59.5 keV {gamma}-rays from a filtered radioisotope {sup 241}Am was used, and by the radioactive decay of {sup 160}Tb, {sup 160}Er, {sup 173}Lu, {sup 182}Re, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 203}Pb and {sup 207}Bi. L X-rays emitted by samples were counted by a Si(Li) detector with resolution 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Obtained values were compared with the calculated theoretical values. Theoretical values of the I(L{alpha}/L{beta}), I(L{alpha}/L{gamma}), I(L{alpha}/L{iota}), I(L{beta}/L{gamma}) and I(L{iota}/L{gamma}) intensity ratios were calculated using theoretically tabulated values of subshell photoionization cross-section, fluorescence yield, fractional X-ray emission rates, Coster-Kronig transition probabilities. It was observed that present values agree with previous theoretical and other available experimental results.

  9. Seasonal Variations in Stable Isotope Ratios of Oxygen and Hydrogen in Two Tundra Rivers in NE European Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huitu, E.; Arvola, L. [Lammi Biological Station, University of Helsinki (Finland); Sonninen, E. [Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-07-15

    The variability in stable isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen ({delta} {sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H values) in river waters in northeast European Russia was studied for the period from July 2007 to october 2008. Exceptional isotope composition in precipitation obtained during the sampling period was clearly traced in the composition of river waters. Water from permafrost thawing did not make a great contribution to river flow. (author)

  10. Diagnostic Evaluation of Effective Thyroxine Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Chul; Choi, Sang Jae; Ro, Heung Kyu; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-09-15

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of the ETR test as compared to other thyroid function tests in normal persons, patients with thyroid disorders and patients with alterations of thyroxine-binding proteins. The ETR values were obtained from 35 cases as normal control, 63 hyperthyroid patients, 56 euthyroid patients, 23 hypothyroid patients, 10 pregnant women, 5 women taking oral contraceptive medication, 8 liver cirrhosis patients and 4 nephrotic syndrome patients. The results obtained were as follows. 1) The mean value of ETR obtained from the normal controls was 0.99+-0.06. 2) The mean ETR values of various thyroid states were 1.25+-0.16 in hyperthyroidism, 0.99+-0.08 in euthyroidism and 0.82+-0.05 in hypothyroidism and significant difference was found between these groups. 3) Seven out of 63 hyperthyroid patients (11.1%) and 2 out of 23 hypothyroid patients (8.7%) had ETR values within normal range and among the 56 euthyroid patients 6 (10.7%) had ETR values outside normal range, so the diagnostic compatibility of ETR was 89.4% in thyroid diseases. 4) Even though the ETR value was well correlated with {sup 131}I-thyroid uptake rate, serum T{sub 3} resin uptake rate and serum T{sub 4}, a high positive correlation was found (r=0.79) between ETR and T{sub 7}. 5) The mean ETR values from patients with alteration in TBG binding capacity were 0.99+-0.05 in pregnant women, 0.98+-0.04 in women with oral contraceptive medication, 1.04+-0.09 in liver cirrhosis patients and 0.94+-0.02 in nephrotic syndrome patients and most of them (85.2%) had ETR values within normal range. Our results, therefore, suggests that the ETR estimation does offer the simplest and most reliable single procedure for the screening and diagnosis of various thyroid diseases as a indirect indicator of serum-free thyroxine concentration without essential influence of changes in the thyroxine-binding proteins in serum.

