WorldWideScience

Sample records for ratio systematically decreases

  1. Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progesterone and estrogen are two steroid hormones whose exposure may decrease the risk and delay the onset of ischemic stroke. The main objective of this study was to determine the plasma level of progesterone, estrogen and ratio of progesterone/estrogen in ischemic stroke patients. The plasma levels of ...

  2. Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... 30 control subjects (15 men and 15 women) of comparable age. There were ... estrogens and progestins makes the brain more vulnerable to acute insults ... estrogen or ratio of progesterone to estrogen is different in ischemia ...

  3. Maternal serum ratio of ghrelin to obestatin decreased in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiguang; Fan, Xiaobin; Yu, Yuecheng; Wang, Yingchun

    2015-10-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been shown to participate in blood pressure regulation. Obestatin, encoded by the same gene as ghrelin, is described as a physiological opponent of ghrelin. We hypothesized that ghrelin/obestatin imbalance played a role in the pathogenesis. This study was designed to determine the alterations of ghrelin and obestatin concentrations and ghrelin/obestatin ratio in maternal serum in preeclampsia. This retrospective case-control study included 31 preeclampsia and 31 gestational week-matched normal pregnancies. Ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in maternal serum were determined by radioimmunoassay, and the ghrelin/obestatin ratio was calculated. The ghrelin concentration and ghrelin/obestatin ratio in maternal serum were significantly lower in preeclampsia than in normal pregnancies (214.34±14.27pg/mL vs 251.49±16.15pg/mL, P=0.041, 1.07±0.09 vs 0.82±0.08, P=0.023). The obestatin concentration in maternal serum was significantly higher in preeclampsia than in normal pregnancies (276.35±15.38pg/mL vs 223.53±18.61pg/mL, P=0.019). The systolic blood pressure in preeclampsia was negatively correlated with ghrelin concentration and ghrelin/obestatin ratio (r=-0.549, P=0.003; r=-0.491, P=0.004) and was positively correlated with obestatin concentrations in preeclampsia (r=0.388, P=0.013). The findings of this study suggested disturbance of ghrelin and obestatin in maternal serum in preeclampsia, and ghrelin/obestatin imbalance might play a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of financial ratios on systematic risk index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Faez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between financial ratios and indicator of systemic risk in the Tehran Stock Exchange. The study selects 73 manufacturing companies of the Tehran Stock Exchange market over the period 2003-2010. The study first calculates the independent variables in the form of financial ratios and then the ratios affecting the systematic risk index are extracted using entropy method. The output of this stage is the introduction of five influential financial indicators as the independent variables of the study. Using t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient the rate of independent variables effect on the systematic risk index is evaluated and finally, using stepwise regression method, the effect of independent variables on the dependent variable is examined. According to results of our survey, the correlation coefficient of such indices as “the ratio of stock price to the profit of each share”, “Current ratio”, “each share profit ratio” and “the stockholders rights return ratio” have respectively the highest correlation with the systematic risk index.

  5. Recoil curve properties and coercive force decrease ratio in NdFeB sintered magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Yutaka, E-mail: Yutaka_Matsuura@hitachi-metals.co.jp; Kitai, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Rintaro; Natsumeda, Toshimitsu; Hoshijima, Jun

    2013-11-15

    It is examined that whether a reverse domain and magnetic domain wall exist in a lower demagnetization area than the coercive force and whether the observed demagnetization ratio curve can be explained using the alignment distribution function or not. From measurements of the recoil curve in the low demagnetization field, it was confirmed that minor demagnetization occurred in every demagnetization field and magnets of every grade of coercive force. The alignment distribution of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains was also measured by electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD). The alignments and the coercive force decrease ratios were calculated using these alignment distributions. These data were compared against the results obtained from magnetization measurements. From EBSD data, it was found that the alignment distributions of magnets used in this experiment were close to a Gaussian distribution. It was also found that there was no difference in the alignment distribution between magnets with Dy and without Dy, even though the coercive force decrease ratios were Dy dependent. The calculated alignments using the alignment distribution functions were close to the values of magnetization measurements. However, it was found that the calculated coercive force decrease ratios were different from the results obtained from magnetization measurement. - Highlights: • Reverse magnetic domains already exist lower magnetic field than coercive force. • Demagnetization happens not only from surface but also from inside of magnets. • Calculated alignment agrees well with that of the magnetic properties measurement. • Coercive force decrease ratio could not explain from alignment distribution. • We could not find any difference with and without Dy magnets in alignment distribution.

  6. Systematic study of the π-/π+ ratio in heavy-ion collisions with the same neutron/proton ratio but different masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Xiao Zhigang; Zhu Shengjiang; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Yong Gaochan

    2009-01-01

    A systematic study of the π - /π + ratio in heavy-ion collisions with the same neutron/proton ratio but different masses can help single out effects of the nuclear mean field on pion production. Based on simulations using the IBUU04 transport model, it is found that the π - /π + ratio in head-on collisions of 48 Ca+ 48 Ca, 124 Sn+ 124 Sn, and 197 Au+ 197 Au at beam energies from 0.25 to 0.6 GeV/nucleon increases with increasing the system size or decreasing the beam energies. A comprehensive analysis of the dynamical isospin fractionation and the π - /π + ratio as well as their time evolution and spatial distributions demonstrates clearly that the π - /π + ratio is an effective probe of the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy.

  7. Increase in Dye:Dendrimer Ratio Decreases Cellular Uptake of Neutral Dendrimers in RAW Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Sriram; Kaushik, Milan; Dougherty, Casey; Rattan, Rahul; Goonewardena, Sascha N; Banaszak Holl, Mark M; Monano, Janet; DiMaggio, Stassi

    2016-09-12

    Neutral generation 3 poly(amidoamine) dendrimers were labeled with Oregon Green 488 (G3-OG n ) to obtain materials with controlled fluorophore:dendrimer ratios (n = 1-2), a mixture containing mostly 3 dyes per dendrimer, a mixture containing primarily 4 or more dyes per dendrimer ( n = 4+), and a stochastic mixture ( n = 4 avg ). The UV absorbance of the dye conjugates increased linearly as n increased and the fluorescence emission decreased linearly as n increased. Cellular uptake was studied in RAW cells and HEK 293A cells as a function of the fluorophore:dendrimer ratio (n). The cellular uptake of G3-OG n ( n = 3, 4+, 4 avg ) into RAW cells was significantly lower than G3-OG n ( n = 1, 2). The uptake of G3-OG n ( n = 3, 4+, 4 avg ) into HEK 293A cells was not significantly different from G3-OG 1 . Thus, the fluorophore:dendrimer ratio was observed to change the extent of uptake in the macrophage uptake mechanism but not in the HEK 293A cell. This difference in endocytosis indicates the presence of a pathway in the macrophage that is sensitive to hydrophobicity of the particle.

  8. Decreased n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio reduces chronic reflux esophagitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jing-Jing; Tang, Du-Peng; Xie, Jing-Jing; Yang, Li-Yong; Zhuang, Ze-Hao

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effect of dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs on chronic reflux esophagitis (RE) and lipid peroxidation. Rat RE model were established and then fed on a diet contained different n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios (1:1.5, 5:1, 10:1) or received pure n-6 PUFA diet for 14 days. Esophageal pathological changes were evaluated using macroscopic examination and hematoxyline-eosin staining. IL-1β, IL-8, and TNFα mRNA and protein levels of were determined using RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were determined using ELISA. The severity of esophagitis was lowest in the PUFA(1:1.5) group (P<0.05). IL-1β, IL-8, and TNFα mRNA and protein and MDA levels were significantly increased in model groups with the increasing n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. SOD levels were significantly decreased in all RE PUFA groups (P<0.05). Esophageal injury and lipid peroxidation appeared to be ameliorated by increased n-3 PUFAs intake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lalinet status - station expansion and lidar ratio systematic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landulfo Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available LALINET is expanding regionally to guarantee spatial coverage over South and Central Americas. One of the network goals is to obtain a set of regional representative aerosol optical properties such as particle backscatter, extinction and lidar ratio. Given the North-South extension and influence of distinct airmass circulation patterns it is paramount to distinguish these optical parameters in order to gain better perfomance in radiation transfer models. A set of lidar ratio data is presented.

  10. Persistent amenorrhea and decreased DHEAS to cortisol ratio after recovery from anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrisani, Alessandra; Sabbadin, Chiara; Minardi, Silvia; Favaro, Angela; Donà, Gabriella; Bordin, Luciana; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio

    2017-04-01

    Persistent amenorrhea is a frequent condition affecting anorexic patients after stable weight recovery. It has been proposed that it could be due to alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis linked with persistent hormonal impairments, such as relative hypercortisolemia and hypoleptinemia, and psychological symptoms related to anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of our study was to evaluate the metabolic and hormonal pattern involved in the persistence of amenorrhea after recovery from AN. Eight weight-recovered anorexic patients with amenorrhea were investigated and matched with 10 healthy eumenorrhoic women, comparable for age and BMI. Data showed basal FSH and LH values similar in both groups and a normal pituitaric response to LHRH administration. Morning serum cortisol was normal but significantly higher in patients, while dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) to cortisol ratio, leptin and vitamin D were significantly lower in patients than controls. Women with previous AN presented insulin resistance and two patients showed an overall picture consistent with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In conclusion, long-lasting amenorrhea after recovery from AN is linked with a persistent hypothalamic dysfunction, although other concomitant causes like PCOS and insulin resistance should be considered. Decreased DHEAS to cortisol ratio is a new finding which could be correlated to the persistent hypogonadism.

  11. Decreased Urinary Sodium-to-urinary Creatinine Ratio Identifies Sodium Depletion in Pediatric Acute Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz-Erian, P; Akdar, Z; Haerter, B; Waldegger, S; Giner, T; Scholl-Bürgi, S; Mueller, T

    2016-01-01

    In acute gastroenteritis (AG) fecal losses may cause depletion of sodium (NaD) which may not be recognized because of normal plasma Na (pNa) concentrations. We studied the incidence of this state of normonatremic sodium depletion (NNaD) and the suitability of the urinary Na/urinary creatinine ratio (uNa/uCr) for diagnosing NNaD. 16 AG- and 16 healthy control children aged 0.8-15.0 years. Prospective cross sectional pilot study. Measurements of Na, K and creatinine in plasma (p) and urine (u). Calculation of uNa/uCr Ratio, fractional excretion of Na (FENa) and uNa/uK ratio as the hitherto best known parameters of prerenal Na depletion, respectively. pNa concentrations were normal in 15/16 AG patients (93.8%) with only one subnormal value of 133 mmol/L, and a mean value of 137.9±2.3 mmol/L not different from the normal control group (139.4±2.2 mmol/L). Also, mean uNa concentrations and uNa/uK ratios did not differ between both groups. However, uNa/uCr ratios were below normal in 13/16 AG children (81.3%) but normal in all healthy controls with a significantly lower mean value in the AG group (12.6±8.8 vs. 31.2±8.3 mmol/mmol; phigh correlation coefficient of r=0.9333. The majority of AG patients was found to have NNaD as determined by uNa/uCr and FENa. Calculation of uNa/uCr may be useful for diagnosing NNaD in AG. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. A high plasma: red blood cell transfusion ratio during liver transplantation is associated with decreased blood utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, M B; Metcalf, R A; Hess, J R; Reyes, J; Perkins, J D; Montenovo, M I

    2018-04-01

    During massive transfusion, the volume ratio of administered plasma (PL Vol) to red blood cell (RBC Vol) appears to be associated with reduced blood utilization and improved survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal component ratio in the setting of liver transplantation. This is a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent liver transplantation and received at least 500 ml of red blood cells from January 2013 through December 2015. Kernel smoothing analysis determined the proper component ratios to evaluate were a ≥0·85:1 ratio (high) to a ≤0·85:1 ratio (low). Two groups, plasma volume to RBC volume (PL Vol/RBC Vol) and plasma contained in the platelet units added to the plasma calculation [PL + PLT (platelet)] Vol/RBC Vol, were used to evaluate the component ratios. A total of 188 patients were included in the analysis. In the PL Vol/RBC Vol evaluation, a low ratio revealed that 1238 ml (977-1653 ml) (P ratio, in the univariable and multivariable analysis, respectively. In the PL +PLT Vol/RBC Vol evaluation, a low ratio used 734 ml (193-1275) (P = 0·008) and 886 ml (431-1340) (P ratio in the univariable and multivariable analysis, respectively. In patients undergoing liver transplantation, the transfusion of plasma to RBC ratio ≥0·85 was associated with decreased need of RBC transfusions. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  13. National, regional, and global sex ratios of infant, child, and under-5 mortality and identification of countries with outlying ratios: a systematic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkema, Leontine; Chao, Fengqing; You, Danzhen; Pedersen, Jon; Sawyer, Cheryl C

    2014-09-01

    Under natural circumstances, the sex ratio of male to female mortality up to the age of 5 years is greater than one but sex discrimination can change sex ratios. The estimation of mortality by sex and identification of countries with outlying levels is challenging because of issues with data availability and quality, and because sex ratios might vary naturally based on differences in mortality levels and associated cause of death distributions. For this systematic analysis, we estimated country-specific mortality sex ratios for infants, children aged 1-4 years, and children under the age of 5 years (under 5s) for all countries from 1990 (or the earliest year of data collection) to 2012 using a Bayesian hierarchical time series model, accounting for various data quality issues and assessing the uncertainty in sex ratios. We simultaneously estimated the global relation between sex ratios and mortality levels and constructed estimates of expected and excess female mortality rates to identify countries with outlying sex ratios. Global sex ratios in 2012 were 1·13 (90% uncertainty interval 1·12-1·15) for infants, 0·95 (0·93-0·97) for children aged 1-5 years, and 1·08 (1·07-1·09) for under 5s, an increase since 1990 of 0·01 (-0·01 to 0·02) for infants, 0·04 (0·02 to 0·06) for children aged 1-4 years, and 0·02 (0·01 to 0·04) for under 5s. Levels and trends varied across regions and countries. Sex ratios were lowest in southern Asia for 1990 and 2012 for all age groups. Highest sex ratios were seen in developed regions and the Caucasus and central Asia region. Decreasing mortality was associated with increasing sex ratios, except at very low infant mortality, where sex ratios decreased with total mortality. For 2012, we identified 15 countries with outlying under-5 sex ratios, of which ten countries had female mortality higher than expected (Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Iran, Jordan, Nepal, and Pakistan). Although excess female

  14. High fat diet prevents over-crowding induced decrease of sex ratio in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Shivajirao Dama

    Full Text Available Adaptive theory predicts that mothers would be advantaged by adjusting the sex ratio of their offspring in relation to their offspring's future reproductive success. In the present study, we tested the effect of housing mice under crowded condition on the sex ratio and whether the fat content of the diet has any influence on the outcome of pregnancies. Three-week-old mice were placed on the control diet (NFD for 3 weeks. Thereafter the mice were allotted randomly to two groups of 7 cages each with 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 mice in every cage to create increasing crowding gradient and fed either NFD or high fat diet (HFD. After 4 weeks, dams were bred and outcomes of pregnancy were analyzed. The average dam body weight (DBW at conception, litter size (LS and SR were significantly higher in HFD fed dams. Further, male biased litters declined with increasing crowding in NFD group but not in HFD. The LS and SR in NFD declined significantly with increasing crowding, whereas only LS was reduced in HFD group. We conclude that female mice housed under overcrowding conditions shift offspring SR in favor of daughters in consistent with the TW hypothesis and high fat diet reduces this influence of overcrowding.

  15. Ethanol does not delay muscle recovery but decreases testosterone/cortisol ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugvad, Anders; Haugvad, Lars; Hamarsland, Håvard; Paulsen, Gøran

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of ethanol consumption on recovery from traditional resistance exercise in recreationally trained individuals. Nine recreationally trained volunteers (eight males and one female, 26 ± 4 yr, 81 ± 4 kg) conducted four resistance exercise sessions and consumed a low (0.6 (females) and 0.7 (males) g · kg(-1) body mass) or a high dose (1.2 or 1.4 g · kg(-1) body mass) of ethanol 1-2.5 h after exercise on two occasions. The first session was for familiarization with the tests and exercises and was performed without ethanol consumption. As a control trial, alcohol-free drinks were consumed after the exercise session. The sequence of trials, with low and high ethanol doses and alcohol-free drinks (control), was randomized. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) (knee extension), electrically stimulated contractions (knee extension), squat jumps, and hand grip strength were assessed 10-15 min and 12 and 24 h after the ethanol/placebo drinks. In addition to a baseline sample, blood was collected 1, 12, and 24 h after the ethanol/placebo drinks. The exercise session comprised 4 × 8 repetition maximum of squats, leg presses, and knee extensions. MVC were reduced by 13%-15% immediately after the exercise sessions (P squat jump performance were recovered 24 h after ethanol drinks. MVC was not fully recovered at 24 h in the control trial. Compared with those in the control, cortisol increased and the free testosterone/cortisol ratio were reduced after the high ethanol dose (P < 0.01). Neither a low nor a high dose of ethanol adversely affected recovery of muscle function after resistance exercise in recreationally strength-trained individuals. However, the increased cortisol levels and reduced testosterone/cortisol ratio after the high ethanol dose could translate into long-term negative effects.

  16. Measurement of Radiocesium Decreasing Ratios in Some Crops after Food Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-7444 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Radiocesium concentrations in foods are of great concern after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident to avoid receiving additional dose. Food monitoring has been carried out and, if there is any food exceeding the standard limit of 100 Bq/kg of radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs+{sup 137}Cs), the food name together with the producing district has been reported immediately by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Every month, about 20,000 samples have been measured their radioactivities, and the most recent data of August 2013 showed that only foods from wild sometimes exceeds the standard limits. However, public people worry about the radiocesium concentrations in foods, although the value were lower than 100 Bq/kg; and thus, one of their concerns is still how to remove radiocesium from foods. Unfortunately, however, there were not so many data for crops common in Japan before the FDNPP accident. To provide more data, we've been collecting data. Samples were obtained from wild, that is, mugwort, giant butter-bur, young bamboo shoot and chestnut, collected in Chiba or Fukushima Prefectures in Japan in 2013. Mugwort and giant butter-bur samples were separated into three portions to make raw, washed and boiled (2.5 min) samples. Young bamboo shoot and chestnut samples were separated into two portions to make raw and boiled sub-samples. All samples were oven-dried at 80 deg. C and each sample was pulverized and mixed well. After transfer the sample to a plastic container, the radioactivity concentration was measured by a Ge detecting system. The results showed that radiocesium concentrations after boiling decreased by 50-60% for mugwort (n=3), 15-40% for petioles of giant butter-bur (n=3), 20-35% for young bamboo shoot (n=7), and 0-20% for chestnut (n=3). These data were compared with recently reported values collected in Japan complied by Radioactive Waste management Funding and Research Center (2013), and our data were within the range of

  17. Systematic design of 3D auxetic lattice materials with programmable Poisson's ratio for finite strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengwen

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach for designing 3D auxetic lattice materials, which exhibit constant negative Poisson's ratios over large strain intervals. A unit cell model mimicking tensile tests is established and based on the proposed model, the secant Poisson's ratio is defined as the negative ratio between the lateral and the longitudinal engineering strains. The optimization problem for designing a material unit cell with a target Poisson's ratio is formulated to minimize the average lateral engineering stresses under the prescribed deformations. Numerical results demonstrate that 3D auxetic lattice materials with constant Poisson's ratios can be achieved by the proposed optimization formulation and that two sets of material architectures are obtained by imposing different symmetry on the unit cell. Moreover, inspired by the topology-optimized material architecture, a subsequent shape optimization is proposed by parametrizing material architectures using super-ellipsoids. By designing two geometrical parameters, simple optimized material microstructures with different target Poisson's ratios are obtained. By interpolating these two parameters as polynomial functions of Poisson's ratios, material architectures for any Poisson's ratio in the interval of ν ∈ [ - 0.78 , 0.00 ] are explicitly presented. Numerical evaluations show that interpolated auxetic lattice materials exhibit constant Poisson's ratios in the target strain interval of [0.00, 0.20] and that 3D auxetic lattice material architectures with programmable Poisson's ratio are achievable.

  18. Cardiothoracic ratio for prediction of left ventricular dilation: a systematic review and pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomba, Rohit S; Shah, Parinda H; Nijhawan, Karan; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Arora, Rohit

    2015-03-01

    Increased cardiothoracic ratio noted on chest radiographs often prompts concern and further evaluation with additional imaging. This study pools available data assessing the utility of cardiothoracic ratio in predicting left ventricular dilation. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify studies comparing cardiothoracic ratio by chest x-ray to left ventricular dilation by echocardiography. Electronic databases were used to identify studies which were then assessed for quality and bias, with those with adequate quality and minimal bias ultimately being included in the pooled analysis. The pooled data were used to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of cardiomegaly in predicting left ventricular dilation. A total of six studies consisting of 466 patients were included in this analysis. Cardiothoracic ratio had 83.3% sensitivity, 45.4% specificity, 43.5% positive predictive value and 82.7% negative predictive value. When a secondary analysis was conducted with a pediatric study excluded, a total of five studies consisting of 371 patients were included. Cardiothoracic ratio had 86.2% sensitivity, 25.2% specificity, 42.5% positive predictive value and 74.0% negative predictive value. Cardiothoracic ratio as determined by chest radiograph is sensitive but not specific for identifying left ventricular dilation. Cardiothoracic ratio also has a strong negative predictive value for identifying left ventricular dilation.

  19. National, regional, and global sex ratios of infant, child, and under-5 mortality and identification of countries with outlying ratios: a systematic assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Alkema, Leontine; Chao, Fengqing; You, Danzhen; Pedersen, Jon; Sawyer, Cheryl C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Under natural circumstances, the sex ratio of male to female mortality up to the age of 5 years is greater than one but sex discrimination can change sex ratios. The estimation of mortality by sex and identification of countries with outlying levels is challenging because of issues with data availability and quality, and because sex ratios might vary naturally based on differences in mortality levels and associated cause of death distributions. Methods: For this systematic anal...

  20. Systematic discrepancies in Monte Carlo predictions of k-ratios emitted from thin films on substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statham, P; Llovet, X; Duncumb, P

    2012-01-01

    We have assessed the reliability of different Monte Carlo simulation programmes using the two available Bastin-Heijligers databases of thin-film measurements by EPMA. The MC simulation programmes tested include Curgenven-Duncumb MSMC, NISTMonte, Casino and PENELOPE. Plots of the ratio of calculated to measured k-ratios ('k calc /k meas ') against various parameters reveal error trends that are not apparent in simple error histograms. The results indicate that the MC programmes perform quite differently on the same dataset. However, they appear to show a similar pronounced trend with a 'hockey stick' shape in the 'k calc /k meas versus k meas ' plots. The most sophisticated programme PENELOPE gives the closest correspondence with experiment but still shows a tendency to underestimate experimental k-ratios by 10 % for films that are thin compared to the electron range. We have investigated potential causes for this systematic behaviour and extended the study to data not collected by Bastin and Heijligers.

  1. Exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination through decreasing the gibberellin/abscisic acid (GA/ABA) ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Haiwei; Meng, Yongjie; Luo, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feng; Zhou, Wenguan; Dai, Yujia; Qi, Ying; Du, Junbo; Yang, Feng; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Wenyu; Shu, Kai

    2017-10-03

    Auxin is an important phytohormone which mediates diverse development processes in plants. Published research has demonstrated that auxin induces seed dormancy. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the effect of auxin on seed germination need further investigation, especially the relationship between auxins and both abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs), the latter two phytohormones being the key regulators of seed germination. Here we report that exogenous auxin treatment represses soybean seed germination by enhancing ABA biosynthesis, while impairing GA biogenesis, and finally decreasing GA 1 /ABA and GA 4 /ABA ratios. Microscope observation showed that auxin treatment delayed rupture of the soybean seed coat and radicle protrusion. qPCR assay revealed that transcription of the genes involved in ABA biosynthetic pathway was up-regulated by application of auxin, while expression of genes involved in GA biosynthetic pathway was down-regulated. Accordingly, further phytohormone quantification shows that auxin significantly increased ABA content, whereas the active GA 1 and GA 4 levels were decreased, resulting insignificant decreases in the ratiosGA 1 /ABA and GA 4 /ABA.Consistent with this, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone reversed the delayed-germination phenotype associated with auxin treatment, while paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Altogether, exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination by mediating ABA and GA biosynthesis.

  2. Exhaustive Training Increases Uncoupling Protein 2 Expression and Decreases Bcl-2/Bax Ratio in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Y. Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the effects of oxidative stress due to exhaustive training on uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 and Bcl-2/Bax in rat skeletal muscles. A total of 18 Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group (CON, the trained control group (TC, and the exhaustive trained group (ET. Malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, xanthine oxidase (XOD, ATPase, UCP2, and Bcl-2/Bax ratio in red gastrocnemius muscles were measured. Exhaustive training induced ROS increase in red gastrocnemius muscles, which led to a decrease in the cell antiapoptotic ability (Bcl-2/Bax ratio. An increase in UCP2 expression can reduce ROS production and affect mitochondrial energy production. Thus, oxidative stress plays a significant role in overtraining.

  3. Do antibiotics decrease implant failure and postoperative infections? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata-Ali, J; Ata-Ali, F; Ata-Ali, F

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review and perform a comprehensive meta-analysis of the current literature to answer the following question: among patients receiving dental implants, does the use of antibiotics, when compared with a control group, reduce the frequency of implant failure and postoperative infection? A manual and electronic PubMed search of the literature was made to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy of antibiotics compared with a control group (not receiving antibiotics or receiving placebo). Four RCTs were included in the final review. These four RCTs grouped a total of 2063 implants and a total of 1002 patients. Antibiotic use significantly lowered the implant failure rate (P = 0.003), with an odds ratio of 0.331, implying that antibiotic treatment reduced the odds of failure by 66.9%. The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one patient from having an implant failure was 48 (95% confidence interval 31-109). In contrast, antibiotic use did not significantly reduce the incidence of postoperative infection (P = 0.754). Based on the results of this meta-analysis, and pending further research in the field, it can be concluded that there is evidence in favour of systematic antibiotic use in patients receiving dental implants, since such treatment significantly reduces implant failure. In contrast, antibiotic use does not exert a significant preventive effect against postoperative infection. Our recommendations for future research focus on the performance of large-scale RCTs to identify the best choice of antibiotic, timing of administration, and dose. Increased effort is also required to reach consensus and define the most effective antibiotic treatment protocol for patients who are allergic to beta-lactams and for those who are not. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic intermittent but not constant hypoxia decreases NAA/Cr ratios in neonatal mouse hippocampus and thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Robert M; Miyasaka, Naoyuki; Takahashi, Kan; Latuszek-Barrantes, Adrianna; Haddad, Gabriel G; Hetherington, Hoby P

    2007-03-01

    Chronic constant hypoxia (CCH) and chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) are known to have deleterious effects on the central nervous system. Because of the difference in the pattern of hypoxic exposure, it is possible that the pathological outcome would vary. The N-acetyl aspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr) ratio is a reliable marker of neuronal integrity, and this can be noninvasively measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. P2 CD1 mouse pups with their dams were exposed to either CCH, where the Fi(O(2)) was maintained at 11% continuously or to CIH, where the Fi(O(2)) was varied between 21 and 11% every 4 min. P30 mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia for 4 wk demonstrated a significant decrease in the NAA/Cr ratio in the hippocampus and thalamus, which was reversed by a subsequent exposure to 4 wk of normoxia. Meanwhile, mice exposed to 4 wk of constant hypoxia did not demonstrate any differences in their NAA/Cr ratios from controls in these brain regions. These results indicate that an intermittent pattern of hypoxic exposure may have a more adverse effect on neuronal function and integrity than a continuous one. The reversal of NAA/Cr levels to baseline during the return to normoxia indicates that therapeutic strategies targeted at alleviating the intermittent hypoxic stress in diseases, such as obstructive sleep apnea, have the potential for inducing significant neurocognitive recovery in these patients.

  5. The CD4+/CD8+ Ratio in Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Systematic and Meta-Analysis Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongmei; Qin, Jie; Dai, Yaping; Zeng, Fanwei; Pei, Hao; Wang, Jun

    2015-02-01

    The ratio of CD4+/CD8+ has been used as a clinically index to evaluate patients' immunity. Numerous researchers have studied CD4+/CD8+ ratio in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients. However, the change of CD4+/CD8+ ratio remains controversial. We present a meta-analysis of 15 case-control studies to identify the change of CD4+/CD8+ ratio in PTB patients. We assessed heterogeneity of effect estimates within each group using I(2) test. Subgroup analysis was performed to explore the potential source of heterogeneity. To investigate further the potential publication bias, we visually examined the funnel plots. For robustness of results, we performed sensitivity analysis by removing studies. Data entry and analyses were carried out with RevMan 5.2 (The Nordic Cochrane Centre). Twelve peripheral blood studies were categorized into two subgroups. Eight studies presented a significant decrease of CD4+/CD8+ ratio in PTB cases compared to healthy subjects (SMD: -0.45; 95% CI -0.65--0.25; I(2) = 7%). Other four studies researched on the newly diagnosed patients presented a more seriously and significantly decrease (SMD: -2.17; 95% CI -2.61--1.74; I(2) = 37%). The pooled analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) studies showed a significant increase of CD4+/CD8+ ratio using Flow Cytometry (FCM) (SMD: 4.75; 95% CI 3.44-6.05; I(2) =0%). The present meta-analysis indicated that there was a synthetic evidence for the reduced CD4+/CD8+ ratio in peripheral blood of PTB patients, especially newly diagnosed cases. However, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in BALF was increased using method of FCM.

  6. Prenatal cocaine exposure decreases parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons and GABA-to-projection neuron ratio in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Deirdre M; Bhide, Pradeep G

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine abuse during pregnancy produces harmful effects not only on the mother but also on the unborn child. The neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin are known as the principal targets of the action of cocaine in the fetal and postnatal brain. However, recent evidence suggests that cocaine can impair cerebral cortical GABA neuron development and function. We sought to analyze the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on the number and distribution of GABA and projection neurons (inhibitory interneurons and excitatory output neurons, respectively) in the mouse cerebral cortex. We found that the prenatal cocaine exposure decreased GABA neuron numbers and GABA-to-projection neuron ratio in the medial prefrontal cortex of 60-day-old mice. The neighboring prefrontal cortex did not show significant changes in either of these measures. However, there was a significant increase in projection neuron numbers in the prefrontal cortex but not in the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, the effects of cocaine on GABA and projection neurons appear to be cortical region specific. The population of parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABA neurons was decreased in the medial prefrontal cortex following the prenatal cocaine exposure. The cocaine exposure also delayed the developmental decline in the volume of the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, prenatal cocaine exposure produced persisting and region-specific effects on cortical cytoarchitecture and impaired the physiological balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. These structural changes may underlie the electrophysiological and behavioral effects of prenatal cocaine exposure observed in animal models and human subjects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. EXERCISES THAT FACILITATE OPTIMAL HAMSTRING AND QUADRICEPS CO-ACTIVATION TO HELP DECREASE ACL INJURY RISK IN HEALTHY FEMALES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedinsky, Rachel; Baker, Lindsey; Imbus, Samuel; Bowman, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is common among females due to many anatomic, hormonal, and neuromuscular risk factors. One modifiable risk factor that places females at increased risk of ACL injury is a poor hamstrings: quadriceps (H:Q) co-activation ratio, which should be 0.6 or greater in order to decrease the stress placed on the ACL. Exercises that produce more quadriceps dominant muscle activation can add to the tension placed upon the ACL, potentially increasing the risk of ACL injury. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of this systematic review was to compare quadriceps and hamstring muscle activation during common closed kinetic chain therapeutic exercises in healthy female knees to determine what exercises are able to produce adequate H:Q co-activation ratios. Study Design Systematic Review Methods Multiple online databases were systematically searched and screened for inclusion. Eight articles were identified for inclusion. Data on mean electromyography (EMG) activation of both quadriceps and hamstring muscles, % maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and H:Q co-activation ratios were extracted from the studies. Quality assessment was performed on all included studies. Results Exercises analyzed in the studies included variations of the double leg squat, variations of the single leg squat, lateral step-up, Fitter, Stairmaster® (Core Health and Fitness, Vancouver, WA), and slide board. All exercises, except the squat machine with posterior support at the level of the scapula and feet placed 50 cm in front of the hips, produced higher quadriceps muscle activation compared to hamstring muscle activation. Conclusion Overall, two leg squats demonstrate poor H:Q co-activation ratios. Single leg exercises, when performed between 30 and 90 degrees of knee flexion, produce adequate H:Q ratios, thereby potentially reducing the risk of tensile stress on the ACL and ACL injury. Level of Evidence 2a- Systematic Review of Cohort Studies PMID

  8. Systematic approach to peak-to-average power ratio in OFDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurgers, Curt

    2001-11-01

    OFDM multicarrier systems support high data rate wireless transmission using orthogonal frequency channels, and require no extensive equalization, yet offer excellent immunity against fading and inter-symbol interference. The major drawback of these systems is the large Peak-to-Average power Ratio (PAR) of the transmit signal, which renders a straightforward implementation very costly and inefficient. Existing approaches that attack this PAR issue are abundant, but no systematic framework or comparison between them exist to date. They sometimes even differ in the problem definition itself and consequently in the basic approach to follow. In this work, we provide a systematic approach that resolves this ambiguity and spans the existing PAR solutions. The basis of our framework is the observation that efficient system implementations require a reduced signal dynamic range. This range reduction can be modeled as a hard limiting, also referred to as clipping, where the extra distortion has to be considered as part of the total noise tradeoff. We illustrate that the different PAR solutions manipulate this tradeoff in alternative ways in order to improve the performance. Furthermore, we discuss and compare a broad range of such techniques and organize them into three classes: block coding, clip effect transformation and probabilistic.

  9. Does antibiotic prophylaxis at implant placement decrease early implant failures? A Cochrane systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marco; Grusovin, Maria Gabriella; Loli, Vasiliki; Coulthard, Paul; Worthington, Helen V

    2010-01-01

    Marco Esposito is the first author of two of the included studies; however, he was not involved in the quality assessment of these trials. This review is based on a Cochrane systematic review entitled 'Interventions for replacing missing teeth: antibiotics at dental implant placement to prevent complications' published in The Cochrane Library (see http://www.cochrane.org for more information). Cochrane systematic reviews are regularly updated to include new research, and in response to comments and criticisms from readers. If you wish to comment on this review, please send your comments to the Cochrane website or to Marco Esposito. The Cochrane Library should be consulted for the most recent version of the review. The results of a Cochrane Review can be interpreted differently, depending on people's perspectives and circumstances. Please consider the conclusions presented carefully. They are the opinions of the review authors, and are not necessarily shared by the Cochrane Collaboration. To assess the beneficial or harmful effects of systemic prophylactic antibiotics at dental implant placement versus no antibiotic/placebo administration and, if antibiotics are of benefit, to find which type, dosage and duration is the most effective. The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched up to 2 June 2010 for randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) with a follow-up of at least 3 months comparing the administration of various prophylactic antibiotic regimens versus no antibiotics to patients undergoing dental implant placement. Outcome measures were prosthesis failures, implant failures, postoperative infections and adverse events (gastrointestinal, hypersensitivity, etc.). Screening of eligible studies, assessment of the methodological quality of the trials and data extraction were conducted in duplicate and independently by two review authors. Meta-analyses were

  10. Decreasing the roughage:concentrate ratio of a diet to determine the critical roughage part for beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campeneere, S; Fiems, L O; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M; De Brabander, D L

    2002-02-01

    The critical roughage part (CRP) of 2 diet types was determined in a cross-over design with 6 double-muscled and 6 normally conformed Belgian Blue bulls fitted with rumen cannulae. The roughage:concentrate ratio was lowered weekly until signs of a lack of physical structure were observed. For diet 1, consisting of maize silage and concentrates, the initial proportion of maize silage was 25% of DM but it decreased weekly with 5% units of DM. For the second diet, consisting of wheat straw and concentrate, 12% straw (DM basis) was provided during the first week and thereafter the proportion of straw decreased weekly with 3% units of DM. Several directly observable parameters (rumen pH, feed intake, bloat, faecal consistency) were evaluated weekly for each bull. Apart from these direct indicators of acidosis, also other parameters, whose results were only available after the end of the trial, were determined (volatile fatty acid profile, lactic acid concentration, chewing time). The roughage part between the part fed when signs of a lack of physical structure was first observed and the part that was fed the week before, was considered as the CRP. Most animals showed no acute signs of clinical acidosis (directly observable parameters) and finished the trial on a 100% concentrate diet. However, in sacco rumen DM-degradabilities of maize silage, grass silage and wheat grain was depressed considerably when low roughage diets were fed. Based on all observed parameters, the mean CRP was calculated to be 14.7% for diet 1 and 8.1% for diet 2. The beef type (double-muscled or not) had no influence on the CRP.

  11. Interventions for preventing, delaying the onset, or decreasing the burden of frailty: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael G; Béland, François; Julien, Dominic; Gauvin, Lise; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Roy, Denis; Campbell, Kaitryn; Comeau, Donna G; Davidson, Heather; Raina, Parminder; Sattler, Deborah; Vrkljan, Brenda

    2015-09-25

    Many systematic reviews have evaluated the effectiveness of interventions to prevent, delay, or decrease frailty symptoms, but no effort has been made to identify, map, and synthesize the findings from reviews across the full spectrum of interventions. Our objectives are to (1) synthesize findings from all existing systematic reviews evaluating interventions for preventing, delaying the onset, or decreasing the burden of frailty symptoms; (2) examine different conceptualizations of frailty that have been used in the development and implementation of interventions; and (3) inform policy by convening a stakeholder dialogue with Canadian health-system leaders. We will conduct an overview of systematic reviews to identify and synthesize all of the systematic reviews addressing interventions to preventing, delaying the onset, or decreasing the burden of frailty symptoms. To identify relevant systematic reviews, we will conduct database searches for published and grey literature as well as contact key experts and search reference lists of included reviews. Two reviewers will independently review all search results for inclusion and then conceptually map, extract key findings (including the conceptualization/definition of frailty used) and assess the methodological quality of all included reviews. We will then synthesize the findings by producing a 'gap map' (i.e. mapping reviews in a matrix according to the interventions and outcomes assessed), and narratively synthesize the key messages across reviews related to type of interventions. Following the completion of the synthesis, we will use the findings to develop an evidence brief that mobilizes the best available evidence about the problem related to preventing, delaying the onset, or decreasing the burden of frailty symptoms in older adults, policy and programmatic options to address the problem and implementation considerations. The evidence brief will then be used as the input into a stakeholder dialogue, which will

  12. Cochrane systematic reviews are useful to map research gaps for decreasing maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Evelina; Reveiz, Ludovic; Chambliss, Amy; Sangalang, Stephanie; Bonfill, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    To use an "evidence-mapping" approach to assess the usefulness of Cochrane reviews in identifying research gaps in the maternal health. The article describes the general mapping, prioritizing, reconciling, and updating approach: (1) identifying gaps in the maternal health research using published systematic reviews and formulating research questions, (2) prioritizing questions using Delphi method, (3) reconciling identified research priorities with the existing literature (i.e., searching of ongoing trials in trials registries), (4) updating the process. A comprehensive search of Cochrane systematic reviews published or updated from January 2006 to March 2011 was performed. We evaluated the "Implications for Research" section to identify gaps in the research. Our search strategy identified 695 references; 178 systematic reviews identifying at least one research gap were used. We formulated 319 research questions, which were classified into 11 different categories based on the direct and indirect causes of maternal mortality: postpartum hemorrhage, abortion, hypertensive disorders, infection/sepsis, caesarean section, diabetes, pregnancy prevention, preterm labor, other direct causes, indirect causes, and health policies and systems. Most research questions concerned the effectiveness of clinical interventions, including drugs (42.6%), nonpharmacologic interventions (16.3%), and health system (14.7%). It is possible to identify gaps in the maternal health research by using this approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in biliary tract cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haowen; Lu, Wenping; Li, Bingmin; Li, Chonghui; Xu, Yinzhe; Dong, Jiahong

    2017-05-30

    Inflammation was considered to perform crucial roles in the development and metastasis of malignancies. A heightened neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio has been described to be associated with detrimental survivals in different malignancies. Debate remains over the impact of heightened neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio on survivals in biliary tract cancer. The review evaluated the prognostic value of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in biliary tract cancer. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and the Chinese SinoMed were systematically searched for relevant articles. Associations between neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and long-term outcomes were expressed as the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The odds ratio was utilized to assess the association between neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and clinicopathological parameters. Fourteen studies consisting of 3217 patients were analyzed: 1278 (39.73%) in the high pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio group and 1939 (60.27%) in the low pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio one. The results proved that heightened pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was significantly associated with detrimental overall survival and relapse free survival for biliary tract cancer patients. In addition, elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was positively correlated with higher carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels, advanced TNM staging and greater lymph node involvement. This meta-analysis marked that an increased pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was significantly linked with detrimental long-term outcomes and clinicopathological parameters for patients with biliary tract cancer.

  14. Decrease in N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the motor area and the frontal lobe in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Takanashi, M.; Yanagihara, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Fujita, N.; Hirabuki, N.

    2001-01-01

    We studied whether N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a neuronal marker, is reduced in the brain of 14 patients with clinically definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and whether NAA levels in the motor area and frontal lobe correlate with the clinical features, including frontal lobe function. We also studied 14 normal controls were evaluated. We obtained peak integrals in 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for NAA, creatine (Cr), and choline-containing compounds (Cho). Severity of the disease was determined using the manual muscle strength test, and the Norris limb and bulbar scales. In the patients, the NAA/Cr ratio was reduced in the motor area and frontal lobe, while the Cho/Cr ratio was normal throughout the brain. There were significant correlations between the NAA/Cr ratio in the motor area and the Norris limb scale (r = 0.50; P < 0.01) and between the NAA/Cr ratio in the frontal lobe and the number of categories achieved in the Wisconsin Card Sorting test (r = 0.71; P < 0.05), implying frontal lobe dysfunction. These correlations suggest that a reduced NAA/Cr ratio is a marker of cortical neuronal loss and dysfunction in ALS. (orig.)

  15. Decrease in N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the motor area and the frontal lobe in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K.; Takanashi, M.; Yanagihara, T. [Dept. of Neurology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Watanabe, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Fujita, N.; Hirabuki, N. [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    We studied whether N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a neuronal marker, is reduced in the brain of 14 patients with clinically definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and whether NAA levels in the motor area and frontal lobe correlate with the clinical features, including frontal lobe function. We also studied 14 normal controls were evaluated. We obtained peak integrals in {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for NAA, creatine (Cr), and choline-containing compounds (Cho). Severity of the disease was determined using the manual muscle strength test, and the Norris limb and bulbar scales. In the patients, the NAA/Cr ratio was reduced in the motor area and frontal lobe, while the Cho/Cr ratio was normal throughout the brain. There were significant correlations between the NAA/Cr ratio in the motor area and the Norris limb scale (r = 0.50; P < 0.01) and between the NAA/Cr ratio in the frontal lobe and the number of categories achieved in the Wisconsin Card Sorting test (r = 0.71; P < 0.05), implying frontal lobe dysfunction. These correlations suggest that a reduced NAA/Cr ratio is a marker of cortical neuronal loss and dysfunction in ALS. (orig.)

  16. Initiation of glucose-lowering treatment decreases international normalized ratio levels among users of vitamin K antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Pottegård, Anton; Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard

    2016-01-01

    -lowering treatment affects international normalized ratio (INR) and dose requirements of the anticoagulant VKAs warfarin and phenprocoumon. PATIENTS/METHODS: We performed a self-controlled retrospective register-based study. A total of 118 patients initiating glucose-lowering treatment while being treated......-lowering treatment reduces the anticoagulant effect of VKA to an extent that is likely to be clinically relevant. This finding needs confirmation and mechanistic explanation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. The effectiveness of workplace interventions to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviour in adults: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loitz, Christina C; Potter, Robert J; Walker, Jessica L; McLeod, Nicole C; Johnston, Nora J

    2015-12-12

    A physically active lifestyle plays a preventative role in the development of various chronic diseases and mental health conditions. Unfortunately, few adults achieve the minimum amount of physical activity and spend excessive time sitting. Developing targeted interventions to increase active living among adults is an important endeavour for public health. One plausible context to reach adults is the workplace. This systematic review aims to review the effectiveness of workplace interventions on increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary behaviour in the workplace. An advisory group of practitioners will work in collaboration with the research team to inform the systematic review and knowledge mobilization. Fifteen electronic databases will be searched to identify studies examining the effectiveness of workplace interventions on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. All experimental designs and observational studies (non-experimental intervention studies) meeting the study criteria will be included. Studies examining generally healthy, employed, adult participants will be included for the review. Interventions will focus on increasing physical activity and/or decreasing sedentary behaviour from the individual to policy level. The primary outcome variables will be reported or observed physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour in the workplace. Secondary outcomes will include variables ranging from return on investment to quality of life. Study quality will be assessed for risk of bias following the protocol identified in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and supplemented by the guidelines developed by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care group, using RevMan. The quality of the evidence will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Meta-analyses, forest plots, and harvest plots will be used where appropriate to assess the direction, size, and

  18. Relation between Nd2Fe14B grain alignment and coercive force decrease ratio in NdFeB sintered magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Yutaka; Hoshijima, Jun; Ishii, Rintaro

    2013-01-01

    It was found that the coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets decreases as the Nd 2 Fe 14 B grain alignment improves. Because of this phenomenon, studies looked at the relation between this alignment and the coercive force decrease ratio. In experiments, it was expected that the coercive force of perfectly aligned magnet reached 0.7 of coercive force in istotropically aligned magnet. When it is postulated that the coercive force is determined by the Stoner–Wohlfarth model, coercive force increases as the alignment improves and it becomes difficult to explain our experimental data. On the other hand, when the coercive force is determined by magnetic domain wall motion, the coercive force decreases as the alignment improves and the coercive force of the perfectly aligned magnet reaches 1/√(2) of the isotropically aligned magnet. This tendency and value was very close to our data. It strongly suggests that the coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets is determined by the domain wall motion. - Highlights: ► Coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets decreases as grains alignment improves. ► Coercive force decrease ratio reaches −30% at the perfect aligned magnet. ►These experimental results are different from the Stoner–Wohlfarth model. ► The magnetic domain wall motion could explain this coercive force decrease ratio

  19. Relation between Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grain alignment and coercive force decrease ratio in NdFeB sintered magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Yutaka, E-mail: Yutaka_Matsuura@hitachi-metals.co.jp [Hitachi Metals Ltd., NEOMAX Division, 2-15-17 Egawa, Shimamoto-cho, Mishima-gun, Osaka 618-0013 (Japan); Hoshijima, Jun; Ishii, Rintaro [Hitachi Metals Ltd., NEOMAX Division, 2-15-17 Egawa, Shimamoto-cho, Mishima-gun, Osaka 618-0013 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    It was found that the coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets decreases as the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grain alignment improves. Because of this phenomenon, studies looked at the relation between this alignment and the coercive force decrease ratio. In experiments, it was expected that the coercive force of perfectly aligned magnet reached 0.7 of coercive force in istotropically aligned magnet. When it is postulated that the coercive force is determined by the Stoner–Wohlfarth model, coercive force increases as the alignment improves and it becomes difficult to explain our experimental data. On the other hand, when the coercive force is determined by magnetic domain wall motion, the coercive force decreases as the alignment improves and the coercive force of the perfectly aligned magnet reaches 1/√(2) of the isotropically aligned magnet. This tendency and value was very close to our data. It strongly suggests that the coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets is determined by the domain wall motion. - Highlights: ► Coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets decreases as grains alignment improves. ► Coercive force decrease ratio reaches −30% at the perfect aligned magnet. ►These experimental results are different from the Stoner–Wohlfarth model. ► The magnetic domain wall motion could explain this coercive force decrease ratio.

  20. Prognostic value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio in acute pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Ma, Junfen; Jiang, Zhiyun; Ming, Liang

    2018-02-01

    Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been reported to predict prognosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the prognostic value of NLR and PLR remained inconsistent between studies. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the prognostic role of NLR and PLR in acute PE. We systematically searched Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science and CNKI for relative literature up to March 2017. The pooled statistics for all outcomes were expressed as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The statistical analyses were performed using Review Manager 5.3.5 analysis software and Stata software. Totally 7 eligible studies consisting of 2323 patients were enrolled in our meta-analysis. Elevated NLR was significantly associated with overall (short-term and long-term) mortality (OR 10.13, 95% CI 6.57-15.64, Panalysis revealed that NLR and PLR are promising biomarkers in predicting prognosis in acute PE patients. We suggest NLR and PLR be used routinely in the PE prognostic assessment.

  1. Increased errors and decreased performance at night: A systematic review of the evidence concerning shift work and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cordova, Pamela B; Bradford, Michelle A; Stone, Patricia W

    2016-02-15

    Shift workers have worse health outcomes than employees who work standard business hours. However, it is unclear how this poorer health shift may be related to employee work productivity. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the relationship between shift work and errors and performance. Searches of MEDLINE/PubMed, EBSCOhost, and CINAHL were conducted to identify articles that examined the relationship between shift work, errors, quality, productivity, and performance. All articles were assessed for study quality. A total of 435 abstracts were screened with 13 meeting inclusion criteria. Eight studies were rated to be of strong, methodological quality. Nine studies demonstrated a positive relationship that night shift workers committed more errors and had decreased performance. Night shift workers have worse health that may contribute to errors and decreased performance in the workplace.

  2. Diets Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids With Different Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio Decrease Liver Content of Saturated Fatty Acids Across Generations of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Halfen

    Full Text Available Our study evaluated how the consumption of diets with low (LOW group - 0.4/1 or high (CON group - 13.6/1 omega-6/omega-3 ratio across generations (F1 and F2 can modulate liver fatty acid (FA profile and blood biomarkers. Liver content of α-linolenic acid was higher in animals always fed with LOW diet than animals that changed from CON to LOW diet, which by your time was higher than animals always fed with CON diet. Liver saturated FA concentration decreased in both groups from F1 to F2. In conclusion, both diets were efficient in decreasing the saturated FA liver content across generations, the LOW ratio diet was more effective in reducing blood triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids, and there was a multigenerational effect of the LOW ratio diet, improving the FA profile even when the offspring start receiving the CON diet.

  3. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor decreases the Th1/Th2 ratio in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Fei; Zhang, Zhuo; Hou, Jinxiao; Cao, Fenglin; Zhang, Yingmei; Wang, Ping; Wei, Hong; Zhou, Jin

    2016-12-01

    Chronic immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disease that exhibits an abnormally high Th1/Th2 ratio. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been shown to decrease the Th1/Th2 ratio in healthy donors. In this study, we investigated the effects of G-CSF treatment on the Th1/Th2 cells and the underlying mechanisms in patients with ITP in vitro. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from patients with ITP and healthy controls were treated with G-CSF. Expression levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-13 in supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The expression of IFN-γ, IL-4, and G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) on Th1 and Th2 cells were examined by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The mRNA expression of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-13, and T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet) and GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA-3) in PBMCs was evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that G-CSF could significantly reduce the Th1/Th2 ratio in PBMCs from patients with ITP in vitro. As the concentration of G-CSF increased, Th1/Th2 ([IFN-γ+IL-2]/[IL-4+IL-13]) cytokine ratios and T-bet/GATA-3 mRNA ratios decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. Th1 cells and Th2 cells both expressed G-CSFR. These results suggest that G-CSF could decrease the Th1/Th2 ratio in the context of ITP, and elucidate the direct and indirect immunomodulatory mechanisms underlying G-CSF functions in Th1/Th2 cells, thus supporting the therapeutic potential of G-CSF in the treatment of patients with ITP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cinnamic acid-inhibited ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity is mediated through decreased spermine and changes in the ratio of polyamines in cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xingxue; Bie, Zhilong

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cinnamic acid (CA) on ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC) activity and the endogenous polyamine levels of cowpea leaves. The results show that 0.1 mM CA treatment decreased photosynthetic rate (P(n)) and RuBPC activity, but it did not affect the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (F(v)/F(m)), the actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (PhiPSII), intercellular CO(2) concentration (C(i)), and relative chlorophyll content. These suggest that the decrease in P(n) is at least partially attributed to a lowered RuBPC activity. In addition, 0.1 mM CA treatment increased the putrescine (Put) level, but decreased spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) levels, thereby reducing the (Spd+Spm)/Put (PAs) ratio in the leaves. The exogenous application of 1 mM Spd markedly reversed these CA-induced effects for polyamine and partially restored the PAs ratio and RuBPC activity in leaves. Methylglyoxal-bis (guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), which is an inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), results in the inability of activated cells to synthesize Spd and exacerbates the negative effects induced by CA. The exogenous application of 1 mM D-arginine (D-Arg), which is an inhibitor of Put biosynthesis, decreased the levels of Put, but increased the PAs ratio and RuBPC activity in leaves. These results suggest that 0.1 mM CA inhibits RuBPC activity by decreasing the levels of endogenous free and perchloric acid soluble (PS) conjugated Spm, as well as the PAs ratio.

  5. Fixed ratio combinations of glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists with basal insulin: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakopoulou, Paraskevi; Liakos, Aris; Vasilakou, Despoina; Athanasiadou, Eleni; Bekiari, Eleni; Kazakos, Kyriakos; Tsapas, Apostolos

    2017-06-01

    Basal insulin controls primarily fasting plasma glucose but causes hypoglycaemia and weight gain, whilst glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists induce weight loss without increasing risk for hypoglycaemia. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to investigate the efficacy and safety of fixed ratio combinations of basal insulin with glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists. We searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library as well as conference abstracts up to December 2016. We assessed change in haemoglobin A 1c , body weight, and incidence of hypoglycaemia and gastrointestinal adverse events. We included eight studies with 5732 participants in the systematic review. Switch from basal insulin to fixed ratio combinations with a glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonist was associated with 0.72% reduction in haemoglobin A 1c [95% confidence interval -1.03 to -0.41; I 2  = 93%] and 2.35 kg reduction in body weight (95% confidence interval -3.52 to -1.19; I 2  = 93%), reducing also risk for hypoglycaemia [odds ratio 0.70; 95% confidence interval 0.57 to 0.86; I 2  = 85%] but increasing incidence of nausea (odds ratio 6.89; 95% confidence interval 3.73-12.74; I 2  = 79%). Similarly, switching patients from treatment with a glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonist to a fixed ratio combination with basal insulin was associated with 0.94% reduction in haemoglobin A 1c (95% confidence interval -1.11 to -0.77) and an increase in body weight by 2.89 kg (95% confidence interval 2.17-3.61). Fixed ratio combinations of basal insulin with glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists improve glycaemic control whilst balancing out risk for hypoglycaemia and gastrointestinal side effects.