  11. Diagnostic Evaluation of Effective Thyroxine Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Chul; Choi, Sang Jae; Ro, Heung Kyu; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of the ETR test as compared to other thyroid function tests in normal persons, patients with thyroid disorders and patients with alterations of thyroxine-binding proteins. The ETR values were obtained from 35 cases as normal control, 63 hyperthyroid patients, 56 euthyroid patients, 23 hypothyroid patients, 10 pregnant women, 5 women taking oral contraceptive medication, 8 liver cirrhosis patients and 4 nephrotic syndrome patients. The results obtained were as follows. 1) The mean value of ETR obtained from the normal controls was 0.99±0.06. 2) The mean ETR values of various thyroid states were 1.25±0.16 in hyperthyroidism, 0.99±0.08 in euthyroidism and 0.82±0.05 in hypothyroidism and significant difference was found between these groups. 3) Seven out of 63 hyperthyroid patients (11.1%) and 2 out of 23 hypothyroid patients (8.7%) had ETR values within normal range and among the 56 euthyroid patients 6 (10.7%) had ETR values outside normal range, so the diagnostic compatibility of ETR was 89.4% in thyroid diseases. 4) Even though the ETR value was well correlated with 131 I-thyroid uptake rate, serum T 3 resin uptake rate and serum T 4 , a high positive correlation was found (r=0.79) between ETR and T 7 . 5) The mean ETR values from patients with alteration in TBG binding capacity were 0.99±0.05 in pregnant women, 0.98±0.04 in women with oral contraceptive medication, 1.04±0.09 in liver cirrhosis patients and 0.94±0.02 in nephrotic syndrome patients and most of them (85.2%) had ETR values within normal range. Our results, therefore, suggests that the ETR estimation does offer the simplest and most reliable single procedure for the screening and diagnosis of various thyroid diseases as a indirect indicator of serum-free thyroxine concentration without essential influence of changes in the thyroxine-binding proteins in serum.

  12. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Volodymyr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the

  13. In-Situ Three-Dimensional Shape Rendering from Strain Values Obtained Through Optical Fiber Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Parker, Jr., Allen R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method and system for rendering the shape of a multi-core optical fiber or multi-fiber bundle in three-dimensional space in real time based on measured fiber strain data. Three optical fiber cores arc arranged in parallel at 120.degree. intervals about a central axis. A series of longitudinally co-located strain sensor triplets, typically fiber Bragg gratings, are positioned along the length of each fiber at known intervals. A tunable laser interrogates the sensors to detect strain on the fiber cores. Software determines the strain magnitude (.DELTA.L/L) for each fiber at a given triplet, but then applies beam theory to calculate curvature, beading angle and torsion of the fiber bundle, and from there it determines the shape of the fiber in s Cartesian coordinate system by solving a series of ordinary differential equations expanded from the Frenet-Serrat equations. This approach eliminates the need for computationally time-intensive curve-tilting and allows the three-dimensional shape of the optical fiber assembly to be displayed in real-time.

  14. ENEN and NEPTUNO : opportunities to obtain added value in high training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minguez Torres, E.

    2006-01-01

    In the area of nuclear education, the 20th century ended with a significant deficit of students in relation to anticipated professional needs, bearing in mind how much operating time many European plants still have left. This article analyzes the measures implemented on a European scale to combat this problem, and it underlines the important role being played by the Association ENEN. At the same time, it refers to the involvements of Spanish universities in this European reaction, a call to encourage young engineers to enter the nuclear field. (Author)

  15. Multi-valued fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ershov, Yuri L

    2001-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the author has studied the model-theoretic aspects of the theory of valued fields and multi-valued fields. Many of the key results included in this book were obtained by the author whilst preparing the manuscript. Thus the unique overview of the theory, as developed in the book, has been previously unavailable. The book deals with the theory of valued fields and mutli-valued fields. The theory of Prüfer rings is discussed from the `geometric' point of view. The author shows that by introducing the Zariski topology on families of valuation rings, it is possible to distinguish two important subfamilies of Prüfer rings that correspond to Boolean and near Boolean families of valuation rings. Also, algebraic and model-theoretic properties of multi-valued fields with near Boolean families of valuation rings satisfying the local-global principle are studied. It is important that this principle is elementary, i.e., it can be expressed in the language of predicate calculus. The most important...

  16. Simultaneous measurement of quantum yield ratio and absorption ratio between acceptor and donor by linearly unmixing excitation-emission spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Lin, F; DU, M; Qu, W; Mai, Z; Qu, J; Chen, T