  6. Leydig cell micronodules are a common finding in testicular biopsies from men with impaired spermatogenesis and are associated with decreased testosterone/LH ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Mette; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2003-01-01

    To assess the biological significance of Leydig cell 'hyperplasia' in man, Leydig cell distribution, volume, and function were studied in patients with infertility or testicular cancer and in suddenly deceased controls. A total of 156 biopsies from 95 patients and 18 necropsies from 13 controls......), and were rare in testes from controls (median = 0, p = 0.02). The proportion of testicular tissue occupied by Leydig cells increased with decreasing spermatogenic capacity. In contrast, the total volume of Leydig cells per testis was roughly comparable irrespective of the histological pattern...... in the hyperstimulated testes, as reflected by an increased LH/testosterone ratio. In conclusion, Leydig cell micronodules were more frequent in biopsies with impaired spermatogenesis and associated with decreased ratios of testicular hormones to gonadotrophins. The presence of micronodules thus seems...

  7. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Lei; Pang, Yun-Wei; Gao, Hong-Mei; Tao, Li; Miao, Kai; Wu, Zhong-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. ► fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. ► fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  8. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Lei, E-mail: anleim@yahoo.com.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Pang, Yun-Wei, E-mail: yunweipang@126.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Gao, Hong-Mei, E-mail: Gaohongmei_123@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Research Unit for Animal Life Sciences, Animal Resource Science Center, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki-Iwama 319-0206 (Japan); Tao, Li, E-mail: Eunice8023@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118 (China); Miao, Kai, E-mail: miaokai7@163.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wu, Zhong-Hong, E-mail: wuzhh@cau.edu.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); and others

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  9. The Association of Digit Ratio (2D : 4D) with Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunevicius, Adomas

    2018-01-01

    Intrauterine sex hormone environment as indicated by the second to the fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D) can be associated with cancer risk. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association of 2D : 4D with cancer diagnosis, malignancy, and age at presentation. Studies that evaluated the association of 2D : 4D with cancer risk were collected from Pubmed/MEDLINE and Clarivate Analytics databases. Nineteen studies were included in the qualitative analysis. The 2D : 4D ratio was studied in prostate cancer, breast cancer, testicular cancer, gastric cancer, oral cancer, brain tumors, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Low 2D : 4D was associated with prostate cancer, gastric cancer, and brain tumors, while high 2D : 4D, with breast cancer risk and cervical dysplasia. The 2D : 4D ratio was not associated with prostate, breast, and gastric cancer stage. Greater 2D : 4D ratio was associated with younger presentation of breast cancer and brain tumors. The meta-analyses demonstrated that testicular cancer was not associated with right-hand 2D : 4D ratio ( p = 0.74) and gastric cancer was not associated with right-hand ( p = 0.15) and left-hand ( p = 0.95) 2D : 4D ratio. Sex hormone environment during early development is associated with cancer risk later in life. Further studies exploring the link between intrauterine hormone environment and cancer risk are encouraged.

  10. Leydig cell micronodules are a common finding in testicular biopsies from men with impaired spermatogenesis and are associated with decreased testosterone/LH ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Mette; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2003-01-01

    were examined using a semi-quantitative stereological method. In patients, serum concentrations of testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), oestradiol and inhibin-B were correlated with the findings on histological examination......, with the exception of testes with bilateral micronodules, which had significantly increased Leydig cell volume compared to those without micronodules. The number of micronodules correlated positively to LH (r = 0.577, p ... in the hyperstimulated testes, as reflected by an increased LH/testosterone ratio. In conclusion, Leydig cell micronodules were more frequent in biopsies with impaired spermatogenesis and associated with decreased ratios of testicular hormones to gonadotrophins. The presence of micronodules thus seems...

  11. Prognostic Significance of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Colorectal Liver Metastasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haowen; Li, Bingmin; Zhang, Aiqun; Lu, Wenping; Xiang, Canhong; Dong, Jiahong

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is deemed to play critical roles in tumor progression and metastasis, and an increased neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been reported to correlate with poor survivals in various malignancies. However, association between NLR elevation and survival outcome in patients with colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of elevated NLR in CRLM. The meta-analysis was conducted in adherence to the MOOSE guidelines. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and the Chinese SinoMed were systematically searched to identify eligible studies from the initiation of the databases to May, 2016. Overall survival (OS) and recurrence free survival (RFS) were pooled by using hazard ratio (HR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Correlation between NLR values and clinicopathological features was synthesized by using odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95% CI. A total of 1685 patients from 8 studies (9 cohorts) were analyzed, consisting 347 (20.59%) in high pretreatment NLR value group and 1338 (79.41%) in low pretreatment NLR value one. The results demonstrated that elevated pretreatment NLR was significantly related to poor OS (HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.82-2.58) and RFS (HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.64-2.35) in patients with CRLM. The result of this systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that an elevated pretreatment NLR was closely correlated with poor long-term survival (OS and RFS) in CRLM patients. NLR can be routinely monitored and serve as a useful and cost-effective marker with strong prognostic significance in patients with CRLM.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging acquisition techniques intended to decrease movement artefact in paediatric brain imaging: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodfield, Julie; Kealey, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Attaining paediatric brain images of diagnostic quality can be difficult because of young age or neurological impairment. The use of anaesthesia to reduce movement in MRI increases clinical risk and cost, while CT, though faster, exposes children to potentially harmful ionising radiation. MRI acquisition techniques that aim to decrease movement artefact may allow diagnostic paediatric brain imaging without sedation or anaesthesia. We conducted a systematic review to establish the evidence base for ultra-fast sequences and sequences using oversampling of k-space in paediatric brain MR imaging. Techniques were assessed for imaging time, occurrence of movement artefact, the need for sedation, and either image quality or diagnostic accuracy. We identified 24 relevant studies. We found that ultra-fast techniques had shorter imaging acquisition times compared to standard MRI. Techniques using oversampling of k-space required equal or longer imaging times than standard MRI. Both ultra-fast sequences and those using oversampling of k-space reduced movement artefact compared with standard MRI in unsedated children. Assessment of overall diagnostic accuracy was difficult because of the heterogeneous patient populations, imaging indications, and reporting methods of the studies. In children with shunt-treated hydrocephalus there is evidence that ultra-fast MRI is sufficient for the assessment of ventricular size. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging acquisition techniques intended to decrease movement artefact in paediatric brain imaging: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodfield, Julie [University of Edinburgh, Child Life and Health, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Kealey, Susan [Western General Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Attaining paediatric brain images of diagnostic quality can be difficult because of young age or neurological impairment. The use of anaesthesia to reduce movement in MRI increases clinical risk and cost, while CT, though faster, exposes children to potentially harmful ionising radiation. MRI acquisition techniques that aim to decrease movement artefact may allow diagnostic paediatric brain imaging without sedation or anaesthesia. We conducted a systematic review to establish the evidence base for ultra-fast sequences and sequences using oversampling of k-space in paediatric brain MR imaging. Techniques were assessed for imaging time, occurrence of movement artefact, the need for sedation, and either image quality or diagnostic accuracy. We identified 24 relevant studies. We found that ultra-fast techniques had shorter imaging acquisition times compared to standard MRI. Techniques using oversampling of k-space required equal or longer imaging times than standard MRI. Both ultra-fast sequences and those using oversampling of k-space reduced movement artefact compared with standard MRI in unsedated children. Assessment of overall diagnostic accuracy was difficult because of the heterogeneous patient populations, imaging indications, and reporting methods of the studies. In children with shunt-treated hydrocephalus there is evidence that ultra-fast MRI is sufficient for the assessment of ventricular size. (orig.)

  14. Fluid-Elastic Instability Tests on Parallel Triangular Tube Bundles with Different Mass Ratio Values under Increasing and Decreasing Flow Velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of increasing and decreasing flow velocities on the fluid-elastic instability of tube bundles, the responses of an elastically mounted tube in a rigid parallel triangular tube bundle with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.67 were tested in a water tunnel subjected to crossflow. Aluminum and stainless steel tubes were tested, respectively. In the in-line and transverse directions, the amplitudes, power spectrum density functions, response frequencies, added mass coefficients, and other results were obtained and compared. Results show that the nonlinear hysteresis phenomenon occurred in both tube bundle vibrations. When the flow velocity is decreasing, the tubes which have been in the state of fluid-elastic instability can keep on this state for a certain flow velocity range. During this process, the response frequencies of the tubes will decrease. Furthermore, the response frequencies of the aluminum tube can decrease much more than those of the stainless steel tube. The fluid-elastic instability constants fitted for these experiments were obtained from experimental data. A deeper insight into the fluid-elastic instability of tube bundles was also obtained by synthesizing the results. This study is beneficial for designing and operating equipment with tube bundles inside, as well as for further research on the fluid-elastic instability of tube bundles.

  15. Early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition and ontogenetic changes in muscle growth mechanisms of rainbow trout: short- and long-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami-Durante, Hélène; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Duval, Carine; Maunas, Patrick; Girod-David, Virginia; Médale, Françoise

    2014-09-14

    As the understanding of the nutritional regulation of muscle growth mechanisms in fish is fragmentary, the present study aimed to (1) characterise ontogenetic changes in muscle growth-related genes in parallel to changes in muscle cellularity; (2) determine whether an early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition affects the muscle growth mechanisms of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) alevins; and (3) determine whether this early feeding of a high-fat (HF) diet to alevins had a long-term effect on muscle growth processes in juveniles fed a commercial diet. Developmental regulation of hyperplasia and hypertrophy was evidenced at the molecular (expression of myogenic regulatory factors, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and myosin heavy chains (MHC)) and cellular (number and diameter of white muscle fibres) levels. An early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition stimulated the body growth of alevins but led to a fatty phenotype, with accumulation of lipids in the anterior part, and less caudal muscle when compared at similar body weights, due to a decrease in both the white muscle hyperplasia and maximum hypertrophy of white muscle fibres. These HF diet-induced cellular changes were preceded by a very rapid down-regulation of the expression of fast-MHC. The present study also demonstrated that early dietary composition had a long-term effect on the subsequent muscle growth processes of juveniles fed a commercial diet for 3 months. When compared at similar body weights, initially HF diet-fed juveniles indeed had a lower mean diameter of white muscle fibres, a smaller number of large white muscle fibres, and lower expression levels of MyoD1 and myogenin. These findings demonstrated the strong effect of early feed composition on the muscle growth mechanisms of trout alevins and juveniles.

  16. Estimation of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine lung uptake in heart and lung diseases. With reference to lung uptake ratio and decrease of lung uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Yazaki, Yoshikazu; Kitabayashi, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Tomonori; Sekiguchi, Morie; Gomi, Tsutomu; Yano, Kesato; Itoh, Atsuko.

    1997-01-01

    123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 64 patients with heart and lung diseases. Distribution of MIBG in the chest was evaluated by planar images, using counts ratios of the heart to the mediastinum (H/M) and the unilateral lung to the mediastinum (Lu/M). Most of patients with heart diseases showed obvious lung uptake of MIBG. The ratios of H/M were 1.75±0.20 in the group without heart failure and 1.55±0.19 in the group with heart failure. The ratios of Lu/M in the right and left lung were 1.56±0.16 and 1.28±0.16 in the group without heart failure. And those were 1.45±0.16 and 1.19±0.15 in the group with heart failure. But 3 patients complicated with chronic pulmonary emphysema and one patient with interstitial pneumonia due to dermatomyositis showed markedly decreased lung uptake. The ratios of Lu/M in the right and left lung of these patients were 1.20, 1.17; 1.17, 1.13; 1.01, 0.97 and 1.27, 0.94, respectively. These results suggest that the lung uptake of MIBG may reflect the state of pulmonary endothelial cell function in clinical situations, considering that it has been demonstrated that MIBG may be useful as a marker of pulmonary endothelial cell function in the isolated rat lung. (author)

  17. What Is the Male-to-Female Ratio in Autism Spectrum Disorder? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomes, Rachel; Hull, Laura; Mandy, William Polmear Locke

    2017-06-01

    To derive the first systematically calculated estimate of the relative proportion of boys and girls with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) through a meta-analysis of prevalence studies conducted since the introduction of the DSM-IV and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. The Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were searched, and study quality was rated using a risk-of-bias tool. Random-effects meta-analysis was used. The pooled outcome measurement was the male-to-female odds ratio (MFOR), namely the odds of being male in the group with ASD compared with the non-ASD group. In effect, this is the ASD male-to-female ratio, controlling for the male-to-female ratio among participants without ASD. Fifty-four studies were analyzed, with 13,784,284 participants, of whom 53,712 had ASD (43,972 boys and 9,740 girls). The overall pooled MFOR was 4.20 (95% CI 3.84-4.60), but there was very substantial between-study variability (I 2  = 90.9%). High-quality studies had a lower MFOR (3.32; 95% CI 2.88-3.84). Studies that screened the general population to identify participants regardless of whether they already had an ASD diagnosis showed a lower MFOR (3.25; 95% CI 2.93-3.62) than studies that only ascertained participants with a pre-existing ASD diagnosis (MFOR 4.56; 95% CI 4.10-5.07). Of children meeting criteria for ASD, the true male-to-female ratio is not 4:1, as is often assumed; rather, it is closer to 3:1. There appears to be a diagnostic gender bias, meaning that girls who meet criteria for ASD are at disproportionate risk of not receiving a clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios of PCR in the diagnosis of syphilis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Ninet, Béatrice; Perneger, Thomas V; Combescure, Christophe

    2013-05-01

    To systematically review and estimate pooled sensitivity and specificity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique compared to recommended reference tests in the diagnosis of suspected syphilis at various stages and in various biological materials. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Search of three electronic bibliographic databases from January 1990 to January 2012 and the abstract books of five congresses specialized in the infectious diseases' field (1999-2011). Search key terms included syphilis, Treponema pallidum or neurosyphilis and molecular amplification, polymerase chain reaction or PCR. We included studies that used both reference tests to diagnose syphilis plus PCR and we presented pooled estimates of PCR sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR) per syphilis stages and biological materials. Of 1160 identified abstracts, 69 were selected and 46 studies used adequate reference tests to diagnose syphilis. Sensitivity was highest in the swabs from primary genital or anal chancres (78.4%; 95% CI: 68.2-86.0) and in blood from neonates with congenital syphilis (83.0%; 55.0-95.2). Most pooled specificities were ∼95%, except those in blood. A positive PCR is highly informative with a positive LR around 20 in ulcers or skin lesions. In the blood, the positive LR was syphilis diagnosis in lesions. PCR is a useful diagnostic tool in ulcers, especially when serology is still negative and in medical settings with a high prevalence of syphilis.

  19. Effectiveness of tranexamic acid for decreasing bleeding in prostate surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Sergio Hernando; Garcia-Perdomo, Herney Andres

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of tranexamic acid in decreasing bleeding in patients undergoing prostate surgery. All clinical experiments were included without language restrictions. The inclusion criteria were as follows: men over 18 years of age who underwent prostate surgery (transurethral, prostate adenectomy, and radical prostatectomy) and received tranexamic acid prior to prostate surgery as a preventive measure for perioperative hemorrhage. Prophylactic tranexamic acid vs. no intervention or placebo were compared. The primary outcomes were as follows: 1) intraoperative blood loss and 2) the need for red blood cell transfusion. A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and LILACS. Other sources were used to discover published and unpublished literature sources. The statistical analysis was performed in Review Manager v.5.3. Four studies were included with a total of 436 patients. Three of the four studies had small sample sizes. There was a low risk of attrition bias and reporting bias. Unclear risk of selection bias, performance bias, or detection bias was presented. A mean difference (MD) of -174.49 [95% CI (-248.43 to -100.56)] was found for perioperative blood loss (the primary outcome). At the end of the procedure, the hemoglobin concentration had a MD of -1.19 [95% CI (-4.37 to 1.99)]. Tranexamic acid is effective at preventing perioperative blood loss compared with the placebo in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). However, this treatment was not effective neither at preventing the need for transfusions nor at increasing hemoglobin values at the end of the procedure.

  20. Systematic in vitro nanotoxicity study on anodic alumina nanotubes with engineered aspect ratio: understanding nanotoxicity by a nanomaterial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Kaur, Gagandeep; Zysk, Aneta; Liapis, Vasilios; Hay, Shelley; Santos, Abel; Losic, Dusan; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Here, we report a detailed and systematic approach for studying the in vitro nanotoxicity study of high aspect ratio (HAR) nanomaterials using anodic alumina nanotubes (AANTs) as a nanomaterial model. AANTs with bio-inert properties and tailored aspect ratios ranging from 7.8 to 63.3 were synthesized by an electrochemical pulse anodization process. Cytotoxicity studies were conducted with RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells and MDA-MB 231-TXSA human breast cancer cells through several toxicity parameters, including cell viability and morphology, pro-inflammatory response, mitochondrial depolarization, lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), induction of autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The resulting toxicity patterns were cell-type dependent and strongly related with AANTs dose, length of time, and importantly the AR of AANTs. Long AANTs triggered enhanced cell death, morphological changes, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) release, LMP and ER stress than short AANTs. The toxic AR window of AANTs was determined to be 7.8, which is shorter than that of other previously reported HAR nanomaterials. This toxic AR window provides a promising opportunity to control the nanotoxicity of HAR nanomaterials for their advanced drug delivery application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Decreased Progesterone Receptor B/A Ratio in Endometrial Cells by Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Peritoneal Fluid from Patients with Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Uisoo; Min, Jin Young; Kim, Sung Hoon; Ihm, Hyo Jin; Oh, Young Sang; Park, So Yun; Chae, Hee Dong; Kim, Chung Hoon; Kang, Byung Moon

    2016-11-01

    Progesterone resistance is thought to be a major factor that contributes to progression of endometriosis. However, it is not clear what causes progesterone resistance in endometriosis. This study aimed to assess whether cytokines or peritoneal fluid can affect progesterone receptor (PR) expression in endometrial cells and to verify whether PR expression is reduced in endometriosis. The PR-B/A ratio was measured via real-time polymerase chain reaction after in vitro culture, in which endometrial cells were treated with either tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta, or peritoneal fluid obtained from women with advanced-stage endometriosis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to compare PR-B expression between eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues from women with and without advanced-stage endometriosis. The PR-B/A ratio was significantly decreased by treatment with either TNF-α (p=0.011) or peritoneal fluid from women with advanced-stage endometriosis (p=0.027). Immunoreactivity of PR-B expression was significantly lower during the secretory phase than during the proliferative phase in endometrial tissues from control subjects (pendometriosis compared with eutopic endometrium tissues from control subjects. Progesterone resistance in endometriosis may be caused by proinflammatory conditions in the pelvic peritoneal microenvironment.

  2. Decreased hematocrit-to-viscosity ratio and increased lactate dehydrogenase level in patients with sickle cell anemia and recurrent leg ulcers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Connes

    Full Text Available Leg ulcer is a disabling complication in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA but the exact pathophysiological mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the hematological and hemorheological alterations associated with recurrent leg ulcers. Sixty-two SCA patients who never experienced leg ulcers (ULC- and 13 SCA patients with a positive history of recurrent leg ulcers (ULC+--with no leg ulcers at the time of the study--were recruited. All patients were in steady state condition. Blood was sampled to perform hematological, biochemical (hemolytic markers and hemorheological analyses (blood viscosity, red blood cell deformability and aggregation properties. The hematocrit-to-viscosity ratio (HVR, which reflects the red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency, was calculated for each subject. Patients from the ULC+ group were older than patients from the ULC- group. Anemia (red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels was more pronounced in the ULC+ group. Lactate dehydrogenase level was higher in the ULC+ group than in the ULC- group. Neither blood viscosity, nor RBC aggregation properties differed between the two groups. HVR was lower and RBC deformability tended to be reduced in the ULC+ group. Our study confirmed increased hemolytic rate and anemia in SCA patients with leg ulcers recurrence. Furthermore, our data suggest that although systemic blood viscosity is not a major factor involved in the pathophysiology of this complication, decreased red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency (i.e., low hematocrit/viscosity ratio may play a role.

  3. A systematic review on soft-to-hard tissue ratios in orthognathic surgery part II: Chin procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel Moragas, Joan; Oth, Olivier; Büttner, Michael; Mommaerts, Maurice Y

    2015-10-01

    Precise soft-to-hard tissue ratios in orthofacial chin procedures are not well established. The aim of this study was to determine useful soft-to-hard tissue ratios for planning the magnitude of sliding genioplasty (chin osteotomy), osseous chin recontouring and alloplastic chin augmentation. A systematic review of English and non-English articles using PubMed central, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Science Citation Index, Elsevier Science Direct Complete, Highwire Press, Springer Standard Collection, SAGE premier 2011, DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals, Sweetswise, Free E-Journals, Ovid Lippincott Williams & Wilkins total Access Collection, Wiley Online Library Journals, and Cochrane Plus databases from their onset until July 2014. Additional studies were identified by searching the references. Search terms included soft tissue, ratios, genioplasty, mentoplasty, chin, genial AND advancement, augmentation, setback, retrusion, impaction, reduction, vertical deficit, widening, narrowing, and expansion. Study selection criteria were as follows: only academic publications; human patients; no reviews; systematic reviews or meta-analyses; no cadavers; no syndromic patients; no pathology at the chin or mandible region; only articles of level of evidence from I to IV; number of patients must be cited in the articles; hard-to-soft tissue ratios must be cited in the articles or at least are able to be calculated with the quantitative data available in the article; if all patients of one article have had bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) performed along with chin osteotomy, there should be an independent group evaluation of the data concerning to the chin; and no restriction regarding the size of the group. Independent extraction of articles by two authors using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators (level of evidence). The search identified 22 articles. Eleven additional articles were found in their reference sections. Of these, two were

  4. OT1_ebergin_5: A Systematic Survery of the Water D to H Ratio in Hot Molecular Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, E.

    2010-07-01

    The D/H ratio of water and the enrichment of HDO relative to H2O in comets, oceans, and interstellar water vapor, has been posited as one of the primary links between chemistry in the cold (T = 10-20 K) dense interstellar medium (ISM) and chemistry in the Solar Nebula. However, there are only ~10 measurements of HDO/H2O, even in hot (T > 100 K) molecular cores, which have the most favorable chemistry (due to fossil evaporation of D-enriched ices) and excitation. In addition the existing measurements have a wide range of uncertainty, making it impossible to discern the presence of source-to-source variations, which could hint at the origin of deuterium enrichments in the dense ISM. We propose here to change this statistic with a systematic survey of HDO and H2O in a sample of 20 hot molecular cores spanning a two order of magnitude range in mass and luminosity. This will increase the number of known water D/H ratios by ~200%. This program is unique in scope for Herschel and requires the uniformity in calibration and high spectral resolution offered by the HIFI instrument. With the stability of HIFI we will be able to derive D/H ratios with significantly less uncertainty. Our observations will be combined with theoretical chemical models to explore the statistics offered by this sample. By looking at a large number of objects with a range of conditions we aim to unlock the secrets of water deuteration in the interstellar space.

  5. Combination of fat saturation and variable bandwidth imaging to increase signal-to-noise ratio and decrease motion artifacts for body MR imaging at high field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the MR imaging examination is a critical component of the quality of the image. Standard methods to increase SNR include signal averaging with multiple excitations, at the expense of imaging time (which on T2-weighted images could be quite significant), or increasing pixel volume by manipulation of field of view, matrix size, and/or section thickness, all at the expense of resolution. Another available method to increase SNR is to reduce the bandwidth of the receiver, which increases SNR by the square root of the amount of the reduction. The penalty imposed on high-field-strength MR examinations of the body is an unacceptable increase in chemical shift artifact. However, presaturating the fat resonance eliminates the chemical shift artifact. Thus, a combination of imaging techniques, fat suppression, and decreased bandwidth imaging can produce images free of chemical shift artifact with increased SNR and no penalty in resolution or imaging time. Early studies also show a reduction in motion artifact when fat saturation is used. This paper reports MR imaging performed with a 1.5-T Signa imager. With this technique, T2-weighted images (2,500/20/80 [repetition time msec/echo time msec/inversion time msec]) illustrating the increase in SNR and T1-weighted images (600/20) demonstrating a decrease in motion artifact are shown

  6. Risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with periodontal disease and the effectiveness of interventions in decreasing this risk: protocol for systematic overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanterpool, Sizzle F; Tomsin, Kathleen; Reyes, Leticia; Zimmermann, Luc J; Kramer, Boris W; Been, Jasper V

    2016-02-01

    Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease of the tissues supporting the teeth. Women who have periodontal disease while pregnant may be at risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Although the association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes has been addressed in a considerable number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses, there are important differences in the conclusions of these reviews. Systematic reviews assessing the effectivity of various therapeutic interventions to treat periodontal disease during pregnancy to try and reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes have also arrived at different conclusions. We aim to provide a systematic overview of systematic reviews comparing the frequency of adverse pregnancy outcomes between women with and without periodontal disease and/or evaluating the effect of preventive and therapeutic interventions for periodontal disease before or during pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcomes. We will include systematic reviews reporting on studies comparing adverse pregnancy outcomes: (i) between women with or without periodontal disease before (pregnancy and/or (ii) according to preventive or therapeutic interventions for periodontal disease. Eligible interventions include (combinations of) the following: oral hygiene education, use of antibiotics, subgingival scaling, and root planing. For preventive and/or therapeutic reviews, the following comparisons will be considered: no intervention, a placebo intervention, or an alternative intervention. Our primary adverse pregnancy outcomes of interests are maternal mortality, preterm delivery, and perinatal mortality. Two reviewers will independently identify eligible published and unpublished systematic reviews from six electronic databases and using hand searching of reference lists and citations. Data items extracted from included systematic reviews are based on the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care checklist and the preferred reporting items for

  7. Relieved Working study: systematic development and design of an intervention to decrease occupational quartz exposure at construction worksites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.M.; Deurssen, E. van; Meijster, T.; Tielemans, E.; Heederik, D.; Pronk, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Occupational quartz exposure continues to be a serious hazard in the construction industry. Until now, evidence-based interventions aimed at reducing quartz exposure are scarce. The aim of this study was to systematically develop an intervention and to describe the study to evaluate its

  8. Effectiveness of ketamine as an adjuvant to opioid-based therapy in decreasing pain associated with opioid tolerance in adults undergoing orthopedic surgery: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Marsha; Bonanno, Laura; Kuhn, William

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to examine the best available evidence on the clinical effectiveness of ketamine as an adjuvant to opioid-based therapy versus opioid-based therapy alone in decreasing perioperative pain associated with opioid tolerance in adult patients, aged 18-70 years, undergoing orthopedic surgical procedures.The following question guides the systematic review: does the administration of ketamine as an adjuvant to opioid-based therapy, compared to opioid-based therapy alone, improve perioperative pain relief in opioid-tolerant adult patients undergoing orthopedic surgical procedures?

  9. Increased amount of phosphorylated proinflammatory osteopontin in rheumatoid arthritis synovia is associated to decreased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5B/5A ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Luukkonen

    Full Text Available Osteopontin (OPN is an immunoregulatory protein which production increases in both rheumatoid arthritis (RA and osteoarthritis (OA. Phosphorylated osteopontin (Phospho-OPN is known to increase macrophage and osteoclast activation, this process is controlled by extracellular tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP, also a biomarker for RA. Here, we evaluated the phosphorylation status of OPN in RA and OA synovia, as well as its correlation with TRAcP isoforms.Synovial tissue and fluid were obtained from 24 RA (14 seropositive and 10 seronegative and 24 OA patients. Western blotting was used to analyze the extent of OPN phosphorylation. TRAcP isoforms were measured in synovial fluid using ELISA; immunohistochemistry assessed the distribution of OPN and TRAcP expressing cells in the synovial tissue, especially distinguishing between the TRAcP isoforms.Full-length OPN was more phosphorylated in RA than in OA (p<0.05. The thrombin cleaved C-terminal end of OPN was also more phosphorylated in RA (p<0.05. RA patients had a lower concentration of TRAcP 5B and higher concentration of less active 5A in their synovial fluid compared to OA patients. The TRAcP 5B/5A ratio was decreased in RA and correlated negatively with the amount of phospho-OPN (p<0.05. TRAcP positive cells for both isoforms were found all along the synovial lining; OPN antibody staining was localized in the extracellular matrix.Our data suggests that in RA the synovial fluid contains insufficient amounts of TRAcP 5B which increase levels of the proinflammatory phospho-OPN. This may lead to increased macrophage and osteoclast activation, resulting in the increased local inflammation and bone resorption present in RA joints.

  10. Site-Specific Fat-1 Knock-In Enables Significant Decrease of n-6PUFAs/n-3PUFAs Ratio in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjing Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The fat-1 gene from Caenorhabditis elegans encodes a fatty acid desaturase which was widely studied due to its beneficial function of converting n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFAs to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs. To date, many fat-1 transgenic animals have been generated to study disease pathogenesis or improve meat quality. However, all of them were generated using a random integration method with variable transgene expression levels and the introduction of selectable marker genes often raise biosafety concern. To this end, we aimed to generate marker-free fat-1 transgenic pigs in a site-specific manner. The Rosa26 locus, first found in mouse embryonic stem cells, has become one of the most common sites for inserting transgenes due to its safe and ubiquitous expression. In our study, the fat-1 gene was inserted into porcine Rosa 26 (pRosa26 locus via Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9 system. The Southern blot analysis of our knock-in pigs indicated a single copy of the fat-1 gene at the pRosa26 locus. Furthermore, this single-copy fat-1 gene supported satisfactory expression in a variety of tissues in F1 generation pigs. Importantly, the gas chromatography analysis indicated that these fat-1 knock-in pigs exhibited a significant increase in the level of n-3PUFAs, leading to an obvious decrease in the n-6PUFAs/n-3PUFAs ratio from 9.36 to 2.12 (***P < 0.0001. Altogether, our fat-1 knock-in pigs hold great promise for improving the nutritional value of pork and serving as an animal model to investigate therapeutic effects of n-3PUFAs on various diseases.

  11. Global Overexpression of ET-1 Decreases Blood Pressure - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of ET-1 Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong Ping; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Vignon-Zellweger, Nicolas; Heiden, Susi; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    ET-1 has independent effects on blood pressure regulation in vivo, it is involved in tubular water and salt excretion, promotes constriction of smooth muscle cells, modulates sympathetic nerve activity, and activates the liberation of nitric oxide. To determine the net effect of these partially counteracting mechanisms on blood pressure, a systematic meta-analysis was performed. Based on the principles of Cochrane systematic reviews, we searched in major literature databases - MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Google Scholar, and the China Biological Medicine Database (CBM-disc) - for articles relevant to the topic of the blood pressure phenotype of endothelin-1 transgenic (ET-1+/+) mice from January 1, 1988 to March 31, 2016. Review Manager Version 5.0 (Rev-Man 5.0) software was applied for statistical analysis. In total thirteen studies reported blood pressure data. The meta-analysis of blood pressure data showed that homozygous ET-1 transgenic mice (ET-1+/+ mice) had a significantly lower blood pressure as compared to WT mice (mean difference: -2.57 mmHg, 95% CI: -4.98∼ -0.16, P = 0.04), with minimal heterogeneity (P = 0.86). A subgroup analysis of mice older than 6 months revealed that the blood pressure difference between ET-1+/+ mice and WT mice was even more pronounced (mean difference: -6.19 mmHg, 95% CI: -10.76∼ -1.62, P = 0.008), with minimal heterogeneity (P = 0.91). This meta-analysis provides robust evidence that global ET-1 overexpression in mice lowers blood pressure in an age-dependent manner. Older ET-1+/+ mice have a somewhat more pronounced reduction of blood pressure. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio as Novel Markers for Diagnosis of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Bahrami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL is a common otologic disease characterized by a loss of hearing greater than 30 dB in three consecutive frequen­cies which occurs in less than 72 hours. Objective: To investigate the role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR on sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL. Search strategy: A PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, OVID, EMBASE and Google Scholar search (date last searched April 2016 without any time, language and location restriction was done. Inclusion criteria: All case-control studies, which have been investigated the relationship of NLR and PLR with the occurrence of SSNHL were included in our meta-analysis. Results: A total of 5 case-control studies were included in the study. All 5 studies have been reported NLR of patients and control groups (611 patients and 804 controls. Our analysis showed that the mean NLR of patients is 1.12 (0.82-1.43 unit higher than that of controls with 95% CI which is statistically significant. Also, 3 studies have been reported PLR of patients and control groups (512 patients and 705 controls. Our analysis showed that the mean PLR of patients is 0.57 (0.08-1.05 unit higher than that of controls with 95% CI which is statistically significant too. Conclusions: This meta-analysis confirmed the relationship of NLR and PLR with SSNHL. Therefore, these parameters can be considered as new markers in diagnosis of SSNHL. 

  13. SYSTEMATIC VARIATIONS IN CO2/H2O ICE ABUNDANCE RATIOS IN NEARBY GALAXIES FOUND WITH AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, M.; Kaneda, H.; Ishihara, D.; Oyabu, S.; Onaka, T.; Shimonishi, T.; Suzuki, T.

    2015-01-01

    We report CO 2 /H 2 O ice abundance ratios in seven nearby star-forming galaxies based on the AKARI near-infrared (2.5–5.0 μm) spectra. The CO 2 /H 2 O ice abundance ratios show clear variations between 0.05 and 0.2 with the averaged value of 0.14 ± 0.01. The previous study on M82 revealed that the CO 2 /H 2 O ice abundance ratios strongly correlate with the intensity ratios of the hydrogen recombination Brα line to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) 3.3 μm feature. In the present study, however, we find no correlation for the seven galaxies as a whole due to systematic differences in the relation between CO 2 /H 2 O ice abundance and Brα/PAH 3.3 μm intensity ratios from galaxy to galaxy. This result suggests that there is another parameter that determines the CO 2 /H 2 O ice abundance ratios in a galaxy in addition to the Brα/PAH 3.3 μm ratios. We find that the CO 2 /H 2 O ice abundance ratios positively correlate with the specific star formation rates of the galaxies. From these results, we conclude that CO 2 /H 2 O ice abundance ratios tend to be high in young star-forming galaxies

  14. The Distinction of Amyloid-β Protein Precursor (AβPP) Ratio in Platelet Between Alzheimer's Disease Patients and Controls: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yachen; Gu, Lihua; Alsharif, Abdul Azeez; Zhang, Zhijun

    2017-01-01

    To systematically assess the clinical significance of platelet amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) ratio between Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and controls. 14 articles were selected in this analysis by search of databases including PubMed and Web of Science up to December 2016. Random effects models were used to calculate the standardized mean difference (SMD). Subgroup analyses were used to detect the cause of heterogeneity. The result showed a significant drop in platelet AβPP ratio in AD patients compared to controls [SMD: -1.871; 95% CI: (-2.33, -1.41); p analysis revealed races or the quality of studies may be the cause of high heterogeneity. This meta-analysis concluded that there is a close association between platelet AβPP ratio and AD. It is necessary to design a sizable sample study to further support that platelet AβPP ratio can be a biomarker of AD.

  15. Decreased Serum IGF-1/IGFBP-3 Molar Ratio is Associated with Executive Function Behaviors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Wang, Pin; Han, Jing; Xia, Wenqing; Cai, Rongrong; Sun, Haixia; Sun, Jie; Wang, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, through insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway, is involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease. This study aimed to assess the association of serum IGF-1 and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 levels with cognition status and to determine whether IGF-1 rs972936 polymorphism is associated with T2DM with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A total of 150 T2DM patients, 75 satisfying the MCI diagnostic criteria and 75 exhibiting healthy cognition, were enrolled in this study. The cognitive function of the subjects was extensively assessed. Serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were measured through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio was calculated. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the IGF-1-(rs972936) gene were analyzed. Serum IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio in MCI patients was significantly lower than that in the control group (p = 0.003). Significant negative correlations were found between IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio and Trail Making Test A and B (TMT-A and TMT-B) scores (p = 0.003; p function. Further multiple step-wise regression analysis revealed that the TMT-A or TMT-B score was significantly associated only with serum IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio (p = 0.016; p IGF-1 rs972936 polymorphism between MCI and control groups. A low serum IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio is associated with the pathogenesis of MCI, particularly executive function in T2DM populations. Further investigation with a large population size should be conducted to confirm this observed association.

  16. Decrease of the solar flare/solar wind flux ratio in the past several aeons from solar neon and tracks in lunar soil plagioclases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieler, R.; Etique, Ph.; Signer, P.; Poupeau, G.

    1982-08-01

    The He, Ne, and Ar concentrations and isotopic compositions of mineral separates of six lunar subsurface samples and of two regolith breccias which were exposed to the sun as early as 2 - 3 billion years ago are determined. The results are compared with our noble gas data obtained previously on mineral separates of lunar surface soil samples most of which contain recently implanted solar gases. The mean solar flare track densities were determined on aliquots of several of the plagioclase separates analyzed for noble gases. Solar wind retentive mafic minerals and ilmenites show that a possible secular increase of the 20 Ne/ 22 Ne ratio in the solar wind during the last 2 - 3 Ga. is 20 Ne/ 22 Ne of approximately 11.3 - 11.8, reported for solar flare Ne retained in plagioclase separates from lunar soils. The solar flare track data and the Ne data independently show that plagioclases exposed to the sun over the last 10 8 years recorded a lower mean ratio of solar flare to solar wind intensities than samples exposed about 1 - 3 billion years ago. On the basis of track data these ratios are estimated to differ by a factor approximately 2. (Author) [pt

  17. Effectiveness of Interventions to Decrease Image Ordering for Low Back Pain Presentations in the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaocheng; Desai, Shashwat; Krebs, Lynette D; Kirkland, Scott W; Keto-Lambert, Diana; Rowe, Brian H

    2018-01-08

    Low back pain (LBP) is an extremely frequent reason for patients to present to an emergency department (ED). Despite evidence against the utility of imaging, simple and advanced imaging (i.e., computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging) for patients with LBP has become increasingly frequent in the ED. The objective of this review was to identify and examine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing image ordering in the ED for LBP patients. A protocol was developed a priori, following the PRISMA guidelines, and registered with PROSPERO. Six bibliographic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews, SCOPUS, CINAHL, and Dissertation Abstracts) and the gray literature were searched. Comparative studies assessing interventions that targeted image ordering in the ED for adult patients with LBP were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently screened study eligibility and completed data extraction. Study quality was completed independently by two reviewers using the before-after quality assessment checklist, with a third-party mediator resolving any differences. Due to a limited number of studies and significant heterogeneity, only a descriptive analysis was performed. The search yielded 603 unique citations of which a total of five before-after studies were included. Quality assessment identified potential biases relating to comparability between the pre- and postintervention groups, reliable assessment of outcomes, and an overall lack of information on the intervention (i.e., time point, description, intervention data collection). The type of interventions utilized included clinical decision support tools, clinical practice guidelines, a knowledge translation initiative, and multidisciplinary protocols. Overall, four studies reported a decrease in the relative percentage change in imaging in a specific image modality (22.7%-47.4%) following implementation of the interventions; however, one study reported a 35% increase in patient

  18. Main biomarkers associated with age-related plasma zinc decrease and copper/zinc ratio in healthy elderly from ZincAge study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacconi, R; Costarelli, L; Piacenza, F; Basso, A; Rink, L; Mariani, E; Fulop, T; Dedoussis, G; Herbein, G; Provinciali, M; Jajte, J; Lengyel, I; Mocchegiani, E; Malavolta, M

    2017-12-01

    Zinc (Zn) plays an essential role in many biological processes including immune response. Impaired Zn status promotes immune dysfunction, and it has been associated with enhanced chronic inflammation during aging. It has been suggested that the measurement of circulating Zn by itself could not reflect the real Zn status of an individual. It is therefore necessary to identify other determinants associated with plasma Zn to better understanding how physiopathological conditions during aging may affect the concentration of this metal. We have investigated the association between Zn levels and some biomarkers in 1090 healthy elderly from five European countries to increase the accuracy in the assessment of the Zn status. Stepwise multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the influence of factors such as age, dietary intake, inflammatory mediators, laboratory parameters and polymorphisms previously associated with Zn homeostasis. Plasma Zn decrement was most strongly predicted by age, while positive correlations were found with albumin, RANTES and Zn intake after adjustment for multiple confounders. HSP70 +1267 AA genotype was an independent factor associated with Zn plasma concentrations. Cu/Zn ratio was positively associated with markers of systemic inflammation and age and negatively associated with albumin serum levels. Our findings show the most important independent determinants of plasma Zn concentration and Cu/Zn ratio variability in elderly population and suggest that the decline with age of Zn circulating levels is more dependent on physiopathological changes occurring with aging rather than to its nutritional intake.

  19. The isotope systematics of a juvenile intraplate volcano: Pb, Nd, and Srisotope ratios of basalts from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudigel, H.; Zindler, A.; Leslie, T.

    1984-01-01

    Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope ratios for a representative suite of 15 basanites, alkali basalts, transitional basalts and tholeiites from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii, display unusually large variations for a single volcano, but lie within known ranges for Hawaiian basalts. Nd isotope ratios in alkali basalts show the largest relative variation (0.51291 - 0.51305), and include the nearly constant tholeiite value (approx.= 0.51297). Pb isotope ratios show similarly large ranges for tholeiites and alkali basalts and continue Tatsumoto's [31] 'Loa' trend towards higher 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, ratios, resulting in a substantial overlap with the 'Kea' trend. 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios for Loihi and other volcanoes along the Loa and Kea trends [31] are observed to correlate with the age of the underlying lithosphere suggesting lithosphere involvement in the formation of Hawaiian tholeiites. Loihi lavas display no correlation of Nd, Sr, or Pb isotope ratios with major element compositions or eruptive age, in contrast with observations of some other Hawaiian volcanoes. Isotope data for Loihi, as well as average values for Hawaiian volcanoes, are not adequately explained by previously proposed two-end-member models; new models for the origin and the development of Hawaiian volcanoes must include mixing of at least three geochemically distinct source regions and allow for the involvement of heterogeneous oceanic lithosphere. (orig.)

  20. Decreases in Short Term Memory, IQ, and Altered Brain Metabolic Ratios in Urban Apolipoprotein ε4 Children Exposed to Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Zhu, Hongtu; Lu, Zhaohua; Solorio, Edelmira; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    Children's urban air pollution exposures result in systemic and brain inflammation and the early hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the most prevalent genetic risk for AD. We assessed whether APOE in healthy children modulates cognition, olfaction, and metabolic brain indices. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test were administered to 50 Mexico City Metropolitan Area children (13.4 ± 4.8 years, 28 APOE ε3 and 22 APOE ε4). N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), choline (Cho)/Cr, myo-inositol (mI)/Cr, and NAA/mI were calculated using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the white matter of the frontal and parietal lobes, hippocampus, and pons. APOE ε4 versus ε3 children had a reduced NAA/Cr ratio in the right frontal white matter and decrements on attention, short-term memory, and below-average scores in Verbal and Full Scale IQ (>10 points). APOE modulated the group effects between WISC-R and left frontal and parietal white matter, and hippocampus metabolites. Soap was the predominantly failed odor in urban children and, in APOE ε4 versus ε3 carriers, strongly correlated with left hippocampus mI/Cr ratio. APOE modulates responses to air pollution in the developing brain. APOE ε4 carriers could have a higher risk of developing early AD if they reside in a polluted environment. APOE, cognition, and olfaction testing and targeted magnetic resonance spectroscopy may contribute to the assessment of urban children and their results could provide new paths toward the unprecedented opportunity for early neuroprotection and AD prevention.

  1. Fish oil decreases C-reactive protein/albumin ratio improving nutritional prognosis and plasma fatty acid profile in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Michel Carlos; Pastore e Silva, Juliana de Aguiar; Camargo, Carolina de Quadros; Fabre, Maria Emília de Souza; Gevaerd, Scheila; Naliwaiko, Katya; Moreno, Yara Maria Franco; Nunes, Everson Araújo; Trindade, Erasmo Benicio Santos de Moraes

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 (n-3 PUFA) have several anticancer effects, especially attributed to their ability to modulate a variety of genomic and immune responses. In this context, this randomized, prospective, controlled clinical trial was conducted in order to check whether supplementation of 2 g/day of fish oil for 9 weeks alters the production of inflammatory markers, the plasma fatty acid profile and the nutritional status in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Eleven adults with CRC in chemotherapy were randomized into two groups: (a) supplemented (SG) daily with 2 g/day of encapsulated fish oil [providing 600 mg/day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] for 9 weeks (n = 6), and (b) control (CG) (n = 5). All outcomes were evaluated on the day before the first chemotherapy session and 9 weeks later. Plasma TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-17A, the pro/anti-inflammatory balance (ratio TNF-α/IL-10 and IL-1β/IL10) and serum albumin, showed no significant changes between times and study groups (p > 0.05). C-reactive protein (CRP) and the CRP/albumin ratio showed opposite behavior in groups, significantly reducing their values in SG (p < 0.05). Plasma proportions of EPA and DHA increased 1.8 and 1.4 times, respectively, while the ARA reduced approximately 0.6 times with the supplementation (9 weeks vs baseline, p < 0.05). Patients from SG gained 1.2 kg (median) while the CG lost -0.5 kg (median) during the 9 weeks of chemotherapy (p = 0.72). These results demonstrate that 2 g/day of fish oil for 9 weeks of chemotherapy improves CRP values, CRP/albumin status, plasma fatty acid profile and potentially prevents weight loss during treatment.

  2. Prognostic value of the pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in cervical cancer: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiayuan; Chen, Manyu; Liang, Caixia; Su, Wenmei

    2017-02-21

    The prognostic value of pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in cervical cancer remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis based on the data from 13 studies with 3729 patients to evaluate the association between the pretreatment NLR and the clinical outcomes of overall survival and progression-free survival in patients with cervical cancer. The relationship between NLR and clinicopathological parameters was also assessed. Hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the effect size estimate. Our analysis indicated that elevated pretreatment NLR was a poor prognostic marker for patients with cervical cancer because it predicted unfavorable overall survival (HR = 1.375, 95% CI: 1.200-1.576) and progression-free survival (HR = 1.646, 95% CI: 1.313-2.065). Increased NLR is also significantly associated with the larger tumor size (OR = 1.780, 95% CI: 1.090-2.908), advanced clinical stage (OR = 2.443, 95% CI: 1.730-3.451), and positive lymph node metastasis (OR = 2.380, 95% CI: 1.775-3.190). By these results, high pretreatment NLR predicted a shorter survival period for patients with cervical cancer, and it could be served as a novel index of prognostic evaluation in patients with cervical cancer.

  3. The clinical use of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in bladder cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xingxing; Du, Peng; Yang, Yong

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the evidence regarding the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as a factor predictive of survival in bladder cancer patients. A search of PubMed and Embase for relevant studies between January 1, 1966 and November 10, 2016 was performed with the terms [NLR OR (neutrophil lymphocyte ratio)] AND [(bladder cancer) OR BCa OR NMIBC OR MIBC]. Inclusion required studies published in English containing bladder cancer patients and evaluating NLR as a predictive factor. Endpoints of NLR and survival data were extracted for pooled analysis. The pooled results showed that an elevated NLR was a predictor for poor overall survival (OS) [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.31], cancer-specific survival (CSS) (HR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.17-1.69), recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.24-2.03) and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.19-1.49) in patients with bladder cancer. Heterogeneity between studies was observed for OS, CSS and RFS, but not for PFS. Publication bias was detected for all these outcomes. Our results showed that elevated NLR might be valuable as a predictive factor of survival in bladder cancer patients.

  4. Association between tumor-stroma ratio and prognosis in solid tumor patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiayuan; Liang, Caixia; Chen, Manyu; Su, Wenmei

    2016-10-18

    Tumor-related stroma plays an active role in tumor invasion and metastasis. The tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) in the pathologic specimen has drawn increasing attention from the field of predicting tumor prognosis. However, the prognostic value of TSR in solid tumors necessitates further elucidation. We conducted a meta-analysis on 14 studies with 4238 patients through a comprehensive electronic search on databases updated on May 2016 to explore the relationship between TSR and prognosis of solid tumors. The overall hazard ratio showed that rich stroma in tumor tissue was associated with poor overall survival (OS) (14 studies, 4238 patients) and disease-free survival (DFS) (9 studies, 2235 patients) of patients with solid tumors. The effect of low TSR on poor OS was observed among various cancer types, but not in the early stage of cervical caner. A significant relationship between low TSR and poor OS was also observed in the subgroup analyses based on study region, blinding status, and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) score. Subgroup analyses indicated that cancer type, clinical stage, study region, blinding status, and NOS score did not affect the prognostic value of TSR for DFS. Moreover, low TSR was significantly correlated with the serious clinical stage, advanced depth of invasion, and positive lymph node metastasis. These findings indicate that a high proportion of stroma in cancer tissue is associated with poor clinical outcomes in cancer patients, and TSR may serve as an independent prognostic factor for solid tumors.

  5. The ratio between serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and the IGF binding proteins (IGFBP-1, 2 and 3) decreases with age in healthy adults and is increased in acromegalic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Main, K; Blum, W F

    1994-01-01

    Several in-vitro studies have suggested that the biological actions of IGF-I can be modified by the presence of specific IGF binding proteins. In man, the 24-hour serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 remain constant, but short-term changes in the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio have been described following GH...... administration. Serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 decrease with age in normal adults and are elevated in active acromegaly due to excessive GH secretion. However, the individual ratios between serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in acromegalic and healthy adults have not been described previously....

  6. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as prognostic indicator in gastrointestinal cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Randy C.; Little, Nancy Ann B.; Harmer, Joshua R.; Ma, Junjie; Mirabelli, Luke G.; Roller, Kyle D.; Breivik, Andrew Mackay; Signor, Emily; Miller, Alec B.; Khong, Hung T.

    2017-01-01

    An accurate, time efficient, and inexpensive prognostic indicator is needed to reduce cost and assist with clinical decision making for cancer management. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), which is derived from common serum testing, has been explored in a variety of cancers. We sought to determine its prognostic value in gastrointestinal cancers and performed a meta-analysis of published studies using the Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. Included were randomized control trials and observational studies that analyzed humans with gastrointestinal cancers that included NLR and hazard ratios (HR) with overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and/or cancer-specific survival (CSS). We analyzed 144 studies comprising 45,905 patients, two-thirds of which were published after 2014. The mean, median, and mode cutoffs for NLR reporting OS from multivariate models were 3.4, 3.0, 5.0 (±IQR 2.5-5.0), respectively. Overall, NLR greater than the cutoff was associated with a HR for OS of 1.63 (95% CI, 1.53-1.73; P < 0.001). This association was observed in all subgroups based on tumor site, stage, and geographic region. HR for elevated NLR for DFS, PFS, and CSS were 1.70 (95% CI, 1.52-1.91, P < 0.001), 1.64 (95% CI, 1.36-1.97, P < 0.001), and 1.83 (95% CI, 1.50-2.23, P < 0.001), respectively. Available evidence suggests that NLR greater than the cutoff reduces OS, independent of geographic location, gastrointestinal cancer type, or stage of cancer. Furthermore, DFS, PFS, and CSS also have worse outcomes with elevated NLR. PMID:28418870

  7. The Relationship Between Vancomycin Trough Concentrations and AUC/MIC Ratios in Pediatric Patients: A Qualitative Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachuk, Stacey; Collins, Kyle; Ensom, Mary H H

    2018-04-01

    In adults, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is associated with better clinical and bacteriological response to vancomycin in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus who achieve target AUC/MIC ≥ 400. This target is often extrapolated to pediatric patients despite the lack of similar evidence. The impracticalities of calculating the AUC in practice means vancomycin trough concentrations are used to predict the AUC/MIC. This review aimed to determine the relationship between vancomycin trough concentrations and AUC/MIC in pediatric patients. We searched the MEDLINE and Embase databases, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials using the medical subject heading (MeSH) terms vancomycin and AUC and pediatric* or paediatric*. Articles were included if they were published in English and reported a relationship between vancomycin trough concentrations and AUC/MIC. Of 122 articles retrieved, 11 met the inclusion criteria. One trial reported a relationship between vancomycin trough concentrations, AUC/MIC, and clinical outcomes but was likely underpowered. Five studies found troughs 6-10 mg/l were sufficient to attain an AUC/MIC > 400 in most general hospitalized pediatric patients. One study in patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery found a trough of 18.4 mg/l achieved an AUC/MIC > 400. Two oncology studies reported troughs ≥ 15 mg/l likely attained an AUC/MIC ≥ 400. In critical care patients: one study found a trough of 9 mg/l did not attain the AUC/MIC target; another found 7 mg/l corresponded to an AUC/MIC of 400. Potential vancomycin targets varied based on the population studied but, for general hospitalized pediatric patients, troughs of 6-10 mg/l are likely sufficient to achieve AUC/MIC ≥ 400. For MIC ≥ 2 mg/l, higher troughs are likely necessary to achieve an AUC/MIC ≥ 400. More

  8. High Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio as Prognostic Factor in Patients Affected by Upper Tract Urothelial Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioni, Michele; Cindolo, Luca; Autorino, Riccardo; Primiceri, Giulia; Arcaniolo, Davide; De Sio, Marco; Schips, Luigi

    2017-06-01

    Given the increasing interest in the possible role of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as an easily available oncologic marker for upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC), we sought to quantify the prognostic effect of this biomarker and assess its consistency in UTUC. A systematic review of the published data was performed up to May 2016 using multiple search engines (PubMed, Ovid, and Scopus) to identify eligible comparative studies. A formal meta-analysis was performed for studies comparing patients with a high and those with a low NLR before surgical treatment of UTUC to determine whether the NLR is an independent predictor of survival. Pooled estimates were calculated using a fixed-effects model if no significant heterogeneity was identified. Alternatively, a random-effects model was used when significant heterogeneity was detected. For continuous outcomes, the weighted mean difference was used as a summary measure. For binary variables, the odds ratio or risk ratio was calculated with the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Statistical analyses were performed using RevMan, version 5. Six studies with 1710 patients were included. A high NLR was associated with poorer oncologic outcomes in patients affected by UTUC, in particular in terms of overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.97; 95% CI, 1.27-3.04; P = .002) and recurrence-free survival (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.19-1.96; P = .0009) but not cancer-specific survival (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.29-5.41; P = .77). Current evidence suggests that the NLR might have an independent role as a prognostic factor in patients affected by UTUC undergoing surgical treatment. The NLR potentially represents an easily available measurement of prognosis; however, it requires validation in larger prospective studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Opium and bladder cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the odds ratios for opium use and the risk of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Mahdi; Janbabaei, Ghasem; Bahrami, Mohammad Amin; Moosazadeh, Mahmood

    2017-01-01

    The association between opium use and bladder cancer has been investigated in many studies, with varying reporting results reported. This study aims to estimate the total odds ratio for the association between bladder cancer and opium consumption using meta-analysis. The study was designed according to PRISMA guidelines. Two independent researchers searched for the relevant studies using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, OVID, Embase, and Google Scholar. After systematic screening of the studies identified during the first step, Cochrane risk of bias tool was determined for the selected studies. The case-control and the cohort studies were investigated to assess risk of bladder cancer due to opium use. In addition, the cross-sectional studies were analysed separately to assess frequency of opium consumption. These estimates were combined using the inverse variance method. Fixed or random effect models were applied to combine the point odds ratios. The heterogeneity between the primary results was assessed using the Cochran test and I-square index. The suspected factors for heterogeneity were investigated using meta-regression models. An Egger test was conducted to identify any probable publication bias. Forest plots illustrated the point and pooled estimates. All analyses were performed using Stata version 14 software and RevMan version 5.3. We included 17 primary studies (11 case-control, one cohort and five cross-sectional) in the final meta-analysis. The total odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for developing bladder cancer by opium use alone, and concurrent use of opium and cigarettes were estimated as 3.85 (3.05-4.87) and 5.7 (1.9-16.3) respectively. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for opium use with or without cigarette smoking was estimated as 5.3 (3.6-7.7). This meta-analysis showed that opium use similar to cigarette smoking and maybe with similar mechanisms can be a risk factor for bladder cancer. It is therefore expected to be a risk factor

  10. Association between Body Mass Index, Waist-to-Height Ratio and Adiposity in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Martin-Calvo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is defined as an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA has been suggested as the gold standard to define obesity, but because its use is complex and expensive, anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI or the waist-to-height ratio (WtHr have been used as alternatives. The aim of this study was to review the published literature and investigate the correlation of BMI and WtHr with body fat (BF measured by DEXA in pediatric populations. References were sought in PubMed/Medline and Embase datasets. Five original articles, published between 2013 and 2015, were finally included in this review. Their sample size ranged from 83 to 5355, and the age of participants ranged from 4.9 to 19 years old. The most frequently reported association measurements were the coefficients of determination (R2, followed by correlation coefficients and least-squares regression coefficients. BF measured by DEXA was strongly correlated with both BMI (R2 ranging from 0.32 to 0.91 and WtHr (R2 ranging from 0.49 to 0.73. Thus, either BMI or WtHr may be useful to define obesity when more sophisticated techniques are not available. Our systematic review of the available literature found that neither index demonstrated superiority in assessing obesity in children.