    2018-02-13

    Quantum yield ratio (Q A /Q D ) and absorption ratio (K A /K D ) in all excitation wavelengths used between acceptor and donor are indispensable to quantitative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurement based on linearly unmixing excitation-emission spectra (ExEm-spFRET). We here describe an approach to simultaneously measure Q A /Q D and K A /K D values by linearly unmixing the excitation-emission spectra of at least two different donor-acceptor tandem constructs with unknown FRET efficiency. To measure the Q A /Q D and K A /K D values of Venus (V) to Cerulean (C), we used a wide-field fluorescence microscope to image living HepG2 cells separately expressing each of four different C-V tandem constructs at different emission wavelengths with 435 nm and 470 nm excitation respectively to obtain the corresponding excitation-emission spectrum (S DA ). Every S DA was linearly unmixed into the contributions (weights) of three excitation-emission spectra of donor (W D ) and acceptor (W A ) as well as donor-acceptor sensitisation (W S ). Plot of W S /W D versus W A /W D for the four C-V plasmids from at least 40 cells indicated a linear relationship with 1.865 of absolute intercept (Q A /Q D ) and 0.273 of the reciprocal of slope (K A /K D ), which was validated by quantitative FRET measurements adopting 1.865 of Q A /Q D and 0.273 of K A /K D for C32V, C5V, CVC and VCV constructs respectively in living HepG2 cells. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2018 Royal Microscopical Society.

  17. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...

  18. Financial Ratio Analysis using ARMS Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrendsen, Bruce L.; Katchova, Ani L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the financial performance measures calculated and reported by Economic Resource Service (ERS) from ARMS data. The evaluation includes the calculation method and the underlying assumptions used in obtaining the reported values. The financial measures calculated and reported are compared with those recommended by the Farm Financial Standards Council (FFSC). The underlying assumptions are identified by analyzing the software code used in calculating th...

  19. Patterns of Wildlife Value Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry C. Zinn; Michael J. Manfredo; Susan C. Barro

    2002-01-01

    Public value orientations toward wildlife may be growing less utilitarian and more protectionist. To better understand one aspect of this trend, we investigated patterns of wildlife value orientations within families. Using a mail survey, we sampled Pennsylvania and Colorado hunting license holders 50 or older; obtaining a 54% response rate (n = 599). Males (94% of...

  20. Limiting density ratios in piston-driven compressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    1985-07-01

    By using global energy and pressure balance applied to a shock model it is shown that for a piston-driven fast compression, the maximum compression ratio is not dependent on the absolute magnitude of the piston power, but rather on the power pulse shape. Specific cases are considered and a maximum density compression ratio of 27 is obtained for a square-pulse power compressing a spherical pellet with specific heat ratio of 5/3. Double pulsing enhances the density compression ratio to 1750 in the case of linearly rising compression pulses. Using this method further enhancement by multiple pulsing becomes obvious. (author)

  1. Oxygen enhancement ratio for negative pi mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Astor, M.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were performed at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) to determine the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) for the clinically used beam of negative pi mesons. V79 Chinese hamster cells, cultured in vitro, were used as the biological test system; hypoxia was produced by metabolic depletion as a result of sealing 2 million cells in 1 ml glass ampules. The Bragg peak of the pion depth dose curve was spread out to cover 10 cm by using a dynamic range shifter. Cells were irradiated at the center of the spead out Bragg peak, where the dose/rate was 0.1 Gy/min over a 6 x 6 cm field. The OER obtained was 2.2, compared with 3.8 obtained for γ rays under the same conditions

  2. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, Steven A.; Cadwallader, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a ''white'' (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant's insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of

  3. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, Steven A. [Curtiss-Wright/Scietech, Ketchum, ID (United States); Cadwallader, Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a “white” (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant’s insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only

  4. Reference values of spirometry for Finnish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainu, A; Timonen, K L; Toikka, J; Qaiser, B; Pitkäniemi, J; Kotaniemi, J T; Lindqvist, A; Vanninen, E; Länsimies, E; Sovijärvi, A R A

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic assessment of lung function necessitates up-to-date reference values. The aim of this study was to estimate reference values for spirometry for the Finnish population between 18 and 80 years and to compare them with the existing Finnish, European and the recently published global GLI2012 reference values. Spirometry was performed for 1380 adults in the population-based FinEsS studies and for 662 healthy non-smoking volunteer adults. Detailed predefined questionnaire screening of diseases and symptoms, and quality control of spirometry yielded a sample of 1000 native Finns (387 men) healthy non-smokers aged 18-83 years. Sex-specific reference values, which are estimated using the GAMLSS method and adjusted for age and height, are provided. The predicted values for lung volumes are larger than those obtained by GLI2012 prediction for the Caucasian subgroup for forced vital capacity (FVC) by an average 6·2% and 5·1% and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) by an average 4·2% and 3·0% in men and women, respectively. GLI2012 slightly overestimated the ratio FEV1/FVC with an age-dependent trend. Most reference equations from other European countries, with the exception of the Swiss SAPALDIA study, showed an underestimation of FVC and FEV1 to varying degrees, and a slight overestimation of FEV1/FVC. This study offers up-to-date reference values of spirometry for native Finns with a wide age range. The GLI2012 predictions seem not to be suitable for clinical use for native Finns due to underestimation of lung volumes. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  5. Elevations in the Fasting Serum Proinsulin–to–C-Peptide Ratio Precede the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Emily K.; Chaudhry, Zunaira; Watkins, Renecia; Syed, Farooq; Blum, Janice; Ouyang, Fangqian; Perkins, Susan M.; Mirmira, Raghavendra G.; Sosenko, Jay; DiMeglio, Linda A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested whether an elevation in the serum proinsulin–to–C-peptide ratio (PI:C), a biomarker of β-cell endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction, was associated with progression to type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fasting total PI and C levels were measured in banked serum samples obtained from TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) participants, a cohort of autoantibody-positive relatives without diabetes of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Samples were obtained ∼12 months before diabetes onset from PTP progressors in whom diabetes developed (n = 60), and were compared with age-, sex-, and BMI-matched nonprogressors who remained normoglycemic (n = 58). PI:C ratios were calculated as molar ratios and were multiplied by 100% to obtain PI levels as a percentage of C levels. RESULTS Although absolute PI levels did not differ between groups, PI:C ratios were significantly increased in antibody-positive subjects in whom there was progression to diabetes compared with nonprogressors (median 1.81% vs. 1.17%, P = 0.03). The difference between groups was most pronounced in subjects who were ≤10 years old, where the median progressor PI:C ratio was nearly triple that of nonprogressors; 90.0% of subjects in this age group within the upper PI:C quartile progressed to the development of diabetes. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and BMI, demonstrated increased odds of progression for higher natural log PI:C ratio values (odds ratio 1.44, 95% CI 1.02, 2.05). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that β-cell ER dysfunction precedes type 1 diabetes onset, especially in younger children. Elevations in the serum PI:C ratio may have utility in predicting the onset of type 1 diabetes in the presymptomatic phase. PMID:27385327

  6. Elevations in the Fasting Serum Proinsulin-to-C-Peptide Ratio Precede the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Emily K; Chaudhry, Zunaira; Watkins, Renecia; Syed, Farooq; Blum, Janice; Ouyang, Fangqian; Perkins, Susan M; Mirmira, Raghavendra G; Sosenko, Jay; DiMeglio, Linda A; Evans-Molina, Carmella

    2016-09-01

    We tested whether an elevation in the serum proinsulin-to-C-peptide ratio (PI:C), a biomarker of β-cell endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction, was associated with progression to type 1 diabetes. Fasting total PI and C levels were measured in banked serum samples obtained from TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) participants, a cohort of autoantibody-positive relatives without diabetes of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Samples were obtained ∼12 months before diabetes onset from PTP progressors in whom diabetes developed (n = 60), and were compared with age-, sex-, and BMI-matched nonprogressors who remained normoglycemic (n = 58). PI:C ratios were calculated as molar ratios and were multiplied by 100% to obtain PI levels as a percentage of C levels. Although absolute PI levels did not differ between groups, PI:C ratios were significantly increased in antibody-positive subjects in whom there was progression to diabetes compared with nonprogressors (median 1.81% vs. 1.17%, P = 0.03). The difference between groups was most pronounced in subjects who were ≤10 years old, where the median progressor PI:C ratio was nearly triple that of nonprogressors; 90.0% of subjects in this age group within the upper PI:C quartile progressed to the development of diabetes. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and BMI, demonstrated increased odds of progression for higher natural log PI:C ratio values (odds ratio 1.44, 95% CI 1.02, 2.05). These data suggest that β-cell ER dysfunction precedes type 1 diabetes onset, especially in younger children. Elevations in the serum PI:C ratio may have utility in predicting the onset of type 1 diabetes in the presymptomatic phase. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  7. Biometrics from the carbon isotope ratio analysis of amino acids in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Glen P; An, Yan; Konstantynova, Kateryna I; Rashaid, Ayat H B