  11. A 20 million year record of planktic foraminiferal B/Ca ratios: Systematics and uncertainties in pCO 2 reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripati, Aradhna K.; Roberts, Christopher D.; Eagle, Robert A.; Li, Gaojun

    2011-05-01

    We use new and published data representing a 20 million long record to discuss the systematics of interpreting planktic foraminiferal B/Ca ratios. B/Ca-based reconstructions of seawater carbonate chemistry and atmospheric pCO 2 assume that the incorporation of boron into foraminiferal tests can be empirically described by an apparent partition coefficient, KD={B/Ca}/{B(OH4-/HCO)} ( Hemming and Hanson, 1992). It has also been proposed that there is a species-specific relationship between K D and temperature ( Yu et al., 2007). As we discuss, although these relationships may be robust, there remain significant uncertainties over the controls on boron incorporation into foraminifera. It is difficult to be certain that the empirically defined correlation between temperature and K D is not simply a result of covariance of temperature and other hydrographic variables in the ocean, including carbonate system parameters. There is also some evidence that K D may be affected by solution [HCO3-]/[CO32-] ratios (i.e., pH), or by [CO32-]. In addition, the theoretical basis for the definition of K D and for a temperature control on K D is of debate. We also discuss the sensitivity of pCO 2 reconstructions to different K D-temperature calibrations and seawater B/Ca. If a K D-temperature calibration is estimated using ice core pCO 2 values between 0 and 200 ka, B/Ca ratios can be used to reasonably approximate atmospheric pCO 2 between 200 and 800 ka; however, the absolute values of pCO 2 calculated are sensitive to the choice of K D-temperature relationship. For older time periods, the absolute values of pCO 2 are also dependent on the evolution of seawater B concentrations. However, we find that over the last 20 Ma, reconstructed changes in declining pCO 2 across the Mid-Pleistocene Transition, Pliocene glacial intensification, and the Middle Miocene Climate Transition are supported by the B/Ca record even if a constant coretop K D is used, or different K D

  12. 3,3′,4,4′,5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) Decreases Hepatic and Systemic Ratios of Epoxide to Diol Metabolites of Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Yang, Jun; Morisseau, Christophe; Robertson, Larry W.; Hammock, Bruce; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of the homeostasis of oxygenated regulatory lipid mediators (oxylipins), potential markers of exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, such as 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), is associated with a range of diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Here we test the hypothesis that PCB 126 exposure alters the levels of oxylipins in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (5-weeks old) were treated over a 3-month period every 2 weeks with intraperitoneal injections of PCB 126 in corn oil (cumulative doses of 0, 19.8, 97.8, and 390 µg/kg b.w.; 6 injections total). PCB 126 treatment caused a reduction in growth rates at the highest dose investigated, a dose-dependent decrease in thymus weights, and a dose-dependent increase in liver weights. Liver PCB 126 levels increased in a dose-dependent manner, while levels in plasma were below or close to the detection limit. The ratios of several epoxides to diol metabolites formed via the cytochrome P450 (P450) monooxygenase/soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) pathway from polyunsaturated fatty acids displayed a dose-dependent decrease in the liver and plasma, whereas levels of oxylipins formed by other metabolic pathways were generally not altered by PCB 126 treatment. The effects of PCB 126 on epoxide-to-diol ratios were associated with an increased CYP1A activity in liver microsomes and an increased sEH activity in liver cytosol and peroxisomes. These results suggest that oxylipins are potential biomarkers of exposure to PCB 126 and that the P450/sEH pathway is a therapeutic target for PCB 126-mediated hepatotoxicity that warrants further attention. PMID:27208083

  13. Prognostic Value of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Localized and Advanced Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Li, Xintao; Wang, Baojun; Luo, Guoxiong; Gu, Liangyou; Chen, Luyao; Liu, Kan; Gao, Yu; Zhang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation plays an essential role in cancer development and progression. The inflammation marker neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is correlated with prognosis across a wide variety of tumor types, but its prognostic value in prostate cancer (PCa) remains controversial. In the present meta-analysis, the prognostic value of NLR in PCa patients is investigated. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the predictive value of NLR for overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and clinical features in patients with PCa. We systematically searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Embase for relevant studies published up to October 2015. A total of 9418 patients from 18 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Elevated pretreatment NLR predicted poor OS (HR 1.628, 95% CI 1.410-1.879) and RFS (HR 1.357, 95% CI 1.126-1.636) in all patients with PCa. However, NLR was insignificantly associated with OS in the subgroup of patients with localized PCa (HR 1.439, 95% CI 0.753-2.75). Increased NLR was also significantly correlated with lymph node involvement (OR 1.616, 95% CI 1.167-2.239) but not with pathological stage (OR 0.827, 95% CI 0.637-1.074) or Gleason score (OR 0.761, 95% CI 0.555-1.044). The present meta-analysis indicated that NLR could predict the prognosis for patients with locally advanced or castration-resistant PCa. Patients with higher NLR are more likely to have poorer prognosis than those with lower NLR.

  14. PENURUNAN TINGKAT INTRUSI AIR LAUT BERDASARKAN "CHLORIDE BICARBONATE RATIO" MENGGUNAKAN LUBANG RESAPAN BIOPORI : STUDI KASUS DI KOTA SEMARANG (Decreased of Sea Water Intrusion Based On “Chloride-Bicarbonater Ratio”Using the Biopore Absorption Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sundari Miswadi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Banjir menjadi agenda tahunan bagi warga yang tinggal di daerah pinggiran pantai di Kota Semarang. Namun sekarang, wilayah yang jauh dari pantaipun kini sudah tidak luput dari banjir dan intrusi air laut. Hal ini terjadi karena airtanah sudah melebihi besarnya pengisian kembali (recharge, dan tanah sudah kehilangan fungsinya dalam menyerap air akibat maraknya pembangunan gedung dan perumahan yang tidak ramah lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memetakan tingkat intrusi air laut di sumur-sumur gali berdasarkan "Chloride-Bicarbonate Ratio", dan daya hantar listrik (DHL serta salinitas di Kota Semarang. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap 30 sumur gali milik penduduk dengan jarak dari pantai antara 0,5-5 (lima kilometer. Tingkat intrusi air laut dihitung berdasarkan rasio klorida terhadap karbonat dan bikarbonat, dan hasilnya diplotkan pada peta dasar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, tingkat intrusi air laut dan nilai DHL di Kota Semarang bagian timur jauh lebih jelek dibandingkan dengan wilayah pantai sebelah barat Kota Semarang, sedangkan kadar salinitas di sebagian besar daerah penelitian rata-rata kadarnya sedang. Hasil penelitian menggunakan lubang resapan biopori (LRB sebagai adsorben menunjukkan, pada minggu ketiga setelah pembuatan LRB didapatkan tingkat intrusi air laut naik sebesar 66,64 % sumur, dan sebanyak 33,33% sumur turun tingkat intrusinya, sedangkan pada mingggu keenam terjadi penurunan tingkat intrusi sebesar 66,64% sumur, dan 33,33% sumur naik. Kadar salinitas pada minggu ketiga turun sebanyak 83,30 %sumur, dan 16,66% tetap, sedangkan pada minggu keenam 49,90 % sumur salinitasnya naik, 33,33% turun, dan 16,66% tetap. Nilai daya hantar tistrik (DHL pada minggu ketiga terdeteksi 16,66% sumur naik, dan 83,30% sumur turun, sedangkan pada minggu keenam 49,98 % sumur DHL-nya naik, dan 49,98% turun. Nilai pH pada minggu ketiga terdeteksi 100% sumur turun, sedangkan minggu kelima 66,64 % turun dan 33,33 % sumur p

  15. Appetite - decreased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of appetite; Decreased appetite; Anorexia ... Any illness can reduce appetite. If the illness is treatable, the appetite should return when the condition is cured. Loss of appetite can cause weight ...

  16. Possible Impact of Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) on Decision Making for Cancer Screening in Hong Kong: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carlos K H; Lang, Brian H H; Guo, Vivian Y W; Lam, Cindy L K

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to critically review the literature on the cost effectiveness of cancer screening interventions, and examine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) that may influence government recommendations on cancer screening strategies and funding for mass implementation in the Hong Kong healthcare system. We conducted a literature review of cost-effectiveness studies in the Hong Kong population related to cancer screening published up to 2015, through a hand search and database search of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and OVID Medline. Binary data on the government's decisions were obtained from the Cancer Expert Working Group, Department of Health. Mixed-effect logistic regression analysis was used to examine the impact of ICERs on decision making. Using Youden's index, an optimal ICER threshold value for positive decisions was examined by area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Eight studies reporting 30 cost-effectiveness pairwise comparisons of population-based cancer screening were identified. Most studies reported an ICER for a cancer screening strategy versus a comparator with outcomes in terms of cost per life-years (55.6 %), or cost per quality-adjusted life-years (55.6 %). Among comparisons with a mean ICER of US$102,931 (range 800-715,137), the increase in ICER value by 1000 was associated with decreased odds (odds ratio 0.990, 0.981-0.999; p = 0.033) of a positive recommendation. An optimal ICER value of US$61,600 per effectiveness unit yielded a high sensitivity of 90 % and specificity of 85 % for a positive recommendation. A lower ICER threshold value of below US$8044 per effectiveness unit was detected for a positive funding decision. Linking published evidence to Government recommendations and practice on cancer screening, ICERs influence decisions on the adoption of health technologies in Hong Kong. The potential ICER threshold for recommendation in Hong Kong may be higher than those of developed

  17. Constraints to growth of annual nettle (Urtica urens) in an elevated CO{sub 2} atmosphere: Decreased leaf area ratio and tissue N cannot be explained by ontogenetic drift or mineral N supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, D.J. [Univ. of Wales, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Gwynedd (United Kingdom); Stirling, C.M. [Univ. of Wales, School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, Gwynedd (United Kingdom); Farrar, J. [Univ. of Wales, School of Biological Science, Gwynedd (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The current literature indicates that the stimulation of relative growth rate (RGR) by an elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is transient. Urtica urens L. was exposed to an elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration for 26 days to better understand the factors involved in this constraint to growth. Plants were grown hydroponically without nutrient limitation in controlled-environment cabinets. Consistent with studies of other C{sub 3} species, the initial CO{sub 2} stimulation of RGR of U. urens was not sustained and declined in the early stages of exposure. Whilst the decline in RGR was most strongly linked to a reduction in the CO{sub 2} stimulation of net assimilation rate (NAR), its initial increase was constrained by an early and persistent reduction in leaf area ratio (LAR) due to a decreased specific leaf area (SLA). The decline in NAR could not be linked to any down-regulation of photosynthetic capacity of individual leaves, despite an accumulation of soluble sugars in them. The reductions in LAR and SLA reflected an accumulation of structural weight in addition to an accumulation of total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC). To account for the impact of ontogenetic drift on the partitioning of weight and leaf area, this study extends the usual allometric approach to include an analysis of effects on the vertical placement of regression lines (i.e their elevations). Using this approach, we argue that CO{sub 2}-induced reductions in LAR and SLA cannot be explained by ontogenetic drift. By monitoring the tissue N concentration, external N supply was shown unambiguously to be non-limiting for growth at any plant size. Nevertheless, tissue N was consistently lower in elevated CO{sub 2}, independent of both ontogeny and TNC accumulation, raising the possibility that the reductions in NAR, LAR and SLA are related to some internal constraint on N utilization. (au)

  18. An investigation of quality improvement initiatives in decreasing the rate of avoidable 30-day, skilled nursing facility-to-hospital readmissions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileski, Michael; Topinka, Joseph Baar; Lee, Kimberly; Brooks, Matthew; McNeil, Christopher; Jackson, Jenna

    2017-01-01

    The main objective was to investigate the applicability and effectiveness of quality improvement initiatives in decreasing the rate of avoidable 30-day, skilled nursing facility (SNF)-to-hospital readmissions. The rate of rehospitalizations from SNF within 30 days of original discharge has increased within the last decade. The research team participants conducted a literature review via Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PubMed to collect data about quality improvement implemented in SNFs. The most common facilitator was the incorporation of specialized staff. The most cited barriers were quality improvement tracking and implementation. These strategy examples can be useful to acute care hospitals attempting to lower bounce back from subacute care providers and long-term care facilities seeking quality improvement initiatives to reduce hospital readmissions.

  19. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  20. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...

  1. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  2. Increased constituent ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Streptococcus sp. and a decrease in microflora diversity may be indicators of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a prospective study in the respiratory tracts of neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lu

    Full Text Available Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is a common complication and cause of death in neonates on mechanical ventilation. However, it is difficult to define the causes of VAP. To understand the causes of VAP, we undertook a prospective study based on the diversity of the microflora in VAP. The experimental group consisted of newborns who suffered from respiratory distress syndrome (RDS and VAP, while the control group suffered from RDS without VAP. Sputa were collected within 1, 3, and 5 days of ventilation and were divided into six groups. DNA was extracted from the samples, and the 16S rDNA was PCR amplified, separated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, cloned and sequenced. The resulting sequences were compared using BLAST. The DGGE pictures were measured, and the richness, Shannon-Wiener index, and cluster maps were analyzed. No differences were found regarding the constituent ratio of any genus between the Non-VAP and VAP group within 1 day after intubation. After 1 to 3 days, the constituent ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Streptococcus sp. in the VAP group were higher than those in the Non-VAP group, and the ratios of Serratia sp. and Achromobacter sp. were lower. After 3 to 5 days, the ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., Serratia sp., and Achromobacter sp. were lower than those in the Non-VAP group. The richness and Shannon-Wiener index of the Non-VAP group were higher than those of the VAP group from 1 to 3 days after intubation, while no differences were found within 1 day and from 3 to 5 days. We conclude that during the first three days of intubation, the microflora diversity in the lower respiratory tract was reduced due to VAP, and the greater constituent ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Streptococcus sp. in the sputum may be indicators of VAP.

  3. Decreased insulin secretory response of pancreatic islets during culture in the presence of low glucose is associated with diminished 45Ca2+ net uptake, NADPH/NADP+ and GSH/GSSG ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verspohl, E.J.; Kaiser, P.; Wahl, M.; Ammon, H.P.T.

    1988-01-01

    In isolated rat pancreatic islets maintained at a physiologic glucose concentration (5.6 mM) the effect of glucose on parameters which are known to be involved in the insulin secretion coupling such as NADPH, reduced glutathione (GSH), 86 Rb + efflux, and 45 Ca ++ net uptake were investigated. The insulinotropic effect of 16.7 mM glucose was decreased with the period of culturing during the first 14 days being significant after 2 days though in control experiments both protein content and ATP levels per islet were not affected and insulin content was only slightly decreased. Both NADPH and GSH decreased with time of culture. 86 Rb + efflux which is decreased by enhancing the glucose concentration from 3 to 5.6 mM in freshly isolated islets was not affected by culturing whatsoever, even not after 14 days of culture when there was not longer any insulin responsiveness to glucose. The 45 Ca ++ net uptake was decreased during culturing. The data indicate (1) that the diminished glucose-stimulated release of insulin during culturing is not due to cell loss or simple energy disturbances, (2) that more likely it is the result of a diminished 45 Ca ++ net uptake as a consequence of the inability of islet cells to maintain proper NADPH and GSH levels, and (3) that potassium ( 86 Rb + ) efflux may not be related to changes of NADPH and GSH

  4. Systematic variations of 87Sr/56Sr ratios, Sr compositions, selected major-oxide concentrations, and mineral abundances in piston cores from the Red Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boger, P.D.; Boger, J.L.; Faure, G.

    1980-01-01

    A mixing model is presented which relates the concentrations of Sr to the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and concentrations of other elements contained in a mixture of two components. The model is applied to the measured 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, Sr, CaO, Fe 2 O 3 and SiO 2 concentrations of the detrital fractions of sediment from three piston cores representing different depositional environments in the Red Sea. The sediment is shown to be a mixture of two components derived from old sialic rocks and young volcanic rocks of the surrounding land masses. One of the cores contained a third component which is identified as authigenic Fe 2 O 3 . Removal of this contaminant is shown to return the system to its original detrital constituents. (Auth.)

  5. The pretransplant neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as a new prognostic predictor after liver transplantation for hepatocellular cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng-Guang; Ye, Cheng-Jie; Liu, Lin-Xun; Wu, Gang; Zhao, Zhan-Xue; Wang, Yong-Zhen; Shi, Bing-Qiang; Wang, Yong-Hong

    2018-02-01

    Recently, many reports showed that the pretransplant neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) may be correlated with the prognosis of patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular cancer (HCC). However, their results still remained controversial. Thus we performed a meta-analysis of 13 studies to estimate the prognostic value of pretransplant NLR. Databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched to September 2017. Hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR) with its 95% CI was used to evaluate the association between elevated NLR and the prognosis or clinical features of liver cancer patients. A total of 13 studies including 1936 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Elevated pretransplant NLR had a close association with the overall survival (HR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.34-3.68), recurrence-free survival (HR: 3.77; 95% CI: 2.01-7.06) and disease-free survival (HR: 2.51; 95% CI: 1.22-5.15) of patients undergoing LT for HCC, respectively. In addition, elevated NLR was associated with the presence of vascular invasion (OR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.20-4.77) and Milan criteria (OR: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.17-0.40). The results of this meta-analysis showed that elevated pretransplant NLR may be used as a new prognostic predictor after LT for HCC.

  6. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  7. Prognostic value of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio in oncologic outcomes of esophageal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangwei; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Linping; Sang, Shaowei; Zhang, Lin

    2018-04-01

    The platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is a useful prognostic factor in several cancers. However, the prognostic role of PLR in esophageal cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between PLR and the oncologic outcome of esophageal cancer patients through a meta-analysis. Relevant articles were researched from Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. The meta-analysis was performed using hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as effect measures. Finally, 19 articles with 6134 patients were included in our study. The summary results indicated that the elevated PLR was negatively related to overall survival (HR= 1.263; 95% CI 1.094, 1.458). The subgroup analysis revealed that increased PLR was associated with poor overall survival in esophageal cancer patients for Asians (HR=1.252; 95% CI 1.141, 1.373) but not for Caucasians (HR=1.463; 95% CI 0.611, 3.502). When the patients were segregated by pathological type, sample size, and HR estimate method, high PLR was also significantly correlated with poor overall survival. In contrast, elevated PLR was not statistically associated with disease-free survival or cancer-specific survival. High PLR is associated with poor overall survival in patients with esophageal cancer. PLR may be a significant predictive biomarker in patients with esophageal cancer. Further large-cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  8. Fetal cerebro-placental ratio and adverse perinatal outcome: systematic review and meta-analysis of the association and diagnostic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassr, Ahmed Abobakr; Abdelmagied, Ahmed M; Shazly, Sherif A M

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis is to assess the value of fetal cerebro-placental Doppler ratio (CPR) in predicting adverse perinatal outcome in pregnancies with fetal growth restriction (FGR). Three databases were used: MEDLINE, EMBASE (with online Ovid interface) and SCOPUS and studies from inception to April 2015 were included. Studies that reported perinatal outcomes of fetuses at risk of FGR or sonographically diagnosed FGR that were evaluated with CPR were considered eligible. Perinatal outcomes include cesarean section (CS) for fetal distress, APGAR scores at 5 min, neonatal complications and admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Pooled data were expressed as odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals (CI), and the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve was used to illustrate the diagnostic accuracy of CPR. Seven studies were eligible (1428 fetuses). Fetuses with abnormal CPR were at higher risk of CS for fetal distress (OR=4.49, 95% CI [1.63, 12.42]), lower APGAR scores (OR=4.01, 95% CI [2.65, 6.08]), admission to NICU (OR=9.65, 95% CI [3.02, 30.85]), and neonatal complications (OR=11.00, 95% [3.64, 15.37]) than fetuses who had normal CPR. These risks were higher among studies that included fetuses diagnosed with FGR than fetuses at risk of FGR. Abnormal CPR had higher diagnostic accuracy for adverse perinatal outcomes among "sonographically diagnosed FGR" studies than "at risk of FGR" studies. Abnormal CPR is associated with substantial risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. The test seems to be particularly useful for follow up of fetuses with sonographically diagnosed FGR.

  9. Correlation between nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and carbon to nitrogen (COD/N) ratio in denitrification process: a mitigation strategy to decrease greenhouse gas emission and cost of operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andalib, Mehran; Taher, Edris; Donohue, Joseph; Ledwell, Sam; Andersen, Mikkel H; Sangrey, Karla

    2018-01-01

    The reliability and accuracy of in-situ ion selective electrode and ultraviolet (NO x ) probes have been investigated at four different treatment plants with different operational conditions. This study shows that the mentioned probes tend to compromise their accuracy and trending stability at lower NO x of production at non-detect dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH of 7-7.2 were found to be a function of influent nitrogen load or the ratio of COD/N INFLUENT . Finally, using an N 2 O probe as a proxy sensor for nitrates is proposed as a measured variable in the PI feedback in the automation of the denitrification process with a NO x set point of <1.2 mg N/L).

  10. Juvenile helium in ancient rocks: II. U-He,K-Ar, Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr systematics in the Monche Pluton. 3He/4He ratios frozen in uranium-free ultramafic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstikhin, I.N.; Dokuchaeva, V.S.; Kamensky, I.L.; Amelin, Yu.V.

    1992-01-01

    The important geodynamic parameter, the 3 He/ 4 He ratio in rocks and fluids of the continental crust, is generally decreasing from the mantle values (≅ 10 -5 ) to the radiogenic ratio (≅ 10 -8 ) on the time scale of about 1 Ga or less. However, the ratios, observed in some ancient rocks and minerals, are much higher than the radiogenic value due to a preferential retention of trapped He, when compared with radiogenic helium and/or a low U/ 3 He ratio in a sample. The distribution of He, Ar, Nd, and Sr isotopes, K, Rb, Sm, and U in ultrabasic rocks, in rock-forming minerals, in ores from the 2.49 Ga Monche Pluton, and in basic rocks of the Main Range (the Kola Peninsula) enables one to distinguish sources of the rocks and trapped fluids and outline some peculiarities of petrogenetic and fluid processes. The initial values of var-epsilon Nd (T) = -0.9 ± 0.5 , 87 Sr/ 86 Sr(T) = 0.7021 ± 0.0002, for the 2.49 Ga Monche Pluton are rather similar to these for other layered intrusions of the Baltic Shield. They differ considerably from the model values for the depleted 2.5 Ga old mantle. The observed and rather different sources of 3 He and 4 He as well as the considerable constancy of their ratio in different minerals, separated from both the ultramafic rocks and gabbros, implies: (1) an intensive process of mixing between mantle and crustal components: a melt convection in the chamber may have occurred; (2) the two types of rocks could originate by crystallization differentiation of one and the same melt. Practically all 3 He and 4 He are concentrated in secondary amphiboles; hence the fluid which stimulated the metamorphic process was probably released from the ultramafite-bearing melt

  11. Increased platelet-lymphocyte ratio closely relates to inferior clinical features and worse long-term survival in both resected and metastatic colorectal cancer: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of 24 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nan; Li, Wanling; Huang, Kexin; Yang, Wenhao; Huang, Lin; Cong, Tianxin; Li, Qingfang; Qiu, Meng

    2017-05-09

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. However, the prognostic and clinical value of platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in colorectal cancer was still unclear, which attracted more and more researchers' considerable attention. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between PLR and survival as well as clinical features of CRC update to September 2016. The hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to access the association. We included 24 eligible studies with a total of 13719 patients. Elevated PLR predicted shorter overall survival (OS) (HR=1.47; 95%CI, 1.28-1.68; p<0.001), poorer disease-free survival (DFS) (HR=1.51; 95% CI, 1.2-1.91; p=0.001), and worse recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR=1.39; 95% CI, 1.03-1.86; p=0.03), but had nothing to do with Cancer-specific survival (CSS) (HR=1.14; 95% CI, 0.92-1.42; p=0.223). After trim and fill method, the connection between PLR and DFS disappeared (HR=1.143; 95%CI, 0.903-1.447; p=0.267). By subgroup analyze, we found that increased PLR predicated a worse OS and DFS in patients who underwent surgery, and this prognostic role also shown both in metastatic and nonmetastatic patients. In addition, elevated PLR was associated with poorly differentiated tumor (OR=1.51; 95% CI, 1.26-1.81; p<0.001), higher tumor stage (OR=1.25; 95% CI, 1.05-1.49; p=0.012), lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (OR=1.25; 95% CI, 1.09-1.43; p=0.001), and the recurrence of CRC (OR=2.78; 95% CI, 1.36-5.68; p=0.005). We indicated that pretreatment PLR was a good prognostic marker for CRC patients. High PLR was related to worse OS, RFS and poor clinical characteristics.

  12. Influence of face-centered-cubic texturing of Co2Fe6B2 pinned layer on tunneling magnetoresistance ratio decrease in Co2Fe6B2/MgO-based p-MTJ spin valves stacked with a [Co/Pd](n)-SyAF layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Yasutaka; Lee, Du-Yeong; Lee, Seung-Eun; Chae, Kyo-Suk; Shim, Tae-Hun; Lian, Guoda; Kim, Moon; Park, Jea-Gun

    2015-05-15

    The TMR ratio of Co2Fe6B2/MgO-based p-MTJ spin valves stacked with a [Co/Pd]n-SyAF layer decreased rapidly when the ex situ magnetic annealing temperature (Tex) was increased from 275 to 325 °C, and this decrease was associated with degradation of the Co2Fe6B2 pinned layer rather than the Co2Fe6B2 free layer. At a Tex above 325 °C the amorphous Co2Fe6B2 pinned layer was transformed into a face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystalline layer textured from [Co/Pd]n-SyAF, abruptly reducing the Δ1 coherence tunneling of perpendicular-spin-torque electrons between the (100) MgO tunneling barrier and the fcc Co2Fe6B2 pinned layer.

  13. Numerical analysis on the ion species ratios in a steady state hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Saeki, Setsuo; Osaki, Katashi; Sakiyama, Satoshi; Itatani, Ryohei.

    1984-07-01

    Ion species ratios in a hydrogen plasma are calculated systematically as a function of plasma parameters, i.e. the electron density, the electron temperature, the pressure of hydrogen gas and the plasma volume. Furthermore, in the present analysis, the recombination factor for hydrogen atoms at the wall surface of a vacuum vessel is treated as another plasma parameter. The most significant point is that ion species ratios depend strongly not only on plasma parameters, but also on the recombination factor. The proton ratio increases with decreasing value of the recombination factor. Primary electrons also play an important role for ion species ratios, and the presence of primary electrons causes the proton ratio to decrease. (author)

  14. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  15. Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review to Assess the Role of Soluble FMS-Like Tyrosine Kinase-1 and Placenta Growth Factor Ratio in Prediction of Preeclampsia: The SaPPPhirE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Swati; Cerdeira, Ana Sofia; Redman, Christopher; Vatish, Manu

    2018-02-01

    Preeclampsia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Numerous candidate biomarkers have been proposed for diagnosis and prediction of preeclampsia. Measurement of maternal circulating angiogenesis biomarker as the ratio of sFlt-1 (soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase-1; an antiangiogenic factor)/PlGF (placental growth factor; an angiogenic factor) reflects the antiangiogenic balance that characterizes incipient or overt preeclampsia. The ratio increases before the onset of the disease and thus may help in predicting preeclampsia. We conducted a meta-analysis to explore the predictive accuracy of sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in preeclampsia. We included 15 studies with 534 cases with preeclampsia and 19 587 controls. The ratio has a pooled sensitivity of 80% (95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.88), specificity of 92% (95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.96), positive likelihood ratio of 10.5 (95% confidence interval, 6.2-18.0), and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.22 (95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.35) in predicting preeclampsia in both high- and low-risk patients. Most of the studies have not made a distinction between early- and late-onset disease, and therefore, the analysis for it could not be done. It can prove to be a valuable screening tool for preeclampsia and may also help in decision-making, treatment stratification, and better resource allocation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Decreasing rates of disorganised attachment in infants and young children, who are at risk of developing, or who already have disorganised attachment. A systematic review and meta-analysis of early parenting interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Wright

    Full Text Available Disorganised attachment patterns in infants have been linked to later psychopathology. Services have variable practices for identifying and providing interventions for families of children with disorganised attachment patterns, which is the attachment pattern leading to most future psychopathology. Several recent government reports have highlighted the need for better parenting interventions in at risk groups.The objective of this review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of available parenting interventions for families of children at high risk of developing, or already showing, a disorganised pattern of attachment.Population: Studies were included if they involved parents or caregivers of young children with a mean age under 13 years who had a disorganised classification of attachment or were identified as at high risk of developing such problems. Included interventions were aimed at parents or caregivers (e.g. foster carers seeking to improve attachment. Comparators included an alternative intervention, an attention control, treatment as usual or no intervention. The primary outcome was a disorganised pattern in childhood measured using a validated attachment instrument. Studies that did not use a true Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT design were excluded from the review. Both published and unpublished papers were included, there were no restrictions on years since publication and foreign language papers were included where translation services could be accessed within necessary timescales.A comprehensive search of relevant databases yielded 15,298 papers. This paper reports a systematic review as part of an NIHR HTA study identifying studies pre-2012, updated to include all papers to October 2016. Two independent reviewers undertook two stage screening and data extraction of the included studies at all stages. A Cochrane quality assessment was carried out to assess the risk of bias. In total, fourteen studies were

  17. Second-order schedules of token reinforcement with pigeons: effects of fixed- and variable-ratio exchange schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T A; Hackenberg, T D; Vaidya, M

    2001-09-01

    Pigeons' key pecks produced food under second-order schedules of token reinforcement, with light-emitting diodes serving as token reinforcers. In Experiment 1, tokens were earned according to a fixed-ratio 50 schedule and were exchanged for food according to either fixed-ratio or variable-ratio exchange schedules, with schedule type varied across conditions. In Experiment 2, schedule type was varied within sessions using a multiple schedule. In one component, tokens were earned according to a fixed-ratio 50 schedule and exchanged according to a variable-ratio schedule. In the other component, tokens were earned according to a variable-ratio 50 schedule and exchanged according to a fixed-ratio schedule. In both experiments, the number of responses per exchange was varied parametrically across conditions, ranging from 50 to 400 responses. Response rates decreased systematically with increases in the fixed-ratio exchange schedules, but were much less affected by changes in the variable-ratio exchange schedules. Response rates were consistently higher under variable-ratio exchange schedules than tinder comparable fixed-ratio exchange schedules, especially at higher exchange ratios. These response-rate differences were due both to greater pre-ratio pausing and to lower local rates tinder the fixed-ratio exchange schedules. Local response rates increased with proximity to food under the higher fixed-ratio exchange schedules, indicative of discriminative control by the tokens.

  18. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky......We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...

  19. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  20. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...... rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker (J Econ Theory 64:178-201, 1994). This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule....

  1. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...

  2. Decreasing asthma morbidity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-12-12

    Dec 12, 1994 ... Apart from the optimal use of drugs, various supplementary methods have been tested to decrease asthma morbidity, usually in patients from reiatively affluent socio-economic backgrounds. A study of additional measures taken in a group of moderate to severe adult asthmatics from very poor socio- ...

  3. Possible systematic decreases in the age of globular clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, X. [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Schramm, D. N. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Dearborn, D. S.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Truran, J. W. [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The ages of globular clusters inferred from observations depends sensitively on assumptions like the initial helium abundance and the mass loss rate. A high helium abundance (e.g., Y\\approx0.28) or a mass loss rate of \\sim10^{-11}M_\\odot yr^{-1} near the main sequence turn-off region lowers the current age estimate from 14 Gyr to about 10--12 Gyr, significantly relaxing the constraints on the Hubble constant, allowing values as high as 60km/sec/Mpc for a universe with the critical density and 90km/sec/Mpc for a baryon-only universe. Possible mechanisms for the helium enhancement in globular clusters are discussed, as are arguments for an instability strip induced mass loss near the turn-off. Ages lower than 10 Gyr are not possible even with the operation of both of these mechanisms unless the initial helium abundance in globular clusters is >0.30, which would conflict with indirect measurements of helium abundances in globular clusters.

  4. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  5. Social determinants of common metabolic risk factors (high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high body mass index and high waist-hip ratio) of major non-communicable diseases in South Asia region: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sudesh Raj; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Wagle, Kusum; Page, Rachel; Matheson, Anna; Lambrick, Danielle; Faulkner, James; Lounsbury, David; Vaidya, Abhinav

    2017-09-07

    Prevalence of non-communicable diseases has been increasing at a greater pace in developing countries and, in particular, the South Asia region. Various behavioral, social and environmental factors present in this region perpetuate common metabolic risk factors of non-communicable diseases. This study will identify social determinants of common metabolic risk factors of major non-communicable diseases in the context of the South Asian region and map their causal pathway. A systematic review of selected articles will be carried out following Cochrane guidelines. Review will be guided by Social Determinants of Health Framework developed by the World Health Organization to extract social determinants of metabolic risk factors of non-communicable diseases from studies. A distinct search strategy will be applied using key words to screen relevant studies from online databases. Primary and grey literature published from the year 2000 to 2016 and studies with discussion on proximal and distal determinants of non-communicable risk factors among adults of the South Asia region will be selected. They will be further checked for quality, and a matrix illustrating contents of selected articles will be developed. Thematic content analysis will be done to trace social determinants and their interaction with metabolic risk factors. Findings will be illustrated in causal loop diagrams with social determinants of risk factors along with their interaction (feedback mechanism). The review will describe the interplay of social determinants of common NCD metabolic risk factors in the form of causal loop diagram. Findings will be structured in two parts: the first part will explain the linkage between proximal determinants with the metabolic risk factors and the second part will describe the linkage among the risk factors, proximal determinants and distal determinants. Evidences across different regions will be discussed to compare and validate and/or contrast the findings. Possible

  6. Drug ratio-dependent antagonism: a new category of multidrug resistance and strategies for its circumvention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, Troy O; Liboiron, Barry D; Mayer, Lawrence D

    2010-01-01

    A newly identified form of multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cells is presented, pertaining to the commonly encountered resistance of cancer cells to anticancer drug combinations at discrete drug:drug ratios. In vitro studies have revealed that whether anticancer drug combinations interact synergistically or antagonistically can depend on the ratio of the combined agents. Failure to control drug ratios in vivo due to uncoordinated pharmacokinetics could therefore lead to drug resistance if tumor cells are exposed to antagonistic drug ratios. Consequently, the most efficacious drug combination may not occur at the typically employed maximum tolerated doses of the combined drugs if this leads to antagonistic ratios in vivo after administration and resistance to therapeutic effects of the drug combination. Our approach to systematically screen a wide range of drug ratios and concentrations and encapsulate the drug combination in a liposomal delivery vehicle at identified synergistic ratios represents a means to mitigate this drug ratio-dependent MDR mechanism. The in vivo efficacy of the improved agents (CombiPlex formulations) is demonstrated and contrasted with the decreased efficacy when drug combinations are exposed to tumor cells in vivo at antagonistic ratios.

  7. INVENTORY DECISIONS WITH DECREASING PURCHASING COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    XIANGPEI HU; HUIMIN WANG; YUNZENG WANG

    2012-01-01

    Costs of many items drop systematically throughout their life-cycles, due to advances in technology and competition. Motivated by the management of service parts for some high-tech products, this paper studies inventory decisions for such items. In a periodic review setting with stochastic demand, we model the purchasing costs of successive periods as a stochastic and decreasing sequence. Unit selling price of the item is determined as some mark-up of the purchasing cost and, hence, will chan...

  8. VVER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (author)

  9. WWER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (Authors)

  10. Sharpening Sharpe Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Jonathan E. Ingersoll Jr.; Matthew I. Spiegel; Ivo Welch

    2002-01-01

    It is now well known that the Sharpe ratio and other related reward-to-risk measures may be manipulated with option-like strategies. In this paper we derive the general conditions for achieving the maximum expected Sharpe ratio. We derive static rules for achieving the maximum Sharpe ratio with two or more options, as well as a continuum of derivative contracts. The optimal strategy has a truncated right tail and a fat left tail. We also derive dynamic rules for increasing the Sharpe ratio. O...

  11. Experience from long-term monitoring of RAKR ratios in 192Ir brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson Tedgren, Asa; Bengtsson, Emil; Hedtjaern, Hakan; Johansson, Asa; Karlsson, Leif; Lamm, Inger-Lena; Lundell, Marie; Mejaddem, Younes; Munck af Rosenschoeld, Per; Nilsson, Josef; Wieslander, Elinore; Wolke, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    Background: Ratios of values of brachytherapy source strengths, as measured by hospitals and vendors, comprise constant differences as, e.g., systematic errors in ion chamber calibration factors and measurement setup. Such ratios therefore have the potential to reveal the systematic changes in routines or calibration services at either the hospital or the vendor laboratory, which could otherwise be hidden by the uncertainty in the source strength values. Methods: The RAKR of each new source in 13 afterloading units at five hospitals were measured by well-type ion chambers and compared to values for the same source stated on vendor certificates. Results: Differences from unity in the ratios of RAKR values determined by hospitals and vendors are most often small and stable around their mean values to within ±1.5%. Larger deviations are rare but occur. A decreasing ratio, seen at two hospitals for the same source, was useful in detecting an erroneous pressure gauge at the vendor's site. Conclusions: Establishing a mean ratio of RAKR values, as measured at the hospital and supplied on the vendor certificate, and monitoring this as a function of time are an easy way for the early detection of problems with equipment or routines at either the hospital or the vendor site

  12. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  14. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers

  15. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....... hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...

  16. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  17. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  18. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  19. GEP/GMP ratio by polarization transfer in (rvec e)p → e(rvec p)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark Jones; Konrad Aniol; Baker, F.; Berthot, J.; Pierre Bertin; William Bertozzi; Auguste Besson; Louis Bimbot; Werner Boeglin; Edward Brash; Brown, D.; John Calarco; Lawrence Cardman; Chang, C.; Jian-Ping Chen; Eugene Chudakov; Steve Churchwell; Evaristo Cisbani; Daniel Dale; Raffaele De Leo; Alexandre Deur; Brian Diederich; John Domingo; Martin Epstein; Lars Ewell; Kevin Fissum; Fleck, A.; Helene Fonvieille; Salvatore Frullani; Juncai Gao; Franco Garibaldi; Ashot Gasparian; Gerstner, G. M.; Shalev Gilad; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Charles Glashausser; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; Alphonza Green; Jens-Ole Hansen; Calvin Howell; Garth Huber; Mauro Iodice; Cornelis de Jager; Stephanie Jaminion; Xiaodong Jiang; Kahl, William E.; James Kelly; Mohammad Khayat; Laird Kramer; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Michael Kuss; Lakuriki, E.; Geraud Laveissiere; John LeRose; Meihua Liang; Richard Lindgren; Nilanga Liyanage; George Lolos; Macri, R.; Richard Madey; Sergey Malov; Demetrius Margaziotis; Pete Markowitz; Kathy McCormick; Justin McIntyre; Meer, Rob van der; Robert Michaels; Brian Milbrath; Jean Mougey; Sirish Nanda; Ed Offermann; Zisis Papandreou; Charles Perdrisat; Gerassimos Petratos; Nikolai Piskunov; Roman Pomatsalyuk; David Prout; Vina Punjabi; Gilles Quemener; Ronald Ransome; Brian Raue; Yves Roblin; Julie Roche; Gary Rutledge; Paul Rutt; Arunava Saha; Teijiro Saito; Adam Sarty; Smith, T. P.; Sorokin, P.; Steffen Strauch; Riad Suleiman; Kazunori Takahashi; Jeffrey Templon; Luminita Todor; Paul Ulmer; Guido Urciuoli; Pascal Vernin; Branislav Vlahovic; Voskanian, H.; Krishni Wijesooriya; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Rhett Woo; Feng Xiong; Dan Zainea; Zilu Zhou

    2000-01-01

    The ratio of the proton's elastic electromagnetic form factors, G(E p )/G(M p ) was obtained by measuring P i and P l , the transverse and the longitudinal recoil proton polarization, respectively. For elastic ep to ep, G(E p )/G(M p ) is proportional to P t /P l . Simultaneous measurement of P t and P l in a polarimeter provides good control of the systematic uncertainty. The results for the ratio G(E p )/G(M p ) show a systematic decrease as Q 2 increases from 0.5 to 3.5 GeV 2 , indicating for the first time a definite difference in the spatial distribution of charge and magnetization currents in the proton

  20. Transformer ratio enhancement experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.; Power, J. G.; Kanareykin, A.; Neasheva, E.; Altmark, A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a multibunch scheme for efficient acceleration based on dielectric wakefield accelerator technology was outlined in J.G. Power, W. Gai, A. Kanareykin, X. Sun. PAC 2001 Proceedings, pp. 114-116, 2002. In this paper we present an experimental program for the design, development and demonstration of an Enhanced Transformer Ratio Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (ETR-DWA). The principal goal is to increase the transformer ratio R, the parameter that characterizes the energy transfer efficiency from the accelerating structure to the accelerated electron beam. We present here an experimental design of a 13.625 GHz dielectric loaded accelerating structure, a laser multisplitter producing a ramped bunch train, and simulations of the bunch train parameters required. Experimental results of the accelerating structure bench testing and ramped pulsed train generation with the laser multisplitter are shown as well. Using beam dynamic simulations, we also obtain the focusing FODO lattice parameters

  1. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  2. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle

    Title: Systematic review a method to promote nursing students skills in Evidence Based Practice Background: Department of nursing educate students to practice Evidence Based Practice (EBP), where clinical decisions is based on the best available evidence, patient preference, clinical experience...... and resources available. In order to incorporate evidence in clinical decisions, nursing students need to learn how to transfer knowledge in order to utilize evidence in clinical decisions. The method of systematic review can be one approach to achieve this in nursing education. Method: As an associate lecturer...... I have taken a Comprehensive Systematic Review Training course provide by Center of Clinical Guidelines in Denmark and Jonna Briggs Institute (JBI) and practice in developing a systematic review on how patients with ischemic heart disease experiences peer support. This insight and experience...

  3. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  4. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The ‘prospective potential support ratio’ has been proposed by researchers as a measure that accurately quantifies the burden of ageing, by identifying the fraction of a population that has passed a certain measure of longevity, for example, 17 years of life expectancy. Nevertheless......, the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models...

  5. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  6. Crown ratio influences allometric scaling in trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annikki Makela; Harry T. Valentine

    2006-01-01

    Allometric theories suggest that the size and shape of organisms follow universal rules, with a tendency toward quarter-power scaling. In woody plants, however, structure is influenced by branch death and shedding, which leads to decreasing crown ratios, accumulation of heartwood, and stem and branch tapering. This paper examines the impacts on allometric scaling of...

  7. O uso de vernizes fluoretados e a redução da incidência de cárie dentária em pré-escolares: uma revisão sistemática Fluoride varnishes and decrease in caries incidence in preschool children: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Martins Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta revisão sistemática foi verificar se existe evidência conclusiva de que o verniz fluoretado reduz a incidência de cárie dentária em pré-escolares. Foram feitas buscas nas bases eletrônicas BBO, LILACS, MEDLINE e Cochrane para identificar ensaios clínicos controlados que avaliassem o desenvolvimento de lesões cavitadas de cárie em crianças com até seis anos de idade. Dois pesquisadores analisaram criticamente os trabalhos selecionados para inclusão. Foram encontrados 513 artigos e oito foram incluídos. Esses estudos apresentaram problemas quanto ao desenho e, além disso, eram heterogêneos quanto à experiência prévia de cárie dos participantes, ao tipo de intervenção administrada ao grupo controle, à exposição das crianças a outras fontes de fluoretos, e ao intervalo entre as aplicações de verniz. As diferenças absolutas entre as incidências de cárie nos grupos controle e teste e as frações prevenidas variaram de 0,30 a 1,64 e de 5 a 63%, respectivamente. O verniz fluoretado parece ser efetivo para reduzir a incidência de cárie dentária em pré-escolares, mas outros ensaios clínicos de melhor qualidade metodológica são necessários para se obter evidência conclusiva a esse respeito.The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate whether there is conclusive evidence that the professional application of fluoride varnish decreases the incidence of dental caries in preschool children. We searched the BBO, LILACS, MEDLINE and Cochrane electronic databases to identify controlled clinical trials that evaluated the development of cavitated caries lesions in children up to six years of age. Two researchers performed a critical appraisal of the studies selected for inclusion. Five-hundred and thirteen articles were found, but only eight met our inclusion criteria. Most of these eight studies were of poor methodological quality. They were also heterogeneous in relation to participants

  8. Mapping and defining sources of variability in bioavailable strontium isotope ratios in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Gideon; Richards, Mike

    2014-02-01

    The relative contributions of bedrock and atmospheric sources to bioavailable strontium (Sr) pools in local soils was studied in Northern Israel and the Golan regions through intensive systematic sampling of modern plants and invertebrates, to produce a map of modern bioavailable strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) for regional reconstructions of human and animal mobility patterns. The study investigates sources of variability in bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr ratios, in particular the intra-and inter-site range of variation in plant 87Sr/86Sr ratios, the range of 87Sr/86Sr ratios of plants growing on marine sedimentary versus volcanic geologies, the differences between ligneous and non-ligneous plants with varying growth and water utilization strategies, and the relative contribution of atmospheric Sr sources from different soil and vegetation types and climatic zones. Results indicate predictable variation in 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Inter- and intra-site differences in bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr ratios average of 0.00025, while the range of 87Sr/86Sr ratios measured regionally in plants and invertebrates is 0.7090 in Pleistocene calcareous sandstone and 0.7074 in mid-Pleistocene volcanic pyroclast. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios measured in plants growing on volcanic bedrock show time dependent increases in atmospheric deposition relative to bedrock weathering. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios measured in plants growing on renzina soils depends on precipitation. The spacing between bedrock 87Sr/86Sr ratios and plants is highest in wet conditions and decreases in dry conditions. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios measured in plants growing on terra rossa soils is relatively constant (0.7085) regardless of precipitation. Ligneous plants are typically closer to bedrock 87Sr/86Sr ratios than non-ligneous plants. Since the bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr ratios currently measured in the region reflect a mix of both exogenous and endogenous sources, changes in the relative contribution of exogenous sources can cause variation

  9. Growth phase significantly decreases the DHA-to-EPA ratio in marine microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Peter; Van Mastrigt, Audrey; Van De Bovenkamp, Henk H.; Heeres, Hero J.; Buma, Anita G. J.

    Microalgae are the principal producers of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in marine ecosystems. Algae are used in aquaculture systems as direct or indirect feed for zooplankton, filter-feeding mollusks and larval

  10. The Liquidity Coverage Ratio: the need for further complementary ratios?

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers components of the Liquidity Coverage Ratio – as well as certain prevailing gaps which may necessitate the introduction of a complementary liquidity ratio. The definitions and objectives accorded to the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) highlight the focus which is accorded to time horizons for funding bank operations. A ratio which would focus on the rate of liquidity transformations and which could also serve as a complementary metric gi...

  11. Electronic branching ratio of the τ lepton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Coppage, D.; Davis, R.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Ro, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Nemati, B.; Romero, V.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, P.; Zoeller, M.M.; Crawford, G.; Fulton, R.; Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Malchow, R.; Morrow, F.; Sung, M.K.; Whitmore, J.; Wilson, P.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Lambrecht, M.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Wang, P.; Bortoletto, D.; Brown, D.N.; Dominick, J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Shibata, E.I.; Schaffner, S.F.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Kroha, H.; Roberts, S.; Sparks, K.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.; Stroynowski, R.; Artuso, M.; Goldberg, M.; Haupt, T.; Horwitz, N.; Kennett, R.; Moneti, G.C.; Playfer, S.; Rozen, Y.; Rubin, P.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Thulasidas, M.; Yao, W.; Zhu, G.; Barnes, A.V.; Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Jain, V.; Letson, T.; Mestayer, M.D.; Akerib, D.S.; Barish, B.; Chadha, M.; Cowen, D.F.; Eigen, G.; Miller, J.S.; Urheim, J.; Weinstein, A.J.; Morrison, R.J.; Tajima, H.; Schmidt, D.; Sperka, D.; Procario, M.; Daoudi, M.; Ford, W.T.; Johnson, D.R.; Lingel, K.; Lohner, M.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.; Alexander, J.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Besson, D.; Browder, T.E.; Cassel, D.G.; Cheu, E.; Coffman, D.M.; Drell, P.S.; Ehrlich, R.; Galik, R.S.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Geiser, B.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Honscheid, K.; Jones, C.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kim, P.C.; Kreinick, D.L.; Ludwig, G.S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N.B.; Nandi, S.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; O'Grady, C.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Sapper, M.; Selen, M.; Worden, H.; Worris, M.; Wuerthwein, F.; Avery, P.; Freyberger, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Yelton, J.; Henderson, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Pipkin, F.; Saulnier, M.; Wilson, R.; Wolinski, J.; Xiao, D.; Yamamoto, H.; Sadoff, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Using data accumulated by the CLEO I detector operating at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have measured the ratio R=Γ(τ→e bar ν e ν τ )/Γ 1 , where Γ 1 is the τ decay rate to final states with one charged particle. We find R=0.2231±0.0044±0.0073 where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. Together with the measured topological one-charged-particle branching fraction, this yields the branching fraction of the τ lepton to electrons, B e =0.192±0.004±0.006

  12. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lødrup, Anders Bergh; Reimer, Christina; Bytzer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in getting off acid-suppressive medication and partly explain the increase in long-term use of PPI. A number of studies addressing this issue have been published recently. The authors aimed to systematically review the existing evidence of clinically relevant symptoms caused by acid rebound following PPI...

  13. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Troels Dreier; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Palshof, Jesper Andreas

    2016-01-01

    to earlier diagnosis and improved survival. Method: In this paper, we describe the incidence as well as characteristics associated with BM based on a systematic review of the current literature, following the PRISMA guidelines. Results: We show that the incidence of BM in CRC patients ranges from 0.6 to 3...

  14. Energy Profit Ratio Compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

  15. A method of encountering the ratio of adjacent sides and its applied study in nuclear engineering survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jingqin

    1996-01-01

    The cross side or range net survey method is to compute the average error of the measured lengths of sides. With the increment of the side length, the viewing variance increases greatly. Generally the photo-electrical distance survey equipment has a high inside precision, but it is affected by typical weather error so that the outside precision is decreased, and this weather error similar to systematic error greatly decreases the viewing side precision. To solve this problem, theoretical study and field test were carried out for the correlation of ratios among short sides by photo-electrical survey, and the stability degree of the ratios of sides, a new method of ratio encountering of adjacent sides is put forward. Because of the weights of the ration variance σ γ 2 = 2η 2 γ 2 and the angular variance σ β 2 = 2J 2 ρ 2 match each other, so the systematic error can be eliminated completely, and a survey point co-ordinate of high precision can be obtained. It is easy to operate, as it does not require multi-photo-band survey or to operate at the optimal observation time, and is especially suitable to nuclear engineering survey applications. (3 tabs.)

  16. Overcoming the inhibitory effect of serum on lipofection by increasing the charge ratio of cationic liposome to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J P; Huang, L

    1997-09-01

    Since cationic liposome was first developed as a lipofection reagent, a drawback has been noted in that the efficiency of lipofection decreases dramatically after addition of serum to the lipofection medium. This drawback hampers the application of cationic liposome for systematic delivery of genes. In the present studies, we found that the effect of serum on DC-chol liposome-mediated lipofection is dependent on the charge ratio of liposome to DNA. Serum inhibited lipofection activity of the lipoplex at low charge ratios, whereas it enhanced the lipofection activity at high charge ratios. This phenomenon was observed using DOTAP/DOPE but not lipofectamine. Measurement of cellular association of DNA showed that serum could reduce the binding of lipoplex to cells at all tested charge ratios, i.e. 0-10.6. Removal of negatively charged proteins from serum by DEAE Sephacel column abolished the inhibitory effect of serum on lipofection. The fraction contained only negatively charged serum proteins which strongly inhibited lipofection at low charge ratios but not at higher charge ratios. Furthermore, preincubation of serum with positively charged polylysine, which neutralized negatively charged serum proteins, eliminated the inhibitory effect of serum on lipofection. In summary, inactivation of cationic liposome by serum is due to negatively charged serum proteins and it can be overcome by increasing charge ratio of cationic liposome-DNA lipoplexes or by neutralizing the serum with polylysine.

  17. Débito cardíaco diminuído: revisão sistemática das características definidoras Débito cardíaco disminuído: revisión sistemática de las características definidoras Decreased cardiac output: a systematic review of the defining characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Souza

    2011-01-01

    explorada. Se constató la importancia del examen físico, la utilización de técnicas menos invasivas y la necesidad de revisar las características definidoras propuestas a fin de proporcionar claridad y objetividad en la identificación de ese diagnóstico de enfermeríaOBJECTIVES: To characterize the scientific articles related to the NANDA-I nursing diagnosis, decreased cardiac output. Verify those articles that describe the behavior of the defining characteristics of this diagnosis, identifying those that occur with the highest frequency. METHODS: A systematic review of literature published between the years 1985 - 2008 was conducted, using the following databases: Lilacs, SciELO, EMBASE, Medline, Pubmed and Cochrane. RESULTS: The sample included 13 articles which identified 50 defining characteristics. Ten characteristics were noted to occur with high frequency: altered heart rate/rhythm, dyspnea, labile blood pressure, rales, oliguria / anuria, edema, cold skin, fatigue / weakness, decreased peripheral pulses and decreased peripheral perfusion. CONCLUSION: This subject has not been explored in depth in the literature. The importance of physical examination, the use of less invasive techniques, and the need to review the proposed defining characteristics to provide clarity and objectivity in the identification of this nursing diagnosis was identified

  18. Airplane radiation dose decrease during a strong Forbush decrease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spurný, František; Kudela, K.; Dachev, T.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 2, S05001 (2004), s. 1-4 ISSN 1542-7390 Grant - others:EC project(XE) FIGM-CT2000-00068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : airplane dose * Forbush decrease * cosmic rays Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  19. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Palle; Chauhan, Usha; Greveson, Kay

    2017-01-01

    of evidence is needed and the aim of this article was to systematically review the evidence of IBD advice lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A broad systematic literature search was performed to identify relevant studies addressing the effect of advice lines. The process of selection of the retrieved studies...... was undertaken in two phases. In phase one, all abstracts were review by two independent reviewers. In phase two, the full text of all included studies were independently reviewed by two reviewers. The included studies underwent quality assessment and data synthesis. RESULTS: Ten published studies and 10...... congress abstracts were included in the review. The studies were heterogeneous both in scientific quality and in the focus of the study. No rigorous evidence was found to support that advice lines improve disease activity in IBD and correspondingly no studies reported worsening in disease activity. Advice...

  20. Systematic Avocating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Green

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeling obliged to undertake complex research tasks outside core working hours is a common occurrence in academia. Detailed and timely research projects are expected; the creation and defence of sufficient intervals within a crowded working schedule is one concern explored in this short version paper. Merely working longer hours fails to provide a satisfactory solution for individuals experiencing concerns of this nature. Personal effort and drive are utilised and requires the application of mental mustering and systematic procedures. The attitude to research work is treating the task as a hobby conceptualised as avocating. Whilst this provides a personal solution through immersion in the task, this approach should raise concerns for employers. The flexibility of grounded theory is evident and the freedom to draw on various bodies of knowledge provides fresh insight into a problem that occurs in organizations in many sectors experiencing multiple priorities. The application of the core category, systematic avocating, may prove beneficial.

  1. Effects of porosity on seismic velocities, elastic moduli and Poisson's ratios of solid materials and rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbo Yu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The generalized mixture rule (GMR is used to provide a unified framework for describing Young's (E, shear (G and bulk (K moduli, Lame parameter (λ, and P- and S-wave velocities (Vp and Vs as a function of porosity in various isotropic materials such as metals, ceramics and rocks. The characteristic J values of the GMR for E, G, K and λ of each material are systematically different and display consistent correlations with the Poisson's ratio of the nonporous material (ν0. For the materials dominated by corner-shaped pores, the fixed point at which the effective Poisson's ratio (ν remains constant is at ν0 = 0.2, and J(G > J(E > J(K > J(λ and J(G  0.2 and ν0  J(Vp and J(Vs  0.2 and ν0  0.2 and ν0 = 0.2, respectively. For natural rocks containing thin-disk-shaped pores parallel to mineral cleavages, grain boundaries and foliation, however, the ν fixed point decreases nonlinearly with decreasing pore aspect ratio (α: width/length. With increasing depth or pressure, cracks with smaller α values are progressively closed, making the ν fixed point rise and finally reach to the point at ν0 = 0.2.

  2. [Why is bread consumption decreasing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, M F; Chabert, C; Serville, Y

    1977-01-01

    In France bread plays a very special and ambivalent role among our foodstuffs because of the considerable drop in its consumption, its alleged harmful effects on our health and the respect in which it is traditionally held. More than half the 1 089 adults interviewed in this study say they have decreased their consumption of bread in the last 10 years. The reasons given vary according to age, body weight and urbanization level. The main reasons given for this restriction are the desire to prevent or reduce obesity, the decrease in physical activity, the general reduction in food consumption and the possibility of diversifying foods even further. Moreover, the decreasing appeal of bread in relation to other foods, as well as a modification in the structure of meals, in which bread becomes less useful to accompany other food, accentuate this loss of attraction. However, the respect for bread as part of the staple diet remains very acute as 95 p. 100 of those interviewed express a reluctance to throw bread away, more for cultural than economic reasons. Mechanization and urbanization having brought about a decrease in energy needs, the most common alimentary adaptation is general caloric restriction by which glucids, and especially bread, are curtailed.

  3. Endogenous Opiate System and Systematic Desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Kelly J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Administered intravenous infusions to phobic patients prior to systematic desensitization. Saline-infused subjects significantly demonstrated the predicted symptom decrease in response to systematic desensitization, whereas naloxone-infused subjects showed no change. Subject reports and psychophysiological measures of arousal indicated no…

  4. Magical thinking decreases across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashier, Nadia M; Multhaup, Kristi S

    2017-12-01

    Magical thinking, or illogical causal reasoning such as superstitions, decreases across childhood, but almost no data speak to whether this developmental trajectory continues across the life span. In four experiments, magical thinking decreased across adulthood. This pattern replicated across two judgment domains and could not be explained by age-related differences in tolerance of ambiguity, domain-specific knowledge, or search for meaning. These data complement and extend findings that experience, accumulated over decades, guides older adults' judgments so that they match, or even exceed, young adults' performance. They also counter participants' expectations, and cultural sayings (e.g., "old wives' tales"), that suggest that older adults are especially superstitious. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Interaction between behavioral and pharmacological treatment strategies to decrease cocaine choice in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E; Negus, S Stevens

    2013-02-01

    Behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic approaches constitute two prominent strategies for treating cocaine dependence. This study investigated interactions between behavioral and pharmacological strategies in a preclinical model of cocaine vs food choice. Six rhesus monkeys, implanted with a chronic indwelling double-lumen venous catheter, initially responded under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio (FR) 100 schedule) and cocaine injections (0-0.1 mg/kg/injection, FR 10 schedule) during continuous 7-day treatment periods with saline or the agonist medication phenmetrazine (0.032-0.1 mg/kg/h). Subsequently, the FR response requirement for cocaine or food was varied (food, FR 100; cocaine, FR 1-100; cocaine, FR 10; food, FR 10-300), and effects of phenmetrazine on cocaine vs food choice were redetermined. Decreases in the cocaine FR or increases in the food FR resulted in leftward shifts in the cocaine choice dose-effect curve, whereas increases in the cocaine FR or decreases in the food FR resulted in rightward shifts in the cocaine choice dose-effect curve. The efficacy of phenmetrazine to decrease cocaine choice varied systematically as a function of the prevailing response requirements, such that phenmetrazine efficacy was greatest when cocaine choice was maintained by relatively low unit cocaine doses. These results suggest that efficacy of pharmacotherapies to modulate cocaine use can be influenced by behavioral contingencies of cocaine availability. Agonist medications may be most effective under contingencies that engender choice of relatively low cocaine doses.

  6. Does fertility decrease household consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Kim; Henriette Engelhardt; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz; Arnstein Aassve

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between fertility and a direct measure of poverty for Indonesia, a country, which has experienced unprecedented economic growth and sharp fertility declines over recent decades. It focuses on illustrating the sensitivity of the effect of fertility on household consumption with respect to the equivalence scale by applying the propensity score matching method. The analysis suggests that a newborn child decreases household consumption...

  7. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  8. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  9. Technologies for Decreasing Mining Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgma, Ingo; Väizene, Vivika; Kolats, Margit; Saarnak, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In case of stratified deposits like oil shale deposit in Estonia, mining losses depend on mining technologies. Current research focuses on extraction and separation possibilities of mineral resources. Selective mining, selective crushing and separation tests have been performed, showing possibilities of decreasing mining losses. Rock crushing and screening process simulations were used for optimizing rock fractions. In addition mine backfilling, fine separation, and optimized drilling and blasting have been analyzed. All tested methods show potential and depend on mineral usage. Usage in addition depends on the utilization technology. The questions like stability of the material flow and influences of the quality fluctuations to the final yield are raised.

  10. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-time bacteremia in Funen County, Denmark, during 2000-2008 (N = 7786). We reported mean and annual incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years), overall and by place of acquisition. Trends were estimated using a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate was 215.7, including 99.0 for community......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p incidence rate of community-acquired bacteremia decreased by 25.6% from 119.0 to 93.8 (3.7% annually, p

  11. Price of forest chips decreasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2001-01-01

    Use of forest chips was studied in 1999 in the national Puuenergia (Wood Energy) research program. Wood combusting heating plants were questioned about are the main reasons restricting the increment of the use of forest chips. Heating plants, which did not use forest chips at all or which used less than 250 m 3 (625 bulk- m 3 ) in 1999 were excluded. The main restrictions for additional use of forest chips were: too high price of forest chips; lack of suppliers and/or uncertainty of deliveries; technical problems of reception and processing of forest chips; insufficiency of boiler output especially in winter; and unsatisfactory quality of chips. The price of forest chips becomes relatively high because wood biomass used for production of forest chips has to be collected from wide area. Heavy equipment has to be used even though small fragments of wood are processed, which increases the price of chips. It is essential for forest chips that the costs can be pressed down because competition with fossil fuels, peat and industrial wood residues is hard. Low market price leads to the situation in which forest owner gets no price of the raw material, the entrepreneurs operate at the limit of profitability and renovation of machinery is difficult, and forest chips suppliers have to sell the chips at prime costs. Price of forest chips has decreased significantly during the past decade. Nominal price of forest chips is now lower than two decades ago. The real price of chips has decreased even more than the nominal price, 35% during the past decade and 20% during the last five years. Chips, made of small diameter wood, are expensive because the price includes the felling costs and harvesting is carried out at thinning lots. Price is especially high if chips are made of delimbed small diameter wood due to increased the work and reduced amount of chips. The price of logging residue chips is most profitable because cutting does not cause additional costs. Recovery of chips is

  12. Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1980-06-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated the potential for producing a viable longburn tokamak reactor by enhancing the volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer through the use of high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were assessed in the context of extended burn operation. Using a one-dimensional transport code plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the startup and shutdown portions of the tokamak cycle. A representative large aspect ratio tokamak with an aspect ratio of 8 was found to achieve a burn time of 3.5 h at capital cost only approx. 25% greater than that of a moderate aspect ratio design tokamak

  13. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  14. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, S.; Munakata, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Using data from neutron monitors and muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, the average rigidity spectrum of Forbush decreases (Fds) during the period of 1978-1982 were obtained. Thirty eight Ed-events are classified into two groups, Hard Fd and Soft FD according to size of Fd at the Sakashita station. It is found that a spectral form of a fractional-power type (P to the-gamma sub 1 (P+P sub c) to the -gamma sub2) is more suitable than that of a power-exponential type or of a power type with an upper limiting rigidity. The best fitted spectrum of the fractional-power type is expressed by gamma sub1 = 0.37, gamma sub2 = 0.89 and P subc = 10 GV for Hard Fd and gamma sub1 = 0.77, gamma sub2 = 1.02 and P sub c - 14GV for Soft Fd

  15. Method of decreasing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Hiromi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To easily attain the power decreasing in a HWLWR type reactor and improve the reactor safety. Method: The method is applied to a nuclear reactor in which the reactor reactivity is controlled by control rods and liquid posions dissolved in moderators. Means for forecasting the control rod operation amount required for the reactor power down and means for removing liquid poisons in the moderators are provided. The control rod operation amount required for the power down is forecast before the power down and the liquid poisons in the moderators are removed. Then, the control rods are inserted into a deep insertion position to reduce the reactor power. This invention can facilitate easy power down, as well as provide effects of improving the controllability in the usual operation and of avoiding abrupt power down which leads to an improved availability. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. Breastfeeding Is Associated with Decreased Childhood Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kristen P; Kremer, Theodore R

    Child maltreatment has serious implications for youth outcomes, yet its associations with early parenting practices are not fully understood. This study investigated whether breastfeeding practices are correlated with childhood maltreatment. Data were utilized from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a nationally representative and longitudinal study of adolescents. The analytic sample comprised 4,159 adolescents. The outcome variables included four subtypes of childhood maltreatment (neglect, inadequate supervision, physical abuse, and sexual abuse). The primary independent variable was breastfeeding duration. Covariates of the child, mother, and household were included in analyses. Logistic regression models were employed to predict odds of maltreatment subtypes from breastfeeding duration and covariates. Compared with adolescents never breastfed, adolescents breastfed 9 months or longer had a reduced odds of having experienced neglect (odds ratio [OR] = 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35-0.83) and sexual abuse (OR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.24-0.93) after controlling for covariates. Breastfeeding duration is significantly associated with decreased childhood neglect and sexual abuse. Breastfeeding practices should be explored as a consideration among clinicians when assessing maltreatment risk. Further research should examine whether a causal relationship exists between breastfeeding and decreased maltreatment.

  17. Effect of H/C ratio on coal ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1988-09-01

    The Cahn balance technique was found to be suitable for estimating ignition temperature and its dependence on the H/C ratio of the coal. This temperature decreased with increasing H/C ratio of coals. For coals a linear correlation between H/C ratio and the temperature was established. Chars derived from the coals deviated from the linear correlation established on coals. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  19. A theory of behaviour on progressive ratio schedules, with applications in behavioural pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, C M; Killeen, P R

    2012-08-01

    Mathematical principles of reinforcement (MPR) provide the theoretical basis for a family of models of schedule-controlled behaviour. A model of fixed-ratio schedule performance that was applied to behaviour on progressive ratio (PR) schedules showed systematic departures from the data. This study aims to derive a new model from MPR that will account for overall and running response rates in the component ratios of PR schedules, and their decline toward 0, the breakpoint. The role of pausing is represented in a real-time model containing four parameters: T (0) and k are the intercept and slope of the linear relation between post-reinforcement pause duration and the prior inter-reinforcer interval; a (specific activation) measures the incentive value of the reinforcer; δ (response time) sets biomechanical limits on response rate. Running rate is predicted to decrease with negative acceleration as ratio size increments, overall rate to increase and then decrease. Differences due to type of progression are explained as hysteresis in the control by reinforcement rates. Re-analysis of extant data focuses on the effects of acute treatment with antipsychotic drugs, lesions of the nucleus accumbens core, and destruction of orexinergic neurones of the lateral hypothalamus. The new model resolves some anomalies evident in earlier analyses, and provides new insights to the results of these interventions. Because they can render biologically relevant parameters, mathematical models can provide greater power in interpreting the effects of interventions on the processes underlying schedule-controlled behaviour than is possible for first-order data such as the breakpoint.

  20. Deriving aerosol scattering ratio using range-resolved lidar ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... ratio (LDR) are used to suggest the type of aerosols. The altitude-dependent ... to the station and the experimentally measured lidar data. The 'model ... The integrated aerosol extinction profile with altitude-dependent S and k.

  1. RATIO_TOOL - SOFTWARE FOR COMPUTING IMAGE RATIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, G. L.

    1994-01-01

    Geological studies analyze spectral data in order to gain information on surface materials. RATIO_TOOL is an interactive program for viewing and analyzing large multispectral image data sets that have been created by an imaging spectrometer. While the standard approach to classification of multispectral data is to match the spectrum for each input pixel against a library of known mineral spectra, RATIO_TOOL uses ratios of spectral bands in order to spot significant areas of interest within a multispectral image. Each image band can be viewed iteratively, or a selected image band of the data set can be requested and displayed. When the image ratios are computed, the result is displayed as a gray scale image. At this point a histogram option helps in viewing the distribution of values. A thresholding option can then be used to segment the ratio image result into two to four classes. The segmented image is then color coded to indicate threshold classes and displayed alongside the gray scale image. RATIO_TOOL is written in C language for Sun series computers running SunOS 4.0 and later. It requires the XView toolkit and the OpenWindows window manager (version 2.0 or 3.0). The XView toolkit is distributed with Open Windows. A color monitor is also required. The standard distribution medium for RATIO_TOOL is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. An electronic copy of the documentation is included on the program media. RATIO_TOOL was developed in 1992 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Sun, SunOS, and OpenWindows are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories.

  2. Effect of silane/hydrogen ratio on microcrystalline silicon thin films by remote inductively coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y. N.; Wei, D. Y.; Xiao, S. Q.; Huang, S. Y.; Zhou, H. P.; Xu, S.

    2013-05-01

    Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) thin films were prepared by remote low frequency inductively coupled plasma (ICP) chemical vapor deposition system, and the effect of silane/hydrogen ratio on the microstructure and electrical properties of μc-Si:H films was systematically investigated. As silane/hydrogen ratio increases, the crystalline volume fraction Fc decreases and the ratio of the intensity of (220) peak to that of (111) peak drops as silane flow rate is increased. The FTIR result indicates that the μc-Si:H films prepared by remote ICP have a high optical response with a low hydrogen content, which is in favor of reducing light-induced degradation effect. Furthermore, the processing window of the phase transition region for remote ICP is much wider than that for typical ICP. The photosensitivity of μc-Si:H films can exceed 100 at the transition region and this ensures the possibility of the fabrication of microcrystalline silicon thin film solar cells with a open-circuit voltage of about 700 mV.

  3. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  4. Output factors and scatter ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, P N; Summers, R E; Samulski, T V; Baird, L C [Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA); Ahuja, A S; Dubuque, G L; Hendee, W R; Chhabra, A S

    1979-07-01

    Reference is made to a previous publication on output factors and scatter ratios for radiotherapy units in which it was suggested that the output factor should be included in the definitions of scatter-air ratio and tissue-maximum ratio. In the present correspondence from other authors and from the authors of the previous publication, the original definitions and the proposed changes are discussed. Radiation scatter from source and collimator degradation of beam energy and calculation of dose in tissue are considered in relation to the objective of accurate dosimetry.

  5. Large aspect ratio tokamak study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Sardella, C.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) investigated the potential for producing a viable long burn tokamak reactor through enhanced volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer by employing high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were accessed in the context of extended burn operation. Plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed using a one-dimensional transport code. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the field in the ohmic heating coil and the wave shape of the ohmic heating discharge. A high aspect ratio reference reactor was chosen and configured

  6. Revisiting the concept of Redfield ratios applied to plankton stoichiometry - Addressing model uncertainties with respect to the choice of C:N:P ratios for phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreus, Markus; Paetsch, Johannes; Grosse, Fabian; Lenhart, Hermann; Peck, Myron; Pohlmann, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Ongoing Ocean Acidification (OA) and climate change related trends impact on physical (temperature), chemical (CO2 buffer capacity) and biological (stoichiometric) properties of the marine environment. These threats affect the global ocean but they appear particularly pronounced in marginal and shelf seas. Marine biogeochemical models are often used to investigate the impacts of climate change and changes in OA on the marine system as well as its exchange with the atmosphere. Different studies showed that both the structural composition of the models and the elemental ratios of particulate organic matter in the surface ocean affect the key processes controlling the ocean's efficiency storing atmospheric excess carbon. Recent studies focus on the variability of the elemental ratios of phytoplankton and found that the high plasticity of C:N:P ratios enables the storage of large amounts of carbon by incorporation into carbohydrates and lipids. Our analysis focuses on the North Sea, a temperate European shelf sea, for the period 2000-2014. We performed an ensemble of model runs differing only in phytoplankton stoichiometry, representing combinations of C:P = [132.5, 106, 79.5] and N:P=[20, 16, 12] (i.e., Redfield ratio +/- 25%). We examine systematically the variations in annual averages of net primary production (NPP), net ecosystem production in the upper 30 m (NEP30), export production below 30 m depth (EXP30), and the air-sea flux of CO2 (ASF). Ensemble average fluxes (and standard deviations) resulted in NPP = 15.4 (2.8) mol C m-2 a-1, NEP30 = 5.4 (1.1) mol C m-2 a-1, EXP30 = 8.1 (1.1) mol C m-2 a-1 and ASF = 1.1 (0.5) mol C m-2 a-1. All key parameters exhibit only minor variations along the axis of constant C:N, but correlate positively with increasing C:P and decreasing N:P ratios. Concerning regional differences, lowest variations in local fluxes due to different stoichiometric ratios can be found in the shallow southern and coastal North Sea. Highest

  7. Arcjet nozzle area ratio effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  8. Arcjet Nozzle Area Ratio Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  9. Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, C; Henriksen, TB; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries....... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...

  10. Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...

  11. Measurement of Tau Branching Ratios to Five Charged Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Doucet, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Stumpf, L.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1999-01-01

    The branching ratios of the decay of the tau lepton to five charged hadrons have been measured with the OPAL detector at LEP using data collected between 1991 and 1995 at e+e- centre-of-mass energies close to the Z resonance. The branching ratios are measured to be BR(tau- to 3h-2h+nutau) = 0.091+-0.014+-0.005% BR(tau- to 3h-2h+pi0nutau) = 0.027+-0.018+-0.007% where the first error is statistical and the second systematic.

  12. Isotope yield ratios as a probe of the reaction dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trautmann, W.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Lynen, U.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Rabe, H.J.; Sann, H.; Stelzer, H.; Trockel, R.; Wada, R.; Brummund, N.; Glasow, R.; Kampert, K.H.; Santo, R.; Eckert, E.M.; Pochodzalla, J.; Bock, I.; Pelte, D.

    1987-04-01

    Isotopically resolved yields of particles and complex fragments from 12 C and 18 O induced reactions on 53 Ni, 54 Ni, Ag, and 197 Au in the intermediate range of bombarding energies 30 MeV ≤ E/A ≤ 84 MeV were measured. The systematic variation of the deduced isotope yield ratios with projectile and target is used to determine the degree of N/Z equilibration achieved and to establish time scales for the reaction process. A quantum statistical model is employed in order to derive entropies of the emitting systems from the measured isotope yield ratios. (orig.)

  13. Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang

    2012-01-01

    In a Fisher market, a market maker sells m items to n potential buyers. The buyers submit their utility functions and money endowments to the market maker, who, upon receiving submitted information, derives market equilibrium prices and allocations of its items. While agents may benefit...... by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....

  14. DPOAE generation dependence on primary frequencies ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Teresa; Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; D'Amato, Luisa; Sanjust, Filippo

    2015-12-01

    Two different mechanisms are responsible for the DPOAE generation. The nonlinear distortion wave-fixed mechanism generates the DPOAE Zero-Latency (ZL) component, as a backward traveling wave from the "overlap" region. Linear reflection of the forward DP wave (IDP) generates the DPOAE Long-Latency (LL) component through a place-fixed mechanism. ZL and LL components add up vectorially to generate the DPOAE recorded in the ear canal. The 2f1 - f2 and 2f2 - f1 DPOAE intensity depends on the stimulus level and on the primary frequency ratio r = f2/f1, where f1 and f2 are the primary stimuli frequencies. Here we study the behavior of the ZL and LL DPOAE components as a function of r by both numerical and laboratory experiments, measuring DPAOEs with an equal primary levels (L1 = L2) paradigm in the range [35, 75] dB SPL, with r ranging in [1.1, 1.45]. Numerical simulations of a nonlocal nonlinear model have been performed without cochlear roughness, to suppress the linear reflection mechanism. In this way the model solution at the base represents the DPOAE ZL component, and the solution at the corresponding DPOAE tonotopic place corresponds to the IDP. This technique has been not effectual to study the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE, as a consequence of its generation mechanism. While the 2f1 - f2 generation place is known to be the tonotopic place x(f2), the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE one has to be assumed basal to its corresponding reflection place. That is because ZL components generated in x(f2) cannot significantly pass through their resonant place. Moreover increasing the ratio r, 2f2 - f1 ZL and LL generation place approach each other, because the overlap region of primary tones decreases. Consequently, the distinction between the two places becomes complicated. DPOAEs have been measured in six young normal-hearing subjects. DPOAE ZL and LL components have been separated by a time-frequency filtering method based on the wavelet transform 1. due to their different phase gradient delay

  15. Bicep2. III. INSTRUMENTAL SYSTEMATICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aikin, R. W.; Bock, J. J.; Brevik, J. A.; Filippini, J. P.; Golwala, S. R.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Barkats, D.; Benton, S. J.; Bischoff, C. A.; Buder, I.; Karkare, K. S.; Bullock, E.; Dowell, C. D.; Duband, L.; Fliescher, S.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.

    2015-01-01

    In a companion paper, we have reported a >5σ detection of degree scale B-mode polarization at 150 GHz by the Bicep2 experiment. Here we provide a detailed study of potential instrumental systematic contamination to that measurement. We focus extensively on spurious polarization that can potentially arise from beam imperfections. We present a heuristic classification of beam imperfections according to their symmetries and uniformities, and discuss how resulting contamination adds or cancels in maps that combine observations made at multiple orientations of the telescope about its boresight axis. We introduce a technique, which we call “deprojection,” for filtering the leading order beam-induced contamination from time-ordered data, and show that it reduces power in Bicep2's actual and null-test BB spectra consistent with predictions using high signal-to-noise beam shape measurements. We detail the simulation pipeline that we use to directly simulate instrumental systematics and the calibration data used as input to that pipeline. Finally, we present the constraints on BB contamination from individual sources of potential systematics. We find that systematics contribute BB power that is a factor of ∼10× below Bicep2's three-year statistical uncertainty, and negligible compared to the observed BB signal. The contribution to the best-fit tensor/scalar ratio is at a level equivalent to r = (3–6) × 10 −3

  16. Bicep2. III. INSTRUMENTAL SYSTEMATICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, P. A. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Aikin, R. W.; Bock, J. J.; Brevik, J. A.; Filippini, J. P.; Golwala, S. R.; Hildebrandt, S. R. [Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Barkats, D. [Joint ALMA Observatory, ESO, Santiago (Chile); Benton, S. J. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bischoff, C. A.; Buder, I.; Karkare, K. S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS 42, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bullock, E. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dowell, C. D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Duband, L. [SBT, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France); Fliescher, S. [Department of Physics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D., E-mail: csheehy@uchicago.edu [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Collaboration: Bicep2 Collaboration; and others

    2015-12-01

    In a companion paper, we have reported a >5σ detection of degree scale B-mode polarization at 150 GHz by the Bicep2 experiment. Here we provide a detailed study of potential instrumental systematic contamination to that measurement. We focus extensively on spurious polarization that can potentially arise from beam imperfections. We present a heuristic classification of beam imperfections according to their symmetries and uniformities, and discuss how resulting contamination adds or cancels in maps that combine observations made at multiple orientations of the telescope about its boresight axis. We introduce a technique, which we call “deprojection,” for filtering the leading order beam-induced contamination from time-ordered data, and show that it reduces power in Bicep2's actual and null-test BB spectra consistent with predictions using high signal-to-noise beam shape measurements. We detail the simulation pipeline that we use to directly simulate instrumental systematics and the calibration data used as input to that pipeline. Finally, we present the constraints on BB contamination from individual sources of potential systematics. We find that systematics contribute BB power that is a factor of ∼10× below Bicep2's three-year statistical uncertainty, and negligible compared to the observed BB signal. The contribution to the best-fit tensor/scalar ratio is at a level equivalent to r = (3–6) × 10{sup −3}.

  17. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...

  18. Global Carbon Reservoir Oxidative Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration move carbon and oxygen between the atmosphere and the biosphere at a ratio that is characteristic of the biogeochemical processes involved. This ratio is called the oxidative ratio (OR) of photosynthesis and respiration, and is defined as the ratio of moles of O2 per moles of CO2. This O2/CO2 ratio is a characteristic of biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes, much like the 13C signature of CO2 transferred between the biosphere and the atmosphere has a characteristic signature. OR values vary on a scale of 0 (CO2) to 2 (CH4), with most ecosystem values clustered between 0.9 and 1.2. Just as 13C can be measured for both carbon fluxes and carbon pools, OR can also be measured for fluxes and pools and can provide information about the processes involved in carbon and oxygen cycling. OR values also provide information about reservoir organic geochemistry because pool OR values are proportional to the oxidation state of carbon (Cox) in the reservoir. OR may prove to be a particularly valuable biogeochemical tracer because of its ability to couple information about ecosystem gas fluxes with ecosystem organic geochemistry. We have developed 3 methods to measure the OR of ecosystem carbon reservoirs and intercalibrated them to assure that they yield accurate, intercomparable data. Using these tools we have built a large enough database of biomass and soil OR values that it is now possible to consider the implications of global patterns in ecosystem OR values. Here we present a map of the natural range in ecosystem OR values and begin to consider its implications. One striking pattern is an apparent offset between soil and biospheric OR values: soil OR values are frequently higher than that of their source biomass. We discuss this trend in the context of soil organic geochemistry and gas fluxes.

  19. Insulin-induced decrease in protein phosphorylation in rat adipocytes not explained by decreased A-kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, J.J.; Greenberg, A.S.; Chang, M.K.; Londos, C.

    1987-01-01

    In isolated rat adipocytes, insulin inhibits lipolysis to a greater extent than would be predicted by the decrease in (-/+)cAMP activity ratio of cAMP-dependent protein kinase [A-kinase], from which it was speculated that insulin promotes the dephosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase. They have examined the phosphorylation state of cellular proteins under conditions of varying A-kinase activities in the presence and absence of insulin. Protein phosphorylation was determined by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of extracts from 32 P-loaded cells; glycerol and A-kinase activity ratios were measured in the cytosolic extracts from control, non-radioactive cells. Increased protein phosphorylation in general occurred over the same range of A-kinase activity ratios, 0.1-0.3, associated with increased glycerol release. The insulin-induced decrease in lipolysis was associated with a decrease in the 32 P content of several proteins, an effect not explained by the modest reduction in A-kinase activity by insulin. This effect of insulin on protein phosphorylation was lost as the A-kinase activity ratios exceeded 0.5. The results suggest that insulin promotes the dephosphorylation of those adipocyte proteins which are subject to phosphorylation by A-kinase

  20. Concurrent progressive-ratio schedules: built-in controls in the study of delayed reward efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmolowicz, David P; Hudnall, Jennifer L

    2014-08-15

    Delayed rewards maintain lower rates of operant responding than immediate rewards, and when given a choice between immediate and delayed rewards, individuals typically choose the immediate reward, even when it is smaller (a phenomenon called delay discounting). The behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying these behavioral patterns, however, are not conclusively understood. The present study developed a method to examine the efficacy of delayed rewards in a way that is suitable for pharmacological manipulation of delayed reward efficacy (while controlling for general changes in reward efficacy). The progressive ratio (PR) paradigm often used to examine reward efficacy was modified such that two PR schedules for lever pressing concurrently yet independently were presented. Across a series of conditions, a range of delays (3-81s) were arranged on one of the levers while the reward on the other lever remained immediate. PR breakpoints (the highest ratio completed on each lever, our measure of reward efficacy) systematically decreased on the delayed, but not on the immediate reward lever, suggesting that delays decreased reward efficacy. This decrease in breakpoint resulted in bias in within-session responding that was accounted for by models that adjusted reward value by the delay to that reward. Unlike the standard PR paradigm, the present arrangement provided the controls needed to differentiate delay specific from general changes in reward efficacy. The present method should be helpful in the study of the behavioral and neural mechanisms of delayed reward efficacy. Modifications of the present paradigm should be useful for pharmacological studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, Steven J.; Hoffman, Edward A.; Bays, Samuel E.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 ('burners') do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 ('breeders') have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is 'attractive' for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR 1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found among the higher actinides, so the neutron emission varies much stronger with CR, about three orders of magnitude.

  2. Antidepressants Are Effective in Decreasing Neuropathic Pain After SCI: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Swati; Guy, Stacey; Lam, Tracey; Teasell, Robert; Loh, Eldon

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review and assess the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants for neuropathic pain among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). A systematic search was conducted using multiple databases for relevant articles published from 1980 to April 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving antidepressant treatment of neuropathic pain with ≥ 3 individuals and ≥ 50% of study population with SCI were included. Two independent reviewers selected studies based on inclusion criteria and then extracted data. Pooled analysis using Cohen's d to calculate standardized mean difference, standard error, and 95% confidence interval for primary (pain) and other secondary outcomes was conducted. Four RCTs met inclusion criteria. Of these, 2 studies assessed amitriptyline, 1 trazadone, and 1 duloxetine among individuals with neuropathic SCI pain. A small effect was seen in the effectiveness of antidepressants in decreasing pain among individuals with SCI (standardized mean difference = 0.34 ± 0.15; 95% CI, 0.05-0.62; P = .02). A number needed to treat of 3.4 for 30% or more pain relief was found by pooling 2 studies. Of these, significantly higher risk of experiencing constipation (risk ratio [RR] = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.09-2.78; P = .02) and dry mouth (RR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.04-1.85; P = .02) was found amongst individuals receiving antidepressant treatment compared to those in the control group. The current meta-analysis demonstrates that antidepressants are effective in reducing neuropathic SCI pain. However, this should be interpreted with caution due to the limited number of studies. Further evaluation of long-term therapeutic options may be required.

  3. GUT Scale Fermion Mass Ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We present a series of recent works related to group theoretical factors from GUT symmetry breaking which lead to predictions for the ratios of quark and lepton Yukawa couplings at the unification scale. New predictions for the GUT scale ratios y μ /y s , y τ /y b and y t /y b in particular are shown and compared to experimental data. For this comparison it is important to include possibly large supersymmetric threshold corrections. Due to this reason the structure of the fermion masses at the GUT scale depends on TeV scale physics and makes GUT scale physics testable at the LHC. We also discuss how this new predictions might lead to predictions for mixing angles by discussing the example of the recently measured last missing leptonic mixing angle θ 13 making this new class of GUT models also testable in neutrino experiments

  4. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... is a general tendency to focus on numerators and pay insufficient attention to denominators in ratios. Using a population-based survey experiment, I demonstrate how differently framed but logically equivalent representations of the exact same numerical value can have large effects on citizens’ preferences...... regarding salient political issues such as education and taxes. Furthermore, the effects of numerical framing are found across most groups of the population, largely regardless of their political predisposition and their general ability to understand and use numerical information. These findings have...

  5. On the uncertainties of photon mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, Pedro; Burns, David T.; Salvat, Francesc

    2012-04-01

    A systematic analysis of the available data has been carried out for mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for air, graphite and water for photon energies between 1 keV and 2 MeV, using representative kilovoltage x-ray spectra for mammography and diagnostic radiology below 100 kV, and for 192Ir and 60Co gamma-ray spectra. The aim of this work was to establish ‘an envelope of uncertainty’ based on the spread of the available data. Type A uncertainties were determined from the results of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations with the PENELOPE and EGSnrc systems, yielding mean values for µen/ρ with a given statistical standard uncertainty. Type B estimates were based on two groupings. The first grouping consisted of MC calculations based on a similar implementation but using different data and/or approximations. The second grouping was formed by various datasets, obtained by different authors or methods using the same or different basic data, and with different implementations (analytical, MC-based, or a combination of the two); these datasets were the compilations of NIST, Hubbell, Johns-Cunningham, Attix and Higgins, plus MC calculations with PENELOPE and EGSnrc. The combined standard uncertainty, uc, for the µen/ρ values for the mammography x-ray spectra is 2.5%, decreasing gradually to 1.6% for kilovoltage x-ray spectra up to 100 kV. For 60Co and 192Ir, uc is approximately 0.1%. The Type B uncertainty analysis for the ratios of µen/ρ values includes four methods of analysis and concludes that for the present data the assumption that the data interval represents 95% confidence limits is a good compromise. For the mammography x-ray spectra, the combined standard uncertainties of (µen/ρ)graphite,air and (µen/ρ)graphite,water are 1.5%, and 0.5% for (µen/ρ)water,air, decreasing gradually down to uc = 0.1% for the three µen/ρ ratios for the gamma-ray spectra. The present estimates are shown to coincide well with those of Hubbell (1977 Rad. Res

  6. High aspect ratio spheromak experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, S.; Schmid, P.

    1987-05-01

    The Reversatron RFP (R/a = 50cm/8cm) has been operated as an ohmically heated spheromak of high aspect ratio. We find that the dynamo can drive the toroidal field upward at rates as high as 10 6 G/sec. Discharges can be initiated and ramped upward from seed fields as low as 50 G. Small toroidal bias fields of either polarity (-0.2 < F < 0.2) do not significantly affect operation. 5 refs., 3 figs

  7. Regulation of the Docosapentaenoic Acid/Docosahexaenoic Acid Ratio (DPA/DHA Ratio) in Schizochytrium limacinum B4D1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Li, Huidong; Chen, Wuxi; Zhao, Minli; Cui, Haiyang; Min, Qingsong; Wang, Haijun; Chen, Shulin; Li, Demao

    2017-05-01

    Docosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratio (DPA/DHA ratio) in Schizochytrium was relatively stable. But ideally the ratio of DPA/DHA will vary according to the desired end use. This study reports several ways of modulating the DPA/DHA ratio. Incubation times changed the DPA/DHA ratio, and changes in this ratio were associated with the variations in the saturated fatty acid (SFAs) content. Propionic acid sharply increased the SFAs content in lipids, dramatically decreased the even-chain SFAs content, and reduced the DPA/DHA ratio. Pentanoic acid (C5:0) and heptanoic acid (C7:0) had similar effects as propionic acid, whereas butyric acid (C4:0), hexanoic acid (C6:0), and octanoic acid (C8:0) did not change the fatty acid profile and the DPA/DHA ratio. Transcription analyses show that β-oxidation might be responsible for this phenomenon. Iodoacetamide upregulated polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase genes, reduced the DHA content, and improved the DPA content, causing the DPA/DHA ratio to increase. These results present new insights into the regulation of the DPA/DHA ratio.

  8. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low

  9. Statin therapy in lower limb peripheral arterial disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, George A; Fisher, Robert K; Georgiadis, George S; Antoniou, Stavros A; Torella, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    To investigate and analyse the existing evidence supporting statin therapy in patients with lower limb atherosclerotic arterial disease. A systematic search of electronic information sources was undertaken to identify studies comparing cardiovascular outcomes in patients with lower limb peripheral arterial disease treated with a statin and those not receiving a statin. Estimates were combined applying fixed- or random-effects models. Twelve observational cohort studies and two randomised trials reporting 19,368 patients were selected. Statin therapy was associated with reduced all-cause mortality (odds ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.46-0.78) and incidence of stroke (odds ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.67-0.89). A trend towards improved cardiovascular mortality (odds ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.35-1.11), myocardial infarction (odds ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.38-1.01), and the composite of death/myocardial infarction/stroke (odds ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.81-1.03), was identified. Meta-analyses of studies performing adjustments showed decreased all-cause mortality in statin users (hazard ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.68-0.86). Evidence supporting statins' protective role in patients with lower limb peripheral arterial disease is insufficient. Statin therapy seems to be effective in reducing all-cause mortality and the incidence cerebrovascular events in patients diagnosed with peripheral arterial disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Glucocorticosteroids Associated With a Decreased Risk of Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Laan, Wijnand; Smeets, Hugo; de Wit, Niek J.; Kahn, Rene S.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Burger, Huibert

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that chronic inflammation may play a role in psychosis receives increasing attention. In this study, we aim to investigate whether the use of steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is associated with a decreased risk of psychosis. A longitudinal nested case-control study was performed investigating the association of glucocorticosteroid (GCS) consumption with a new diagnosis of a psychotic disorder. Significantly reduced odds ratios of 0.52 (95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.75) were ...

  11. The systematization of practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2002-01-01

    this paper presents an approach for the systematization of practical experiences whitin Operations Research, Community work, Systems Sciences, Action Research, etc. A case study is presented: the systematization of the activities of a development center in Denmark.......this paper presents an approach for the systematization of practical experiences whitin Operations Research, Community work, Systems Sciences, Action Research, etc. A case study is presented: the systematization of the activities of a development center in Denmark....

  12. Positioning of electrode plane systematically influences EIT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger-Ziolek, Sabine; Schullcke, Benjamin; Kretschmer, Jörn; Möller, Knut; Zhao, Zhanqi; Müller-Lisse, Ullrich

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, the impact of electrode positioning on electrical impedance tomography (EIT) had not been systematically analyzed due to the lack of a reference method. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of electrode positioning on EIT imaging in spontaneously breathing subjects at different ventilation levels with our novel lung function measurement setup combining EIT and body plethysmography. EIT measurements were conducted in three transverse planes between the 3rd and 4th intercostal space (ICS), at the 5th ICS and between the 6th and 7th ICS (named as cranial, middle and caudal) on 12 healthy subjects. Pulmonary function tests were performed simultaneously by body plethysmography to determine functional residual capacity (FRC), vital capacity (VC), tidal volume (VT), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), and inspiratory reserve volume (IRV). Ratios of impedance changes and body plethysmographic volumes were calculated for every thorax plane (ΔI_E_R_V/ERV, ΔI_V_T/VT and ΔI_I_R_V/IRV). In all measurements of a subject, FRC values and VC values differed ≤5%, which confirmed that subjects were breathing at comparable end-expiratory levels and with similar efforts. In the cranial thorax plane the normalized ΔI_E_R_V/ERV ratio in all subjects was significantly higher than the normalized ΔI_I_R_V/IRV ratio whereas the opposite was found in the caudal chest plane. No significant difference between the two normalized ratios was found in the middle thoracic plane. Depending on electrode positioning, impedance to volume ratios may either increase or decrease in the same lung condition, which may lead to opposite clinical decisions. (paper)

  13. Positioning of electrode plane systematically influences EIT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger-Ziolek, Sabine; Schullcke, Benjamin; Kretschmer, Jörn; Müller-Lisse, Ullrich; Möller, Knut; Zhao, Zhanqi

    2015-06-01

    Up to now, the impact of electrode positioning on electrical impedance tomography (EIT) had not been systematically analyzed due to the lack of a reference method. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of electrode positioning on EIT imaging in spontaneously breathing subjects at different ventilation levels with our novel lung function measurement setup combining EIT and body plethysmography. EIT measurements were conducted in three transverse planes between the 3rd and 4th intercostal space (ICS), at the 5th ICS and between the 6th and 7th ICS (named as cranial, middle and caudal) on 12 healthy subjects. Pulmonary function tests were performed simultaneously by body plethysmography to determine functional residual capacity (FRC), vital capacity (VC), tidal volume (VT), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), and inspiratory reserve volume (IRV). Ratios of impedance changes and body plethysmographic volumes were calculated for every thorax plane (ΔIERV/ERV, ΔIVT/VT and ΔIIRV/IRV). In all measurements of a subject, FRC values and VC values differed ≤5%, which confirmed that subjects were breathing at comparable end-expiratory levels and with similar efforts. In the cranial thorax plane the normalized ΔIERV/ERV ratio in all subjects was significantly higher than the normalized ΔIIRV/IRV ratio whereas the opposite was found in the caudal chest plane. No significant difference between the two normalized ratios was found in the middle thoracic plane. Depending on electrode positioning, impedance to volume ratios may either increase or decrease in the same lung condition, which may lead to opposite clinical decisions.

  14. Reproducibility of isotope ratio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, D.

    1981-01-01

    The use of an accelerator as part of a mass spectrometer has improved the sensitivity for measuring low levels of long-lived radionuclides by several orders of magnitude. However, the complexity of a large tandem accelerator and beam transport system has made it difficult to match the precision of low energy mass spectrometry. Although uncertainties for accelerator measured isotope ratios as low as 1% have been obtained under favorable conditions, most errors quoted in the literature for natural samples are in the 5 to 20% range. These errors are dominated by statistics and generally the reproducibility is unknown since the samples are only measured once

  15. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  16. Multi-isocenter stereotactic radiotherapy: implications for target dose distributions of systematic and random localization errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, M.A.; Zavgorodni, S.F.; Kendrick, L.A.; Weston, S.; Harper, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation examined the effect of alignment and localization errors on dose distributions in stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) with arced circular fields. In particular, it was desired to determine the effect of systematic and random localization errors on multi-isocenter treatments. Methods and Materials: A research version of the FastPlan system from Surgical Navigation Technologies was used to generate a series of SRT plans of varying complexity. These plans were used to examine the influence of random setup errors by recalculating dose distributions with successive setup errors convolved into the off-axis ratio data tables used in the dose calculation. The influence of systematic errors was investigated by displacing isocenters from their planned positions. Results: For single-isocenter plans, it is found that the influences of setup error are strongly dependent on the size of the target volume, with minimum doses decreasing most significantly with increasing random and systematic alignment error. For multi-isocenter plans, similar variations in target dose are encountered, with this result benefiting from the conventional method of prescribing to a lower isodose value for multi-isocenter treatments relative to single-isocenter treatments. Conclusions: It is recommended that the systematic errors associated with target localization in SRT be tracked via a thorough quality assurance program, and that random setup errors be minimized by use of a sufficiently robust relocation system. These errors should also be accounted for by incorporating corrections into the treatment planning algorithm or, alternatively, by inclusion of sufficient margins in target definition

  17. Efficacy of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Prophylaxis for Heterotrophic Ossification in Hip Arthroscopy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Marco; Jamshidi, Sahab; Horner, Nolan; Simunovic, Nicole; Karlsson, Jon; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) prophylaxis for preventing heterotopic ossification (HO) in the setting of hip arthroscopy. A systematic search was performed in duplicate for studies comparing the use of NSAID prophylaxis for HO in the setting of hip arthroscopy until March 2015. Study parameters--including sample size, incidence of HO, adverse effects, and level of symptoms--were obtained. Furthermore, the level of evidence of studies was collected and quality assessment was performed. The difference in incidence as well as pooled odds ratios were calculated and analyzed to compare no prophylaxis versus NSAID prophylaxis. This systematic review identified 5 studies, consisting of 1,662 patients, investigating NSAID prophylaxis in hip arthroscopy. HO was diagnosed with the use of postoperative hip radiographs at follow-up, with 95% of cases classified using the Brooker classification. The incidence of HO was 13.4% without NSAID prophylaxis and 3.3% with NSAID prophylaxis. Pooled odds ratios from the prospective studies were 0.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02 to 0.28; P = .0002; I(2) = 0%), showing with statistical significance that NSAID prophylaxis decreased the incidence of HO. The retrospective data similarly showed pooled odds ratios of 0.03 (95% CI, 0.00 to 1.43); P = .08; I(2) = 84%), although it was not statistically significant. Most of the patients who experienced HO in both groups were not reported to be symptomatic. Adverse effects and compliance were not consistently reported. The available orthopaedic literature suggests that the incidence of postoperative HO may be decreased with the use of NSAID prophylaxis in hip arthroscopy. However, the evidence is unclear regarding NSAID drug regimen choice, drug compliance, and adverse effects. Level III, systematic review of Level I, Level II, and Level III studies. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North

  18. Carbon isotope ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hitoshi; Kishima, Noriaki; Tsutaki, Yasuhiro.

    1982-01-01

    The delta 13 C values relative to PDB were measured for carbon dioxide in air samples collected at various parts of Japan and at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii in the periods of 1977 and 1978. The delta 13 C values of the ''clean air'' are -7.6 % at Hawaii and -8.1 per mille Oki and Hachijo-jima islands. These values are definitely lighter than the carbon isotope ratios (-6.9 per mille) obtained by Keeling for clean airs collected at Southern California in 1955 to 1956. The increase in 12 C in atmospheric carbon dioxide is attributed to the input of the anthropogenic light carbon dioxides (combustion of fossil fuels etc.) Taking -7.6 per mille to be the isotope ratio of CO 2 in the present clean air, a simple three box model predicts that the biosphere has decreased rather than increased since 1955, implying that it is acting as the doner of carbon rather than the sink. (author)

  19. Using Ratio Analysis to Evaluate Financial Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The ways in which ratio analysis can help in long-range planning, budgeting, and asset management to strengthen financial performance and help avoid financial difficulties are explained. Types of ratios considered include balance sheet ratios, net operating ratios, and contribution and demand ratios. (MSE)

  20. Phosphorus limitation and heat stress decrease calcification in Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerecht, Andrea C.; Šupraha, Luka; Langer, Gerald; Henderiks, Jorijntje

    2018-02-01

    Calcifying haptophytes (coccolithophores) sequester carbon in the form of organic and inorganic cellular components (coccoliths). We examined the effect of phosphorus (P) limitation and heat stress on particulate organic and inorganic carbon (calcite) production in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Both environmental stressors are related to rising CO2 levels and affect carbon production in marine microalgae, which in turn impacts biogeochemical cycling. Using semi-continuous cultures, we show that P limitation and heat stress decrease the calcification rate in E. huxleyi. However, using batch cultures, we show that different culturing approaches (batch versus semi-continuous) induce different physiologies. This affects the ratio of particulate inorganic (PIC) to organic carbon (POC) and complicates general predictions on the effect of P limitation on the PIC  /  POC ratio. We found heat stress to increase P requirements in E. huxleyi, possibly leading to lower standing stocks in a warmer ocean, especially if this is linked to lower nutrient input. In summary, the predicted rise in global temperature and resulting decrease in nutrient availability may decrease CO2 sequestration by E. huxleyi through lower overall carbon production. Additionally, the export of carbon may be diminished by a decrease in calcification and a weaker coccolith ballasting effect.

  1. Phosphorus limitation and heat stress decrease calcification in Emiliania huxleyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Gerecht

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcifying haptophytes (coccolithophores sequester carbon in the form of organic and inorganic cellular components (coccoliths. We examined the effect of phosphorus (P limitation and heat stress on particulate organic and inorganic carbon (calcite production in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Both environmental stressors are related to rising CO2 levels and affect carbon production in marine microalgae, which in turn impacts biogeochemical cycling. Using semi-continuous cultures, we show that P limitation and heat stress decrease the calcification rate in E. huxleyi. However, using batch cultures, we show that different culturing approaches (batch versus semi-continuous induce different physiologies. This affects the ratio of particulate inorganic (PIC to organic carbon (POC and complicates general predictions on the effect of P limitation on the PIC  ∕  POC ratio. We found heat stress to increase P requirements in E. huxleyi, possibly leading to lower standing stocks in a warmer ocean, especially if this is linked to lower nutrient input. In summary, the predicted rise in global temperature and resulting decrease in nutrient availability may decrease CO2 sequestration by E. huxleyi through lower overall carbon production. Additionally, the export of carbon may be diminished by a decrease in calcification and a weaker coccolith ballasting effect.

  2. A father effect explains sex-ratio bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, Aurelio F; Martinez-Pastor, Felipe; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Garde, Julián; Ballou, Jonathan D; Lacy, Robert C

    2017-08-30

    Sex ratio allocation has important fitness consequences, and theory predicts that parents should adjust offspring sex ratio in cases where the fitness returns of producing male and female offspring vary. The ability of fathers to bias offspring sex ratios has traditionally been dismissed given the expectation of an equal proportion of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm (CBS) in ejaculates due to segregation of sex chromosomes at meiosis. This expectation has been recently refuted. Here we used Peromyscus leucopus to demonstrate that sex ratio is explained by an exclusive effect of the father, and suggest a likely mechanism by which male-driven sex-ratio bias is attained. We identified a male sperm morphological marker that is associated with the mechanism leading to sex ratio bias; differences among males in the sperm nucleus area (a proxy for the sex chromosome that the sperm contains) explain 22% variation in litter sex ratio. We further show the role played by the sperm nucleus area as a mediator in the relationship between individual genetic variation and sex-ratio bias. Fathers with high levels of genetic variation had ejaculates with a higher proportion of sperm with small nuclei area. This, in turn, led to siring a higher proportion of sons (25% increase in sons per 0.1 decrease in the inbreeding coefficient). Our results reveal a plausible mechanism underlying unexplored male-driven sex-ratio biases. We also discuss why this pattern of paternal bias can be adaptive. This research puts to rest the idea that father contribution to sex ratio variation should be disregarded in vertebrates, and will stimulate research on evolutionary constraints to sex ratios-for example, whether fathers and mothers have divergent, coinciding, or neutral sex allocation interests. Finally, these results offer a potential explanation for those intriguing cases in which there are sex ratio biases, such as in humans. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Determination of the ratio r v = d v u v of the valence quark distributions in the proton from neutrino and antineutrino reactions on hydrogen and deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Wachsmuth, H.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U. F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Borner, H. P.; Myatt, G.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Bullock, F. W.; Burke, S.

    1994-12-01

    Based on a QCD analysis of the parton momentum distributions in the proton, the ratio r v = d v / u v of the d and u valence quark distributions is determined as function of x in the range 0.01< x<0.7. The analysis uses data from neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions on hydrogen and deuterium, obtained with BEBC in the (anti)neutrino wideband beam of the CERN SPS. Since v mainly depends on the deuterium/hydrogen ratios of the normalised x-y-Q 2-distributions many systematic effects cancel. It is found that r v decreases with increasing x, and drops below the naive SU(6) expectation of 0.5 for x≳0.3. An extrapolation of r v to x=1 is consistent with the hypothesis r v (1)=0.

  4. Influence of V/III growth flux ratio on trap states in m-plane GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Arehart, A. R.; Hurni, C. A.; Speck, J. S.; Ringel, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) were utilized to investigate the behavior of deep states in m-plane, n-type GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH 3 -MBE) as a function of systematically varied V/III growth flux ratios. Levels were detected at E C - 0.14 eV, E C - 0.21 eV, E C - 0.26 eV, E C - 0.62 eV, E C - 0.67 eV, E C - 2.65 eV, and E C - 3.31 eV, with the concentrations of several traps exhibiting systematic dependencies on V/III ratio. The DLTS spectra are dominated by traps at E C - 0.14 eV and E C - 0.67 eV, whose concentrations decreased monotonically with increasing V/III ratio and decreasing oxygen impurity concentration, and by a trap at E C - 0.21 eV that revealed no dependence of its concentration on growth conditions, suggestive of different physical origins. Higher concentrations of deeper trap states detected by DLOS with activation energies of E C - 2.65 eV and E C - 3.31 eV in each sample did not display measureable sensitivity to the intentionally varied V/III ratio, necessitating further study on reducing these deep traps through growth optimization for maximizing material quality of NH 3 -MBE grown m-plane GaN.

  5. Systematic review automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  6. Measurement of the fragmentation fraction ratio $f_{s}/f_{d}$ and its dependence on $B$ meson kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nisar, S; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    The relative production rate of $B^{0}_{s}$ and $B^{0}$ mesons is determined with the hadronic decays $B^{0}_{s} \\rightarrow D^{-}_{s}\\pi^{+}$ and $B^0 \\rightarrow D^{-}K^{+}$. The measurement uses data corresponding to 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV recorded in the forward region with the LHCb experiment. The ratio of production rates, $f_{s}/f_{d}$, is measured to be $0.238 \\pm 0.004 \\pm 0.015 \\pm 0.021 $, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second systematic, and the third theoretical. This is combined with a previous LHCb measurement to obtain $f_{s}/f_{d} = 0.256 \\pm 0.020$. The dependence of $f_{s}/f_{d}$ on the transverse momentum and pseudorapidity of the $B$ meson is determined using the decays $B^{0}_{s} \\rightarrow D^{-}_{s}\\pi^{+}$ and $B^{0} \\rightarrow D^{-}\\pi^{+}$. There is evidence for a decrease with increasing transverse momentum, whereas the ratio remains constant as a function of pseudorapidity. In addition, the ratio of branchi...

  7. Spontaneous entropy decrease and its statistical formula

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xiu-San

    2007-01-01

    Why can the world resist the law of entropy increase and produce self-organizing structure? Does the entropy of an isolated system always only increase and never decrease? Can be thermodymamic degradation and self-organizing evolution united? How to unite? In this paper starting out from nonequilibrium entropy evolution equation we proved that a new entropy decrease could spontaneously emerge in nonequilibrium system with internal attractive interaction. This new entropy decrease coexists wit...