    2015-01-01

    This study compares and contrasts the ability to classify individuals into different grouping factors through either bulk isotope ratio analysis or amino-acid-specific isotope ratio analysis of human hair. Using LC-IRMS, we measured the isotope ratios of 14 amino acids in hair proteins independently, and leucine/isoleucine as a co-eluting pair, to provide 15 variables for classification. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids were mostly independent variables in the classification rules, thereby enabling the separation of dietary factors of isotope intake from intrinsic or phenotypic factors of isotope fractionation. Multivariate analysis revealed at least two potential sources of non-dietary factors influencing the carbon isotope ratio values of the amino acids in human hair: body mass index (BMI) and age. These results provide evidence that compound-specific isotope ratio analysis has the potential to go beyond region-of-origin or geospatial movements of individuals-obtainable through bulk isotope measurements-to the provision of physical and characteristic traits about the individuals, such as age and BMI. Further development and refinement, for example to genetic, metabolic, disease and hormonal factors could ultimately be of great assistance in forensic and clinical casework. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Profile of total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio in bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Zahidah Irfan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of serum total protein concentration and main fractions (albumin and globulin can be used as an important diagnostic tool in clinical biochemistry. Several factors can affect the concentration of total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio (A/G. The aim of this study is to obtain serum protein profiles, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio based on breed, age and BCS (body condition score. Blood samples from 160 bulls were collected. Blood chemistry were analyzed by photometer principle using a commercial kit. There were significant (P<0.001 breed variation on total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio. Significant age differences were observed on total protein and albumin concentration (P<0.001, while globulin concentration and A/G ratio were also significant (P<0.05. Amongs groups of BCS, significant difference was verified only in the albumin concentration (P<0.05. The concentration of total proteins, albumins and globulins in the serum of the bulls are higher than standard values for cattle, while A/G ratio is lower.

  9. Study of Flux Ratio of C60 to Ar Cluster Ion for Hard DLC Film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyauchi, K.; Toyoda, N.; Kanda, K.; Matsui, S.; Kitagawa, T.; Yamada, I.

    2003-01-01

    To study the influence of the flux ratio of C60 molecule to Ar cluster ion on (diamond like carbon) DLC film characteristics, DLC films deposited under various flux ratios were characterized with Raman spectrometry and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS). From results of these measurements, hard DLC films were deposited when the flux ratio of C60 to Ar cluster ion was between 0.7 and 4. Furthermore the DLC film with constant sp2 content was obtained in the range of the ratio from 0.7 to 4, which contents are lower values than that of conventional films such as RF plasma. DLC films deposited under the ratio from 1 to 4 had hardness from 40 to 45GPa. It was shown that DLC films with stable properties of low sp2 content and high hardness were formed even when the fluxes were varied from 1 to 4 during deposition. It was indicated that this process was useful in the view of industrial application

  10. THE EFFECT OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO ON FUEL CONSUMPTION IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup SEKMEN

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to lack of energy sources in the world, we are obliged to use our current energy sources in the most efficient way. Therefore, in the automotive industry, research works to manufacture more economic cars in terms of fuelconsumption and environmental friendly cars, at the same time satisfying the required performance have been intensively increasing. Some positive results have been obtained by the studies, aimed to change the compression ratio according to the operating conditions of engine. In spark ignition engines in order to improve the combustion efficiency, fuel economy and exhaust emission in the partial loads, the compression ratio must be increased; but, under the high load and low speed conditions to prevent probable knock and hard running compression ratio must be decreased slightly. In this paper, various research works on the variable compression ratio with spark ignition engines, the effects on fuel economy, power output and thermal efficiency have been investigated. According to the results of the experiments performed with engines having variable compression ratio under the partial and mid-load conditions, an increase in engine power, a decrease in fuel consumption, particularly in partial loads up to 30 percent of fuel economy, and also severe reductions of some exhaust emission values were determined.