  8. Universal amplitude ratios in the 3D Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caselle, M.; Hasenbusch, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present a high precision Monte Carlo study of various universal amplitude ratios of the three dimensional Ising spin model. Using state of the art simulation techniques we studied the model close to criticality in both phases. Great care was taken to control systematic errors due to finite size effects and correction to scaling terms. We obtain C + /C - =4.75(3), f +,2nd /f -,2nd =1.95(2) and u * =14.3(1). Our results are compatible with those obtained by field theoretic methods applied to the φ 4 theory and high and low temperature series expansions of the Ising model. (orig.)

  9. Systematic Breakdown of Amontons' Law of Friction for an Elastic Object Locally Obeying Amontons' Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Michio; Matsukawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In many sliding systems consisting of solid object on a solid substrate under dry condition, the friction force does not depend on the apparent contact area and is proportional to the loading force. This behaviour is called Amontons' law and indicates that the friction coefficient, or the ratio of the friction force to the loading force, is constant. Here, however, using numerical and analytical methods, we show that Amontons' law breaks down systematically under certain conditions for an elastic object experiencing a friction force that locally obeys Amontons' law. The macroscopic static friction coefficient, which corresponds to the onset of bulk sliding of the object, decreases as pressure or system length increases. This decrease results from precursor slips before the onset of bulk sliding, and is consistent with the results of certain previous experiments. The mechanisms for these behaviours are clarified. These results will provide new insight into controlling friction. PMID:23545778

  10. Systematic breakdown of Amontons' law of friction for an elastic object locally obeying Amontons' law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Michio; Matsukawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In many sliding systems consisting of solid object on a solid substrate under dry condition, the friction force does not depend on the apparent contact area and is proportional to the loading force. This behaviour is called Amontons' law and indicates that the friction coefficient, or the ratio of the friction force to the loading force, is constant. Here, however, using numerical and analytical methods, we show that Amontons' law breaks down systematically under certain conditions for an elastic object experiencing a friction force that locally obeys Amontons' law. The macroscopic static friction coefficient, which corresponds to the onset of bulk sliding of the object, decreases as pressure or system length increases. This decrease results from precursor slips before the onset of bulk sliding, and is consistent with the results of certain previous experiments. The mechanisms for these behaviours are clarified. These results will provide new insight into controlling friction.

  11. Exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination through decreasing the gibberellin/abscisic acid (GA/ABA) ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Shuai, Haiwei; Meng, Yongjie; Luo, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feng; Zhou, Wenguan; Dai, Yujia; Qi, Ying; Du, Junbo; Yang, Feng; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Wenyu; Shu, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Auxin is an important phytohormone which mediates diverse development processes in plants. Published research has demonstrated that auxin induces seed dormancy. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the effect of auxin on seed germination need further investigation, especially the relationship between auxins and both abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs), the latter two phytohormones being the key regulators of seed germination. Here we report that exogenous auxin treatment represse...

  12. Social Branding to Decrease Smoking Among Young Adults in Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502

  13. Use of biofuels in road transport decreases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segers, R.

    2011-01-01

    The use of biofuels decreased from 3.5 percent, for all gasoline and diesel used by road transport in 2009, to 2 percent in 2010. Particularly the use of biodiesel decreased, dropping from 3.5 to 1.5 percent. The use of biogasoline remained stable, catering for 3 percent of all gasoline use. [nl

  14. Mastery Learning and the Decreasing Variability Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Jennifer A.; Gentile, J. Ronald

    1996-01-01

    This report results from studies that tested two variations of Bloom's decreasing variability hypothesis using performance on successive units of achievement in four graduate classrooms that used mastery learning procedures. Data do not support the decreasing variability hypothesis; rather, they show no change over time. (SM)

  15. Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

  16. Determination of the isotopic ratio 235U/238U in UF6 using quadrupole mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusahara, Helena Sueco

    1979-01-01

    In this work measurements of isotope ratios 235 U / 23 '8U in uranium hexafluoride are carried out using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The operational parameters, which affect the final precision of the results, are standardized. Optimized procedures for the preparation of uranium hexafluoride samples by fluorination of uranium oxides using cobalt trifluoride method are established. Careful attention is given to the process of purification of uranium hexafluoride samples by fractional distillation. Adequate statistical methods for analysing the results obtained for single ratio measurements as well as the ratio ' of isotopic ratios of sample and standard ar.e developed. A precision of about 10 -4 for single ratio measurements and accuracy of about 0,3% for the ratio of sample and standard ratios are obtained. These results agree with the values which have been obtained using magnetic mass spectrometers. The procedures and methods established in this work can be employed in the systematic uranium isotope analysis in UF 6 form. (author)

  17. Economic evaluations of comprehensive geriatric assessment in surgical patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamer, Gilgamesh; Saravana-Bawan, Bianka; van der Westhuizen, Brenden; Chambers, Thane; Ohinmaa, Arto; Khadaroo, Rachel G

    2017-10-01

    Seniors presenting with surgical disease face increased risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality and have increased treatment costs. Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is proposed to reduce morbidity, mortality, and the cost after surgery. A systematic review of CGA in emergency surgical patients was conducted. The primary outcome was cost-effectiveness; secondary outcomes were length of stay, return of function, and mortality. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were predefined. Systematic searches of MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database were performed. Text screening, bias assessment, and data extraction were performed by two authors. There were 560 articles identified; abstract review excluded 499 articles and full-text review excluded 53 articles. Eight studies were included; one nonorthopedic trauma and seven orthopedic trauma studies. Bias assessment revealed moderate to high risk of bias for all studies. Economic evaluation assessment identified two high-quality studies and six moderate or low quality studies. Pooled analysis from four studies assessed loss of function; loss of function decreased in the experimental arm (odds ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.97). Pooled results for length of stay from five studies found a significant decrease (mean difference: -1.17, 95% CI: -1.63 to -0.71) after excluding the nonorthopedic trauma study. Pooled mortality was significantly decreased in seven studies (risk ratio: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.67-0.90). All studies decreased cost and improved health outcomes in a cost-effective manner. CGA improved return of function and mortality with reduced cost or improved utility. Our review suggests that CGA is economically dominant and the most cost-effective care model for orthogeriatric patients. Further research should examine other surgical fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Decreased myocardial 123I-MIBF uptake in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasa, K.; Takamori, M.; Nakajima, K.; Taki, J.; Yoshikawa, H.; Tada, A.

    1998-01-01

    We studied myocardial 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) accumulation in 12 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). MIBG is an analog of norepinephrine (NE) and a tracer for sympathetic neuron integrity and function. MIBG uptake of the myocardium was significantly lower in PD than in controls. The heart to mediastinum ratio (H/M) was calculated by using the average count per pixel for the heart and mediastinum. In PD, H/M was lower than in controls (P<0.0001), while the washout ratio of the heart was higher (P<0.001). A decrease in myocardial accumulation of MIBG was observed in the early stage of PD. This suggests that the measurement of MIBF may help the diagnosis of early PD, and the causative factor underlying in PD may be operating the NE neuron as well as dopamine neuron. (au)

  19. Glucocorticosteroids associated with a decreased risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, Wijnand; Smeets, Hugo; de Wit, Niek J; Kahn, René S; Grobbee, Diederick E; Burger, Huibert

    2009-06-01

    The hypothesis that chronic inflammation may play a role in psychosis receives increasing attention. In this study, we aim to investigate whether the use of steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is associated with a decreased risk of psychosis.A longitudinal nested case-control study was performed investigating the association of glucocorticosteroid (GCS) consumption with a new diagnosis of a psychotic disorder. Significantly reduced odds ratios of 0.52 (95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.75) were found for GCS in men only (odds ratio in women, 0.84 [95% confidence interval, 0.590-1.20]). Similar risk reductions were present for the inhaled and systemic GCSs. A dose-response relationship was present. Our finding of an inverse relation between GCS consumption and new psychotic episodes may promote further research into inflammation in schizophrenia.

  20. Cereal Production Ratio and NDVI in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Recuero, Laura; Palacios, Alicia; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The use of remote sensing has proved to be very important in monitoring the growth of agricultural crops and trying to asses weather impact on crop loss. Several indices has been developed based in remote sensing data being one of them the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In this study we have focus to know the correlation between NDVI data and the looses of rain fed cereal in the Spanish area where this crop is majority. For this propose data from drought damage in cereal come from the pool of agricultural insurance in Spain (AGROSEGURO) including 2007/2008 to 2011/2012 (five agricultural campaigns). This data is given as a ratio between drought party claims against the insured value of production aggregated at the agrarian region level. Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same campaigns to estimate the eight-day composites NDVI at these locations. The NDVI values are accumulated following the normal cycle of the cereal taking in account the sowing date at different sites. At the same time, CORINE Land Cover (2006) was used to classify the pixels belonging to rain fed cereal use including a set of conditions such as pixels showing dry during summer, area in which there has been no change of use. Fallow presence is studied with particular attention as it imposes an inter annual variation between crop and bare soil and causes decreases in greenness in a pixel and mix both situations. This is more complex in the situation in which the avoid fallow and a continuous monoculture is performed. The results shown that around 40% of the area is subject to the regime of fallow while 60% have growing every year. In addition, another variation is detected if the year is humid (decrease of fallow) or dry (increase of fallow). The level of correlation between the drought damage ratios and cumulative NDVI for the

  1. THE EFFECTS OF INCREASE THE COMPRESSION RATIO ON PERFORMANCE OF A DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan PARLAK

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available An optimisation of the Diesel cycle has been performed for power output and thermal efficiency with respect to compression ratio for various extreme temperature ratio. The relation between compression ratio and extreme temperature ratio, which gives optimum performance is derived. As the compression ratio of the diesel engine is increased in comparison to the optimum value of the engine, it is shown that the performance of the engine is decreased. The experimental study agrees with these results. In this study, compression ratio of a single cylinder pre-combustion chamber variable compression ratio Ricardo E6 type engine with the optimum compression ratio of 18.20 was increased to 19.60. As a results of this increase, specific fuel consumption was increased about 8 % and brake thermal efficiency was decreased about 7.5 %.

  2. Systematic text condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies.......To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies....

  3. The Importance of Systematics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1999-02-18

    Feb 18, 1999 ... Similarly, the work of Nathan Charles Rothschild, a taxonomic authority on flea species, was responsible for the discovery ... The use of genetic data for taxonomic purposes also brings systematics closer to realizing Darwin's desire that classification should reflect evolutionary relationships. Systematics is.

  4. Decreased heart rate variability responses during early postoperative mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Øivind; Brinth, Louise; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    in relation to postural change. METHODS: A standardized mobilization protocol before, 6 and 24 h after surgery was performed in 23 patients scheduled for elective THA. Beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure was measured by photoplethysmography and HRV was derived from pulse wave interbeat intervals and analysed......BACKGROUND: Intact orthostatic blood pressure regulation is essential for early mobilization after surgery. However, postoperative orthostatic hypotension and intolerance (OI) may delay early ambulation. The mechanisms of postoperative OI include impaired vasopressor responses relating...... and postural responses in arterial pressures decreased compared to preoperative conditions. During standing HF variation increased by 16.7 (95 % CI 8.0-25.0) normalized units (nu) at 6 h and 10.7 (2.0-19.4) nu at 24 h compared to the preoperative evaluation. At 24 h the LF/HF ratio decreased from 1.8 (1...

  5. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of low potassium? Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, ... your urine. This can lead to low potassium levels in your blood (hypokalemia). Signs and symptoms of ...

  6. Using a Nonaversive Procedure to Decrease Refusals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Fred; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A nonaversive technique was used to teach a severely handicapped woman to decrease her refusals. The technique employed precision teaching via precise daily measurement strategies, environmental analysis, and a focus on building appropriate behavior. (JDD)

  7. Autoimmune Response Confers Decreased Cardiac Function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory response; rather, autoimmune response would keep affecting decreased heart function in. RHD patients who ... untreated children. Nearly 30 - 45 % of the affected children could ..... Technology Department of Anhui Province (PR.

  8. Guilt decreasing marketing communication: an unexplored appeal

    OpenAIRE

    B. BUSACCA; SOSCIA I; PITRELLI E

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of guilt is relevant to a variety of consumption situations and practitioners around the world have continued to use it as a communication appeal. Marketing literature demonstrated that guilt as a distinct emotion can be aroused by advertising. Nevertheless, the capacity of advertising to decrease guilt was neglected by marketing scholars and the aim of this research is to assess the role of the guilt decreasing appeal in reducing anticipated guilt. Findings demonstrate the eff...

  9. How can we improve the interpretation of systematic reviews?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straus Sharon E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A study conducted by Lai and colleagues, published this week in BMC Medicine, suggests that more guidance might be required for interpreting systematic review (SR results. In the study by Lai and colleagues, positive (or favorable results were influential in changing participants' prior beliefs about the interventions presented in the systematic review. Other studies have examined the relationship between favorable systematic review results and the publication of systematic reviews. An international registry may decrease the number of unpublished systematic reviews and will hopefully decrease redundancy, increase transparency, and increase collaboration within the SR community. In addition, using guidance from the Preferred Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA: http://www.prisma-statement.org/ Statement and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE: http://www.gradeworkinggroup.org/ approach can also be used to improve the interpretation of systematic reviews. In this commentary, we highlight important methodological issues related to the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and also present our own guidance on interpreting systematic reviews. Please see Research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/9/30/.

  10. SYSTEMATIC UNCERTAINTIES IN BLACK HOLE MASSES DETERMINED FROM SINGLE-EPOCH SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Dietrich, Matthias; Bentz, Misty C.; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    We explore the nature of systematic errors that can arise in measurement of black hole masses from single-epoch (SE) spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by utilizing the many epochs available for NGC 5548 and PG1229+204 from reverberation mapping (RM) databases. In particular, we examine systematics due to AGN variability, contamination due to constant spectral components (i.e., narrow lines and host galaxy flux), data quality (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)), and blending of spectral features. We investigate the effect that each of these systematics has on the precision and accuracy of SE masses calculated from two commonly used line width measures by comparing these results to recent RM studies. We calculate masses by characterizing the broad Hβ emission line by both the full width at half maximum and the line dispersion, and demonstrate the importance of removing narrow emission-line components and host starlight. We find that the reliability of line width measurements rapidly decreases for S/N lower than ∼ 10-20 (per pixel), and that fitting the line profiles instead of direct measurement of the data does not mitigate this problem but can, in fact, introduce systematic errors. We also conclude that a full spectral decomposition to deblend the AGN and galaxy spectral features is unnecessary, except to judge the contribution of the host galaxy to the luminosity and to deblend any emission lines that may inhibit accurate line width measurements. Finally, we present an error budget which summarizes the minimum observable uncertainties as well as the amount of additional scatter and/or systematic offset that can be expected from the individual sources of error investigated. In particular, we find that the minimum observable uncertainty in SE mass estimates due to variability is ∼ 20 pixel -1 ) spectra.

  11. The dependence of signal-to-noise ratio on number of scans in covariance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi; Shen, Ming; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Noda, Isao; Hu, Bingwen

    2014-01-01

    The dependence of signal-to-noise ratio on the number of scans in covariance spectroscopy has been systematically analyzed for the first time with the intriguing relationship of SNRcov∝n/2, which is different from that in FT2D spectrum with SNRFT∝n. This relationship guarantees the signal-to-noise ratio when increasing the number of scans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of Zr/Ti ratio and preferred orientation on polarization switching and domain configuration of Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Hyun; Lee, Jung Kun; Hong, Kug Sun

    2003-01-01

    The (100) and (111) oriented Pb(Zr 1-x Ti x )O 3 (PZT) thins films were prepared on Pt/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /Si(100) substrate using sol-gel process. The ferroelectric and dielectric properties were evaluated as a function of Zr/Ti ratio and the origin of their changes were discussed in terms of domain engineering. With increasing Zr/Ti ratio, the remnant polarization of the polar axis decreased from 23.87 to 10.66 μC/cm 2 and the difference of the saturated polarization between polar axis and non-polar axis increased systematically. The fatigue rate of PZT films was disproportional to Zr/Ti ratio. At a composition of x = 0.7, the remnant polarization decreased from 2P r = 30.82 μC/cm 2 to 26.60 μC/cm 2 after 6.9 x 10 10 cycles. The fatigue rate was also related to the direction of polarization reversal and the increased fatigue behavior was observed in polar axis. These results were discussed with the aid of the domain configuration and the switching current, which revealed the role of the internal stress on ferroelectric property of PZT films

  13. The decreasing period of AG Phe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerruti, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Seven UBV photoelectric times of minimum light are presented. They shift the photographically known period 0 . d 613 to 0 . d 380. The improvement of the light elements leads to a reliable shortening of the period. A rough determination of the mass-ratio permitted to give an estimate of the mass transfer in the system. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (author)

  14. Estimation of population mean under systematic sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor-ul-amin, Muhammad; Javaid, Amjad

    2017-11-01

    In this study we propose a generalized ratio estimator under non-response for systematic random sampling. We also generate a class of estimators through special cases of generalized estimator using different combinations of coefficients of correlation, kurtosis and variation. The mean square errors and mathematical conditions are also derived to prove the efficiency of proposed estimators. Numerical illustration is included using three populations to support the results.

  15. Decreased Muscle Strength and Quality in Diabetes-Related Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Tsugawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes-related dementia (DrD, a dementia subgroup associated with specific diabetes mellitus (DM-related metabolic abnormalities, is clinically and pathophysiologically different from Alzheimer disease (AD and vascular dementia. We determined whether skeletal muscle strength, quality, and mass decrease in individuals with DrD. Methods: We evaluated grip and knee extension strength, muscle mass, and gait speed in 106 patients with probable AD and without type 2 DM (AD[–DM] group, 74 patients with probable AD and with DM (AD[+DM] group, and 36 patients with DrD (DrD group. Muscle quality was defined as the ratio of muscle strength to muscle mass. Results: Both female and male subjects with DrD showed significantly decreased muscle strength and quality in the upper extremities compared with the subjects with AD[–DM] or AD[+DM]. Female subjects with DrD showed significantly decreased muscle quality in the lower extremities compared with the subjects with AD[–DM]. Both female and male subjects with DrD had a significantly lower gait speed compared with the subjects with AD[–DM]. However, there were no significant differences in muscle mass and the prevalence of sarcopenia between the groups. Conclusion: Subjects with DrD showed decreased muscle strength and quality, but not muscle mass, and had a low gait speed.

  16. A Librarian's Primer on Financial Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbel, Sandra Sandor

    1982-01-01

    Explains in simple terms the nature and function of a number of basic types of business and industrial financial ratios. An annotated list of five basic sources for ratios is included and a reference list and bibliography are attached. (JL)

  17. Distraction decreases prefrontal oxygenation: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to measure emotion-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the prefrontal cortex regions, the functional distinction of CBF changes is often difficult because NIRS is unable to measure neural activity in deeper brain regions that play major roles in emotional processing. The CBF changes could represent cognitive control of emotion and emotional responses to emotional materials. Supposing that emotion-related CBF changes in the prefrontal cortex regions during distraction are emotional responses, we examined whether oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) decreases. Attention-demanding tasks cause blood flow decreases, and we thus compared the effects of visually paced tapping with different tempos, on distraction. The results showed that the oxyHb level induced by emotional stimulation decreased with fast-tempo tapping significantly more than slow-tempo tapping in ventral medial prefrontal cortex regions. Moreover, a Global-Local task following tapping showed significantly greater local-minus-global response time (RT) difference scores in the fast- and mid-tempo condition compared with those in the slow-tempo, suggesting an increased attentional focus, and decreased negative emotion. The overall findings indicate that oxyHb changes in a relatively long distraction task, as measured by NIRS, are associated with emotional responses, and oxyHb can be decreased by successfully performing attention-demanding distraction tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Real-Time Clinical Decision Support Decreases Inappropriate Plasma Transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neil; Baker, Steven A; Spain, David; Shieh, Lisa; Shepard, John; Hadhazy, Eric; Maggio, Paul; Goodnough, Lawrence T

    2017-08-01

    To curtail inappropriate plasma transfusions, we instituted clinical decision support as an alert upon order entry if the patient's recent international normalized ratio (INR) was 1.7 or less. The alert was suppressed for massive transfusion and within operative or apheresis settings. The plasma order was automatically removed upon alert acceptance while clinical exception reasons allowed for continued transfusion. Alert impact was studied comparing a 7-month control period with a 4-month intervention period. Monthly plasma utilization decreased 17.4%, from a mean ± SD of 3.40 ± 0.48 to 2.82 ± 0.6 plasma units per hundred patient days (95% confidence interval [CI] of difference, -0.1 to 1.3). Plasma transfused below an INR of 1.7 or less decreased from 47.6% to 41.6% (P = .0002; odds ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.69-0.89). The alert recommendation was accepted 33% of the time while clinical exceptions were chosen in the remaining cases (active bleeding, 31%; other clinical indication, 33%; and apheresis, 2%). Alert acceptance rate varied significantly among different provider specialties. Clinical decision support can help curtail inappropriate plasma use but needs to be part of a comprehensive strategy including audit and feedback for comprehensive, long-term changes. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Dvoøáèek Jaroslav

    1997-01-01

    The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.

  20. Relationships between breath ratios, spirituality and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...

  1. Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvoøáèek Jaroslav

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.

  2. Effect of blending ratio to the liquid product on co-pyrolysis of low rank coal and oil palm empty fruit bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullaikah Siti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of Indonesia low rank coal should be maximized, since the source of Indonesia law rank coals were abundant. Pyrolysis of this coal can produce liquid product which can be utilized as fuel and chemical feedstocks. The yield of liquid product is still low due to lower of comparison H/C. Since coal is non-renewable source, an effort of coal saving and to mitigate the production of greenhouse gases, biomass such as oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB would added as co-feeding. EFB could act as hydrogen donor in co-pyrolysis to increase liquid product. Co-pyrolysis of Indonesia low rank coal and EFB were studied in a drop tube reactor under the certain temperature (t= 500 °C and time (t= 1 h used N2 as purge gas. The effect of blending ratios of coal/EFB (100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100%, w/w % on the yield and composition of liquid product were studied systematically. The results showed that the higher blending ratio, the yield of liquid product and gas obtained increased, while the char decreased. The highest yield of liquid product (28,62 % was obtained used blending ratio of coal/EFB = 25/75, w/w%. Tar composition obtained in this ratio is phenol, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes, acids, esters.

  3. Jump Model / Comparability Ratio Model — Joinpoint Help System 4.4.0.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Jump Model / Comparability Ratio Model in the Joinpoint software provides a direct estimation of trend data (e.g. cancer rates) where there is a systematic scale change, which causes a “jump” in the rates, but is assumed not to affect the underlying trend.

  4. Aviation NOx-induced CH4 effect: Fixed mixing ratio boundary conditions versus flux boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayari, Arezoo; Olsen, Seth C.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Phoenix, Daniel B.

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric chemistry-climate models are often used to calculate the effect of aviation NOx emissions on atmospheric ozone (O3) and methane (CH4). Due to the long (∼10 yr) atmospheric lifetime of methane, model simulations must be run for long time periods, typically for more than 40 simulation years, to reach steady-state if using CH4 emission fluxes. Because of the computational expense of such long runs, studies have traditionally used specified CH4 mixing ratio lower boundary conditions (BCs) and then applied a simple parameterization based on the change in CH4 lifetime between the control and NOx-perturbed simulations to estimate the change in CH4 concentration induced by NOx emissions. In this parameterization a feedback factor (typically a value of 1.4) is used to account for the feedback of CH4 concentrations on its lifetime. Modeling studies comparing simulations using CH4 surface fluxes and fixed mixing ratio BCs are used to examine the validity of this parameterization. The latest version of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), with the CAM5 atmospheric model, was used for this study. Aviation NOx emissions for 2006 were obtained from the AEDT (Aviation Environmental Design Tool) global commercial aircraft emissions. Results show a 31.4 ppb change in CH4 concentration when estimated using the parameterization and a 1.4 feedback factor, and a 28.9 ppb change when the concentration was directly calculated in the CH4 flux simulations. The model calculated value for CH4 feedback on its own lifetime agrees well with the 1.4 feedback factor. Systematic comparisons between the separate runs indicated that the parameterization technique overestimates the CH4 concentration by 8.6%. Therefore, it is concluded that the estimation technique is good to within ∼10% and decreases the computational requirements in our simulations by nearly a factor of 8.

  5. Cohort fertility decline in low fertility countries: Decomposition using parity progression ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystof Zeman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The long-term decline in cohort fertility in highly developed countries has been widely documented. However, no systematic analysis has investigated which parity contributed most to the fertility decline to low and very low levels. Objective: We examine how the contribution of changing parity progression ratios varied across cohorts, countries, and broader regions in Europe, North America, Australia, and East Asia. We pay special attention to countries that reached very low completed cohort fertility, below 1.75 children per woman. Methods: Using population censuses and large-scale surveys for 32 low fertility countries, we decompose the change in completed cohort fertility among women born between 1940 and 1970. The decomposition method takes into account the sequential nature of childbearing as a chain of transitions from lower to higher parities. Results: Among women born between 1940 and 1955, the fertility decline was mostly driven by reductions in the progression ratios to third and higher-order births. By contrast, among women born between 1955 and 1970, changes in fertility showed distinct regional patterns: in Central and Eastern Europe they were fuelled by falling second-birth rates, whereas in the German-speaking countries, Southern Europe, and East Asia decreases in first-birth rates played the major role. Conclusions: Pathways to low and very low fertility show distinct geographical patterns, which reflect the diversity of the cultural, socioeconomic, and institutional settings of low fertility countries. Contribution: Our study highlights the importance of analysing parity-specific components of fertility in order to understand fertility change and variation. We demonstrate that similar low levels of completed cohort fertility can result from different combinations of parity-specific fertility rates.

  6. Systematic sampling with errors in sample locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegel, Johanna; Baddeley, Adrian; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton

    2010-01-01

    analysis using point process methods. We then analyze three different models for the error process, calculate exact expressions for the variances, and derive asymptotic variances. Errors in the placement of sample points can lead to substantial inflation of the variance, dampening of zitterbewegung......Systematic sampling of points in continuous space is widely used in microscopy and spatial surveys. Classical theory provides asymptotic expressions for the variance of estimators based on systematic sampling as the grid spacing decreases. However, the classical theory assumes that the sample grid...... is exactly periodic; real physical sampling procedures may introduce errors in the placement of the sample points. This paper studies the effect of errors in sample positioning on the variance of estimators in the case of one-dimensional systematic sampling. First we sketch a general approach to variance...

  7. Financial ratios in diagnostic radiology practices: variability and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Christopher; Sunshine, Jonathan H

    2004-03-01

    To evaluate variation in financial ratios for radiology practices nationwide and trends in these ratios and in payments. In 1999, the American College of Radiology surveyed radiology practices by mail. The final response rate was 66%. Weighting was used to make responses representative of all radiology practices in the United States. Self-reported financial ratios (payments, charges, accounts receivable turnover) were analyzed; 449 responses had usable data on these ratios. Comparison with results of a similar 1992 survey and combined analysis with Medicare data on billed charges provided information on trends. All measures of payment collections declined sharply from 1992 to 1999, with the gross collections rate (revenues as percentage of billed charges) decreasing from 71% to 55%. Average payment for a typical radiology service decreased approximately 4% in dollar terms or approximately 19% in inflation-adjusted terms. In 1999, nonmetropolitan practices appeared to fare better than others. Among insurers, Medicaid stood out as a low and slow payer, but neither managed care nor Medicare had a consistent effect on financial ratios. The gross collections rate varied substantially across geographic areas, as did, in an inverse pattern, the level of billed charges. One-quarter of practices had accounts receivable equal to 90 or more days of billings. The opposing geographic pattern of billed charges and gross collection rate suggests that geographic variation in the latter is driven more by variation in billed charges than by variation in payment levels. Radiologists saw a substantial decrease in the real (inflation-adjusted) value of payment per service during the 1990s. The large fraction of practices with accounts receivable of 90 or more days of billings-a level considered potentially imprudent by financial management advisors-suggests that many practices should improve financial management and that state prompt-payment laws have not had a substantial positive

  8. [The sex ratio at birth: a retrospective review and commentary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubenque, M

    1989-01-01

    Trends in the sex ratio are examined, and the possible effect of new biotechnologies on sex preselection is discussed. "We recall that this ratio is very stable, around 105 males for 100 females (live births). However, in France, a slight decreasing trend during the 19th century can be observed (from 107 to 104). At the present time this ratio seems to be maintained at a level of 105.3. The great demographic perturbations, particularly caused by wars, have been marked by a slight but notable increase in the indicator (106) when natality rises again after a deep depression. The variations, always small, of this indicator are more dependent on the male than on female natality, for reasons that are unclear." A comment by Paul Damiani is included (pp. 99-102). (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  9. Rapid Development, Build-Out Ratio and Subsequent Neighborhood Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George O. Rogers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhood development is primarily comprised of structural elements that include design elements, nearby amenities and ecological attributes. This paper assumes that the process of development itself also influences the character of the neighborhood—specifically, that the rate of development and build-out ratio influences neighborhood turnover. While the structural components clearly set a framework for development, the process of development expresses the character of the neighborhood in subtle messages conveyed through the market. Neighborhoods in the rapidly growing university town of College Station, Texas are analyzed in terms of neighborhood design, nearby amenities and landscape ecology components. Residential property records are used to characterize each neighborhood in terms of the rate of development and current build-out ratio. The multivariate analysis indicates that the development rate increases subsequent neighborhood turnover rates while the build-out ratio decreases it.

  10. Quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) for binary mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios based on toxic ratios-effects curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dayong; Lin, Zhifen; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposed a QSAR model to predict joint effects at non-equitoxic ratios for binary mixtures containing reactive toxicants, cyanogenic compounds and aldehydes. Toxicity of single and binary mixtures was measured by quantifying the decrease in light emission from the Photobacterium phosphoreum for 15 min. The joint effects of binary mixtures (TU sum) can thus be obtained. The results showed that the relationships between toxic ratios of the individual chemicals and their joint effects can be described by normal distribution function. Based on normal distribution equations, the joint effects of binary mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios ( [Formula: see text]) can be predicted quantitatively using the joint effects at equitoxic ratios ( [Formula: see text]). Combined with a QSAR model of [Formula: see text]in our previous work, a novel QSAR model can be proposed to predict the joint effects of mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios ( [Formula: see text]). The proposed model has been validated using additional mixtures other than the one used for the development of the model. Predicted and observed results were similar (p>0.05). This study provides an approach to the prediction of joint effects for binary mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios.

  11. Isotope ratios of lead as pollutant source indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, T.J.; Snyder, C.B.; Earal, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    Each lead ore deposit has its characteristic isotope ratios which are fixed during mineral ore genesis, and this unique property can be used to indicate the source of lead pollutants in the environment. The wolld production of primary lead is tabulated, and the geochemical significances of lead isotope ratios are discussed. The manufacture of lead alkyl additives for gasoline, which is the major source of lead pollutants, utilizes about 10% of the world annual consumption of lead. The isotope ratios of lead in gasoline, aerosols, soils and plants are correlated. Lead additives in various brands of gasoline sold in one region do not have the same isotope ratios. Regional variations in isotope ratios of lead additives were observed. This reflects the fact that petroleum refineries obtained the additives from various lead alkyl manufacturers which utilized lead from different mining districts. A definite changing trend of isotope ratios of lead pollutants in the San Diego, California (USA), area was detected. The lead shows a gradual increase in its radiogenic components during the past decade. This trend can be explained by the change of lead sources used by the additive manufacturers: Lead isotope ratios of the mid-1960's gasoline additives in the United States of America reflected those of less radiogenic leads imported from Canada, Australia, Peru and Mexico. Since then, the U.S. lead production has doubled-mainly from the Missouri district of highly radiogenic lead. Meanwhile, there has been a decrease in total lead imports. These combined effects result in changes in isotope ratios, from the less to more radiogenic, of the pooled lead. (aothor)

  12. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  13. Application of Performance Ratios in Portfolio Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Kresta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cornerstone of modern portfolio theory was established by pioneer work of Harry Markowitz. Based on his mean-variance framework, Sharpe formulated his well-known Sharpe ratio aiming to measure the performance of mutual funds. The contemporary development in computer’s computational power allowed to apply more complex performance ratios, which take into account also higher moments of return probability distribution. Although these ratios were proposed to help the investors to improve the results of portfolio optimization, we empirically demonstrated in our paper that this may not necessarily be true. On the historical dataset of DJIA components we empirically showed that both Sharpe ratio and MAD ratio outperformed Rachev ratio. However, for Rachev ratio we assumed only one level of parameters value. Different set-ups of parameters may provide different results and thus further analysis is certainly required.

  14. Poisson's ratio of fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansson, Henrik; Helsing, Johan

    1996-05-01

    Poisson's ratio flow diagrams, that is, the Poisson's ratio versus the fiber fraction, are obtained numerically for hexagonal arrays of elastic circular fibers in an elastic matrix. High numerical accuracy is achieved through the use of an interface integral equation method. Questions concerning fixed point theorems and the validity of existing asymptotic relations are investigated and partially resolved. Our findings for the transverse effective Poisson's ratio, together with earlier results for random systems by other authors, make it possible to formulate a general statement for Poisson's ratio flow diagrams: For composites with circular fibers and where the phase Poisson's ratios are equal to 1/3, the system with the lowest stiffness ratio has the highest Poisson's ratio. For other choices of the elastic moduli for the phases, no simple statement can be made.

  15. Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide in the troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, P.C.; Steele, L.P. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Tans, P.P. (NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1992-12-20

    Carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios were measured in air samples collected weekly at eight locations. The air was collected as part of the CMDL/NOAA cooperative flask sampling program (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, formerly Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change, Air Resources Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) at Point Barrow, Alaska, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, Mauna Loa and Cape Kumakahi, Hawaii, Guam, Marianas Islands, Christmas Island, Ascension Island and American Samoa. Half-liter or 3-L glass flasks fitted with glass piston stopcocks holding teflon O rings were used for sample collection. CO levels were determined within several weeks of collection using gas chromatography followed by mercuric oxide reduction detection, and mixing ratios were referenced against the CMDL/NOAA carbon monoxide standard scale. During the period of study (mid-1988 through December 1990) CO levels were greatest in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere (mean mixing ratio from January 1989 to December 1990 at Point Barrow was approximately 154 ppb) and decreased towards the south (mean mixing ratio at Samoa over a similar period was 65 ppb). Mixing ratios varied seasonally, the amplitude of the seasonal cycle was greatest in the north and decreased to the south. Carbon monoxide levels were affected by both local and regional scale processes. The difference in CO levels between northern and southern latitudes also varied seasonally. The greatest difference in CO mixing ratios between Barrow and Samoa was observed during the northern winter (about 150 ppb). The smallest difference, 40 ppb, occurred during the austral winter. The annually averaged CO difference between 71[degrees]N and 14[degrees]S was approximately 90 ppb in both 1989 and 1990; the annually averaged interhemispheric gradient from 71[degrees]N to 41[degrees]S is estimated as approximately 95 ppb. 66 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Aerobic exercise decreases the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Schmidt, Karl T; Iordanou, Jordan C; Mustroph, Martina L

    2008-11-01

    Aerobic exercise can serve as an alternative, non-drug reinforcer in laboratory animals and has been recommended as a potential intervention for substance abusing populations. Unfortunately, relatively little empirical data have been collected that specifically address the possible protective effects of voluntary, long-term exercise on measures of drug self-administration. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of chronic exercise on sensitivity to the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine in the drug self-administration procedure. Female rats were obtained at weaning and immediately divided into two groups. Sedentary rats were housed individually in standard laboratory cages that permitted no exercise beyond normal cage ambulation; exercising rats were housed individually in modified cages equipped with a running wheel. After 6 weeks under these conditions, rats were surgically implanted with venous catheters and trained to self-administer cocaine on a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. Once self-administration was acquired, cocaine was made available on a progressive ratio schedule and breakpoints were obtained for various doses of cocaine. Sedentary and exercising rats did not differ in the time to acquire cocaine self-administration or responding on the fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. However, on the progressive ratio schedule, breakpoints were significantly lower in exercising rats than sedentary rats when responding was maintained by both low (0.3mg/kg/infusion) and high (1.0mg/kg/infusion) doses of cocaine. In exercising rats, greater exercise output prior to catheter implantation was associated with lower breakpoints at the high dose of cocaine. These data indicate that chronic exercise decreases the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine and support the possibility that exercise may be an effective intervention in drug abuse prevention and treatment programs.

  17. PENGARUH PERUBAHAN RETURN ON ASSETS, PERUBAHAN DEBT TO EQUITY RATIO DAN PERUBAHAN CASH RATIO TERHADAP PERUBAHAN DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Soesetio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Dividend Payout Ratio used to calculate all of revenue that will be accepted by stockholders as cash dividend, usually explained as percentage. This research was conducted to know several factors that affected change of Dividend Payout Ratio and to know the significance level and the correlation between dependent and independent variable. Analysis instrument used was parametric statistic. Based on the result of statistic test,  The Change of Return on Asset (X1, The Change of Debt to Equity Ratio (X2,  were able to explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio, and The Change of CashRatio can’t explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio

  18. Ratio of serum free triiodothyronine to free thyroxine in Graves' hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis caused by painless thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura Noh, Jaeduk; Momotani, Naoko; Fukada, Shuji; Ito, Koichi; Miyauchi, Akira; Amino, Nobuyuki

    2005-10-01

    The serum T3 to T4 ratio is a useful indicator for differentiating destruction-induced thyrotoxicosis from Graves' thyrotoxicosis. However, the usefulness of the serum free T3 (FT3) to free T4 (FT4) ratio is controversial. We therefore systematically evaluated the usefulness of this ratio, based on measurements made using two widely available commercial kits in two hospitals. Eighty-two untreated patients with thyrotoxicosis (48 patients with Graves' disease and 34 patients with painless thyroiditis) were examined in Kuma Hospital, and 218 patients (126 with Graves' disease and 92 with painless thyroiditis) and 66 normal controls were examined in Ito Hospital. The FT3 and FT4 values, as well as the FT3/FT4 ratios, were significantly higher in the patients with Graves' disease than in those with painless thyroiditis in both hospitals, but considerable overlap between the two disorders was observed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the FT3 and FT4 values and the FT3/FT4 ratios of patients with Graves' disease and those with painless thyroiditis seen in both hospitals were prepared, and the area under the curves (AUC), the cut-off points for discriminating Graves' disease from painless thyroiditis, the sensitivity, and the specificity were calculated. AUC and sensitivity of the FT(3)/FT(4) ratio were smaller than those of FT(3) and FT(4) in both hospitals. The patients treated at Ito hospital were then divided into 4 groups according to their FT4 levels (A: 2.3 approximately 5.4 ng/dl), and the AUC, cut-off points, sensitivity, and specificity of the FT(3)/FT(4) ratios were calculated. The AUC and sensitivity of each group increased with the FT4 levels (AUC: 57.8%, 72.1%, 91.1%, and 93.4%, respectively; sensitivity: 62.6%, 50.0%, 77.8%, and 97.0%, respectively). The means +/- SE of the FT3/FT4 ratio in the Graves' disease groups were 3.1 +/- 0.22, 3.1 +/- 0.09, 3.2 +/- 0.06, and 3.1 +/- 0.07, respectively, versus 2.9 +/- 0.1, 2.6 +/- 0.07, 2.5 +/- 0

  19. The microstructure and mechanical properties of multilayer diamond-like carbon films with different modulation ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhaoying; Zheng, Y.J.; Jiang, F.; Leng, Y.X.; Sun Hong; Huang Nan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The multilayer DLC films with different modulation ratios have been fabricated by FCVA. ► The multilayer DLC films can effectively decrease the residual stress of the DLC films. ► The multilayer DLC film with modulation ratio of 1:1 shows the best wear resistance. - Abstract: The multilayer DLC films consisting of sp 2 -rich DLC layers (soft DLC) and sp 3 -rich DLC layers (hard DLC) with different modulation ratios (thickness ratio of the hard DLC to soft DLC) ranging from 2:1, 1:1 to 1:2 had been deposited on Si (1 0 0) wafer and Ti–6Al–4V alloy substrates by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition. The effect of modulation ratio on the microstructure and properties of the multilayer DLC films including sp 3 content, residual stress, mechanical properties, adhesion strength and wear resistance were studied by Raman spectroscopy, profilometry technique, nanoindenter, Vickers indentation test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ball-on-disc reciprocating friction test. The results showed that the sp 3 content and the hardness of the multilayer DLC films decreased with modulation ratios decreasing. The stress of the multilayer DLC films could be effectively reduced and the stress decreased with the modulation ratio decreasing. The multilayer DLC film with modulation ratio of 1:1 had the best wear resistance due to a balance between hardness and residual stress.

  20. CO line ratios in molecular clouds: the impact of environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Camilo H.; Clark, Paul C.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2018-04-01

    Line emission is strongly dependent on the local environmental conditions in which the emitting tracers reside. In this work, we focus on modelling the CO emission from simulated giant molecular clouds (GMCs), and study the variations in the resulting line ratios arising from the emission from the J = 1-0, J = 2-1, and J = 3-2 transitions. We perform a set of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations with time-dependent chemistry, in which environmental conditions - including total cloud mass, density, size, velocity dispersion, metallicity, interstellar radiation field (ISRF), and the cosmic ray ionization rate (CRIR) - were systematically varied. The simulations were then post-processed using radiative transfer to produce synthetic emission maps in the three transitions quoted above. We find that the cloud-averaged values of the line ratios can vary by up to ±0.3 dex, triggered by changes in the environmental conditions. Changes in the ISRF and/or in the CRIR have the largest impact on line ratios since they directly affect the abundance, temperature, and distribution of CO-rich gas within the clouds. We show that the standard methods used to convert CO emission to H2 column density can underestimate the total H2 molecular gas in GMCs by factors of 2 or 3, depending on the environmental conditions in the clouds.

  1. Ammonia causes decreased brain monoamines in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronan, Patrick J.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Summers, Cliff H.

    2007-01-01

    Hyperammonemia, arising from variety of disorders, leads to severe neurological dysfunction. The mechanisms of ammonia toxicity in brain are not completely understood. This study investigated the effects of ammonia on monoaminergic systems in brains of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Fish serve as a good model system to investigate hyperammonemic effects on brain function since no liver manipulations are necessary to increase endogenous ammonia concentrations. Using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, monoamines and some associated metabolites were measured from whole brain homogenate. Adult males were exposed for 48 h to six different concentrations of ammonia (0.01–2.36 mg/l unionized) which bracketed the 96-h LC50 for this species. Ammonia concentration-dependent decreases were found for the catecholamines (norepinephrine and dopamine) and the indoleamine serotonin (5-HT). After an initial increase in the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan it too decreased with increasing ammonia concentrations. There were also significant increases in the 5-HIAA/5-HT and DOPAC/DA ratios, often used as measures of turnover. There were no changes in epinephrine (Epi) or monoamine catabolites (DOPAC, 5-HIAA) at any ammonia concentrations tested. Results suggest that ammonia causes decreased synthesis while also causing increased release and degradation. Increased release may underlie behavioral reactions to ammonia exposure in fish. This study adds weight to a growing body of evidence demonstrating that ammonia leads to dysfunctional monoaminergic systems in brain which may underlie neurological symptoms associated with human disorders such as hepatic encephalopathy.

  2. Decreasing Friction Sensitivity for Primary Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyáš, Robert; Šelešovský, Jakub

    2014-04-01

    Primary explosives are a group of explosives that are widely used in various initiating devices. One of their properties is sufficient sensitivity to initiating stimuli. However, their sensitivity often introduces a safety risk during their production and subsequent handling. It is generally known that water can be used to desensitize these compounds. The most commonly used industrial primary explosives (lead azide, lead styphnate, tetrazene, and diazodinitrophenol) were mixed with water in various ratios and the sensitivity to friction was determined for all mixtures. It was found that even a small addition of water (5-10%) considerably lowered the friction sensitivity.

  3. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Decreased decorin expression in the tumor microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoky, Benedek; Savchenko, Andrii; Guven, Hayrettin; Ponten, Fredrik; Klein, George; Szekely, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    Decorin is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, synthesized and deposited by fibroblasts in the stroma where it binds to collagen I. It sequesters several growth factors and antagonizes numerous members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. In experimental murine systems, it acted as a potent tumor suppressor. Examining the Human Protein Atlas online database of immunostained tissue samples we have surveyed decorin expression in silico in several different tumor types, comparing them with corresponding normal tissues. We found that decorin is abundantly secreted and deposited in normal connective tissue but its expression is consistently decreased in the tumor microenvironment. We developed a software to quantitate the difference in expression. The presence of two closely related proteoglycans in the newly formed tumor stroma indicated that the decreased decorin expression was not caused by the delay in proteoglycan deposition in the newly formed connective tissue surrounding the tumor

  5. Calming Meditation Increases Altruism, Decreases Parochialism

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Karl

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that cultivating calm will increase altruism and decrease parochialism, where altruism is defined as self-sacrifice in support of others, regardless of group affiliation or identity, and parochialism is defined as prosocial self-sacrifice restricted to fellow members of a group. Such could be the case with a calming meditation practice. An alternate hypothesis, coming from the study of ritual, proposes that shared practices lead to bonding, increasing parochialism, but no...

  6. Study by the Prandtl-Glauert method of compressibility effects and critical Mach number for ellipsoids of various aspect ratios and thickness ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert V; Gardner, Clifford S

    1947-01-01

    By using the Prandtl-Glauert method that is valid for three-dimensional flow problems, the value of the maximum incremental velocity for compressible flow about thin ellipsoids at zero angle of attack is calculated as a function of the Mach number for various aspect ratios and thickness ratios. The critical Mach numbers of the various ellipsoids are also determined. The results indicate an increase in critical Mach number with decrease in aspect ratio which is large enough to explain experimental results on low-aspect-ratio wings at zero lift.

  7. Decreased prefrontal cortical dopamine transmission in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Douaihy, Antoine B; Frankle, W Gordon

    2014-08-01

    Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such as working memory, attention, inhibitory control, and risk/reward decisions, all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies of alcoholism that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, the authors hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in persons with alcohol dependence. To test this hypothesis, amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography were used to measure cortical dopamine transmission in 21 recently abstinent persons with alcohol dependence and 21 matched healthy comparison subjects. [11C]FLB 457 binding potential, specific compared to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND), was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg-1 of d-amphetamine. Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (ΔBPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in the alcohol-dependent group compared with the healthy comparison group. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in the alcohol-dependent group included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobe. The results of this study, for the first time, unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism.

  8. Hubungan Analisis Ratio Keuangan dengan Kesehatan Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekarso Soekarso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the business world, companies develop a vision and mission to improve welfare in the future. The work program the company is to achieve productivity and profitability. Finance in the company is one of the strategic functions that includes wealth management and transformation of added value (added value and also the control of corporate health. The financial statements such as balance sheet (balance sheet, profit and loss statement (income statement, and financial ratio (financial ratios, reflects the company's performance and health. Financial ratio analysis relates to the health of the company through a ratio of effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, profitability, liquidity, and solvability. Analysis shows that whenever actual value of financial ratios is above standard it means the company is healthy, and when the actual value of financial ratios is below the standard, it reversely means that companies are not healthy.

  9. The HNC/HCN ratio in star-forming regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graninger, Dawn M.; Öberg, Karin I.; Herbst, Eric; Vasyunin, Anton I.

    2014-01-01

    HNC and HCN, typically used as dense gas tracers in molecular clouds, are a pair of isomers that have great potential as a temperature probe because of temperature dependent, isomer-specific formation and destruction pathways. Previous observations of the HNC/HCN abundance ratio show that the ratio decreases with increasing temperature, something that standard astrochemical models cannot reproduce. We have undertaken a detailed parameter study on which environmental characteristics and chemical reactions affect the HNC/HCN ratio and can thus contribute to the observed dependence. Using existing gas and gas-grain models updated with new reactions and reaction barriers, we find that in static models the H + HNC gas-phase reaction regulates the HNC/HCN ratio under all conditions, except for very early times. We quantitatively constrain the combinations of H abundance and H + HNC reaction barrier that can explain the observed HNC/HCN temperature dependence and discuss the implications in light of new quantum chemical calculations. In warm-up models, gas-grain chemistry contributes significantly to the predicted HNC/HCN ratio and understanding the dynamics of star formation is therefore key to model the HNC/HCN system.

  10. Skewed sex ratios in India: "physician, heal thyself".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Archana B; Badhoniya, Neetu; Mamtani, Manju; Kulkarni, Hemant

    2013-06-01

    Sex selection, a gender discrimination of the worst kind, is highly prevalent across all strata of Indian society. Physicians have a crucial role in this practice and implementation of the Indian Government's Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act in 1996 to prevent the misuse of ultrasound techniques for the purpose of prenatal sex determination. Little is known about family preferences, let alone preferences among families of physicians. We investigated the sex ratios in 946 nuclear families with 1,624 children, for which either one or both parents were physicians. The overall child sex ratio was more skewed than the national average of 914. The conditional sex ratios decreased with increasing number of previous female births, and a previous birth of a daughter in the family was associated with a 38 % reduced likelihood of a subsequent female birth. The heavily skewed sex ratios in the families of physicians are indicative of a deeply rooted social malady that could pose a critical challenge in correcting the sex ratios in India.

  11. The co-feature ratio, a novel method for the measurement of chromatographic and signal selectivity in LC-MS-based metabolomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmsjö, Albert; Haglöf, Jakob; Engskog, Mikael K.R.; Nestor, Marika; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Pettersson, Curt

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of analytical procedures, especially in regards to measuring chromatographic and signal selectivity, is highly challenging in untargeted metabolomics. The aim of this study was to suggest a new straightforward approach for a systematic examination of chromatographic and signal selectivity in LC-MS-based metabolomics. By calculating the ratio between each feature and its co-eluting features (the co-features), a measurement of the chromatographic selectivity (i.e. extent of co-elution) as well as the signal selectivity (e.g. amount of adduct formation) of each feature could be acquired, the co-feature ratio. This approach was used to examine possible differences in chromatographic and signal selectivity present in samples exposed to three different sample preparation procedures. The capability of the co-feature ratio was evaluated both in a classical targeted setting using isotope labelled standards as well as without standards in an untargeted setting. For the targeted analysis, several metabolites showed a skewed quantitative signal due to poor chromatographic selectivity and/or poor signal selectivity. Moreover, evaluation of the untargeted approach through multivariate analysis of the co-feature ratios demonstrated the possibility to screen for metabolites displaying poor chromatographic and/or signal selectivity characteristics. We conclude that the co-feature ratio can be a useful tool in the development and evaluation of analytical procedures in LC-MS-based metabolomics investigations. Increased selectivity through proper choice of analytical procedures may decrease the false positive and false negative discovery rate and thereby increase the validity of any metabolomic investigation. - Highlights: • The co-feature ratio (CFR) is introduced. • CFR measures chromatographic and signal selectivity of a feature. • CFR can be used for evaluating experimental procedures in metabolomics. • CFR can aid in locating features with poor selectivity.

  12. The co-feature ratio, a novel method for the measurement of chromatographic and signal selectivity in LC-MS-based metabolomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmsjö, Albert, E-mail: Albert.Elmsjo@farmkemi.uu.se [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Uppsala University (Sweden); Haglöf, Jakob; Engskog, Mikael K.R. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Uppsala University (Sweden); Nestor, Marika [Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University (Sweden); Arvidsson, Torbjörn [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Uppsala University (Sweden); Medical Product Agency, Uppsala (Sweden); Pettersson, Curt [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Uppsala University (Sweden)

    2017-03-01

    Evaluation of analytical procedures, especially in regards to measuring chromatographic and signal selectivity, is highly challenging in untargeted metabolomics. The aim of this study was to suggest a new straightforward approach for a systematic examination of chromatographic and signal selectivity in LC-MS-based metabolomics. By calculating the ratio between each feature and its co-eluting features (the co-features), a measurement of the chromatographic selectivity (i.e. extent of co-elution) as well as the signal selectivity (e.g. amount of adduct formation) of each feature could be acquired, the co-feature ratio. This approach was used to examine possible differences in chromatographic and signal selectivity present in samples exposed to three different sample preparation procedures. The capability of the co-feature ratio was evaluated both in a classical targeted setting using isotope labelled standards as well as without standards in an untargeted setting. For the targeted analysis, several metabolites showed a skewed quantitative signal due to poor chromatographic selectivity and/or poor signal selectivity. Moreover, evaluation of the untargeted approach through multivariate analysis of the co-feature ratios demonstrated the possibility to screen for metabolites displaying poor chromatographic and/or signal selectivity characteristics. We conclude that the co-feature ratio can be a useful tool in the development and evaluation of analytical procedures in LC-MS-based metabolomics investigations. Increased selectivity through proper choice of analytical procedures may decrease the false positive and false negative discovery rate and thereby increase the validity of any metabolomic investigation. - Highlights: • The co-feature ratio (CFR) is introduced. • CFR measures chromatographic and signal selectivity of a feature. • CFR can be used for evaluating experimental procedures in metabolomics. • CFR can aid in locating features with poor selectivity.

  13. A study on the effect of free cash flow and profitability current ratio on dividend payout ratio: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Parsian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making about dividend payout is one of the most important decision that companies should encounter. Identifying factors that influence dividends can help managers in making an appropriate dividend policy. In the other side, companies’ dividend payouts over time and with a stable manner may influence on stock price, future earnings growth and finally investor's evaluation about owners' equity. Hence, investigating the factors influencing dividend payout ratio is of high importance. In this research, we investigate the effects of various factors on dividend payout ratio of Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE listed companies. We use time series regression (panel data in order to test the hypothesis of this study. This study provides empirical evidences by choosing a sample of 102 companies over the time span of 2005-2010. The result shows that independent variables of free cash flow and profitability current ratio have negative and significant impact on dividend payout ratio; whereas, the independent variable of leverage ratio has a positive and significant impact on dividend payout ratio. The other independent ratio such as size of the company, growth opportunities and systematic risk do not have any significant influence on dividend payout ratio.

  14. Musical Agency during Physical Exercise Decreases Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Thomas H; Bowling, Daniel L; Contier, Oliver; Grant, Joshua; Schneider, Lydia; Lederer, Annette; Höer, Felicia; Busch, Eric; Villringer, Arno

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: When physical exercise is systematically coupled to music production, exercisers experience improvements in mood, reductions in perceived effort, and enhanced muscular efficiency. The physiology underlying these positive effects remains unknown. Here we approached the investigation of how such musical agency may stimulate the release of endogenous opioids indirectly with a pain threshold paradigm. Design: In a cross-over design we tested the opioid-hypothesis with an indirect measure, comparing the pain tolerance of 22 participants following exercise with or without musical agency. Method: Physical exercise was coupled to music by integrating weight-training machines with sensors that control music-synthesis in real time. Pain tolerance was measured as withdrawal time in a cold pressor test. Results: On average, participants tolerated cold pain for ~5 s longer following exercise sessions with musical agency. Musical agency explained 25% of the variance in cold pressor test withdrawal times after factoring out individual differences in general pain sensitivity. Conclusions: This result demonstrates a substantial pain reducing effect of musical agency in combination with physical exercise, probably due to stimulation of endogenous opioid mechanisms. This has implications for exercise endurance, both in sports and a multitude of rehabilitative therapies in which physical exercise is effective but painful.