  11. Variations in the stable isotope ratios of specific aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons from coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRae, C.; Snape, C.E.; Fallick, A.E. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry

    1998-07-01

    To establish the scope for applying gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry ({sup {delta}-13}C GC-IRMS) to molecular recognition problems in coal utilisation, {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C isotope ratios were determined for n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as a function of coal rank and process conditions. Six coals ranging from a lignite to a low volatile bituminous coal were subjected to chloroform extraction, fixed-bed pyrolysis under hydrogen pressure (hydropyrolysis) and fluidised-bed (flash) pyrolysis. No significant variations in the stable isotope ratios of n-alkanes were evident as a function of either rank or conversion regime. In contrast, the isotope ratios of PAHs show large variations with those for hydropyrolysis (-23 to -25 parts per thousand) being similar to the bulk values of the initial coals and being isotopically heavier (less negative) than their fluidised-bed pyrolysis counterparts by 2-3 parts per thousand. However, the PAHs from fluidised-bed pyrolysis, which resemble closely those obtained from high temperature coal carbonization, are still heavier (by 2-3 parts per thousand) than those from diesel particulates and coal gasification and combustion residues. This provides a firm basis for the source apportionment of airborne PAHs in the proximity of coking plants, particularly with no major variations in the PAH isotope ratios being found as a function of rank.

  12. Absolute measurement of the isotopic ratio of a water sample with very low deuterium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, R.; Nief, G.; Roth, E.

    1968-01-01

    The presence of H 3+ ions which are indistinguishable from HD + ions presents the principal difficulty encountered in the measurement of isotopic ratios of water samples with very low deuterium contents using a mass spectrometer. Thus, when the sample contains no deuterium, the mass spectrometer does not indicate zero. By producing, in situ, from the sample to be measured, water vapor with an isotopic ratio very close to zero using a small distilling column, this difficulty is overcome. This column, its operating parameters, as well as the way in which the measurements are made are described. An arrangement is employed in which the isotopic ratios can be measured with a sensitivity better than 0.01 x 10 -6 . The method is applied to the determination of the isotopic ratios of three low deuterium content water samples. The results obtained permit one to assign to the sample with the lowest deuterium content an absolute value equal to 1.71 ± 0.03 ppm. This water sample is a primary standard from which is determined the isotopic ratio of a natural water sample which serves as the laboratory standard. (author) [fr

  13. On the line intensity ratios of prominent Si II, Si III, and Si IV multiplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djenize, S.; Sreckovic, A.; Bukvic, S.

    2010-01-01

    Line intensities of singly, doubly and triply ionized silicon (Si II, Si III, and Si IV, respectively) belonging to the prominent higher multiplets, are of interest in laboratory and astrophysical plasma diagnostics. We measured these line intensities in the emission spectra of pulsed helium discharge. The Si II line intensity ratios in the 3s3p 22 D-3s 2 4p 2 P o , 3s 2 3d 2 D-3s 2 4f 2 F o , and 3s 2 4p 2 P o -3s 2 4d 2 D transitions, the Si III line intensity ratios in the 3s3d 3 D-3s4p 3 P o , 3s4p 3 P o -3s4d 3 D, 3s4p 3 P o -3s5s 3 S, 3s4s 3 S-3s4p 3 P o , and 3s4f 3 F o -3s5g 3 G transitions, and the Si IV line intensity ratios in the 4p 2 P o -4d 2 D and 4p 2 P o -5s 2 S transitions were obtained in a helium plasma at an electron temperature of about 17,000 ± 2000 K. Line shapes were recorded using a spectrograph and an ICCD camera as a highly-sensitive detection system. The silicon atoms were evaporated from a Pyrex discharge tube designed for the purpose. They represent impurities in the optically thin helium plasma at the silicon ionic wavelengths investigated. The line intensity ratios obtained were compared with those available in the literature, and with values calculated on the basis of available transition probabilities. The experimental data corresponded well with line intensity ratios calculated using the transition probabilities obtained from a Multi Configuration Hartree-Fock approximation for Si III and Si IV spectra. We recommend corrections of some Si II transition probabilities.