  15. Musical Agency during Physical Exercise Decreases Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Fritz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: When physical exercise is systematically coupled to music production, exercisers experience improvements in mood, reductions in perceived effort, and enhanced muscular efficiency. The physiology underlying these positive effects remains unknown. Here we approached the investigation of how such musical agency may stimulate the release of endogenous opioids indirectly with a pain threshold paradigm.Design: In a cross-over design we tested the opioid-hypothesis with an indirect measure, comparing the pain tolerance of 22 participants following exercise with or without musical agency.Method: Physical exercise was coupled to music by integrating weight-training machines with sensors that control music-synthesis in real time. Pain tolerance was measured as withdrawal time in a cold pressor test.Results: On average, participants tolerated cold pain for ~5 s longer following exercise sessions with musical agency. Musical agency explained 25% of the variance in cold pressor test withdrawal times after factoring out individual differences in general pain sensitivity.Conclusions: This result demonstrates a substantial pain reducing effect of musical agency in combination with physical exercise, probably due to stimulation of endogenous opioid mechanisms. This has implications for exercise endurance, both in sports and a multitude of rehabilitative therapies in which physical exercise is effective but painful.

  16. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Keith Edward [Kobe, JP; Moser, William Elliott [Peoria, IL; Roozenboom, Stephan Donald [Washington, IL; Knox, Kevin Jay [Peoria, IL

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  17. Heterogeneity in the 238U/235U Ratios of Angrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, F.; Dauphas, N.; Grove, T. L.

    2016-12-01

    Angrites are differentiated meteorites of basaltic composition, of either volcanic or plutonic origin, that display minimal post-crystallization alteration, metamorphism, shock or impact brecciation. Because quenched angrites cooled very rapidly, all radiochronometric systems closed simultaneously in these samples. Quenched angrites are thus often used as anchors for cross-calibrating short-lived dating methods (e.g., 26Al-26Mg) and the absolute dating techniques (e.g, Pb-Pb). Due to the constancy of the 238U/235U ratio in natural samples, Pb-Pb ages have long been calculated using a "consensus" 238U/235U ratio, but the discovery of resolvable variations in the 238U/235U ratio of natural samples, means that the U isotopic composition of the material to date also has to be determined in order to obtain high-precision Pb-Pb ages. We set out (a) to measure at high-precision the 238U/235U ratio of a large array of angrites to correct their Pb-Pb ages, and (b) to identify whether all angrites have a similar U isotopic composition, and, if not, what were the processes responsible for this variability. Recently, Brennecka & Wadhwa (2012) suggested that the angrite-parent body had a homogeneous 238U/235U ratio. They reached this conclusion partly because they propagated the uncertainties of the U isotopic composition of the various U double spikes that they used onto the final 238U/235U ratio the sample. Because this error is systematic (i.e., it affects all samples similarly), differences in the δ238U values of samples corrected by the same double spike are better known than one would be led to believe if uncertainties on the spike composition are propagated. At the conference, we will present the results of the high-precision U isotope analyses for six angrite samples: NWA 4590, NWA 4801, NWA 6291, Angra dos Reis, D'Orbigny, and Sahara 99555. We will show that there is some heterogeneity in the δ238U values of the angrites and will discuss the possible processes by

  18. Effectiveness of local vancomycin powder to decrease surgical site infections: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsiu-Yin; Herwaldt, Loreen A; Blevins, Amy E; Cho, Edward; Schweizer, Marin L

    2014-03-01

    Some surgeons use systemic vancomycin to prevent surgical site infections (SSIs), but patients who do not carry methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have an increased risk of SSIs when given vancomycin alone for intravenous prophylaxis. Applying vancomycin powder to the wound before closure could increase the local tissue vancomycin level without significant systemic levels. However, the effectiveness of local vancomycin powder application for preventing SSIs has not been established. Our objective was to systematically review and evaluate studies on the effectiveness of local vancomycin powder for decreasing SSIs. Meta-analysis. We included observational studies, quasi-experimental studies, and randomized controlled trials of patients undergoing surgical procedures that involved vancomycin powder application to surgical wounds, reported SSI rates, and had a comparison group that did not use local vancomycin powder. The primary outcome was postoperative SSIs. The secondary outcomes included deep incisional SSIs and S. aureus SSIs. We performed systematic literature searches in PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials via Wiley, Scopus (including EMBASE abstracts), Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, BMC Proceedings, ProQuest Dissertation, and Thesis in Health and Medicine, and conference abstracts from IDWeek, the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America, and the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons annual meetings, and also the Scoliosis Research Society Annual Meeting and Course. We ran the searches from inception on May 9, 2013 with no limits on date or language. After reviewing 373 titles or abstracts and 22 articles in detail, we included 10 independent studies and used a random-effects model when pooling risk estimates to assess the effectiveness of local

  19. Amos-type bounds for modified Bessel function ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornik, Kurt; Grün, Bettina

    2013-12-01

    We systematically investigate lower and upper bounds for the modified Bessel function ratio [Formula: see text] by functions of the form [Formula: see text] in case [Formula: see text] is positive for all [Formula: see text], or equivalently, where [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] is a negative integer. For [Formula: see text], we give an explicit description of the set of lower bounds and show that it has a greatest element. We also characterize the set of upper bounds and its minimal elements. If [Formula: see text], the minimal elements are tangent to [Formula: see text] in exactly one point [Formula: see text], and have [Formula: see text] as their lower envelope. We also provide a new family of explicitly computable upper bounds. Finally, if [Formula: see text] is a negative integer, we explicitly describe the sets of lower and upper bounds, and give their greatest and least elements, respectively.

  20. Music decreases aortic stiffness and wave reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Aggelakas, Angelos; Ioakeimidis, Nikolaos; Xaplanteris, Panagiotis; Terentes-Printzios, Dimitrios; Abdelrasoul, Mahmoud; Lazaros, George; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2015-05-01

    Music has been related to cardiovascular health and used as adjunct therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease. Aortic stiffness and wave reflections are predictors of cardiovascular risk. We investigated the short-term effect of classical and rock music on arterial stiffness and wave reflections. Twenty healthy individuals (22.5±2.5 years) were studied on three different occasions and listened to a 30-min music track compilation (classical, rock, or no music for the sham procedure). Both classical and rock music resulted in a decrease of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) immediately after the end of music listening (all pclassical or rock music in a more sustained way (nadir by 6.0% and 5.8%, respectively, at time zero post-music listening, all pmusic preference was taken into consideration, both classical and rock music had a more potent effect on PWV in classical aficionados (by 0.20 m/s, p=0.003 and 0.13 m/s, p=0.015, respectively), whereas there was no effect in rock aficionados (all p=NS). Regarding wave reflections, classical music led to a more potent response in classical aficionados (AIx decrease by 9.45%), whereas rock led to a more potent response to rock aficionados (by 10.7%, all pMusic, both classical and rock, decreases aortic stiffness and wave reflections. Effect on aortic stiffness lasts for as long as music is listened to, while classical music has a sustained effect on wave reflections. These findings may have important implications, extending the spectrum of lifestyle modifications that can ameliorate arterial function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Event-by-event fluctuations of the particle yield ratios in heavy-ion collisions at 20 - 158 AGeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresan, Dmytro

    2010-12-22

    Non-statistical event-by-event fluctuations are considered as an important signal for the critical endpoint of the QCD phase diagram. Event-by-event fluctuations of different observables are thus investigated in detail in current experiments but are also an important observable to be studied at the future CBM experiment at FAIR. In this work we present the energy and centrality dependence of event-by-event fluctuations of particle yield ratios measured by the NA49 experiment in Pb+Pb collisions at 20-158 AGeV. Systematic studies of the influence of the dE/dx resolution on the particle identification and the centrality bin size were performed. Results can be compared to event-by-event fluctuations measured by NA49 for different observables such as or the mean charged particle multiplicity. Main results of these studies are an increase of absolute value of the dynamical particle ratio fluctuations with decreasing centrality for all considered ratios, saturation of the K/{pi} and K/p ratio fluctuations for peripheral Pb + Pb collisions at 158A GeV and scaling of the energy and centrality dependences of the p/{pi} ratio fluctuations with N{sub p}N{sub {pi}}. The measured energy and centrality dependences of the K/{pi} and K/p ratio fluctuations scale with N{sub K} in a different way. The saturation of the mentioned ratios fluctuations was attributed to the development of pronounced spike at zero in the eventwise ratio distributions, which, as was shown by Monte Carlo simulations, influence the measured fluctuations in the very peripheral Pb + Pb collisions at 158A GeV. In future, the CBM experiment at FAIR will investigate the intermediate region of the QCD phase diagram in great detail searching for the first order phase transition line and the expected critical endpoint. It is therefore important to closely investigate its sensitivity towards particle ratio fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at 10-45 AGeV beam energy. Detailed simulation studies are

  2. SPP will decrease price of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2003-01-01

    Starting next year gas utility Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, a.s., Bratislava (SPP) will decrease the fees for transport of gas to its client from third parties. This decision should have a positive effect mainly on large industrial customers. The fact that SPP decided not to apply the approved ruling to its full extent was the result of negotiations with the regulator and the Ministry of Economy. SPP is not afraid it might lose customers. This decision only gives them a competitive advantage. (Author)

  3. Decreasing Human Trafficking through Sex Work Decriminalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Erin; D'Adamo, Kate

    2017-01-01

    In order to decrease human trafficking, health care workers should support the full decriminalization of prostitution. Similar to trafficking in other forms of labor, preventing trafficking in the sex trade requires addressing the different forms of marginalization that create vulnerable communities. By removing punitive laws that prevent reporting of exploitation and abuse, decriminalization allows sex workers to work more safely, thereby reducing marginalization and vulnerability. Decriminalization can also help destigmatize sex work and help resist political, social, and cultural marginalization of sex workers. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Methodology of decreasing software complexity using ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DÄ browska-Kubik, Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    In this paper a model of web application`s source code, based on the OSD ontology (Ontology for Software Development), is proposed. This model is applied to implementation and maintenance phase of software development process through the DevOntoCreator tool [5]. The aim of this solution is decreasing software complexity of that source code, using many different maintenance techniques, like creation of documentation, elimination dead code, cloned code or bugs, which were known before [1][2]. Due to this approach saving on software maintenance costs of web applications will be possible.

  5. CD4/CD8 Ratio and KT Ratio Predict Yellow Fever Vaccine Immunogenicity in HIV-Infected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino-Silva, Vivian I; Miyaji, Karina T; Hunt, Peter W; Huang, Yong; Simoes, Marisol; Lima, Sheila B; Freire, Marcos S; Caiaffa-Filho, Helio H; Hong, Marisa A; Costa, Dayane Alves; Dias, Juliana Zanatta C; Cerqueira, Natalia B; Nishiya, Anna Shoko; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Sartori, Ana M; Kallas, Esper G

    2016-12-01

    HIV-infected individuals have deficient responses to Yellow Fever vaccine (YFV) and may be at higher risk for adverse events (AE). Chronic immune activation-characterized by low CD4/CD8 ratio or high indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) activity-may influence vaccine response in this population. We prospectively assessed AE, viremia by the YFV virus and YF-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAb) in HIV-infected (CD4>350) and -uninfected adults through 1 year after vaccination. The effect of HIV status on initial antibody response to YFV was measured during the first 3 months following vaccination, while the effect on persistence of antibody response was measured one year following vaccination. We explored CD4/CD8 ratio, IDO activity (plasma kynurenine/tryptophan [KT] ratio) and viremia by Human Pegivirus as potential predictors of NAb response to YFV among HIV-infected participants with linear mixed models. 12 HIV-infected and 45-uninfected participants were included in the final analysis. HIV was not significantly associated with AE, YFV viremia or NAb titers through the first 3 months following vaccination. However, HIV-infected participants had 0.32 times the NAb titers observed for HIV-uninfected participants at 1 year following YFV (95% CI 0.13 to 0.83, p = 0.021), independent of sex, age and prior vaccination. In HIV-infected participants, each 10% increase in CD4/CD8 ratio predicted a mean 21% higher post-baseline YFV Nab titer (p = 0.024). Similarly, each 10% increase in KT ratio predicted a mean 21% lower post-baseline YFV Nab titer (p = 0.009). Viremia by Human Pegivirus was not significantly associated with NAb titers. HIV infection appears to decrease the durability of NAb responses to YFV, an effect that may be predicted by lower CD4/CD8 ratio or higher KT ratio.

  6. CD4/CD8 Ratio and KT Ratio Predict Yellow Fever Vaccine Immunogenicity in HIV-Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Peter W.; Huang, Yong; Simoes, Marisol; Lima, Sheila B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Caiaffa-Filho, Helio H.; Hong, Marisa A.; Costa, Dayane Alves; Dias, Juliana Zanatta C.; Cerqueira, Natalia B.; Nishiya, Anna Shoko; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Sartori, Ana M.; Kallas, Esper G.

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV-infected individuals have deficient responses to Yellow Fever vaccine (YFV) and may be at higher risk for adverse events (AE). Chronic immune activation–characterized by low CD4/CD8 ratio or high indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) activity—may influence vaccine response in this population. Methods We prospectively assessed AE, viremia by the YFV virus and YF-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAb) in HIV-infected (CD4>350) and -uninfected adults through 1 year after vaccination. The effect of HIV status on initial antibody response to YFV was measured during the first 3 months following vaccination, while the effect on persistence of antibody response was measured one year following vaccination. We explored CD4/CD8 ratio, IDO activity (plasma kynurenine/tryptophan [KT] ratio) and viremia by Human Pegivirus as potential predictors of NAb response to YFV among HIV-infected participants with linear mixed models. Results 12 HIV-infected and 45-uninfected participants were included in the final analysis. HIV was not significantly associated with AE, YFV viremia or NAb titers through the first 3 months following vaccination. However, HIV–infected participants had 0.32 times the NAb titers observed for HIV-uninfected participants at 1 year following YFV (95% CI 0.13 to 0.83, p = 0.021), independent of sex, age and prior vaccination. In HIV-infected participants, each 10% increase in CD4/CD8 ratio predicted a mean 21% higher post-baseline YFV Nab titer (p = 0.024). Similarly, each 10% increase in KT ratio predicted a mean 21% lower post-baseline YFV Nab titer (p = 0.009). Viremia by Human Pegivirus was not significantly associated with NAb titers. Conclusions HIV infection appears to decrease the durability of NAb responses to YFV, an effect that may be predicted by lower CD4/CD8 ratio or higher KT ratio. PMID:27941965

  7. Decreased serum vitamin D in idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seong-Hae; Kim, Ji-Soo; Shin, Jong Wook; Kim, Sungbo; Lee, Hajeong; Lee, Ae Young; Kim, Jae-Moon; Jo, Hyunjin; Song, Junghan; Ghim, Yuna

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an association of osteopenia/osteoporosis with idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Since vitamin D takes part in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus found in the body and plays an important role in maintaining proper bone structure, decreased bone mineral density in patients with BPPV may be related to decreased serum vitamin D. We measured the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in 100 patients (63 women and 37 men, mean age ± SD = 61.8 ± 11.6) with idiopathic BPPV and compared the data with those of 192 controls (101 women and 91 men, mean age ± SD = 60.3 ± 11.3) who had lived in the same community without dizziness or imbalance during the preceding year. The selection of the controls and acquisition of clinical information were done using the data from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008. The serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was lower in the patients with BPPV than in the controls (mean ± SD = 14.4 ± 8.4 versus 19.1 ± 6.8 ng/ml, p = 0.001). Furthermore, patients with BPPV showed a higher prevalence of decreased serum vitamin D (diabetes, proteinuria, regular exercise and the existence of decreased bone mineral density demonstrated that vitamin D insufficiency (10-20 ng/ml) and deficiency (<10 ng/ml) were associated with BPPV with the odds ratios of 3.8 (95 % confidence interval = 1.51-9.38, p = 0.004) and 23.0 (95 % confidence interval = 6.88-77.05, p < 0.001). Our study demonstrated an association between idiopathic BPPV and decreased serum vitamin D. Decreased serum vitamin D may be a risk factor of BPPV.

  8. Corporate prediction models, ratios or regression analysis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijnen, E.J.; Wijn, M.F.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The models developed in the literature with respect to the prediction of a company s failure are based on ratios. It has been shown before that these models should be rejected on theoretical grounds. Our study of industrial companies in the Netherlands shows that the ratios which are used in

  9. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio or the ratio of boys over girls at birth have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews, Johnson and Neil (2008) studied the direct evidence of individual pregnancies and

  10. The Golden Ratio--A Contrary Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Clement

    2005-01-01

    Many assertions about the occurrence of the golden ratio phi in art, architecture, and nature have been shown to be false, unsupported, or misleading. For instance, we show that the spirals found in sea shells, in particular the "Nautilus pompilius," are not in the shape of the golden ratio, as is often claimed. Some of the most interesting…

  11. Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D. R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

  12. Key financial ratios can foretell hospital closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, M L; Wertheim, P

    1993-11-01

    An analysis of various financial ratios sampled from open and closed hospitals shows that certain leverage, liquidity, capital efficiency, and resource availability ratios can predict hospital closure up to two years in advance of the closure with an accuracy of nearly 75 percent.

  13. Charge ratio of muons from atmospheric neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Stanev, Todor

    2003-05-22

    We calculate the intensities and angular distributions of positive and negative muons produced by atmospheric neutrinos. We comment on some sources of uncertainty in the charge ratio. We also draw attention to a potentially interesting signature of neutrino oscillations in the muon charge ratio, and we discuss the prospects for its observation (which are not quite within the reach of currently planned magnetized detectors)

  14. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio, or the ratio of boys to girls at birth, have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews et al. ["You are what your mother eats: Evidence for maternal preconception diet

  15. Financial Ratio Analysis Comes to Nonprofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabotar, Kent John

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate their financial health, a growing number of colleges, universities, and other nonprofit organizations are using financial ratio analysis, a technique used in business. The strengths and weaknesses of ratio analysis are assessed and suggestions are made on how nonprofits can use it most effectively. (Author/MLW)

  16. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes Microbes Can Distort the Sex Ratio of Populations. Stephen J Freeland Laurence D Hurst. General Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 68-78 ...

  17. Statins Decrease Oxidative Stress and ICD Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Bloom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate that statins decrease ventricular arrhythmias in internal cardioverter defibrillator (ICD patients. The mechanism is unknown, but evidence links increased inflammatory and oxidative states with increased arrhythmias. We hypothesized that statin use decreases oxidation. Methods. 304 subjects with ICDs were surveyed for ventricular arrhythmia. Blood was analyzed for derivatives of reactive oxygen species (DROMs and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Results. Subjects included 252 (83% men, 58% on statins, 20% had ventricular arrhythmias. Average age was 63 years and ejection fraction (EF 20%. ICD implant duration was 29 ± 27 months. Use of statins correlated with lower ICD events (r=0.12, P=.02. Subjects on statins had lower hsCRP (5.2 versus 6.3; P=.05 and DROM levels (373 versus 397; P=.03. Other factors, including IL-6 and EF did not differ between statin and nonstatin use, nor did beta-blocker or antiarrhythmic use. Multivariate cross-correlation analysis demonstrated that DROMs, statins, IL-6 and EF were strongly associated with ICD events. Multivariate regression shows DROMs to be the dominant predictor. Conclusion. ICD event rate correlates with DROMs, a measure of lipid peroxides. Use of statins is associated with reduced DROMs and fewer ICD events, suggesting that statins exert their effect through reducing oxidation.

  18. Serum Soluble Corin is Decreased in Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Fangfang; Shi, Jijun; Han, Xiujie; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Yan; Zhi, Zhongwen; Zhang, Fuding; Shen, Yun; Ma, Juanjuan; Song, Yulin; Hu, Weidong

    2015-07-01

    Soluble corin was decreased in coronary heart disease. Given the connections between cardiac dysfunction and stroke, circulating corin might be a candidate marker of stroke risk. However, the association between circulating corin and stroke has not yet been studied in humans. Here, we aimed to examine the association in patients wtith stroke and community-based healthy controls. Four hundred eighty-one patients with ischemic stroke, 116 patients with hemorrhagic stroke, and 2498 healthy controls were studied. Serum soluble corin and some conventional risk factors of stroke were examined. Because circulating corin was reported to be varied between men and women, the association between serum soluble corin and stroke was evaluated in men and women, respectively. Patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke had a significantly lower level of serum soluble corin than healthy controls in men and women (all P values, stroke than men in the highest quartile. Women in the lowest quartile of serum soluble corin were also more likely to have ischemic (OR, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-5.44) and hemorrhagic (OR, 8.54; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-31.02) stroke than women in the highest quartile. ORs of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were significantly increased with the decreasing levels of serum soluble corin in men and women (all P values for trend, stroke compared with healthy controls. Our findings raise the possibility that serum soluble corin may have a pathogenic role in stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Lifestyle Decreases Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavíček, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E.; Medová, Eva; Konečná, Jana; Žižka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Summary The morbidity and mortality of the cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1,349 volunteers, 320 men, 1,029 woman, mean age 51±14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999–2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1,223 measured persons from 71.2±14.38 (SD) to 70.6±14.02 kg (pSeventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  20. Antifungal Prevention of Systemic Candidiasis in Immunocompetent ICU Adults: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Hervé; Mahjoub, Yazine; Chouaki, Taieb; Lorne, Emmanuel; Zogheib, Elie

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the impact of antifungal prevention in critically ill immunocompetent adult patients on mortality and subsequent infection. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing any antifungal use versus placebo to prevent candidiasis in ICU patients were performed. Searches were performed on PubMed, Embase, Scopus, main conference proceedings, and ClinicalTrials.gov, as well as reference lists. The primary outcomes were mortality and invasive candidiasis. The secondary outcome was the rate of Candida albicans and nonalbicans strains after treatment. A random effect model was used, and sensitivity analysis was performed for both outcomes. Results are expressed as risk ratios and their 95% CIs. Nineteen trials (10 with fluconazole, four with ketoconazole, one with itraconazole, three with micafungin, and one with caspofungin) including 2,792 patients were identified. No individual trial showed a decreased mortality rate. Combined analysis showed that preventive antifungal did not decrease mortality (risk ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74-1.04; p = 0.14) but significantly decreased secondary fungal infections by 50% (risk ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.35-0.68; p = 0.0001). No shift across nonalbicans strains was observed during treatment (risk ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.19-1.97; p = 0.42). However, publication biases preclude any definite conclusions for prevention of infection. Antifungal prevention of systemic candidiasis in immunocompetent critically ill adults did not reduce mortality and may have decreased secondary fungal infection rates. However, significant publication bias was present.

  1. Geometrical scaling in charm structure function ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroun, G.R.; Rezaei, B.

    2014-01-01

    By using a Laplace-transform technique, we solve the next-to-leading-order master equation for charm production and derive a compact formula for the ratio R c =F L cc ¯ /F 2 cc ¯ , which is useful for extracting the charm structure function from the reduced charm cross section, in particular, at DESY HERA, at small x. Our results show that this ratio is independent of x at small x. In this method of determining the ratios, we apply geometrical scaling in charm production in deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Our analysis shows that the renormalization scales have a sizable impact on the ratio R c at high Q 2 . Our results for the ratio of the charm structure functions are in a good agreement with some phenomenological models

  2. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios Arvanitis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  3. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  4. Independent isomer yield ratio of 90Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Warner, R.A.; Ford, G.P.; Willmes, H.

    1985-05-01

    The independent isomer yield ratio for 90 Rb from thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been measured by use of a new technique involving a pulsed reactor and an on-line mass spectrometer facility. The apparent isomer yield ratio was measured for different ion collection time intervals and extrapolated to zero collection time to eliminate interference from 90 Kr decay. The observed isomer yield ratio of 8.7 +- 1.0 is one of the largest ratios measured for a low energy fission process. However, a statistical model analysis shows that the average angular momentum ( = 4.5) deduced from this isomer yield ratio is consistent with average angular momentum for other products from low energy fission. 7 refs

  5. Energy ratios in Finnish agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. MIKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess energy ratios and net energy in plant production and energy ratios in animal production in Finland. Energy ratios and net energy were determined on the basis of plant- and animal-specific energy analyses. In plant production, energy ratios and net energy were assessed as a function of nitrogen fertilization, because indirect energy input in the form of agrochemicals was 54—73% from the total energy input and nitrogen was responsible for the major part of this. The highest energy ratio was 18.6 for reed canary grass. As a whole reed canary grass was superior to the other crops, which were barley, spring wheat, spring turnip rape, ley for silage, potato and sugar beet. Reed canary grass and sugar beet gained the highest net energy yields of 111–115 GJ ha-1. The optimum energy ratio was gained in general with less nitrogen fertilization intensity than farmers use. The energy ratios in pork production varied between 0.14–1.28 depending on what was included or excluded in the analysis and for milk production between 0.15–1.85. Ratios of 1.28 in pork production and 1.85 in milk production are unrealistic as they do not give any shelter to the animals, although they can be approached in very low-input production systems. If the ratio is calculated with feed energy content then the ratio is low, 0.14–0.22 for pork and 0.15 for milk. This shows that animals can convert 14–22 percent of the input energy to usable products. In pork production, the largest portion of the energy input was the ventilation of the building. In milk production milking and cooling consumes a lot of energy and for this reason the electricity consumption is high.;

  6. Ways of TPP and NPP powerful steam turbine blade erosion decreasing in low flow rate regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrabrov, P.V.; Khaimov, V.A.; Matveenko, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    A systematized approach to the problem of efficient cooling of flow passage and exhaust parts of TPP and NPP steam turbines and prevention of erosion wear of inlet and outlet edges of operating blades is presented. Methods for LP casing cooling and sources of erosion-hazard moisture as well as the main technological and design measures to decrease the erosion of blades are determined

  7. Effects of Radial Gap Ratio between Impeller and Vaned Diffuser on Performance of Centrifugal Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadjavad Hosseini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance centrifugal compressor is needed for numerous industry applications nowadays. The radial gap ratio between the impeller and the diffuser vanes plays an important role in the improvement of the compressor performance. In this paper, the effects of the radial gap ratio on a high-pressure ratio centrifugal compressor are investigated using numerical simulations. The performance and the flow field are compared for six different radial gap ratios and five rotational speeds. The minimal radial gap ratio was 1.04 and the maximal was 1.14. Results showed that reducing the radial gap ratio decreases the choke mass flow rate. For the tip-speed Mach number (impeller inlet with Mu < 1, the pressure recovery and the loss coefficients are not sensitive to the radial gap ratio. However, for Mu ≥ 1, the best radial gap ratio is 1.08 for the pressure recovery and the loss coefficients. Furthermore, the impeller pressure ratio and efficiency are reduced by increasing the radial gap ratio. Finally, the compressor efficiency was compared for different radial gap ratios. For Mu < 1, the radial gap ratio does not have noticeable effects. In comparison, the radial gap ratio of 1.08 has the best performance for Mu ≥ 1.

  8. Ratios of differential cross sections of heavy-flavour hadron production with ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornung, Sebastian [Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Measurements of heavy-flavour hadrons in pp collisions are important to test pertubative Quantum ChromoDynamics and as a reference for measurements in heavy-ion collisions. ALICE has measured several observables in this sector, e.g. p{sub T}-differential cross-sections of prompt D mesons and semi-electronic decays of beauty and charm hadrons at different energies. These measurements are compared to theoretical calculations, like General-Mass Variable Flavour Number Scheme (GM-VFNS) and Fixed-Order plus Next-to-Leading-Logarithms (FONLL), which are affected by large uncertainties caused by renormalisation scale, factorization scale and the heavy quark mass. Because of low statistics, the pp reference spectra for PbPb data are often obtained by extrapolation of data taken at different centre-of-mass energies. This procedure is guided by theory and also affected by large systematic uncertainties. The FONLL authors proposed to consider ratios of cross-sections at different centre-of-mass energies for a substantial reduction of the systematic uncertainties. Therefore, ratios of p{sub T}-differential cross-sections were studied to investigate the possibility to reduce theoretical uncertainties. Such ratios could benefit from the possibility to cancel some systematic errors on the measured data. Simulations with POWHEG are performed to provide an additional theory-based reference. By comparing calculated and measured ratios, sensitivity to the gluon distribution function may be obtained.

  9. Decreasing barriers for nurse practitioner social entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Dayle B; Monsivais, Diane

    2014-10-01

    To describe difficulties associated with the business-related aspects of practice in role transition of rural nurse practitioners (NPs), and to give practice implications. This focused ethnographic study derived data from semi-structured interviews. Participants provided information about rural NP practice ownership and barriers. The sample consisted of 24 rural NPs living throughout the United States. The majority were 51-60 years of age (45%) and females (93%) who had been in rural practice for 1 to over 20 years. NP social entrepreneurs experience difficulties related to scope of practice, business skills, and role conflict. To decrease barriers for NP clinic ownership and management, NPs need to receive education related to financing a rural practice, legal/regulatory practices, strategic planning, leadership, and clinic management. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  10. Decreasing Ambiguity of the Safety Culture Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Shiichiro; Hosoda, Satoshi; Suganuma, Takashi; Monta, Kazuo; Kameda, Akiyuki

    2001-01-01

    The status of the concept of ''safety culture'' is reviewed. It has not sufficiently taken root. One cause for this is the abstract nature of the concept. Organizations must become aware of the necessity of improving safety and have sufficient power to promote this. The culture of safety must be instilled in each employee, so that each of them will feel responsible for identifying weak points in plant safety. The authors devised a tool for a self-assessment of the safety culture. The tool will bring to light information divides, communication gaps, etc. Recognizing the vulnerabilities of the organization by themselves and discussing these weak points among them is the first step to decrease the ambiguity of the safety culture. The next step is to make these gaps known along with agreed-upon countermeasures. The concept of safety culture will be greatly clarified in this way and lead to safer nuclear power plants

  11. The Effects of Probiotics and Symbiotics on Risk Factors for Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viramontes Hörner, Daniela; Avery, Amanda; Stow, Ruth

    2017-04-01

    Alterations in the levels of intestinal microbiota, endotoxemia, and inflammation are novel areas of interest in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Probiotics and symbiotics are a promising treatment option for HE due to possible beneficial effects in modulating gut microflora and might be better tolerated and more cost-effective than the traditional treatment with lactulose, rifaximin or L-ornithine-L-aspartate. A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library was conducted for randomized controlled clinical trials in adult patients with cirrhosis, evaluating the effect of probiotics and symbiotics in changes on intestinal microflora, reduction of endotoxemia, inflammation, and ammonia, reversal of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), prevention of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE), and improvement of quality of life. Nineteen trials met the inclusion criteria. Probiotics and symbiotics increased beneficial microflora and decreased pathogenic bacteria and endotoxemia compared with placebo/no treatment, but no effect was observed on inflammation. Probiotics significantly reversed MHE [risk ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 2.05; P=0.005] and reduced OHE development (risk ratio, 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.80; P=0.0002) compared with placebo/no treatment. Symbiotics significantly decreased ammonia levels compared with placebo (15.24; 95% CI: -26.01, -4.47; P=0.006). Probiotics did not show any additional benefit on reversal of MHE and prevention of OHE development when compared with lactulose, rifaximin, and L-ornithine-L-aspartate. Only 5 trials considered tolerance with minimal side effects reported. Although further research is warranted, probiotics and symbiotics should be considered as an alternative therapy for the treatment and management of HE given the results reported in this systematic review.

  12. Genetically decreased vitamin D and risk of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokry, Lauren E; Ross, Stephanie; Morris, John A; Manousaki, Despoina; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Richards, J Brent

    2016-12-13

    To test whether genetically decreased vitamin D levels are associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) using mendelian randomization (MR), a method that minimizes bias due to confounding or reverse causation. We selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are strongly associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels (p risk from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (N = 17,008 AD cases and 37,154 controls). To produce MR estimates, we weighted the effect of each SNP on AD by its effect on 25OHD and meta-analyzed these estimates using a fixed-effects model to provide a summary effect estimate. The SUNLIGHT Consortium identified 4 SNPs to be genome-wide significant for 25OHD, which described 2.44% of the variance in 25OHD in CaMos. All 4 SNPs map to genes within the vitamin D metabolic pathway. MR analyses demonstrated that a 1-SD decrease in natural log-transformed 25OHD increased AD risk by 25% (odds ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.51, p = 0.021). After sensitivity analysis in which we removed SNPs possibly influenced by pleiotropy and population stratification, the results were largely unchanged. Our results provide evidence supporting 25OHD as a causal risk factor for AD. These findings provide further rationale to understand the effect of vitamin D supplementation on cognition and AD risk in randomized controlled trials. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Systematic review on adverse birth outcomes of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinaz Poursafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Climate change and global warming have significant effects on human health. This systematic review presents the effects of the climate changes on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: The search process was conducted in electronic databases including ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar using key words of "environmental temperature" "pregnancy" "low birth weight (LBW" "pregnancy outcome," "climate change," "preterm birth (PTB," and a combination of them. We did not consider any time limitation; English-language papers were included. The related papers were selected in three phases. After quality assessment, two reviewers extracted the data while the third reviewer checked their extracted data. Finally, 15 related articles were selected and included in the current study. Results: Approximately all studies have reported a significant relationship between exposure variable and intended outcomes including eclampsia, preeclampsia, cataract, LBW, PTB, hypertension, sex ratio and length of pregnancy. According to conducted studies, decrease in birth weight is more possible in cold months. Increase in temperature was followed by increase in PTB rate. According to most of the studies, eclampsia and preeclampsia were more prevalent in cold and humid seasons. Two spectrums of heat extent, different seasons of the year, sunlight intensity and season of fertilization were associated with higher rates of PTB, hypertension, eclampsia, preeclampsia, and cataract. Conclusion: Climate change has unfavorable effects on eclampsia, preeclampsia, PTB, and cataract. The findings of this review confirm the crucial importance of the adverse health effects of climate change especially in the perinatal period.

  14. Comparing computing formulas for estimating concentration ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.

    1984-03-01

    This paper provides guidance on the choice of computing formulas (estimators) for estimating concentration ratios and other ratio-type measures of radionuclides and other environmental contaminant transfers between ecosystem components. Mathematical expressions for the expected value of three commonly used estimators (arithmetic mean of ratios, geometric mean of ratios, and the ratio of means) are obtained when the multivariate lognormal distribution is assumed. These expressions are used to explain why these estimators will not in general give the same estimate of the average concentration ratio. They illustrate that the magnitude of the discrepancies depends on the magnitude of measurement biases, and on the variances and correlations associated with spatial heterogeneity and measurement errors. This paper also reports on a computer simulation study that compares the accuracy of eight computing formulas for estimating a ratio relationship that is constant over time and/or space. Statistical models appropriate for both controlled spiking experiments and observational field studies for either normal or lognormal distributions are considered. 24 references, 15 figures, 7 tables

  15. Swaddling: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adèle C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on

  16. Systematic, Cooperative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Paula M.

    Evaluation procedures based on a systematic evaluation methodology, decision-maker validity, new measurement and design techniques, low cost, and a high level of cooperation on the part of the school staff were used in the assessment of a public school mathematics program for grades 3-8. The mathematics curriculum was organized into Spirals which…

  17. Swaddling : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adele C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W. J.; L'Hoir, Monique P.

    2007-01-01

    Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on

  18. Serbia : Systematic Country Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) aims to identify the major constraints on and opportunities for sustaining poverty reduction and shared prosperity in Serbia. The SCD serves as the analytic foundation on which the World Bank Group and the Government of Serbia will define a new Country Partnership Framework for FY2016 to FY2020. It is based on the best possible analysis, drawing on ...

  19. Introducing optional reserve ratios in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Lóránt Varga

    2010-01-01

    As of the reserve maintenance period commencing in November 2010, Hungarian credit institutions will be free to decide whether to apply the previously valid 2% reserve ratio, or to apply a higher mandatory reserve ratio. Credit institutions required to hold reserves may select from reserve ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5%, and may change their decision on a semi-annual basis. In line with the international best practice, the purpose of the MNB’s reserve requirement system is to support credit institu...

  20. Transcription and the aspect ratio of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kasper Wibeck; Bohr, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    analysis of transcription. It is shown that under certain reasonable assumptions transcription is only possible if the aspect ratio is in the regime corresponding to further twisting. We find this constraint to be in agreement with long-established crystallographic studies of DNA.......Two separate regimes exist for the aspect ratio of DNA. A low aspect regime where DNA will twist further under strain and a high aspect regime where DNA will untwist under strain. The question of the overall geometry, i.e. the aspect ratio, of DNA is revisited from the perspective of a geometrical...

  1. Financial Ratios and Perceived Household Financial Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Garrett

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the relative strength of three objective measures of financial health (using the solvency, liquidity, and investment asset ratio in predicting a household’s subjective feeling of current financial satisfaction. Using a sample of 6,923 respondents in the 2008 Health and Retirement Study this paper presents evidence of two main findings: 1 the solvency ratio is most strongly associated with financial satisfaction levels based on a cross-sectional design and 2 changes in the investment asset ratio are most strongly associated with changes in financial satisfaction over time.

  2. Live Cells Decreased Methane Production in Intestinal Content of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Gong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro gas production technique was used in this study to elucidate the effect of two strains of active live yeast on methane (CH4 production in the large intestinal content of pigs to provide an insight to whether active live yeast could suppress CH4 production in the hindgut of pigs. Treatments used in this study include blank (no substrate and no live yeast cells, control (no live yeast cells and yeast (YST supplementation groups (supplemented with live yeast cells, YST1 or YST2. The yeast cultures contained 1.8×1010 cells per g, which were added at the rates of 0.2 mg and 0.4 mg per ml of the fermented inoculum. Large intestinal contents were collected from 2 Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire pigs, mixed with a phosphate buffer (1:2, and incubated anaerobically at 39°C for 24 h using 500 mg substrate (dry matter (DM basis. Total gas and CH4 production decreased (p<0.05 with supplementation of yeast. The methane production reduction potential (MRP was calculated by assuming net methane concentration for the control as 100%. The MRP of yeast 2 was more than 25%. Compared with the control group, in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD and total volatile fatty acids (VFA concentration increased (p<0.05 in 0.4 mg/ml YST1 and 0.2 mg/ml YST2 supplementation groups. Proportion of propionate, butyrate and valerate increased (p<0.05, but that of acetate decreased (p<0.05, which led to a decreased (p<0.05 acetate: propionate (A: P ratio in the both YST2 treatments and the 0.4 mg/ml YST 1 supplementation groups. Hydrogen recovery decreased (p<0.05 with yeast supplementation. Quantity of methanogenic archaea per milliliter of inoculum decreased (p<0.05 with yeast supplementation after 24 h of incubation. Our results suggest that live yeast cells suppressed in vitro CH4 production when inoculated into the large intestinal contents of pigs and shifted the fermentation pattern to favor propionate production together with an increased population of acetogenic

  3. Results of Am isotopic ratio analysis in irradiated MOX fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Shin-ichi; Osaka, Masahiko; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki; Konno, Koichi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Kajitani, Mikio

    1997-04-01

    For analysis of a small quantity of americium, it is necessary to separate from curium which has similar chemical property. As a chemical separation method for americium and curium, the oxidation of americium with pentavalent bismuth and subsequent co-precipitation of trivalent curium with BIP O{sub 4} were applied to analyze americium in irradiated MOX fuels which contained about 30wt% plutonium and 0.9wt% {sup 241}Am before irradiation and were irradiated up to 26.2GWd/t in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. The purpose of this study is to measure isotopic ratio of americium and to evaluate the change of isotopic ratio with irradiation. Following results are obtained in this study. (1) The isotopic ratio of americium ({sup 241}Am, {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am) can be analyzed in the MOX fuels by isolating americium. The isotopic ratio of {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am increases up to 0.62at% and 0.82at% at maximum burnup, respectively, (2) The results of isotopic analysis indicates that the contents of {sup 241}Am decreases, whereas {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243}Am increase linearly with increasing burnup. (author)

  4. Discrimination of periodontal diseases using diffuse reflectance spectral intensity ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Sekhar, Prasanth; Betsy, Joseph; Presanthila, Janam; Subhash, Narayanan

    2012-02-01

    This clinical study was to demonstrate the applicability of diffuse reflectance (DR) intensity ratio R620/R575 in the quantification and discrimination of periodontitis and gingivitis from healthy gingiva. DR spectral measurements were carried out with white-light illumination from 70 healthy sites in 30 healthy volunteers, and 63 gingivitis- and 58 periodontitis-infected sites in 60 patients. Clinical parameters such as probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and gingival index were recorded in patient population. Diagnostic accuracies for discrimination of gingivitis and periodontitis from healthy gingiva were determined by comparison of spectral signatures with clinical parameters. Divergence of average DR spectral intensity ratio between control and test groups was studied using analysis of variance. The mean DR spectrum on normalization at 620 nm showed marked differences between healthy tissue, gingivitis, and periodontitis. Hemoglobin concentration and apparent SO2 (oxygen saturation) were also calculated for healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis sites. DR spectral intensities at 545 and 575 nm showed a decreasing trend with progression of disease. Among the various DR intensity ratios studied, the R620/R575 ratio provided a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 94% for discrimination of healthy tissues from gingivitis and a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 100% for discrimination of gingivitis from periodontitis.

  5. Efficacy of tranexamic acid in paediatric cardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraoni, David; Willems, Ariane; Melot, Christian; de Hert, Stefan; van der Linden, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The benefit-to-risk ratio of using tranexamic acid (TXA) in paediatric cardiac surgery has not yet been determined. This systematic review evaluated studies that compared TXA to placebo in children undergoing cardiac surgery. A systematic search was conducted in all relevant randomized controlled

  6. Cocaine tolerance: acute versus chronic effects as dependent upon fixed-ratio size.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, S H; Branch, M N; Sizemore, G M

    1987-01-01

    The effects of cocaine on operant behavior were studied by examining fixed-ratio value as a factor in the development of tolerance. Pigeons pecked a response key under a three-component multiple schedule, with each bird being exposed to fixed-ratio values that were categorized as small, medium, or large. Administered acutely, cocaine (1.0 to 10.0 mg/kg) produced dose-related decreases in overall rate of responding. Responding maintained by the largest ratio was decreased by lower doses than t...

  7. Model sensitivity studies of the decrease in atmospheric carbon tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Chipperfield

    2016-12-01

    systematic biases between observational datasets. For example, surface observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA network are larger than from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE network but have shown a steeper decreasing trend over the past 2 decades. These differences imply a difference in emissions which is significant relative to uncertainties in the magnitudes of the CCl4 sinks.

  8. Troubleshooting at Reverse Osmosis performance decrease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soons, Jan [KEMA (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    There are several causes for a decrease in Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane performance each of which requiring actions to tackle the possible cause. Two of the main factors affecting the performance of the system are the feed quality (poor feed quality can lead to fouling of the membranes) and the operational conditions (including the maximum allowed pressure, minimum cleaning frequencies and types, recovery rate etc, which should be according to the design conditions). If necessary, pre-treatment will be applied in order to remove the fouling agents from the influent, reduce scaling (through the addition of anti-scalants) and for the protection of the membranes (for example, sodium metabisulphite addition for the removal of residual chlorine which can harm the membranes). Fouling is not strictly limited to the use of surface water as feed water, also relatively clean water sources will, over time, lead to organic and inorganic fouling when cleaning is not optimum. When fouling occurs, the TransMembrane Pressure (TMP) increases and more energy will be needed to produce the same amount of product water. Also, the cleaning rate will increase, reducing the production rate and increasing the chemical consumption and the produced waste streams. Furthermore, the quality of the effluent will decrease (lower rejection rates at higher pressures) and the lifetime of the membranes will decrease. Depending on the type of fouling different cleaning regimes will have to be applied: acidic treatment for inorganic fouling, the addition of bases against organic fouling. Therefore, it is very important to have a clear view of the type of fouling that is occurring, in order to apply the correct treatment methods. Another important aspect to be kept in mind is that the chemistry of the water - in the first place ruled by the feed water composition - can change during passage of the modules, in particular in cases where the RO system consists of two or more RO trains, and where the

  9. Quality of systematic reviews in pediatric oncology - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundh, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L.; Jørgensen, Anders W.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. Methods: We identified eligible systematic reviews

  10. Sled Towing Acutely Decreases Acceleration Sprint Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Megan A; Dobbs, Ian J; Watkins, Casey M; Barillas, Saldiam R; Lin, Anne; Archer, David C; Lockie, Robert G; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E

    2017-11-01

    Wong, MA, Dobbs, IJ, Watkins, C, Barillas, SR, Lin, A, Archer, DC, Lockie, RG, Coburn, JW, and Brown, LE. Sled towing acutely decreases acceleration sprint time. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3046-3051, 2017-Sled towing is a common form of overload training in sports to develop muscular strength for sprinting. This type of training leads to acute and chronic outcomes. Acute training potentially leads to postactivation potentiation (PAP), which is when subsequent muscle performance is enhanced after a preload stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine differences between rest intervals after sled towing on acute sprint speed. Twenty healthy recreationally trained men (age = 22.3 ± 2.4 years, height = 176.95 ± 5.46 cm, mass = 83.19 ± 11.31 kg) who were currently active in a field sport twice a week for the last 6 months volunteered to participate. A maximal 30-meter (m) baseline (BL) body mass (BM) sprint was performed (with splits at 5, 10, 20, and 30 m) followed by 5 visits where participants sprinted 30 m towing a sled at 30% BM then rested for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 12 minutes. They were instructed to stand still during rest times. After the rest interval, they performed a maximal 30-m post-test BM sprint. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that post sled tow BM sprint times (4.47 ± 0.21 seconds) were less than BL times (4.55 ± 0.18 seconds) on an individualized rest interval basis. A follow-up 2 × 4 ANOVA showed that this decrease occurred only in the acceleration phase over the first 5 m (BL = 1.13 ± 0.08 seconds vs. Best = 1.08 ± 0.08 seconds), which may be the result of PAP and the complex relationship between fatigue and potentiation relative to the intensity of the sled tow and the rest interval. Therefore, coaches should test their athletes on an individual basis to determine optimal rest time after a 30-m 30% BM sled tow to enhance acute sprint speed.

  11. A protocol for a systematic review for perioperative pregabalin use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eipe Naveen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perioperative pain management has recently been revolutionized with the recognition of novel mechanisms and introduction of newer drugs. Many randomized trials have studied the use of the gabapentinoid anti-epileptic, pregabalin, in acute pain. Published systematic reviews suggest that using pregabalin for perioperative pain management may decrease analgesic requirements and pain scores, at the expense of troublesome side effects. A major limitation of the extant reviews is the lack of rigorous investigation of clinical characteristics that would maximize the benefit harms ratio in favor of surgical patients. We posit that effects of pregabalin for perioperative pain management vary by the type of surgical pain model and propose this systematic review protocol to update previous systematic reviews and investigate the heterogeneity in findings across subgroups of surgical pain models. Methods/Design Using a peer-reviewed search strategy, we will search key databases for clinical trials on perioperative pregabalin use in adults. The electronic searches will be supplemented by scanning the reference lists of included studies. No limits of language, country or year will be imposed. Outcomes will include pain; use of co-analgesia, particularly opioids; enhanced recovery; and drug-related harms. We will focus on the identification of surgical models and patient characteristics that have shown benefit and adverse effects from pregabalin. Two clinical experts will independently screen the studies for inclusion using eligibility criteria established a priori. Data extracted by the reviewers will then be verified. Publication bias will be assessed, as will risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Meta-analysis and meta-regression are planned if the studies are deemed statistically, methodologically and clinically homogenous. Evidence will be graded for its strength for a select number of outcomes. Discussion We will explore

  12. Albumin Dialysis for Liver Failure: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsipotis, Evangelos; Shuja, Asim; Jaber, Bertrand L

    2015-09-01

    Albumin dialysis is the best-studied extracorporeal nonbiologic liver support system as a bridge or destination therapy for patients with liver failure awaiting liver transplantation or recovery of liver function. We performed a systematic review to examine the efficacy and safety of 3 albumin dialysis systems (molecular adsorbent recirculating system [MARS], fractionated plasma separation, adsorption and hemodialysis [Prometheus system], and single-pass albumin dialysis) in randomized trials for supportive treatment of liver failure. PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane's Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched. Two authors independently screened citations and extracted data on patient characteristics, quality of reports, efficacy, and safety end points. Ten trials (7 of MARS and 3 of Prometheus) were identified (620 patients). By meta-analysis, albumin dialysis achieved a net decrease in serum total bilirubin level relative to standard medical therapy of 8.0 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.6 to -5.4) but not in serum ammonia or bile acids. Albumin dialysis achieved an improvement in hepatic encephalopathy relative to standard medical therapy with a risk ratio of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.16-2.08) but had no effect survival with a risk ratio of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.84-1.07). Because of inconsistency in the reporting of adverse events, the safety analysis was limited but did not demonstrate major safety concerns. Use of albumin dialysis as supportive treatment for liver failure is successful at removing albumin-bound molecules, such as bilirubin and at improving hepatic encephalopathy. Additional experience is required to guide its optimal use and address safety concerns. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical Diagnosis of Bordetella Pertussis Infection: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebell, Mark H; Marchello, Christian; Callahan, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis (BP) is a common cause of prolonged cough. Our objective was to perform an updated systematic review of the clinical diagnosis of BP without restriction by patient age. We identified prospective cohort studies of patients with cough or suspected pertussis and assessed study quality using QUADAS-2. We performed bivariate meta-analysis to calculate summary estimates of accuracy and created summary receiver operating characteristic curves to explore heterogeneity by vaccination status and age. Of 381 studies initially identified, 22 met our inclusion criteria, of which 14 had a low risk of bias. The overall clinical impression was the most accurate predictor of BP (positive likelihood ratio [LR+], 3.3; negative likelihood ratio [LR-], 0.63). The presence of whooping cough (LR+, 2.1) and posttussive vomiting (LR+, 1.7) somewhat increased the likelihood of BP, whereas the absence of paroxysmal cough (LR-, 0.58) and the absence of sputum (LR-, 0.63) decreased it. Whooping cough and posttussive vomiting have lower sensitivity in adults. Clinical criteria defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were sensitive (0.90) but nonspecific. Typical signs and symptoms of BP may be more sensitive but less specific in vaccinated patients. The clinician's overall impression was the most accurate way to determine the likelihood of BP infection when a patient initially presented. Clinical decision rules that combine signs, symptoms, and point-of-care tests have not yet been developed or validated. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  14. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    instances of curious sex ratios exemplify an important principle: the fitness ..... markable transition - the whole means of sex determination has changed. No longer ... to the cytoplasmic symbiont is self-evident; the symbionts simply increase the.

  15. Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Depart...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children with Asthma, published in Volume 3,...

  16. Anomalous Enantiomer Ratios in Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, G.; Sant, M.; Asiyo, C.

    2009-03-01

    The enantiomer (mirror-image) ratios of sugar acids in carbonaceous meteorites have been measured. D-enantiomer excesses are found in all acids measured thus far. This includes rare as well as common compounds.

  17. Recent development in isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platzner, I.

    1992-01-01

    Within the limited of this review the following topics will be briefly discussed: a) Accuracy, precision, internal relative standard deviation (RISD) and external relative standard deviation (RESD) of isotope ratio measurements. With advanced instrumentation and use of standard reference materials, high accuracy and RESD = 0.002% (or better) may be achieved; b) The advantages of modern automatic isotope ratio mass spectrometer are briefly described. Computer controlled operation and data acquisition, and multiple ion collection are the recent important improvement; c) The isotopic fractionation during the course of isotope ratio measurement is considered as a major source of errors in thermal ionization of metallic elements. The phenomenon in strontium, neodymium, uranium, lead and calcium and methods to correct the measured data are discussed; d) Applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in atomic weight determinations, the isotope dilution technique, isotope geology, and isotope effects in biological systems are described together with specific applications in various research and technology area. (author)

  18. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... between preoperatively measured neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) – as an inflammation ... analgesic (tenoxicam – as the first drug of choice, paracetamol, tramadol, or pethidine) usage ... fracture fixation). Age, sex, type of ...

  19. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it used? The urine albumin test or albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) is used to screen people with chronic conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure ( hypertension ) that put them at an ...

  20. Temperature diagnostic line ratios of Fe XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J.C.; Smith, B.W.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM)

    1986-01-01

    Based on extensive calculations of the excitation rates of Fe XVII, four temperature-sensitive line ratios are investigated, paying special attention to the contribution of resonances to the excitation rates and to the contributions of dielectronic recombination satellites to the observed line intensities. The predictions are compared to FPCS observations of Puppis A and to Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and SOLEX observations of the sun. Temperature-sensitive line ratios are also computed for emitting gas covering a broad temperature range. It is found that each ratio yields a differently weighted average for the temperature and that this accounts for some apparent discrepancies between the theoretical ratios and solar observations. The effects of this weighting on the Fe XVII temperature diagnostics and on the analogous Fe XXIV/Fe XXV satellite line temperature diagnostics are discussed. 27 references

  1. Ratio Analysis: Where Investments Meet Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Susan D.; Woodbury, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses ratio analysis by which investments may be evaluated. Requires the use of fundamental mathematics, problem solving, and a comparison of the mathematical results within the framework of industry. (Author/NB)

  2. Isotopic ratios in the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This colloquium is aimed at presentation of isotope ratio measurements in different objects of solar system and surrounding interstellar space and evaluation of what information on composition and structure of primitive solar nebula and on chemical evolution of interstellar space in this part of the galaxy can be deduced from it. Isotope ratio in solar system got from laboratory study of extraterrestrial materials is a subject of this colloquium. Then isotope ratio measured in solar wind, planets and comets. Measurements either are made in-situ by mass spectrometry of ions in solar wind or planetery atmosphere gases either are remote measurements of spectra emitted by giant planets and comets. At last, planetology and astrophysics implications are presented and reviewed. Consraints for solar system formation model can be deduced from isotope ratio measurement. Particularly, isotope anomalies are marks of the processes, which have influenced the primitive solar nebula contraction [fr

  3. From Fibonacci Sequence to the Golden Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fiorenza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the well-known characterization of the Golden ratio as limit of the ratio of consecutive terms of the Fibonacci sequence, and we give an explanation of this property in the framework of the Difference Equations Theory. We show that the Golden ratio coincides with this limit not because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of the characteristic polynomial, but, from a more general point of view, because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of a restricted set of roots, which in this special case coincides with the two roots of the characteristic polynomial. This new perspective is the heart of the characterization of the limit of ratio of consecutive terms of all linear homogeneous recurrences with constant coefficients, without any assumption on the roots of the characteristic polynomial, which may be, in particular, also complex and not real.

  4. Determining sex ratios of turtle hatchlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Previous status assessments of marine turtles have assumed that the natural sex ratio of a marine turtle population is 1:1 (e.g. Conant et al. 2009). However, this...

  5. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  6. Decreased lymphocyte dopamine transporter in romantic lovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Baroni, Stefano; Giannaccini, Gino; Piccinni, Armando; Mucci, Federico; Catena-Dell'Osso, Mario; Rutigliano, Grazia; Massimetti, Gabriele; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2017-06-01

    The role of dopamine (DA) in romantic love is suggested by different evidence and is supported by the findings of some brain imaging studies. The DA transporter (DAT) is a key structure in regulating the concentration of the neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft. Given the presence of DAT in blood cells, the present study aimed to explore it in resting lymphocytes of 30 healthy subjects of both sexes in the early stage of romantic love (no longer than 6 months), as compared with 30 subjects involved in a long-lasting relationship. All subjects had no physical or psychiatric illness. The DAT was measured by means of the [3H]-WIN 35,428 binding and the [3H]-DA reuptake to resting lymphocytes membranes. Romantic love was assessed by a specific questionnaire developed by us. The results showed that the subjects in the early phase of romantic love had a global alteration of the lymphocyte DAT involving both a decreased number of proteins (Bmax) and a reduced functionality (Vmax). Taken together, these findings would indicate the presence of increased levels of DA in romantic love that, if paralleled by similar concentrations in the brain, would explain some peculiar features of this human feeling.

  7. COGNITIVE THERAPY DECREASE THE LEVEL OF DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a natural process in individuals. Most of the elderly have problems in dealing with this natural process. Lost of occupation, friends and loneliness may result in depression in this age group. Cognitive therapy changes pessimistic idea, unrealistic hopes and excessive self evaluation may result and justify depression. Cognitive therapy may help elderly to recognize the problem in life, to develop positive objective of life and to create more positive personality. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy to reduce the level of depression. Method: This study was used a pre experimental pre post test design. Sample were 10 elderly people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was cognitive therapy and dependent variable was the level of depression in elderly. Data were collected by using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance levelα≤0.05. Result: The result showed that cognitive therapy has an effect on reducing depression with significance level p=0.005. Discussion: It can be concluded that cognitive therapy was effective in reducing depression level in elderly. Further studies are recommended to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy on decreasing anxiety in elderly by measuring cathecolamin.

  8. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy

  9. The Laplace Likelihood Ratio Test for Heteroscedasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martin van Zyl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the likelihood ratio test for heteroscedasticity, assuming the Laplace distribution, gives good results for Gaussian and fat-tailed data. The likelihood ratio test, assuming normality, is very sensitive to any deviation from normality, especially when the observations are from a distribution with fat tails. Such a likelihood test can also be used as a robust test for a constant variance in residuals or a time series if the data is partitioned into groups.

  10. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, John M; Page, Lionel

    2009-11-25

    Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D), which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

  11. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Coates

    Full Text Available Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D, which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

  12. Systematic review with meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimer, N; Krag, A; Møller, Søren

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rifaximin is recommended for prevention of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The effects of rifaximin on overt and minimal HE are debated. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on rifaximin for HE. METHODS: We performed electronic...... and manual searches, gathered information from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Home Page, and obtained unpublished information on trial design and outcome measures from authors and pharmaceutical companies. Meta-analyses were performed and results presented as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence...

  13. Analytic Theology as Systematic Theology

    OpenAIRE

    Crisp Oliver D.

    2017-01-01

    It is often said that analytic theology is not really systematic theology; it is something else entirely. However, specifying what this “something else” amounts to has proven a little more difficult. In this article I argue that analytic theology may be a species of systematic theology. I show that there is no agreed view on the nature of systematic theology amongst several leading practitioners of systematic theology by comparing the work of John Webster, Brian Gerrish, and Gordon Kaufman. I...

  14. INFLUENCE OF SCALE RATIO, ASPECT RATIO, AND PLANFORM ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SUPERCAVITATING HYDROFOILS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    performance of supercavitating hydrofoils. No appreciable scale effect was found for scale ratios up to 3 in the fully-cavitating flow region. The...overall performance of the hydrofoil by increasing the aspect ratio above 3, and (2) moderate taper ratio seems to be advantageous in view of the overall performance of supercavitating hydrofoils. (Author)

  15. Decreased mean platelet volume in panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göğçegöz Gül I

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Işil Göğçegöz Gül, Gül Eryilmaz, Eylem Özten, Gökben Hizli Sayar Neuropsychiatry Health, Practice, and Research Center, Uskudar University, Istanbul, Turkey Aim: The relationship between psychological stress and platelet activation has been widely studied. It is well known that platelets may reflect certain biochemical changes that occur in the brain when different mental conditions occur. Platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT is also extensively studied in psychiatry. The mean platelet volume (MPV, the accurate measure of platelet size, has been considered a marker and determinant of platelet function. The aim of the present study was to search for any probable difference in the MPV of subjects with panic disorder (PD.Methods: A total of 37 drug-free subjects, aged 18 to 65 years, diagnosed with PD, with or without agoraphobia, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth edition (DSM-IV criteria and 45 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Platelet count and MPV were measured and recorded for each subject.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between groups in terms of female/male ratio, age, or body mass index between the PD group and control group (P=0.91, P=0.82, and P=0.93, respectively. The MPV was found to be significantly lower in the PD group compared with the control group (8.8±0.9 fL vs 9.2±0.8 fL; P=0.02. All the participants had MPV values in the standard range of 6.9–10.8 fL.Conclusion: We concluded that abnormalities of the 5-HT1A receptor function in the central nervous system of subjects with a diagnosis of PD are also mirrored in as an alteration in platelet activity. Measurements of platelet activity may be used as a tool for neuropsychiatric and psychopharmacological research and for studying how certain mental diseases and medications affect the central nervous system. Keywords: 5-HT, thrombocyte, anxiety 

  16. Influence of void ratio on thermal performance of heat pipe receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Xiaohong; Tang Dawei; Liang Shiqiang; Lin Bin; Yuan Xiugan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The temperature gradient increases significantly and the utility ratio of PCM decreases obviously as void ratio increases. ► Void cavity influences the process of phase change greatly. ► PCM melts slowly during sunlight periods and freezes slowly during eclipse periods as void ratio increases. ► The temperature gradient of PCM zone is very significant with the effect of void cavity. - Abstract: In this paper, influence of void ratio on thermal performance of heat pipe receiver under microgravity is numerically simulated. Accordingly, mathematical model is set up. Numerical method is offered. The temperature field of Phase Change Material (PCM) canister is shown. Numerical results are compared with numerical ones of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Numerical results show that the temperature gradient increases significantly and the utility ratio of PCM decreases obviously as void ratio increases. Void cavity influences the process of phase change greatly. PCM melts slowly during sunlight periods and freezes slowly during eclipse periods as void ratio increases. The thermal resistance of void cavity is much bigger than that of PCM canister wall. Void cavity prevents the heat transfer between PCM zone and canister wall. The temperature gradient of PCM zone is very significant with the effect of void cavity. So the thermal stress of heat pipe receiver may increase, and the lifetime may decrease as void ratio increases.

  17. Computational aspects of systematic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilburn, Timothy G; Harrison, Scott H; Cole, James R; Garrity, George M

    2006-06-01

    We review the resources available to systematic biologists who wish to use computers to build classifications. Algorithm development is in an early stage, and only a few examples of integrated applications for systematic biology are available. The availability of data is crucial if systematic biology is to enter the computer age.

  18. Systematic Quality Work in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia; Sandberg, Anette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the meaning that Swedish preschool teachers ascribe to systematic quality work. In Sweden, all preschools are required to work systematically with quality issues. This involves several interdependent steps that follow each other in a specific order. Although the concept of systematic quality work might…

  19. The Alpha value decrease when the annual individual effective dose decreases?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordi, Gian M.; Marchiusi, Thiago; Sousa, Jefferson de J.

    2008-01-01

    A recent IAEA publication tells that a few entities took different alpha values for maxima individual doses. Beyond to disregard the international agencies, that recommend only one alpha value for each country, the alpha values decreases when the individual doses decreases and the practice happens exactly the conversely as we will show in this paper. We will prove that the alpha value increase when the maximum individual doses decreases in a four different manner. The first one we call the theoretical conception and it is linked to the emergent of the ALARA policy and to the purpose that led to the 3/10 of the annual limits, for to decrease the individual doses as a first resort and a 1/10 as a last resort. The second prove will be based in a small mine example used in the ICRP publication number 55 concerning to the optimization and the quantitative decision-aiding techniques in radiological protection where we will determine the alpha value ranges in which each radiological protection options becomes the analytical solution. The third prove will be based in the determination of the optimized thickness example of a plane shielding for a radiation source exposed in the ICRP publication number 37. We will use, also, the numerical example provided there. Eventually, as four prove we will show that the alpha value dos not only increases with the maximum individual dose decrease, but also, with the shielding geometry. (author)

  20. Infective Endocarditis Epidemiology Over Five Decades: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slipczuk, Leandro; Codolosa, J. Nicolas; Davila, Carlos D.; Romero-Corral, Abel; Yun, Jeong; Pressman, Gregg S.; Figueredo, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To Assess changes in infective endocarditis (IE) epidemiology over the last 5 decades. Methods and Results We searched the published literature using PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE from inception until December 2011. Data From Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA were also included. Criteria for inclusion in this systematic review included studies with reported IE microbiology, IE definition, description of population studied, and time frame. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed manuscript quality. One hundred sixty studies (27,083 patients) met inclusion criteria. Among hospital-based studies (n=142; 23,606 patients) staphylococcal IE percentage increased over time, with coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS) increasing over each of the last 5 decades (p<0.001) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) in the last decade (21% to 30%; p<0.05). Streptococcus viridans (SV) and culture negative (CN) IE frequency decreased over time (p<0.001), while enterococcal IE increased in the last decade (p<0.01). Patient age and male predominance increased over time as well. In subgroup analysis, SA frequency increased in North America, but not the rest of the world. This was due, in part, to an increase in intravenous drug abuse IE in North America (p<0.001). Among population-based studies (n=18; 3,477 patients) no significant changes were found. Conclusion Important changes occurred in IE epidemiology over the last half-century, especially in the last decade. Staphylococcal and enterococcal IE percentage increased while SV and CN IE decreased. Moreover, mean age at diagnosis increased together with male:female ratio. These changes should be considered at the time of decision-making in treatment of and prophylaxis for IE. PMID:24349331

  1. Infective endocarditis epidemiology over five decades: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Slipczuk

    Full Text Available AIMS: To Assess changes in infective endocarditis (IE epidemiology over the last 5 decades. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched the published literature using PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE from inception until December 2011. DATA FROM: Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA were also included. Criteria for inclusion in this systematic review included studies with reported IE microbiology, IE definition, description of population studied, and time frame. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed manuscript quality. One hundred sixty studies (27,083 patients met inclusion criteria. Among hospital-based studies (n=142; 23,606 patients staphylococcal IE percentage increased over time, with coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS increasing over each of the last 5 decades (p<0.001 and Staphylococcus aureus (SA in the last decade (21% to 30%; p<0.05. Streptococcus viridans (SV and culture negative (CN IE frequency decreased over time (p<0.001, while enterococcal IE increased in the last decade (p<0.01. Patient age and male predominance increased over time as well. In subgroup analysis, SA frequency increased in North America, but not the rest of the world. This was due, in part, to an increase in intravenous drug abuse IE in North America (p<0.001. Among population-based studies (n=18; 3,477 patients no significant changes were found. CONCLUSION: Important changes occurred in IE epidemiology over the last half-century, especially in the last decade. Staphylococcal and enterococcal IE percentage increased while SV and CN IE decreased. Moreover, mean age at diagnosis increased together with male:female ratio. These changes should be considered at the time of decision-making in treatment of and prophylaxis for IE.

  2. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G

    2016-06-14

    Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  3. Dilution Ratios for HB Line Phase I Eductor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    HB Line Phase I product transfer includes an eductor which transfers liquid from Product Hold Tank (PHT) RT-33 or RT-34 to Tank 11.1. The eductor also dilutes the liquid from the PHT with eductant. Dilution must be reliably controlled because of criticality concerns with H Canyon Tanks. The eductor system, which contains a 1 inch Model 264 Schutte and Koerting eductor, was previously modeled [1] in 1998 and dilution ratios were calculated for different flow restrictors, eductant pressures and densities for the eductant and the contents of the PHT. The previous calculation was performed using spreadsheet software no longer supported at SRS. For the previous work dilution ratio was defined as the volume of eductant consumed divided by volume of PHT contents transferred. Since 1998 HB Line Engineering has changed the definition of dilution ratio to the total volume of liquid, eductant consumed plus the volume of PHT liquid transferred, divided by the volume of PHT liquid transferred. The 1998 base case calculation was for a restrictor diameter of 0.334 inches, an eductant supply pressure of 15 psig, full PHT, an eductant specific gravity of 1.385 and a PHT density of 1.015. The base case dilution ratio calculated in 1998 using the current definition was 3.52. After accounting for uncertainty the minimum dilution ratio decreased to 3.23. In 2001 HB Line Engineering requested that the calculation be repeated for a manganous nitrate solution eductant and also a process water eductant. The other conditions were the same as for the 1998 calculation. The objective of this report is to document the calculations and the results

  4. Decreased active vasodilator sensitivity in aged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, W L; Morgan, A L; Farquhar, W B; Brooks, E M; Pierzga, J M; Derr, J A

    1997-04-01

    Older men and women respond to local and reflex-mediated heat stress with an attenuated increase in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). This study was performed to test the hypothesis that an augmented or sustained noradrenergic vasoconstriction (VC) may play a role in this age-related difference. Fifteen young (22 +/- 1 yr) and 15 older (66 +/- 1 yr) men exercised at 50% peak oxygen uptake in a 36 degrees C environment. Skin perfusion was monitored at two sites on the right forearm by laser-Doppler flowmetry: one site pretreated with bretylium tosylate (BT) to block the local release of norepinephrine and thus VC and an adjacent control site. Blockade of reflex VC was verified during whole body cooling using a water-perfused suit. CVC (perfusion divided by mean arterial pressure) at each site was reported as a percentage of the maximal CVC (%CVCmax) induced at the end of each experiment by prolonged local heating at 42 degrees C. Neither age nor BT affected the %CVCmax (75-86%) attained at high core temperatures. During the early rise phase of CVC, the %CVCmax-change in esophageal temperature (delta T(es)) curve was shifted to the right in the older men (effective delta T(es) associated with 50% CVC response for young, 0.22 +/- 0.04 and 0.39 +/- 0.04 degrees C and for older, 0.73 +/- 0.04 and 0.85 +/- 0.04 degrees C at control and BT sites, respectively). BT had no interactive effect on this age difference, suggesting a lack of involvement of the VC system in the attenuated CVC response of individuals over the age of 60 yr. Additionally, increases in skin vascular conductance were quantitatively compared by measuring increases in total forearm vascular conductance (FVC, restricted to the forearm skin under these conditions). After the initial approximately 0.2 degrees C increase in T(es), FVC was 40-50% lower in the older men (P < 0.01) for the remainder of the exercise. Decreased active vasodilator sensitivity to increasing core temperature, coupled with

  5. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  6. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  7. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: gbrion@engr.uky.edu

    2002-06-15

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  8. Mixing ratio sensor for alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-24

    In order to improve the combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, a mixing ratio sensor has so far been proposed to detect the above mixing ratio by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, because of the arrangement of its transparent substance in the fuel passage with the sealing material in between, this sensor invited the leakage of the fluid due to deterioration of the sealing material, etc. and its cost became high because of too many parts to be assembled. In view of the above, in order to reduce the number of parts, to lower the cost of parts and the assembling cost and to secure no fluid leakage from the fuel passage, this invention formed the above fuel passage and the above transparent substance both concerning the above mixing ratio sensor in an integrated manner using light transmitting resin. (3 figs)

  9. Mixing ratio sensor of alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-07

    In order to improve combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing and change the condition of control depending upon the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, the above mixing ratio has so far been detected by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, in case when a light emitting diode is used for the light source above, two kinds of sensors are further needed. Concerning the two kinds of sensors above, this invention offers a mixing ratio sensor for the alcohol mixed fuel which can abolish a temperature sensor to detect the environmental temperature by making a single compensatory light receiving element deal with the compensation of the amount of light emission of the light emitting element due to the temperature change and the compensation of the critical angle caused by the temperature change. (6 figs)

  10. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  11. Golden ratio beauty as scientific function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Olsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Normally when one is considering the golden ratio in the history of ideas, one is often looking at it as an aesthetic principle – usually associated with Greek art, sculpture and mathematics. However, in recent years the prevalence of the golden ratio within a broad range of scientific disciplines has brought its role in the perfection of science to the forefront. I would like to collapse these two areas by proposing a somewhat novel way of looking at the aesthetics of the golden ratio: its pervasive expression in scientific form and function is the basis of the aesthetics in the world. Therefore, science contains the same mathematical beauty as found in artistic expression. The golden ratio guides the Chaos Border of Kolmogorov, Arnold, and Moser (KAM theorem and it can be found hidden in all elementary particles, and even in the proportions of dark matter and energy relative to visible matter and energy. It is evident in the structure and growth functions of plants and animals and it can be found in the physiological functions of humans. It now appears that without the golden ratio, we would not have the form or function of the proton, cell, athlete, horse, species, planet, solar system or galaxy.

  12. Decreased T2 signal in the thalami may be a sign of lysosomal storage disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autti, Taina; Joensuu, Raimo; Aaberg, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Lysosomal disorders are rare and are caused by genetically transmitted lysosomal enzyme deficiencies. A decreased T2 signal in the thalamus has occasionally been reported. Because the finding of bilateral abnormal signal intensity of the thalamus on T2-weighted images has not been systematically reviewed, and its value as a diagnostic tool critically evaluated, we carried out a systematic review of the literature. Articles in English with 30 trios of keywords were collected from PubMed. Exclusion criteria were lack of conventional T2-weighted images in the protocol and not being a human study. Finally, 111 articles were included. The thalamus was considered affected only if mentioned in the text or in the figure legends. Some 117 patients with various lysosomal diseases and five patients with ceruloplasmin deficiency were reported to have a bilateral decrease in T2 signal intensity. At least one article reported a bilateral decrease in signal intensity of the thalami on T2-weighted images in association with GM1 and GM2 gangliosidosis and with Krabbe's disease, aspartylglucosaminuria, mannosidosis, fucosidosis, and mucolipidosis IV. Furthermore, thalamic alteration was a consistent finding in several types of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) including CLN1 (infantile NCL), CLN2 (classic late infantile NCL), CLN3 (juvenile NCL), CLN5 (Finnish variant late infantile NCL), and CLN7 (Turkish variant late infantile NCL). A decrease in T2 signal intensity in the thalami seems to be a sign of lysosomal disease. (orig.)

  13. An overview of systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathy A; Weeks, Susan Mace

    2014-12-01

    Systematic review is an invaluable tool for the practicing clinician. A well-designed systematic review represents the latest and most complete information available on a particular topic or intervention. This article highlights the key elements of systematic review, what it is and is not, and provides an overview of several reputable organizations supporting the methodological development and conduct of systematic review. Important aspects for evaluating the quality of a systematic review are also included. Copyright © 2014 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. D/H ratio for Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.; Schempp, W.V.; Baines, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of Jupiter's spectrum near the R5(0) HD line at 6063.88 A are reported. A feature with an equivalent width of 0.065 + or - 0.021 mA is coincident with the expected line. This feature is compared with HD profiles computed for inhomogeneous scattering models for Jupiter to yield a range for the Jovian D/H ratio of 1.0-2.9 x 10 to the -5th. This D/H ratio is in the lower range of previously reported D/H values for Jupiter and corresponds to an essentially solar D/H ratio for Jupiter. The detection of HD features in the presence of probable blends with spectral features of minor atmospheric hydrocarbon molecules is discussed. Such blends may make unambiguous identification of HD features difficult. 26 references

  15. Odor concentration invariance by chemical ratio coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoshige Uchida

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Many animal species rely on chemical signals to extract ecologically important information from the environment. Yet in natural conditions chemical signals will frequently undergo concentration changes that produce differences in both level and pattern of activation of olfactory receptor neurons. Thus, a central problem in olfactory processing is how the system is able to recognize the same stimulus across different concentrations. To signal species identity for mate recognition, some insects use the ratio of two components in a binary chemical mixture to produce a code that is invariant to dilution. Here, using psychophysical methods, we show that rats also classify binary odor mixtures according to the molar ratios of their components, spontaneously generalizing over at least a tenfold concentration range. These results indicate that extracting chemical ratio information is not restricted to pheromone signaling and suggest a general solution for concentration-invariant odor recognition by the mammalian olfactory system.

  16. Isotope ratio in stellar atmospheres and nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbuy, B.L.S.

    1987-01-01

    The determination of isotopic ratios in stellar atmospheres is studied. The isotopic shift of atomic and molecular lines of different species of a certain element is examined. CH and MgH lines are observed in order to obtain the 12 C: 13 C and 24 Mg: 25 Mg: 26 Mg isotpic ratios. The formation of lines in stellar atmospheres is computed and the resulting synthetic spectra are employed to determine the isotopic abundances. The results obtained for the isotopic ratios are compared to predictions of nucleosynthesis theories. Finally, the concept of primary and secondary element is discussed, and these definitions are applied to the observed variations in the abundance of elements as a function of metallicity. (author) [pt

  17. Transport in a small aspect ratio torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gates, D.A.; Mynick, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    Transport theory in toroidal devices often assumes large aspect ratio and also assumes the poloidal field is small compared to the toroidal field. These assumptions result in transport which in the low collision rate limit is dominated by banana orbits, giving the largest collisionless excursion of a particle from an initial flux surface. However in a small aspect ratio device the gyro radius may be larger than the banana excursion, resulting in significant deviations from the standard neoclassical predictions. In this paper we report numerical simulation of diffusion in low and high beta low aspect ratio equilibria. We also sketch an analytic theory. The diffusion, which we refer to as omniclassical, is a combination of neoclassical and properly averaged classical effects, and can be two or three times the neoclassical value. Good agreement of the analytic theory with numerical simulations is obtained. (author)

  18. Stop signals decrease choices for palatable foods through decreased food evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, Harm; Aarts, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores whether presenting specific palatable foods in close temporal proximity of stop signals in a go/no-go task decreases subsequent evaluations of such foods among participants with a relatively high appetite. Furthermore, we tested whether any decreased evaluations could mediate subsequent food choice. Participants first received a go/no-go task in which palatable foods were consistently linked to go cues or no-go cues within participants. Next, evaluation of the palatable foods was measured as well as food choice. Replicating previous work, results show that among participants with a relatively high appetite palatable foods associated with no-go cues are less often chosen as snacks compared to when these foods are associated with go cues, whereas this manipulation did not affect participants with a relatively low appetite. Moreover, this effect was completely mediated by decreased evaluation of the palatable foods that had been associated with the no-go cues, whereas evaluation of the foods associated with go cues did not mediate this effect. Results further showed that the devaluation effect of foods associated with no-go cues was independent of the amount of pairings (4 vs. 12 vs. 24) with the no-go cues. The current findings suggest that decreased food evaluation is a mechanism that explains effects of stop signals on food choice. PMID:24324451

  19. Hepatectomy simulation discrepancy between radionuclide receptor imaging and CT volumetry. Influence of decreased unilateral portal venous flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaki, Shiro; Okumura, Yoshihiro; Sasai, Nobuya; Sato, Shuhei; Tsunoda, Masatoshi; Kuroda, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Susumu; Hiraki, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    Regional dysfunction demonstrated by Tc-99m-diethylenetriamine-penta-acetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) scintigraphy due to regional decrease in the portal venous flow has previously been reported. In this study, we call attention to the significance of unilateral portal venous flow decrease for preoperative hepatectomy simulation, and evaluate the hepatectomy simulation discrepancy between Tc-99m-GSA single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and CT volumetry. Twenty-four hepatectomy candidates underwent preoperative hepatectomy simulation by both Tc-99m-GSA SPECT and CT volumetry. Both anatomical and functional resection ratios were calculated by means of CT volumetry and Tc-99m-GSA SPECT, respectively. The differences and ratios between anatomical and functional resection ratios were calculated in all patients, and compared in patients with and without unilateral portal venous flow decrease. Anatomical resection ratios were 28.0±11.7 (mean±standard deviation) in patients with unilateral portal venous flow decrease, and 42.1±15.7 in patients without unilateral portal venous flow decrease (p=0.0127). Functional resection ratios were 14.7±12.8 in patients with unilateral portal venous flow decrease and 40.5±14.6 in patients without (p=0.0004). The differences between anatomical and functional resection ratios were 13.0±7.9 in patients with unilateral portal venous flow decrease and 5.6±3.1 in patients without (p=0.0099). The ratios between anatomical and functional resection ratios were 0.48±0.29 in patients with unilateral portal venous flow decrease and 0.86±0.10 in patients without (p=0.0018). In 12 of the 13 patients with unilateral portal venous flow decrease, anatomical resection ratios were found to be larger than functional resection ratios, whereas this happened in only 6 of 11 patients without unilateral portal venous flow decrease (p=0.0063). Unilateral portal venous flow decrease is suspected to be a major factor in the

  20. A new method for the determination of the mixing ratio hydrogen to helium in the giant planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, D.; Grossman, K.

    1972-01-01

    By using a numerical iterative method, it is demonstrated that the mixing ratio H2/He on the giant planets can be inferred from spectral measurements of the intensity emitted by these planets in the far infrared range. The method is successfully applied to synthetic spectra of Saturn computed from atmospheric thermal models. The effect of random and systematic measurement errors on the determination of the mixing ratio is also studied.

  1. Metabolic Risk Susceptibility in Men Is Partially Related to Adiponectin/Leptin Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Lena Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High adiponectin/leptin ratio may be protective from metabolic risks imparted by high triglyceride, low HDL, and insulin resistance. Methods. This cross-sectional study examines plasma adipokine levels in 428 adult men who were subgrouped according to low (<6.5 μg/mLand high (≥6.5 μg/mLadiponectin levels or a low or high ratio of adiponectin/leptin. Results. Men with high adiponectin/leptin ratio had lower plasma triglyceride and higher HDL cholesterol than those with low ratio. Similarly, those with high adiponectin/leptin ratio had lower TG/HDL cholesterol ratio and HOMA2-IR than those with low ratio. In contrast, levels of adiponectin or the ratio of adiponectin/leptin did not associate with systolic blood pressure. But the ratio of adiponectin/leptin decreased progressively with the increase in the number of risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Conclusion. Adipokine levels may reflect adipose tissue triglyceride storage capacity and insulin sensitivity. Leptin is an index of fat mass, and adiponectin is a biomarker of triglyceride metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Men with high adiponectin/leptin ratios have better triglyceride profile and insulin sensitivity than men with a low ratio regardless of waist girth.

  2. The reaction index and positivity ratio revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Andersen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value of these st......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value...

  3. Uranium isotope ratio measurements in field settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.W.; Barshick, C.M.; Young, J.P.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a technique for uranium isotope ratio measurements of powder samples in field settings. Such a method will be invaluable for environmental studies, radioactive waste operations, and decommissioning and decontamination operations. Immediate field data can help guide an ongoing sampling campaign. The measurement encompasses glow discharge sputtering from pressed sample hollow cathodes, high resolution laser spectroscopy using conveniently tunable diode lasers, and optogalvanic detection. At 10% 235 U enrichment and above, the measurement precision for 235 U/( 235 U+ 238 U) isotope ratios was ±3%; it declined to ±15% for 0.3% (i.e., depleted) samples. A prototype instrument was constructed and is described

  4. Ultima Ratio as a Constitutional Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarlo Tuori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues the criminal law notion of ultima ratio is an instance of a broader constitutional law principle of proportionality. However, ultima ratio is not the only principle relevant in a constitutional assessment of criminalization. The role of ultima ratio is to impose limitations on criminalization. But constitutional doctrines also exist which call for criminalization and might even be seen as establishing a criminalization obligation. The paper examines three constitutional counter weights to ultima ratio. The first of these is discussed in the context of state constitutions. This is the cluster of the interrelated constitutional doctrines of the horizontal effect of fundamental rights and the protective duty of the state, as well as the understanding of collective security as a basic right. These doctrines are analysed in the light of the praxis of the German Constitutional Court and the Finnish Constitutional Law Committee. The two other constitutional counterweights are discussed at the level of the transnational, European constitution. These are the principles of precaution and effectiveness. Este artículo defiende que el concepto de ultima ratio es una instancia más amplia del principio de proporcionalidad dentro del derecho constitucional. Sin embargo, el ultima ratio no es el único principio relevante en la valoración constitucional de la criminalización. El papel del ultima ratio es imponer límites a la criminalización. Pero también existen doctrinas constitucionales que exigen la criminalización e incluso dan pie a entender que obligan a establecer una pena. El documento examina tres contrapesos constitucionales al ultima ratio. En primer lugar, se analiza en el contexto de las constituciones estatales. Este es el conjunto de las doctrinas constitucionales interrelacionadas entre el efecto horizontal de los derechos fundamentales y el deber de protección del Estado, así como la asunción de la seguridad colectiva

  5. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  6. Decreased coronary reserve in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Ryutaro

    1987-01-01

    To assess coronary flow reserve in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), split dose thallium-201 dipyridamole (DP) myocardial scintigraphy was performed. Subjects included 30 HCM patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy and normal coronary angiogram, 10 hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (posterior wall thickness ≥ 15 mm) and 13 healthy controls. Coronary reserve index (CRI) was calculated as a ratio of myocardial thallium uptake after dipyridamole (0.5 mg/kg) to the baseline value. HCM patients showed a significantly lower CRI (177 %) as compared with controls (281 %) or hypertensive patients (214 %), and 17 of them had abnormally decreased CRI below the normal range (mean-2SD of controls). These HCM patients with abnormal CRI showed significantly more frequent family histrory of HCM (71 vs 31 %), and a greater degree of systolic narrowing of the septal perforator as compared with those normal CRI. Maximal work loads were significantly lower (82 vs 106 watts) in those with abnormal CRI, 31 % developed ST depression at 80 watts. However, patients with abnormal CRI did not differ from those with normal CRI in septal and posterior wall thickness, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and in the degree of systolic narrowing of the left anterior descending artery. In the segmental CRI analysis, 13 HCM patients showed abnormal CRI in the septal and/or apical segments, while 8 patients presented diffuse CRI decrease, including the non-hypertrophied posterior segment. These findings indicate that 57 % of HCM patients have impaired coronary vasodilatory reserve, which may not only be a consequence of left ventricular hypertrophy, elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and systolic narrowing of the coronary artery, but may be related to small vessel coronary disease. (J.P.N.)

  7. Amylose content decreases during tuber development in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansky, Shelley; Fajardo, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Potato starch is composed primarily of amylopectin and amylose in an approximately 3:1 ratio. Amylose is considered to be nutritionally desirable in North American and European markets, so there is interest in finding strategies to increase the amylose content of potato starch. There is also interest in marketing 'baby' potatoes, which are harvested when they are physiologically immature. This study was carried out to determine weekly changes in amylose content in potato tubers of 11 North American cultivars during the growing season. The trial was repeated across 3 years. We determined that amylose content is highest early and it decreases in a linear fashion as the growing season progresses. Mean amylose content across cultivars and years declined from 30.0% in late June to 26.8% in late August. The rate of decrease varied across years, with slopes of linear regression plots ranging from -0.17 in 2012 to -0.74 in 2011. Amylose content in tuber starch varied among cultivars, with the highest levels observed in Ranger Russet (30.7%) and White Pearl (31.6%); it was lowest in Kennebec (25.7%) and Langlade (25.6%). This study adds to a growing body of literature on the nutritional value of immature potato tubers. In addition to having higher levels of some phytonutrients, as reported in other studies, immature tubers have a higher proportion of amylose in the starch. This is nutritionally desirable in affluent regions where high fiber content is more important than calories from carbohydrates. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Evaluation of atmospheric particulate concentrations derived from analysis of ratio Thematic Mapper data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, W. H.; Mausel, P. W.; Zhou, G. P.

    1984-01-01

    An approach for atmospheric particulate concentration evaluation above urban areas using ratio Thematic Mapper (TM) data is discussed. October 25, 1982 TM data over Chicago, IL are analyzed using TM band ratios of 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, and 1/6 and particulate concentration estimates derived from TM ratios are tested over low reflective turbid water sites and highly reflective concrete highways. From analysis of the data it is evident that for water, the pattern of increasing particulate concentration is associated with decreasing ratio values in all band combinations used. Over concrete features, the TM band 1/4 ratio values follow the predicted pattern, while the TM band 1/6 has ratios which are reversed from anticipated values.

  9. The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio: health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simopoulos Artemis P.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, Western diets are characterized by a higher omega-6 and a lower omega-3 fatty acid intake, whereas during the Paleolithic period when human’s genetic profile was established, there was a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Their balance is an important determinant for brain development and in decreasing the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and other autoimmune and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. Both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids influence gene expression. Because of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in their metabolic pathways, blood levels of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are determined by both endogenous metabolism and dietary intake making the need of balanced dietary intake essential for health and disease prevention. Whether an omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 3:1 to 4:1 could prevent the pathogenesis of many diseases induced by today’s Western diets (AFSSA, 2010, a target of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment, and genetics. A target of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment and genetics. A balanced ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is important for health and in the prevention of CHD and possibly other chronic diseases.

  10. Water entry of cylindrical bodies with various aspect ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nayoung; Park, Hyungmin

    2017-11-01

    We experimentally investigate the water entry of cylindrical bodies with different aspect ratio (1.0-8.0), focusing on the deformation of free surface and resulting phenomena over and under the surface. The experiment is performed using a high-speed imaging (upto 10000 fps) and PIV. The head and tail of bodies are hemispherical and the nose part is additionally roughened with a sandpaper to see the effect of roughness as well. The release height is also adjusted to change the impact velocity at the free surface (Reynolds number is order of 105). For smooth surface (without cavity formation), a thin liquid film rises up the body after impacting, gathers at the pole and forms a jet over the free surfaces. The jet is created in the form of a thick and thin jet. The thin jet is produced by a water film riding up the surface of an object, and a thick jet is produced by rising water from underwater as the object sinks. However, as the aspect ratio increases, the liquid film does not fully ride up the body and cannot close, so there is an empty space below the free surface. With roughness (with cavity), the liquid film is detached from the body and splash/dome is formed above the free surface. The splash height and its collapsing time decrease with increasing the aspect ratio. Supported by Grants (MPSS-CG-2016-02, NRF-2017R1A4A1015523) of the Korea government.

  11. Ratio method of measuring W boson mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This dissertation describes an alternative method of measuring the W boson mass in DØ experiment. Instead of extracting MW from the fitting of W → ev fast Monte Carlo simulations to W → ev data as in the standard method, we make the direct fit of transverse mass between W → ev data and Z → ee data. One of the two electrons from Z boson is treated as a neutrino in the calculation of transverse mass. In ratio method, the best fitted scale factor corresponds to the ratio of W and Z boson mass (MW/MZ). Given the precisely measured Z boson mass, W mass is directly fitted from W → ev and Z → ee data. This dissertation demonstrates that ratio method is a plausible method of measuring the W boson mass. With the 1 fb-1 DØ Run IIa dataset, ratio method gives MW = 80435 ± 43(stat) ± 26(sys) MeV.

  12. Decay ratio for third order Brownian oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, H.; Kanemoto, S.

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained the analytical expressions of the decay ratios for two types of third order Brownian oscillators which are generalizations of the second order Brownian oscillator driven by the Gaussian-white noise. The resulting expressions will provide us useful baseline information for more complicated practical problems and their applications

  13. Bowen ratio over the Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taufarová, Klára; Dvořáková, Marcela; Czerný, Radek; Pokorný, Radek; Janouš, Dalibor

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2007), s. 131-136 ISSN 1803-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD526/03/H036; GA MŽP SM/640/18/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Bowen ratio * evapotranspiration * transpiration * eddy covariance technique Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  14. Measuring Poisson Ratios at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozon, R. S.; Shepic, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    Simple extensometer ring measures bulges of specimens in compression. New method of measuring Poisson's ratio used on brittle ceramic materials at cryogenic temperatures. Extensometer ring encircles cylindrical specimen. Four strain gauges connected in fully active Wheatstone bridge self-temperature-compensating. Used at temperatures as low as liquid helium.

  15. Multipole mixing ratios in /sup 154/Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Won Mo; Song, Choong Sik; Joo, Koan Sik

    1985-06-01

    We have measured gamma-gamma angular correlations to determine the mixing ratios of several gamma transitions in /sup 154/Gd. The results are compared with those derived from the pairing-plus-quadrupole model and from the interacting boson model.

  16. Factors affecting egg ratios in planktonic rotifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarma, S.S.S.; Gulati, R.D.; Nandini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Edmondson’s egg ratio (number of amictic eggs per female) is an important life history variable, which has been in wide use to understand and predict patterns of population growth in planktonic rotifers under field conditions. It is also useful as an indicator of the health of rotifers under culture

  17. 34 CFR 668.172 - Financial ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... effect of changes in accounting principles, and the effect of changes in accounting estimates; (2) May... intangible assets defined as intangible in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles; and (5... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial ratios. 668.172 Section 668.172 Education...

  18. Abundance Ratios in Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Seyda; Peletier, Reynier F.; Toloba, Elisa; Mentz, Jaco J.

    The aim of this study is to determine abundance ratios and star formation histories (SFH) of dwarf ellipticals in the nearby Virgo cluster. We perform a stellar population analysis of 39 dEs and study them using index-index and scaling relations. We find an unusual behaviour where [Na/Fe] is

  19. Asymptotics for ratios with applications to reinsurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladoucette, S.A.; Teugels, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of results pertaining to moment convergence for certain ratios of random variables involving sums, order statistics and extreme terms in the sense of modulus. Most of the literature on this matter originates from Darling (1952) who gave a criterion for the convergence

  20. Influence of pollution of boron chlorinity ratio

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, P.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    Presence of boron in domestic wastewater has resulted in high B/CI ratio at some locations in the coastal water around Bombay. A widest range (0.215-0.281) of B/CI was observed at a location with high influence of wastewater release. The mean B...

  1. 12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... anticipating or experiencing significant growth and have well-diversified risks, including no undue interest rate risk exposure, excellent asset quality, high liquidity, and good earnings. (b) For all savings... capital ratios may be required if warranted by the particular circumstances or risk profiles of an...

  2. Likelihood-ratio-based biometric verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that for single-user verification the likelihood ratio is optimal.

  3. Likelihood Ratio-Based Biometric Verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    The paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that, for single-user verification, the likelihood ratio is optimal.

  4. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Aim: Postoperative pain is well known and usually disturbing complication of surgery. Inflammation plays an important role in the development and progression of postoperative pain. We aimed to investigate possible relationship between preoperatively measured neutrophil‑lymphocyte ratio (NLR) – as an ...

  5. Prebiotics in healthy infants and children for prevention of acute infectious diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohner, Szimonetta; Küllenberg, Daniela; Antes, Gerd; Decsi, Tamás; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2014-08-01

    Prebiotics, defined as nondigestible dietary ingredients resistant to gastric acidity and fermented by the intestinal flora, are used to positively influence the composition of intestinal flora, thereby promoting health benefits. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of prebiotics in the prevention of acute infectious diseases in children. A systematic literature search was conducted using the Ovid Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library's Central databases. Finally, five randomized controlled trials, all of them investigating infants and children 0-24 months of age, were included in the review. Pooled estimates from three studies revealed a statistically significant decrease in the number of infectious episodes requiring antibiotic therapy in the prebiotic group as compared with the placebo group (rate ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval 0.61-0.77). Studies available indicate that prebiotics may also be effective in decreasing the rate of overall infections in infants and children 0-24 months of age. Further studies in the age group 3-18 years are required to determine whether prebiotics can be considered for the prevention of acute infectious diseases in the older pediatric population. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  6. Benazepril hydrochloride improves diabetic nephropathy and decreases proteinuria by decreasing ANGPTL-4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lingyu; Feng, Xiaoqing; Wang, Chuanhai; Zhang, Xuebin; Sun, Wenqiang; Yu, Kebo

    2017-10-04

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of benazepril hydrochloride (BH) on proteinuria and ANGPTL-4 expression in a diabetic nephropathy (DN) rat model. A total of 72 Wistar male rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (NC), DN group and BH treatment (BH) groups. The DN model was induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Weight, glucose, proteinuria, biochemical indicators and the kidney weight index were examined at 8, 12 and 16 weeks. In addition, ANGPTL-4 protein and mRNA expressions were assessed by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR, respectively. Relationships between ANGPTL-4 and biochemical indicators were investigated using Spearman analysis. Weight was significantly lower but glucose levels were significantly higher in both the DN and BH groups than in the NC group (P Benazepril hydrochloride improves DN and decreases proteinuria by decreasing ANGPTL-4 expression.

  7. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Volodymyr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the

  8. Mg isotope systematics during magmatic processes: Inter-mineral fractionation in mafic to ultramafic Hawaiian xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, A.; Tipper, E. T.; Klemme, S.; Bizimis, M.

    2018-04-01

    Observed differences in Mg isotope ratios between bulk magmatic rocks are small, often on a sub per mill level. Inter-mineral differences in the 26Mg/24Mg ratio (expressed as δ26Mg) in plutonic rocks are on a similar scale, and have mostly been attributed to equilibrium isotope fractionation at magmatic temperatures. Here we report Mg isotope data on minerals in spinel peridotite and garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from the rejuvenated stage of volcanism on Oahu and Kauai, Hawaii. The new data are compared to literature data and to theoretical predictions to investigate the processes responsible for inter-mineral Mg isotope fractionation at magmatic temperatures. Theory predicts up to per mill level differences in δ26Mg between olivine and spinel at magmatic temperatures and a general decrease in Δ26Mgolivine-spinel (=δ26Mgolivine - δ26Mgspinel) with increasing temperature, but also with increasing Cr# in spinel. For peridotites with a simple petrogenetic history by melt depletion, where increasing depletion relates to increasing melting temperatures, Δ26Mgolivine-spinel should thus systematically decrease with increasing Cr# in spinel. However, most natural peridotites, including the Hawaiian spinel peridotites investigated in this study, are overprinted by variable extents of melt-rock reaction, which disturb the systematic primary temperature and compositionally related olivine-spinel Mg isotope systematics. Diffusion, subsolidus re-equilibration, or surface alteration may further affect the observed olivine-spinel Mg isotope fractionation in peridotites, making Δ26Mgolivine-spinel in peridotites a difficult-to-apply geothermometer. The available Mg isotope data on clinopyroxene and garnet suggest that this mineral pair is a more promising geothermometer, but its application is restricted to garnet-bearing igneous (garnet pyroxenites) and metamorphic rocks (eclogites). Although the observed δ26Mg variation is on a sub per mill range in bulk magmatic rocks

  9. Transient Elastography vs. Aspartate Aminotransferase to Platelet Ratio Index in Hepatitis C: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, A Z; Mattos, A A

    Many different non-invasive methods have been studied with the purpose of staging liver fibrosis. The objective of this study was verifying if transient elastography is superior to aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index for staging fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. A systematic review with meta-analysis of studies which evaluated both non-invasive tests and used biopsy as the reference standard was performed. A random-effects model was used, anticipating heterogeneity among studies. Diagnostic odds ratio was the main effect measure, and summary receiver operating characteristic curves were created. A sensitivity analysis was planned, in which the meta-analysis would be repeated excluding each study at a time. Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. Regarding the prediction of significant fibrosis, transient elastography and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index had diagnostic odds ratios of 11.70 (95% confidence interval = 7.13-19.21) and 8.56 (95% confidence interval = 4.90-14.94) respectively. Concerning the prediction of cirrhosis, transient elastography and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index had diagnostic odds ratios of 66.49 (95% confidence interval = 23.71-186.48) and 7.47 (95% confidence interval = 4.88-11.43) respectively. In conclusion, there was no evidence of significant superiority of transient elastography over aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index regarding the prediction of significant fibrosis, but the former proved to be better than the latter concerning prediction of cirrhosis.

  10. Systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnard, K. D.; Lloyd, C. E.; Skinner, T. C.

    2007-01-01

    mixed results, with one study reporting quality of life benefits and one reporting no evidence of quality of life benefits. Conclusions: There is conflicting evidence reported in the various studies on the quality of life benefits of CSII in Type 1 diabetes. Existing research is flawed, making......Aim: To review systematically the published literature addressing whether continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) provides any quality of life benefits to people with Type 1 diabetes. Methods: Electronic databases and published references were searched and a consultation with two...

  11. Systematic Equation Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2007-01-01

    A tutorial giving a very simple introduction to the set-up of the equations used as a model for an electrical/electronic circuit. The aim is to find a method which is as simple and general as possible with respect to implementation in a computer program. The “Modified Nodal Approach”, MNA, and th......, and the “Controlled Source Approach”, CSA, for systematic equation formulation are investigated. It is suggested that the kernel of the P Spice program based on MNA is reprogrammed....

  12. [Ratio of erythrocyte and plasma in massive blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xian-Hui; Liu, Feng-Xia; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Gui, Rong

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the suitable ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte by retrospective analysis of coagulation in patients with massive blood transfusion. The clinical data of 151 cases with massive blood transfusion from January 2011 to January 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. According to coagulation, patients were divided into coagulation normal group (138 cases) and coagulation dysfunction group (13 cases). Based on the ratio of 1:1 of fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte, the patients were divided into high plasma group(2:1), medium plasma group (1:1) and low plasma (blood transfusion. The results showed that prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) were prolonged, fibrinogen (FIB) level decreased significantly (all P blood transfusion 24 h; the high plasma and the medium plasma group of coagulation normal group had no significant changes in coagulation (P > 0.05); prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time and fibrinogen level in the medium plasma and low plasma subgroup of coagulation dysfunction group after massive transfusion was still in abnormal levels (P > 0.05), coagulation function in high plasma subgroup was improved significantly (P blood transfusion, the ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte is recommended to be 2:1 in patients of coagulation dysfunction in order to improve the patient's coagulation function and to reduce the incidence of adverse event, the ratio of fresh frozen plasma to erythrocyte is recommended to be 1:1 in patients with normal coagulation so as to reduce the dilutional coagulopathy and hypervolemia of blood.

  13. THE EFFECT OF COMPRESSION RATIO VARIATIONS ON THE ENGINE PERFORMANCE PARAMETRES IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup SEKMEN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of the spark ignition engines may be increased by changing the geometrical compression ratio according to the amount of charging in cylinders. The designed geometrical compression ratio can be realized as an effective compression ratio under the full load and full open throttle conditions since the effective compression ratio changes with the amount of charging into the cylinder in spark ignition engines. So, this condition of the spark ignition engines forces designers to change their geometrical compression ratio according to the amount of charging into the cylinder for improvement of performance and fuel economy. In order to improve the combustion efficiency, fuel economy, power output, exhaust emissions at partial loads, compression ratio must be increased; but, under high load and low speed conditions to prevent probable knock and hard running the compression ratio must be decreased gradually. In this paper, relation of the performance parameters to compression ratio such as power, torque, specific fuel consumption, cylindir pressure, exhaust gas temperature, combustion chamber surface area/volume ratio, thermal efficiency, spark timing etc. in spark ignition engines have been investigated and using of engines with variable compression ratio is suggested to fuel economy and more clear environment.

  14. Characterizing gamma fields using isomeric activation ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Ramkumar; Fleming, Ronald F.

    1994-12-01

    Isomeric activities were induced in indium by gamma irradiation in three different gamma fields, through the reactions 115In(γ, γ') 115mIn and 113In(γ, γ') 113mIn. The irradiation fields were (i) the 15 kCi 60Co source available in the University, (ii) the spent fuel gamma irradiator in the pool of the University's Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR) and (iii) south face of the core of the FNR during routine shut downs. Isomeric activation ratios can serve to characterize gamma fields, provided the response functions of the two (γ, γ') reactions sample different energy regimes of the gamma spectrum present in the irradiation fields. The response of an isomeric activation detector, in turn, depends on the number of activation energy levels of the nuclide and the probabilities with which the activation levels de-populate to the isomeric level. The reaction rate ratio RIn115m/ RIn113m was measured in the three gamma fields. The measured ratios were (i) 1.210 ± 0.011 in the 60Co source, (ii) 1.314 ± 0.060 in the spent fuel gamma irradiator and (iii) 1.298 ± 0.039 in a location alongside the FNR core during routine shut downs. The measured reaction rate ratios are not only close to each other, but close to unity as well. This indicates that the excitation functions for the reactions 115In(γ, γ') 115mIn and 113In(γ, γ') 113mIn have similar shapes and that for the nuclides 115In and 113In, the number of activation energy levels and the probabilities with which they populate the isomeric levels are very similar to each other. Thus, the ratio RIn115m/ RIn113m will not yield any information regarding the shape of gamma spectrum in the field of measurement. However by choosing (γ, γ') reactions with different shapes for the excitation functions one can measure a set of isomeric activation ratios that characterize a given gamma field.

  15. The intent to exercise influences the cerebral O(2)/carbohydrate uptake ratio in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Ide, Kojiro; Cai, Yan

    2002-01-01

    During and after maximal exercise there is a 15-30 % decrease in the metabolic uptake ratio (O(2)/[glucose + 1/2 lactate]) and a net lactate uptake by the human brain. This study evaluated if this cerebral metabolic uptake ratio is influenced by the intent to exercise, and whether a change could......, the a-v difference for the amino acids and glycerol did not change significantly, and there was only a minimal increase in the a-v difference for free fatty acids after maximal exercise. After maximal exercise the metabolic uptake ratio of the brain decreased from 6.1 +/- 0.5 (mean +/- S.E.M.) at rest.......2) in the early recovery (n = 10; P brain are increased out of proportion to O(2) when the brain is activated by exhaustive exercise, and that such metabolic changes are influenced by the will to exercise. We speculate that the uptake ratio...

  16. Plasma pH does not influence the cerebral metabolic ratio during maximal whole body exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Rasmussen, Peter; Seifert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    .05) following the Sal and Bicarb trials, respectively. Accordingly, the cerebral metabolic ratio decreased equally during the Sal and Bicarb trials: from 5.8 ± 0.6 at rest to 1.7 ± 0.1 and 1.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The enlarged blood-buffering capacity after infusion of Bicarb eliminated metabolic acidosis......Exercise lowers the cerebral metabolic ratio of O2 to carbohydrate (glucose + 1/2 lactate) and metabolic acidosis appears to promote cerebral lactate uptake. However, the influence of pH on cerebral lactate uptake and, in turn, on the cerebral metabolic ratio during exercise is not known. Sodium...... during maximal exercise but that did not affect the cerebral lactate uptake and, therefore, the decrease in the cerebral metabolic ratio....

  17. Gynecomastia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlund, Anders; Lewin, Richard; Rufolo, Guglielmo; Elander, Anna; Santanelli di Pompeo, Fabio; Selvaggi, Gennaro

    2015-01-01

    Gynecomastia is a common medical problem presenting in nearly a third of the male population. Treatment for gynecomastia can be either pharmacological or surgical. Patients with gynecomastia often experience affected quality-of-life. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the quality of evidence of the current literature in relation to different treatment modalities and Quality-of-Life in patients with gynecomastia. A systematic search of the literature was performed in PubMed, Medline, Scopus, The Cochrane Library, and SveMed+ in accordance with the PRISMA statement. All searches were undertaken between September-November 2014. The PICOS (patients, intervention, comparator, outcomes, and study design) approach was used to specify inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was graded according to MINORS. Quality of evidence was rated according to GRADE. Data from the included studies were extracted based on study characteristics, participants specifics, type of intervention/treatment, and type of outcome measures into data extraction forms. A total of 134 abstracts were identified in the literature search. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria, 14 concerning treatment and three concerning Quality-of-Life. All studies were non-randomised with a high risk of bias and very low quality of evidence according to GRADE. Several different surgical methods have been described with good results, minimal scars, and various levels of complications. Traditional surgical excision of glandular tissue combined with liposuction provides most consistent results and a low rate of complications. Pubertal gynecomastia may safely be managed by pharmacological anti-oestrogen treatment.

  18. Telerheumatology: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, John A; Ferucci, Elizabeth D; Glover, Janis; Fraenkel, Liana

    2017-10-01

    To identify and summarize the published and gray literature on the use of telemedicine for the diagnosis and management of inflammatory and/or autoimmune rheumatic disease. We performed a registered systematic search (CRD42015025382) for studies using MEDLINE (1946 to July 2015), Embase (1974 to July 2015), Web of Science (1900 to July 2015), and Scopus (1946 to July 2015) databases. We included studies that demonstrated the use of telemedicine for diagnosis and/or management of inflammatory/autoimmune rheumatic disease. Following data extraction, we performed a descriptive analysis. Our literature search identified 1,468 potentially eligible studies. Of these studies, 20 were ultimately included in this review. Studies varied significantly in publication type, quality of evidence, and the reporting of methods. Most demonstrated a high risk of bias. Rheumatoid arthritis was the most commonly studied rheumatic disease (42% of patients). Studies demonstrated conflicting results regarding the effectiveness of telemedicine (18 found it effective, 1 found it effective but possibly harmful, and 1 found it ineffective). A limited number of studies included some component of a cost analysis (n = 6; 16% of patients); all of these found telemedicine to be cost-effective. Studies identified by this systematic review generally found telemedicine to be effective for the diagnosis and management of autoimmune/inflammatory rheumatic disease; however, there is limited evidence to support this conclusion. Further studies are needed to determine the best uses of telemedicine for the diagnosis and management of these conditions. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  19. Estimating HIES Data through Ratio and Regression Methods for Different Sampling Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqir Muhammad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, comparison has been made for different sampling designs, using the HIES data of North West Frontier Province (NWFP for 2001-02 and 1998-99 collected from the Federal Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Division, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad. The performance of the estimators has also been considered using bootstrap and Jacknife. A two-stage stratified random sample design is adopted by HIES. In the first stage, enumeration blocks and villages are treated as the first stage Primary Sampling Units (PSU. The sample PSU’s are selected with probability proportional to size. Secondary Sampling Units (SSU i.e., households are selected by systematic sampling with a random start. They have used a single study variable. We have compared the HIES technique with some other designs, which are: Stratified Simple Random Sampling. Stratified Systematic Sampling. Stratified Ranked Set Sampling. Stratified Two Phase Sampling. Ratio and Regression methods were applied with two study variables, which are: Income (y and Household sizes (x. Jacknife and Bootstrap are used for variance replication. Simple Random Sampling with sample size (462 to 561 gave moderate variances both by Jacknife and Bootstrap. By applying Systematic Sampling, we received moderate variance with sample size (467. In Jacknife with Systematic Sampling, we obtained variance of regression estimator greater than that of ratio estimator for a sample size (467 to 631. At a sample size (952 variance of ratio estimator gets greater than that of regression estimator. The most efficient design comes out to be Ranked set sampling compared with other designs. The Ranked set sampling with jackknife and bootstrap, gives minimum variance even with the smallest sample size (467. Two Phase sampling gave poor performance. Multi-stage sampling applied by HIES gave large variances especially if used with a single study variable.

  20. Econometric models for predicting confusion crop ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, D. E.; Proctor, M. H.; Clark, J. E.; Eisgruber, L. M.; Braschler, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Results for both the United States and Canada show that econometric models can provide estimates of confusion crop ratios that are more accurate than historical ratios. Whether these models can support the LACIE 90/90 accuracy criterion is uncertain. In the United States, experimenting with additional model formulations could provide improved methods models in some CRD's, particularly in winter wheat. Improved models may also be possible for the Canadian CD's. The more aggressive province/state models outperformed individual CD/CRD models. This result was expected partly because acreage statistics are based on sampling procedures, and the sampling precision declines from the province/state to the CD/CRD level. Declining sampling precision and the need to substitute province/state data for the CD/CRD data introduced measurement error into the CD/CRD models.

  1. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eGarnham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality.

  2. Adjusted Money's Worth Ratios in Life Annuities

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Casassus; Eduardo Walker

    2013-01-01

    The Money's Worth Ratio (MWR) measures an annuity's actuarial fairness. It is calculated as the discounted present value of expected future payments divided by its cost. We argue that from the perspective of annuitants, this measure may overestimate the value-for-money obtained, since it does not adjust for liquidity or risk factors. Measuring these factors is challenging, requiring detailed knowledge of assets, liabilities, and of the stochastic processes followed by them. Using a multi-fact...

  3. Modelling the liquidity ratio as macroprudential instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Willem van den End; Mark Kruidhof

    2012-01-01

    The Basel III Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) is a microprudential instrument to strengthen the liquidity position of banks. However, if in extreme scenarios the LCR becomes a binding constraint, the interaction of bank behaviour with the regulatory rule can have negative externalities. We simulate the systemic implications of the LCR by a liquidity stress-testing model, which takes into account the impact of bank reactions on second round feedback effects. We show that a flexible approach of ...

  4. Realisation Ratios in the Capital Expenditure Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Leon Berkelmans; Gareth Spence

    2013-01-01

    The Australian Bureau of Statistics capital expenditure survey is one of the inputs into the Reserve Bank’s forecasts for private business investment. This article considers several methods for interpreting the expectations data from this survey and evaluates these methods using out-of-sample forecasts. Forecasts based on long-run average realisation ratios are found to be the most accurate of the options considered, although the use of these forecasts for predicting investment in the nationa...

  5. Production ratio of pseudoscalar to vector mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chliapnikov, P.V.; Uvarov, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    The P/V ratio of directly produced pseudoscalar (P) to vector (V) mesons is analysed using the data on the K S 0 and K * (892) total inclusive cross sections in pp, π + p and K ± p reactions. The indication for a change of P/V from a value of about 1 at low energies, where the fragmentation processes dominate, to a value of 1/3, suggested by spin-statistics, at high energies is discussed. (orig.)

  6. MARKETING MIX BY BED OCCUPANCY RATIO (BOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muhith

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR in RSI Arafah Mojosari during the last three years are at under ideal rate and the lowest of the three existing hospitals in the area of Mojosari. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship marketing mix with Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Methods: This research uses analytic methods with crossectional approach. Variables in the study is marketing mix and Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR. The population in this study were all patients hospitalized in the RSI Arafah Mojosari. Samples amounted 44 respondents taken by the Stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using the questionnaire and analyzed using Fisher's Exact test. Result: The results obtained more than 50% of respondents (59.1% rate well against the marketing mix is developed by the hospital management and the majority of respondents (79.5% are in the treatment room that has a number BOR is not ideal. Fisher Exact test test results obtained probabililty value=0.02<0.05 so that H0 is rejected, which means there is a relationship marketing mix with the Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Discussion: Hospitals which able to develop the marketing mix very well, can attract consumers to use inpatient services at the hospital, with that BOR value will increase as the increased use of inpatient services. Hospital management must be able to formulate a good marketing mix strategy that hospital marketing objectives can be achieved. Conformity between service quality and service rates must be addressed, otherwise it extent of media promotions can attract patients to inpatient services.

  7. Surface area-volume ratios in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühsel, Sara; Brückner, Adrian; Schmelzle, Sebastian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-10-01

    Body mass, volume and surface area are important for many aspects of the physiology and performance of species. Whereas body mass scaling received a lot of attention in the literature, surface areas of animals have not been measured explicitly in this context. We quantified surface area-volume (SA/V) ratios for the first time using 3D surface models based on a structured light scanning method for 126 species of pollinating insects from 4 orders (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera). Water loss of 67 species was measured gravimetrically at very dry conditions for 2 h at 15 and 30 °C to demonstrate the applicability of the new 3D surface measurements and relevance for predicting the performance of insects. Quantified SA/V ratios significantly explained the variation in water loss across species, both directly or after accounting for isometric scaling (residuals of the SA/V ∼ mass 2/3 relationship). Small insects with a proportionally larger surface area had the highest water loss rates. Surface scans of insects to quantify allometric SA/V ratios thus provide a promising method to predict physiological responses, improving the potential of body mass isometry alone that assume geometric similarity. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Bankruptcy Prediction Based on the Autonomy Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brîndescu Olariu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory and practice of the financial ratio analysis suggest the existence of a negative correlation between the autonomy ratio and the bankruptcy risk. Previous studies conducted on a sample of companies from Timis County (largest county in Romania confirm this hypothesis and recommend the autonomy ratio as a useful tool for measuring the bankruptcy risk two years in advance. The objective of the current research was to develop a methodology for measuring the bankruptcy risk that would be applicable for the companies from the Timis County (specific methodologies are considered necessary for each region. The target population consisted of all the companies from Timis County with annual sales of over 10,000 lei (aprox. 2,200 Euros. The research was performed over all the target population. The study has thus included 53,252 yearly financial statements from the period 2007 – 2010. The results of the study allow for the setting of benchmarks, as well as the configuration of a methodology of analysis. The proposed methodology cannot predict with perfect accuracy the state of the company, but it allows for a valuation of the risk level to which the company is subjected.

  9. Cold versus hot fusion deuterium branching ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, H.; Bass, R.

    1995-01-01

    A major source of misunderstanding of the nature of cold nuclear fusion has been the expectation that the deuterium branching ratios occurring within a palladium lattice would be consistent with the gas-plasma branching ratios. This misunderstanding has led to the concept of the dead graduate student, the 1989's feverish but fruitless search for neutron emissions from cold fusion reactors, and the follow-on condemnation of the new science of cold fusion. The experimental facts are that in a properly loaded palladium lattice, the deuterium fusion produces neutrons at little above background, a greatly less-than-expected production of tritium (the tritium desert), and substantially more helium-4 than is observed in hot plasma physics. The experimental evidence is now compelling (800 reports of success from 30 countries) that cold nuclear fusion is a reality, that the branching ratios are unexpected, and that a new science is struggling to be recognized. Commercialization of some types of cold fusion devices has already begun

  10. Statistical moments of the Strehl ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaitskova, Natalia; Esselborn, Michael; Gladysz, Szymon

    2012-07-01

    Knowledge of the statistical characteristics of the Strehl ratio is essential for the performance assessment of the existing and future adaptive optics systems. For full assessment not only the mean value of the Strehl ratio but also higher statistical moments are important. Variance is related to the stability of an image and skewness reflects the chance to have in a set of short exposure images more or less images with the quality exceeding the mean. Skewness is a central parameter in the domain of lucky imaging. We present a rigorous theory for the calculation of the mean value, the variance and the skewness of the Strehl ratio. In our approach we represent the residual wavefront as being formed by independent cells. The level of the adaptive optics correction defines the number of the cells and the variance of the cells, which are the two main parameters of our theory. The deliverables are the values of the three moments as the functions of the correction level. We make no further assumptions except for the statistical independence of the cells.

  11. Omniclassical Diffusion in Low Aspect Ratio Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.; White, R.B.; Gates, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently reported numerical results for axisymmetric devices with low aspect ratio A found radial transport enhanced over the expected neoclassical value by a factor of 2 to 3. In this paper, we provide an explanation for this enhancement. Transport theory in toroidal devices usually assumes large A, and that the ratio B p /B t of the poloidal to the toroidal magnetic field is small. These assumptions result in transport which, in the low collision limit, is dominated by banana orbits, giving the largest collisionless excursion of a particle from an initial flux surface. However in a small aspect ratio device one may have B p /B t ∼ 1, and the gyroradius may be larger than the banana excursion. Here, we develop an approximate analytic transport theory valid for devices with arbitrary A. For low A, we find that the enhanced transport, referred to as omniclassical, is a combination of neoclassical and properly generalized classical effects, which become dominant in the low-A, B p /B t ∼ 1 regime. Good agreement of the analytic theory with numerical simulations is obtained

  12. KERMA ratios in pediatric CT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Walter; Ogden, Kent M.; Lavallee, Robert L.; Roskopf, Marsha L.; Scalzetti, Ernest M.

    2012-01-01

    Patient organ doses may be estimated from CTDI values. More accurate estimates may be obtained by measuring KERMA (Kinetic Energy Released in Matter) in anthropomorphic phantoms and referencing these values to free-in-air X-ray intensity. To measure KERMA ratios (R K ) in pediatric phantoms at CT. CT scans produce an air KERMA K in a phantom and an air KERMA K CT at isocenter. KERMA ratios (R K ) are defined as (K/K CT ), measured using TLD chips in phantoms representing newborns to 10-year-olds. R K in the newborn is approximately constant. For the other phantoms, there is a peak R K value in the neck. The median R K values for the GE scanner at 120 kV were 0.92, 0.83, 0.77 and 0.76 for newborns, 1-year-olds, 5-year-olds and 10-year-olds, respectively. Organ R K values were 0.91 ± 0.04, 0.84 ± 0.07, 0.74 ± 0.09 and 0.72 ± 0.10 in newborns, 1-year-olds, 5-year-olds and 10-year-olds, respectively. At 120 kV, a Siemens Sensation 16 scanner had R K values 5% higher than those of the GE LightSpeed Ultra. KERMA ratios may be combined with air KERMA measurements at the isocenter to estimate organ doses in pediatric CT patients. (orig.)

  13. Interventions to Reduce Adult Nursing Turnover: A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halter, Mary; Pelone, Ferruccio; Boiko, Olga; Beighton, Carole; Harris, Ruth; Gale, Julia; Gourlay, Stephen; Drennan, Vari

    2017-01-01

    Nurse turnover is an issue of concern in health care systems internationally. Understanding which interventions are effective to reduce turnover rates is important to managers and health care organisations. Despite a plethora of reviews of such interventions, strength of evidence is hard to determine. We aimed to review literature on interventions to reduce turnover in nurses working in the adult health care services in developed economies. We conducted an overview (systematic review of systematic reviews) using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, CINAHL plus and SCOPUS and forward searching. We included reviews published between 1990 and January 2015 in English. We carried out parallel blinded selection, extraction of data and assessment of bias, using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews. We carried out a narrative synthesis. Despite the large body of published reviews, only seven reviews met the inclusion criteria. These provide moderate quality review evidence, albeit from poorly controlled primary studies. They provide evidence of effect of a small number of interventions which decrease turnover or increase retention of nurses, these being preceptorship of new graduates and leadership for group cohesion. We highlight that a large body of reviews does not equate with a large body of high quality evidence. Agreement as to the measures and terminology to be used together with well-designed, funded primary research to provide robust evidence for nurse and human resource managers to base their nurse retention strategies on is urgently required.

  14. AC/DC current ratio in a current superimposition variable flux reluctance machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Akira; Hirata, Katsuhiro; Niguchi, Noboru; Takahara, Kazuaki

    2018-05-01

    We have proposed a current superimposition variable flux reluctance machine for traction motors. The torque-speed characteristics of this machine can be controlled by increasing or decreasing the DC current. In this paper, we discuss an AC/DC current ratio in the current superimposition variable flux reluctance machine. The structure and control method are described, and the characteristics are computed using FEA in several AC/DC ratios.

  15. Low C/N ratio raw textile wastewater reduced labile C and enhanced organic-inorganic N and enzymatic activities in a semiarid alkaline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi, Mahnaz; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Yasmeen, Tahira; Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Riaz, Muhammad Atif; Mian, Ishaq A

    2017-02-01

    Application of raw and treated wastewater for irrigation is an extensive practice for agricultural production in arid and semiarid regions. Raw textile wastewater has been used for cultivation in urban and peri-urban areas in Pakistan without any systematic consideration to soil quality. We conducted a laboratory incubation study to investigate the effects of low C/N ratio raw textile wastewater on soil nitrogen (N) contents, labile carbon (C) as water-soluble C (WSC) contents, and activities of urease and dehydrogenase enzymes. The 60-day incubation study used an alkaline clay loam aridisol that received 0 (distilled water), 25, 50, and 100% wastewater concentrations, and microcosms were incubated aerobically under room temperature at 70% water holding capacity. Results revealed that raw wastewater significantly (p 50% of the soil total Kjeldahl N (TKN) contents and served as the major N pool. However, nitrification index (NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N ratio) decreased at high wastewater concentrations. A significant negative correlation was observed between EON and WSC (p production and accumulation of soil NO 3 - -N and EON contents in concentrated wastewater-treated soil could pose an ecological concern for soil fertility, biological health, and water quality. However, the EON could lead to mineral N pool but only if sufficient labile C source was present. The effects of wastewater irrigation on soil N cycling need to be assessed before it is recommended for crop production.

  16. Changes in the Ratio of Tc1/Tc2 and Th1/Th2 Cells but Not in Subtypes of NK-Cells in Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayi Hou

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that natural killer (NK cell activity and Th1 immunitymay be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. This study aimed to investigate theimmunophenotypes of NK cells and type 1/type 2 immunity in both decidua and maternalperipheral blood between normal (n=11 and preeclamptic pregnant women (n=20 by flowcytometry. The results showed that no significant difference was observed between patientsand controls by detecting CD56+ CD69+ and CD56+ CD94+ NK cells in both peripheralblood and decidua. Moreover, in preeclamptic patients, decreased percentages of Tc2 andTh2 cells and the increased ratios of Tc1/Tc2 were determined in both decidua andmaternal peripheral blood. In addition, the ratio of Th1/Th2 in peripheral blood alsoincreased. There was no significant difference of immunophenotypes of uNK cells betweenpreeclampsia and normal pregnancy. Local decidua and systematic immunity did notcorrelate with each other. These results suggest that the type 1/type 2 immunity shifted totype 1 immunity including Th1 and Tc1 cells may contribute to the patho-genesis ofpreeclampsia.

  17. Invited review: sex ratio and rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockshin, M D

    2001-11-01

    Human illnesses affect men and women differently. In some cases (diseases of sex organs, diseases resulting from X or Y chromosome mutations), reasons for sex discrepancy are obvious, but in other cases no reason is apparent. Explanations for sex discrepancy of illness occur at different biological levels: molecular (e.g., imprinting, X-inactivation), cellular (sex-specific receptor activity), organ (endocrine influences), whole organism (size, age), and environmental-behavioral, including intrauterine influences. Autoimmunity represents a prototypical class of illness that has high female-to-male (F/M) ratios. Although the F/M ratios in autoimmune diseases are usually attributed to the influence of estrogenic hormones, evidence demonstrates that the attributed ratios are imprecise and that definitions and classifications of autoimmune diseases vary, rendering at least part of the counting imprecise. In addition, many studies on sex discrepancy of human disease fail to distinguish between disease incidence and disease severity. In April 2001, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences published Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health: Does Sex Matter? (Wizemann T and Pardue M-L, editors). This minireview summarizes the section of that report that concerns autoimmune and infectious disease. Some thyroid, rheumatic, and hepatic autoimmune diseases have high F/M ratios, whereas others have low. Those that have high ratios occur primarily in young adulthood. Gonadal hormones, if they play a role, likely do so through a threshold or permissive mechanism. Examples of sex differences that could be caused by environmental exposure, X inactivation, imprinting, X or Y chromosome genetic modulators, and intrauterine influences are presented as alternate, theoretical, and largely unexplored explanations for sex differences of incidence. The epidemiology of autoimmune diseases (young, female) suggests that an explanation for sex discrepancy of

  18. Decreasing child mortality, spatial clustering and decreasing disparity in North-Western Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Heiko; Müller, Olaf; Dambach, Peter; Gabrysch, Sabine; Niamba, Louis; Sankoh, Osman; Simboro, Seraphin; Schoeps, Anja; Stieglbauer, Gabriele; Yé, Yazoume; Sié, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Within relatively small areas, there exist high spatial variations of mortality between villages. In rural Burkina Faso, with data from 1993 to 1998, clusters of particularly high child mortality were identified in the population of the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), a member of the INDEPTH Network. In this paper, we report child mortality with respect to temporal trends, spatial clustering and disparity in this HDSS from 1993 to 2012. Poisson regression was used to describe village-specific child mortality rates and time trends in mortality. The spatial scan statistic was used to identify villages or village clusters with higher child mortality. Clustering of mortality in the area is still present, but not as strong as before. The disparity of child mortality between villages has decreased. The decrease occurred in the context of an overall halving of child mortality in the rural area of Nouna HDSS between 1993 and 2012. Extrapolated to the Millennium Development Goals target period 1990-2015, this yields an estimated reduction of 54%, which is not too far off the aim of a two-thirds reduction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Ratios of strange hadrons to pions in collisions of large and small nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeschler, H. [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Cleymans, J. [University of Cape Town, UCT-CERN Research Centre and Department of Physics, Rondebosch (South Africa); Hippolyte, B. [Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS-IN2P3, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), Strasbourg (France); Redlich, K. [University of Wroclaw, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Sharma, N. [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (India)

    2017-09-15

    The dependence of particle production on the size of the colliding nuclei is analyzed in terms of the thermal model using the canonical ensemble. The concept of strangeness correlation in clusters of sub-volume V{sub c} is used to account for the suppression of strangeness. A systematic analysis is presented of the predictions of the thermal model for particle production in collisions of small nuclei. The pattern of the maxima of strange-particles-to-pion ratios as a function of beam energy is quite special, as they do not occur at the same beam energy and are sensitive to the system size. In particular, the Λ/π{sup +} ratio shows a clear maximum even for small systems while the maximum in the K{sup +}/π{sup +} ratio is less pronounced in small systems. (orig.)

  20. SU-F-T-31: Shape and Isodose Distributions in Co60 HDR Brachytherapy for Different Utero-Vaginal Time Ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Sprinberg, G [Faculty of Sciences, Montevideo, Montevideo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Piriz, G [Hospital Pereyra Rossell, Montevideo, Montevideo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To optimize the dose in bladder and rectum and show the different shapes of the isodose volumes in Co60-HDR brachytherapy, considering different utero and vaginal sources dwell ratio times (TU:TV). Methods: Besides Ir192-HDR, new Co60-HDR sources are being incorporated. We considered different TU:TV times and computed the dosis in bladder, rectum and at the reference points of the Manchester system. Also, we calculated the isodose volume and shape in each case. We used a EZAG-BEBIG Co0.A86 model with TPS HDRplus3.0.4. and LCT42-7, LCT42-2(R,L) applicators. A reference dose RA= 1.00 Gy was given to the A-right point. We considered the TU:TV dwell time ratios 1:0.25, 1:0.33, 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4. Given TU:TV, the stop time at each dwell position is fixed for each applicator. Results: Increasing TU:TV systematically results in a decreasing of the dose in bladder and rectum, e.g. 9% and 27% reduction were found in 1:0.25 with respect to 1:1, while 12% and 34% increase were found in 1:4 with respect to 1:1. Also, the isodose volume parameters height (h), width (w), thickness (t) and volume (hwt) increased from the 1:0.25 case to the 1:4 value: hwt is 25% lower and 31% higher than the 1:1 reference volume in these cases. Also w decreased for higher TU:TV and may compromise the tumoral volume coverage, decreasing 17% in the 1:0.25 case compared to the 1:1 case. The shape of the isodose volume was obtained for the different TU:TV considered. Conclusion: We obtained the shape of isodose volumes for different TU:TV values in gynecological Co60-HDR. We studied the dose reduction in bladder and rectum for different TU:TV ratios. The volume parameters and hwt are strongly dependent on this ratio. This information is useful for a quantitative check of the TPS and as a starting point towards optimization.

  1. Induced abortion ratio in modern Sweden falls with age, but rises again before menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullberg, B S.; Lummaa, V

    2001-01-01

    A woman's reproductive value decreases over her reproductive life span and it is therefore predicted that the likelihood of termination of investment in a child decreases with increasing age. An eventual increase in termination ratio in the oldest age groups, as is often found in abortion statistics, could depend on older women on average having larger families rather than on age per se. We used data on abortions and births in Sweden during 1994 to investigate how abortion ratio is related to age and parity of women. We found that age-specific abortion ratio is U-shaped (i.e. that it is highest for the youngest and for the oldest age groups) in each parity class from zero to four children but that age-dependence breaks down in higher parity classes (5, >/=6). Thus, for each of the parity classes 0-4, the incidence of abortion decreases with age up to a point, but increases again as women approach menopause. This late increase in induced abortion ratio seems to depend on age per se. The data indicate that abortion ratio is an inverse function of fertility, and that investment in new reproduction gradually decreases as a woman approaches menopause. Assuming grandmothering as an important driving force in human life history evolution, such a pattern might indicate that the transition from behavioural investment in one's own children to one's grandchildren is a gradual process similar to the decline in ovarian function.

  2. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Selmer, Christian; Østergren, Peter Busch

    2016-01-01

    training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)) were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction) were recorded systematically. RESULTS: Former AAS abusers...... exhibited significantly lower median (25th -75th percentiles) total and free testosterone levels than control participants (total testosterone: 14.4 (11.9-17.7) nmol/l vs. 18.8 (16.6-22.0) nmol/l) (P testosterone levels below...... the lower reference limit (12.1 nmol/l) whereas no control participants exhibited testosterone below this limit (P

  3. Influence of Coke Ratio on the Sintering Behavior of High-Chromium Vanadium-Titanium Magnetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High-chromium vanadium and titanium magnetite (HCVTM sinter has poor properties. The coke ratio has an important effect on the behavior of HCVTM sintering as it affects the mineral phases in the high-chromium vanadium and titanium sinter (HCVTS via changing the sintering temperature and atmosphere. In this work, the sintering behavior of HCVTM mixed with varying coke ratios was investigated through sintering pot tests, X-ray diffraction (XRD, gas chromatographic analysis, and mineral phase analysis. The results show that, with the increase of the coke ratio from 4.0% to 6.0%, leading to the increase of the combustion ratio of the flue gas, the vertical sintering rate and sinter productivity decrease. Meanwhile, with the change of the coke ratio, the content of magnetite, silicate, and perovskite increase, while the hematite and calcium ferrite decrease. In addition, the tumble strength and reduction ability of HCVTS decrease, and its degradation strength increase. It was found that the appropriate coke ratio for the sintering process was 5.0 wt %.

  4. Identifying Malignant Pleural Effusion by A Cancer Ratio (Serum LDH: Pleural Fluid ADA Ratio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Akash; Abisheganaden, John; Light, R W

    2016-02-01

    We studied the diagnostic potential of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in malignant pleural effusion. Retrospective analysis of patients hospitalized with exudative pleural effusion in 2013. Serum LDH and serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio was significantly higher in cancer patients presenting with exudative pleural effusion. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, pleural fluid ADA was negatively correlated 0.62 (0.45-0.85, p = 0.003) with malignancy, whereas serum LDH 1.02 (1.0-1.03, p = 0.004) and serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio 0.94 (0.99-1.0, p = 0.04) was correlated positively with malignant pleural effusion. For serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio, a cut-off level of >20 showed sensitivity, specificity of 0.98 (95 % CI 0.92-0.99) and 0.94 (95 % CI 0.83-0.98), respectively. The positive likelihood ratio was 32.6 (95 % CI 10.7-99.6), while the negative likelihood ratio at this cut-off was 0.03 (95 % CI 0.01-0.15). Higher serum LDH and serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio in patients presenting with exudative pleural effusion can distinguish between malignant and non-malignant effusion on the first day of hospitalization. The cut-off level for serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio of >20 is highly predictive of malignancy in patients with exudative pleural effusion (whether lymphocytic or neutrophilic) with high sensitivity and specificity.

  5. Systematic Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Méndez Fernández, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The speed of innovation and the global allocation of resources to accelerate development or to reduce cost put pressure on the software industry. In the global competition, especially so-called high-price countries have to present arguments why the higher development cost is justified and what...... makes these countries an attractive host for software companies. Often, high-quality engineering and excellent quality of products, e.g., machinery and equipment, are mentioned. Yet, the question is: Can such arguments be also found for the software industry? We aim at investigating the degree...... of professionalism and systematization of software development to draw a map of strengths and weaknesses. To this end, we conducted as a first step an exploratory survey in Germany, presented in this paper. In this survey, we focused on the perceived importance of the two general software engineering process areas...

  6. Iridology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E

    1999-02-01

    Iridologists claim to be able to diagnose medical conditions through abnormalities of pigmentation in the iris. This technique is popular in many countries. Therefore it is relevant to ask whether it is valid. To systematically review all interpretable tests of the validity of iridology as a diagnostic tool. DATA SOURCE AND EXTRACTION: Three independent literature searches were performed to identify all blinded tests. Data were extracted in a predefined, standardized fashion. Four case control studies were found. The majority of these investigations suggests that iridology is not a valid diagnostic method. The validity of iridology as a diagnostic tool is not supported by scientific evaluations. Patients and therapists should be discouraged from using this method.

  7. FINANCIAL RATIOS – REVEAL HOW A BUSINESS IS DOING?

    OpenAIRE

    MIRELA MONEA

    2009-01-01

    The paper aims to present the main financial ratios which provide a picture about company’s profitability, its financial position, use of its assets efficiency, its long-term debt financing. Discussion is focused on: profitability ratios, short-term financial ratios, activity ratios, long-term debt ratios or dividend policy ratios. Also, will try to answer at the following main questions: What financial ratios analysis tells us? What the users of these needs to know?

  8. Sex allocation and secondary sex ratio in Cuban boa ( Chilabothrus angulifer): mother's body size affects the ratio between sons and daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frynta, Daniel; Vejvodová, Tereza; Šimková, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Secondary sex ratios of animals with genetically determined sex may considerably deviate from equality. These deviations may be attributed to several proximate and ultimate factors. Sex ratio theory explains some of them as strategic decisions of mothers improving their fitness by selective investment in sons or daughters, e.g. local resource competition hypothesis (LRC) suggests that philopatric females tend to produce litters with male-biased sex ratios to avoid future competition with their daughters. Until now, only little attention has been paid to examine predictions of sex ratio theory in snakes possessing genetic sex determination and exhibiting large variance in allocation of maternal investment. Cuban boa is an endemic viviparous snake producing large-bodied newborns (˜200 g). Extremely high maternal investment in each offspring increases importance of sex allocation. In a captive colony, we collected breeding records of 42 mothers, 62 litters and 306 newborns and examined secondary sex ratios (SR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) of newborns. None of the examined morphometric traits of neonates appeared sexually dimorphic. The sex ratio was slightly male biased (174 males versus 132 females) and litter sex ratio significantly decreased with female snout-vent length. We interpret this relationship as an additional support for LRC as competition between mothers and daughters increases with similarity of body sizes between competing snakes.

  9. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Brooke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life.

  10. Word Class Ratios and Genres in Written Japanese: Revisiting the Modifier Verb Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor HODOŠČEK

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the variability of genres in the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese using the modifier-verb ratio proposed by Kabashima and Jukaku (1965. Using bagplots to quantifying the relation between noun and modifier-verb ratios, as well as some summary statistics obtain from them, we attempt to classify genres according to Kabashima and Jugaku (1965. Our initial analysis confirms previous research results, while at the same time uncovering some contradictions in the ratios of the genre of magazines.

  11. 18O/16O ratios of the pore water of Baltic Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstel, H.

    1983-01-01

    Two cores of Baltic Sea sediment were collected in 1975. The 18 O/ 16 O ratio of the water enclosed in the sediment (pore water) was measured after the separation of the liquid from the solid phase. The results may support the discussion about the history of the Baltic Sea. At the top of the core the 18 O/ 16 O ratio of the water represents the oxygen isotope composition of the sea water above. Towards the deeper parts of the sediment, independently of the salt content, the 18 O/ 16 O ratio decreases towards values observed in the precipitation of the surrounding land areas. (author)

  12. A Graphite Isotope Ratio Method: A Primer on Estimating Plutonium Production in Graphite Moderated Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesh, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    The Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM) is a technique used to estimate the total plutonium production in a graphite-moderated reactor. The cumulative plutonium production in that reactor can be accurately determined by measuring neutron irradiation induced isotopic ratio changes in certain impurity elements within the graphite moderator. The method does not require detailed knowledge of a reactor's operating history, although that knowledge can decrease the uncertainty of the production estimate. The basic premise of the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method is that the fluence in non-fuel core components is directly related to the cumulative plutonium production in the nuclear fuel

  13. Study on the ratio of signal to noise for single photon resolution time spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaomin; Huang Shengli; Xu Zizong; Wu Chong

    2001-01-01

    The ratio of signal to noise for single photon resolution time spectrometer and their influence factors were studied. A method to depress the background, to shorten the measurement time and to increase the ratio of signal to noise was discussed. Results show that ratio of signal to noise is proportional to solid angle of detector to source and detection efficiency, and inverse proportional to electronics noise. Choose the activity of the source was important for decreasing of random coincidence counting. To use a coincidence gate and a discriminator of single photon were an effective way of increasing measurement accuracy and detection efficiency

  14. Supply kits for antenatal and childbirth care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Alicia; Tomasso, Giselle; Cafferata, María Luisa; Colomar, Mercedes; Betran, Ana Pilar

    2017-12-13

    It is critical to increase the uptake of interventions proven to be effective to improve maternal and perinatal outcomes. Supply kits have been suggested to be a feasible strategy designed to ensure timely availability and effective follow-up of care. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence on the uptake, effectiveness and safety of supply kits for maternal care. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, Campbell Collaboration, Lilacs, Embase and unpublished studies were searched. Studies that reported the efficacy, safety and use of supply kits for maternal healthcare were eligible. Participants were pregnant women or in childbirth. Supply kits were defined as a collection of medicines, supplies or instruments packaged together with the aim of conducting a healthcare task. Two reviewers independently performed the screening, data extraction, and methodological and quality assessment. 24 studies were included: 4 of them were systematic reviews and 20 primary studies. Eighteen studies evaluated a so-called "clean delivery kit". In all but two studies, the kits were used by more than half of the participants. A meta-analysis was deemed inappropriate due to the heterogeneity in study design, in the components of the interventions implemented, in the content of the kits, and in outcomes. Nine studies assessed neonatal outcomes and found statistically significant reductions in cord infection, sepsis and tetanus-related mortality in the intervention group. Three studies showed evidence of reduced neonatal mortality (OR 0.52, 0.60 and 0.71) with statistically significant confidence intervals in all cases. Four studies reported odd ratios for maternal mortality, but only one showed evidence of a statistically significant decrease in this outcome but it was ascribed to hand washing prior to childbirth and not with the use of kits. This review suggests potential benefits in the use of supply kits to improve maternal and

  15. BMT decreases HFD-induced weight gain associated with decreased preadipocyte number and insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Katiraei

    Full Text Available Experimental bone marrow transplantation (BMT in mice is commonly used to assess the role of immune cell-specific genes in various pathophysiological settings. The application of BMT in obesity research is hampered by the significant reduction in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity. We set out to characterize metabolic tissues that may be affected by the BMT procedure and impair the HFD-induced response. Male C57BL/6 mice underwent syngeneic BMT using lethal irradiation. After a recovery period of 8 weeks they were fed a low-fat diet (LFD or HFD for 16 weeks. HFD-induced obesity was reduced in mice after BMT as compared to HFD-fed control mice, characterized by both a reduced fat (-33%; p<0.01 and lean (-11%; p<0.01 mass, while food intake and energy expenditure were unaffected. As compared to control mice, BMT-treated mice had a reduced mature adipocyte volume (approx. -45%; p<0.05 and reduced numbers of preadipocytes (-38%; p<0.05 and macrophages (-62%; p<0.05 in subcutaneous, gonadal and visceral white adipose tissue. In BMT-treated mice, pancreas weight (-46%; p<0.01 was disproportionally decreased. This was associated with reduced plasma insulin (-68%; p<0.05 and C-peptide (-37%; p<0.01 levels and a delayed glucose clearance in BMT-treated mice on HFD as compared to control mice. In conclusion, the reduction in HFD-induced obesity after BMT in mice is at least partly due to alterations in the adipose tissue cell pool composition as well as to a decreased pancreatic secretion of the anabolic hormone insulin. These effects should be considered when interpreting results of experimental BMT in metabolic studies.

  16. Titan's Carbon Isotopic Ratio: A Clue To Atmospheric Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Romani, P. N.; Jolly, A.; Teanby, N. A.; Irwin, P. G.; Bézard, B.; Vinatier, S.; Coustenis, A.; Flasar, F. M.

    2009-12-01

    In this presentation we describe the latest results to come from Cassini CIRS and ground-based telescopic measurements of Titan's 12C/13C ratio in atmospheric molecules, focusing on hydrocarbons. Previously, the Huygens GCMS instrument measured 12CH4/13CH4 to be 82±1 (Niemann et al., Nature, 438, 779-784, 2005), substantially and significantly lower than the VPDB inorganic Earth standard of 89.4. It is also at odds with measurements for the giant planets. Cassini CIRS infrared spectra have confirmed this enhancement in 13CH4, but also revealed that the ratio in ethane, the major photochemical product of methane photolysis, does not appear enhanced (90±7) (Nixon et al.. Icarus, 195, 778-791, 2008) and is compatible with the terrestrial and combined giant planet value (88±7, Sada et al., Ap. J., 472, p. 903-907, 1996). Recently-published results from spectroscopy using the McMath-Pierce telescope at Kitt Pitt (Jennings et al., JCP, 2009, in press) have confirmed this deviation between methane and ethane, and an explanation has been proposed. This invokes a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) in the abstraction of methane by ethynyl, a major ethane formation pathway, to preferentially partition 12C into ethane and leave an enhancement in atmospheric 13CH4 relative to the incoming flux from the reservoir. Modeling shows that a steady-state solution exists where the 12C/13C methane is decreased from the reservoir value by exactly the KIE factor (the ratio of 12CH4 to 13CH4 abstraction reaction rates): which is plausibly around 1.08, very close to the observed amount. However, a second solution exists in which we are observing Titan about ~1 methane lifetime after a major injection of methane into the atmosphere which is rapidly being eliminated. Updated measurements by Cassini CIRS of both the methane and ethane 12C/13C ratios will be presented, along with progress in interpreting this ratio. In addition, we summarize the 12C/13C measurements by CIRS in multiple other Titan

  17. CARBON AND OXYGEN ISOTOPIC RATIOS FOR NEARBY MIRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, Kenneth H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Lebzelter, Thomas [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Straniero, Oscar, E-mail: khinkle@noao.edu, E-mail: thomas.lebzelter@univie.ac.at, E-mail: straniero@oa-teramo.inaf.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania I-64100 Teramo (Italy)

    2016-07-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios are reported for a sample of 46 Mira and SRa-type variable asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Vibration–rotation first and second-overtone CO lines in 1.5–2.5 μ m spectra were measured to derive isotopic ratios for {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C, {sup 16}O/{sup 17}O, and {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O. Comparisons with previous measurements for individual stars and with various samples of evolved stars, as available in the extant literature, are discussed. Models for solar composition AGB stars of different initial masses are used to interpret our results. We find that the majority of M-stars have main sequence masses ≤2 M {sub ⊙} and have not experienced sizable third dredge-up (TDU) episodes. The progenitors of the four S-type stars in our sample are slightly more massive. Of the six C-stars in the sample three have clear evidence relating their origin to the occurrence of TDU. Comparisons with O-rich presolar grains from AGB stars that lived before the formation of the solar system reveal variations in the interstellar medium chemical composition. The present generation of low-mass AGB stars, as represented by our sample of long period variables (LPVs), shows a large spread of {sup 16}O/{sup 17}O ratios, similar to that of group 1 presolar grains and in agreement with theoretical expectations for the composition of mass 1.2–2 M {sub ⊙} stars after the first dredge-up. In contrast, the {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratios of present-day LPVs are definitely smaller than those of group 1 grains. This is most probably a consequence of the the decrease with time of the {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratio in the interstellar medium due to the chemical evolution of the Milky Way. One star in our sample has an O composition similar to that of group 2 presolar grains originating in an AGB star undergoing extra-mixing. This may indicate that the extra-mixing process is hampered at high metallicity, or, equivalently, favored at low metallicity. Similarly to O

  18. On Bayesian treatment of systematic uncertainties in confidence interval calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Tegenfeldt, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    In high energy physics, a widely used method to treat systematic uncertainties in confidence interval calculations is based on combining a frequentist construction of confidence belts with a Bayesian treatment of systematic uncertainties. In this note we present a study of the coverage of this method for the standard Likelihood Ratio (aka Feldman & Cousins) construction for a Poisson process with known background and Gaussian or log-Normal distributed uncertainties in the background or signal efficiency. For uncertainties in the signal efficiency of upto 40 % we find over-coverage on the level of 2 to 4 % depending on the size of uncertainties and the region in signal space. Uncertainties in the background generally have smaller effect on the coverage. A considerable smoothing of the coverage curves is observed. A software package is presented which allows fast calculation of the confidence intervals for a variety of assumptions on shape and size of systematic uncertainties for different nuisance paramete...

  19. Colloid normalizes resuscitation ratio in pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraklas, Iris; Lam, Uyen; Cochran, Amalia; Stoddard, Gregory; Saffle, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burned children is challenging because of their small size and intolerance to over- or underresuscitation. Our American Burn Association-verified regional burn center has used colloid "rescue" as part of our pediatric resuscitation protocol. With Institutional Review Board approval, the authors reviewed children with ≥15% TBSA burns admitted from January 1, 2004, to May 1, 2009. Resuscitation was based on the Parkland formula, which was adjusted to maintain urine output. Patients requiring progressive increases in crystalloid were placed on a colloid protocol. Results were expressed as an hourly resuscitation ratio (I/O ratio) of fluid infusion (ml/kg/%TBSA/hr) to urine output (ml/kg/hr). We reviewed 53 patients; 29 completed resuscitation using crystalloid alone (lactated Ringer's solution [LR]), and 24 received colloid supplementation albumin (ALB). Groups were comparable in age, gender, weight, and time from injury to admission. ALB patients had more inhalation injuries and larger total and full-thickness burns. LR patients maintained a median I/O of 0.17 (range, 0.08-0.31), whereas ALB patients demonstrated escalating ratios until the institution of albumin produced a precipitous return of I/O comparable with that of the LR group. Hospital stay was lower for LR patients than ALB patients (0.59 vs 1.06 days/%TBSA, P = .033). Twelve patients required extremity or torso escharotomy, but this did not differ between groups. There were no decompressive laparotomies. The median resuscitation volume for ALB group was greater than LR group (9.7 vs 6.2 ml/kg/%TBSA, P = .004). Measuring hourly I/O is a helpful means of evaluating fluid demands during burn shock resuscitation. The addition of colloid restores normal I/O in pediatric patients.

  20. Stopping-power ratios for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreo, P.

    1988-01-01

    The determination of the absorbed dose at a specified location in a medium irradiated with an electron or photon beam normally consists of two steps: (1) the determination of the mean absorbed dose to a detector by using a calibration factor or performing an absolute measurement, (2) the determination of the absorbed dose to the medium at the point of interest by calculations based on the knowledge of the absorbed dose to the detector and the different stopping and scattering properties of the medium and the detector material. When the influence of the detector is so small that the electron fluence in the medium is not modified, the ratio of the mass collision stopping power of the two materials accounts for the differences in energy deposition, and provides a conversion factor to relate the absorbed dose in both materials. Today, all national and international dosimetry protocols and codes of practice are based on such procedures, and the user easily can carry out these steps using tabulated data to convert a measured quantity to absorbed dose in the irradiated medium at the location of interest. Effects due to the spatial extension of the detector are taken into account using perturbation correction factors. The Monte Carlo method has become the most common and powerful calculational technique for determining the electron fluence (energy spectra) under different irradiation conditions. Cavity theory is then used to calculate stopping-power ratios. In this chapter, the different steps needed to evaluate s-ratios will be considered, emphasizing the different types of cavity-theory integrals and the Monte Carlo techniques used to derive the necessary electron spectra in the range of energies commonly used in radiation dosimetry, i.e., photon and electron beams with energies up to 50 MeV

  1. On the universality of knot probability ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janse van Rensburg, E J [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada); Rechnitzer, A, E-mail: rensburg@yorku.ca, E-mail: andrewr@math.ubc.ca [Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, 1984 Mathematics Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z2 (Canada)

    2011-04-22

    Let p{sub n} denote the number of self-avoiding polygons of length n on a regular three-dimensional lattice, and let p{sub n}(K) be the number which have knot type K. The probability that a random polygon of length n has knot type K is p{sub n}(K)/p{sub n} and is known to decay exponentially with length (Sumners and Whittington 1988 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 21 1689-94, Pippenger 1989 Discrete Appl. Math. 25 273-8). Little is known rigorously about the asymptotics of p{sub n}(K), but there is substantial numerical evidence. It is believed that the entropic exponent, {alpha}, is universal, while the exponential growth rate is independent of the knot type but varies with the lattice. The amplitude, C{sub K}, depends on both the lattice and the knot type. The above asymptotic form implies that the relative probability of a random polygon of length n having prime knot type K over prime knot type L. In the thermodynamic limit this probability ratio becomes an amplitude ratio; it should be universal and depend only on the knot types K and L. In this communication we examine the universality of these probability ratios for polygons in the simple cubic, face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic lattices. Our results support the hypothesis that these are universal quantities. For example, we estimate that a long random polygon is approximately 28 times more likely to be a trefoil than be a figure-eight, independent of the underlying lattice, giving an estimate of the intrinsic entropy associated with knot types in closed curves. (fast track communication)

  2. Exercise Decreases and Smoking Increases Bladder Cancer Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Michael A; White, Martha; Natarajan, Loki; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate modifiable lifestyle factors of smoking, exercise, and obesity with bladder cancer mortality. We used mortality-linked data from the National Health Information Survey from 1998 through 2006. The primary outcome was bladder cancer-specific mortality. The primary exposures were self-reported smoking status (never- vs. former vs. current smoker), self-reported exercise (dichotomized as "did no exercise" vs. "light, moderate, or vigorous exercise in ≥ 10-minute bouts"), and body mass index. We utilized multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models, with delayed entry to account for age at survey interview. Complete data were available on 222,163 participants, of whom 96,715 (44%) were men and 146,014 (66%) were non-Hispanic whites, and among whom we identified 83 bladder cancer-specific deaths. In multivariate analyses, individuals who reported any exercise were 47% less likely (adjusted hazard ratio [HR adj ], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.96; P = .038) to die of bladder cancer than "no exercise". Compared with never-smokers, current (HR adj , 4.24; 95% CI, 1.89-9.65; P = .001) and former (HR adj , 2.95; 95% CI, 1.50-5.79; P = .002) smokers were 4 and 3 times more likely, respectively, to die of bladder cancer. There were no significant associations of body mass index with bladder cancer mortality. Exercise decreases and current smoking increases the risk of bladder cancer-specific mortality. These data suggest that exercise and smoking cessation interventions may reduce bladder cancer death. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Ramadan Fasting Decreases Body Fat but Not Protein Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrial Syam, Ari; Suryani Sobur, Cecep; Abdullah, Murdani; Makmun, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown various results regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition in healthy individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy Indonesian medical staff. In this study, we examined the influence of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy medical staff. The longitudinal study was performed during and after Ramadan fasting in 2013 (August to October). Fourty-three medical staff members (physicians, nurses and nutritionists) at the Internal Medicine Ward of the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital were measured to compare their calorie intake, weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body composition, including body fat, protein, minerals and water, on the first and 28(th) days of Ramadan and also 4-5 weeks after Ramadan fasting. Measurements were obtained for all 43 subjects on the 28(th) day of Ramadan, but they were obtained for only 25 subjects 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan. By the 28(th) day of Ramadan, it was found that the body weight, BMI, body fat, water and mineral measures had decreased significantly (-0.874 ± 0.859 kg, P Ramadan, body weight and composition had returned to the same levels as on the first day of Ramadan. Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss even it was only a temporary effect, as the weight was quickly regained within one month after fasting. The catabolism catabolic state, which is related to protein loss, was not triggered during Ramadan fasting. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of weight loss during Ramadan fasting in healthy individuals.

  4. Relation of vertical stability and aspect ratio in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambaugh, R.D.; Lao, L.L.; Lazarus, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    It is evaluated how the upper limit to plasma elongation κ, caused by vertical stability, varies with the aspect ratio A=R/a of the tokamak. Equilibria were generated with EFITD and the vertical stability was assessed by GATO. For a 'generic' tokamak with a superconducting wall conformal to the plasma shape and a distance 0.5 a away from the plasma edge and a constant current profile (q 0 =1.0, l i ≅1.0, q 95 =3.2) it is found that the maximum stable κ decreased only slowly from 2.65 at A=2.0 to 2.4 at A=6.0. To first order, a reasonable assumption in trade-off studies of new machine designs is no dependence of κ max on A. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 13 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  5. The transverse Poisson's ratio of composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foye, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    An expression is developed that makes possible the prediction of Poisson's ratio for unidirectional composites with reference to any pair of orthogonal axes that are normal to the direction of the reinforcing fibers. This prediction appears to be a reasonable one in that it follows the trends of the finite element analysis and the bounding estimates, and has the correct limiting value for zero fiber content. It can only be expected to apply to composites containing stiff, circular, isotropic fibers bonded to a soft matrix material.

  6. Flutter analysis of low aspect ratio wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    Several very low aspect ratio flat plate wing configurations are analyzed for their aerodynamic instability (flutter) characteristics. All of the wings investigated are delta planforms with clipped tips, made of aluminum alloy plate and cantilevered from the supporting vehicle body. Results of both subsonic and supersonic NASTRAN aeroelastic analyses as well as those from another version of the program implementing the supersonic linearized aerodynamic theory are presented. Results are selectively compared with the experimental data; however, supersonic predictions of the Mach Box method in NASTRAN are found to be erratic and erroneous, requiring the use of a separate program.

  7. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steve B.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1995-01-01

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.

  8. Aspect Ratio Dependence of Impact Fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaoka, H.; Toyosawa, E.; Takayasu, H.; Inaoka, H.

    1997-01-01

    A numerical model of three-dimensional impact fragmentation produces a power-law cumulative fragment mass distribution followed by a flat tail. The result is consistent with an experimental result in a recent paper by Meibom and Balslev [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2492 (1996)]. Our numerical simulation also implies that the fragment mass distribution changes from a power law with a flat tail to a power law with a sudden cutoff, depending on the aspect ratio of the fractured object. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. Decay ratio estimation in pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Por, G.; Runkel, J.

    1990-11-01

    The well known decay ratio (DR) from stability analysis of boiling water reactors (BWR) is estimated from the impulse response function which was evaluated using a simplified univariate autoregression method. This simplified DR called modified DR (mDR) was applied on neutron noise measurements carried out during five fuel cycles of a 1300 MWe PWR. Results show that this fast evaluation method can be used for monitoring of the growing oscillation of the neutron flux during the fuel cycles which is a major concern of utilities in PWRs, thus it can be used for estimating safety margins. (author) 17 refs.; 10 figs

  10. Abundance ratios in dwarf elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Ş.; Peletier, R. F.; Boselli, A.; den Brok, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Mentz, J. J.; Paudel, S.; Salo, H.; Sybilska, A.; Toloba, E.; van de Ven, G.; Vazdekis, A.; Yesilyaprak, C.

    2018-04-01

    We determine abundance ratios of 37 dwarf ellipticals (dEs) in the nearby Virgo cluster. This sample is representative of the early-type population of galaxies in the absolute magnitude range -19.0 originate from late-type dwarfs or small spirals. Na-yields appear to be very metal-dependent, in agreement with studies of giant ellipticals, probably due to the large dependence on the neutron-excess in stars. We conclude that dEs have undergone a considerable amount of chemical evolution, they are therefore not uniformly old, but have extended SFH, similar to many of the Local Group galaxies.

  11. Isotopic ratio method for determining uranium contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, R.E.; Sieben, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of high concentrations of uranium in the subsurface can be attributed either to contamination from uranium processing activities or to naturally occurring uranium. A mathematical method has been employed to evaluate the isotope ratios from subsurface soils at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant (RFP) and demonstrates conclusively that the soil contains uranium from a natural source and has not been contaminated with enriched uranium resulting from RFP releases. This paper describes the method used in this determination which has widespread application in site characterizations and can be adapted to other radioisotopes used in manufacturing industries. The determination of radioisotope source can lead to a reduction of the remediation effort

  12. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  13. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  14. Impact of influent COD/N ratio on disintegration of aerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinghai; Hao, Tianwei; Wei, Li; Mackey, Hamish R; Lin, Ziqiao; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2014-10-01

    Disintegration of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is a challenging issue in the long-term operation of an AGS system. Chemical oxygen demand (COD)-to-nitrogen (N) ratio (COD/N), often variable in industrial wastewaters, could be a destabilizing factor causing granule disintegration. This study investigates the impact of this ratio on AGS disintegration and identifies the key causes, through close monitoring of AGS changes in its physical and chemical characteristics, microbial community and treatment performance. For specific comparison, two lab-scale air-lift type sequencing batch reactors, one for aerobic granular and the other for flocculent sludge, were operated in parallel with three COD/N ratios (4, 2, 1) applied in the influent of each reactor. The decreased COD/N ratios of 2 and 1 strongly influenced the stability of AGS with regard to physical properties and nitrification efficiency, leading to AGS disintegration when the ratio was decreased to 1. Comparatively the flocculent sludge maintained relatively stable structure and nitrification efficiency under all tested COD/N ratios. The lowest COD/N ratio resulted in a large microbial community shift and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) reduction in both flocculent and granular sludges. The disintegration of AGS was associated with two possible causes: 1) reduction in net tyrosine production in the EPS and 2) a major microbial community shift including reduction in filamentous bacteria leading to the collapse of granule structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thiazolidinediones are associated with a decreased risk of atrial fibrillation compared with other antidiabetic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallisgaard, Jannik Langtved; Lindhardt, Tommi Bo; Staerk, Laila

    2017-01-01

    sensitizer that also has anti-inflammatory effects, which might decrease the risk of AF compared with other antidiabetic drugs. We used data from the Danish nationwide registries to study 108 624 patients with diabetes and without prior AF who were treated with metformin or sulfonylurea as first-line drugs...... drugs. The decreased risk of AF remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities with a hazard ratio (95% CI) of 0.76 (0.57-1.00), P = 0.047 associated with TZD treatment compared with other antidiabetic drugs. CONCLUSION: Use of a TZD to treat diabetes was associated with reduced...

  16. effect of effect of blend ratio on blend ratio on characteristics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    properties, cassava-soybean composite, wheat, bread, blend ratio ... dily growing population, an in eating and ... thermodynamic variables can produce an effect on .... these conditions. ..... Ragaee, S. et al., Pasting properties of starch and.

  17. Intimate partner violence and pregnancy: a systematic review of interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Sofie Van Parys

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV around the time of pregnancy is a widespread global health problem with many negative consequences. Nevertheless, a lot remains unclear about which interventions are effective and might be adopted in the perinatal care context. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to provide a clear overview of the existing evidence on effectiveness of interventions for IPV around the time of pregnancy. METHODS: Following databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched and expanded by hand search. The search was limited to English peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials published from 2000 to 2013. This review includes all types of interventions aiming to reduce IPV around the time of pregnancy as a primary outcome, and as secondary outcomes to enhance physical and/or mental health, quality of life, safety behavior, help seeking behavior, and/or social support. RESULTS: We found few randomized controlled trials evaluating interventions for IPV around the time of pregnancy. Moreover, the nine studies identified did not produce strong evidence that certain interventions are effective. Nonetheless, home visitation programs and some multifaceted counseling interventions did produce promising results. Five studies reported a statistically significant decrease in physical, sexual and/or psychological partner violence (odds ratios from 0.47 to 0.92. Limited evidence was found for improved mental health, less postnatal depression, improved quality of life, fewer subsequent miscarriages, and less low birth weight/prematurity. None of the studies reported any evidence of a negative or harmful effect of the interventions. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Strong evidence of effective interventions for IPV during the perinatal period is lacking, but some interventions show promising results. Additional large-scale, high-quality research is essential to provide further evidence about the effect

  18. The impact of free convection on late morning ozone decreases on an Alpine foreland mountain summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Mayer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Exceptional patterns in the diurnal course of ozone mixing ratio at a mountain top site (998 m a.s.l. were observed during a field experiment (September 2005. They manifested themselves as strong and sudden decreases of ozone mixing ratio with a subsequent return to previous levels. The evaluation of corresponding long-term time series (2000–2005 revealed that such events occur mainly during summer, and affect the mountain top site on about 18% of the summer days. Combining (a surface layer measurements at mountain summit and at the foot of the mountain, (b in-situ (tethered balloon and remote sensing (SODAR-RASS measurements within the atmospheric boundary layer, the origin of these events of sudden ozone decrease could be attributed to free convection. The free convection was triggered by a rather frequently occurring wind speed minimum around the location of the mountain.

  19. Energy profit ratio on LWR by uranium recycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu; Uno, Takeki; Matsushima, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Energy profit ratio is defined as the ratio of output energy/input system total energy. In case of electric power generation, input energy is a total for fuel such as uranium mining and enrichment, fuel transportation, build nuclear power plant, M and O and for disposal waste and decommission of reactor vessel. Output energy is the total electricity on LWR during the plant life. EPR on both PWR and BWR is high value using gas centrifuge enrichment compared other type of electric power generation such as a thermal power, a hydraulic power, a wind power and a photovoltaic power. How is the EPR on LWR by MOX? We need understanding the energy of reprocessing spent fuel, MOX fuel fabrication, low level waste disposal and high level radioactive glass disposal. As we show the material balance for two cases, the first is the case of long term storage and reprocessing before FBR, the second is the MOX fuel cycle on LWR plant. The MOX fuel recycle is better EPR value rather than the case of long term storage and reprocessing before FBR (LTSRBF). At the gaseous diffusion enrichment case, MOX fuel recycle has 15 to 18% higher EPR value than LTSRBF. At the gas centrifuge enrichment case the MOX fuel recycle has 17 to 18 higher EPR value than LTSRBF. MOX fuel recycle decreases the uranium mining and refine mass, enrichment separative work and the spent fuel interim storage. It tells us the MOX fuel recycle is good way from view of EPR. (author)

  20. Hilar height ratio in normal Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kyung Ho; Lee, Nam Joon; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Kyoo Byung

    1979-01-01

    Hilar displacement is one of the significant sign of pulmonary volume change. The hilar height ratio (HHR) is a value that express the normal position of hilum in its hemithorax, and it is calculated by dividing the distance from the hilum to the lung apex by the distance from the hilum to the diaphragm. Displacement of one hilum is usually easy to detect but both are displaced in the same direction especially, recognition is more difficult. Knowledge of normal HHR allows evaluation of hilar positional change even when the relative hilar position are not altered. Normal chest PA views of 275 cases taken at Korea University Hospital during the period of April 1978 to Jun 1979 were analyzed. The right hilum is positioned in lower half of the right hemithorax, while the left hilum is situated in the upper half of left hemithorax. The difference of hilar ratio according to age group is slight, but there is significant difference between right-HHR and left-HHR. The value of right-HHR is 1.28 ± 0.14, the value of left-HHR is 0.88 ± 0.09.