  14. H+/ATP ratio during ATP hydrolysis by mitochondria: modification of the chemiosmotic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, M D; Lehninger, A L

    1977-01-01

    The stoichiometry of H+ ejection by mitochondria during hydrolysis of a small pulse of ATP (the H+/ATP ratio) has been reexamined in the light of our recent observation that the stoichiometry of H+ ejection during mitochondrial electron transport (the H+/site ratio) was previously underestimated. We show that earlier estimates of the H+/ATP ratio in intact mitochondria were based upon an invalid correction for scaler H+ production and describe a modified method for determination of this ratio which utilizes mersalyl or N-ethylmaleimide to prevent complicating transmembrane movements of phosphate and H+. This method gives a value for the H+/ATP ratio of 2.0 without the need for questionable corrections, compared with a value of 3.0 for the H+/site ratio also obtained by pulse methods. A modified version of the chemiosmotic theory is presented, in which 3 H+ are ejected per pair of electrons traversing each energy-conserving site of the respiratory chain. Of these, 2 H+ return to the matrix through the ATPase to form ATP from ADP and phosphate, and 1 H+ returns through the combined action of the phosphate and adenine nucleotide exchange carriers of the inner membrane to allow the energy-requiring influx of Pi and ADP3- and efflux of ATP4-. Thus, up to one-third of the energy input into synthesis of extramitochondrial ATP may be required for transport work. Since other methods suggest that the H+/site significantly exceeds 3.0, an alternative possibility is that 4 h+ are ejected per site, followed by return of 3 H+ through the ATPase and 1 H+ through the operation of the proton-coupled membrane transport systems. PMID:17116

  15. Estimation of indoor and outdoor ratios of selected volatile organic compounds in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Szyszkowicz, Mieczyslaw; Jovic, Branka; Cakmak, Sabit; Austin, Claire C.; Zhu, Jiping

    2016-09-01

    Indoor air and outdoor air concentration (I/O) ratio can be used to identify the origins of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). I/O ratios of 25 VOCs in Canada were estimated based on the data collected in various areas in Canada between September 2009 and December 2011. The indoor VOC data were extracted from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Outdoor VOC data were obtained from Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) Network. The sampling locations covered nine areas in six provinces in Canada. Indoor air concentrations were found higher than outdoor air for all studied VOCs, except for carbon tetrachloride. Two different approaches were employed to estimate the I/O ratios; both approaches produced similar I/O values. The I/O ratios obtained from this study were similar to two other Canadian studies where indoor air and outdoor air of individual dwellings were measured. However, the I/O ratios found in Canada were higher than those in European cities and in two large USA cities, possibly due to the fact that the outdoor air concentrations recorded in the Canadian studies were lower. Possible source origins identified for the studied VOCs based on their I/O ratios were similar to those reported by others. In general, chlorinated hydrocarbons, short-chain (C5, C6) n-alkanes and benzene had significant outdoor sources, while long-chain (C10sbnd C12) n-alkanes, terpenes, naphthalene and styrene had significant indoor sources. The remaining VOCs had mixed indoor and outdoor sources.

  16. Properties of a compost obtained starting from residuals of the production of cane sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis López Bravo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work was to determine the main properties of a compost made from bagasse, slowness and ash, obtained from the sugar factory process. To elaborate the mixture a characterization of the raw material was carried out in function of the properties related to the composting process. During the process of anaerobic biodigestion, the control of the main monitoring parameters was carried out, until reaching the maturation state. In the raw material used a bulk density of 0.12 to 0.48 g cm-3 was found, the pH oscillated between 5.2 and 8.7, while the electrical conductivity was in the range of 0,4 to 0,9 µ m-1. On the other hand, the contents of P, K, Ca and Mg showed values between 0.3 and 2.8 %. Finally, a bulk density of 0.5 g cm-3 was obtained in the compost. The carbon-nitrogen (C/N ratio, showed a linear relation with respect to the time of composting, showing a suitable maturation of the mixture. The presence of N, P, K, Ca and Mg with values of 1; 1.3; 1.1; 2 and 1.1 % were also verified. After evaluating the results it is concluded that compost shows a suitable composition to be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture.