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  1. The effects of smoking and hypertensive disorders on fetal growth

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    Irgens Lorentz M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that smoking and pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH are associated with decreased fetal growth. It has been reported that in preeclampsia the fetal growth deficit attributable to smoking is higher, which has been contradicted in other studies. We therefore evaluated the effects on fetal growth of early- and late onset PIH and chronic hypertension and how cigarette smoking modify these effects. We also quantified the proportion of small for gestational age (SGA cases attributable to PIH, chronic hypertension, and smoking. Methods Population-based study based on record of 215598 singleton pregnancies from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Results In severe preeclampsia, mild preeclampsia, transient hypertension, and normotension in term birth, odds ratios (ORs of SGA in smokers compared with non-smokers were 1.4 (95% confidence interval 0.9, 2.2, 1.6 (1.3, 1.9, 2.3 (1.8, 3.1, and 2.0 (1.9, 2.1, respectively. For preterm births, corresponding ORs were 1.3 (0.9, 2.0, 1.8 (1.1, 3.0, 4.1 (1.9, 9.0, and 1.7 (1.4, 2.0, respectively. The effect of early onset PIH was stronger than that in term births, while the effect of smoking was equal in preterm and term newborns. Only in non-smokers who delivered at term, the rates of SGA significantly increased with the severity of PIH (ORs = 1.3 (1.1, 1.5, 1.8 (1.7, 2.0, and 2.5 (2.2, 3.0 for transient hypertension, mild-, and severe preeclampsia, respectively. The combined effects of smoking and hypertension were generally not synergistic. The effect of smoking was not stronger in women who had chronic hypertension. Nor were the effects of chronic hypertension stronger in smokers. PIH explained 21.9 and 2.5% of preterm and term cases of SGA, respectively, while smoking explained 12% of SGA cases. Conclusion The effects of hypertensive disorder and smoking were generally not synergistic, which suggest that they may exert their main actions on separate sites or work through

  2. The puzzling association between smoking and hypertension during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Klebanoff, M A; Levine, R J; Puri, M; Moyer, P

    1999-12-01

    The object of this study was to examine the association between maternal smoking and hypertension during pregnancy. We used data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a large prospective cohort study that collected detailed information on blood pressure, proteinuria, smoking, and placental morphologic and histologic characteristics. A total of 9651 healthy primigravid women without chronic hypertension who had been enrolled in the study at the first or second trimester (average 18 weeks' gestation) and had had >/=3 prenatal visits were included. Gestational hypertension was defined as diastolic blood pressure >/=90 mm Hg on 2 occasions from 24 weeks' gestation to 2 weeks post partum. Preeclampsia was defined as gestational hypertension plus >/=2 urine samples containing >/=1+ protein according to dipstick measurement during the same gestational period. After we controlled for prepregnancy body mass, age, socioeconomic status, and race, both past smoking and smoking during pregnancy were associated in a dose-response pattern with reduced risks of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. For women who smoked >/=10 cigarettes/d the relative risks with respect to women who had never smoked were 0.6 (95% confidence interval, 0.4-0.9) for gestational hypertension and 0.5 (95% confidence interval, 0.4-0.7) for preeclampsia. This protective effect was observed both for mild and severe gestational hypertension and for preeclampsia. The more and the longer a woman had smoked previously, the lower was her risk of development of hypertension during pregnancy. This association could not be explained by confounding factors, by changes in placental morphologic or histopathologic characteristics, by maternal net weight gain, or by elevated liver enzyme bioactivity. Smoking is associated with a reduced risk of hypertension during pregnancy. The protective effect appears to continue even after cessation of smoking. Further basic research on this issue is warranted.

  3. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study.

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    Thuridur A Gudnadóttir

    Full Text Available While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989-2004, resulting in birth at the Landspitali University Hospital. Cases (n = 500 were matched 1:2 with women without a hypertensive diagnosis who gave birth in the same year. Body mass index (kg/m2 was based on height and weight at 10-15 weeks of pregnancy. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals as measures of association, adjusting for potential confounders and tested for additive and multiplicative interactions of body mass index and smoking. Women's body mass index during early pregnancy was positively associated with each hypertensive outcome. Compared with normal weight women, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder was 1.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3 for overweight women and 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.3 for obese women. The odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder with obesity was 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.8-8.6 among smokers and 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-4.3 among non-smokers. The effect estimates for hypertensive disorders with high body mass index appeared more pronounced among smokers than non-smokers, although the observed difference was not statistically significant. Our findings may help elucidate the complicated interplay of these lifestyle-related factors with the hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.

  4. Diagnosis of childhood hypertension: is blood pressure height ratio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure was also recorded according to the standard method. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure to height ratio were then calculated. Receiver operating curves was used to assess the ability of systolic blood and diastolic blood pressure height ratio to discriminate childhood prehypertension and hypertension.

  5. Racial/ethnic disparity in the associations of smoking status with uncontrolled hypertension subtypes among hypertensive subjects.

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    Xuefeng Liu

    Full Text Available Racial/ethnic differences in the associations of smoking with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP and its subtypes (isolated uncontrolled systolic BP (SBP, uncontrolled systolic-diastolic BP, and isolated uncontrolled diastolic BP (DBP have not been investigated among diagnosed hypertensive subjects.A sample of 7,586 hypertensive patients aged ≥18 years were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010. Race/ethnicity was classified into Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black. Smoking was categorized as never smoking, ex-smoking, and current smoking. Uncontrolled BP was determined as SBP≥140 or DBP≥90 mm Hg. Isolated uncontrolled SBP was defined as SBP≥140 and DBP<90 mm Hg, uncontrolled SDBP as SBP≥140 and DBP≥90 mm Hg, and isolated uncontrolled DBP as SBP<140 and DBP≥90 mm Hg. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs of uncontrolled BP and its subtypes were calculated using weighted logistic regression models.The interaction effect of race and smoking was significant after adjustment for the full potential confounding covariates (Adjusted p = 0.0412. Compared to never smokers, current smokers were 29% less likely to have uncontrolled BP in non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.56-0.90, although the likelihood for uncontrolled BP is the same for smokers and never smokers in Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks. Current smokers were 26% less likely than never smokers to have isolated uncontrolled SBP in non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.95. However, current smoking is associated with an increased likelihood of uncontrolled systolic-diastolic BP in non-Hispanic blacks, and current smokers in this group were 70% more likely to have uncontrolled systolic-diastolic BP than never smokers (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.10-2.65.The associations between current smoking and uncontrolled BP differed over race/ethnicity. Health practitioners may need to be especially

  6. Association of secondary sex ratio with smoking and parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratis, Nicholas G; Asimacopoulou, Aspasia; Varvarigou, Anastasia

    2008-03-01

    To assess the sex ratio in offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers in relationship to parity. Prospective study. University hospital. The authors studied 2,108 term singleton neonates born between 1993 and 2002, 665 from smoking mothers and 1,443 from nonsmoking mothers. A prospective recording of maternal age, parity and smoking status, and gender of neonates delivered over a 10-year period. Secondary sex ratio in regard to maternal smoking and parity. The offspring sex ratio in the total sample studied was 1.09; in the offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers, it was 1.26 and 1.03, respectively, a statistically significant difference. In the offspring of smoking women who had parity 1, 2, and >or=3, it was 1.47, 1.35, and 0.92, whereas in those of nonsmoking women, it was 1.04, 1.00, and 1.03, respectively (the differences of the parity 1 and 2 groups between the offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers were statistically significant). Logistic regression analysis showed that the possibility of a boy being delivered by a mother who smoked was significantly greater in primiparous women than in women who had parity >or=3, independent of the maternal age. Conversely, parity did not affect significantly the sex ratio in the offspring of nonsmoking women. The findings suggest that among women who smoked, significantly more male than female offspring are born from primiparous women, whereas women who had parity >or=3 gave birth to more female offspring; biparous women give birth to significantly more male offspring, but the offspring sex ratio declined with the number of cigarettes when the mothers smoked >or=10 cigarettes per day.

  7. The Risk of Hypertension and Other Chronic Diseases: Comparing Smokeless Tobacco with Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Anand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn the past, studies have compared smokeless tobacco and non-tobacco users for the risk of various chronic diseases. The differences in the risk of chronic diseases between smokeless tobacco user and smokers have not been explored. The objective of this study is to estimate the risk of chronic diseases among smokeless tobacco users compared to smokers.MethodsThe data were used from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE Wave-1, conducted in 2007–2008 in India. The study sample is the respondents who reported consuming any form of tobacco in last 1 month. The total sample size was 4,038 respondents. The odds ratio of chronic morbidities was estimated taking smokers as the reference category.ResultsThe odds ratios for (self-reported diabetes, asthma, and hypertension were not significant for smokeless tobacco user compared to smoked tobacco users. The odds ratio of chronic lung diseases (CLDs was significantly lower among smokeless tobacco users compared to smoked tobacco users. The odds ratio of hypertension (measured combined with low education and belonging to lowest wealth quintiles were not significant for smokeless tobacco users compared to smoked tobacco users. Duration of the use of smokeless tobacco and quantity of use was found to have no significant relation with risk of chronic diseases as compared to smoking.ConclusionThis study did not find the significantly higher risk of chronic morbidities except for CLD for smokeless tobacco users compared to smoked tobacco users. The study suggests that the use of any form of tobacco may have a similar risk of chronic diseases.

  8. Making hypertensive smokers motivated in quitting: developing 'blood pressure equivalence of smoking'.

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    Wen, Chi Pang; Tsai, Min Kuang; Chan, Hui Ting; Tsai, Shan Pou; Cheng, Ting Yuan David; Chiang, Po Huang

    2008-04-01

    To express the increased risk from smoking in terms of 'blood pressure' so that hypertensive smokers are motivated into quitting. Mortality risks of smokers were compared with nonsmokers in a large worker cohort in Taiwan (n = 23755 with a 17-year follow-up) for all-cause and for cardiovascular diseases. The blood pressure equivalence of smoking was then identified by the difference in mortality risks between smokers and nonsmokers. Some interaction between hypertension and smoking was found to be synergistic. When hypertension and smoking co-existed, the all-cause mortality outcome [relative risk (RR) = 4.25] was larger than the sum or product of each individual risk for hypertension (RR = 2.16) or for smoking (RR = 1.97). The excess mortality risks of smoking for smokers were converted into a 'blood pressure equivalence'. The results demonstrate that the addition of smoking was similar to an increase of mortality risk approximately equivalent to an increase in blood pressure of 40 mmHg. Smoking cessation in hypertensive patients could provide a reduction of mortality risks similar to a permanent reduction of 40 mmHg in blood pressure, over and above any antihypertensive medications. Appreciating this relationship enables physicians to bridge the clinical disconnection and motivates hypertensive smokers to seek smoking cessation. The use of a 'blood pressure equivalence of smoking' can link the two separate risk factors and may lead to a paradigm shift in overcoming an existing clinical challenge.

  9. Racial/ethnic disparity in the associations of smoking status with uncontrolled hypertension subtypes among hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuefeng; Zhu, Tinghui; Manojlovich, Milisa; Cohen, Hillel W; Tsilimingras, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Racial/ethnic differences in the associations of smoking with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) and its subtypes (isolated uncontrolled systolic BP (SBP), uncontrolled systolic-diastolic BP, and isolated uncontrolled diastolic BP (DBP)) have not been investigated among diagnosed hypertensive subjects. A sample of 7,586 hypertensive patients aged ≥18 years were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010. Race/ethnicity was classified into Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black. Smoking was categorized as never smoking, ex-smoking, and current smoking. Uncontrolled BP was determined as SBP≥140 or DBP≥90 mm Hg. Isolated uncontrolled SBP was defined as SBP≥140 and DBPsmokers, current smokers were 29% less likely to have uncontrolled BP in non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.56-0.90), although the likelihood for uncontrolled BP is the same for smokers and never smokers in Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks. Current smokers were 26% less likely than never smokers to have isolated uncontrolled SBP in non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.95). However, current smoking is associated with an increased likelihood of uncontrolled systolic-diastolic BP in non-Hispanic blacks, and current smokers in this group were 70% more likely to have uncontrolled systolic-diastolic BP than never smokers (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.10-2.65). The associations between current smoking and uncontrolled BP differed over race/ethnicity. Health practitioners may need to be especially vigilant with non-Hispanic black smokers with diagnosed hypertension.

  10. Blood pressure to height ratio as a screening tool for prehypertension and hypertension in adolescents.

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    Ladapo, T A; Fajolu, I B; Adeniyi, O F; Ekure, E N; Maduako, R O; Jaja, T C; Oduwole, A O

    2016-01-01

    Current methods of detection of childhood hypertension are cumbersome and contribute to under-diagnosis hence, the need to generate simpler diagnostic tools. The blood pressure to height ratio has recently been proposed as a novel screening tool for prehypertension and hypertension in some populations. We evaluated its applicability in our environment. The weights, heights, and blood pressure measurements of 2364 apparently healthy adolescents were determined. Sex-specific systolic and diastolic blood pressure to height ratios (SBPHR) and (DBPHR) were calculated, and their ability to detect prehypertension and hypertension was determined using receiver operating curves. Discriminatory ability was measured by the area under the curve (AUC) and optimal cutoff points along the curve were determined. P AUC of SBPHR and DBPHR for diagnosing prehypertension and hypertension by sex was >0.95 for both diastolic and systolic hypertension in both sexes. It ranged between 0.803 and 0.922 for prehypertension and 0.954-0.978 for hypertension indicating higher accuracy for hypertension. Sensitivity was higher for systolic and diastolic hypertension (90-98%) compared with prehypertension (87-98%). Specificity was lower than sensitivity across all categories of hypertension and prehypertension (0.64-0.88%) though higher for hypertension (0.75-0.88) compared with prehypertension (0.64-0.75). BPHR is a useful screening tool for prehypertension and hypertension in black adolescents. Accuracy increased with higher degrees of hypertension.

  11. Joint effects of hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia and obesity and angiotensin-converting enzyme DD genotype on albuminuria in Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Chong, Choon-Khim

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the individual and joint effects of hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia, and obesity and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) DD genotype on albuminuria in Taiwanese type 2 diabetic patients. ACE genotypes were determined in 519 (287 men and 232 women) patients aged 58.5 (SD: 9.0) years. Among them, 240 had albuminuria (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio > or =30 microg/mg). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the individual and joint effects of risk factors and DD classified by two-by-four table. The adjusted odds ratios were significant for hypertension, smoking and obesity but not for DD and dyslipidemia in models evaluating individual effects. However, while analyzing the joint effects of DD and hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia and obesity, the respective adjusted odds ratios were 3.253 (1.261-8.391), 3.016 (1.086-8.376), 2.385 (1.010-5.630) and 2.508 (1.117-5.631). Hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia and obesity jointly play an important role with DD genotype in mediating albuminuria. 2010 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between cotinine-verified smoking status and hypertension in 167,868 Korean adults.

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    Kim, Byung Jin; Han, Ji Min; Kang, Jung Gyu; Kim, Bum Soo; Kang, Jin Ho

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies showed inconsistent results concerning the relationship between chronic smoking and blood pressure. Most of the studies involved self-reported smoking status. This study was performed to evaluate the association of urinary cotinine or self-reported smoking status with hypertension and blood pressure in Korean adults. Among individuals enrolled in the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study, 167,868 participants (men, 55.7%; age, 37.5 ± 6.9 years) between 2011 and 2013 who had urinary cotinine measurements were included. Individuals with urinary cotinine levels ≥50 ng/mL were defined as cotinine-verified current smokers. The prevalence of hypertension and cotinine-verified current smokers in the overall population was 6.8% and 22.7%, respectively (10.0% in men and 2.8% in women for hypertension: 37.7% in men and 3.9% in women for cotinine-verified current smokers). In a multivariate regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, alcohol drinking, vigorous exercise, and diabetes, cotinine-verified current smoking was associated with lower prevalence of hypertension compared with cotinine-verified never smoking (OR[95% CI], 0.79 [0.75, 0.84]). Log-transformed cotinine levels and unobserved smoking were negatively associated with hypertension, respectively (0.96 [0.96, 0.97] and 0.55 [0.39, 0.79]). In a multivariate linear regression analysis, the cotinine-verified current smoking was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) (regression coefficient[95% CI], -1.23[-1.39, -1.07] for systolic BP and -0.71 [-0.84, -0.58] for diastolic BP). In subgroup analyses according to sex, the inverse associations between cotinine-verified current smoking and hypertension were observed only in men. This large observational study showed that cotinine-verified current smoking and unobserved smoking were inversely associated with hypertension in Korean adults, especially only in

  13. Prediction of renovascualar hypertension by captopril-stimulated renal vein renin ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubidoux, M.A.; Dunnick, N.R.; Svetkey, L.; Newmann, G.E.; Cohan, R.H.; Kadir, S.; Klotman, P.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have prospectively studied 114 patients with suspected renovascular hypertension to determine whether captopril-stimulated, selective, renal vein renin ratios could be used to predict renovascular hypertension. As judged by the response to correction of renal artery lesions, 14 patients had renovascular hypertension, and renal vein renin ratios were significant in eight (sensitivity 57%). Overall, the positive predictive value of renal vein renin ratios was 33%, and the negative predictive value was 89%. The authors concluded that, in patients with renal artery stenosis, renal vein renin ratios predict neither the need for conventional arteriography nor potential benefit from the correction of vascular insufficiency

  14. Combined effects of socioeconomic position, smoking, and hypertension on risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Helene; Osler, Merete; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Combined effects of socioeconomic position and well-established risk factors on stroke incidence have not been formally investigated. METHODS: In a pooled cohort study of 68 643 men and women aged 30 to 70 years in Denmark, we examined the combined effect and interaction...... between socioeconomic position (ie, education), smoking, and hypertension on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence by the use of the additive hazards model. RESULTS: During 14 years of follow-up, 3613 ischemic strokes and 776 hemorrhagic strokes were observed. Current smoking and hypertension were...... more prevalent among those with low education. Low versus high education was associated with greater ischemic, but not hemorrhagic, stroke incidence. The combined effect of low education and current smoking was more than expected by the sum of their separate effects on ischemic stroke incidence...

  15. Airborne characterization of smoke marker ratios from prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. P. Sullivan; A. A. May; T. Lee; G. R. McMeeking; S. M. Kreidenweis; S. K. Akagi; R. J. Yokelson; S. P. Urbanski; J. L. Collett

    2014-01-01

    A Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler - Total Organic Carbon (PILS-TOC) and fraction collector system was flown aboard a Twin Otter aircraft sampling prescribed burning emissions in South Carolina in November 2011 to obtain smoke marker measurements. The fraction collector provided 2 min time-integrated offline samples for carbohydrate (i.e., smoke markers levoglucosan,...

  16. Heat Maps of Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, and Smoking in the Continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loop, Matthew Shane; Howard, George; de Los Campos, Gustavo; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z; Safford, Monika M; Levitan, Emily B; McClure, Leslie A

    2017-01-01

    Geographic variations in cardiovascular mortality are substantial, but descriptions of geographic variations in major cardiovascular risk factors have relied on data aggregated to counties. Herein, we provide the first description of geographic variation in the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking within and across US counties. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline risk factor measurements and latitude/longitude of participant residence collected from 2003 to 2007 in the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke). Of the 30 239 participants, all risk factor measurements and location data were available for 28 887 (96%). The mean (±SD) age of these participants was 64.8(±9.4) years; 41% were black; 55% were female; 59% were hypertensive; 22% were diabetic; and 15% were current smokers. In logistic regression models stratified by race, the median(range) predicted prevalence of the risk factors were as follows: for hypertension, 49% (45%-58%) among whites and 72% (68%-78%) among blacks; for diabetes mellitus, 14% (10%-20%) among whites and 31% (28%-41%) among blacks; and for current smoking, 12% (7%-16%) among whites and 18% (11%-22%) among blacks. Hypertension was most prevalent in the central Southeast among whites, but in the west Southeast among blacks. Diabetes mellitus was most prevalent in the west and central Southeast among whites but in south Florida among blacks. Current smoking was most prevalent in the west Southeast and Midwest among whites and in the north among blacks. Geographic disparities in prevalent hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking exist within states and within counties in the continental United States, and the patterns differ by race. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Exposure to Cigarette Smoke and the Carotid Arteries Calcification Index in Patients with Essential Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gać, Paweł; Jaźwiec, Przemysław; Mazur, Grzegorz; Poręba, Rafał

    2017-07-01

    The arteries calcification index is a quantitative, mathematically estimated parameter characterizing the total amount of calcium within atherosclerotic plaques in the walls of arteries. The objective is to determine a relationship between exposure to cigarette smoke and the carotid arteries calcification index in patients with essential hypertension. The tested group included 66 patients with essential hypertension: 19 active smokers (subgroup A), 20 non-smokers, environmentally exposed to cigarette smoke (subgroup B) and 27 persons without exposure to cigarette smoke (subgroup C). The tested group was subjected to computed tomography angiography of carotid arteries. Evaluation of the carotid arteries calcification indexes was conducted. The average value of the total calcification index of the carotid arteries (CAci) amounted to 368.28 ± 384.21. In subgroup A and B in relation to subgroup C, CAci was significantly higher. In summary, active and passive smoking in patients with essential hypertension may be associated with a higher calcification index of carotid arteries.

  18. Role of diabetes, hypertension, and cigarette smoking on atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Ram K.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperosmolar food causes atherosclerosis. Hyperosmolal food hypothesis encompasses all the factors involved under one heading and, that is, the generation of heat in the body. The involvement of cigarette smoking is obvious. High glycemic index food and diabetes result in high levels of blood glucose, which raises the core body temperature. The ingestion of hyperosmolal salt, glucose, and amino acids singularly or synergistically raise the core body temperature, forcing abdominal aorta to for...

  19. Pregravid hypertension may have different secondary sex ratio effects in different races in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2017-12-01

    Males are born in excess of females and the ratio is expressed as M/F (male/female births=secondary sex ratio, also known as secondary sex ratio). This is expected to approximate 1.048. Racial M/F disparities are known. A recent study in China showed that pregravid systolic hypertension is higher in women who delivered a boy than in those who had a girl. This study was carried out in order to identify the effect of pregravid hypertension in the United States on M/F by race. Monthly male and female live births by race for the entire US along with the presence/absence of hypertension were obtained from the website of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for 2007-2015 for the four racial groups: American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, Black or African American and White. This study analysed 36,364,253 live births. For White births, mothers who had chronic hypertension were likelier to have male than female offspring when compared to non-hypertensives (p=0.003). Conversely, Black or African American mothers who had hypertension were less likely to have male than female offspring when compared to non-hypertensives (p=0.022). There were F differences for/F differences for the presence or absence of hypertension for the other two races or for the total. It is possible that hypothesised innate interracial periconceptual hormonal differences may modulate M/F responses to hypertension in different races. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Presence of an interaction between smoking and being overweight increases risks of hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in outpatients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Midori; Kimijima, Michio; Muto, Takashi; Kimura, Kazumoto

    2012-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that the presence of an interaction between smoking and being overweight increases the risks of lifestyle-related diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease) in outpatients with mood disorders. In this cross-sectional survey, using data from 213 outpatients with mood disorders (95 men, 118 women), we calculated the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipedemia, and cardiovascular disease, using a binary logistic regression model; we then calculated the adjusted OR values for smokers and non-smokers with body mass indexes (BMIs) of <25 or ≥25 kg/m². Next, we examined the data for the presence of an interaction between smoking and being overweight, using three measures of additive interaction: relative excess risk due to the interaction (RERI), attributable proportion due to the interaction (AP), and the synergy index (S). Smokers with BMI <25 kg/m² had a significantly lower risk of hypertension (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.09-0.81) than non-smokers with BMI <25 kg/m² (reference group). Compared with the reference group, overweight non-smokers had a significantly higher risk (2.82, 1.34-6.19) of hypertension, and overweight smokers had a higher risk (4.43, 1.28-15.26) of hypertension and very high risks of diabetes (8.24, 2.47-27.42) and cardiovascular disease (13.12, 1.95-88.41). The highest RERI was derived from the relation with cardiovascular disease. The highest AP and S were derived from the relation with type 2 diabetes. There was no interaction of smoking and being overweight with dyslipidemia. The presence of an interaction between smoking and being overweight exacerbates the risks of hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in outpatients with mood disorders.

  1. Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema and Pulmonary Hypertension Can Be Prevented by Phosphodiesterase 4 and 5 Inhibition in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichl, Alexandra; Bednorz, Mariola; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Schermuly, Ralph Theo; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Weissmann, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a widespread disease, with no curative therapies available. Recent findings suggest a key role of NO and sGC-cGMP signaling for the pathogenesis of the disease. Previous data suggest a downregulation/inactivation of the cGMP producing soluble guanylate cyclase, and sGC stimulation prevented cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and pulmonary hypertension (PH) in mice. We thus aimed to investigate if the inhibition of the cGMP degrading phosphodiesterase (PDE)5 has similar effects. Results were compared to the effects of a PDE 4 inhibitor (cAMP elevating) and a combination of both. Methods C57BL6/J mice were chronically exposed to cigarette smoke and in parallel either treated with Tadalafil (PDE5 inhibitor), Piclamilast (PDE4 inhibitor) or both. Functional measurements (lung compliance, hemodynamics) and structural investigations (alveolar and vascular morphometry) as well as the heart ratio were determined after 6 months of tobacco smoke exposure. In addition, the number of alveolar macrophages in the respective lungs was counted. Results Preventive treatment with Tadalafil, Piclamilast or a combination of both almost completely prevented the development of emphysema, the increase in lung compliance, tidal volume, structural remodeling of the lung vasculature, right ventricular systolic pressure, and right ventricular hypertrophy induced by cigarette smoke exposure. Single, but not combination treatment prevented or reduced smoke-induced increase in alveolar macrophages. Conclusion Cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and PH could be prevented by inhibition of the phosphodiesterases 4 and 5 in mice. PMID:26058042

  2. Abnormal splenic artery diameter/hepatic artery diameter ratio in cirrhosis-induced portal hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dao-Bing; Dai, Chuan-Zhou; Lu, Shi-Chun; He, Ning; Wang, Wei; Li, Hong-Jun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine an optimal cutoff value for abnormal splenic artery diameter/proper hepatic artery diameter (S/P) ratio in cirrhosis-induced portal hypertension. METHODS: Patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension (n = 770) and healthy volunteers (n = 31) underwent volumetric computed tomography three-dimensional vascular reconstruction to measure the internal diameters of the splenic artery and proper hepatic artery to calculate the S/P ratio. The cutoff value for abnormal S/P ratio was determined using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and the prevalence of abnormal S/P ratio and associations between abnormal S/P ratio and major complications of portal hypertension were studied using logistic regression. RESULTS: The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the cutoff points for abnormal splenic artery internal diameter and S/P ratio were > 5.19 mm and > 1.40, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 74.2%, 45.2%, 97.1%, and 6.6%, respectively. The prevalence of an abnormal S/P ratio in the patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension was 83.4%. Patients with a higher S/P ratio had a lower risk of developing ascites [odds ratio (OR) = 0.708, 95%CI: 0.508-0.986, P = 0.041] and a higher risk of developing esophageal and gastric varices (OR = 1.483, 95%CI: 1.010-2.175, P = 0.044) and forming collateral circulation (OR = 1.518, 95%CI: 1.033-2.230, P = 0.034). After splenectomy, the portal venous pressure and maximum and mean portal venous flow velocities were reduced, while the flow rate and maximum and minimum flow velocities of the hepatic artery were increased (P portal hypertension, and it can be used as an important marker of splanchnic hemodynamic disturbances. PMID:23483462

  3. Coronary artery disease: the role of lipids, hypertension and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, U

    2000-01-01

    Pioneering epidemiological projects such as the Seven Countries study, and the Framingham Heart study established the classical risk factor concept for coronary heart disease (CAD). These landmark studies showed that a raised serum total cholesterol, high blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and smoking increase the risk of developing CHD in men and women in a graded fashion. Women develop CHD about 10 years later than men and women's risk is smaller. In the years and decades following these early studies many more prospective cohort studies primarily in the US and Europe have confirmed the early findings. In Germany two occupational and one population based cohort studies have contributed further information on this topic. In addition interactions between the three classical risk factors have been quantified, demonstrating for example that smoking carries a much higher risk for CHD in persons with high cholesterol values. Most cohort studies have confirmed that the relative risks for the classical risk factors are very similar. However, the respective absolute risks can differ tremendously, indicating that many more factors such as socio-economic conditions, nutrition, physical activity and others are of importance for the development of CHD. The scientific community, however, did not accept the consistent findings from the many observational studies as proof of causality. They required evidence that the risk for CHD could be reduced when the respective risk factor(s) was (were) diminished or eliminated. The late 1960s early 1970s thus saw the beginning of the era of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) following the advice of Archibald Cochrane who once wrote "we have to find that point on the distribution curve where therapy does more good than harm". We now know from meta-analyses of RCTs that a 1% reduction in serum cholesterol produces a 2-3% decline in risk for CHD and we can achieve reductions in total cholesterol of 20% or more. Regarding treatment of

  4. Medical expenditures of men with hypertension and/or a smoking habit: a 10-year follow-up study of National Health Insurance in Shiga, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kanda, Hideyuki; Okayama, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2010-08-01

    Hypertension and smoking are major causes of disability and death, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, where there is a high prevalence of a combination of these two risk factors. We attempted to measure the medical expenditures of a Japanese male population with hypertension and/or a smoking habit over a 10-year period of follow-up. A cohort study was conducted that investigated the medical expenditures due to a smoking habit and/or hypertension during the decade of the 1990s using existing data on physical status and medical expenditures. The participants included 1708 community-dwelling Japanese men, aged 40-69 years, who were classified into the following four categories: 'neither smoking habit nor hypertension', 'smoking habit alone', 'hypertension alone' or 'both smoking habit and hypertension.' Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure of > or =140 mm Hg, a diastolic blood pressure of > or =90 mm Hg or taking antihypertensive medications. In the study cohort, 24.9% had both a smoking habit and hypertension. During the 10-year follow-up period, participants with a smoking habit alone (18,444 Japanese yen per month), those with hypertension alone (21,252 yen per month) and those with both a smoking habit and hypertension (31,037 yen per month) had increased personal medical expenditures compared with those without a smoking habit and hypertension (17,418 yen per month). Similar differences were observed even after adjustment for other confounding factors (Psmoking habit and hypertension incurred higher medical expenditures compared with those without a smoking habit, hypertension or their combination.

  5. The value of hip circumference/heightx ratio for identifying childhood hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Na; Wang, Rui; Ji, Meijing; Liu, Xiaoli; Qiang, Lu; Ma, Chunming; Yin, Fuzai

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the value of hip circumference related indexes for identifying childhood hypertension. In 2011, 1,352 Han children aged 7–12 years were recruited in our study. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure ≥95th percentile for all three screenings. We set the power value of the hip circumference/heightx ratio (x = 0, 0.8, 1 and 1.5) and studied the association with blood pressure. Hip circumference, hip circumference/height0.8, hip circumferenc...

  6. Cortisol/cortisone ratio and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity are associated with pediatric primary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Aguayo, Alejandro; Campino, Carmen; Baudrand, Rene; Carvajal, Cristian A; García, Hernán; Aglony, Marlene; Bancalari, Rodrigo; García, Lorena; Loureiro, Carolina; Vecchiola, Andrea; Tapia-Castillo, Alejandra; Valdivia, Carolina; Sanhueza, Sebastian; Fuentes, Cristobal A; Lagos, Carlos F; Solari, Sandra; Allende, Fidel; Kalergis, Alexis M; Fardella, Carlos E

    2016-09-01

    To identify novel biomarkers associated with pediatric primary hypertension. We recruited 350 participants (4-16 years). Anthropometric parameters and aldosterone, plasma renin activity, cortisol, cortisone, Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin, IL-6, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 levels and matrix metalloproteinase-9 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-9 and MMP-2) activities were measured. Genomic DNA was isolated. Patients with altered glucose metabolism, severe obesity [BMI-SD score (BMI-SDS) > 2.5], renovascular disease, primary aldosteronism and apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome were excluded. In selected participants (n = 320), SBP was positively correlated with BMI-SDS (r = 0.382, P cortisol/cortisone ratio (r = 0.231, P cortisol/cortisone ratio (P cortisol/cortisone ratio (OR = 3.92; 95% CI = 1.98-7.71) and increased MMP-9 activity (OR = 4.23; 95% CI = 2.15-8.32). We report that MMP-9 activity and the cortisol/cortisone ratio were higher in pediatric primary hypertensive patients, and these associations were independent of the effect of obesity. The potential role of these novel biomarkers in predicting hypertension risk and blood pressure regulation warrants further investigation.

  7. Clinical value of 201Tl lung/heart ratio during exercise in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Wei; He Guorong; Liu Jinhua; Huang Yuying

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between 201 Tl lung/heart ratio during exercise and left ventricular diastolic function and its diagnostic value on severity of coronary artery disease. Methods: One hundred and two patients with documented coronary artery disease were divided into three groups, including no hypertension, hypertension without or with left ventricular hypertrophy groups. Exercise/delay 201 Tl myocardial perfusion tomography was performed on all patients included. Lung/heart ratio was defined on the anterior planar image obtained during exercise tomography. Results: The lung/heart ratios during exercise in no hypertension (0.43 +- 0.09, P 0.05). The lung/heart ratios of multi-vessel disease subgroup in no hypertension (0.46 +- 0.10 vs 0.40 +- 0.09, P 0.05). When lung/heart ratio was≥0.45, the sensitivities for predicting the presence of multi-vessel disease were 82%, 90%, 40% and specificities were 75%, 75%, 45%, respectively, in no hypertension, hypertension without and with hypertrophy groups. In no hypertension (r=0.402, P 0.05). In no hypertension (r=-0.413, P<0.01), hypertension without (r=-0.662, P<0.01) and with hypertrophy groups (r=-0.408, P<0.05), lung/heart ratios all showed a significant reverse correlation with correspondent E/A ratios. Conclusions: The exercise lung/heart ratios has a better diagnostic value for multi-vessel disease and left ventricular diastolic function abnormalities of coronary artery disease with or without hypertension, but not for multi-vessel disease in hypertension patients complicated with myocardial hypertrophy

  8. Mortality risk attributable to smoking, hypertension and diabetes among English and Brazilian older adults (The ELSA and Bambui cohort ageing studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmot, Michael G.; Demakakos, Panayotes; Vaz de Melo Mambrini, Juliana; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: The main aim of this study was to quantify and compare 6-year mortality risk attributable to smoking, hypertension and diabetes among English and Brazilian older adults. This study represents a rare opportunity to approach the subject in two different social and economic contexts. Methods: Data from the data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and the Bambuí Cohort Study of Ageing (Brazil) were used. Deaths in both cohorts were identified through mortality registers. Risk factors considered in this study were baseline smoking, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Both age–sex adjusted hazard ratios and population attributable risks (PAR) of all-cause mortality and their 95% confidence intervals for the association between risk factors and mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Participants were 3205 English and 1382 Brazilians aged 60 years and over. First, Brazilians showed much higher absolute risk of mortality than English and this finding was consistent in all age, independently of sex. Second, as a rule, hazard ratios for mortality to smoking, hypertension and diabetes showed more similarities than differences between these two populations. Third, there was strong difference among English and Brazilians on attributable deaths to hypertension. Conclusions: The findings indicate that, despite of being in more recent transitions, the attributable deaths to one or more risk factors was twofold among Brazilians relative to the English. These findings call attention for the challenge imposed to health systems to prevent and treat non-communicable diseases, particularly in populations with low socioeconomic level. PMID:26666869

  9. Improving Hypertension Screening in Childhood Using Modified Blood Pressure to Height Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Hai-Jun; Ma, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Blood pressure to height ratio (BPHR) has been suggested as a simple method for screening children with hypertension, but its discriminatory ability in young children is not as good as that in older children. Using data of 89,664 Chinese children aged 7 to 11 years, the authors assessed whether modified BPHR (BP:eHT13) was better than BPHR in identifying young children with hypertension. BP:eHT13 was estimated as BP/(height+7×(13-age in years)). Using Youden's index, the thresholds of systolic/diastolic BP:eHT13 for identifying prehypertension and hypertension were 0.67/0.44 and 0.69/0.45, respectively. These proposed thresholds revealed high sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and area under the curve (AUC), ranging from 0.874 to 0.999. In addition, BP:eHT13 showed better AUCs and fewer cutoff points than, if not similar to, two existing BPHR references. BP:eHT13 generally performed better than BPHR in discriminating BP abnormalities in young children and may improve early hypertension recognition and control. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio and Blood Pressure, Hypertension, and Related Factors12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Vanessa; Chang, Ellen T.

    2014-01-01

    The potential cost-effectiveness and feasibility of dietary interventions aimed at reducing hypertension risk are of considerable interest and significance in public health. In particular, the effectiveness of restricted sodium or increased potassium intake on mitigating hypertension risk has been demonstrated in clinical and observational research. The role that modified sodium or potassium intake plays in influencing the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction remains of interest in current research. Up to the present date, no known systematic review has examined whether the sodium-to-potassium ratio or either sodium or potassium alone is more strongly associated with blood pressure and related factors, including the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, the augmentation index, and endothelial dysfunction, in humans. This article presents a systematic review and synthesis of the randomized controlled trials and observational research related to this issue. The main findings show that, among the randomized controlled trials reviewed, the sodium-to-potassium ratio appears to be more strongly associated with blood pressure outcomes than either sodium or potassium alone in hypertensive adult populations. Recent data from the observational studies reviewed provide additional support for the sodium-to-potassium ratio as a superior metric to either sodium or potassium alone in the evaluation of blood pressure outcomes and incident hypertension. It remains unclear whether this is true in normotensive populations and in children and for related outcomes including the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, the augmentation index, and endothelial dysfunction. Future study in these populations is warranted. PMID:25398734

  11. Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role in the start and continuation of primary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is due to other diseases such as kidney ... the body can greatly improve or even cure secondary hypertension. Obstructive sleep apnea is a potentially serious sleep ...

  12. Nebivolol Attenuates Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio: A Marker of Subclinical Inflammation in Hypertensive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Hussain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High value of neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR is a strong independent predictor and biomarker of ongoing vascular inflammation in various cardiovascular disorders. Objective. The main focus of the study is to investigate the effect of nebivolol on NLR in mild to moderate hypertensive patients in comparison with metoprolol. In addition, BMI, blood pressure, TLC count, blood sugar, and lipid profile were also assayed before and after treatment. Materials and Methods. In this 12-week prospective double-blinded randomized study, 120 patients with mild to moderate hypertension were randomly divided into two groups to prescribed daily dose of tab nebivolol 5–10 mg and metoprolol 50–100 mg, respectively, for 12 weeks. The data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Results. A total of 100 patients completed the study. Both drugs lowered blood pressure significantly, nebivolol 20.5/10.5 and metoprolol 22.5/11.2 (p<0.001 from baseline. Regarding inflammation, nebivolol reduced total leukocyte count (p=0.005 and neutrophil count (p=0.003 and increased lymphocyte count (p=0.004 as compared to metoprolol. Similarly, nebivolol but not metoprolol significantly reduced NLR ratio (p=0.07. Nebivolol improved lipid profile and blood sugar compared to metoprolol, but values were nonsignificant. Conclusion. Nebivolol has a strong impact on reducing NLR, a marker of subclinical inflammation in hypertensive patients. Moreover NLR can be used as a disease and drug monitoring tool in these patients.

  13. Oral fluid/plasma cannabinoid ratios following controlled oral THC and smoked cannabis administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Milman, Garry; Bergamaschi, Mateus; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-09-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is a valuable biological alternative for clinical and forensic drug testing. Evaluating OF to plasma (OF/P) cannabinoid ratios provides important pharmacokinetic data on the disposition of drug and factors influencing partition between matrices. Eleven chronic cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit for 51 days. There were four 5-day sessions of 0, 30, 60, and 120 mg oral ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/day followed by a five-puff smoked cannabis challenge on Day 5. Each session was separated by 9 days ad libitum cannabis smoking. OF and plasma specimens were analyzed for THC and metabolites. During ad libitum smoking, OF/P THC ratios were high (median, 6.1; range, 0.2-348.5) within 1 h after last smoking, decreasing to 0.1-20.7 (median, 2.1) by 13.0-17.1 h. OF/P THC ratios also decreased during 5-days oral THC dosing, and after the smoked cannabis challenge, median OF/P THC ratios decreased from 1.4 to 5.5 (0.04-245.6) at 0.25 h to 0.12 to 0.17 (0.04-5.1) at 10.5 h post-smoking. In other studies, longer exposure to more potent cannabis smoke and oromucosal cannabis spray was associated with increased OF/P THC peak ratios. Median OF/P 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) ratios were 0.3-2.5 (range, 0.1-14.7) ng/μg, much more consistent in various dosing conditions over time. OF/P THC, but not THCCOOH, ratios were significantly influenced by oral cavity contamination after smoking or oromucosal spray of cannabinoid products, followed by time-dependent decreases. Establishing relationships between OF and plasma cannabinoid concentrations is essential for making inferences of impairment or other clinical outcomes from OF concentrations.

  14. Improved interpretation of renal-vein-renin-ratio by simultaneous determination of renal 131I-hippuric-acid-clearance-ratio in patients with renovascular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helber, A.; Boenner, G.; Hummerich, W.; Wambach, G.; Meurer, K.A.; Dvorak, K.; Lent, V.; Zehle, A.; Kaufmann, W.; Koeln Univ.; Staedtisches Krankenhaus Koeln-Merheim; Staedtisches Krankenhaus Koeln-Merheim; Koeln Univ.

    1979-01-01

    In patients with unilateral vascular kidney disease and hypertension, ratio of renal-vein-renin was compared with 131 I-Hippuric-acid clearance and change in blood pressure during Saralasininfusion. The ratio of renal-vein-renin was positively correlated with the ratio in renal plasma flow between the kidneys in all patients studied. The ratio of renins therefore is a result of two factors: The difference in renin secretion and the difference in blood flow in the two kidneys. In patients with angiotensin independent hypertension renin-ratios up to 2.0 were found without relevance to elevated blood pressure. When the difference in renal blood flow between both kidneys was small, even a slight difference in renal vein renin indicated hypertension related to increased renin secretion. (orig./AJ) [de

  15. Comparison of Prevalence- and Smoking Impact Ratio-Based Methods of Estimating Smoking-Attributable Fractions of Deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Ae Kong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is a major modifiable risk factor for premature mortality. Estimating the smoking-attributable burden is important for public health policy. Typically, prevalence- or smoking impact ratio (SIR-based methods are used to derive estimates, but there is controversy over which method is more appropriate for country-specific estimates. We compared smoking-attributable fractions (SAFs of deaths estimated by these two methods. Methods: To estimate SAFs in 2012, we used several different prevalence-based approaches using no lag and 10- and 20-year lags. For the SIR-based method, we obtained lung cancer mortality rates from the Korean Cancer Prevention Study (KCPS and from the United States-based Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II. The relative risks for the diseases associated with smoking were also obtained from these cohort studies. Results: For males, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were similar to those obtained using prevalence-based methods. For females, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were markedly greater than all prevalence-based SAFs. Differences in prevalence-based SAFs by time-lag period were minimal among males, but SAFs obtained using longer-lagged prevalence periods were significantly larger among females. SAFs obtained using CPS-II-based SIRs were lower than KCPS-based SAFs by >15 percentage points for most diseases, with the exceptions of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusions: SAFs obtained using prevalence- and SIR-based methods were similar for males. However, neither prevalence-based nor SIR-based methods resulted in precise SAFs among females. The characteristics of the study population should be carefully considered when choosing a method to estimate SAF.

  16. Smoking associated with malignancy, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and concurrent coronary artery disease: report of nine cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, S; Srivastava, S; Dwivedi, G

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco smoking in any form is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension (HTN), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), oral, nasopharyngeal, bronchial and other visceral malignancies. Cessation of smoking exerts considerable beneficial effect on development, recurrence and prognosis of these diseases. Present communication is based on the study of nine cases who had concurrent CAD, HTN, COPD and mitotic and/or pre malignant lesions due to unabated smoking. The youngest patient was a 35-year-old male having a smoking index of 300, presenting with acute coronary syndrome, COPD, HTN and buccal leukoplakia. Associated genitourinary malignancies in two cases and osteosarcoma in one case was an unusual presentation. These cases highlight the prognosis and public health implications of continuous smoking.

  17. Effect of postural changes on aldosterone to plasma renin ratio in patients with suspected secondary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barigou, M; Ah-Kang, F; Orloff, E; Amar, J; Chamontin, B; Bouhanick, B

    2015-06-01

    To study the influence of postural changes on aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR) in patients with suspected secondary hypertension and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the recommended seated ARR compared to supine and upright ARR for primary aldosteronism screening. Fifty-three hypertensive patients were prospectively hospitalized for secondary hypertension exploration (age: 51 ± 12, 66% males). After withdrawal of drugs interfering with renin angiotensin system, plasma aldosterone and direct renin concentration were measured in the morning, at bed after an overnight supine position, then out of bed after 1 hour of upright position and finally 2 hours later after 15 minutes of seating. Minimal renin value was set at 5 μUI/mL. Referring to ARR cut-off of 23 pg/μUI, the sensitivity of seated ARR was 57.1% and specificity was 92.3%. The negative and positive predictive values were 95.1% and 45.2% respectively. Compared to these results, a cut-off of 19 improved sensitivity to 85.7% with a specificity of 89.7%. Negative and positive predictive values were 98.3% and 41.1% respectively. Seated ARR mean value was lower than supine and upright ARR mean values, due to an overall increase in renin at seating compared to the supine position by factor 1.9 while aldosterone just slightly increased by factor 1.2. Seated ARR correlated to supine and upright ARR: correlation coefficients (r) 0.90 and 0.93 respectively (P<0.001). Current recommended measurement of ARR in the seating position is fairly correlated to supine and upright ARR. A suggested cut-off value of 19 instead of 23 pg/μUI increased the discriminating power of this test. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Aldosterone to Active Renin Ratio Is Associated With Nocturnal Blood Pressure in Obese and Treated Hypertensive Patients: The Styrian Hypertension Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubler, M.R.; Kienreich, K.; Gaksch, M.; Verheyen, N.; Fahrleitner-Pammer, A.; Schmid, J.; Grogorenz, J.; Ablasser, K.; Pieske, B.; Tomaschitz, A.; Pilz, S.

    2014-01-01

    High aldosterone levels are considered to play a key role in arterial hypertension. Data on the relationship between the aldosterone to active renin ratio (AARR), a quantity of aldosterone excess, and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) during the night are, however, sparse.

  19. Blood pressure-to-height ratio for screening prehypertension and hypertension in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, B; Wang, Z; Wang, H-J; Ma, J

    2015-10-01

    The diagnosis of hypertension in children is complicated because of the multiple age-, sex- and height-specific thresholds. To simplify the process of diagnosis, blood pressure-to-height ratio (BPHR) was employed in this study. Data were obtained from a Chinese national survey conducted in 2010, and 197 191 children aged 7-17 years were included. High normal and elevated blood pressure (BP) were defined according to the National High Blood Pressure Education Program (NHBPEP) Working Group definition. The optimal thresholds were selected by Youden's index. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV) and area under the curve (AUC) were assessed for the performance of these thresholds. The systolic and diastolic BPHR thresholds for identifying high normal BP were 0.84/0.55, 0.78/0.50 and 0.75/0.46 for children aged 7-8 years, 9-11 years and 12-17 years, respectively. The corresponding thresholds for identifying elevated BP were 0.87/0.57, 0.81/0.53 and 0.76/0.49, respectively. These proposed thresholds revealed high sensitivity and NPVs, all above 0.96, moderate to high specificity and AUCs, and low PPVs. Our finding suggested the proposed BPHR thresholds were accurate for identifying children without high normal or elevated BP, and could be employed to simplify the procedure of screening prehypertension and hypertension in children.

  20. Variations in the Gender Ratio of Multiple Sclerosis Linked to Converging Smoking Trends in Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios, Natalia; Alonso, Alvaro; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    -dependent relationship exists between changing female-to male ratios of smoking and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) in worldwide birth cohorts from previously published studies. BACKGROUND: Smoking behavior in industrialized nations has changed dramatically over the second half of the 20th century, with diverging patterns...... in male and female smoking rates. During the same time period, an increase in the female to male ratio in MS incidence has been reported. We examined whether MS incidence in the two genders changed concomitantly with smoking, as would be expected if smoking truly increased MS risk. DESIGN/METHODS: We...... identified relevant studies reporting male and female age-specific incidence of MS throughout the world using within-country birth cohorts as units of observation. For each country and birth cohort, we then estimated the male to female ratio in MS incidence, and correlated these ratios with the corresponding...

  1. Effects of the administration of a catalase inhibitor into the fourth cerebral ventricle on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Valenti, Vitor E.; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de; Fonseca, Fernando L. A.; Adami, Fernando; Sato, Monica A.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M.; Ferreira, Lucas Lima; Rodrigues, Luciano M.; Ferreira, Celso

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between brain oxidative stress and cardiovascular regulation. We evaluated the effects of central catalase inhibition on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SH) (16 weeks old) were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula leading into the fourth cerebral ventricle (4...

  2. Panel Management to Improve Smoking and Hypertension Outcomes by VA Primary Care Teams: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark D; Jensen, Ashley; Wang, Binhuan; Bennett, Katelyn; Dembitzer, Anne; Strauss, Shiela; Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Gillespie, Colleen; Sherman, Scott

    2015-07-01

    Panel Management can expand prevention and chronic illness management beyond the office visit, but there is limited evidence for its effectiveness or guidance on how best to incorporate it into practice. We aimed to test the effectiveness of incorporating panel management into clinical practice by incorporating Panel Management Assistants (PMAs) into primary care teams with and without panel management education. We conducted an 8-month cluster-randomized controlled trial of panel management for improving hypertension and smoking cessation outcomes among veterans. Twenty primary care teams from the Veterans Affairs New York Harbor were randomized to control, panel management support, or panel management support plus education groups. Teams included 69 clinical staff serving 8,153 hypertensive and/or smoking veterans. Teams assigned to the intervention groups worked with non-clinical Panel Management Assistants (PMAs) who monitored care gaps and conducted proactive patient outreach, including referrals, mail reminders and motivational interviewing by telephone. Measurements included mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, proportion of patients with controlled blood pressure, self-reported quit attempts, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) prescriptions, and referrals to disease management services. Change in mean blood pressure, blood pressure control, and smoking quit rates were similar across study groups. Patients on intervention teams were more likely to receive NRT (OR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.6) and enroll in the disease management services MOVE! (OR = 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.6) and Telehealth (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.1) than patients on control teams. Panel Management support for primary care teams improved process, but not outcome variables among veterans with hypertension and smoking. Incorporating PMAs into teams was feasible and highly valued by the clinical staff, but clinical impact may require a longer intervention.

  3. hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Hatipoglu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common disease associated with important cardiovascular complications. Persistent blood pressure of 140/90 or higher despite combined use of a reninangiotensin system blocker, calcium channel blocker and a diuretic at highest tolerated doses constitutes resistant hypertension. Excess sympathetic activity plays an important pathogenic role in resistant hypertension in addition to contributing to the development of metabolic problems, in particular diabetes. Reduction of renal sympathetic activity by percutaneous catheter-based radiofrequency ablation via the renal arteries has been shown in several studies to decrease blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension, and importantly is largely free of significant complications. However, longer term follow-up is required to confirm both long-term safety and efficacy.

  4. Hypertension

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — These datasets provide de-identified insurance data for hypertension hyperlipidemia. The data is provided by three managed care organizations in Allegheny County...

  5. Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Farrugia, Emanuel

    2004-01-01

    Hypertension is a rapidly moving clinical field with frequent developments in new pharmacologic agents and management strategies. Perhaps more importantly, there have been substantial improvements in our understanding of how best to use the drugs available to us. In this article, I will review some of the more important advances in our understanding of hypertension over the past two years, specifically by reviewing six important trials, one survey and two sets of guidelines, all published bet...

  6. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in children: diagnosis using ratio of main pulmonary artery to ascending aorta diameter as determined by multi-detector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro-Domínguez, Pablo; Compton, Gregory; Humpl, Tilman; Manson, David E

    2016-09-01

    The ratio of the transverse diameter of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) to ascending aorta as determined at multi-detector CT is a tool that can be used to assess the pulmonary arterial size in cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. To establish a ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter using multi-detector CT imaging suggestive of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We hypothesize that a defined ratio of MPA to ascending aorta is identifiable on multi-detector CT and that higher ratios can be used to reliably diagnose the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We calculated the multi-detector CT ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter in 44 children with documented pulmonary arterial hypertension by right heart catheterization and in 44 age- and gender-matched control children with no predisposing factors for pulmonary arterial hypertension. We compared this multi-detector-CT-determined ratio with the MPA pressure in the study group, as well as with the ratio of MPA to ascending aorta in the control group. A threshold ratio value was calculated to accurately identify children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Children with documented primary pulmonary arterial hypertension have a significantly higher ratio of MPA to ascending aorta (1.46) than children without pulmonary arterial hypertension (1.11). A ratio of 1.3 carries a positive likelihood of 34 and a positive predictive value of 97% for the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The pulmonary arteries were larger in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension than in a control group of normal children. A CT-measured ratio of MPA to ascending aorta of 1.3 should raise the suspicion of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children.

  7. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in children: diagnosis using ratio of main pulmonary artery to ascending aorta diameter as determined by multi-detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro-Dominguez, Pablo; Manson, David E.; Compton, Gregory; Humpl, Tilman

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of the transverse diameter of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) to ascending aorta as determined at multi-detector CT is a tool that can be used to assess the pulmonary arterial size in cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. To establish a ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter using multi-detector CT imaging suggestive of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We hypothesize that a defined ratio of MPA to ascending aorta is identifiable on multi-detector CT and that higher ratios can be used to reliably diagnose the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We calculated the multi-detector CT ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter in 44 children with documented pulmonary arterial hypertension by right heart catheterization and in 44 age- and gender-matched control children with no predisposing factors for pulmonary arterial hypertension. We compared this multi-detector-CT-determined ratio with the MPA pressure in the study group, as well as with the ratio of MPA to ascending aorta in the control group. A threshold ratio value was calculated to accurately identify children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Children with documented primary pulmonary arterial hypertension have a significantly higher ratio of MPA to ascending aorta (1.46) than children without pulmonary arterial hypertension (1.11). A ratio of 1.3 carries a positive likelihood of 34 and a positive predictive value of 97% for the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The pulmonary arteries were larger in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension than in a control group of normal children. A CT-measured ratio of MPA to ascending aorta of 1.3 should raise the suspicion of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. (orig.)

  8. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in children: diagnosis using ratio of main pulmonary artery to ascending aorta diameter as determined by multi-detector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro-Dominguez, Pablo; Manson, David E. [University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Compton, Gregory [University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Epworth Hospital, Epworth Medical Imaging, Richmond, VIC (Australia); Humpl, Tilman [University of Toronto, Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    The ratio of the transverse diameter of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) to ascending aorta as determined at multi-detector CT is a tool that can be used to assess the pulmonary arterial size in cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. To establish a ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter using multi-detector CT imaging suggestive of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We hypothesize that a defined ratio of MPA to ascending aorta is identifiable on multi-detector CT and that higher ratios can be used to reliably diagnose the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We calculated the multi-detector CT ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter in 44 children with documented pulmonary arterial hypertension by right heart catheterization and in 44 age- and gender-matched control children with no predisposing factors for pulmonary arterial hypertension. We compared this multi-detector-CT-determined ratio with the MPA pressure in the study group, as well as with the ratio of MPA to ascending aorta in the control group. A threshold ratio value was calculated to accurately identify children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Children with documented primary pulmonary arterial hypertension have a significantly higher ratio of MPA to ascending aorta (1.46) than children without pulmonary arterial hypertension (1.11). A ratio of 1.3 carries a positive likelihood of 34 and a positive predictive value of 97% for the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The pulmonary arteries were larger in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension than in a control group of normal children. A CT-measured ratio of MPA to ascending aorta of 1.3 should raise the suspicion of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. (orig.)

  9. Smoking and increased risk of multiple sclerosis: parallel trends in the sex ratio reinforce the evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios, Natalia; Alonso, Alvaro; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Smoking behavior in industrialized nations has changed markedly over the second half of the 20th century, with diverging patterns in male and female smoking rates. We examined whether the female/male incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) changed concomitantly with smoking, as would be expected if ...

  10. Evaluation of Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio in patients with non-dipper hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Mehmet; Uyan, Umut

    2014-01-01

    Non-dipper hypertension is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several studies have suggested that the interval from the peak to the end of the electrocardiographic T wave (Tp-e) may correspond to the transmural dispersion of repolarization and that increased Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio are associated with malignant ventricular arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to evaluate ventricular repolarization by using Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio in patients with non-dipper hypertension. This study included 80 hypertensive patients. Hypertensive patients were divided into two groups: 50 dipper patients (29 male, mean age 51.5 ± 8 years) and 30 non-dipper patients (17 male, mean age 50.6 ± 5.4 years). Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio were measured from the 12-lead electrocardiogram. These parameters were compared between groups. No statistically significant difference was found between two groups in terms of basic characteristics. In electrocardiographic parameters analysis, QT dispersion (QTd) and corrected QTd were significantly increased in non-dipper patients compared to the dippers (39.4 ± 11.5 versus 27.3 ± 7.5 ms and 37.5 ± 9.5 versus 29.2 ± 6.5 ms, p = 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively). Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio were also significantly higher in non-dipper patients (97.5 ± 11.2 versus 84.2 ± 8.3 ms and 0.23 ± 0.02 versus 0.17 ± 0.02, all p value ratio are prolonged in patients with non-dipper hypertension.

  11. Acculturation and changes in body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio among Filipino Americans with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafica, Reimund; Angosta, Alona D

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine whether level of acculturation is a predictor of body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio in Filipino Americans with hypertension in the United States. The Filipino Americans (N = 108) were recruited from a primary care clinic in the United States. Two instruments were used to collect and operationalize the variables, specifically: (1) Socioeconomic/Demographic Questionnaire and (2) A Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans. Descriptive statistics and partial least squares were used to calculate the results. The partial least square path model identified acculturation as a predictor of body mass index, wait circumference, and waist-hip ratio among Filipino Americans. The positive path coefficient (β = 0.384) was statistically significant (t = 5.92, P stress the importance of the degree of acculturation when developing culturally appropriate lifestyle and health promotion interventions among immigrant patients with hypertension. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of alcohol habits and smoking on the risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation in hypertensive patients with ECG left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariansen, Inger; Reims, Henrik M; Gjesdal, Knut

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) is increased by uncontrolled hypertension, and antihypertensive treatment reduces new-onset AF. However, it is unclear whether alcohol intake and smoking influence the risk of new-onset AF during antihypertensive treatment....

  13. Effects of cigarette smoke on Holter ECG recordings in patients with arterial hypertension. Part 1: Time domain parameters of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gać, Paweł; Sobieszczańska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    This report was intended to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoke on heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with arterial hypertension (AH). 223 individuals were qalified to the studies. The following groups of patients not suffering from other disease which may affect HRV were delineated: 1 - patients with AH (n=145); 2 - patients without AH (n=48). In group 1 the following patient groups were studied: A - active smokers (n=42), B - non-smokers exposed to cigarette smoke (n=30), C - non-smokers not exposed to tobacco smoke (n=34), D - former smokers (n=26). A time domain HRV analysis was carried out. Group 1 versus group 2 manifested significantly lower mean values of most parameters in the HRV time domain analysis. Subgroups A, B and D versus subgroup C also exhibited significantly lower mean values of most parameters in the HRV time domain analysis. Active cigarette smoking and passive exposure to tobacco smoke represented independent risk factors for a decreased HRV. Active and passive exposure to cigarette smoke decreases HRV in hypertensive patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical significance of changes and ratio imbalance of neuropeptide Y and neurotensin in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Wenxin; Zhang Yuanzhuo; Qiu Jie; Qin Ling

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of changes of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and neurotensin (NT) concentrations in plasma and their ratio imbalance on the incidence of essential hypertension (EH). Methods: NPY and NT in plasma in 176 patients with EH were measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results: NPY in the EH patients was higher than that in the normal subjects (P<0.01), and went up with the aggravation of the patients' condition (P<0.01). NT in the EH patients was lower compared with the normal subjects (P<0.01), and went down with the aggravation of the patients' condition (P<0.01). NPY/NT in the EH patients was higher than that in the normal subjects (P<0.01), and was accordant with patients' condition. Conclusion: NPY and NT are involved in the incidence of EH. The ratio imbalance of NPY/NT may be one of the factors causing EH. (authors)

  15. Relationship of body mass index and waist to hip ratio measurement with hypertension in young adult medical students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S.; Haque, I.U.; Rehman, A.U.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the BMI profile and waist to hip ratio measurements of young adult medical students of Lahore medical and dental college and its relationship with hypertension. All the students of Lahore medical and dental college were asked to undergo physical examination. Height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded. The partial correlation coefficient was used to quantify the association between BMI and waist-to-hip circumference ratio with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the influence of body mass index and waist-to-hip circumference ratio on the variance of systolic and diastolic BP. Mean BMI was 23.24 (SD+-4.31). Descriptive analysis revealed that 103 (21.3%) of the study population were classified as underweight, 251 (52 %) as normal weight, 99 (20.5%) as overweight, and 30 (6.2 %) as obese. Abdominal adiposity, as measured by increased WHR, was present in 56 subjects (11.59 %). Partial correlation controlled for age revealed strong positive correlation between BMI and WHR for males. 7.24% had high systolic blood pressure, minimum systolic BP was 90 while maximum being 160 mmHg. Same was the value for high diastolic blood pressure i.e. 35 (7.24%), range was from 60 to 100mm Hg. Results of the partial correlation coefficient controlled for age, indicated a significant positive correlation between SBP and DBP. Stepwise linear regression analysis controlled for age revealed that both body mass index and waist-to-hip circumference ratio were independently correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The present results suggest that prevalence of overweight and obesity among the medical students is higher than in general population. Those with either higher BMI or central adiposity distribution are potential candidates of increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. (author)

  16. Does the aldosterone: renin ratio predict the efficacy of spironolactone over bendroflumethiazide in hypertension? A clinical trial protocol for RENALDO (RENin-ALDOsterone study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McInnes Gordon T

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High blood pressure is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. Treated hypertensives do not attain a risk level equivalent to normotensives. This may be a consequence of suboptimal blood pressure control to which indiscriminate use of antihypertensive drugs may contribute. Indeed the recent ALLHAT1study suggests that thiazides should be given first to virtually all hypertensives. Whether this is correct or whether different antihypertensive therapies should be targeted towards different patients is a major unresolved issue, which we address in this study. The measurement of the ratio of aldosterone: renin is used to identify hypertensive subjects who may respond well to treatment with the aldosterone antagonist spironolactone. It is not known if subjects with a high ratio have aldosteronism or aldosterone-sensitive hypertension is debated but it is important to know whether spironolactone is superior to other diuretics such as bendroflumethiazide in this setting. Methods/design The study is a double-blind, randomised, crossover, controlled trial that will randomise 120 hypertensive subjects to 12 weeks treatment with spironolactone 50 mg once daily and 12 weeks treatment with bendroflumethiazide 2.5 mg once daily. The 2 treatment periods are separated by a 2-week washout period. Randomisation is stratified by aldosterone: renin ratio to include equal numbers of subjects with high and low aldosterone: renin ratios. Primary Objective – To test the hypothesis that the aldosterone: renin ratio predicts the antihypertensive response to spironolactone, specifically that the effect of spironolactone 50 mg is greater than that of bendroflumethiazide 2.5 mg in hypertensive subjects with high aldosterone: renin ratios. Secondary Objectives – To determine whether bendroflumethiazide induces adverse metabolic abnormalities, especially in subjects with high aldosterone: renin ratios and if baseline renin measurement

  17. Urine albumin/creatinine ratio and echocardiographic left ventricular structure and function in hypertensive patients with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy: The LIFE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, K.; Palmieri, V.; Olsen, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    in a large hypertensive population. Methods The urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) and echocardiographic measures of LV structure and function were obtained in 833 patients with stage I to III hypertension and LV hypertrophy determined by electrocardiogram (ECG) (Cornell voltage-duration or Sokolow...... geometry and high LV mass are associated with high UACR independent of age, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, and race, suggesting parallel cardiac and microvascular damage....

  18. Dietary sodium to potassium ratio and the incidence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease: A population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Nazeri, Pantea; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2018-01-30

    There is an interaction between dietary sodium/potassium intake in the pathogenesis of hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of dietary sodium to potassium (Na/K) ratio and the risk of HTN and CVD in a general population of Iranian adults. In this prospective cohort study, adults men and women with complete baseline data were selected from among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and were followed up for 6.3 years for incidence of HTN and CVD outcomes. Dietary sodium and potassium were assessed using a valid and reliable 168-item food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between dietary sodium, potassium and their ratio and risk of outcomes. During the study follow-up, 291 (15.1%) and 79 (5.0%) new cases of HTN and CVD were identified, respectively. No significant association was observed between usual intakes of sodium, potassium and dietary Na/K ratio with the incidence of HTN. There was no significant association between dietary intakes of sodium and potassium per se and the risk of CVD, whereas when dietary sodium to potassium ratio was considered as exposure in the fully-adjusted Cox regression model, and participants in the highest compared to lowest tertile had a significantly increased risk of CVD (HR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.16-4.14). Our findings suggest that high dietary Na/K ratio could contribute to increased risk of CVD events.

  19. The performance of blood pressure-to-height ratio as a screening measure for identifying children and adolescents with hypertension: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunming; Liu, Yue; Lu, Qiang; Lu, Na; Liu, Xiaoli; Tian, Yiming; Wang, Rui; Yin, Fuzai

    2016-02-01

    The blood pressure-to-height ratio (BPHR) has been shown to be an accurate index for screening hypertension in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis to assess the performance of BPHR for the assessment of hypertension. Electronic and manual searches were performed to identify studies of the BPHR. After methodological quality assessment and data extraction, pooled estimates of the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and summary receiver operating characteristics were assessed systematically. The extent of heterogeneity for it was assessed. Six studies were identified for analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic odds ratio values of BPHR, for assessment of hypertension, were 96% [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.95-0.97], 90% (95% CI=0.90-0.91), 10.68 (95% CI=8.03-14.21), 0.04 (95% CI=0.03-0.07) and 247.82 (95% CI=114.50-536.34), respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.9472. The BPHR had higher diagnostic accuracies for identifying hypertension in children and adolescents.

  20. Interaction between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Urinary Sodium, Potassium, and Sodium-Potassium Ratio on the Risk of Hypertension in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Mi Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a complex disease explained with diverse factors including environmental factors and genetic factors. The objectives of this study were to determine the interaction effects between gene variants and 24 h estimated urinary sodium and potassium excretion and sodium-potassium excretion ratios on the risk of hypertension. A total of 8839 participants were included in the genome-wide association study (GWAS to find genetic factors associated with hypertension. Tanaka and Kawasaki formulas were applied to estimate 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion. A total of 4414 participants were included in interaction analyses to identify the interaction effects of gene variants according to 24 h estimated urinary factors on the risk of hypertension. CSK rs1378942 and CSK-MIR4513 rs3784789 were significantly modified by urinary sodium-potassium excretion ratio. In addition, MKLN rs1643270 with urinary potassium excretion, LOC101929750 rs7554672 with urinary sodium and potassium excretion, and TENM4 rs10466739 with urinary sodium-potassium excretion ratio showed significant interaction effects. The present study results indicated that the mutant alleles of CSK rs1378942 and CSK-MIR4513 rs3784789 had the strongest protective effects against hypertension in the middle group of 24 h estimated urinary sodium-potassium excretion ratio. Further studies are needed to replicate these analyses in other populations.

  1. Performance of modified blood pressure-to-height ratio for identifying hypertension in Chinese and American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Chuanwei; Yang, Lili; Bovet, Pascal; Xi, Bo

    2018-04-06

    Blood pressure-to-height ratio (BPHR) has been reported to perform well for identifying hypertension (HTN) in adolescents but not in young children. Our study was aimed to evaluate the performance of BPHR and modified BPHR (MBPHR) for screening HTN in children. A total of 5268 Chinese children (boys: 53.1%) aged 6-12 years and 5024 American children (boys: 48.1%) aged 8-12 years were included in the present study. BPHR was calculated as BP/height (mmHg/cm). MBPHR7 was calculated as BP/(height + 7*(13-age)). MBPHR3 was calculated as BP/(height + 3*(13-age)). We used receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis to assess the performance of the three ratios for identifying HTN in children as compared to the 2017 U.S. clinical guideline as the "gold standard". The prevalence of HTN in Chinese and American children was 9.4% and 5.4%, respectively, based on the 2017 U.S. guideline. The AUC was larger for MBPHR3 than BPHR and MBPHR7. All three ratios had optimal negative predictive value (~100%). The positive predictive value (PPV) was higher for MBPHR3 than BPHR in both Chinese (43.9% vs. 37.9%) and American (39.1% vs. 26.3%) children. In contrast, the PPV was higher for MBPHR7 than BPHR in Chinese children (47.4% vs. 37.9%) but not in American children (24.8% vs. 26.3%). In summary, MBPHR3 overall performed better than MBPHR7 and BPHR for identifying HTN in children. However, the three ratios had low PPV (<50%) as compared to the 2017 U.S. guidelines, which makes these ratios of limited use for HTN screening in children.

  2. Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Lampert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Every year on May 31 is World No Tobacco Day (WNTD). The current issue of GBE kompakt deals with the prevalence and development of tobacco use in Germany. Data of the telephone survey "German Health Update" 2009 (GEDA) show a decrease in smoking for the last years but only for the younger age groups.

  3. A Novel Predictor of Posttransplant Portal Hypertension in Adult-To-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Increased Estimated Spleen/Graft Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoten, Kazuyuki; Mizuno, Shugo; Kato, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yasuhiro; Tanemura, Akihiro; Azumi, Yoshinori; Kuriyama, Naohisa; Kishiwada, Masashi; Usui, Masanobu; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Isaji, Shuji

    2016-10-01

    In adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT), graft-to-recipient weight ratio of less than 0.8 is incomplete for predicting portal hypertension (>20 mm Hg) after reperfusion. We aimed to identify preoperative factors contributing to portal venous pressure (PVP) after reperfusion and to predict portal hypertension, focusing on spleen volume-to-graft volume ratio (SVGVR). In 73 recipients with ALDLT between 2002 and 2013, first we analyzed survival according to PVP of 20 mm Hg as the threshold, evaluating the efficacy of splenectomy. Second, we evaluated various preoperative factors contributing to portal hypertension after reperfusion. All of the recipients with PVP greater than 20 mm Hg (n = 19) underwent PVP modulation by splenectomy, and their overall survival was favorable compared with 54 recipients who did not need splenectomy (PVP ≤ 20 mm Hg). Graft-to-recipient weight ratio had no correlation with PVP.Multivariate analysis revealed that estimated graft and spleen volume were significant factors contributing to PVP after reperfusion (P portal hypertension was 0.95. In ALDLT, preoperative assessment of SVGVR is a good predictor of portal hypertension after reperfusion can be used to indicate the need for splenectomy before reperfusion.

  4. Potential of right to left ventricular volume ratio measured on chest CT for the prediction of pulmonary hypertension: correlation with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure estimated by echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Heon [Soon Chun Hyang University, Department of Radiology, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Yeon [Seoul Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo Jeong [Terarecon Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Kyun [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Reddy, Ryan P.; Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science and Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2012-09-15

    To investigate the correlation of right ventricular (RV) to left ventricular (LV) volume ratio measured by chest CT with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) estimated by echocardiography. 104 patients (72.47 {+-} 13.64 years; 39 male) who had undergone chest CT and echocardiography were divided into two groups (hypertensive and normotensive) based upon an echocardiography-derived PASP of 25 mmHg. RV to LV volume ratios (RV{sub V}/LV{sub V}) were calculated. RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} was then correlated with PASP using regression analysis. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) for predicting pulmonary hypertension on chest CT was calculated. In the hypertensive group, the mean PASP was 46.29 {+-} 14.42 mmHg (29-98 mmHg) and there was strong correlation between the RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} and PASP (R = 0.82, p < 0.001). The intraobserver and interobserver correlation coefficients for RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} were 0.990 and 0.892. RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} was 1.01 {+-} 0.44 (0.51-2.77) in the hypertensive and 0.72 {+-} 0.14 (0.52-1.11) in the normotensive group (P <0.05). With 0.9 as the cutoff for RV{sub V}/LV{sub V}, sensitivity and specificity for predicting pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg were 79.5 % and 90 %, respectively. The AUC for predicting pulmonary hypertension was 0.87 RV/LV volume ratios on chest CT correlate well with PASP estimated by echocardiography and can be used to predict pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg with high sensitivity and specificity. (orig.)

  5. Potential of right to left ventricular volume ratio measured on chest CT for the prediction of pulmonary hypertension: correlation with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure estimated by echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Heon; Kim, Seok Yeon; Lee, Soo Jeong; Kim, Jae Kyun; Reddy, Ryan P.; Schoepf, U.J.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the correlation of right ventricular (RV) to left ventricular (LV) volume ratio measured by chest CT with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) estimated by echocardiography. 104 patients (72.47 ± 13.64 years; 39 male) who had undergone chest CT and echocardiography were divided into two groups (hypertensive and normotensive) based upon an echocardiography-derived PASP of 25 mmHg. RV to LV volume ratios (RV V /LV V ) were calculated. RV V /LV V was then correlated with PASP using regression analysis. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) for predicting pulmonary hypertension on chest CT was calculated. In the hypertensive group, the mean PASP was 46.29 ± 14.42 mmHg (29-98 mmHg) and there was strong correlation between the RV V /LV V and PASP (R = 0.82, p V /LV V were 0.990 and 0.892. RV V /LV V was 1.01 ± 0.44 (0.51-2.77) in the hypertensive and 0.72 ± 0.14 (0.52-1.11) in the normotensive group (P V /LV V , sensitivity and specificity for predicting pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg were 79.5 % and 90 %, respectively. The AUC for predicting pulmonary hypertension was 0.87 RV/LV volume ratios on chest CT correlate well with PASP estimated by echocardiography and can be used to predict pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg with high sensitivity and specificity. (orig.)

  6. Losartan attenuates chronic cigarette smoke exposure-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats: Possible involvement of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Suxia; He Guangming; Wang Tao; Chen Lei; Ning Yunye; Luo Feng; An Jin; Yang Ting; Dong Jiajia; Liao Zenglin; Xu Dan; Wen Fuqiang

    2010-01-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking induces pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by largely unknown mechanisms. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is known to function in the development of PAH. Losartan, a specific angiotensin II receptor antagonist, is a well-known antihypertensive drug with a potential role in regulating angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), a recently found regulator of RAS. To determine the effect of losartan on smoke-induced PAH and its possible mechanism, rats were daily exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 months in the absence and in the presence of losartan. Elevated right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), thickened wall of pulmonary arteries with apparent medial hypertrophy along with increased angiotensin II (Ang II) and decreased ACE2 levels were observed in smoke-exposed-only rats. Losartan administration ameliorated pulmonary vascular remodeling, inhibited the smoke-induced RVSP and Ang II elevation and partially reversed the ACE2 decrease in rat lungs. In cultured primary pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from 3- and 6-month smoke-exposed rats, ACE2 levels were significantly lower than in those from the control rats. Moreover, PASMCs from 6-month exposed rats proliferated more rapidly than those from 3-month exposed or control rats, and cells grew even more rapidly in the presence of DX600, an ACE2 inhibitor. Consistent with the in vivo study, in vitro losartan pretreatment also inhibited cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cell proliferation and ACE2 reduction in rat PASMCs. The results suggest that losartan may be therapeutically useful in the chronic smoking-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling and PAH and ACE2 may be involved as part of its mechanism. Our study might provide insight into the development of new therapeutic interventions for PAH smokers.

  7. Effects of the administration of a catalase inhibitor into the fourth cerebral ventricle on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between brain oxidative stress and cardiovascular regulation. We evaluated the effects of central catalase inhibition on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SH (16 weeks old were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula leading into the fourth cerebral ventricle (4th V. The femoral artery and vein were cannulated for arterial pressure and heart rate measurement and drug infusion, respectively. The rats were exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke for 180 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks (CO: 100-300 ppm. The baroreflex was tested using a pressor dose of phenylephrine (8 μg/kg, bolus and a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (50 μg/kg, bolus. Cardiovascular responses were evaluated before and 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after injection of a catalase inhibitor (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, 0.001 g/100 μL into the 4th V. RESULTS: Vehicle administration into the 4th V did not affect the cardiovascular response, whereas administration of the central catalase inhibitor increased the basal HR and attenuated the bradycardic peak (p<0.05 to a greater extent in WKY rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke than in WKY rats exposed to fresh air. However, in spontaneously hypertensive rats, the effect of the catalase inhibitor treatment was stronger in the fresh air condition (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Administration of a catalase inhibitor into the 4th V combined with exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke has a stronger effect in WKY rats than in SH rats.

  8. The effect of smoking on neutrophil/lymphocyte and platelet/lymphocyte ratio and platelet ındices: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulgar, Y K; Cakar, S; Tulgar, S; Dalkilic, O; Cakiroglu, B; Uyanik, B S

    2016-07-01

    Smoking commonly leads to death. Although the neutrophil/lymphocyte Ratio, platelet/lymphocyte ratio and platelet indices have been shown to be important for the diagnosis, prognosis and severity of some diseases, the smoking status of patients in these studies has not been well defined. In this study, we compared ratios derived from complete blood count and platelet indices to smoking status and length in smokers and non-smokers. The data of healthy males and females aged between 18-60 years who presented to our institute for a routine check-up were collected, and subjects were divided in two groups - smokers and non-smokers. The presence of medical history or laboratory results which could affect inflammatory response, formed our exclusion criteria. All complete blood count results were noted and persons' smoking habits were calculated as pack/years. White blood cell, neutrophil, basophil and eosinophil counts; mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio were significantly higher in smokers when compared to non-smokers (psmokers were grouped according to smoking habits; positive linear correlations were detected between pack/year and Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and also pack/year and plateletcrit in smokers (paffected and platelet distribution width is increased in smokers. If smokers are not excluded from studies evaluating neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet distribution width, the relationship between smoking status as well as pack/year must be determined and reported.

  9. Effects of the administration of a catalase inhibitor into the fourth cerebral ventricle on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Vitor E; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Adami, Fernando; Sato, Monica A; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Ferreira, Lucas Lima; Rodrigues, Luciano M; Ferreira, Celso

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between brain oxidative stress and cardiovascular regulation. We evaluated the effects of central catalase inhibition on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SH) (16 weeks old) were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula leading into the fourth cerebral ventricle (4th V). The femoral artery and vein were cannulated for arterial pressure and heart rate measurement and drug infusion, respectively. The rats were exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke for 180 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks (CO: 100-300 ppm). The baroreflex was tested using a pressor dose of phenylephrine (8 μg/kg, bolus) and a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (50 μg/kg, bolus). Cardiovascular responses were evaluated before and 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after injection of a catalase inhibitor (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, 0.001 g/100 μL) into the 4th V. Vehicle administration into the 4th V did not affect the cardiovascular response, whereas administration of the central catalase inhibitor increased the basal HR and attenuated the bradycardic peak (peffect of the catalase inhibitor treatment was stronger in the fresh air condition (pcatalase inhibitor into the 4th V combined with exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke has a stronger effect in WKY rats than in SH rats.

  10. Simplification of childhood hypertension definition using blood pressure to height ratio among US youths aged 8-17years, NHANES 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Bo; Zhang, Meixian; Zhang, Tao; Li, Shuangshuang; Steffen, Lyn M

    2015-02-01

    The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure (BP) established high BP diagnostic criteria using age-, sex-, and height-specific BP percentiles. However, these BP criteria are quite difficult for use by professionals in the clinic or children and their parents. We aimed to simplify the hypertension diagnostic criteria using BP to height ratio (BP/height) in US children and adolescents aged 8-17years. Data were obtained from a national representative sample of 14,624 US children and adolescents aged 8-17years enrolled in the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2012. SBP to height ratio (SBPHR) was calculated as SBP (mmHg)/height (cm) and DBP to height ratio (DBPHR) was calculated as DBP (mmHg)/height (cm). The BP diagnostic criteria recommended by the fourth report were used as the "gold standard". Receive operator characteristic curve analysis was used to choose the optimal thresholds of SBPHR and DBPHR. The optimal thresholds for identifying pre-hypertension and hypertension among children aged 8-12years and adolescents aged 13-17years were determined. The negative predictive value (NPV) for identifying hypertension was nearly 100% for both children and adolescents, although the positive predictive value (PPV) ranged from 19% to 35%. The NPV for identifying pre-hypertension ranged from 95% to 99% for children and adolescents, and the PPV ranged from 11% to 52%. The optimal thresholds of SBPHR and DBPHR are simple and accurate for screening elevated BP, although PPV is relatively low because of the low prevalence of childhood hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and associated factors of active smoking among individuals living with hypertension and/or diabetes in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafeu, Guy S; Tankeu, Aurel T; Endomba, Francky Teddy A; Nansseu, Jobert Richie; Kaze, Arnaud D; Bigna, Jean Joel; Noubiap, Jean Jacques

    2017-10-10

    Tobacco use significantly increases cardiovascular complications in people living with hypertension and/or diabetes. We aim to summarise data on the prevalence and factors associated with active smoking in these conditions in Africa. We will search PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and African Journals Online for relevant abstracts of studies on active smoking in individuals living with diabetes and/or hypertension published from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2016, with no language restriction. Additionally, relevant unpublished papers and conference proceedings will be checked, as well as references of included articles. Two investigators will independently screen, select studies, extract data and assess the risk of bias in each study. Data will be analysed using Stata software (Stata V.14, Texas, USA). The study-specific estimates will be pooled through a random-effects meta-analysis model to obtain an overall summary estimate of the prevalence of smoking across studies. Also, we will assess factors associated to smoking. Heterogeneity of studies will be evaluated by the χ2 test on Cochrane's Q statistic. Funnel plots analysis and Egger's test will be done to detect publication bias. Results will be presented by geographic region (central, eastern, northern, southern and western Africa). A p value less than 0.05 will be considered significant for factors associated to smoking. This study is based on published data, and therefore ethical approval is not a requirement. This systematic review and meta-analysis is expected to serve as a basis for designing cost-effective interventions to reduce and prevent smoking in patients with diabetes and/or hypertension, and as a guide for future research based on the remaining gaps. The final report of this study in the form of a scientific paper will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Findings will further be presented at conferences and submitted to relevant health authorities. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  12. Smoking, diabetes, blood hypertension: possible etiologic role for Peyronie’s disease? Analysis in 279 patients with a control group in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Pavone

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the proportion of patients with Peyronie’s Disease (PD and the possible association with its potential risk factors in the general population of the central and western Sicily in our weekly andrological outpatient clinic. Materials and methods: We recruited a sample of 279 consecutive patients consulting our andrological outpatient clinic. Two arms were created: the first one composed by PD patients (men with symptoms suggestive for PD, the second one composed by patients with other andrological diseases (control arm. For each patient we evaluated the age, cigarette smoking, diabetes, blood hypertension and erectile function. In the PD arm we administered validated questionnaires to determine the erectile function status by the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF-5 and the pain status during erection by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. A univariate analysis was conducted using R software. Results: We enrolled 279 consecutive patients. The number of PD patients was 97 (34,7%. The univariate analysis showed a correlation between PD and cigarette smoking (p = 0.0242, blood hypertension (p < 0.001, erectile dysfunction (p < 0.001. No significant association was observed between diabetes and PD (p = 0.358. The median age of PD arm was 60 years and the median age of the control arm was 63,5 years; therefore the median age of PD arm resulted lower than the median age of the control arm (p = 0,031. Conclusions: Peyronie’s disease is more common than we might think; furthermore it can be diagnosed among young patients. According to our results, cigarette smoking and blood hypertension may be considered statically significant risk factors for developing PD. On the contrary diabetes seems not to be a risk factor for PD. According to our results PD should be sought also in young patients. Further studies are necessary to confirm that removing the indicated risk factors may reduce the incidence of PD.

  13. Mitral E wave deceleration time to peak E velocity ratio and cardiovascular outcome in hypertensive patients during antihypertensive treatment (from the LIFE echo-substudy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinali, Marcello; Aurigemma, Gerard P; de Simone, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    for mitral peak E-velocity (mitral deceleration index [MDI]) might better predict incident cardiovascular (CV) events in hypertensive patients during treatment compared to DTE alone or other traditional indexes of diastolic function, such as the mitral E/A ratio. We evaluated 770 hypertensive patients.......01). Unadjusted Cox regression analysis showed a positive association between the baseline MDI and CV events (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.37, p = 0.002). In the time-varied Cox models, a greater in-treatment MDI was associated with a greater rate of CV events (hazard ratio 1.43, 95...... findings of left ventricular hypertrophy, the MDI independently predicted future CV events. Normalization of DTE for E velocity might be preferred to other traditional diastolic function indexes in evaluating diastolic function during antihypertensive treatment....

  14. Increased circulating endothelial apoptotic microparticle to endothelial progenitor cell ratio is associated with subsequent decline in glomerular filtration rate in hypertensive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yi Hsu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent research indicates hypertensive patients with microalbuminuria have decreased endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs and increased levels of endothelial apoptotic microparticles (EMP. However, whether these changes are related to a subsequent decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled totally 100 hypertensive out-patients with eGFR ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2. The mean annual rate of GFR decline (△GFR/y was -1.49 ± 3.26 mL/min/1.73 m(2 per year during the follow-up period (34 ± 6 months. Flow cytometry was used to assess circulating EPC (CD34(+/KDR(+ and EMP levels (CD31(+/annexin V(+ in peripheral blood. The △GFR/y was correlated with the EMP to EPC ratio (r= -0.465, p<0.001, microalbuminuria (r= -0.329, p=0.001, and the Framingham risk score (r= -0.245, p=0.013. When we divided the patients into 4 groups according to the EMP to EPC ratio, there was an association between the EMP to EPC ratio and the ΔGFR/y (mean ΔGFR/y: 0.08 ± 3.04 vs. -0.50 ± 2.84 vs. -1.25 ± 2.49 vs. -4.42 ± 2.82, p<0.001. Multivariate analysis indicated that increased EMP to EPC ratio is an independent predictor of ΔeGFR/y. CONCLUSIONS: An increased circulating EMP to EPC ratio is associated with subsequent decline in GFR in hypertensive patients, which suggests endothelial damage with reduced vascular repair capacity may contribute to further deterioration of renal function in patients with hypertension.

  15. Graz Endocrine Causes of Hypertension (GECOH study: a diagnostic accuracy study of aldosterone to active renin ratio in screening for primary aldosteronism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobnig Harald

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary aldosteronism (PA affects approximately 5 to 10% of all patients with arterial hypertension and is associated with an excess rate of cardiovascular complications that can be significantly reduced by a targeted treatment. There exists a general consensus that the aldosterone to renin ratio should be used as a screening tool but valid data about the accuracy of the aldosterone to renin ratio in screening for PA are sparse. In the Graz endocrine causes of hypertension (GECOH study we aim to prospectively evaluate diagnostic procedures for PA. Methods and design In this single center, diagnostic accuracy study we will enrol 400 patients that are routinely referred to our tertiary care center for screening for endocrine hypertension. We will determine the aldosterone to active renin ratio (AARR as a screening test. In addition, all study participants will have a second determination of the AARR and will undergo a saline infusion test (SIT as a confirmatory test. PA will be diagnosed in patients with at least one AARR of ≥ 5.7 ng/dL/ng/L (including an aldosterone concentration of ≥ 9 ng/dL who have an aldosterone level of ≥ 10 ng/dL after the saline infusion test. As a primary outcome we will calculate the receiver operating characteristic curve of the AARR in diagnosing PA. Secondary outcomes include the test characteristics of the saline infusion test involving a comparison with 24 hours urine aldosterone levels and the accuracy of the aldosterone to renin activity ratio in diagnosing PA. In addition we will evaluate whether the use of beta-blockers significantly alters the accuracy of the AARR and we will validate our laboratory methods for aldosterone and renin. Conclusion Screening for PA with subsequent targeted treatment is of great potential benefit for hypertensive patients. In the GECOH study we will evaluate a standardised procedure for screening and diagnosing of this disease.

  16. Waist-to-height ratio is the best anthropometric predictor of hypertension: A population-based study with women from a state of northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminha, Tainá C S; Ferreira, Haroldo S; Costa, Narithania S; Nakano, Ricardo P; Carvalho, Renata Elyonara S; Xavier, Antônio F S; Assunção, Monica L

    2017-01-01

    The WHO recommends the use of some anthropometric parameters as a screening resource for individuals under cardiometabolic risk. However, in the validation of these indicators, Brazilian women were not included. These women have different anthropometric profile compared to women who integrated the samples of the validation studies. We aimed to verify the accuracy of anthropometric indicators as a resource for the screening of women with hypertension. A cross-sectional study, with a probability sample of 3143 women (20-49 years) from the state of Alagoas (northeast of Brazil), was carried out. Hypertension was identified by systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg and/or regular use of antihypertensive drugs. The anthropometric indicators analyzed were BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body fat percentage, and conicity index. The accuracy definition of the indicators and the identification of best cut-off points were carried out on the basis of ROC curve analysis and Youden index, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was 21.8%. All indicators used in hypertension identification had area under the ROC curve (AUC) >0.5. The WHtR with cut-off point of 0.54 was the best performance indicator (AUC = 0.72; P hypertension. In the absence of specific studies and considering the largest ethnic proximity and environmental/epidemiological similarity, the findings now obtained can be extended to women of other Brazilian states, especially those in the Northeastern region.

  17. Menopause not aldosterone-to-renin ratio predicts blood pressure response to a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist in primary care hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Oliviero; Pizzolo, Francesca; Ciacciarelli, Alberto; Corrocher, Roberto; Signorelli, Denise; Falcone, Salvatore; Blengio, Gian S

    2008-09-01

    It has been suggested that hypertensive patients with raised aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) are specifically sensitive to mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs). We have previously shown that patients with an elevated ARR are relatively frequent in the setting of primary care. We therefore designed an interventional study to ascertain whether primary care hypertensive patients with an elevated ARR presented a superior response to MRA treatment than subjects with normal ratio. According to the previously observed distribution in general population, 1/3 and 2/3 of hypertensive patients with high or normal ARR, respectively, were treated with kanrenoate 50-100 mg/day for 2 months. To avoid uncontrolled blood pressure (BP), 49% of patients continued also "ARR-neutral" drugs such as verapamil and/or alpha-adrenergic blockers. Patients groups were matched for most features but an elevated ARR was more frequent in female than in male gender; moreover, 90% of women with raised ARR were in menopause. A clear reduction of BP values was recorded after both the first and the second month of treatment with kanrenoate, with the maximal effect obtained when the dosage titration at 100 mg/day was accomplished. However, patients previously identified by a raised ARR did not have a larger response to MRA treatment than patients with normal ratio. In contrast, MRA was twofold more effective in reducing SBP in women than in men (after 2 months of treatment -16.4 mm Hg vs.-8.2 mm Hg). These results suggest that postmenopausal hypertension is largely dependent on mineralocorticoid receptor activation and selectively sensitive to MRAs.

  18. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and possible effects of in utero testosterone: evidence from the 2D:4D finger length ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizwan, S.; Manning, J. T.; Brabin, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is linked to high fetal testosterone (FT), and an increased risk in offspring for autism, ADHD, conduct disorder, antisocial behaviour and criminal outcomes. The ratio of the length of the 2nd and 4th fingers (2D:4D) is thought to be negatively related

  19. Distribution pattern of urine albumin creatinine ratio and the prevalence of high-normal levels in untreated asymptomatic non-diabetic hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmaru, Natsuki; Nakatsu, Takaaki; Izumi, Reishi; Mashima, Keiichi; Toki, Misako; Kobayashi, Asako; Ogawa, Hiroko; Hirohata, Satoshi; Ikeda, Satoru; Kusachi, Shozo

    2011-01-01

    Even high-normal albuminuria is reportedly associated with cardiovascular events. We determined the urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) in spot urine samples and analyzed the UACR distribution and the prevalence of high-normal levels. The UACR was determined using immunoturbidimetry in 332 untreated asymptomatic non-diabetic Japanese patients with hypertension and in 69 control subjects. The microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria levels were defined as a UCAR ≥30 and creatinine and a UCAR ≥300 µg/mg·creatinine, respectively. The distribution patterns showed a highly skewed distribution for the lower levels, and a common logarithmic transformation produced a close fit to a Gaussian distribution with median, 25th and 75th percentile values of 22.6, 13.5 and 48.2 µg/mg·creatinine, respectively. When a high-normal UACR was set at >20 to creatinine, 19.9% (66/332) of the hypertensive patients exhibited a high-normal UACR. Microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were observed in 36.1% (120/336) and 2.1% (7/332) of the patients, respectively. UACR was significantly correlated with the systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the pulse pressure. A stepwise multivariate analysis revealed that these pressures as well as age were independent factors that increased UACR. The UACR distribution exhibited a highly skewed pattern, with approximately 60% of untreated, non-diabetic hypertensive patients exhibiting a high-normal or larger UACR. Both hypertension and age are independent risk factors that increase the UACR. The present study indicated that a considerable percentage of patients require anti-hypertensive drugs with antiproteinuric effects at the start of treatment.

  20. Impact of cigarette smoking on histone (H2B) to protamine ratio in human spermatozoa and its relation to sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, M F; Shelko, N; Kartarius, S; Montenarh, M; Hammadeh, M E

    2014-09-01

    Smoking is strongly associated with abnormalities in histone-to-protamine transition and with alteration of protamine expression in human spermatozoa. A proper protamine to histone ratio is, however, essential for sperm chromatin maturity and DNA integrity. Alterations in these sperm nuclear proteins were observed in infertile men. The present prospective study is aimed at evaluating the possible relationship among smoking, semen quality and the histone-to-protamine transition ratio in mature spermatozoa. Histone H2B and protamine 1 (P1) and 2 (P2) were quantified using acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the spermatozoa of 35 smokers and 19 non-smokers. Levels of lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in seminal plasma by thiobarbituric acid assay. Cotinine concentrations were determined in seminal plasma using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Histone H2B levels in smokers (292.27 ± 58.24 ng/10(6)) were significantly higher (p = 0.001) than that of non-smokers (109.1 ± 43.70 ng/10(6)), besides, a significant difference (p > 0.0001) was found for the P1 and P2 ratio between smokers (1.71 ± 0.071) and non-smokers (1.05 ± 0.033). The H2B/(H2B+P1 + P2) ratio (0.29 ± 0.71) of smokers were significantly higher (p = sperm count, motility (p = 0.018), vitality (p = 0.009) and membrane integrity (p = 0.0001) than non-smokers. These results reveal that patients who smoke possess a higher proportion of spermatozoa with an alteration of the histone to protamine ratio than patients who do not smoke, and suggest that cigarette smoking may inversely affect male fertility. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  1. The spleen-liver uptake ratio in liver scan: review of its measurement and correlation between hemodynamical changes of the liver in portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. Y.; Chung, Y. A.; Chung, H. S.; Lee, H. G.; Kim, S. H.; Chung, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    We analyzed correlation between changes of the Spleen-Liver Ratio in liver scintigram and hemodynamical changes of the liver in overall grades of portal hypertension by non-invasive, scintigraphic method. And the methods for measurement of the Spleen-Liver Ratio were also reviewed. Hepatic scintiangiograms for 120 seconds with 250-333 MBq of 99mTc-Sn-phytate followed by liver scintigrams were performed in 62 patients group consisted with clinically proven norma and various diffuse hepatocellular diseases. Hepatic Perfusion indices were calculated from the Time-Activity Curves of hepatic scintiangiograms. Each Spleen-Liver Ratios of maximum, average and total counts within ROIs of the liver and spleen from both anterior and posterior liver scintigrams and their geometrical means were calculated. Linear correlations between each Spleen-Liver Ratios and Hepatic Perfusion indices were evaluated. There was strong correlation (y=0.0002x 2 -0.0049x+0.2746, R=0.8790, p<0.0001) between Hepatic Perfusion Indices and Spleen-Liver Ratios calculated from posterior maxium counts of the liver scintigrams. Weaker correlations with either geometrical means of maximum and average count methods (R=0.8101, 0.7268, p<0.0001) or average counts of both posterior and anterior veiws (R=0.8134, 0.6200, p<0.0001) were noted. We reconfirmed that changes of Spleen-Liver Ratio in liver scintigrams represent hemodynamical changes in portal hypertension of diffuse hepatocellular diseases. Among them, the posterior Spleen-Liver Ratio measured by maximum counts will give the best information. And matching with Hepatic Perfusion index will be another useful index to evaluate characteristics splenic extraction coefficient of a certain radiocolloid for liver scintigram

  2. Mineralocorticoid hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension affects about 10 - 25% of the population and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease. The renin-angiotensin system is frequently implicated in the pathophysiology of hypertension, be it primary or secondary. The prevalence of primary aldosteronism increases with the severity of hypertension, from 2% in patients with grade 1 hypertension to 20% among resistant hypertensives. Mineralcorticoid hypertension includes a spectrum of disorders ranging from renin-producing pathologies (renin-secreting tumors, malignant hypertension, coarctation of aorta, aldosterone-producing pathologies (primary aldosteronism - Conns syndrome, familial hyperaldosteronism 1, 2, and 3, non-aldosterone mineralocorticoid producing pathologies (apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome, Liddle syndrome, deoxycorticosterone-secreting tumors, ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH syndrome, congenitalvadrenal hyperplasia, and drugs with mineraocorticoid activity (locorice, carbenoxole therapy to glucocorticoid receptor resistance syndromes. Clinical presentation includes hypertension with varying severity, hypokalemia, and alkalosis. Ratio of plasma aldosterone concentraion to plasma renin activity remains the best screening tool. Bilateral adrenal venous sampling is the best diagnostic test coupled with a CT scan. Treatment is either surgical (adrenelectomy for unilateral adrenal disease versus medical therapy for idiopathic, ambiguous, or bilateral disease. Medical therapy focuses on blood pressure control and correction of hypokalemia using a combination of anti-hypertensives (calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers and potassium-raising therapies (mineralcorticoid receptor antagonist or potassium sparing diuretics. Direct aldosterone synthetase antagonists represent a promising future therapy.

  3. The mechanisms associated with the development of hypertension after exposure to lead, mercury species or their mixtures differs with the metal and the mixture ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemann, Tanja M; Siciliano, Steven D; Weber, Lynn P

    2016-01-02

    Hypertension is considered to be the most important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Beside life-style risk factors, exposure to lead and mercury species are increasingly discussed as potential risk factors. Although there are a few previous studies, the underlying mechanism by which exposure to lead and mercury disturb blood pressure regulation is not currently understood. Potential mechanisms are oxidative stress production, kidney damage and activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), all of which can interact to cause dysregulation of blood pressure. Male rats (Wistar) were exposed to lead, inorganic mercury, methylmercury or two mixtures of all three metals for four weeks through the drinking water. The two mixture ratios were based on ratios of known reference values or environmental exposure from the literature. To investigate the potential mechanism of actions, blood pressure was measured after four weeks and compared to plasma nitrotyrosine or reduced/oxidized glutathione levels in liver as markers for oxidative stress. Plasma renin and angiotensin II levels were used as markers for RAS activation. Finally, kidney function and injury were assessed via urinary and plasma creatinine levels, creatinine clearance and urinary kidney-injury molecule (KIM-1). While exposure to lead by itself increased oxidative stress and kidney damage along with blood pressure, inorganic mercury did not affect blood pressure or any end-point examined. Conversely, methylmercury instead increased RAS activation along with blood pressure. Surprisingly, when administered as mixtures, lead no longer increased oxidative stress or altered kidney function. Moreover, the mixture based on an environmental ratio no longer had an effect on blood pressure, while the reference value ratio still retained an increase in blood pressure. Based on our results, the prominent mechanism of action associated with the development of hypertension seems to be oxidative

  4. High selenium exposure lowers the odds ratios for hypertension, stroke, and myocardial infarction associated with mercury exposure among Inuit in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue Feng; Eccles, Kristin M; Chan, Hing Man

    2017-05-01

    Selenium (Se) has been reported to protect against the neurotoxicity of mercury (Hg). However, the effect of Se against Hg on cardiovascular diseases remains unclear. Inuit living in the Arctic have high exposure to both Se and Hg through their marine mammal and fish rich traditional diet. To characterize the co-exposure of Hg and Se among Inuit in Canada and to assess the associations between Hg, Se and cardiovascular health outcomes, including stroke, hypertension, and myocardial infarction (MI). Data was collected from the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey (IHS) conducted in 2007 and 2008. Blood Se and Hg were measured, and self-report cardiovascular health outcomes were collected through a questionnaire interview from 2169 adults aged 18 and above. The mean age was 42.4years, and 38.7% of the participants were male. The geometric means (GM) of blood Se and total Hg were 319.5μg/L and 7.0μg/L, respectively. The crude prevalence of heart attack, stroke and hypertension were 3.55%, 2.36%, and 24.47% respectively. Participants were categorized into 4 exposure groups according to blood Hg (high: ≥7.8μg/L; low: <7.8μg/L), and Se (high: ≥280μg/L; low: <280μg/L). The odds ratio (OR) of cardiovascular outcomes were estimated using general linearized models. Results showed the low Se and high Hg group had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (OR=1.76 for hypertension, 1.57 for stroke, and 1.26 for MI. However, the prevalence was decreased in both the high Se and low Hg group (OR=0.57 for hypertension, 0.44 for stroke, and 0.27 for MI) and the high Se and high Hg group (OR=1.14 for hypertension, 0.31 for stroke, and 0.80 for MI). The high Se and low Hg group had the lowest prevalence of cardiovascular outcomes, except for stroke. These results provide evidence that Se may exhibit a protective effect against Hg on cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Smoking and Folate Levels on the Efficacy of Folic Acid Therapy in Prevention of Stroke in Hypertensive Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ziyi; Li, Jianping; Yu, Yaren; Li, Youbao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Lishun; Song, Yun; Zhao, Min; Wang, Yu; Tang, Genfu; He, Mingli; Xu, Xiping; Cai, Yefeng; Dong, Qiang; Yin, Delu; Huang, Xiao; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Wang, Binyan; Hou, Fan Fan; Wang, Xiaobin; Qin, Xianhui; Huo, Yong

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether the efficacy of folic acid therapy in the primary prevention of stroke is jointly affected by smoking status and baseline folate levels in a male population in a post hoc analysis of the CSPPT (China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial). Eligible participants of the CSPPT were randomly assigned to a double-blind daily treatment of a combined enalapril 10-mg and folic acid 0.8-mg tablet or an enalapril 10-mg tablet alone. In total, 8384 male participants of the CSPPT were included in the current analyses. The primary outcome was first stroke. The median treatment duration was 4.5 years. In the enalapril-alone group, the first stroke risk varied by baseline folate levels and smoking status (never versus ever). Specifically, there was an inverse association between folate levels and first stroke in never smokers ( P for linear trend=0.043). However, no such association was found in ever smokers. A test for interaction between baseline folate levels and smoking status on first stroke was significant ( P =0.045). In the total sample, folic acid therapy significantly reduced the risk of first stroke in never smokers with folate deficiency (hazard risk, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.83) and in ever smokers with normal folate levels (hazard risk, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.99). Baseline folate levels and smoking status can interactively affect the risk of first stroke. Our data suggest that compared with never smokers, ever smokers may require a higher dosage of folic acid to achieve a greater beneficial effect on stroke. Our findings need to be confirmed by future randomized trials. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00794885. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. The Prognostic Value of 18F-FDG Uptake Ratio Between the Right and Left Ventricles in Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Wang, Lei; Xiong, Chang-Ming; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Yan; Gu, Qing; Yang, Yong; Ni, Xin-Hai; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Fang, Wei; He, Jian-Guo

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic changes occur in the right ventricle (RV) under increased afterload in pulmonary arterial hypertension. FDG PET imaging has potential to assess RV function. In this study, we aimed to determine the prognostic value of metabolic changes of RV using FDG PET imaging in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). In this prospective investigation, patients newly diagnosed with IPAH were recruited. Patients underwent right heart catheterization, FDG PET imaging, and cardiac MR (CMR) within 1 week. Right ventricle hemodynamics, glucose metabolism derived from the FDG uptake levels, and functional parameters were obtained. The FDG uptake ratio between the RV and the left ventricle (LV) and its relation with the patients' survival were analyzed. A total of 45 IPAH patients were enrolled in this study, which included 13 male (28.9%) and 32 female (71.1%). The median follow-up time of this study was 1043 days. At the end of the follow-up, 36 patients survived, whereas 9 patients were deceased because of right heart failure. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that the ratio between the corrected RV and LV FDG uptake (cRV/LV) in both glucose-loading (cRV/LVg) and fasting (cRV/LVf) conditions independently predicted the mortality after adjusting for pulmonary vascular resistance index, mean right atrial pressure, and World Health Organization functional class. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with cRV/LVf greater than 143.65% in fasting condition (log rank, P = 0.030) or cRV/LVg greater than 120.55% in glucose-loading condition (log rank, P = 0.014) had worse prognosis. The FDG uptake ratio between the RV and LV can be an independent predictor for long-term prognosis of IPAH patients.

  7. Emission Ratios for Ammonia and Formic Acid and Observations of Peroxy Acetyl Nitrate (PAN and Ethylene in Biomass Burning Smoke as Seen by the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne H. Payne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We use the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES aboard the NASA Aura satellite to determine the concentrations of the trace gases ammonia (NH3 and formic acid (HCOOH within boreal biomass burning plumes, and present the first detection of peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN and ethylene (C2H4 by TES. We focus on two fresh Canadian plumes observed by TES in the summer of 2008 as part of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS-B campaign. We use TES retrievals of NH3 and HCOOH within the smoke plumes to calculate their emission ratios (1.0% ± 0.5% and 0.31% ± 0.21%, respectively relative to CO for these Canadian fires. The TES derived emission ratios for these gases agree well with previous aircraft and satellite estimates, and can complement ground-based studies that have greater surface sensitivity. We find that TES observes PAN mixing ratios of ~2 ppb within these mid-tropospheric boreal biomass burning plumes when the average cloud optical depth is low ( < 0.1 and that TES can detect C2H4 mixing ratios of ~2 ppb in fresh biomass burning smoke plumes.

  8. Smoking and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markidan, Janina; Cole, John W; Cronin, Carolyn A; Merino, Jose G; Phipps, Michael S; Wozniak, Marcella A; Kittner, Steven J

    2018-05-01

    There is a strong dose-response relationship between smoking and risk of ischemic stroke in young women, but there are few data examining this association in young men. We examined the dose-response relationship between the quantity of cigarettes smoked and the odds of developing an ischemic stroke in men under age 50 years. The Stroke Prevention in Young Men Study is a population-based case-control study of risk factors for ischemic stroke in men ages 15 to 49 years. The χ 2 test was used to test categorical comparisons. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio for ischemic stroke occurrence comparing current and former smokers to never smokers. In the first model, we adjusted solely for age. In the second model, we adjusted for potential confounding factors, including age, race, education, hypertension, myocardial infarction, angina, diabetes mellitus, and body mass index. The study population consisted of 615 cases and 530 controls. The odds ratio for the current smoking group compared with never smokers was 1.88. Furthermore, when the current smoking group was stratified by number of cigarettes smoked, there was a dose-response relationship for the odds ratio, ranging from 1.46 for those smoking strong dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked daily and ischemic stroke among young men. Although complete smoking cessation is the goal, even smoking fewer cigarettes may reduce the risk of ischemic stroke in young men. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Abdominal Adiposity Distribution Quantified by Ultrasound Imaging and Incident Hypertension in a General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seven, Ekim; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan

    2016-01-01

    -up examination and among them 203 had developed hypertension. In models including both VAT and SAT, the Framingham Hypertension Risk Score variables (age, sex, smoking status, family history of hypertension, and baseline blood pressure) and glycated hemoglobin, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for incident......Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension. However, different distributions of abdominal adipose tissue may affect hypertension risk differently. The main purpose of this study was to explore the association of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue......)). We constructed multiple logistic regression models to compute standardized odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals per SD increase in SAT and VAT. Of the 2119 normotensive participants at baseline, 1432, with mean SAT of 2.8 cm and mean VAT of 5.7 cm, returned 5 years later for a follow...

  10. Hypertension in Danish seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Mingshan; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the high prevalence of arterial hypertension and its role in the development of athe- rosclerosis, myocardial infarction and stroke, hypertension is a major public health challenge worldwide. There is limited knowledge of the prevalence of hypertension among seafarers who......, however, are known to have an excess morbidity and mortality from these disorders. This article addresses the prevalence of hypertension among Danish seafarers and discusses potential risk factors for hypertension in maritime settings. Materials and methods: A representative sample of 629 Danish seafarers...... who had statutory medical examinations was studied from the beginning of October 2011 to the end of June 2012. The medical examination included measurements of blood pressure. The prevalence of hypertension in the study po- pulation was stratified by age, work place on board, smoking status, alcohol...

  11. Self and environmental exposures to drinking, smoking, gambling or video game addiction are associated with adult hypertension, heart and cerebrovascular diseases, allergy, self-rated health and happiness: Japanese General Social Survey, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-02-15

    It was aimed to study the relationships between addiction behaviors and human health and well-being in East Asians in a national and population-based setting. Data were retrieved from Japanese General Social Survey, 2010. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, addiction behaviors and self-reported health conditions and well-being in Japanese adults was obtained by household interview. Analysis included chi-square test, logistic and multi-nominal regression modeling. Of 5003 Japanese adults (aged 20-89) included in the study cohort, 13.8%, 14.7%, 4.8% and 5.5% were addicted to drinking, smoking, gambling and video games, respectively while 10.6%, 13.8%, 4.3% and 11.4% were exposed to co-residing family member's drinking, smoking, gambling and video game addiction behaviors, respectively. People who reported addiction to drinking had poor self-rated health, hypertension and food allergy. People who reported addiction to smoking had fair to poor self-rated health, unhappiness, cerebrovascular disease and itchy skin. People who reported addiction to gambling had fair to poor self-rated health and unhappiness. People who reported addiction to video games had poor self-rated health and heart disease. People who were exposed to addiction to drinking, smoking, gambling and video games from co-residing family member(s) also reported hay fever, poor self-rated health and unhappiness. Self and environmental exposures to drinking, smoking, gambling or video game addiction are associated with adult hypertension, heart and cerebrovascular diseases, allergy, self-rated health and happiness. Future public health programs continuing to minimize self and environmental exposures to addiction behaviors tackling health concerns would still be encouraged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The ratio of (18)F-FDG activity uptake between the right and left ventricle in patients with pulmonary hypertension correlates with the right ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Wang, Lei; Xiong, Chang-Ming; He, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Yan; Gu, Qing; Zhao, Zhi-Hui; Ni, Xin-Hai; Fang, Wei; Liu, Zhi-Hong

    2014-05-01

    It is known that patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) can have elevated F-FDG uptake in the right ventricle (RV) on PET imaging. This study was designed to assess possible relationship between FDG uptake of ventricles and the function/hemodynamics of the RV in patients with PH. Thirty-eight patients with PH underwent FDG PET imaging in both fasting and glucose-loading conditions. The standard uptake value (SUVs) corrected for partial volume effect in both RV and left ventricle (LV) were measured. The ratio of FDG uptake between RV to LV (SUVR/L) was calculated. Right heart catheterization and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) were performed in all patients within 1 week. The FDG uptake levels by the ventricles were compared with the result form the right heart catheterization and CMR. The SUV of RV (SUVR) and SUV of LV were significantly higher in glucose-loading condition than in fasting condition. In both fasting and glucose-loading conditions, SUVR and SUVR/L showed reverse correlation with right ventricular ejection fraction derived from CMR. In addition, in both fasting and glucose-loading conditions, SUVR and SUVR/L showed positive correlations with pulmonary vascular resistance. However, only SUVR/L in glucose-loading condition could independently predict right ventricular ejection fraction after adjusted for age, body mass index, sex, mean right atrial pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, and pulmonary vascular resistance (P = 0.048). The FDG uptake of RV increases with decreased right ventricular function in patients with PH. Increased FDG uptake ratio between RV and LV might be useful to assess the right ventricular function.

  13. Quit Smoking >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  14. Ocular Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Ocular Hypertension Sections What Is Ocular Hypertension? Ocular Hypertension Causes ... Hypertension Diagnosis Ocular Hypertension Treatment What Is Ocular Hypertension? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es la hipertensión ocular? ...

  15. Effects of psychological stress on hypertension in middle-aged Chinese: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    Full Text Available We examined the effect and relative contributions of different types of stress on the risk of hypertension. Using cluster sampling, 5,976 community-dwelling individuals aged 40-60 were selected. Hypertension was defined according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee, and general psychological stress was defined as experiencing stress at work or home. Information on known risk factors of hypertension (e.g., physical activity levels, food intake, smoking behavior was collected from participants. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associations between psychological stress and hypertension, calculating population-attributable risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. General stress was significantly related to hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 1.247, 95% CI [1.076, 1.446]. Additionally, after adjustment for all other risk factors, women showed a greater risk of hypertension if they had either stress at work or at home: OR = 1.285, 95% CI (1.027, 1.609 and OR = 1.231, 95% CI (1.001, 1.514, respectively. However, this increased risk for hypertension by stress was not found in men. General stress contributed approximately 9.1% (95% CI [3.1, 15.0] to the risk for hypertension. Thus, psychological stress was associated with an increased risk for hypertension, although this increased risk was not consistent across gender.

  16. Arterial hypertension, microalbuminuria, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Strandgaard, S

    2000-01-01

    Albumin excretion in urine is positively correlated with the presence of ischemic heart disease and atherosclerotic risk factors. We studied prospectively whether a slight increase of urinary albumin excretion, ie, microalbuminuria, adds to the increased risk of ischemic heart disease among...... hypertensive subjects. In 1983 and 1984, blood pressure, urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio, plasma total and HDL cholesterol levels, body mass index, and smoking status were obtained in a population-based sample of 2085 subjects, aged 30 to 60 years, who were free from ischemic heart disease......, diabetes mellitus, and renal or urinary tract disease. Untreated arterial hypertension or borderline hypertension was present in 204 subjects, who were followed until 1993 by the National Hospital and Death Certificate Registers with respect to development of ischemic heart disease. During 1978 person...

  17. Higher levels of albuminuria within the normal range predict incident hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, John P; Fisher, Naomi D L; Schopick, Emily L; Curhan, Gary C

    2008-10-01

    Higher levels of albumin excretion within the normal range are associated with cardiovascular disease in high-risk individuals. Whether incremental increases in urinary albumin excretion, even within the normal range, are associated with the development of hypertension in low-risk individuals is unknown. This study included 1065 postmenopausal women from the first Nurses' Health Study and 1114 premenopausal women from the second Nurses' Health Study who had an albumin/creatinine ratio who did not have diabetes or hypertension. Among the older women, 271 incident cases of hypertension occurred during 4 yr of follow-up, and among the younger women, 296 incident cases of hypertension occurred during 8 yr of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine prospectively the association between the albumin/creatinine ratio and incident hypertension after adjustment for age, body mass index, estimated GFR, baseline BP, physical activity, smoking, and family history of hypertension. Participants who had an albumin/creatinine ratio in the highest quartile (4.34 to 24.17 mg/g for older women and 3.68 to 23.84 mg/g for younger women) were more likely to develop hypertension than those who had an albumin/creatinine ratio in the lowest quartile (hazard ratio 1.76 [95% confidence interval 1.21 to 2.56] and hazard ratio 1.35 [95% confidence interval 0.97 to 1.91] for older and younger women, respectively). Higher albumin/creatinine ratios, even within the normal range, are independently associated with increased risk for development of hypertension among women without diabetes. The definition of normal albumin excretion should be reevaluated.

  18. Smoking and The Simpsons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslick, Guy D; Eslick, Marielle G

    2009-06-01

    To determine the frequency of smoking on The Simpsons television show, and the relationship with the sex and age groups of characters shown smoking, and with positive, negative and neutral connotations associated with instances of smoking. Content analysis (performed from January to October 2008) of instances of smoking that appeared in the first 18 seasons of The Simpsons television show, which aired from 1989 to 2007. Frequency, impact (positive, negative, neutral) of instances of smoking; and frequency associated with age (child or adolescent versus adult characters), sex and types of characters on the show. There were 795 instances of smoking in the 400 episodes observed. Most (498; 63%) involved male characters. Only 8% of instances of smoking (63) involved child or adolescent characters. Just over a third of instances of smoking (275; 35%) reflected smoking in a negative way, compared with the majority, which reflected smoking in a neutral way (504; 63%) and the minority, which reflected smoking in a positive way (16; 2%). Child and adolescent characters were much more likely to be involved in instances of smoking reflected in a negative way compared with adult characters (odds ratio, 44.93; 95% CI, 16.15-172.18). There are a large number of instances of smoking in The Simpsons television show. Child and adolescent characters are much more likely to be portrayed in instances of smoking reflected in a negative way than adult characters. Viewing The Simpsons characters smoking may prompt children to consider smoking at an early age.

  19. Portal Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview of Gallbladder Cancer Additional Content Medical News Portal Hypertension By Steven K. Herrine, MD, Professor of Medicine, ... Liver Hepatic Encephalopathy Jaundice in Adults Liver Failure Portal Hypertension Portal hypertension is abnormally high blood pressure in ...

  20. [Secondary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is a common disease and a crucial predisposing factor of cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 10% of hypertensive patients are secondary hypertension, a pathogenetic factor of which can be identified. Secondary hypertension consists of endocrine, renal, and other diseases. Primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism result in endocrine hypertension. Renal parenchymal hypertension and renovascular hypertension result in renal hypertension. Other diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are also very prevalent in secondary hypertension. It is very crucial to find and treat secondary hypertension at earlier stages since most secondary hypertension is curable or can be dramatically improved by specific treatment. One should keep in mind that screening of secondary hypertension should be done at least once in a daily clinical practice.

  1. Secondary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary hypertension Overview Secondary hypertension (secondary high blood pressure) is high blood pressure that's caused by another medical condition. Secondary hypertension can be caused by conditions that affect your kidneys, ...

  2. Sedentary Lifestyle and Hypertension in a Periurban Area of Mbarara, South Western Uganda: A Population Based Cross Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twinamasiko, Bruce; Lukenge, Edward; Nabawanga, Stella; Nansalire, Winnie; Kobusingye, Lois; Ruzaaza, Gad; Bajunirwe, Francis

    2018-01-01

    Globally, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes constitute over 50% of the noncommunicable disease (NCD) burden and projections indicate Sub-Saharan Africa will experience a larger burden. Urbanization on the continent is contributing to the change in lifestyle such as diet and physical activity, which may increase the risk for CVDs. There is lack of sufficient data from the African continent on hypertension and its association with sedentary lifestyle. We conducted a cross sectional study in periurban Uganda among adults aged at least 35 years. We administered questions on diet, physical activity, and smoking. We took anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose. Hypertension was defined as systolic BP > = 140 and/or diastolic BP > = 90 and/or history of hypertension medications. Logistic regression was used to determine the crude and adjusted odds ratios for the factors associated with hypertension. We enrolled 310 participants and 50% were female. The prevalence of systolic hypertension was 24.5%, diastolic hypertension was 31%, obesity was 46%, and diabetes was 9%. Of those with hypertension ( n = 76), 53 participants (69.7%) were not aware they had high BP. Sedentary lifestyle was significantly associated with hypertension even after adjusting for age and obesity. There is a high prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes and majority of participants with hypertension are not aware. Participants with a sedentary work style should be targeted for prevention and screening.

  3. Uric Acid Is a Strong Risk Marker for Developing Hypertension From Prehypertension: A 5-Year Japanese Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Masanari; Hisatome, Ichiro; Niwa, Koichiro; Hara, Shigeko; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A; Bjornstad, Petter; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Andres-Hernando, Ana; Sato, Yuka; Jensen, Thomas; Garcia, Gabriela; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Ohno, Minoru; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Johnson, Richard J

    2018-01-01

    Prehypertension frequently progresses to hypertension, a condition associated with high morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and stroke. However, the risk factors for developing hypertension from prehypertension remain poorly understood. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the data from 3584 prehypertensive Japanese adults (52.1±11.0 years, 2081 men) found to be prehypertensive in 2004 and reexamined in 2009. We calculated the cumulative incidences of hypertension over 5 years, examined risk factors, and calculated odds ratios (ORs) for developing hypertension after adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, smoking and drinking habits, baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, and serum uric acid levels. The additional analysis evaluated whether serum uric acid (hyperuricemia) constituted an independent risk factor for developing hypertension. The cumulative incidence of hypertension from prehypertension over 5 years was 25.3%. There were no significant differences between women and men (24.4% versus 26.0%; P =0.28). The cumulative incidence of hypertension in subjects with hyperuricemia (n=726) was significantly higher than those without hyperuricemia (n=2858; 30.7% versus 24.0%; P hypertension from prehypertension were age (OR, 1.023; P hypertension from prehypertension. Further studies are needed to determine whether treatment of hyperuricemia in prehypertensive subjects could impede the onset of hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the Uni...

  5. ESSENTIAL ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HYPERTENSIVE NEPHROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boban Milojković

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension is a major risk factor that predisposes to cardiovascular disorders and is responsible for most of the morbidity and mortality in patients. Hypertension is closely associated with the kidney, because kidney disease can be both the cause and consequence of increased blood pressure. Elevation of blood pressure is a strong independent risk factor for hypertensive nephropathy and development of ESRD. The pathogenesis of ischemic hypertensive nephropathy (IHN is multifactoral, and in addition to blood pressure other factors contribute to the development of this renal pathology and its progression to end-stage renal disease. These include obesity, smoking, male gender and other still unknown risk factors. The aim of this paper was to analyse the association between essential arterial hypertension and renal hypertensive disease and prevalence of other atherosclerotic risk factors in patients with developed hypertensive renal disease. In this prospective cross sectional study 283 patients of both genders with diagnosed essential hypertension and hypertensive renal disease were analysed. The anamnestic data related to age, duration of hypertension, history of smoking, presence of hypertensive retinopathy, hypertrophy of the left chamber and data about previous renal diseases were collected through conversation and medical documentation. The clinical examination comprise determination of blood pressure, body mass index (BMI, lipid parameters (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, serum urea and creatinine, urine, albumin and protein concentration. The total number of 283 patients (185 males and 98 females with HN was analyzed. The analysis revealed significantly higher proportion of males aged over 60 years with IHN. The mean age of examined hypertensive patients with IHN is 62.6±8.8 years with duration of hypertension 19.8±5.9 years. All examined patients had hypertensive retinopathy and

  6. Cell-Phone Use and Self-Reported Hypertension: National Health Interview Survey 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaranjani Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Results. 43.5% of the participants were cell-phone nonusers, while 13.8% were predominantly cell-phone users. We found that cell-phone use was inversely associated with hypertension, independent of age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, body mass index (BMI, and physical activity. Compared to cell-phone nonusers, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval of hypertension was 0.86 (0.75–0.98, P trend  =  .005 among predominantly cell-phone users. This inverse association between cell-phone use and hypertension was stronger in women, those aged <60 years, whites, and those with BMI <25 kg/m2. Conclusion. We found that cell-phone usage was protectively associated with self-reported hypertension in a nationally representative sample of US adults.

  7. Urinary Bisphenol A and Hypertension in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, A.; Teppala, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a common chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, with >93% of US adults having detectable BPA levels in urine. Recent animal studies have suggested that BPA exposure may have a role in several mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension, including weight gain, insulin resistance, thyroid dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress. However, no previous human study has examined the association between markers of BPA exposure and hypertension. Methods. We examined urinary BPA levels in 1380 subjects from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2003-2004. Main outcome-of-interest was hypertension, defined as blood pressure-reducing medication use and/or blood pressures >140/90 mm of Hg (n=580). Results. We observed a positive association between increasing levels of urinary BPA and hypertension independent of confounding factors such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus and total serum cholesterol levels. Compared to tertile 1 (referent), the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of hypertension associated with tertile 3 was 1.50 (1.12-2.00); P-trend = 0.007. The association was consistently present in subgroup analyses by race/ethnicity, smoking status, BMI, and diabetes mellitus. Conclusions. Urinary BPA levels are associated with hypertension, independent of traditional risk factors.

  8. Mikroalbuminuri er associeret med firedobbelt risiko for iskaemisk hjertesygdom blandt hypertensive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Skov; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo F; Strandgaard, Svend

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The urinary excretion of albumin is positively correlated to the presence of ischaemic heart disease and atherosclerotic risk factors in subjects with arterial hypertension. The aim of this population-based, follow-up study of hypertensive patients was to assess the predictive impact...... of a slightly elevated urinary excretion of albumin, i.e. microalbuminuria, on ischaemic heart disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 1983-1984, blood pressure, the albumin/creatinine concentration ratio in a morning urine sample, total and HDL cholesterol in plasma, body mass index, and smoking habits were measured...

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Crystalline Valsartan/Sacubitril (LCZ696) Compared With Placebo and Combinations of Free Valsartan and Sacubitril in Patients With Systolic Hypertension: The RATIO Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Joseph L; Zappe, Dion H; Jia, Yan; Hafeez, Kudsia; Zhang, Jack

    2017-06-01

    We compared the systolic blood pressure (SBP)-lowering efficacy and safety of crystalline valsartan/sacubitril (LCZ696, an angiotensin receptor blocker-neprilysin inhibitor) 400 mg daily against valsartan (320 mg once daily) alone or coadministered with placebo or increasing doses of free sacubitril (50, 100, 200, or 400 mg once daily) to identify the optimal antihypertensive combination dose. This multicenter, double-blinded, 7-arm parallel-group study recruited patients with mild-to-moderate systolic hypertension (office SBP 150-179 mm Hg). Primary-dependent variable was change in office SBP from baseline to week 8. At entry (n = 907), mean age was 61.5 years, sitting office BP 160/90.2 mm Hg, and mean 24-hour ambulatory BP 142/82.1 mm Hg; 852 participants completed the study. At week 8, there were greater reductions in sitting office SBP and 24-hour ambulatory SBP with LCZ696 400 mg than with valsartan 320 mg (-5.7 and -3.4 mm Hg, respectively, P sacubitril 200 mg. Effects were similar in those older and younger than 65 years, and active therapies had adverse event rates similar to placebo. We conclude that crystalline valsartan/sacubitril 400 mg daily (1) is superior to valsartan 320 mg daily for lowering SBP, (2) has similar efficacy to the combination of free valsartan 320 mg plus free sacubitril 200 mg, (3) represents the optimal dosage for systolic hypertension in patients of any age, and (4) is safe and well tolerated.

  10. Association of triglycerides and new lipid markers with the incidence of hypertension in a Spanish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Íñigo, Laura; Navarro-González, David; Pastrana-Delgado, Juan; Fernández-Montero, Alejandro; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    Triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are known to be risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, there has been limited knowledge on the relationship between triglycerides and incident hypertension. The associations of incident hypertension with triglycerides and triglycerides-related indices such as triglycerides to HDL-C ratio (TG/HDL-C) and triglyceride-glucose index (TyG) were evaluated. Data from 3637 participants from the Vascular Metabolic Clinica Universidad Navarra cohort were followed-up during a mean of 8.49 years. A Cox proportional hazard ratio with repeated measures analyses was performed to assess the risk of developing hypertension across the quintiles of triglycerides, TG/HDL-C ratio, and TyG index. The risk of developing hypertension was 47% and 73% greater for those in the fourth and fifth quintiles of triglycerides, after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, cigarette smoking, daily alcohol intake, lifestyle pattern, type 2 diabetes, antiaggregation therapy, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, SBP, and DBP. In men, those in the top quintile of triglycerides, TG/HDL-C ratio or TyG index were two times more likely to develop hypertension than those in the bottom quintile. In women, the effect was attenuated although the risk of hypertension rose with increasing quintiles (P for trend triglycerides-related variables and incident hypertension independently of adiposity. This association was stronger than those observed for other commonly used lipid parameters or lipid ratios, such as the TC/HDL-C ratio. : http://links.lww.com/HJH/A620.

  11. Knowledge and awareness of hypertension among patients with systemic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familoni, B. Oluranti; Ogun, S. Abayomi; Aina, A. Olutoyin

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Nigeria, systemic hypertension is the commonest noncommunicable disease, and public awareness about hypertension and its determinants is poor. This study aims to assess the knowledge and level of awareness of the disease among hypertensive patients attending the medical outpatient clinic of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH). METHODOLOGY: Hypertensive patients who attended the medical outpatient clinic during the one-year study period and gave their consent were recruited into the study. Response to a questionnaire on various aspects of hypertension was analyzed using the STATA for Windows software. RESULTS: There were 254 hypertensive patients, of which 111 were males and 143 were females, giving a male: female ratio of 1:1.3. The mean age (SD) of the patients was 51 years +/- 12.2; 52.4% of the participants were aware that hypertension was the commonest noncommunicable disease in Nigeria. About one in 10 patients (11.4%) was aware that "nil symptom" is the commonest symptom of hypertension, while 37% were not aware that hypertension could cause renal failure. Only about one-third (35.4%) of the patients knew that hypertension should ideally be treated for life, while 58.3% believed that antihypertensive drugs should be used only when there are symptoms. The remaining 6.3% believed that the treatment of hypertension should be for periods ranging from two weeks to five years but not for life. CONCLUSION: This study has demonstrated inadequate knowledge of hypertension in patients with hypertension in our study population. Conscious efforts should be made and time set aside to health educate hypertensive patients. Organization of "hypertensive club or society" could be encouraged. These will reduce dissemination of false or inaccurate information by hypertensive patients to the public and its attendant dangers. PMID:15160976

  12. Prevalence and determinants of resistant hypertension among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... among hypertensive patients attending a cardiology clinic in China: a ... leading cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) ... Hypertension in present study was defined as ... patients who were currently smoking at least one .... prevalence of RHT by Ma et al [19] than us might.

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension in Adults in an Urban Slum, Tirupati, A.P.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What is the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors among adults aged 20-60 years residing years residing in an urban slum area of Tirupati town, A.P.? Objective : To study the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors as well as its extent of diagnosis and management among adults aged 20-60 years residing in an urban slum area of Tirupati. Study design : Cross sectional. Study setting : Channa Reddy Colony (Urban slum area in Tirupati town, A.P. Study subjects : 1000 adults in the age group of 20-60 years (Males-500; Females-500 residing in an urban slum area of Tirupati town, A.P. Study variables : Age, sex, occupation, family history of hypertension, history of cerebrovascular/cardiovascular events, diabetes mellitus, saturated fat intake, intake of excess salt, smoking, alcohol intake and regular physical exercise. Outcome Variables : Number of hypertensives and mean blood pressure level estimations. Statistical analysis : Proportions, Chi--square tests, ′F′ ratios, ′t′ tests, Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results : The overall prevalence of hypertension was found to be 8.6%. Out of the 86 hypertensives, 72 (83.7% were aware of their hypertension; all of those aware were under treatment; among the treated, only 30 (41.7% had satisfactory control of their hypertension. Higher prevalence of hypertension was found with history of cerbrovascular/cardiovascular events (50.0%, diabetes mellitus (33.3%, family history of hypertension (23.3%, smoking (22.4%, age more than 50 years (22.2%, alcohol intake (20.0%, lack of physical exercise (15.8%, B.M.I.>25 (14.9%, male sex (9.6, non-vegetarian diet (8.8% and saturated fat intake (8.8%. The mean systolic as well as diastolic blood pressures were found to be higher among men, higher age groups, and in business occupation of the respondents. Conclusions : Despite treatment, most of the hypertensives had not achieved satisfactory control of blood

  14. Hypertensive Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Hypertensive Crisis: When You Should Call 9-1-1 for ... Nov 13,2017 A hypertensive ( high blood pressure ) crisis is when blood pressure rises quickly and severely ...

  15. Active smoking may negatively affect response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with sunitinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizman, Daniel; Gottfried, Maya; Ish-Shalom, Maya; Maimon, Natalie; Peer, Avivit; Neumann, Avivit; Hammers, Hans; Eisenberger, Mario A; Sinibaldi, Victoria; Pili, Roberto; Hayat, Henry; Kovel, Svetlana; Sella, Avishay; Boursi, Ben; Weitzen, Rony; Mermershtain, Wilmosh; Rouvinov, Keren; Berger, Raanan; Carducci, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, smoking, hypertension, and diabetes are risk factors for renal cell carcinoma development. Their presence has been associated with a worse outcome in various cancers. We sought to determine their association with outcome of sunitinib treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). An international multicenter retrospective study of sunitinib-treated mRCC patients was performed. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association between outcome and the pretreatment status of smoking, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, and other known prognostic factors. Between 2004 and 2013, 278 mRCC patients were treated with sunitinib: 59 were active smokers, 67 were obese, 73 were diabetic, and 165 had pretreatment hypertension. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9 months, and overall survival (OS) was 22 months. Factors associated with PFS were smoking status (past and active smokers: hazard ratio [HR]: 1.17, p = .39; never smokers: HR: 2.94, p non-clear cell histology (HR: 1.62, p = .011), pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio >3 (HR: 3.51, p smoking status (past and active smokers: HR: 1.25, p = .29; never smokers: HR: 2.7, p 3 (HR: 2.95, p smoking may negatively affect the PFS and OS of sunitinib-treated mRCC. Clinicians should consider advising patients to quit smoking at initiation of sunitinib treatment for mRCC.

  16. The influences of silent cerebral infarction and hypertension on brain atrophy in normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhefeng, Quan; Bokura, Hirokazu; Iijima, Kenichi; Oguro, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Shuhei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the influences of silent brain infarction (SBI) and hypertension on brain atrophy and its longitudinal progression in healthy adults. MRI scans were performed on 109 neurologically normal adults (mean age, 58.6±5.8 years), with follow-up at an average of 4.9 years later. Patient histories of hypertension, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption were examined. We evaluated brain atrophy using the brain atrophy index (BAI; the ratio of the brain area to the intracranial area) and the ventricular atrophy index (VAI; the ratio of the ventricular area to the brain area) on MRI T1-weighted images at the levels of the basal ganglia and lateral ventricle in horizontal sections. There were no differences in age, sex, dyslipidemia, body mass index (BMI), smoking habit, and alcohol consumption between the normal group and the SBI or hypertension group. The BAI was significantly lower at entry for the SBI (+) group than for the SBI (-) group at both the basal ganglia and lateral ventricle levels (basal ganglia level, p=0.02; and lateral ventricle level, p=0.05). Moreover, the VAI was significantly higher at entry for the SBI (+) group than for the SBI (-) group at the lateral ventricle level (p=0.03). Furthermore, the BAI was significantly lower at entry for the hypertensive group than for the non-hypertensive group at the basal ganglia level (p=0.007). There were no significant differences in the annual variations of the BAI and VAI between the normal group and the SBI (+) or hypertensive group. The present results suggest that the SBI and hypertension are accelerating factors for brain atrophy and ventricular dilatation. (author)

  17. The influences of silent cerebral infarction and hypertension on brain atrophy in normal adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhefeng, Quan; Bokura, Hirokazu; Iijima, Kenichi; Oguro, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Shuhei [Shimane Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Izumo, Shimane (Japan)

    2008-03-15

    We studied the influences of silent brain infarction (SBI) and hypertension on brain atrophy and its longitudinal progression in healthy adults. MRI scans were performed on 109 neurologically normal adults (mean age, 58.6{+-}5.8 years), with follow-up at an average of 4.9 years later. Patient histories of hypertension, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption were examined. We evaluated brain atrophy using the brain atrophy index (BAI; the ratio of the brain area to the intracranial area) and the ventricular atrophy index (VAI; the ratio of the ventricular area to the brain area) on MRI T1-weighted images at the levels of the basal ganglia and lateral ventricle in horizontal sections. There were no differences in age, sex, dyslipidemia, body mass index (BMI), smoking habit, and alcohol consumption between the normal group and the SBI or hypertension group. The BAI was significantly lower at entry for the SBI (+) group than for the SBI (-) group at both the basal ganglia and lateral ventricle levels (basal ganglia level, p=0.02; and lateral ventricle level, p=0.05). Moreover, the VAI was significantly higher at entry for the SBI (+) group than for the SBI (-) group at the lateral ventricle level (p=0.03). Furthermore, the BAI was significantly lower at entry for the hypertensive group than for the non-hypertensive group at the basal ganglia level (p=0.007). There were no significant differences in the annual variations of the BAI and VAI between the normal group and the SBI (+) or hypertensive group. The present results suggest that the SBI and hypertension are accelerating factors for brain atrophy and ventricular dilatation. (author)

  18. Insomnia with physiological hyperarousal is associated with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Bixler, Edward O; Sun, Yuanfeng; Zhou, Junying; Ren, Rong; Li, Tao; Tang, Xiangdong

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with a higher risk of hypertension, and it has been speculated that the underlying mechanism is physiological hyperarousal. In this study, we tested whether insomnia with physiological hyperarousal measured by Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), a standard test of sleepiness/alertness, is associated with increased risk of hypertension. Two hundred nineteen chronic insomniacs and 96 normal sleepers were included in this study. Chronic insomnia was defined based on standard diagnostic criteria with symptoms lasting ≥6 months. All subjects underwent 1 night in laboratory polysomnography followed by a standard MSLT. We used the median mean MSLT value (ie, >14 minutes) and the 75th percentile of mean MSLT value (ie, >17 minutes) to define hyperarousal. Hypertension was defined based either on blood pressure measures or on diagnosis treatment by a physician. After controlling for age, sex, body mass index, apnea-hypopnea index, diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcohol, and caffeine use, insomnia combined with MSLT >14 minutes increased the odds of hypertension by 300% (odds ratio=3.27; 95% confidence interval=1.20-8.96), whereas insomnia combined with MSLT >17 minutes increased even further the odds of hypertension by 400% (odds ratio=4.33; 95% confidence interval=1.48-12.68) compared with normal sleepers with MSLT ≤14 minutes. Insomnia associated with physiological hyperarousal is associated with a significant risk of hypertension. Long MSLT values may be a reliable index of the physiological hyperarousal and biological severity of chronic insomnia. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Depression and anxiety are associated with abnormal nocturnal blood pressure fall in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunbul, Murat; Sunbul, Esra Aydin; Kosker, Selcen Dogru; Durmus, Erdal; Kivrak, Tarik; Ileri, Cigdem; Oguz, Mustafa; Sari, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that depression and anxiety were independent risk factors for hypertension. Non-dipper hypertension is associated with higher cardiovascular mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anxiety and depression scores in patients with dipper and non-dipper hypertension. The study sample consisted of 153 hypertensive patients. All patients underwent 24-h blood pressure monitoring. Patients were classified into two groups according to their dipper or non-dipper hypertension status. We evaluated results of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale between groups. Seventy-eight patients (38 male, mean age: 51.6 ± 12.5 years) had dipper hypertension while 75 patients (27 male, mean age: 55.4 ± 14.1 years) had non-dipper hypertension (p = 0.141, 0.072, respectively). Clinical characteristics were similar for both groups. Patients with non-dipper hypertension had significantly higher depression and anxiety scores compared to patients with dipper hypertension. Dipper and non-dipper status significantly correlated with anxiety (p: 0.025, r: 0.181) and depression score (p: 0.001, r: 0.255). In univariate analysis, smoking, alcohol usage, presence of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, anxiety score >8 and depression score >7 were predictors of dipper versus non-dipper status. In multivariate logistic regression analyses only depression score >7 was independent predictor of dipper versus non-dipper status (odds ratio: 2.74, confidence intervals: 1.41-5.37). A depression score of 7 or higher predicted non-dipper status with a sensitivity of 62.7% and specificity of 62.8%. Non-dipper patients have significantly higher anxiety and depression scores compared to dipper patients. Evaluation of anxiety and depression in patients with hypertension might help to detect non-dipper group and hence guide for better management.

  20. Influence of parental history of hypertension on screen time and physical activity in young offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Bamini; Hardy, Louise L; Baur, Louise A; Teber, Erdahl; Mitchell, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Epidemiological data on the relationship between parental hypertension and lifestyle factors among children are limited. We assessed the associations between positive parental history of hypertension with a range of indicators of sedentariness (television viewing, computer and videogame usage) and physical activity (outdoor and indoor activity) among prepubertal children. Six-year-old (1765 of 2238 eligible) students from a random cluster sample of 34 Sydney schools were examined. Parents completed questionnaires about their medical conditions and the child's activities. If the biological mother and/or father had hypertension, then this was classified as positive parental history of hypertension. Parents of 160 (9.2%) children gave a positive family history of hypertension. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, parental education and employment and exposure to passive smoking, children with, compared with those without, a family history of hypertension were more likely to spend above the median time (hours/day) watching television and playing videogames [odds ratio (OR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.96; OR 1.52, CI 1.12-2.06, respectively]. The offspring of hypertensive parents were more likely to spend above the median time in total physical activity (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.23-2.27). Maternal (but not paternal) hypertension was associated with increased time spent watching television (P = 0.03) and in outdoor activity (P = 0.01). Parental hypertension influences the time that prepubertal offspring spend in both active and sedentary pursuits. These findings highlight potential factors that could be addressed in the development of cardiovascular disease-preventive measures starting early in life among the offspring of hypertensive parents.

  1. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.

  2. Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszko, Adrian; Janus, Agnieszka; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a severe medical condition which is estimated to appear in 9-18% of hypertensive patients. Due to higher cardiovascular risk, this disorder requires special diagnosis and treatment. The heterogeneous etiology, risk factors and comorbidities of resistant hypertension stand in need of sophisticated evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and select the best therapeutic options, which should consider lifestyle modifications as well as pharmacological and interventional treatment. After having excluded pseudohypertension, inappropriate blood pressure measurement and control as well as the white coat effect, suspicion of resistant hypertension requires an analysis of drugs which the hypertensive patient is treated with. According to one definition - ineffective treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive drugs including diuretics makes it possible to diagnose resistant hypertension. A multidrug therapy including angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, long-acting calcium channel blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be effective in resistant hypertension treatment. Nevertheless, optional, innovative therapies, e.g. a renal denervation or baroreflex activation, may create a novel pathway of blood pressure lowering procedures. The right diagnosis of this disease needs to eliminate the secondary causes of resistant hypertension e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, atherosclerosis and renal or hormonal disorders. This paper briefly summarizes the identification of the causes of resistant hypertension and therapeutic strategies, which may contribute to the proper diagnosis and an improvement of the long term management of resistant hypertension.

  3. Gamma-glutamyltransferase, fatty liver index and hepatic insulin resistance are associated with incident hypertension in two longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Fabrice; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Pihan-Le Bars, Florence; Natali, Andrea; Roussel, Ronan; Petrie, John; Tichet, Jean; Marre, Michel; Fromenty, Bernard; Balkau, Beverley

    2017-03-01

    We hypothesized that liver markers and the fatty liver index (FLI) are predictive of incident hypertension and that hepatic insulin resistance plays a role. The association between liver markers and incident hypertension was analysed in two longitudinal studies of normotensive individuals, 2565 from the 9-year data from an epidemiological study on the insulin resistance cohort and the 321 from the 3-year 'Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular disease' cohort who had a measure of endogenous glucose production. The FLI is calculated from BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and the hepatic insulin resistance index from endogenous glucose production and fasting insulin. The incidence of hypertension increased across the quartiles groups of both baseline GGT and alanine aminotransferase. After adjustment for sex, age, waist circumference, fasting glucose, smoking and alcohol intake, only GGT was significantly related with incident hypertension [standardized odds ratio: 1.21; 95% confidence interval (1.10-1.34); P = 0.0001]. The change in GGT levels over the follow-up was also related with an increased risk of hypertension, independently of changes in body weight. FLI analysed as a continuous value, or FLI at least 60 at baseline were predictive of incident hypertension in the multivariable model. In the RISC cohort, the hepatic insulin resistance index was positively related with the risk of 3-year incident hypertension [standardized odds ratio: 1.54 (1.07-2.22); P = 0.02]. Baseline GGT and FLI, as well as an increase in GGT over time, were associated with the risk of incident hypertension. Enhanced hepatic insulin resistance predicted the onset of hypertension and may be a link between liver markers and hypertension.

  4. Risk factors of hypertension among adults aged 35-64 years living in an urban slum Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olack, Beatrice; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Smeeth, Liam; Montgomery, Joel M; Kiwanuka, Noah; Breiman, Robert F

    2015-12-17

    Hypertension is an emerging public health problem in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and urbanization is considered to favor its emergence. Given a paucity of information on hypertension and associated risk factors among urban slum dwellers in SSA, we aimed to characterize the distribution of risk factors for hypertension and investigate their association with hypertension in an urban slum in Kenya. We conducted a community based cross-sectional survey among adults 35 years and older living in Kibera slum Nairobi, Kenya. Trained interviewers collected data on socio demographic characteristics and self reported health behaviours using modified World Health Organization stepwise surveillance questionnaire for chronic disease risk factors. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were performed following standard procedures. Multiple logistic regression was used for analysis and odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to identify risk factors associated with hypertension. A total of 1528 adults were surveyed with a mean age of 46.7 years. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 29.4 % (95 % CI 27.0-31.7). Among the 418 participants classified as hypertensive, over one third (39.0 %) were unaware they had hypertension. Prevalence of current smoking and alcohol consumption was 8.5 and 13.1 % respectively. Over one quarter 26.2 % participants were classified as overweight (Body Mass Index [BMI] ≥25 to ≤29.9 kg/m(2)), and 17 % classified as obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). Overweight, obesity, current smoking, some level of education, highest wealth index, moderate physical activity, older age and being widowed were each independently associated with hypertension. When fit in a multivariable logistic regression model, being a widow [AOR = 1.7; (95 % CI, 1.1-2.6)], belonging to the highest wealth index [AOR = 1.6; (95 % CI, 1.1-2.5)], obesity [AOR = 1.8; 95 % CI, 1.1-3.1)] and moderate physical activity [AOR = 1.9; (95 % CI

  5. Breakfast cereals and risk of hypertension in the Physicians' Health Study I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochar, Jinesh; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2012-02-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem. While many dietary factors affect the risk of developing hypertension, limited data are available on the association between consumption of breakfast cereal and incident hypertension. We examined the association between breakfast cereal consumption and the risk of hypertension. We prospectively analyzed data from 13,368 male participants of the Physicians' Health Study I. Consumption of breakfast cereals was estimated using an abbreviated food frequency questionnaire and incident hypertension was ascertained through yearly follow-up questionnaires. The average age of study participants was 52.4 ± 8.9 years (range 39.7-85.9) during the initial assessment of cereal intake (1981-1983). During a mean follow up of 16.3 years, 7267 cases of hypertension occurred. The crude incidence rates of hypertension were 36.7, 34.0, 31.7, and 29.6 cases/1000 person-years for people reporting breakfast cereal intake of 0, ≤1, 2-6, and ≥7 servings/week, respectively. In a Cox regression model adjusting for age, smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and history of diabetes mellitus, hazard ratios (95% CI) for hypertension were 1.0 (reference), 0.93 (0.88-0.99), 0.88 (0.83-0.94), and 0.81 (0.75-0.86) from the lowest to the highest category of cereal consumption, respectively (p for trend cereals and was observed in lean as well as overweight or obese participants. The results of this longitudinal cohort study suggest that whole grain breakfast cereal consumption confers a lower risk of hypertension in middle-aged adult males. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Breakfast cereals and risk of hypertension in the Physicians’ Health Study I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochar, Jinesh; Gaziano, J. Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and aims Hypertension is a major public health problem. While many dietary factors affect the risk of developing hypertension, limited data are available on the association between consumption of breakfast cereal and incident hypertension. We examined the association between breakfast cereal consumption and the risk of hypertension. Methods We prospectively analyzed data from 13,368 male participants of the Physicians’ Health Study I. Consumption of breakfast cereals was estimated using an abbreviated food frequency questionnaire and incident hypertension was ascertained through yearly follow-up questionnaires. Results The average age of study participants was 52.4 ±8.9 years (range 39.7-85.9) during the initial assessment of cereal intake (1981-1983). During a mean follow up of 16.3 years, 7,267 cases of hypertension occurred. The crude incidence rates of hypertension were 36.7, 34.0, 31.7, and 29.6 cases/1,000 person-years for people reporting breakfast cereal intake of 0, ≤ 1, 2-6, and ≥ 7 servings/week, respectively. In a Cox regression model adjusting for age, smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and history of diabetes mellitus, hazard ratios (95% CI) for hypertension were 1.0 (reference), 0.93 (0.88-0.99), 0.88 (0.83-0.94), and 0.81 (0.75-0.86) from the lowest to the highest category of cereal consumption, respectively (p for trend cereals and was observed in lean as well as overweight or obese participants. Conclusions The results of this longitudinal cohort study suggest that whole grain breakfast cereal consumption confers a lower risk of hypertension in middle-aged adult males PMID:21868140

  7. Cell-phone use and self-reported hypertension: national health interview survey 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sivaranjani; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Kalidindi, Sita; Shankar, Anoop

    2011-01-01

    Background. Cell-phone usage has increased dramatically over the last decade, along with a rising public concern over the health effects of using this device. The association between cell-phone usage and hypertension has not been examined before. Methods. We analysed data from 21,135 adults aged ≥18 years who participated in the 2008 National Health Interview Survey. Based on reported cell-phone use, participants were categorized as cell-phone nonusers, predominantly landline users, dual users of cell phone and landline, and predominantly cell-phone users. The main outcome of interest was self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension (n = 6,793). Results. 43.5% of the participants were cell-phone nonusers, while 13.8% were predominantly cell-phone users. We found that cell-phone use was inversely associated with hypertension, independent of age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity. Compared to cell-phone nonusers, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of hypertension was 0.86 (0.75-0.98, P trend  =  .005) among predominantly cell-phone users. This inverse association between cell-phone use and hypertension was stronger in women, those aged <60 years, whites, and those with BMI <25 kg/m(2). Conclusion. We found that cell-phone usage was protectively associated with self-reported hypertension in a nationally representative sample of US adults.

  8. Low prevalence of hypertension with pharmacological treatments and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the determinants of the lack of pharmacological treatment for hypertension. METHODS: In 2005, 3,323 Mozambicans aged 25-64 years old were evaluated. Blood pressure, weight, height and smoking status were assessed following the Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. Hypertensives (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive drug therapy were evaluated for awareness of their condition, pharmacological and non-pharmacological management, as well as use of herbal or traditional remedies. Prevalence ratios (PR were calculated, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors and non-pharmacological treatment. RESULTS: Most of the hypertensive subjects (92.3%, and nearly half of those aware of their condition were not treated pharmacologically. Among the aware, the prevalence of untreated hypertension was higher in men {PR = 1.61; 95% confidence interval (95%CI 1.10;2.36} and was lower in subjects under non-pharmacological treatment (PR = 0.58; 95%CI 0.42;0.79; there was no significant association with traditional treatments (PR = 0.75; 95%CI 0.44;1.26. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of pharmacological treatment for hypertension was more frequent in men, and was not influenced by the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors; it could not be explained by the use of alternative treatments as herbal/traditional medicines or non-pharmacological management. It is important to understand the reasons behind the lack of management of diagnosed hypertension and to implement appropriate corrective actions to reduce the gap in the access to healthcare between developed and developing countries.

  9. Hypertension in Patients with Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vinicius Barbosa de; Silva, Eduardo Nani; Ribeiro, Mario Luiz; Martins, Wolney de Andrade, E-mail: wolney@cardiol.br [Curso de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Cardiovasculares da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    There is a known association between chemotherapy and radiotherapy for treatment of cancer patients and development or worsening of hypertension. The aim of this article is to review this association. A literature search was conducted for articles reporting this association on the databases PubMed, SciELO and LILACS between 1993 and 2013. There was a high coprevalence of hypertension and cancer, since both diseases share the same risk factors, such as sedentary lifestyle, obesity, smoking, unhealthy diet and alcohol abuse. The use of chemotherapy and adjuvant drugs effective in the treatment of cancer increased the survival rate of these patients and, consequently, increased the incidence of hypertension. We described the association between the use of angiogenesis inhibitors (bevacizumab, sorafenib and sunitinib), corticosteroids, erythropoietin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with the development of hypertension. We also described the relationship between hypertension and carotid baroreceptor injury secondary to cervical radiotherapy. Morbidity and mortality increased in patients with cancer and hypertension without proper antihypertensive treatment. We concluded that there is need for early diagnosis, effective monitoring and treatment strategies for hypertension in cancer patients in order to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  10. Hypertension in Patients with Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Vinicius Barbosa de; Silva, Eduardo Nani; Ribeiro, Mario Luiz; Martins, Wolney de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    There is a known association between chemotherapy and radiotherapy for treatment of cancer patients and development or worsening of hypertension. The aim of this article is to review this association. A literature search was conducted for articles reporting this association on the databases PubMed, SciELO and LILACS between 1993 and 2013. There was a high coprevalence of hypertension and cancer, since both diseases share the same risk factors, such as sedentary lifestyle, obesity, smoking, unhealthy diet and alcohol abuse. The use of chemotherapy and adjuvant drugs effective in the treatment of cancer increased the survival rate of these patients and, consequently, increased the incidence of hypertension. We described the association between the use of angiogenesis inhibitors (bevacizumab, sorafenib and sunitinib), corticosteroids, erythropoietin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with the development of hypertension. We also described the relationship between hypertension and carotid baroreceptor injury secondary to cervical radiotherapy. Morbidity and mortality increased in patients with cancer and hypertension without proper antihypertensive treatment. We concluded that there is need for early diagnosis, effective monitoring and treatment strategies for hypertension in cancer patients in order to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

  11. Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tween and teen health Want to prevent teen smoking? Understand why teens smoke and how to talk ... teen about cigarettes. By Mayo Clinic Staff Teen smoking might begin innocently, but it can become a ...

  12. Hypertension hos gravide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Johansen, Marianne; Kamper, Anne Lise

    2009-01-01

    There are four major hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. The indications and efficacy of antihypertensive treatment of the different hypertensive disorders are assessed. Advantages...

  13. Lifestyle Modifications to Prevent and Control Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadian, Fariba; Dalili, Nooshin; Jamalian, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension is the most important, modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. High salt intake may predispose children to develop hypertension later. A modest reduction in population salt intake worldwide would result in a major improvement in public health. Regarding smoking as another risk factor, there are various strategies that can be used to promote smoking cessation. Physicians are in an excellent position to help their patients stop smoking. Targeted weight loss interventions in population subgroups might be more effective for the prevention of hypertension than a general-population approach. A diet rich in high-potassium fruit and vegetables is strongly recommended. Fresh products are best; normal potassium content is reduced when foods are canned or frozen. Calcium supplementation reduces blood pressure in hypertensive individuals during chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition and high calcium diet enhances vasorelaxation in nitric oxide-deficient hypertension. Magnesium should be considered by anyone seeking to prevent or treat high blood pressure. The foundation for a healthy blood pressure consists of a healthy diet, adequate exercise, stress reduction, and sufficient amounts of potassium and magnesium, but further investigations are required before making definitive therapeutic recommendations on magnesium use. Alcohol usage is a more frequent contributor to hypertension than is generally appreciated. For hypertensive patients in whom stress appears to be an important issue, stress management should be considered as an intervention. Individualized cognitive behavioral interventions are more likely to be effective than single-component interventions.

  14. The relationship of bone and blood lead to hypertension: Further analyses of the normative aging study data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, H.; Kim, Rokho; Korrick, S. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]|[Harvard Health of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Rotnitzky, A. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    In an earlier report based on participants in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study, we found a significant association between the risk of hypertension and lead levels in tibia. To examine the possible confounding effects of education and occupation, we considered in this study five levels of education and three levels of occupation as independent variables in the statistical model. Of 1,171 active subjects seen between August 1991 and December 1994, 563 provided complete data for this analysis. In the initial logistic regression model, acre and body mass index, family history of hypertension, and dietary sodium intake, but neither cumulative smoking nor alcohol ingestion, conferred increased odds ratios for being hypertensive that were statistically significant. When the lead biomarkers were added separately to this initial logistic model, tibia lead and patella lead levels were associated with significantly elevated odds ratios for hypertension. In the final backward elimination logistic regression model that included categorical variables for education and occupation, the only variables retained were body mass index, family history of hypertension, and tibia lead level. We conclude that education and occupation variables were not confounding the association between the lead biomarkers and hypertension that we reported previously. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Smoking cessation and outcome after ischemic stroke or TIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Katherine A; Viscoli, Catherine M; Spence, J David; Young, Lawrence H; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Gorman, Mark; Gerstenhaber, Brett; Guarino, Peter D; Dixit, Anand; Furie, Karen L; Kernan, Walter N

    2017-10-17

    To assess whether smoking cessation after an ischemic stroke or TIA improves outcomes compared to continued smoking. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 3,876 nondiabetic men and women enrolled in the Insulin Resistance Intervention After Stroke (IRIS) trial who were randomized to pioglitazone or placebo within 180 days of a qualifying stroke or TIA and followed up for a median of 4.8 years. A tobacco use history was obtained at baseline and updated during annual interviews. The primary outcome, which was not prespecified in the IRIS protocol, was recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), or death. Cox regression models were used to assess the differences in stroke, MI, and death after 4.8 years, with correction for adjustment variables prespecified in the IRIS trial: age, sex, stroke (vs TIA) as index event, history of stroke, history of hypertension, history of coronary artery disease, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures. At the time of their index event, 1,072 (28%) patients were current smokers. By the time of randomization, 450 (42%) patients had quit smoking. Among quitters, the 5-year risk of stroke, MI, or death was 15.7% compared to 22.6% for patients who continued to smoke (adjusted hazard ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.48-0.90). Cessation of cigarette smoking after an ischemic stroke or TIA was associated with significant health benefits over 4.8 years in the IRIS trial cohort. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. The association between cigarette smoking and inflammation: The Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tibuakuu

    Full Text Available To inform the study and regulation of emerging tobacco products, we sought to identify sensitive biomarkers of tobacco-induced subclinical cardiovascular damage by testing the cross-sectional associations of smoking with 17 biomarkers of inflammation in 2,702 GENOA study participants belonging to sibships ascertained on the basis of hypertension. Cigarette smoking was assessed by status, intensity (number of cigarettes per day, burden (pack-years of smoking, and time since quitting. We modeled biomarkers as geometric mean (GM ratios using generalized estimating equations (GEE. The mean age of participants was 61 ±10 years; 64.5% were women and 54.4% African American. The prevalence of smoking was 12.2%. After adjusting for potential confounders, 6 of 17 biomarkers were significantly higher among current smokers at a Bonferroni adjusted p-value threshold (p<0.003. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was the most elevated biomarker among current smokers when compared to never smokers [GM ratio = 1.39 (95% CI: 1.23, 1.57; p <0.001]. Among former smokers, each pack-year of cigarettes smoked was associated with a 0.4% higher serum level of hsCRP [GM ratio = 1.004 (95% CI: 1.001, 1.006; p = 0.002] and each 5-year lapsed since quitting was associated with a 4% lower serum level of hsCRP [GM ratio = 0.96 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.99; p = 0.006]. However, we found no significant association of smoking intensity or burden with biomarkers of inflammation among current smokers. HsCRP appears to be the most sensitive biomarker of inflammation associated with cigarette smoking of those investigated, and could be a useful biomarker of smoking-related injury for the study and regulation of emerging tobacco products.

  17. Assessing awareness and knowledge of hypertension in an at-risk population in the Karen ethnic rural community, Thasongyang, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Myo Nyein; Lorga, Thaworn; Srikrajang, Janthila; Promtingkran, Nongluk; Kreuangchai, Suchart; Tonpanya, Wilawan; Vivarakanon, Phatchanan; Jaiin, Puangpet; Praipaksin, Nara; Payaprom, Apiradee

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is currently a global health concern. Rural and minority populations are increasingly exposed to risk factors as a result of urbanization, leading to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We conducted a survey in the rural Karen community in Thasongyang District, Tak Province, Thailand, with the aims of determining: the distribution of blood pressure across different age groups; the prevalence of hypertension and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including diabetes, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and excess alcohol use; knowledge and awareness of hypertension as a disease; and knowledge and awareness of risk factors for hypertension among the population at risk. This was a community-based, cross-sectional survey of 298 rural Karen residents. A set of questionnaires assessing lifestyle-related health risk behaviors and awareness and knowledge of hypertension were used. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Median systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 110 (range 100-120) mmHg and 70 (range 60-80) mmHg, respectively. High blood pressure was observed in more than 27% of the population, with 15% being hypertensive and 12% being prehypertensive. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that people in the Karen community who were aware of hypertension were less likely to be current smokers (odds ratio [OR] 0.53, confidence interval [CI] 0.29-0.97) and those with primary school education were more likely to be aware of hypertension than those who did not have a primary school education (OR 6.5, CI 1.9-22.24). Overall, our survey showed that less than half of the Karen community had such knowledge and awareness. It is urgently necessary to promote knowledge, awareness, and health literacy among the ethnic Karen tribes to prevent hypertension and associated CVDs.

  18. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to not allow smoking indoors. Separating smokers from non-smokers (like “no smoking” sections in restaurants)‚ cleaning the air‚ and airing out buildings does not get rid of secondhand smoke. Other Ways Smoking Affects Others Smoking affects the people in your life ...

  19. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  20. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  1. Endokrin hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Ibsen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine hypertension is rare, but frequently refractory. Adenomas are common incidental findings. Biochemical tests confirm the diagnosis. Primary aldosteronism is the most common form. Hypokalaemia is an important sign, but 50% of patients may be normokalaemic. The plasma-aldosterone-to-renin ......Endocrine hypertension is rare, but frequently refractory. Adenomas are common incidental findings. Biochemical tests confirm the diagnosis. Primary aldosteronism is the most common form. Hypokalaemia is an important sign, but 50% of patients may be normokalaemic. The plasma...

  2. Resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Huang, Qi-Fang; Yang, Wen-Yi; Staessen, Jan A

    2018-06-15

    The publication of the first non-randomised proof-of-concept trial of renal denervation as a treatment modality in treatment-resistant hypertension set the stage for a search for novel devices with the expectation that technology would reduce the burden of hypertension by reducing or eliminating the costly and lifelong use of blood pressure lowering medications. As we demonstrate in this review, this idea so attractive to manufacturers and invasive cardiologists and radiologists overlooked decades of careful pathophysiological research in a disease, which still remains enigmatic but remains the major cause of cardiovascular mortality worldwide. To make our point, we first reviewed the prevalence and risks associated with treatment-resistant hypertension. Next, we highlighted the key points required for the diagnosis of treatment-resistant hypertension, including the recording of the ambulatory blood pressure and the assessment of adherence to medication. Finally, we summarised new insights in the management of treatment-resistant hypertension by medication and devices and in the future research. Throughout our review, we focused on new evidence became available since 2013. Our conclusion is that optimising medical treatment based on simple algorithms remains the state of the art in treatment-resistant hypertension.

  3. Prevalence and awareness of hypertension and associated risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-12-12

    Dec 12, 2015 ... 17.7%.[9] However, among bankers in Ilorin, North. Central Nigeria, the ..... none took alcohol perhaps due to religious injunctions but smoking ... treatment, control and risk factors of hypertension in Korea: the Ansan study. J.

  4. Masked hypertension: evaluation, prognosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Fabio; Reboldi, Gianpaolo; Verdecchia, Paolo

    2010-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) may be high during usual daily life in one out of 7-8 individuals with normal BP in the clinic or doctor's office. This condition is usually defined as masked hypertension (MH). Prevalence of MH varied across different studies depending on patient characteristics, populations studied, and different definitions of MH. Self-measured BP and ambulatory BP (ABP) have been widely used to identify subjects with MH. Various factors have been identified as possible determinants of MH. Cigarette smoking, alcohol, physical activity, job, and psychological stress may increase BP out of the clinical environment in otherwise normotensive individuals, leading to MH. In most studies, target organ damage was comparable in subjects with MH and those with sustained hypertension, and greater than in those with true normotension. Subjects with MH showed a 1.5- to 3-fold higher risk of major cardiovascular (CV) disease than those with normotension, and their risk was not different from that of patients with sustained hypertension. In an overview of literature, we found that the risk of major CV disease was higher in subjects with MH than in the normotensive subjects regardless of the definition of MH based on self-measured BP (hazard ratio (HR) 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35-3.35; P = 0.001) or 24-h ABP (HR 2.00; 95% CI: 1.54-2.60; P who appear to be more likely to have this condition. Antihypertensive treatment is envisaged in these subjects, although the associated outcome benefits are still undetermined.

  5. Diagnostic status of hypertension on the adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kim, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet is a widely recommended diet for individuals with hypertension. Adherence to the DASH diet has been shown to be effective for controlling hypertension, but it is unclear whether a hypertension diagnosis has an impact on adherence to the diet and nutrient intake. This study examined the association between hypertension diagnosis and the DASH nutrient intake using the multivariate linear regression method. The sample was composed of individuals with hypertension in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 2007 to 2012. The outcome was the DASH accordance score (0 to 9 points, which measures the intake of nine nutrients compared to target amounts. Study findings indicate that a diagnostic status of hypertension was associated with increased consumption of sodium, saturated fat, total fat, and protein. Adherence to the DASH diet was more likely to be associated with health conditions such as obesity and heart diseases and lifestyle behaviors such as current smoking status and physical activity. Individuals diagnosed with hypertension showed less adherence to the DASH diet than those not diagnosed with hypertension, so a diagnosis of hypertension did not seem to provide an incentive to engage in healthy dietary behavior. Overall, regardless of diagnostic status, individuals with hypertension did not seem to follow the DASH guidelines.

  6. The VITRO Score (Von Willebrand Factor Antigen/Thrombocyte Ratio as a New Marker for Clinically Significant Portal Hypertension in Comparison to Other Non-Invasive Parameters of Fibrosis Including ELF Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hametner

    Full Text Available Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH, defined as hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG ≥10 mmHg, causes major complications. HVPG is not always available, so a non-invasive tool to diagnose CSPH would be useful. VWF-Ag can be used to diagnose. Using the VITRO score (the VWF-Ag/platelet ratio instead of VWF-Ag itself improves the diagnostic accuracy of detecting cirrhosis/ fibrosis in HCV patients.This study tested the diagnostic accuracy of VITRO score detecting CSPH compared to HVPG measurement.All patients underwent HVPG testing and were categorised as CSPH or no CSPH. The following patient data were determined: CPS, D'Amico stage, VITRO score, APRI and transient elastography (TE.The analysis included 236 patients; 170 (72% were male, and the median age was 57.9 (35.2-76.3; 95% CI. Disease aetiology included ALD (39.4%, HCV (23.4%, NASH (12.3%, other (8.1% and unknown (11.9%. The CPS showed 140 patients (59.3% with CPS A; 56 (23.7% with CPS B; and 18 (7.6% with CPS C. 136 patients (57.6% had compensated and 100 (42.4% had decompensated cirrhosis; 83.9% had HVPG ≥10 mmHg. The VWF-Ag and the VITRO score increased significantly with worsening HVPG categories (P<0.0001. ROC analysis was performed for the detection of CSPH and showed AUC values of 0.92 for TE, 0.86 for VITRO score, 0.79 for VWF-Ag, 0.68 for ELF and 0.62 for APRI.The VITRO score is an easy way to diagnose CSPH independently of CPS in routine clinical work and may improve the management of patients with cirrhosis.

  7. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...... diseases, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 1.35); for respiratory diseases, HR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.07); for tobacco-related cancers, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.31); and for all-cause mortality, HR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.17). In subjects who stopped smoking, most estimates...

  8. Predictive value of peripheral blood neutrophil and lymphocyte ratio in patients withhypertension and cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension%高血压患者外周血中性粒细胞与淋巴细胞比例对高血压患者心脑血管事件的预测价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任慧玲

    2017-01-01

    目的 探讨高血压患者外周血中性粒细胞与淋巴细胞比值(N/L比值)对高血压患者心脑血管事件的预测价值.方法 选取2013年5月至2014年5月在该院治疗的高血压治疗的660例患者,记录患者纳入研究时外周血N/L比值,所有患者均随访到2016年5月31日,根据患者是否出现心脑血管事件,分为观察组和对照组,对比两组患者白细胞分类结果.采用Logistic回归模型探讨N/L比值对心脑血管事件的预测价值.结果 观察组患者吸烟、糖尿病、高脂血症发病率分别为87.5%、72.5%、77.5%,平均动脉压(MAP)水平为(95±12)mmHg,均明显高于对照组(P<0.05).观察组患者白细胞计数、中性粒细胞比例(N%)、单核细胞计数比例、N/L比值分别为(11.6±2.5)×109/L、(70.8±5.9)%、(8.3±5.5)%、3.7±1.5,均高于对照组患者(P<0.05).N/L上升10%(P=0.04)、MAP升高10 mmHg(P=0.02)、N%上升15%(P=0.03)是心脑血管事件的独立风险因素.结论 N/L比值、MAP是高血压患者心脑血管事件的独立风险因素.%Objective To investigate the predictive value of peripheral blood neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio(N/L ratio) in patients with hypertension.Methods A total of 660 cases hypertension patients were enrolled from May 2013 to May2014.Peripheral blood N/L ratio was recorded.All patients were followed up to May 31,2016.According to the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events,all patients divided into observation group(with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events) and control group(without cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events),and white blood cell classification was compared.Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the value of N/L to predict cardiovascular events.Results The incidence rates of smoking,diabetes and hyperlipidemia in patients of the observation group were 87.5%,72.5% and 77.5%,higher than those of the control group(P<0.05),and the level of mean arterial pressure(MAP) was(95±12) mm

  9. Renovascular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, H.S.; Sos, T.A.; Nielsen, S.L.; Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev; Cornell Univ., New York

    1989-01-01

    Hypertension constitutes a major health problem and the challenge is to identify patients having 'surgically' curable renal vascular disease among the majority with so-called essential hypertension. The best of unsatisfactory diagnostic tests are renography and plasma renin activity both before and during angiotensin II blockade. The necessity of better screening tests has increased because of the recent advances in surgical techniques and especially percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty. The latter has definitely become the method of choice for correction of suspected hemodynamically significant artery stenoses whenever technically feasible. With improved angioplasty techniques the risk of treating renal artery stenosis without hemodynamic and clinical importance (so-called cosmetic repair) has increased. Unfortunately randomized trials including surgery versus angioplasty are not available. It should be kept in mind that only after correction of the stenosis is achieved and the blood pressure has become normal, can the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension be made with certainty. (orig.)

  10. Symptomatic subsyndromal depression in hospitalized hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaie, Roberto Delle; Iannucci, Gino; Paroli, Marino; Salviati, Massimo; Caredda, Maria; Pasquini, Massimo; Biondi, Massimo

    2011-12-01

    Clinicians generally agree on the association between depression and hypertension. Less clear is if the nature of the link is direct or indirect and if this should be considered confined only to syndromal forms or if it concerns also subsyndromal affective presentations. This study investigated the nature of the association between hypertension and subsyndromal depression in hospitalized hypertensive patients. 196 hypertensive and 96 non hypertensive inpatients underwent a SCID interview, to exclude patients positive for any Axis I or Axis II diagnosis. Symptomatic Subsyndromal Depression (SSD) was identified according to criteria proposed by Judd. Psychopathological assessment was performed with Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) and Hopkins Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90). Clinical assessments included blood pressure measurement, evaluation of general health conditions and screening cardiovascular risk factors (smoke, alcohol, body weight, sedentary life style). Hypertensives met more frequently criteria for SSD. They also scored higher on ASI and SCL-90. However, those with more severe physical conditions, if compared with more healthy patients, did not show increased psychopathological severity. Similarly, psychopathological symptom severity did not differ among hypertensives positive for other cardiovascular risk factors, commonly more frequent among depressed subjects. Further analyses are needed to explore the potential advantage obtained on blood pressure control by treating SSD. Hospitalized hypertensives, more frequently satisfied criteria for Symptomatic Subsyndromal Depression. These milder affective forms are probably directly linked to the presence of hypertension, rather than being indirectly associated to physical impairment or to higher prevalence of other cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Exercise Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Martin G; Sharman, James E

    2014-05-01

    Irrespective of apparent 'normal' resting blood pressure (BP), some individuals may experience an excessive elevation in BP with exercise (i.e. systolic BP ≥210 mm Hg in men or ≥190 mm Hg in women or diastolic BP ≥110 mm Hg in men or women), a condition termed exercise hypertension or a 'hypertensive response to exercise' (HRE). An HRE is a relatively common condition that is identified during standard exercise stress testing; however, due to a lack of information with respect to the clinical ramifications of an HRE, little value is usually placed on such a finding. In this review, we discuss both the clinical importance and underlying physiological contributors of exercise hypertension. Indeed, an HRE is associated with an increased propensity for target organ damage and also predicts the future development of hypertension, cardiovascular events and mortality, independent of resting BP. Moreover, recent work has highlighted that some of the elevated cardiovascular risks associated with an HRE may be related to high-normal resting BP (pre-hypertension) or ambulatory 'masked' hypertension and that an HRE may be an early warning signal of abnormal BP control that is otherwise undetected with clinic BP. Whilst an HRE may be amenable to treatment via pharmacological and lifestyle interventions, the exact physiological mechanism of an HRE remains elusive, but it is likely a manifestation of multiple factors including large artery stiffness, increased peripheral resistance, neural circulatory control and metabolic irregularity. Future research focus may be directed towards determining threshold values to denote the increased risk associated with an HRE and further resolution of the underlying physiological factors involved in the pathogenesis of an HRE.

  12. Assessing awareness and knowledge of hypertension in an at-risk population in the Karen ethnic rural community, Thasongyang, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung MN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Myo Nyein Aung,1,2 Thaworn Lorga,2 Janthila Srikrajang,2 Nongluk Promtingkran,2 Suchart Kreuangchai,2 Wilawan Tonpanya,2 Phatchanan Vivarakanon,2 Puangpet Jaiin,2 Nara Praipaksin,3 Apiradee Payaprom41Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 3Baan Rekati Health Station, Thasongyang, Thailand; 4Thasongyang Hospital, ThailandBackground: Hypertension is currently a global health concern. Rural and minority populations are increasingly exposed to risk factors as a result of urbanization, leading to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We conducted a survey in the rural Karen community in Thasongyang District, Tak Province, Thailand, with the aims of determining: the distribution of blood pressure across different age groups; the prevalence of hypertension and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, including diabetes, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and excess alcohol use; knowledge and awareness of hypertension as a disease; and knowledge and awareness of risk factors for hypertension among the population at risk.Methods: This was a community-based, cross-sectional survey of 298 rural Karen residents. A set of questionnaires assessing lifestyle-related health risk behaviors and awareness and knowledge of hypertension were used. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, weight, height, and waist circumference were measured.Results: Median systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 110 (range 100–120 mmHg and 70 (range 60–80 mmHg, respectively. High blood pressure was observed in more than 27% of the population, with 15% being hypertensive and 12% being prehypertensive. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that people in the Karen community who were aware of hypertension were less likely to be current smokers (odds ratio [OR] 0.53, confidence interval [CI] 0.29–0.97 and those with primary

  13. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... smoke from burning tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. 1,5,6 Secondhand smoke also ...

  14. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  15. Effort-Reward Imbalance at Work and the Prevalence of Unsuccessfully Treated Hypertension Among White-Collar Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, Xavier; Milot, Alain; Gilbert-Ouimet, Mahée; Duchaine, Caroline; Guénette, Line; Dalens, Violaine; Brisson, Chantal

    2017-08-15

    We examined the association between effort-reward imbalance (ERI) exposure at work and unsuccessfully treated hypertension among white-collar workers from a large cohort in Quebec City, Canada. The study used a repeated cross-sectional design involving 3 waves of data collection (2000-2009). The study sample was composed of 474 workers treated for hypertension, accounting for 739 observations. At each observation, ERI was measured using validated scales, and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) was measured every 15 minutes during the working day. Unsuccessfully treated hypertension was defined as daytime ambulatory BP of at least 135/85 mm Hg and was further divided into masked and sustained hypertension. Adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Participants in the highest tertile of ERI exposure had a higher prevalence of unsuccessfully treated hypertension (prevalence ratio = 1.45, 95% confidence interval: 1.16, 1.81) after adjustment for gender, age, education, family history of cardiovascular diseases, body mass index, diabetes, smoking, sedentary behaviors, and alcohol intake. The present study supports the effect of adverse psychosocial work factors from the ERI model on BP control in treated workers. Reducing these frequent exposures at work might lead to substantial benefits on BP control at the population level. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Masked Hypertension and Incident Clinic Hypertension among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Marwah; Booth, John N.; Seals, Samantha R.; Spruill, Tanya M.; Viera, Anthony J.; Diaz, Keith M.; Sims, Mario; Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    Masked hypertension, defined as non-elevated clinic blood pressure and elevated out-of-clinic blood pressure may be an intermediary stage in the progression from normotension to hypertension. We examined the associations of out-of-clinic blood pressure and masked hypertension using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring with incident clinic hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study, a prospective cohort of African Americans. Analyses included 317 participants with clinic blood pressure hypertension was defined as mean daytime blood pressure ≥135/85mmHg; masked nighttime hypertension as mean nighttime blood pressure ≥120/70mmHg; and masked 24-hour hypertension as mean 24-hour blood pressure ≥130/80mmHg. Incident clinic hypertension, assessed at study visits in 2005–2008 and 2009–2012, was defined as the first visit with clinic systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90mmHg or antihypertensive medication use. During a median follow-up of 8.1 years, there were 187 (59.0%) incident cases of clinic hypertension. Clinic hypertension developed in 79.2% and 42.2% of participants with and without any masked hypertension, 85.7% and 50.4% with and without masked daytime hypertension, 79.9% and 43.7% with and without masked nighttime hypertension and 85.7% and 48.2% with and without masked 24-hour hypertension, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) of incident clinic hypertension for any masked hypertension and masked daytime, nighttime, and 24-hour hypertension were 2.13 (1.51–3.02), 1.79 (1.24–2.60), 2.22 (1.58–3.12), and 1.91 (1.32–2.75), respectively. These findings suggest that ambulatory blood pressure monitoring can identify African Americans at increased risk for developing clinic hypertension. PMID:27185746

  17. Essential hypertension vs. secondary hypertension among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Banker, Ashish; Shete, Sanjay; Hashmi, Syed Sharukh; Tyson, John E; Barratt, Michelle S; Hecht, Jacqueline T; Milewicz, Diane M; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine the proportions and correlates of essential hypertension among children in a tertiary pediatric hypertension clinic. We evaluated 423 consecutive children and collected demographic and clinical history by retrospective chart review. We identified 275 (65%) hypertensive children (blood pressure >95th percentile per the "Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents") from 423 children referred to the clinic for history of elevated blood pressure. The remainder of the patients had normotension (11%), white coat hypertension (11%), prehypertension (10%), and pending diagnosis (3%). Among the 275 hypertensive children, 43% (n = 119; boys = 56%; median age = 12 years; range = 3-17 years) had essential hypertension and 57% (n = 156; boys = 66%; median age = 9 years; range = 0.08-19 years) had secondary hypertension. When compared with those with secondary hypertension, those with essential hypertension had a significantly older age at diagnosis (P = 0.0002), stronger family history of hypertension (94% vs. 68%; P secondary hypertension. The phenotype of essential hypertension can present as early as 3 years of age and is the predominant form of hypertension in children after age of 6 years. Among children with hypertension, those with essential hypertension present at an older age, have a stronger family history of hypertension, and have lower prevalence of preterm birth. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Cardiovascular Health and Incident Hypertension in Blacks: JHS (The Jackson Heart Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, John N; Abdalla, Marwah; Tanner, Rikki M; Diaz, Keith M; Bromfield, Samantha G; Tajeu, Gabriel S; Correa, Adolfo; Sims, Mario; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Bress, Adam P; Spruill, Tanya M; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Several modifiable health behaviors and health factors that comprise the Life's Simple 7-a cardiovascular health metric-have been associated with hypertension risk. We determined the association between cardiovascular health and incident hypertension in JHS (the Jackson Heart Study)-a cohort of blacks. We analyzed participants without hypertension or cardiovascular disease at baseline (2000-2004) who attended ≥1 follow-up visit in 2005 to 2008 or 2009 to 2012 (n=1878). Body mass index, physical activity, diet, cigarette smoking, blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, and fasting glucose were assessed at baseline and categorized as ideal, intermediate, or poor using the American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 definitions. Incident hypertension was defined at the first visit wherein a participant had systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg, or self-reported taking antihypertensive medication. The percentage of participants with ≤1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 ideal Life's Simple 7 components was 6.5%, 22.4%, 34.4%, 25.2%, 10.0%, and 1.4%, respectively. No participants had 7 ideal components. During follow-up (median, 8.0 years), 944 (50.3%) participants developed hypertension, including 81.3% with ≤1 and 11.1% with 6 ideal components. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for incident hypertension comparing participants with 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 versus ≤1 ideal component were 0.80 (0.61-1.03), 0.58 (0.45-0.74), 0.30 (0.23-0.40), 0.26 (0.18-0.37), and 0.10 (0.03-0.31), respectively ( P trend hypertension risk. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Parental smoking, rejection of parental smoking, and smoking susceptibility and behaviors in Hong Kong adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianjiu; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lam, Tai Hing

    2018-07-01

    We explored the role of rejection of parental smoking in the association between parental smoking and smoking in adolescents. In 2010-11 cross-sectional survey, 61,810 Hong Kong secondary school students (mean age 14.6 years, 50.5% boys) reported their smoking (never, not susceptible; never, susceptible; ever, not current; current), paternal and maternal smoking, and whether they accepted paternal and maternal smoking (acceptance/rejection). We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of students' smoking in relation to acceptance and rejection of parental smoking, compared with no parental smoking. The OR (95% CI) of "never, susceptible", "ever, not current", and "current", compared with "never, not susceptible", in relation to acceptance of paternal smoking was 1.81 (1.67-1.96), 2.46 (2.25-2.69), and 2.79 (2.51-3.10), respectively. The corresponding ORs for rejection were 0.70 (0.64-0.76), 1.23 (1.13-1.35), and 0.47 (0.40-0.56). The OR (95% CI) of "never, susceptible", "ever, not current", and "current", compared with "never, not susceptible", in relation to acceptance of maternal smoking was 2.05 (1.80-2.33), 2.57 (2.29-2.88), and 6.33 (5.39-7.44), respectively. The corresponding ORs for rejection were 0.85 (0.69-1.05), 1.59 (1.39-1.81), and 2.14 (1.71-2.68). No overlapping was observed between the 95% CIs for acceptance and rejection of paternal or maternal smoking. While adolescent smoking was associated with parental smoking, especially in those who accepted parental smoking, the association was attenuated or reversed in those who rejected parental smoking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Periodontal disease, hypertension, and blood pressure among older adults in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Tumanyan, Sona; Campos, Maribel; Zevallos, Juan C; Joshipura, Kaumudi J

    2013-02-01

    Current scientific evidence addressing the relationship between periodontitis and hypertension is limited to studies producing inconsistent results. All participants of an ongoing representative cohort of Puerto Rican elderly who were ≥70 years old and residing in the San Juan metropolitan area were invited to this cross-sectional study. Periodontal probing depth (PD) and attachment loss (AL) were summarized using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Periodontology definition for severe periodontitis (≥2 teeth with AL ≥6 mm and ≥1 tooth with PD ≥5 mm). Three repeated blood pressure (BP) measurements taken were averaged using a standardized auscultatory method. Information on hypertension history, use of antihypertensive medications, and potential confounders (age, sex, smoking, heavy and binge drinking, diabetes, use of preventive dental services, flossing, body mass index, consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole wheat bread, and high-fiber cereal) was collected during in-person interviews. High BP was defined as average systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic ≥90 mm Hg. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to study the relationship between severe periodontitis, hypertension history, and high BP. The study population comprised 182 adults. In multivariate analysis, there was no association between severe periodontitis and hypertension history (odds ratio [OR] = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40 to 2.48). Severe periodontitis was associated with high BP, with OR of 2.93 (95% CI: 1.25 to 6.84), after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and binge drinking. This association was stronger when restricted to those with hypertension or taking antihypertensive medications: OR = 4.20 (95% CI: 1.28 to 13.80). The results of this study suggest that periodontitis may contribute to poor BP control among older adults.

  1. Thallium-201 stress imaging in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulman, D.S.; Francis, C.K.; Black, H.R.; Wackers, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the potential effect of hypertension on the results of thallium-201 stress imaging in patients with chest pain, 272 thallium-201 stress tests performed in 133 hypertensive patients and 139 normotensive patients over a 1-year period were reviewed. Normotensive and hypertensive patients were similar in age, gender distribution, prevalence of cardiac risk factors (tobacco smoking, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus), medications, and clinical symptoms of coronary disease. Electrocardiographic criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy were present in 16 hypertensive patients. Stepwise probability analysis was used to determine the likelihood of coronary artery disease for each patient. In patients with mid to high likelihood of coronary disease (greater than 25% probability), abnormal thallium-201 stress images were present in 54 of 60 (90%) hypertensive patients compared with 51 of 64 (80%) normotensive patients. However, in 73 patients with a low likelihood of coronary disease (less than or equal to 25% probability), abnormal thallium-201 stress images were present in 21 patients (29%) of the hypertensive group compared with only 5 of 75 (7%) of the normotensive patients (p less than 0.001). These findings suggest that in patients with a mid to high likelihood of coronary artery disease, coexistent hypertension does not affect the results of thallium-201 exercise stress testing. However, in patients with a low likelihood of coronary artery disease, abnormal thallium-201 stress images are obtained more frequently in hypertensive patients than in normotensive patients

  2. Hypertension Subtypes among Hypertensive Patients in Ibadan

    OpenAIRE

    Abiodun M. Adeoye; Adewole Adebiyi; Bamidele O. Tayo; Babatunde L. Salako; Adesola Ogunniyi; Richard S. Cooper

    2014-01-01

    Background. Certain hypertension subtypes have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and may be related to specific underlying genetic determinants. Inappropriate characterization of subtypes of hypertension makes efforts at elucidating the genetic contributions to the etiology of hypertension largely vapid. We report the hypertension subtypes among patients with hypertension from South-Western Nigeria. Methods. A total of 1858 subjects comprising 76% fema...

  3. Sociodemographic characteristics and diabetes predict invalid self-reported non-smoking in a population-based study of U.S. adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelton Brent J

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all studies reporting smoking status collect self-reported data. The objective of this study was to assess sociodemographic characteristics and selected, common smoking-related diseases as predictors of invalid reporting of non-smoking. Valid self-reported smoking may be related to the degree to which smoking is a behavior that is not tolerated by the smoker's social group. Methods True smoking was defined as having serum cotinine of 15+ng/ml. 1483 "true" smokers 45+ years of age with self-reported smoking and serum cotinine data from the Mobile Examination Center were identified in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Invalid non-smoking was defined as "true" smokers self-reporting non-smoking. To assess predictors of invalid self-reported non-smoking, odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated for age, race/ethnicity-gender categories, education, income, diabetes, hypertension, and myocardial infarction. Multiple logistic regression modeling took into account the complex survey design and sample weights. Results Among smokers with diabetes, invalid non-smoking status was 15%, ranging from 0% for Mexican-American (MA males to 22%–25% for Non-Hispanic White (NHW males and Non-Hispanic Black (NHB females. Among smokers without diabetes, invalid non-smoking status was 5%, ranging from 3% for MA females to 10% for NHB females. After simultaneously taking into account diabetes, education, race/ethnicity and gender, smokers with diabetes (ORAdj = 3.15; 95% CI: 1.35–7.34, who did not graduate from high school (ORAdj = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.30–3.22 and who were NHB females (ORAdj = 5.12; 95% CI: 1.41–18.58 were more likely to self-report as non-smokers than smokers without diabetes, who were high school graduates, and MA females, respectively. Having a history of myocardial infarction or hypertension did not predict invalid reporting of non-smoking. Conclusion Validity of self

  4. Controlling Hypertension

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Hypertension, or high blood pressure, affects one third of U.S. adults and is a leading cause of heart disease and stroke. A recent study found an increase in self-reported high blood pressure among U.S. adults, and an increase in the use of medications to control high blood pressure. In this podcast, Dr. Fleetwood Loustalot discusses the importance of controlling high blood pressure.

  5. Hypertension Subtypes among Hypertensive Patients in Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun M. Adeoye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Certain hypertension subtypes have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and may be related to specific underlying genetic determinants. Inappropriate characterization of subtypes of hypertension makes efforts at elucidating the genetic contributions to the etiology of hypertension largely vapid. We report the hypertension subtypes among patients with hypertension from South-Western Nigeria. Methods. A total of 1858 subjects comprising 76% female, hypertensive, aged 18 and above were recruited into the study from two centers in Ibadan, Nigeria. Hypertension was identified using JNCVII definition and was further grouped into four subtypes: controlled hypertension (CH, isolated systolic hypertension (ISH, isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH, and systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH. Results. Systolic-diastolic hypertension was the most prevalent. Whereas SDH (77.6% versus 73.5% and IDH (4.9% versus 4.7% were more prevalent among females, ISH (10.1% versus 6.2% was higher among males (P=0.048. Female subjects were more obese (P<0.0001 and SDH was prevalent among the obese group. Conclusion. Gender and obesity significantly influenced the distribution of the hypertension subtypes. Characterization of hypertension by subtypes in genetic association studies could lead to identification of previously unknown genetic variants involved in the etiology of hypertension. Large-scale studies among various ethnic groups may be needed to confirm these observations.

  6. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  7. Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John S.; McSweeney, Julia; Lee, Joanne; Ivy, Dunbar

    2015-01-01

    Objective Review the pharmacologic treatment options for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in the cardiac intensive care setting and summarize the most-recent literature supporting these therapies. Data Sources and Study Selection Literature search for prospective studies, retrospective analyses, and case reports evaluating the safety and efficacy of PAH therapies. Data Extraction Mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetics, treatment recommendations, safety considerations, and outcomes for specific medical therapies. Data Synthesis Specific targeted therapies developed for the treatment of adult patients with PAH have been applied for the benefit of children with PAH. With the exception of inhaled nitric oxide, there are no PAH medications approved for children in the US by the FDA. Unfortunately, data on treatment strategies in children with PAH are limited by the small number of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of specific treatments. The treatment options for PAH in children focus on endothelial-based pathways. Calcium channel blockers are recommended for use in a very small, select group of children who are responsive to vasoreactivity testing at cardiac catheterization. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy is the most-commonly recommended oral treatment option in children with PAH. Prostacyclins provide adjunctive therapy for the treatment of PAH as infusions (intravenous and subcutaneous) and inhalation agents. Inhaled nitric oxide is the first line vasodilator therapy in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and is commonly used in the treatment of PAH in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Endothelin receptor antagonists have been shown to improve exercise tolerance and survival in adult patients with PAH. Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulators are the first drug class to be FDA approved for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Conclusions Literature and data supporting the

  8. Relationships between treated hypertension and subsequent mortality in an insured population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovic, Brian; Cumming, Marianne E; Pinkham, C Allen

    2004-01-01

    To investigate if a mortality differential exists between insurance policyholders with treated hypertension and policyholders who are not under such treatment, where both groups are noted to have the same blood pressure at the time of policy issue. Hypertension is a known mortality risk factor in the insured and general population. Treatment for hypertension is very common in the insured population, especially as age increases. At the time of insurance application, a subset of individuals with treated hypertension will have blood pressures that are effectively controlled and are in the normal range. These individuals often meet established preferred underwriting criteria for blood pressure. In some life insurance companies, they may be offered insurance at the same rates as individuals who are not hypertensive with the same blood pressure. Such companies make the assumption that the pharmacologically induced normotensive state confers no excess risk relative to the natural normotensive state. Given the potential pricing implications of this decision, we undertook an investigation to test this hypothesis. We studied internal data on direct and reinsurance business between 1975 and 2001 followed through anniversaries in 2002 or prior termination with an average duration of 5.2 years per policy. Actual-to-expected analyses and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess if a mortality differential existed between policyholders coded for hypertension and policyholders with the same blood pressure that were not coded as hypertensive. Eight thousand six hundred forty-seven deaths were observed during follow-up in the standard or preferred policy cohort. Within the same blood pressure category, mortality was higher in policyholders identified as treated hypertensives compared with those in the subset of individuals who were not coded for hypertension. This finding was present in males and females and persisted across age groups in almost all age-gender-smoking

  9. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  10. The clinical significance of abnormal 99Tcm-MIBI myocardial perfusion tomography in patients with hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongzhen; Li Zhaoping; Liu Yimin; Zhang Weifang; Zhang Yanyan; Zhang Songlin; Wang Xin; Mao Yuan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical significance of abnormal myocardial perfusion tomography in the hypertensive patients with normal coronary angiography. Methods: Qualitative diagnosis, the average counts ratio of lateral to septal segments (L/S) and the ratio of stress L/S to rest L/S from stress and rest 99 Tc m -sestamibi myocardial perfusion tomography (MPT), and every clinical characteristic and the results from other examinations were compared between hypertensive patients (HP) and normotensive controls (NC). Every risk factor leading to coronary artery disease and related indexes in patients with positive MPT were compared with the results of patients with negative MPT. Results: 1) The positive rate of MPT in HP was obviously higher than that of NC,which was 61.9% vs 9.1%, respectively. Most focuses of MPT were reversible defects (RD), a few of them accompanied by reverse reversible defects (RRD). There were many more angina pectoris and heart arrhythmia attacks in HP than in NC. 2) The ratio of stress L/S to rest L/S of HP was lower than that of NC (P<0.05). 3) The ratio of stress L/S to rest L/S of the patients with positive MPT in HP significantly decreased compared with that of the patients with negative MPT (P<0.01). There were more patients being addicted to smoking and drinking in those with a positive than in those with a negative MPT (53.8% versus 12.5%, P<0.05). 4) The abnormal defects of MPT in HP were almost seen in any segment of left ventricle and most of the patients had no left ventricular hypertrophy, but did smoke and drink. Conclusions: 1)Abnormal MPT exist in the HP with normal coronary angiography and not necessarily with left ventricular hypertrophy. 2)The long-term addiction of smoking and drinking was one of the risk factors leading to arouse myocardial ischemia in HP

  11. Effective selection of hypertensive patients for angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Voorde, F.; Derkx, F.H.M.; Bossuyt, P.M.M.; Segaar, R.W.; de Wind, A.; Pieterman, H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors prospectively observed 373 severe hypertensives with either diastolic blood pressure (BP) ≥ 105 and age ≤ 40, or BP with three drugs ≥ 105 (regardless of age). Excluded were patients who were older than 75 or who had creatinine >400. History, physical examination, and laboratory data were used to identify high-yield criteria for arteriography. All patients underwent angiography as the gold standard; angiography showed 127 unilateral renal artery stenoses, 73 bilateral renal artery stenoses, and 173 (nonstenosed) essential hypertensives. The authors constructed a logistic regression model of height, weight, age, smoking, and hypertension duration, which could be used to identify 90% of stenosed patients with 50% fewer angiographies in the essential hypertensives

  12. Smoking and risk for psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Skov, Lone; Skytthe, Axel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is a potential risk factor for psoriasis. Both psoriasis and smoking habits are partly explained by genetic factors. However, twin studies investigating the association between these traits are limited. METHODS: Questionnaire-based data on smoking habits and psoriasis were...... collected for 34,781 twins, aged 20-71 years, from the Danish Twin Registry. A co-twin control analysis was performed on 1700 twin pairs discordant for lifetime history of smoking. Genetic and environmental correlations between smoking and psoriasis were estimated using classical twin modeling. RESULTS......: After multivariable adjustment, age group (50-71 vs. 20-49 years) and childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were significantly associated with psoriasis in the whole population (odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.29 [P = 0.021] and OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.49 [P...

  13. Smoking of parents and best friend--independent and combined effects on adolescent smoking and intention to initiate and quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Day, Jeffrey R

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates the independent and combined effects of smoking of parents and best friend on smoking and the intention to initiate or quit smoking in adolescents. In this school-based survey, 6,553 Hong Kong students aged 13-18 reported their demographic characteristics, smoking status of themselves, parents, and best friend; and intention to smoke (initiation among never-smokers and reinitiation among ex-smokers) or quit smoking among current smokers. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of student smoking (current/ever) and intention to smoke or quit smoking for parental (paternal/maternal/both parents vs. none) and best friend (yes vs. no) smoking. Parental smoking and having a smoking best friend were associated with adolescent current smoking, ever smoking, and intention to initiate smoking. Having a smoking best friend was also associated with reinitiating and quitting smoking. The AORs (95% CI) of current smoking for having a smoking best friend, in addition to smoking father, mother, or both were 19.14 (14.36-25.51), 20.38 (12.42-33.43), and 24.18 (15.89-36.77). The respective AORs of ever smoking were 8.30 (6.74-10.22), 8.92 (5.63-14.12), and 11.99 (8.05-17.87). Parental smoking and best friend smoking have independent effects on adolescent smoking behaviors. Their combined effects on current and ever smoking were particularly large. Smoking prevention programs should pay special attention to adolescents with both best friend and parents who smoke.

  14. Relation between awareness of circulatory disorders and smoking in a general population health examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Völzke Henry

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about proportions of smokers who maintain smoking after they are aware of a circulatory disorder. The goal was to analyze the extent to which the number of circulatory disorders may be related to being a current smoker. Methods Cross-sectional survey study with a probability sample of residents in Germany investigated in health examination centers. Questionnaire data of 3,778 ever smoking participants aged 18 – 79 were used, questions included whether the respondent had ever had hypertension, myocardial infarction, other coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, other cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and venous thrombosis. Logistic regression was calculated for circulatory disorders and their number with current smoking as the dependent variable, and odds ratios (OR are presented adjusted for physician contact, inpatient treatment, smoking cessation counseling, heavy smoking, exercise, overweight and obesity, school education, sex and age. Results Among ever smokers who had 1 circulatory disorder, 52.1 % were current smokers and among those who reported that they had 3 or more circulatory disorders 28.0 % were current smokers at the time of the interview. The adjusted odds of being a current smoker were lower for individuals who had ever smoked in life and had 2 or more central circulatory disorders, such as myocardial infarction, heart failure or stroke, than for ever smokers without central circulatory disorder (2 or more disorders: adjusted OR 0.6, 95 % confidence interval, CI, 0.4 to 0.8. Conclusion Among those with central circulatory disorders, there is a substantial portion of individuals who smoke despite their disease. The data suggest that only a portion of smokers among the general population seems to be discouraged from smoking by circulatory disorders or its accompanying cognitive or emotional processes.

  15. Hormones and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role in the start and continuation of primary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is due to other diseases such as kidney ... the body can greatly improve or even cure secondary hypertension. Resources • Find-an-Endocrinologist: www.hormone.org or ...

  16. Pulmonary Hypertension in Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    PULMONARY HYPERTENSION IN SCLERODERMA PULMONARY HYPERTENSION Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the blood vessels of the lungs. If the high ... the right side of the heart. Patients with scleroderma are at increased risk for developing PH from ...

  17. Hypertension and Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Hypertension A disease that often goes undetected. What is hypertension? Hypertension, also called high blood pressure , is a condition in which the arteries of ...

  18. Intracranial Hypertension Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PARTNERSHIPS Meet our Fundraising Partners Tweet Welcome Intracranial hypertension (IH) is the general term for the neurological ... high. (Old names for IH include Benign Intracranial Hypertension and Pseudotumor Cerebri). The Intracranial Hypertension Research Foundation ...

  19. HIV and Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What do I need to know about pulmonary hypertension in connection with HIV? Although pulmonary hypertension and ... Should an HIV patient be tested for pulmonary hypertension? HIV patients know that medical supervision is critical ...

  20. Audit of healthy lifestyle behaviors among patients with diabetes and hypertension attending ambulatory health care services in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynouna, Latifa Mohammed; Neglekerke, Nico J D; Ali, Habiba E; ZeinAlDeen, Sana M; Al Ameri, Thuraya A

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge is limited on healthy lifestyle behaviors and their associations with glycemic and blood pressure control among patients with diabetes and hypertension in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). To examine healthy lifestyle behaviors and their associations with glycemic and blood pressure control among patients with hypertension and diabetes, and improvement after the implementation of an intervention in a Chronic Disease Program. All patients with diabetes or hypertension attending seven primary health care centers in Al Ain, UAE during a designated three-week period in July and August 2009. Nurses conducted an audit of patients' adherence to health lifestyle behaviors related to meal planning, smoking, exercise, blood glucose and blood pressure monitoring at home, and foot and eye exams in the Chronic Disease Program clinics after a self-management intervention. A perceived knowledge score and discussion scores (based on the frequency the patients discuss diabetes and hypertension management issues with their providers) were calculated. Data were analyzed using linear regression and odds ratios. Patients reported acceptable rates of adherence to healthy lifestyle behaviors, including a low smoking rate (6% in males), following a meal plan and exercising (88.6% and 78.7%, respectively). Among patients with diabetes, 59% tested their blood glucose levels at least once a week compared to only 15.3% of those with hypertension monitoring their blood pressure levels at home. Only 33% of the participants were following the current physical activity recommendations. Healthy lifestyle behaviors fell into the following clusters: meal planning with exercise (odds ratio (OR): 8.9 [3.3-23.7]), meal planning with foot exams (OR: 10.6 [3.4-32.9]) and exercising and foot exams (OR: 5.2 [1.9-14.2]). This practice-based audit provides an essential assessment for future interventions to improve adherence to healthy life style behaviors among patients with diabetes and

  1. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jo; Dong, Christine Y; McRobbie, Hayden; Walker, Natalie; Mehta, Monaz; Stead, Lindsay F

    2010-10-06

    Hypnotherapy is widely promoted as a method for aiding smoking cessation. It is proposed to act on underlying impulses to weaken the desire to smoke or strengthen the will to stop. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, SCI, SSCI using the terms smoking cessation and hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Date of most recent searches July 2010. There were no language restrictions. We considered randomized controlled trials of hypnotherapy which reported smoking cessation rates at least six months after the beginning of treatment. Three authors independently extracted data on participant characteristics, the type and duration of the hypnotherapy, the nature of the control group, smoking status, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up. They also independently assessed the quality of the included studies.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Those lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. We summarised effects as risk ratios (RR). Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We also noted any adverse events reported. Eleven studies compared hypnotherapy with 18 different control interventions. There was significant heterogeneity between the results of the individual studies, with conflicting results for the effectiveness of hypnotherapy compared to no treatment, or to advice, or psychological treatment. We did not attempt to calculate pooled risk ratios for the overall effect of hypnotherapy. There was no evidence of a greater effect of hypnotherapy when compared to rapid smoking or psychological treatment. Direct comparisons of hypnotherapy with cessation treatments considered to be effective had confidence intervals that were too

  2. Hypertension unawareness among Chinese patients with first-ever stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinqin Cao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The low rates of hypertension treatment and control, partly due to its unawareness, are the main causes of the high stroke incidence in China. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hypertension unawareness amongst patients with first-ever stroke and to detect factors associated with its unawareness. Methods We selected those diagnosed with hypertension from patients with first-ever stroke registered in the Nanjing Stroke Registry Program between 2004 and 2014. These hypertensives were divided as being aware or unaware of their hypertension by using a brief questionnaire conducted shortly after the stroke. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify potential factors associated with hypertension unawareness. Results Of the 5309 patients with first-ever stroke, 3732 (70.3 % were diagnosed with hypertension. Among which, 593 (15.9 % were unaware of their hypertension at the time of stroke onset. Lower-level of education (primary school or illiteracy and smoking were associated positively with hypertension unawareness; while advanced age, overweight, diabetes mellitus, heart diseases and family history of stroke were associated negatively with hypertension unawareness. Annual data analyzed indicated that the rate of hypertension awareness increased during the past 11 years (r = 0.613, P = 0.045 for trends. Conclusions A substantial proportion (15.9 % of Chinese patients with hypertension had not been aware of this covert risk until an overt stroke occurred. Hypertension unawareness was associated with lower educational levels and smoking, which address the importance of health education especially in these individuals.

  3. Renovascular hypertension: ten years' experience in a regional centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellars, L; Siamopoulos, K; Hacking, P M; Proud, G; Taylor, R M; Essenhigh, D M; Wilkinson, R

    1985-07-01

    In a unit serving a population of three million, 60 hypertensive patients with renovascular disease were identified over a 10-year period. The presence of renovascular disease was usually suggested by intravenous urography (IVU), although this was falsely negative in 21 per cent of cases; isotope renography (IR) was normal in a similar proportion of patients (25 per cent). Eight patients were treated medically and 52 underwent surgical procedures; nephrectomy in 32, autotransplantation in 10, by pass graft in six and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in four. Twenty-three per cent of patients were cured, 37 per cent improved and 40 per cent unchanged one year after surgery, but the response could not be accurately predicted. Clinical features were of some value in that those patients most likely to benefit from surgery were younger, had less severe hypertension of shorter duration, smoked less, had less severe retinopathy and less cardiomegaly. There was also a trend for those with better renal function and less electrocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy to benefit from surgery. The IVU and IR did not predict response to surgery but arteriographic appearances of fibromuscular dysplasia indicated there should be a favourable response. The renal vein renin ratio, basal or stimulated, was of no prognostic value since approximately two-thirds of patients with ratios above or below the threshold value had some benefit from surgery. We conclude that the surgical treatment of renovascular hypertension is worthwhile but the number of patients suitable for surgery is small. Clinical features and the results of simple investigations provided the best guide to surgical outcome in our patients.

  4. CADIOVASCULAR HEALTH AND INCIDENT HYPERTENSION IN AFRICAN AMERICANS: THE JACKSON HEART STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, John N.; Abdalla, Marwah; Tanner, Rikki M.; Diaz, Keith M.; Bromfield, Samantha G.; Tajeu, Gabriel S.; Correa, Adolfo; Sims, Mario; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Bress, Adam P.; Spruill, Tanya M.; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Several modifiable health behaviors and health factors that comprise the Life’s Simple 7, a cardiovascular health metric, have been associated with hypertension risk. We determined the association between cardiovascular health and incident hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study, a cohort of African-Americans. We analyzed participants without hypertension or cardiovascular disease at baseline (2000–2004) who attended ≥1 follow-up visit in 2005–2008 or 2009–2012 (n=1878). Body mass index, physical activity, diet, cigarette smoking, blood pressure, total cholesterol and fasting glucose were assessed at baseline and categorized as ideal, intermediate or poor using the American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple 7 definitions. Incident hypertension was defined at the first visit wherein a participant had systolic blood pressure≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure≥90 mmHg or self-reported taking antihypertensive medication. There percentage of participants with ≤1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ideal Life’s Simple 7 components was 6.5%, 22.4%, 34.4%, 25.2%, 10.0% and 1.4%, respectively. No participants had 7 ideal components. During follow-up (median: 8.0 years), 944 (50.3%) participants developed hypertension, including 81.3% with ≤1 and 11.1% with 6 ideal components. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for incident hypertension comparing participants with 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 versus ≤1 ideal component were 0.80 (0.61–1.03), 0.58 (0.45–0.74), 0.30 (0.23–0.40), 0.26 (0.18–0.37) and 0.10 (0.03–0.31), respectively (p-trendhypertension risk. PMID:28652461

  5. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of dying from cancer goes down. Your blood pressure goes down. Your pulse and blood oxygen level return to normal. If you have children, you can help them be healthier by quitting smoking. Children whose parents smoke around them are at higher risk for ...

  6. Surgical smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Joe King-Man; Chan, Fion Siu-Yin; Chu, Kent-Man

    2009-10-01

    Surgical smoke is the gaseous by-product formed during surgical procedures. Most surgeons, operating theatre staff and administrators are unaware of its potential health risks. Surgical smoke is produced by various surgical instruments including those used in electrocautery, lasers, ultrasonic scalpels, high speed drills, burrs and saws. The potential risks include carbon monoxide toxicity to the patient undergoing a laparoscopic operation, pulmonary fibrosis induced by non-viable particles, and transmission of infectious diseases like human papilloma virus. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are other concerns. Minimisation of the production of surgical smoke and modification of any evacuation systems are possible solutions. In general, a surgical mask can provide more than 90% protection to exposure to surgical smoke; however, in most circumstances it cannot provide air-tight protection to the user. An at least N95 grade or equivalent respirator offers the best protection against surgical smoke, but whether such protection is necessary is currently unknown.

  7. Smoking and hemorrhagic stroke mortality in a prospective cohort study of older Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Schooling, Catherine Mary; Chan, Wai Man; Lee, Siu Yin; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, Tai Hing

    2013-08-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke is more common in non-Western settings and does not always share risk factors with other cardiovascular diseases. The association of smoking with hemorrhagic stroke subtypes has not been established. We examined the association of cigarette smoking with hemorrhagic stroke, by subtype (intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage), in a large cohort of older Chinese from Hong Kong. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to assess the adjusted associations of smoking at baseline with death from hemorrhagic stroke and its subtypes, using a population-based prospective cohort of 66 820 Chinese aged>65 years enrolled from July 1998 to December 2001 at all the 18 Elderly Health Centers of the Hong Kong Government Department of Health and followed until May 31, 2012. After follow-up for an average of 10.9 years (SD=3.1), 648 deaths from hemorrhagic stroke had occurred, of which 530 (82%) were intracerebral hemorrhage. Current smoking was associated with a higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio, 2.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-3.22), intracerebral hemorrhage (1.94; 1.25-3.01), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (3.58; 1.62-7.94), adjusted for age, sex, education, public assistance, housing type, monthly expenditure, alcohol use, and exercise. Further adjustment for hypertension and body mass index slightly changed the estimates. Smoking is strongly associated with hemorrhagic stroke mortality, particularly for subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  8. Neonatal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Farahbakhsh, Nazanin; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2017-03-01

    Neonatal hypertension (HT) is a frequently under reported condition and is seen uncommonly in the intensive care unit. Neonatal HT has defined arbitrarily as blood pressure more than 2 standard deviations above the base as per the age or defined as systolic BP more than 95% for infants of similar size, gestational age and postnatal age. It has been diagnosed long back but still is the least studied field in neonatology. There is still lack of universally accepted normotensive data for neonates as per gestational age, weight and post-natal age. Neonatal HT is an important morbidity that needs timely detection and appropriate management, as it can lead to devastating short-term effect on various organs and also poor long-term adverse outcomes. There is no consensus yet about the treatment guidelines and majority of treatment protocols are based on the expert opinion. Neonate with HT should be evaluated in detail starting from antenatal, perinatal, post-natal history, and drug intake by neonate and mother. This review article covers multiple aspects of neonatal hypertension like definition, normotensive data, various etiologies and methods of BP measurement, clinical features, diagnosis and management.

  9. Uncontrolled hypertension and associated factors among adult hypertensive patients on follow-up at Jimma University Teaching and Specialized Hospital: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bekele Tesfaye,1 Dessalegn Haile,1 Benalfew Lake,1 Tefera Belachew,2 Temamen Tesfaye,3 Habtamu Abera4 1Department of Nursing, College of Health Science, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, 2Department of Population and Family Health, 3Department of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health Science, Jimma University, Jimma, 4Department of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: Hypertension, including poorly controlled blood pressure, is the major global health problem that affects one billion people worldwide. Limited studies have been conducted on prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension and associated factors among adult hypertensive patients in Ethiopia.Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension and associated factors among adult hypertensive patients at Jimma University Teaching and Specialized Hospital.Methods: Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted at the chronic illness clinic of Jimma University Specialized and Teaching hospital from March 09 to April 13, 2016. A total of 345 hypertensive patients were selected using systematic sampling technique. Data were collected using structured questionnaire through face-to-face exit interview and chart review. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0 software. The bivariate and multivariable analysis was done to identify factors of uncontrolled hypertension.Results: More than half, 52.7%, of the patients had uncontrolled hypertension. Lack of awareness of hypertension-related complications (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.140, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.272–3.600, p=0.004, nonadherent to smoking abstinence (AOR=3.935, 95% CI=1.065–14.535, p=0.004, nonadherent to alcohol abstinence (AOR=2.477, 95% CI=1.074–5.711, p=033, Khat (Catha edulis chewing (AOR=2.518, 95% CI=1.250–5

  10. Knowledge and Practice on lifestyle modifications among males with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha Durai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2004, prevalence of hypertension was 25% in urban and 10% in rural population in India, leads to 57% of all stroke deaths and 42% of cardiovascular deaths.(1,2 Life style modifications control hypertension and prevent complications. Aims and Objectives: To find out the level of knowledge about life style modifications needed for control of blood pressure among males with hypertension and their current life style practice. Materials and methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among males with hypertension in the age group of 30-59 years who attended Hypertension Clinic of Medicine Outpatient Department in Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital, Porur, Chennai in November 2013 using an interview schedule. Result: Among 100 males with hypertension, 34% were in the age group of less than 50 years and 64% had hypertension for less than 5 years. Nearly 84% had knowledge about influence of smoking and alcohol on hypertension and 82% had knowledge about at least 3 dietary factors which control hypertension. About 70% of males were aware that more than 30 minutes of physical activity/day is needed to control hypertension. Currently 89% were physically active for more than 30 minutes/day, 72% did not consume alcohol, 89% were nonsmokers but 25% were adding extra salt in their diet and none of them increased fibre intake. Conclusion: Dietary modification practices were less among hypertensive males.

  11. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... You can find out about smoking cessation programs from: Your ... Your employer Your local health department The National Cancer ...

  12. Risk of post-pregnancy hypertension in women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Ida; Basit, Saima; Melbye, Mads

    2017-01-01

    with prescription drugs, and hazard ratios estimated using Cox regression.Results Of women with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy in a first pregnancy in their 20s, 14% developed hypertension in the first decade post partum, compared with 4% of women with normotensive first pregnancies in their 20s...

  13. Time From Smoking Cessation and Inflammatory Markers: New Evidence From a Cross-Sectional Analysis of ELSA-Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Flávia Soares; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Camelo, Lidyane V; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Giatti, Luana

    2017-07-01

    The time for inflammatory markers of former smokers to revert to never smoker levels is still controversial, ranging from 5 to 20 years. We aimed to determine the time from smoking cessation for white blood cell (WBC) count and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels to return to those of never-smokers, after adjusting for confounding factors and for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline participants of ELSA-Brasil. We used linear regression analysis and generalized linear models with gamma distribution and logarithmic link function to estimate the association of WBC count and CRP levels with time from smoking cessation. The following confounding factors were considered: sex, age, education, SHS, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activity, BMI, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Results: After all adjustments, time from smoking cessation <10 years remained associated with higher WBC count (eg, time from smoking cessation ≥ 5 and <10 years: β: 167.92; 95%CI: 23.52 312.31), while only time from smoking cessation <1 year remained associated with higher arithmetic mean of CRP (AMR: 1.26, 95%CI: 1.03‒1.54). Levels of inflammatory markers were similar to those of never-smokers 1 year after smoking cessation for CRP and 10 years after for WBC. The results may add to the arsenal health professionals have to encourage their patients to quit smoking, as some harms from smoking appear to revert to never-smokers' level sooner than previously reported. Longitudinal studies should confirm our findings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Acupuncture for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A R; Rampes, H; Ernst, E

    2000-01-01

    Acupuncture is promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation, and is believed to reduce withdrawal symptoms. The objective of this review is to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture in smoking cessation in comparison with: a) sham acupuncture b) other interventions c) no intervention. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register, Medline, PsycLit, Dissertation Abstracts, Health Planning and Administration, Social SciSearch, Smoking & Health, Embase, Biological Abstracts and DRUG. Randomised trials comparing a form of acupuncture with either sham acupuncture, another intervention or no intervention for smoking cessation. We extracted data in duplicate on the type of subjects, the nature of the acupuncture and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomisation, and completeness of follow-up. We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before 6 weeks), at six months and at one year follow-up in patients smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow-up were counted as continuing to smoke. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed effects model. We identified 18 publications involving 20 comparisons. Acupuncture was not superior to sham acupuncture in smoking cessation at any time point. The odds ratio (OR) for early outcomes was 1.22 (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.49); the OR after 6 months was 1.38 (95% confidence interval 0.90 to 2.11) and after 12 months 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.72 to 1.43). Similarly, when acupuncture was compared with other anti-smoking interventions, there were no differences in outcome at any time point. Acupuncture appeared to be superior to no intervention in the early results, but this difference was not sustained. The results with different acupuncture techniques do not show any one particular method (i.e. auricular acupuncture or non

  15. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it used? The urine albumin test or albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) is used to screen people with chronic conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure ( hypertension ) that put them at an ...

  16. Smoking cessation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In line with the requirements of the World Health Organization. (WHO) Framework ... meals.6,7 For this reason, it is important to deal with the patient's physical nicotine ... habits associated with smoking, and helps to motivate them to.

  17. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing, when smokers come back inside, they should wash their hands and change their clothing, especially before holding or hugging children. Never smoke in a car with other people. Even exhaling out the window ...

  18. Smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, L; Ogilvie, A; Pelkonen, M; Notkola, I; Tukiainen, H; Tervahauta, M; Tuomilehto, J; Nissinen, A

    2002-01-01

    Kirandeep Kaur, Shivani Juneja, Sandeep KaushalDepartment of Pharmacology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, IndiaWith reference to the article published under the title "Pharmacologic agents for smoking cessation: A clinical review", we would like to add some information related to smoking cessation therapy among pregnant females. In that article, in the nicotine replacement therapy section, pregnancy has been considered as a contraindication...

  19. Anthropometric indexes of obesity and hypertension in elderly from Cuba and Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Barbosa, A; Balduino Munaretti, D; Da Silva Coqueiro, R; Ferreti Borgatto, A

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the association between various anthropometric indexes of obesity with arterial hypertension in elderly from Barbados (Bridgetown) and Cuba (Havana). Cross-sectional data were extracted from the Survey on Health, Aging and Well being in Latin America and the Caribbean (SABE). In Bridgetown and Havana, respectively, 1508 and 1905 subjects ( ≥ 60 years) were examined, and were selected by a controlled sampling design. The occurrence of hypertension was assessed by self-report. Multiple measurements of adiposity were used including body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2)), waist hip ratio (WHR = > 0.95 men; > 0.80 women), waist to height ratio (W/ht. = > 0.50) and waist circumference - WC(L) ( > 88 cm, women; > 102 cm, men) e WC(OK) ( > 90.3 cm, women; > 91.3 cm, men). Binary logistic regression analyses (Odds Ratio) were used to measure strengths of relationships. In the elderly of Bridgetown, the final design (adjusted for age, education, race, smoking, regular physical activity and diabetes) shows that, in men, WC(OK) and W/Ht were associated with hypertension, and in women, WCL and WCOK were the indexes associated. In the Cuban elderly, the final design shows that, with the exception of WHR, all indicators were associated with hypertension. WCOK and W/ht were the indexes most strongly associated with the outcome. The explanatory power of anthropometric indicators when determining the outcome differed between men and women, as well as between cultural groups living in relative proximity (Barbadians and Cubans).

  20. Hypertension in master endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernelahti, M; Kujala, U M; Kaprio, J; Karjalainen, J; Sarna, S

    1998-11-01

    To determine whether long-term very vigorous endurance training prevents hypertension. Cohort study of master orienteering runners and controls. Finland. In 1995, a health questionnaire was completed by 264 male orienteering runners (response rate 90.4%) who had been top-ranked in competitions among men aged 35-59 years in 1984, and by 388 similarly aged male controls (response rate 87.1%) who were healthy at the age of 20 years and free of overt ischemic heart disease in 1985. Self-report of medication for hypertension. In the endurance athlete group, the crude prevalence (8.7%) of subjects who had used medication for hypertension was less than a third of that in the control group (27.8%). Even after adjusting for age and body mass index, the difference between the groups was still significant (odds ratio for athletes 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.25-0.76). Long-term vigorous endurance training is associated with a low prevalence of hypertension. Some of the effect can be explained by a lower body mass, but exercise seems to induce a lower rate of hypertension by other mechanisms than by decreasing body weight

  1. Hypertension in women

    OpenAIRE

    Hage, Fadi G; Mansur, Sulaf J; Xing, Dongqi; Oparil, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is the most common modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in both men and women. The prevalence and severity of hypertension rise markedly with age, and blood pressure control becomes more difficult with aging in both genders, particularly in women. In addition, there are forms of hypertension that occur exclusively in women, e.g., hypertension related to menopause, oral contraceptive use, or pregnancy (e.g., chronic hypertension, gestationa...

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea: the most common secondary cause of hypertension associated with resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Rodrigo P; Drager, Luciano F; Gonzaga, Carolina C; Sousa, Marcio G; de Paula, Lílian K G; Amaro, Aline C S; Amodeo, Celso; Bortolotto, Luiz A; Krieger, Eduardo M; Bradley, T Douglas; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo

    2011-11-01

    Recognition and treatment of secondary causes of hypertension among patients with resistant hypertension may help to control blood pressure and reduce cardiovascular risk. However, there are no studies systematically evaluating secondary causes of hypertension according to the Seventh Joint National Committee. Consecutive patients with resistant hypertension were investigated for known causes of hypertension irrespective of symptoms and signs, including aortic coarctation, Cushing syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, drugs, pheochromocytoma, primary aldosteronism, renal parenchymal disease, renovascular hypertension, and thyroid disorders. Among 125 patients (age: 52±1 years, 43% males, systolic and diastolic blood pressure: 176±31 and 107±19 mm Hg, respectively), obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index: >15 events per hour) was the most common condition associated with resistant hypertension (64.0%), followed by primary aldosteronism (5.6%), renal artery stenosis (2.4%), renal parenchymal disease (1.6%), oral contraceptives (1.6%), and thyroid disorders (0.8%). In 34.4%, no secondary cause of hypertension was identified (primary hypertension). Two concomitant secondary causes of hypertension were found in 6.4% of patients. Age >50 years (odds ratio: 5.2 [95% CI: 1.9-14.2]; Phypertension. Age >50 years, large neck circumference measurement, and snoring are good predictors of obstructive sleep apnea in this population.

  3. Hypertension in Asymptomatic, Young Medical Students with Parental History of Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Sidhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Family history of hypertension in medical students is an important, non-modifiable risk factor for hypertension in future. Aim: To determine the prevalence of sustained hypertension in young asymptomatic medical students with a parental history of hypertension. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical college of Dehradun. A total of 104 medical students with parental history of hypertension (Group A and 100 medical students without a parental history of hypertension (Group B were included. Electronically blood pressures were recorded on two separate occasions at an interval of 15 days. Comparison was done using Chi-square test/Likelihood ratio, Un-paired t-test and ANCOVA. Results: Overall, Group A had significantly higher percentage of prehypertensive (56.7% and hypertensive (17.3% students as compared to Group B which were 19% and 1%, respectively. Group A students had significantly higher Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP as compared to Group B, even after controlling for the differences in Body Mass Index (BMI and gender (p<0.001. Conclusion: Hypertension was significantly higher in asymptomatic, healthy medical students with parental history of hypertension as compared to those with normotensive parents. We need to orient medical students to improve their knowledge, attitude and lifestyle practices early in life to prevent, treat hypertension and prevent its subsequent morbidity and mortality.

  4. The association between risk factors and hypertension in perak, malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, K W; Rani, F; Chan, T C; Loh, H Y; Ng, C W; Moy, F M

    2013-08-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem in Malaysia. A survey was initiated to examine the association of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for hypertension in Perak, Malaysia. A total of 2025 respondents aged 30 years and above were recruited using a multi-stage sampling method. Hypertension was defined as self-reported hypertension and/or average of two blood pressure readings at single occasion with SBP ≥ 140mmHg or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg. Body mass index (BMI) was defined using the Asian criteria and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to evaluate physical activity. Body weight, height and blood pressure were obtained using standard procedures. Univariate analyses were conducted to examine the associations between risk factors and hypertension. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine each significant risk factor on hypertension after adjusted for confounders. In total, 1076 (54.9%) respondents were found to be hypertensive. Significant associations (p diet, respondents who were obese and had positive family history had higher odds for hypertension (OR:2.34; 95% CI:1.84-3.17 and 1.96 (1.59-2.42) respectively. A significant increase (p diet score and smoking were not significantly associated with increased risk for hypertension. In conclusion, modifiable risk factors such as BMI and physical activity are important risk factors to target in reducing the risk for hypertension.

  5. Factors Affecting Hypertension among the Malaysian Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshkoor, Sima Ataollahi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Shahar, Suzana; Ng, Chee Kyun; Mun, Chan Yoke

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a common chronic disease in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the effects of age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, nutritional parameters, and blood elements on the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. This research was conducted on a group of 2322 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The hierarchy binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of hypertension in respondents. Approximately, 45.61% of subjects had hypertension. The findings indicated that the female gender (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.54), an increase in body weight (OR = 1.61), and an increase in the blood levels of albumin (OR = 1.51), glucose (OR = 1.92), and triglycerides (OR = 1.27) significantly increased the risk of hypertension in subjects (p Malaysian elderly. In addition, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates and blood cholesterol level decreased hypertension in subjects. PMID:29367559

  6. Exposure to smoking in films and own smoking among Scottish adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kate; Henderson, Marion; Wight, Daniel; Sargent, James D

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence of high exposure of UK youth to images of smoking in films has led to calls for an 18 rating for films with smoking to reduce smoking in youth. However, the only study to date in the UK to test for an association showed no relation between film-smoking exposure and smoking among young adults. Objective To assess whether there is an association between exposure to film images of smoking and own smoking among UK adolescents and whether repeated viewings of films has an impact. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants 1999 pupils aged 15–16 years from 13 Scottish schools. Outcome Smoked tobacco in the past year. Exposure measure Film-smoking exposure was assessed using the Beach method; account for repeated viewings of films was then used to modify estimated exposure. Covariates included: media usage, parental restriction on and context of TV/film viewing, family connectedness, parental monitoring and friends' smoking. Results Most (71%) students had not smoked in the past year. About half reported no parental restrictions on TV/film viewing. Many reported repeated viewings of films; accounting for this more than doubled exposure estimates and strengthened the association with smoking. Adolescents with high exposure to film smoking were more likely to have smoked than those with low exposure (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.08, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.55). Additionally, adolescents who reported parental rules about TV/film watching were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.37 (0.27 to 0.52)) than those who did not. Adolescents who mainly watched films with friends had higher exposure to film smoking and were more likely to smoke (AOR 2.19 (1.10 to 4.38)). Conclusions Exposure to film smoking is associated with smoking among Scottish adolescents. These data lend support to calls for an 18 rating for films with images of smoking. PMID:21764893

  7. Systolic hypertension in adult nigerians with hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opadijo, O.G.; Salami, T.A.T.; Sanya, E.O.; Omotoso, A.B.O.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of both systolic and diastolic hypertensions in relation to age and their impacts on target organ among adult Nigerians with hypertension. Newly diagnosed adult hypertensives, with blood pressure 140/90mm Hg, taken twice with mercury column sphygmomanometer at 3 weeks interval, were studied. The total number of hypertensive patients treated over this period was also taken into consideration. The newly diagnosed hypertensives were classified using JNC VI classification. The frequency of occurrence of target organ damage such as Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH), heart failure, renal impairment etc. was charted according to systolic and or diastolic pressures. The occurrence of systolic or diastolic blood pressure was also related with the age of the patients. Blood metabolic parameters were compared in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures for their possible contributory role. Two thousand seven hundred and ninety-two adult hypertensive patients were managed over the study period. Of them, 218 (7.8%) were newly diagnosed and studied. There were 94 males and 124 females. Seventy-seven (35.3%) were aged 60 years and above with equal frequency in the gender. One hundred and seventy-eight (81.7%) cases had combined systolic and diastolic pressures. Twenty-nine (13.3%) patients had systolic hypertension. Twenty-five (86.2%) of these 29 were aged 50 years and above and 20 (69.0%) were aged 60 years and above. Eleven (5.0%) patients had isolated diastolic hypertension and they were all in the age bracket 40-49 years. Systolic blood pressure was found to be rising with advancing age while diastolic blood pressure peaked at mid 40's and declined. Target organ damage occurred more frequently with systolic hypertension and advancing age than with diastolic hypertension. Systolic hypertension occurred more frequently in this series of adult Nigerians with hypertension. It was higher with advancing age and associated with more target organ

  8. Detection of Secondary Causes and Coexisting Diseases in Hypertensive Patients: OSA and PA Are the Common Causes Associated with Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Nanfang; Yao, Xiaoguang; Chang, Guijuan; Zhang, Delian; Heizhati, Mulalibieke; Wang, Menghui; Luo, Qin; Kong, Jianqiong

    2017-01-01

    Since the control rate of blood pressure is lower in mainland China, the aim of this study is to investigate the proportion of secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension in hypertensive patients. Data on consecutive patients with hypertension who visited the Hypertension Center. Diseases were detected using an established strict screening protocol. Detection rate of secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension was 39.5% among 3003 hypertensive patients. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was the most common, accounting for 24.7% of patients, followed by primary aldosteronism (PA) (5.8%) and PA + OSA (4.9%). Endocrine hypertension accounted for 12.1% of patients, including 10.7% of patients with PA, 1.1% with hypothyroidism, 0.1% with pheochromocytoma, 0.1% with Cushing's syndrome, and 0.1% with hyperthyroidism, respectively. Those who smoke, those who are obese, and those who have diabetes accounted for 31.3%, 27.5%, and 16.6% of total patients, respectively. There were overlapping conditions in secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension. OSA was the most common in each age- and BMI-stratified group. Findings from the current study suggest an increasing frequency of secondary forms of hypertension, highlighting the burden of OSA and PA in hypertensive patients.

  9. Detection of Secondary Causes and Coexisting Diseases in Hypertensive Patients: OSA and PA Are the Common Causes Associated with Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since the control rate of blood pressure is lower in mainland China, the aim of this study is to investigate the proportion of secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension in hypertensive patients. Methods. Data on consecutive patients with hypertension who visited the Hypertension Center. Diseases were detected using an established strict screening protocol. Results. Detection rate of secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension was 39.5% among 3003 hypertensive patients. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA was the most common, accounting for 24.7% of patients, followed by primary aldosteronism (PA (5.8% and PA + OSA (4.9%. Endocrine hypertension accounted for 12.1% of patients, including 10.7% of patients with PA, 1.1% with hypothyroidism, 0.1% with pheochromocytoma, 0.1% with Cushing’s syndrome, and 0.1% with hyperthyroidism, respectively. Those who smoke, those who are obese, and those who have diabetes accounted for 31.3%, 27.5%, and 16.6% of total patients, respectively. There were overlapping conditions in secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension. OSA was the most common in each age- and BMI-stratified group. Conclusion. Findings from the current study suggest an increasing frequency of secondary forms of hypertension, highlighting the burden of OSA and PA in hypertensive patients.

  10. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  11. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...

  12. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  13. Cigarette smoking, health status, socio-economic status and access to health care in diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedgwick JEC

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and microvascular complications. We evaluated cigarette smoking in people with diabetes mellitus in a socio-economically deprived area. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey of people registered with diabetes mellitus at 29 general practices in inner London. Responses were analysed for 1,899 (64% respondents out of 2,983 eligible. Results There were 1,899 respondents of whom 968 (51% had never smoked, 296 (16% were current smokers and 582 (31% were ex-smokers. Smoking was more frequent in white Europeans (men 22%, women 20%, than in African Caribbeans (men 15%, women 10% or Africans (men 8%, women 2%. Smoking prevalence decreased with age. Smokers were more likely to be living in rented accommodation (odds ratio, OR 2.02, 95% confidence interval 1.48 to 2.74. After adjusting for confounding, current smokers had lower SF-36 scores than subjects who had never smoked (mean difference in physical functioning score -5.6, 95% confidence interval -10.0 to -1.2; general health -6.1, -9.7 to -2.5. Current smokers were less likely to have attended a hospital diabetic clinic in the last year (OR 0.59, 0.44 to 0.79, and their hypertension was less likely to be treated (OR 0.47, 0.30 to 0.74. Conclusions Compared with non-smokers, smokers had lower socio-economic status and worse health status, but were less likely to be referred to hospital or treated for their hypertension. People with diabetes who smoke can be regarded as a vulnerable group who need more intensive support and treatment.

  14. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2017-10-17

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  15. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.

    1979-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector consisting of two electrodes defining an ionization chamber permitting entry of smoke, a radioactive source to ionize gas in the chamber and a potential difference applied across the first and second electrodes to cause an ion current to flow is described. The current is affected by entry of smoke. An auxiliary electrode is positioned in the ionization chamber between the first and second electrodes, and it is arranged to maintain or create a potential difference between the first electrode and the auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode may be used for testing or for adjustment of sensitivity. A collector electrode divides the chamber into two regions with the auxiliary electrode in the outer sensing region. (U.K.)

  16. Relapse to smoking following release from smoke-free correctional facilities in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljević, Cheneal; de Andrade, Dominique; Coomber, Ross; Kinner, Stuart A

    2018-06-01

    Smoke-free prison policies are increasingly common, but few studies have investigated relapse to smoking after release from prison. This study investigated return to tobacco smoking and correlates of smoking at reduced levels after release among adults recently released from smoke-free prisons in Queensland, Australia. A cross-sectional survey of 114 people at parole offices within two months of release from prison was used. The survey measured health, social, and criminological factors related to tobacco smoking. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with reduced post-release smoking levels compared to pre-incarceration levels. 94% of participants relapsed to smoking within two months of release; 72% relapsed on the day of release. 62% of participants smoked significantly less per day after compared with before incarceration. Living with a partner (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.77, 95%CI 1.02-7.52), expressing support for smoke-free prison policies (OR 2.44, 95%CI 1.12-5.32), intending to remain abstinent post-release (OR 4.29, 95%CI 1.88-9.82), and intending to quit in the future (OR 3.88, 95%CI 1.66-9.07) were associated with reduced smoking post-release. Use of illicit drugs post-release was negatively associated with reduced smoking post-release (OR 0.27, 95%CI 0.09-0.79). In multivariate analyses, pre-release intention to remain smoke-free was associated with reduced smoking post-release (AOR 2.69, 95%CI 1.01-7.14). Relapse to smoking after release from smoke-free prisons is common, but many who relapse smoke less than before incarceration, suggesting that smoke-free prison policies may reduce post-release tobacco smoking. There is a need for tailored, evidence-based tobacco cessation interventions for people recently released from prison. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    This describes a smoke detector comprising a self-luminous light source and a photosensitive device which is so arranged that the light source is changed by the presence of smoke in a detecting region. A gaseous tritium light source is used. This consists of a borosilicate glass bulb with an internal phosphor coating, filled with tritium gas. The tritium emits low energy beta particles which cause the phosphor to glow. This is a reliable light source which needs no external power source. The photosensitive device may be a phototransistor and may drive a warning device through a directly coupled transistor amplifier. (U.K.)

  18. Smoke Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  19. A community-driven hypertension treatment group in rural Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiger, Sheridan; Harris, Jeffrey R; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Oqueli, Hector Lopez; Kohn, Marlana

    2015-01-01

    We formed a self-funded hypertension treatment group in a resource-poor community in rural Honduras. After training community health workers and creating protocols for standardized treatment, we used group membership fees to maintain the group, purchase generic medications in bulk on the local market, and hire a physician to manage treatment. We then assessed whether participation in the group improved treatment, medication adherence, and hypertension control. This is a program evaluation using quasi-experimental design and no control group. Using data from the 86 members of the hypertension treatment group, we analyzed baseline and follow-up surveys of members, along with 30 months of clinical records of treatment, medication adherence, and blood pressure readings. Our initial hypertension needs assessment revealed that at baseline, community hypertensives relied on the local Ministry of Health clinic as their source of anti-hypertensive medications and reported that irregular supply interfered with medication adherence. At baseline, hypertension group members were mainly female, overweight or obese, physically active, non-smoking, and non-drinking. After 30 months of managing the treatment group, we found a significant increase in medication adherence, from 54.8 to 76.2% (p<0.01), and hypertension control (<140/90 mmHg), from 31.4 to 54.7% (p<0.01). We also found a mean monthly decrease of 0.39 mmHg in systolic blood pressure (p<0.01). At the end of the 30-month observation period, the local Ministry of Health system had increased provision of low-cost anti-hypertensive medications and adopted the hypertension treatment group's treatment protocols. Formation of a self-funded, community-based hypertension treatment group in a rural, resource-poor community is feasible, and group participation may improve treatment, medication adherence, and hypertension control and can serve as a political driver for improving hypertension treatment services provided by the public

  20. Awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among Filipino immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursua, Rhodora; Aguilar, David; Wyatt, Laura; Tandon, Shiv Darius; Escondo, Kirklyn; Rey, Mariano; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2014-03-01

    Filipino Americans have high rates of hypertension, yet little research has examined hypertension awareness, treatment, and control in this group. In a community-based sample of hypertensive Filipino American immigrants, we identify 1) rates of hypertension awareness, treatment, and control; and 2) factors associated with awareness, treatment, and control. Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from health screenings collected from 2006 to 2010. A total of 566 hypertensive Filipino immigrants in New York City, New York and Jersey City, New Jersey. Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control. Participants were included in analysis if they were hypertensive, based on: a past physician diagnosis, antihypertensive medication use, and/or high blood pressure (BP) screening measurements. Demographic variables included sex, age, time in the United States, location of residence, and English spoken language fluency. Health-related variables included self-reported health, insurance status, diabetes diagnosis, high cholesterol diagnosis, clinical measures (body mass index [BMI], glucose, and cholesterol), exercise frequency, smoking status, cardiac event history, family history of cardiac event, and family history of hypertension. Among the hypertensive individuals, awareness, treatment, and control rates were suboptimal; 72.1 % were aware of their status, 56.5 % were on medication, and only 21.7 % had controlled BP. Factors related to awareness included older age, worse self-reported health, family history of hypertension, and a diagnosis of high cholesterol or diabetes; factors related to treatment included older age, longer time lived in the United States, and being a non-smoker; having health insurance was found to be the main predictor of hypertension control. Many individuals had other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; 60.4 % had a BMI ≥25, 12.0 % had at-risk glucose measurements and 12.8 % had cholesterol ≥ 240. Hypertensive Filipinos exhibit poor

  1. Effects of IL6 C-634G polymorphism on tooth loss and their interaction with smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, S; Naito, M; Wakai, K; Sasakabe, T; Hattori, Y; Okada, R; Kawai, S; Hishida, A; Morita, E; Nakagawa, H; Tamura, T; Hamajima, N

    2015-09-01

    To examine the association between an IL6 (Interleukin-6) polymorphism (C-634G or rs1800796) and tooth loss, and an interaction between the polymorphism and smoking habits for the loss. Our subjects were 4917 check-up examinees ages 35-69. They reported tooth loss and lifestyle in a questionnaire. We regressed the number of teeth on the IL6 genotype, gender, age, smoking, drinking, diabetes, hypertension, physical activity, energy intake, education, and brushing. We further estimated multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for having smoking and tooth loss was stronger among those with GG than among those with CC. In a multiple regression analysis, a significant interaction was found between GG genotype and current smoking in the prediction of tooth loss (P = 0.018). The IL6 C-634G polymorphism was significantly associated with tooth loss. Our results suggest greater effects of smoking on tooth loss in GG genotype individuals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Association of Education and Smoking Status on Risk of Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-Based Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hyeong; Noh, Juhwan; Choi, Jae-Woo; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-06-19

    Background: Exposure to smoke, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), is a well-known risk factor for diabetes. Low socioeconomic status, especially lack of education, is also a risk factor for diabetes. Therefore, we assessed the association of demographic, socioeconomic, clinical, and behavior risk factor-related variables and smoking status, including ETS exposure, with the prevalence of diabetes. Methods: Data were from the 2007-2013 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES). Multivariable logistic regression examined associations between various lifestyle and health factors and the prevalence of diabetes while controlling for potential confounding variables. Subgroup analysis was performed according to smoking status to determine factors associated with diabetes. Results: Of 19,303 individuals analyzed, 1325 (11.4%) had diabetes. Greater average age, male sex, lower educational level, unemployment, and coexisting health problems were significantly associated with diabetes. Individuals with only elementary, middle, or high school level education had significantly greater odds ratios ( p education, urban residence, National Health Insurance (NHI), hypertension, a lack of alcohol intake, and a lack of moderate physical activity. For diabetic smokers, there were significant associations ( p education, urban residence, a lack of moderate physical activity, a lack of alcohol intake, and NHI. Conclusions: The results suggested that smoking status, as well as ETS exposure, was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes, especially in populations with less education. Thus, we should direct efforts for controlling diabetes toward individuals with lower levels of education and those who are smokers and nonsmokers exposed to ETS.

  3. Patient Portal Use and Blood Pressure Control in Newly Diagnosed Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manard, William; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Salas, Joanne; Schneider, F David

    2016-01-01

    Current evidence that patient portal use improves disease management is inconclusive. Randomized controlled trials have found no benefit of Web-based patient-provider communication for blood pressure (BP) control, but patients from these studies were not selected for uncontrolled hypertension, nor did measures of portal use occur in a real-world setting, as captured in the electronic medical record. This study determined whether patient portal use by patients with treated, incident hypertension was associated with achieving BP control. Between 2008 to 2010, 1571 patients with an incident hypertension diagnosis, ages 21 to >89 years, were identified from an academic medical center primary care patient data registry. Cox proportional hazard models were computed to estimate the association between portal use and incident BP control during follow-up (2011-2015), before and after adjusting for covariates. Covariates included sociodemographics, smoking, obesity and other physical and mental health comorbidities, and volume of health care utilization. After adjusting for age, portal users were more likely than nonusers to achieve BP control (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.45). After adjustment for sociodemographics, portal use was no longer associated with BP control (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.16). Patient sociodemographic factors, including race, sex, and socioeconomic status, account for the observation that portal use leads to BP control among persons with newly diagnosed hypertension. Further research is warranted to determine whether there are benefits of portal use for other chronic conditions. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  4. An epidemiological study of paediatric pulmonary hypertension in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pektas, Ayhan; Pektas, Bilgehan M; Kula, Serdar

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of paediatric pulmonary hypertension within the entire Turkish population over a period of 5 years using the registry of the National Health Insurance System. All individuals aged pulmonary hypertension and secondary pulmonary hypertension were identified. The overall annual incidence of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension during childhood was 11.7 cases/million, whereas the overall annual incidence of secondary pulmonary hypertension during childhood was 9.5 cases/million. There was a gradual and significant increase in the annual incidence of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension and that of secondary pulmonary hypertension during the 5-year study period (p=0.001 for both). In the years 2012 and 2013, idiopathic pulmonary hypertension was significantly more frequent in children aged pulmonary hypertension, whereas the female to male ratio was 1.1:1 for secondary pulmonary hypertension during childhood. The incidence of paediatric pulmonary hypertension in Turkey is higher than those reported for the Western populations. Moreover, no female dominance could be observed. These discrepancies may be attributed to the differences in the study design, study cohort, timing of the study, and the definitions adopted for pulmonary hypertension classification.

  5. Elevated cardiac troponin I predicts cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li'na; Cao Yanfei; Qiu Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Whether elevated cTnI is associated with cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events in patients with hypertension (HT) without left ventricular(LV) systolic dysfunction is not clear. Method: We measured cTnI serum level in 170 patients with essential HT without LV systolic dysfunction (LVEF 55%),renal failure,and prior cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases. Besides, control group of 40 normal presons was established and following up (45±38)months. Results: Level of cTnI was elevated (≥0.04 ng/ml) in 15 (8.8%) of the 170 patients and in 0 (0%) of the 40 normal controls. The rate of diabetes mellitus(DM), the cardiothoracic ratio, serum NT-proBNP value, and LV mass index were significantly higher in patients with than without elevated cTnI (DM, 9/15 versus 25/155, P 2 , P=0.0001). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that significantly fewer (P<0.000001) patients with, than without elevated cTnI remained free of events (hospitalization due to cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease). Stepwise Cox multivariate analysis revealed that elevated cTnT (hazard ratio, 6.59, P=0.000001) and smoking (hazard ratio, 2.26, P=0.04) were independent predictors of events. Conclusion: The present findings indicate that cTnI is a biomarker and useful predictor of future cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events in hypertensive patients. (authors)

  6. [Smoking and educational status in Africans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, B; Kpebo, O D; Horo, K; N'Gom, A; Godé, C; Ahui, B; Koffi, N; Aka-Danguy, E

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco smoking is a scourge that continues to increase in developing countries despite its known consequences. Is the population of the Ivory Coast sufficiently informed about the consequences of smoking? For this reason, we decided to evaluate the knowledge of the effects of smoking among the people of Abidjan. To evaluate the knowledge of the effects of smoking in the population of Abidjan. To relate this knowledge to the educational level and smoking status. We evaluated knowledge about smoking and its consequences as a function of educational level and smoking status in the population of Abidjan over the age of 15 years. This was undertaken in 3 months, from November 2005 to January 2006, in the two busiest communes in Abidjan. The minimum number of persons required was 1152 but, in fact, we interviewed 1409. The prevalence of smoking was 36.5% with a predominance of males (sex ratio = 3:11). They were mainly young with a mean age of 27.44 years. This population's main sources of information on the ill effects of smoking were the mass media. In general, the subjects did not have a good understanding of smoking and its consequences. With regard to the diseases related to smoking, bronchial carcinoma and cardiovascular disorders were the best known, in 53.1 and 18.1%, respectively. With regard to the components of tobacco, nicotine was the best known (92.6%). Knowledge was related to the level of education: the subjects of a higher educational level were the most knowledgeable about the consequences of smoking. As a result, these subjects were less attached to smoking than the less educated. The consequences of smoking are poorly understood by the general population. With regard to the level of education, the better educated had a better understanding of the effects of smoking and were also those who smoked the least. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Pulmonary hypertension and echocardiogram parameters in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H T; Chee, K H; Chong, A W

    2017-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a growing health hazard in the United States and worldwide. OSA is now recognized as a disorder with systemic manifestations and its association with obesity and adverse cardiovascular consequences. There is increasing evidence that OSA may be associated with systemic hypertension and an increased incidence of stroke, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and arrhythmias. Less information is available about the association between OSA and pulmonary hypertension (PH). We therefore conduct this study to look at the prevalence of the pulmonary hypertension in obstructive sleep apnea patient and to identify risk factors leading to pulmonary hypertension among OSA patient. We studied and analyzed all OSA patient confirmed by polysomnograph in the year 2015. Twenty-five patients with OSA were included in this study with prevalence of pulmonary hypertension of 16%. Univariate analysis of various factors revealed a statistically significant association between having the lowest SpO 2 of pulmonary hypertension (p = 0.016). There were no statistically significant associations between age, gender, smoking status, hypertension, body mass index (BMI), or apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) with occurrence of pulmonary hypertension. AHI is not a good predictor for pulmonary hypertension. The real value of using AHI to predict the health risk of OSA is doubtful. We recommend routine echocardiogram among OSA patient. The objective information in the echocardiogram provides evidence for counseling of patient with disease of OSA and hence hopefully can improve compliance of patient to treatment especially usage of CPAP.

  8. Environmental Exposure to Cadmium: Health Risk Assessment and its Associations with Hypertension and Impaired Kidney Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyun; Liao, Qilin; Chillrud, Steven N.; Yang, Qiang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Yan, Beizhan

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal. This study was aimed to estimate the potential health risks in a Cd-polluted district in China, and examine the relationship between urinary cadmium(UCd) and hypertension and impaired kidney function at low exposure levels (UCd: GM 1.3 μg/g creatinine). Blood pressure measurement, questionnaires, and collection of urinary samples were conducted from 217 residents. Environmental samples, food, and cigarette samples were collected and detected to estimate the risks posed by Cd and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact pathways to these risks. A logistic regression model was used in examining associations between exposure and hypertension and impaired kidney function. Results show that this population is at high risk. For non-smokers, incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and hazard quotient (HQ) are 1.74E-04 and 2.96, and for smokers, they are 1.07E-03 and 52.5, respectively. Among all exposure pathways, smoking and foods cause the major increases in ILCR and HQ. UCd is significantly associated with hypertension (odds ratio (OR) = 1.468 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.104, 1.953; P = 0.008) and impaired kidney function (OR = 1.902, 95% CI: 1.054, 3.432; P = 0.033). The results demonstrate that Cd can potentially lead to adverse health effects.

  9. Hypertension in Pregnancy and Future Cardiovascular Event Risk in Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissgerber, Tracey L; Turner, Stephen T; Mosley, Thomas H; Kardia, Sharon L R; Hanis, Craig L; Milic, Natasa M; Garovic, Vesna D

    2016-03-01

    Hypertension in pregnancy is a risk factor for future hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This may reflect an underlying familial predisposition or persistent damage caused by the hypertensive pregnancy. We sought to isolate the effect of hypertension in pregnancy by comparing the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in women who had hypertension in pregnancy and their sisters who did not using the dataset from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy study, which examined the genetics of hypertension in white, black, and Hispanic siblings. This analysis included all sibships with at least one parous woman and at least one other sibling. After gathering demographic and pregnancy data, BP and serum analytes were measured. Disease-free survival was examined using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression. Compared with their sisters who did not have hypertension in pregnancy, women who had hypertension in pregnancy were more likely to develop new onset hypertension later in life, after adjusting for body mass index and diabetes (hazard ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.42). A sibling history of hypertension in pregnancy was also associated with an increased risk of hypertension in brothers and unaffected sisters, whereas an increased risk of cardiovascular events was observed in brothers only. These results suggest familial factors contribute to the increased risk of future hypertension in women who had hypertension in pregnancy. Further studies are needed to clarify the potential role of nonfamilial factors. Furthermore, a sibling history of hypertension in pregnancy may be a novel familial risk factor for future hypertension. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Hypertension in Pregnancy and Future Cardiovascular Event Risk in Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Stephen T.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Hanis, Craig L.; Milic, Natasa M.; Garovic, Vesna D.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension in pregnancy is a risk factor for future hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This may reflect an underlying familial predisposition or persistent damage caused by the hypertensive pregnancy. We sought to isolate the effect of hypertension in pregnancy by comparing the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in women who had hypertension in pregnancy and their sisters who did not using the dataset from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy study, which examined the genetics of hypertension in white, black, and Hispanic siblings. This analysis included all sibships with at least one parous woman and at least one other sibling. After gathering demographic and pregnancy data, BP and serum analytes were measured. Disease-free survival was examined using Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression. Compared with their sisters who did not have hypertension in pregnancy, women who had hypertension in pregnancy were more likely to develop new onset hypertension later in life, after adjusting for body mass index and diabetes (hazard ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.27–2.42). A sibling history of hypertension in pregnancy was also associated with an increased risk of hypertension in brothers and unaffected sisters, whereas an increased risk of cardiovascular events was observed in brothers only. These results suggest familial factors contribute to the increased risk of future hypertension in women who had hypertension in pregnancy. Further studies are needed to clarify the potential role of nonfamilial factors. Furthermore, a sibling history of hypertension in pregnancy may be a novel familial risk factor for future hypertension. PMID:26315531

  11. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, E.

    1976-01-01

    A smoke detector is described consisting of a ventilated ionisation chamber having a number of electrodes and containing a radioactive source in the form of a foil supported on the surface of the electrodes. This electrode consists of a plastic material treated with graphite to render it electrically conductive. (U.K.)

  12. Hypertensive retinopathy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... retina from high blood pressure is called hypertensive retinopathy. It occurs as the existing high blood pressure ... flame hemorrhages and cotton wool spots. As hypertensive retinopathy progresses, hard exudates can appear around the macula ...

  13. Hypertensive heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000163.htm Hypertensive heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hypertensive heart disease refers to heart problems that occur because of ...

  14. Chronic Hypertension in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org/ by guest on June 19, 2018 Chronic Hypertension in Pregnancy Ellen W. Seely, MD; Cynthia Maxwell, ... M any women have been diag- nosed with hypertension (blood pressure Ͼ 140/ 90 mm Hg) when ...

  15. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  16. Smoking habits among pregnant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare recall of smoking habits during pregnancy 0.5-3 years after delivery across groups defined by recall time (5 six month periods) and pregnancy outcome (pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm or post-term delivery compared......, particularly among women smoking > or = 10 cigarettes/day. CONCLUSIONS: Information on smoking habits could be accurately obtained retrospectively independent of recall time and the pregnancy outcomes studied here. Accuracy diminished with increasing alcohol intake, particularly among heavy smokers....... with controls). DESIGN: Case-control nested in cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A subsample of 503 women from a cohort of 6347 women established between 1989 and 1991 in Aarhus University Hospital. MAIN RESULTS: Measures of agreement between concurrent and retrospective data on smoking status varied...

  17. Maskeret hypertension i graviditeten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Margit Bistrup; Thingaard, Ebbe; Andersen, Anita Sylvest

    2018-01-01

    Hypertension during pregnancy is one of the leading causes of maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Monitoring of blood pressure is therefore an essential part of prenatal care. Masked hypertension, where blood pressure levels are elevated at home despite normal blood pressure levels...... monitored in a clinical setting, may lead to cardiovascular and obstetric complications equal to those of sustained hypertension. This article discusses masked hypertension and the need for further investigation of blood pressure monitoring during pregnancy....

  18. Maskeret hypertension i graviditeten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Margit Bistrup; Thingaard, Ebbe; Andersen, Anita Sylvest

    2018-01-01

    Hypertension during pregnancy is one of the leading causes of maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Monitoring of blood pressure is therefore an essential part of prenatal care. Masked hypertension, where blood pressure levels are elevated at home despite normal blood pressure levels monit...... monitored in a clinical setting, may lead to cardiovascular and obstetric complications equal to those of sustained hypertension. This article discusses masked hypertension and the need for further investigation of blood pressure monitoring during pregnancy....

  19. Hypertension and health outcomes in the PICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Brett J; Selewski, David T; Troost, Jonathan P; Hieber, Susan M; Gipson, Debbie S

    2014-06-01

    Reports of the burden of hypertension in hospitalized children are emerging, but the prevalence and significance of this condition within the PICU are not well understood. The aims of this study were to validate a definition of hypertension in the PICU and assess the associations between hypertension and acute kidney injury, PICU length of stay, and mortality. Single-center retrospective study using a database of PICU discharges between July 2011 and February 2013. All children discharged from the PICU with length of stay more than 6 hours, aged 1 month through 17 years. Exclusions were traumatic brain injury, incident renal transplant, or hypotension. None. Potential definitions of hypertension utilizing combinations of standardized cutoff percentiles, durations, initiation or dose escalation of antihypertensives, and/or billing diagnosis codes for hypertension were compared using receiver operator characteristic curves against a manual medical record review. Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted using the selected definition of hypertension to assess its independent association with acute kidney injury and PICU length of stay, respectively. A definition requiring three systolic and/or diastolic readings above standardized 99th percentiles plus 5 mm Hg over 1 day was selected (area under the curve, 0.91; sensitivity, 94%; specificity, 87%). Among the 1,215 patients in this analysis, the prevalence of hypertension was 25%. Hypertension was independently associated with acute kidney injury (odds ratio, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.64-5.09; p hypertension group-but were statistically different (p = 0.02). Hypertension is common in the PICU and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. Future studies are needed to confirm these results.

  20. Hypertension after kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrowolski, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension increases the cardiovascular risk in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). In chapter 2 we found that hypertension was highly prevalent in adult (77.2%), paediatric (62.7%) and young adult (86.4%) KTRs. Transition from the paediatric to adult care did not affect hypertension and there

  1. Hypertension in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ungar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most common medical problem encountered during pregnancy, complicating 2-3% of pregnancies. Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are classified into 4 categories: chronic hypertension, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, pre-eclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension, and gestational hypertension. A relative paucity of investigative data, as well as the frequent difficulty in making an etiological diagnosis, may lead to problems in its management. This case report analyses current concepts regarding the hypertensive disorders of gestation, focusing on chronic hypertension. Chronic hypertension is defined as blood pressure exceeding 140/90 mmHg before pregnancy or before 20 weeks gestation. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy may cause maternal and fetal morbidity and remain a leading source of maternal mortality. A prompt diagnosis is needed also because hypertension may be an indicator of pre-eclampsia, a condition which can evolve into serious complications. Maintaining blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg is recommended, although treatment should be determined on an individual basis. Many anti-hypertensive agents appear to be safe for use during pregnancy: methildopa has been the most studied of the anti-hypertensive drugs and has the best safety record. Labetalol, idralazine and nifedipine also have been found to be safe; ACE-inhibitors are absolutely contraindicated, because they are associated with intrauterine growth retardation.

  2. Genetik og hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Tarnow, Lisa; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard

    2009-01-01

    Monogenic forms of hypertension are very rare, but have a well-characterized heredity. Primary hypertension is very common with a complex and polygenic heredity. Primary hypertension arises due to an interaction between multiple genetic and environmental factors. Its heredity is unknown, although...

  3. Effect of Long Working Hours on Self-reported Hypertension among Middle-aged and Older Wage Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dong Hyun; Kang, Mo-Yeol; Paek, Domyung; Min, Bokki; Cho, Sung-Il

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have reported an association between overwork and hypertension. However, research on the health effects of long working hours has yielded inconclusive results. The objective of this study was to identify an association between overtime work and hypertension in wage workers 45 years and over of age using prospective data. Wage workers in Korea aged 45 years and over were selected for inclusion in this study from among 10,254 subjects from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Workers with baseline hypertension and those with other major diseases were excluded. In the end, a total of 1,079 subjects were included. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios and adjust for baseline characteristics such as sex, age, education, income, occupation, form of employment, body mass index, alcohol habit, smoking habit, regular exercise, and number of working days per week. Additional models were used to calculate hazard ratios after gender stratification. Among the 1,079 subjects, 85 workers were diagnosed with hypertension during 3974.2 person-months. The average number of working hours per week for all subjects was 47.68. The proportion of overtime workers was 61.0% (cutoff, 40 h per week). Compared with those working 40 h and less per week, the hazard ratio of subjects in the final model, which adjusted for all selected variables, working 41-50 h per week was 2.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-4.06), that of subjects working 51-60 h per week was 2.40 (95% CI, 1.07-5.39), and that of subjects working 61 h and over per week was 2.87 (95% CI, 1.33-6.20). In gender stratification models, the hazard ratio of the females tended to be higher than that of the males. As the number of working hours per week increased, the hazard ratio for diagnosis of hypertension significantly increased. This result suggests a positive association between overtime work and the risk of hypertension.

  4. The association between smoking and blood pressure in men: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoju; Wang, Hailing; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wenrui; Dong, Fen; Qian, Yonggang; Gong, Haiying; Hui, Chunxia; Xu, Guodong; Li, Yanlong; Pan, Li; Zhang, Biao; Shan, Guangliang

    2017-10-10

    Cigarette smoking is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the association between smoking and blood pressure is unclear. Thus, the current study examined the association between cigarette smoking and blood pressure in men. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) were examined using digital blood pressure measuring device, and smoking status was determined with China National Health Survey. The ANCOVA showed that the adjusted DBP and MAP were lower in current smokers versus nonsmokers and the adjusted SBP was lower in current smokers versus former smokers (P smoking on blood pressure indices except PP was observed. Smoking cessation was significantly associated with an increased risk of hypertension. However, current smoking was not a risk factor of hypertension.

  5. Smoking in non-student Mexican adolescents with asthma: relation with family structure, educational level, parental approval of smoking, parents who smoke, and smoking friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rodríguez, Carlos F; Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Eliza M; Morales-Romero, Jaime; Iribar-Ibabe, María C; Peinado-Herreros, José

    2012-02-01

    The association between some factors of the familial and social environment with smoking in non-student adolescents with asthma has not been explored. The aim of the study was to determine the association between family structure, educational level, parental approval of smoking, parents who smoke, and smoking friends with smoking in non-student adolescents with asthma. In a cross-sectional study, data were obtained by means of a structured questionnaire applied to 4,778 non-student adolescents aged 13-18 years. Diagnosis of asthma was performed using a questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood questionnaire. The smoking habit was determined by application of a self-administered questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) were determined for smoking using logistic regression. From the total sample, asthma prevalence was 6.6% and of active smoking, 34.2%. Age at initiation of asthma symptoms was 5.15±3.52 years, and that of active smoking was 13.65±2.07 years. Percentage of non-intact family (40.1 vs. 32.7%) was greater in the group of adolescents with asthma. Logistic regression models show that parental approval of smoking (adjusted OR=5.57; 95% confidence interval=2.48-12.51) and smoking friends (adjusted OR=2.92; 95% confidence interval=1.04-8.19) are associated with smoking in non-student adolescents with asthma. In this study, parental approval of smoking and having friends who smoke appear to be associated with smoking among non-student adolescents with asthma. Copyright © 2011 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Idiopathic portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae Kyun; Ryu, Dae Sik; Kim, Heung Chul; Hur, Hun; Eom, Kyeung Tae; Namkung, Sook; Park, Man Soo; Hwang, Woo Chul; Lee, Kwan Seop

    1996-01-01

    To describe the radiologic findings of idiopathic portal hypertension and to find the points of differentiation between idiopathic portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis. Four portograms in five patients who for four years had suffered from pathologically confirmed idiopathic portal hypertension were retrospectively analyzed and compared with a portogram obtained from a control subject with liver cirrhosis. Portographic finding s of idiopathic portal hypertension were paucity of medium-sized portal branches, irregular and obtuse-angled division of peripheral branches, abrupt interruption and an avascular area beneath the liver margin. A portogram of idiopathic portal hypertension may be useful in differentiation this and liver cirrhosis

  7. SECONDARY (ENDOCRINE HYPERTENSION: LECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Yukina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a  very common disease with high morbidity and reduction in quality of life. Endocrine disorders are the most common cause of secondary hypertension affecting ~3% of the population. Primary aldosteronism can be the cause of endocrine hypertension more often than other endocrine disorders. Other less common causes of endocrine hypertension include Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma, thyroid disorders, and hyperparathyroidism. Endocrine hypertension is potentially curable if the underlying cause is identified and treated accordingly. Younger age at manifestation of resistance to multiple antihypertensive drugs, together with other clinical signs of an endocrine disorder, should raise the suspicion and prompt the appropriate evaluation.

  8. Factors Affecting Hypertension among the Malaysian Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ataollahi Eshkoor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common chronic disease in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the effects of age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, nutritional parameters, and blood elements on the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. This research was conducted on a group of 2322 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The hierarchy binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of hypertension in respondents. Approximately, 45.61% of subjects had hypertension. The findings indicated that the female gender (Odds ratio (OR = 1.54, an increase in body weight (OR = 1.61, and an increase in the blood levels of albumin (OR = 1.51, glucose (OR = 1.92, and triglycerides (OR = 1.27 significantly increased the risk of hypertension in subjects (p < 0.05. Conversely, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates (OR = 0.74, and blood cholesterol level (OR = 0.42 significantly reduced the risk of hypertension in samples (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that ethnicity was a non-relevant factor to increase the risk of hypertension in subjects. It was concluded that female gender, an increase in body weight, and an increase in the blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, and albumin enhanced the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. In addition, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates and blood cholesterol level decreased hypertension in subjects.

  9. Modifiable risk factors of hypertension and socio demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Factors associated with the development of hypertension can be categorized into modifiable and non‑modifiable risk factors. The modifiable risk factors include obesity, physical inactivity, high salt diet, smoking alcohol consumption and others. Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of ...

  10. Successful behavior changes in a man with hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenberg, N. K.

    1988-01-01

    Several years of stress, smoking, increased alcohol use, and weight gain accompanied hypertension in a young man with an ominous family history. Aided by short-term drug therapy, he changed his ways and reduced his blood pressure for the long term.

  11. Prevalence, determinants and prognosis of pulmonary hypertension among hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence, determinants and prognosis of pulmonary hypertension among long-term hemodialysis patients in the USA are poorly understood. Methods A cross-sectional survey of prevalence and determinants of pulmonary hypertension was performed, followed by longitudinal follow-up for all-cause mortality. Pulmonary hypertension was defined as an estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure of >35 mmHg using echocardiograms performed within an hour after the end of dialysis. Results Prevalent in 110/288 patients (38%), the independent determinants of pulmonary hypertension were the following: left atrial diameter (odds ratio 10.1 per cm/m2, P pulmonary hypertension (53%, CMR 168.9/1000 patient-years) and 39 among 178 without pulmonary hypertension (22%, CMR 52.5/1000 patient-years) [unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death 2.12 (95% confidence interval 1.41–3.19), P pulmonary hypertension remained an independent predictor for all-cause mortality [HR 2.17 (95% confidence interval 1.31–3.61), P pulmonary hypertension is common and is strongly associated with an enlarged left atrium and poor long-term survival. Reducing left atrial size such as through volume control may be an attractive target to improve pulmonary hypertension. Improving pulmonary hypertension in this group of patients may improve the dismal outcomes. PMID:22290987

  12. Secondhand smoke exposure among never-smoking youth in 168 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Mamudu, Hadii M; Zheng, Shimin; John, Rijo M; Cao, Yan; Kioko, David; Anderson, James; Ouma, Ahmed E O

    2015-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among never-smoking adolescents and identify key factors associated with such exposure. Data were obtained from nationally representative Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 168 countries during 1999-2008. SHS exposure was ascertained in relation to the location-exposure inside home, outside home, and both inside and outside home, respectively. Independent variables included parental and/or peer smoking, knowledge about smoke harm, attitudes toward smoking ban, age, sex, and World Health Organization region. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Of 356,414 never-smoking adolescents included in the study, 30.4%, 44.2%, and 23.2% were exposed to SHS inside home, outside home, and both, respectively. Parental smoking, peer smoking, knowledge about smoke harm, and positive attitudes toward smoke ban were significantly associated with increased odds of SHS exposure. Approximately 14% of adolescents had both smoking parents and peers. Compared with never-smoking adolescents who did not have both smoking parents and peers, those who had both smoking parents and peers had 19 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 19.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 16.86-21.41), eight (aOR, 7.71; 95% CI, 7.05-8.43), and 23 times (aOR, 23.16; 95% CI, 20.74-25.87) higher odds of exposure to SHS inside, outside, and both inside and outcome home, respectively. Approximately one third and two fifths of never-smoking adolescents were exposed to SHS inside or outside home, and smoking parents and/or peers are the key factors. Study findings highlight the need to develop and implement comprehensive smoke-free policies consistent with the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Predictive value of ultrasonography in portal hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, E; Torres, P; Trejo, C; Barra Ostoni, V; Ortega, C; Römer, H

    1991-01-01

    Portal hypertension is a common pathology in childhood and one of its most common causes is cavernomatosis of the portal vein. This obstruction causes hemodynamic changes which lead to splenomegaly and collateral circulation. Esophageal varices are one of the most important sequelae, which endanger the patient's life because of a bleeding tendency. Ecosonography helps to detect the thickening of the lesser omentum vis a vis the aortic diameter, caused by the collateral circulation. We studied 15 children presenting with portal hypertension resulting from portal vein cavernomatosis; we performed an upper GI endoscopy and abdominal ecosonography. The endoscopy revealed grade II esophageal varices in 20% of cases, the remaining 80% had grade III and grade IV. Ecosonography revealed an increased lesser omentum/aorta ratio in children with portal hypertension, compared to controls (p portal hypertension.

  14. Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew C. Farrelly; William N. Evans; Edward Montgomery

    1999-01-01

    In recent years there has been a heightened public concern over the potentially harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In response, smoking has been banned on many jobs. Using data from the 1991 and 1993 National Health Interview Survey and smoking supplements to the September 1992 and May 1993 Current Population Survey, we investigate whether these workplace policies reduce smoking prevalence and smoking intensity among workers. Our estimates suggest that workplace bans reduce...

  15. Characteristics of Resistant Hypertension in a Large Ethnically Diverse Hypertension Population of an Integrated Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, John J.; Bhandari, Simran K.; Shi, Jiaxiao; In Liu, Lu A.; Calhoun, David A.; McGlynn, Elizabeth A.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Jacobsen, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence and characterize resistant hypertension from a large representative population with successful hypertension management and reliable health information. Patient and Methods We performed a cross sectional study using clinical encounter, laboratory, and administrative information from the Kaiser Permanente Southern California health system during 1/1/2006–12/31/2007. From individuals age >17 years with hypertension, resistant hypertension was identified and prevalence determined. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) with adjustments for demographics, clinical variables, and medication use. Results Among 470,386 hypertensive individuals, 12.8% were identified as resistant representing15.3% of those on medications. Overall, 37,061 (7.9%) had uncontrolled hypertension while on ≥ 3 medicines. OR (95% confidence interval) for resistant hypertension were greater for black race (1.68, 1.62–1.75), older age (1.11, 1.10–1.11 for every 5 year increase), males (1.06, 1.03–1.10), and obesity (1.46, 1.42–1.51). Medication adherence rates were higher in resistant hypertension (93 vs 90%, phypertension. Conclusion Within a more standardized hypertension treatment environment, we observed a rate of resistant hypertension comparable to past studies using more fragmented data sources. Past observations have been limited due to non-representative populations, reliability of the data, heterogeneity of the treatment environments, and less than ideal control rates. This cohort which was established with an electronic medical record based approach has the potential to provide a better understanding of resistant hypertension and outcomes. PMID:24079679

  16. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Smoking and Smoking Cessation Due to a Smoking Ban: General Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie; Demarest, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to measure changes in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban in Luxembourg. Data were derived from the PSELL3/EU-SILC (Panel Socio-Economique Liewen Zu Letzebuerg/European Union—Statistic on Income and Living Conditions) survey, which was a representative survey of the general population aged ≥16 years conducted in Luxembourg in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban were used as the main smoking outcomes. Two inequality measures were calculated to assess the magnitude and temporal trends of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: the prevalence ratio and the disparity index. Smoking cessation due to the smoking ban was considered as a positive outcome. Three multiple logistic regression models were used to assess social inequalities in smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban. Education level, income, and employment status served as proxies for socioeconomic status. The prevalence of smoking decreased by 22.5% between 2005 and 2008 (from 23.1% in 2005 to 17.9% in 2008), but socioeconomic inequalities in smoking persisted. Smoking prevalence decreased by 24.2% and 20.2% in men and women, respectively; this difference was not statistically significant. Smoking cessation in daily smokers due to the 2006 smoking ban was associated with education level, employment status, and income, with higher percentages of quitters among those with a lower socioeconomic status. The decrease in smoking prevalence after the 2006 law was also associated with a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities, including differences in education level, income, and employment status. Although the smoking ban contributed to a reduction of such inequalities, they still persist, indicating the need for a more targeted approach of smoke-free policies directed toward lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:27100293

  17. Toward a definition of masked hypertension and white-coat hypertension among hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Sinha, Arjun D; Light, Robert P

    2011-08-01

    Among people with essential hypertension, ambulatory BP measurement is superior to BP obtained in the clinic in predicting cardiovascular outcomes. In part, this is because it can detect white-coat hypertension and masked hypertension. Whether the same is true for hemodialysis patients is not known. Using a threshold of 140/80 mmHg for median midweek dialysis-unit BP and 135/85 mmHg for 44-hour ambulatory BP, we defined four categories of BP: sustained normotension (SN), white-coat hypertension (WCH), masked hypertension (MHTN), and sustained hypertension (SHTN). Among 355 long-term hemodialysis patients, the prevalence of SN was 35%, WCH 15%, MHTN 15%, and SHTN 35%. Over a mean follow-up of 29.6 (SD 21.7) months, 102 patients died (29%), yielding a crude mortality rate of 121/1000 patient-years. Unadjusted and multivariate-adjusted analyses showed increasing all-cause mortality with increasing severity of hypertension (unadjusted hazard ratios from SN, WCH, MHTN, SHTN: 1, 1.12, 1.70, 1.80, respectively [P for trend hypertension population, MHTN and WCH have prognostic significance. The prognostic value of BP obtained in the dialysis unit can be refined with ambulatory BP monitoring.

  18. Effects of smoking on fatty acids composition of croaker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... smoked croakers analysed without skin (skinless).The relationship of PUFA to SFA for fresh and smoked croakers were greater than 0.4 and the omega-6 to omega-3 ratios of both the fresh and smoked croaker were far less than one (1) thus constituting an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids and a highly healthy food.

  19. Age at First Childbirth and Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangshin

    2017-05-01

    Whether age at first childbirth has an effect on hypertension incidence is unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between age at first childbirth and hypertension and to examine whether degree of obesity, measured as body mass index, mediates age at first childbirth-related hypertension in postmenopausal women. This study analyzed 4779 postmenopausal women data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate relationship between age at first childbirth and hypertension. Mediation analysis was performed to examine the contribution of body mass index to age at first childbirth-related hypertension. Mean of participants' age at first childbirth and current age were 23.8 and 63.4 years, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was 51.1%. Age at first childbirth was significantly associated with the prevalence of hypertension (odds ratio, 0.963; 95% confidence interval, 0.930-0.998; P =0.036). Women with age at first childbirth ≤19 years had significantly higher risk of hypertension (odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.23; P =0.004) compared with those >19 years. Multivariable-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was significantly lower in women who delivered the first infant at 20 to 24 (45.5%), 25 to 29 (46.1%), and ≥30 (39.9%) years compared with those at ≤19 years (58.4%). Body mass index completely mediated age at first childbirth-hypertension relationship (indirect effect: odds ratio, 0.992; 95% confidence interval, 0.987-0.998; P =0.008). Age at first childbirth was significantly associated with hypertension in postmenopausal women. Body mass index mediated the effects of age at first childbirth on hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Epidemiology and management of hypertension among Bedouins in Northern Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaddou, Hashem Y; Bateiha, Anwar M; Al-Khateeb, Mohammed S; Ajlouni, Kamel M

    2003-05-01

    To estimate the magnitude of hypertension, and its levels of awareness and control of hypertension among a community of Jordanian aborigines in Northern Jordan; and to compare the study findings with findings from other Jordanian communities. A systematic sample of 50% of all households of Qafqafa, Northern Jordan was selected and all members of the selected households were included in the study at Qafqafa Health Center, Qafqafa, Jordan. A structured questionnaire was administered to all study participants and measurement of blood pressure was performed according to a preset criteria. Data on 366 subjects included in the sample were collected during the months of April and May 2002. A total of 40 subjects or 10.9% were suffering from hypertension. Prevalence rate of hypertension was significantly lower than the 16.1% and 16.3% prevalence rates reported from other more modernized Jordanian communities. Logistic regression analysis indicated that hypertension was positively associated with masculinity, age, illiteracy, obesity, and with positive family history of hypertension. No association was detected between hypertension and each of smoking, Diabetes mellitus, and total serum cholesterol. This study showed that one-half (47.5%) of hypertensives were unaware of their diagnosis and more than one-half (57.1%) of those aware of their diagnosis did not achieve control of their hypertension. Population of the study community has significantly lower levels of hypertension than both semi-urban and recently urbanized Jordanian communities, and much of the rise in blood pressure levels is attributed to environmental factors. Moreover, hypertension management programs in Jordan are far below the optimal standards.

  1. Predictive value of night-time heart rate for cardiovascular events in hypertension. The ABP-International study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatini, Paolo; Reboldi, Gianpaolo; Beilin, Lawrence J; Eguchi, Kazuo; Imai, Yutaka; Kario, Kazuomi; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Pierdomenico, Sante D; Saladini, Francesca; Schwartz, Joseph E; Wing, Lindon; Verdecchia, Paolo

    2013-09-30

    Data from prospective cohort studies regarding the association between ambulatory heart rate (HR) and cardiovascular events (CVE) are conflicting. To investigate whether ambulatory HR predicts CVE in hypertension, we performed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and HR monitoring in 7600 hypertensive patients aged 52 ± 16 years from Italy, U.S.A., Japan, and Australia, included in the 'ABP-International' registry. All were untreated at baseline examination. Standardized hazard ratios for ambulatory HRs were computed, stratifying for cohort, and adjusting for age, gender, blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, serum total cholesterol and serum creatinine. During a median follow-up of 5.0 years there were 639 fatal and nonfatal CVE. In a multivariable Cox model, night-time HR predicted fatal combined with nonfatal CVE more closely than 24h HR (p=0.007 and =0.03, respectively). Daytime HR and the night:day HR ratio were not associated with CVE (p=0.07 and =0.18, respectively). The hazard ratio of the fatal combined with nonfatal CVE for a 10-beats/min increment of the night-time HR was 1.13 (95% CI, 1.04-1.22). This relationship remained significant when subjects taking beta-blockers during the follow-up (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.25) or subjects who had an event within 5 years after enrollment (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05-1.45) were excluded from analysis. At variance with previous data obtained from general populations, ambulatory HR added to the risk stratification for fatal combined with nonfatal CVE in the hypertensive patients from the ABP-International study. Night-time HR was a better predictor of CVE than daytime HR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Smoking behavior, knowledge, and attitudes towards anti-smoking regulations of nursing students in Sousse, Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Rejeb, M; Abroug, H; Khefacha-Aissa, S; Ben Fredj, M; Dhidah, L; Said-Latiri, H

    2016-04-01

    Smoking prevalence has reached high rates among health professionals. Our study aimed to assess smoking behavior, knowledge and attitudes towards anti-smoking regulations of nursing students. In 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional study among nursing students enrolled in private and state nursing institutions of Sousse (Tunisia). In our study, 440 students were selected. The mean age was 22 ± 2 years. The sex ratio was 0.65. The prevalence of smoking was 20.6%. It was significantly higher in men than women (50% vs 4.5%, P smoking. Prohibiting the sale of cigarettes to minors and smoking in enclosed public places were the two most mentioned anti-smoking regulations. Our rate was lower than those reported in the literature. This result should encourage policymakers to continue actions and ensure sustainability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Ben L; Koh, Christopher; Heller, Theo

    2018-05-01

    Noncirrhotic portal hypertension represents a heterogeneous group of liver disorders that is characterized by portal hypertension in the absence of cirrhosis. The purpose of this review is to serve as a guide on how to approach a patient with noncirrhotic portal hypertension with a focus on recent developments. Recent studies pertaining to noncirrhotic portal hypertension have investigated aetiological causes, mechanisms of disease, noninvasive diagnostic modalities, clinical characteristics in the paediatric population and novel treatment targets. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension is an underappreciated clinical entity that can be difficult to diagnosis without a healthy suspicion. Diagnosis then relies on a comprehensive understanding of the causes and clinical manifestations of this disease, as well as a careful interpretation of the liver biopsy. Noninvasive approaches to diagnosis may play a significant role moving forward in this disease. Treatment in NCPH remains largely targeted at the individual sequalae of portal hypertension.

  4. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  5. Pediatric portal hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Clarissa Barbon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Pediatric portal hypertension management is a team approach between the patient, the patient's family, the primary caregiver, and specialty providers. Evidence-based practice guidelines have not been established in pediatrics. This article serves as a review for the primary care NP in the management of pediatric portal hypertension, discussing the etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of pediatric portal hypertension, diagnostic tests, and treatment and management options. PMID:28406835

  6. Hypertension og hyperlipidaemi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik Steen; Larsen, Mogens Lytken

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension and hyperlipidemia are well-established and partially overlapping risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Analyses of cardiovascular morbidity in relationship to changes in blood pressure and in serum cholesterol levels have shown that combined reduction of both risk factors...... are important to achieve a reduction in morbidity. Statins have been shown to be effective in preventing both coronary and cerebrovascular events in both hypertensive and normotensive cases. Consequently, most recent guidelines recommend that statin treatment be considered in hypertensive patients aged less...

  7. The economic burden of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in rural South-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Cui, Wenlong; He, Jianhui; Wu, Xinan

    2014-06-01

    To estimate the direct and indirect costs of chronic diseases attributed to smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a given year (2011) in rural southwest China. A prevalence-based, disease-specific attributable-risk approach was used to estimate the economic burden of chronic diseases attributable to both smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 17 158 consenting adults aged ≥18 years was used to derive prevalence of smoking and exposure to SHS, as well as direct and indirect costs of chronic diseases. In the study population, the prevalence rates of smoking and exposure to SHS are 73.1 and 38.2% for males and 1.4 and 43.4% for females, respectively. The total costs of illness are $25.85 million for COPD, $18.80 million for asthma, $37.25 million for CHD, $17.91 million for stroke, $264.35 million for hypertension and $17.11 million for peptic ulcer. The estimated costs attributable to smoking and exposure to SHS are $95.51 million and $79.35 million, accounting for 7.15 and 5.94% of local healthcare costs, respectively. Of the total costs of tobacco, direct costs and indirect costs are $94.66 million and $0.85 million for smoking, and $78.22 million and $1.36 million for exposure to SHS. Smoking contributes more cost of illness than exposure to SHS in men, whereas exposure to SHS contributes more cost of illness than smoking in women. Smoking and exposure to SHS produce substantial economic burden as well as have a considerable public health impact in rural southwest China.

  8. Contribution of modifiable risk factors for hypertension and type-2 diabetes in Peruvian resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-01-01

    It is important to understand the local burden of non-communicable diseases including within-country heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to characterise hypertension and type-2 diabetes profiles across different Peruvian geographical settings emphasising the assessment of modifiable risk factors. Analysis of the CRONICAS Cohort Study baseline assessment was conducted. Cardiometabolic outcomes were blood pressure categories (hypertension, prehypertension, normal) and glucose metabolism disorder status (diabetes, prediabetes, normal). Exposures were study setting and six modifiable factors (smoking, alcohol drinking, leisure time and transport-related physical activity levels, TV watching, fruit/vegetables intake and obesity). Poisson regression models were used to report prevalence ratios (PR). Population attributable risks (PAR) were also estimated. Data from 3238 participants, 48.3% male, mean age 45.3 years, were analysed. Age-standardised (WHO population) prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was 24% and 16%, whereas for prediabetes and type-2 diabetes it was 18% and 6%, respectively. Outcomes varied according to study setting (pdiabetes. PAR showed that obesity was an important determinant for hypertension (15.7%) and type-2 diabetes (23.9%). There is an evident heterogeneity in the prevalence of and risk factors for hypertension and diabetes within Peru. Prehypertension and prediabetes are highly prevalent across settings. Our results emphasise the need of understanding the epidemiology of cardiometabolic conditions to appropriately implement interventions to tackle the burden of non-communicable diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Smoking Stinks! KidsHealth / For Kids / Smoking Stinks! What's in ... out more about cigarettes and tobacco. What Are Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco? Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) ...

  10. Smoking and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery - quitting smoking; Surgery - quitting tobacco; Wound healing - smoking ... Tar, nicotine, and other chemicals from smoking can increase your risk of many health problems. These include heart and blood vessel problems, such as: Blood clots and aneurysms in ...

  11. Smoking and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  12. 42. Hypertension: Morbidity review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzullah khan

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, eye abnormalities and end stage renal disease, which require proper counseling and management of patients.

  13. The new hypertension guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ralph H

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP) has published guidelines annually since 2000. The CHEP guidelines are a model of concise, comprehensive, up-to-date, evidence-rated guidelines for physicians who diagnose and treat hypertension. The guidelines address measurement of blood pressure and the definition of hypertension, secondary hypertension evaluation and treatment, and blood pressure targets and medication choices in patients with and without compelling indications. This review describes CHEP's process for developing guidelines and provides an overview of the 2013 recommendations. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Hypertension in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, Rodrigo; Tagle V, Rodrigo; Acevedo, Mónica; Valdés, Gloria

    2013-02-01

    The present review examines the types of hypertension that women may suffer throughout life, their physiopathological characteristics and management. In early life, the currently used low-dose oral contraceptives seldom cause hypertension. Pregnancy provokes preeclampsia, its main medical complication, secondary to inadequate transformation of the spiral arteries and the subsequent multisystem endothelial damage caused by deportation of placental factors and microparticles. Hypertension in preeclampsia is an epiphenomenon which needs to be controlled at levels that reduce maternal risk without impairing placental perfusion. The hemodynamic changes of pregnancy may unmask a hypertensive phenotype, may exacerbate a chronic hypertension, or may complicate hypertension secondary to lupus, renovascular lesions, and pheochromocytoma. On the other hand a primary aldosteronism may benefit from the effect of progesterone and present as a postpartum hypertension. A hypertensive pregnancy, especially preeclampsia, represents a risk for cardiac, vascular and renal disease in later life. Menopause may mimic a pheochromocytoma, and is associated to endothelial dysfunction and salt-sensitivity. Among women, non-pharmacological treatment should be forcefully advocated, except for sodium restriction during pregnancy. The blockade of the renin-angiotensin system should be avoided in women at risk of pregnancy; betablockers could be used with precautions during pregnancy; diuretics, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists should not be used during breast feeding. Collateral effects of antihypertensives, such as hyponatremia, cough and edema are more common in women. Thus, hypertension in women should be managed according to the different life stages.

  15. VASCULAR REMODELING IN HYPERTENSION: ANGIOGENESIS FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Haisheva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim — cross-sectional study of changes in various segments of the vascular bed in arterial hypertension (AH, defining the role of inducers and inhibitors of angiogenesis in these processes.Materials and methods. The study included 99 patients with arterial hypertension of I–II degree, average age of 63.2 ± 2.6 years, diseaseduration 9.2 ± 7.2 years.Results. It was found that patients with arterial hypertension have disorders in all segments of vascular bed: endothelial dysfunction (highvWF, microcirculatory disorders, and increased pulse wave velocity (PWV of elastic-type vessels. The level of angioginesis factors doesnot depend on such parameters as gender, age, body mass index. Smoking and duration of hypertension influence on vascular endothelialgrowth factor raise and endostatin levels are higher in patients with family history of cardiovascular diseases. Duration of disease is directlycorrelated with microcirculatory disorders and the PWV, correlation between microcirculatory disorders and pulse wave velocity indicatetheir common processes.

  16. Improving measurement of normative beliefs involving smoking among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Switzer, Galen E; Dalton, Madeline A

    2007-05-01

    To identify different components of smoking normative beliefs and determine if each component is independently associated with 2 clinically relevant measures of smoking in adolescents. Cross-sectional survey. One large suburban high school. A total of 1211 high school students aged 14 to 18 years. Current smoking and susceptibility to smoking. Of the 1138 students with data on current smoking, 216 (19.0%) reported current smoking, and 342 (38.3%) of the 893 nonsmoking students with susceptibility data were susceptible to future smoking. Factor analysis identified 3 normative belief constructs, labeled "perceived prevalence of smoking," "perceived popularity of smoking among elite/successful elements of society," and "disapproval of smoking by parents/peers." On average, students believed that 56% of people in the United States smoke cigarettes; 27.7% believed that wealthy people smoke more than poor people. Multiple logistic regression showed that each of the 3 constructs was independently associated with current smoking (adjusted odds ratios, 1.05 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.02-1.08], 1.12 [95% CI, 1.02-1.23], and 0.66 [95% CI, 0.59-0.75], respectively), even after controlling for covariates. Students' perceptions of smoking among the successful/elite and disapproval by parents/peers were independently associated with susceptibility to future smoking (adjusted odds ratios, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.11-1.29] and 0.87 [95% CI, 0.79-0.96], respectively). Adolescents' normative beliefs about smoking are multidimensional and include at least 3 distinct components, each of which was independently related to smoking outcomes. These distinct components should be considered in the design and evaluation of programs related to prevention and cessation of adolescent smoking.

  17. Parenting style and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Kristin Koetting; Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C

    2002-06-01

    To investigate whether parenting style is an independent risk factor of smoking initiation and experimentation among adolescents, and whether there is a relationship between parenting style and readiness to quit, or nicotine dependence among smokers. The 84-item Health and Smoking Questionnaire, which assesses demographics, smoking status and smoking history, perceptions of risk and risk reduction, risk factors for tobacco use, and parenting style, was administered to 816 adolescents in grades 7 to 12 (mean age, 15.1 years) of whom 22.6% (n = 182) were smokers. Parenting style was measured by the brief, non-retrospective version of the Family of Origin Scale (FOS). Higher scores on the FOS indicated more positive perceived parenting style with high levels of intimacy and autonomy, characteristics of healthy parent-child relationships. Data were analyzed using a model-building approach to logistic regression with demographic and other psychosocial variables in the first two steps, and with parenting style as the last step. Results from two logistic regression models indicate that although parenting style is not a significant risk factor for smoking experimentation [odds ratio (OR) =.998; confidence interval (CI) =.977-1.019; p =.820], it is a significant independent risk factor for smoking initiation (OR =.950; CI =.930-.970; p =.000). Smokers who were more ready to quit had higher parenting style scores than those who were not ready to quit, and smokers who had made a serious quit attempt (an indicator of nicotine addiction) had higher parenting style scores than those who had not made a quit attempt. Moreover, nonsmokers who reported they would smoke a cigarette if their best friend offered had significantly lower parenting style scores than those who reported they would not smoke a cigarette. Additional research on parenting style and its impact on adolescent smoking with a more economically and ethnically diverse sample is warranted. If future research confirms

  18. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Smoking cessation medicines can: Help with the craving for tobacco. Help you with withdrawal symptoms. Keep you ...

  19. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun; Paek, Domyung

    2008-01-01

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 μg/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 μg/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population

  20. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Domyung [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: paekdm@snu.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 {mu}g/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 {mu}g/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population.

  1. Managing hypertension: relevant biomarkers and combating bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Singharaj

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the most common chronic diseases which affects many people who belong to a higher age range. The standard definition that is offered to the general public has a minimum age of 18 years to be diagnosed with hypertension. Many studies have been conducted in the hopes of finding consistent data that provides information on the biomarkers of hypertension and effective forms of treatment. However, there is a tendency for skewed data due to the ineffectiveness of diagnosing hypertension, due to variability in technique or even negligence. Interestingly, research has indicated that there are connections to certain biomarkers of hypertension. However,the results have been deemed inconclusive. Moreover, the results provide promising data for future studies that have an emphasis on biomarkers. The biomarkers that have been consistently brought to researchers’ attention include the following: circulating C-reactive protein (CRP, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR, and aldosterone:renin ratio (ARR. These four biomarkers have become the foundation of multiple hypertension studies, even though the only formal conclusion drawn from these studies is that there is a wide range of variables that have some kind of influence on hypertension. More recently, treatment options for hypertension have increasingly become an emphasis for studies, with research predicting that nutrition plays a key role in the managing of diseases. Furthermore, the role of bioactive compounds has gained traction in hypertension research, being loosely correlated to managing specific biomarkers. Ultimately, these correlations to bioactive compounds like antioxidants would demonstrate that certain functional foods have the capacity to help treat hypertension. The modality is to find an alternative option for managing or treating hypertension through natural sources of food or food products fortified with ingredients to

  2. Secondhand smoke exposure and other correlates of susceptibility to smoking: a propensity score matching approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Russell K; Nelson, Ashlyn A; Macy, Jonathan T; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2015-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is responsible for numerous diseases of the lungs and other bodily systems among children. In addition to the adverse health effects of SHS exposure, studies show that children exposed to SHS are more likely to smoke in adolescence. Susceptibility to smoking is a measure used to identify adolescent never-smokers who are at risk for smoking. Limited research has been conducted on the influence of SHS on susceptibility to smoking. The purpose of this study was to determine a robust measure of the strength of correlation between SHS exposure and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking U.S. adolescents. This study used data from the 2009 National Youth Tobacco Survey to identify predictors of susceptibility to smoking in the full (pre-match) sample of adolescents and a smaller (post-match) sample created by propensity score matching. Results showed a significant association between SHS exposure and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking adolescents in the pre-match (OR=1.47) and post-match (OR=1.52) samples. The odds ratio increase after matching suggests that the strength of the relationship was underestimated in the pre-match sample. Other significant correlates of susceptibility to smoking identified include: gender, race/ethnicity, personal income, smoke-free home rules, number of smoking friends, perception of SHS harm, perceived benefits of smoking, and exposure to pro-tobacco media messages. The use of propensity score matching procedures reduced bias in the post-match sample, and provided a more robust estimate of the influence of SHS exposure on susceptibility to smoking, compared to the pre-match sample estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. OBESITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH HYPERTENSION IN ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Hendy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a global issue. Previous studies in Bali reveal an increase in the proportionof obesity in adolescents. Obesity causes hypertension; hence there should also be an increase inthe prevalence of hypertension as well in Bali. Hypertension in obese adolescents could be causedby various factors, hence identification of the risks factors is crucial as a preventive approach.The aim of this study was to prove an association between obesity and hypertension in adolescents,and to look for the risk factors. We used an analitical cross sectional design conducted to 12-14years old samples. We took body weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, andblood pressure measurements with appropriate devices and asked for information regarding lifestyle and familial history by a questionnare filled in by the samples. The association of obeseadolescents with hypertension and their risk factors was analyzed by Chi-square and multivariatetests. A total of 225 subjects from Santo Yoseph junior high school students, west Denpasar,Bali, met the inclusion criteria. The proportion of obese subjects in this study was 25.7%. Wefound that proportion in familial history of obesity was greater in obese than non-obese subjects(70.7 % vs 41.3%. Logistic regression test revealed that obese subjects with hypertension had abody mass index (BMI > 30 with odds ratio of 7.3 (CI 95% = 1.8 to 28.8 and P = 0.005. Weconcluded that there was an association between obesity and adolescents with hypertension,and BMI > 30 could be a risk factor for obese adolescents with hypertension.

  4. The effect of ethnicity on the performance of protein-creatinine ratio in the prediction of significant proteinuria in pregnancies at risk of or with established hypertension: an implementation audit and cost implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Sadia; Cordina, Mark; Penna, Leonie; Sherwood, Roy; Dew, Tracy; Kametas, Nikos A

    2018-05-01

    The replacement of 24-h urine collection by protein-creatinine ratio (PCR) for the diagnosis of preeclampsia has been recently recommended. However, the literature is conflicting and there are concerns about the impact of demographic characteristics on the performance of PCR. This was an implementation audit of the introduction of PCR in a London Tertiary obstetric unit. The performance of PCR in the prediction of proteinuria ≥300 mg/day was assessed in 476 women with suspected preeclampsia who completed a 24-h urine collection and an untimed urine sample for PCR calculation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the independent predictors of significant proteinuria. In a pregnant population, ethnicity and PCR are the main predictors of ≥300 mg proteinuria in a 24-h urine collection. A PCR cut-off of 30 mg/mmol would have incorrectly classified as non-proteinuric, 41.4% and 22.9% of black and non-black women, respectively. Sensitivity of 100% is achieved at cut-offs of 8.67 and 20.56 mg/mmol for black and non-black women, respectively. Applying these levels as a screening tool to inform the need to perform a 24-h urine collection in 1000 women, would lead to a financial saving of €2911 in non-black women and to an additional cost of €3269 in black women. Our data suggest that a move from screening for proteinuria with a 24-h urine collection to screening with urine PCR is not appropriate for black populations. However, the move may lead to cost-saving if used in the white population with a PCR cut-off of 20.5. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. The cumulative effect of core lifestyle behaviours on the prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kearney Patricia M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cardiovascular disease (CVD occurs in the presence of traditional risk factors, including hypertension and dyslipidemia, and these in turn are influenced by behavioural factors such as diet and lifestyle. Previous research has identified a group at low risk of CVD based on a cluster of inter-related factors: body mass index (BMI 2, moderate exercise, alcohol intake, non-smoking and a favourable dietary pattern. The objective of this study was to determine whether these factors are associated with a reduced prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia in an Irish adult population. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey of 1018 men and women sampled from 17 general practices. Participants completed health, lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires and provided fasting blood samples for analysis of glucose and insulin. We defined a low risk group based on the following protective factors: BMI 2; waist-hip ratio (WHR Results We found strong significant inverse associations between the number of protective factors and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and dyslipidemia. The prevalence odds ratio of hypertension in persons with 1, 2, 3, ≥ 4 protective factors relative to those with none, were 1.0, 0.76, 0.68 and 0.34 (trend p Conclusion Our findings of a strong inverse association between low risk behaviours and two of the traditional risk factors for CVD highlight the importance of 'the causes of the causes' and the potential for behaviour modification in CVD prevention at a population level.

  6. Hypertension and age at onset of natural menopause in Korean postmenopausal women: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Park, Yoon-Hyung; Kim, Jun-Mo; Lee, Bo-Ra

    2016-08-01

    Menopause is a natural phenomenon of aging, although the timing and management of menopause can significantly affect a woman's quality of life. It is therefore important to identify measures to ensure a healthy menopause. We set out to investigate the association between hypertension and early menopause in Korean women. This cross-sectional study was based on 2008-2013 data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Of the 53,829 participants surveyed, 13,584 women were selected. We analyzed the contents of the health interview, health examination, and nutrition survey. The main outcome was defined based on hazard ratios (HR) to identify the effects of hypertension on age at onset of menopause. Among postmenopausal women (n=6650), the mean age at onset of menopause was 50.4 years. Premenopausal hypertension was statistically significantly associated with age at menopause, oral contraceptive usage, household income, education level, occupation, marital status and smoking and drinking habits. With lower age at diagnosis of hypertension, HRs for menopause tended to be higher, and hypertension diagnosed before age 40 years conferred a statistically significantly higher HR (Model 1, HR=2.32, 95% CI=1.87-2.88; Model 2, HR=2.31, 95% CI=1.86-2.86; Model 3, HR=2.23, 95% CI=1.80-2.77; Model 4, HR=2.00, 95% CI=1.52-2.63). Premature menopause is strongly associated with lifestyle factors, in combination with incomplete management of chronic diseases. Our findings support the hypothesis that younger age at diagnosis of hypertension is associated with younger age at onset of menopause in Korean women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Someya

    Full Text Available Hypertension is developed easily in Asian adults with normal body mass index (BMI (~23 kg/m2, compared with other ethnicities with similar BMI. This study tested the hypothesis that slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men by historical cohort study.The study participants were 636 male alumni of the physical education school. They had available data on their physical examination at college age and follow-up investigation between 2007 and 2011. The participants were categorized into six categories: BMI at college age of <20.0 kg/m2, 20.0-21.0kg/m2, 21.0-22.0kg/m2, 22.0-23.0kg/m2, 23.0-24.0kg/m2, and ≥24.0kg/m2, and the incidence of hypertension was compared.This study covered 27-year follow-up period (interquartile range: IQR: 23-31 which included 17,059 person-years of observation. Subjects were 22 (22-22 years old at graduated college, and 49 (45-53 years old at first follow-up investigation. During the period, 120 men developed hypertension. The prevalence rates of hypertension for lowest to highest BMI categories were 9.4%, 14.6%, 16.1%, 17.5%, 30.3%, and 29.3%, respectively (p<0.001 for trend, and their hazard ratios were 1.00 (reference, 1.80 (95%CI: 0.65-4.94, 2.17 (0.83-5.64, 2.29 (0.89-5.92, 3.60 (1.37-9.47 and 4.72 (1.78-12.48, respectively (p<0.001 for trend. This trend was similar after adjustment for age, year of graduation, smoking, current exercise status and current dietary intake.Slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men.

  8. Food Patterns, Lifestyle, and Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Arjmand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High blood pressure (BP is considered as a strong predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD Environmental and genetic factors may have a role in high blood pressures. Nutrition has a potential role in the prevention of hypertension and its sequelae. Effect of lowering blood pressure by modification of complex dietary patterns may be the result of synergism between the various components of certain foods or food combinations rather than of the specific effect of a particular nutrient. Vegetarian Diet, Mediterranean Diet, and Dash Diet are three food patterns which have been associated with lowering BP. Vegetarian Diet are characterized by high intake of legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits. A relatively high polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio will make by this kind of diet. Low fat content and high potassium, magnesium, and fiber content of this diet, all factors possibly cooperating to the reduction of blood pressure. Mediterranean Diet has low animal and dairy products as well as saturated fatty acids and cholesterol; it is rich in plant food, legumes, fiber, and antioxidant vitamins with olive oil as the main source of fat. The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH is a success process in control of hypertension, which emphasizes vegetables and fruits and dairy foods with low-fat, it also includes more nuts, poultry, fish, and, whole grains and lower amounts of red meat, fats, sweets, and sugar-containing beverages. DASH diet is poorer in total and saturated fat and cholesterol and richer in potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber in comparison to the habitual Western diet. In conclusion, although multiple dietary factors can influence on BP and each factor has a modest effect; the combined effects of those factors can be substantial. In the current study, we review food patterns, lifestyle, and their relationship with hypertension and the possible mechanisms involved.

  9. Associations between hypo-HDL cholesterolemia and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged men and women: Independence of habitual alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Daimon, Takashi

    Hypo-HDL cholesterolemia is a potent cardiovascular risk factor, and HDL cholesterol level is influenced by lifestyles including alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between hypo-HDL cholesterolemia and cardiovascular risk factors and to determine whether or not these relationships depend on the above-mentioned lifestyles. The subjects were 3456 men and 2510 women (35-60 years of age) showing low HDL cholesterol levels (smoking and regular exercise (men, n=333; women, n=1410) and their age-matched control subjects were also analysed. Both in men and in women of overall subjects and subjects without histories of alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise, odds ratios of subjects with hypo-HDL cholesterolemia vs. subjects with normo-HDL cholesterolemia for high body mass index, high waist-to-height ratio, high triglycerides, high lipid accumulation product and multiple risk factors (three or more out of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes) were significantly higher than the reference level of 1.00. These associations in overall subjects were found when the above habits were adjusted. Hypo-HDL cholesterolemic men and women have adverse cardiovascular profiles, such as obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and multiple risk factors, independently of age, alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of the relationship between radiological abnormalities and both pulmonary function and pulmonary hypertension in coal workers' pneumoconiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, O.A.; Gulbay, B.E.; Saryal, S.; Karabiylkoglu, G. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2007-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the radiological evidence of emphysema, and the extent of interstitial involvement, on lung function and pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) in patients with coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). All patients showed a mild decrease in FEV1/FVC and a mild increase in FRC. Forty-four per cent of patients developed mild to moderate pulmonary hypertension. Emphysema scores correlated significantly with airflow rates, including FEV1%, FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75%, and with carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO)% predicted as well as FRC% predicted and the ratio RV/TLC, which are indices of air trapping. Additionally, profusion and global profusion scores showed significant correlation with FEV1/FVC, DLCO% predicted, specific airway conductance and smoking. Mean PAP showed a significant negative correlation with FEF50% predicted, DLCO% predicted and profusion score. The impairment of pulmonary function (mainly disturbance in airflow rates and air trapping) and pulmonary hypertension may be present, even in a simple form of CWP. The pulmonary function impairment in patients with CWP is likely to be attributable to the occurrence of emphysema. However, pulmonary hypertension was directly related to the profusion of pneumoconiotic nodules, which may result in obliteration of the vascular bed.

  11. Therapeutic Exercise and Hypertension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    patients but may not reduce the BP of normotensive individual. Exercise function ... and mortality in all age groups; it also creates major social, personal and financial ... drug therapy by as symptomatic hypertensive and high cost of drugs particularly in a ..... Events in hypertensive patients randomized to doxagosin versus.

  12. Noncirrotisk intrahepatisk portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam Fialla, Annette; Havelund, Troels

    2007-01-01

    Non-cirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension is characterized by portal hypertension in the absence of liver cirrhosis or portal vein thrombosis. The disease is common in the East and rarely seen in the West. Two cases with oesophageal varices are described. The histopathology is heterogeneous...... but includes vascular lesions and portal fibrosis. Patient management follows the current recommendations for variceal bleeding....

  13. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart). This type of pulmonary hypertension was called “secondary pulmonary hypertension” but is now referred to as PH, because the cause is known to be from lung disease, heart disease, or chronic thromboemboli (blood clots). Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) used to be ...

  14. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Teens / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  15. Prevalence of Hypertension in Children with Early-Stage ADPKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massella, Laura; Mekahli, Djalila; Paripović, Dušan; Prikhodina, Larisa; Godefroid, Nathalie; Niemirska, Anna; Ağbaş, Ayşe; Kalicka, Karolina; Jankauskiene, Augustina; Mizerska-Wasiak, Malgorzata; Afonso, Alberto Caldas; Salomon, Rémi; Deschênes, Georges; Ariceta, Gema; Özçakar, Z Birsin; Teixeira, Ana; Duzova, Ali; Harambat, Jérôme; Seeman, Tomáš; Hrčková, Gabriela; Lungu, Adrian Catalin; Papizh, Svetlana; Peco-Antic, Amira; De Rechter, Stéphanie; Giordano, Ugo; Kirchner, Marietta; Lutz, Teresa; Schaefer, Franz; Devuyst, Olivier; Wühl, Elke; Emma, Francesco

    2018-04-19

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most common inheritable kidney disease, frequently thought to become symptomatic in adulthood. However, patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease may develop signs or symptoms during childhood, in particular hypertension. Although ambulatory BP monitoring is the preferred method to diagnose hypertension in pediatrics, data in children with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease are limited. Our retrospective multicenter study was conducted to collect ambulatory BP monitoring recordings from patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease age 1 cm per kidney and daytime hypertension (odds ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.4; P =0.002), nighttime hypertension (odds ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.63; P =0.02), or 24-hour hypertension (odds ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 1.81; P =0.01). Kidney length, expressed as SD score, was also significantly associated with nighttime hypertension (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.42; P =0.10). These data indicate high prevalence of hypertension in children with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease starting at young ages. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. The cumulative effect of core lifestyle behaviours on the prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Villegas, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most cardiovascular disease (CVD) occurs in the presence of traditional risk factors, including hypertension and dyslipidemia, and these in turn are influenced by behavioural factors such as diet and lifestyle. Previous research has identified a group at low risk of CVD based on a cluster of inter-related factors: body mass index (BMI) < 25 Kg\\/m2, moderate exercise, alcohol intake, non-smoking and a favourable dietary pattern. The objective of this study was to determine whether these factors are associated with a reduced prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia in an Irish adult population. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional survey of 1018 men and women sampled from 17 general practices. Participants completed health, lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires and provided fasting blood samples for analysis of glucose and insulin. We defined a low risk group based on the following protective factors: BMI <25 kg\\/m2; waist-hip ratio (WHR) <0.85 for women and <0.90 for men; never smoking status; participants with medium to high levels of physical activity; light alcohol consumption (3.5-7 units of alcohol\\/week) and a "prudent" diet. Dietary patterns were assessed by cluster analysis. RESULTS: We found strong significant inverse associations between the number of protective factors and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and dyslipidemia. The prevalence odds ratio of hypertension in persons with 1, 2, 3, > or = 4 protective factors relative to those with none, were 1.0, 0.76, 0.68 and 0.34 (trend p < 0.01). The prevalence odds ratio of dyslipidemia in persons with 1, 2, 3, > or = 4 protective factors relative to those with none were 0.83, 0.98, 0.49 and 0.24 (trend p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our findings of a strong inverse association between low risk behaviours and two of the traditional risk factors for CVD highlight the importance of \\'the causes of the causes\\' and the potential for behaviour modification in CVD prevention

  17. Prevalence of, and barriers to, preventive lifestyle behaviors in hypertension (from a national survey of Canadians with hypertension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Marianne E; Bienek, Asako; Campbell, Norman R C; Bancej, Christina M; Robitaille, Cynthia; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Joffres, Michel; Dai, Sulan; Gwadry-Sridar, Femida; Nolan, Robert P

    2012-02-15

    Patients with hypertension are advised to lower their blood pressure to lifestyle modification and/or pharmacotherapy. To describe the use of lifestyle changes for blood pressure control and to identify the barriers to these behaviors, the data from 6,142 Canadians with hypertension who responded to the 2009 Survey on Living With Chronic Diseases in Canada were analyzed. Most Canadians with diagnosed hypertension reported limiting salt consumption (89%), having changed the types of food they eat (89%), engaging in physical activity (80%), trying to control or lose weight if overweight (77%), quitting smoking if currently smoking (78%), and reducing alcohol intake if currently drinking more than the recommended levels (57%) at least some of the time to control their blood pressure. Men, those aged 20 to 44 years, and those with lower educational attainment and lower income were, in general, less likely to report engaging in lifestyle behaviors for blood pressure control. A low desire, interest, or awareness were commonly reported barriers to salt restriction, changes in diet, weight loss, smoking cessation, and alcohol reduction. In contrast, the most common barrier to engaging in physical activity to regulate blood pressure was the self-reported challenge of managing a coexisting physical condition or time constraints. In conclusion, programs and interventions to improve the adherence to lifestyle changes to treat hypertension may need to consider the identified barriers to lifestyle behaviors in their design. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cervical Spondylosis and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Baogan; Pang, Xiaodong; Li, Duanming; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cervical spondylosis and hypertension are all common diseases, but the relationship between them has never been studied. Patients with cervical spondylosis are often accompanied with vertigo. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is an effective method of treatment for cervical spondylosis with cervical vertigo that is unresponsive to conservative therapy. We report 2 patients of cervical spondylosis with concomitant cervical vertigo and hypertension who were treated successfully with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Stimulation of sympathetic nerve fibers in pathologically degenerative disc could produce sympathetic excitation, and induce a sympathetic reflex to cause cervical vertigo and hypertension. In addition, chronic neck pain could contribute to hypertension development through sympathetic arousal and failure of normal homeostatic pain regulatory mechanisms. Cervical spondylosis may be one of the causes of secondary hypertension. Early treatment for resolution of symptoms of cervical spondylosis may have a beneficial impact on cardiovascular disease risk in patients with cervical spondylosis. PMID:25761188

  19. Overweight, adipocytokines and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seven, Ekim; Husemoen, Lise L N; Wachtell, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: The adipocytokines, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6, which stimulate liver C-reactive protein (CRP) production, are regarded as potential candidate intermediates between adipose tissue and overweight-induced hypertension. METHODS:: We examined the associations between leptin......, adiponectin, and CRP levels with both prevalent and 5-year incident hypertension (IHT) in a general population of Danish adults (n = 5868, 51.3% women, mean age 45.8 ± 7.9 years). RESULTS:: We recorded 2195 prevalent and 379 incident cases of hypertension. In models including leptin, CRP, adiponectin, sex.......023) in the fully adjusted model. The population attributable risk estimate of IHT owing to overweight was 31%. CONCLUSION:: Leptin, but not adiponectin or CRP, may play a mediating role in overweight-induced hypertension. However, as BMI was a strong independent predictor of hypertension, other factors than leptin...

  20. Hypertension in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Eduardo

    2012-02-01

    Hypertension is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, and a highly prevalent condition in both men and women. However, the prevalence of hypertension is predicted to increase more among women than men. Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) can induce hypertension in a small group of women and, increase CV risk especially among those with hypertension. Both COC-related increased CV risk and blood pressure (BP) returns to pretreatment levels by 3 months of its discontinuation. The effects of menopause and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on BP are controversial, and COCs and HRT containing the new generation progestin drospirenone are preferred in women with established hypertension. Despite the high incidence of cancer in women, CV disease remains the major cause of death in women and comparable benefit of antihypertensive treatment have been demonstrated in both women and men.

  1. Overweight, adipocytokines and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seven, Ekim; Husemoen, Lise L N; Wachtell, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The adipocytokines, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6, which stimulate liver C-reactive protein (CRP) production, are regarded as potential candidate intermediates between adipose tissue and overweight-induced hypertension. METHODS: We examined the associations between leptin......, adiponectin, and CRP levels with both prevalent and 5-year incident hypertension (IHT) in a general population of Danish adults (n = 5,868, 51.3% women, mean age 45.8 ± 7.9 years). RESULTS: We recorded 2195 prevalent and 379 incident cases of hypertension. In models including leptin, CRP, adiponectin, sex.......023) in the fully adjusted model. The population attributable risk estimate of IHT owing to overweight was 31%. CONCLUSION: Leptin, but not adiponectin or CRP, may play a mediating role in overweight-induced hypertension. However, as BMI was a strong independent predictor of hypertension, other factors than leptin...

  2. Relationship with the Regularity of Visits Complications of Hypertension in Patients more than 45 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Wijayanto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hypertension being a risk factor for the entrance of various degenerative diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke and other vascular Penyait. One factor that may increase the risk of hypertension one of them is poor lifestyle such as smoking, excessive consumption of salt in the diet and lack of exercise. This study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge about the relationship with the regularity of visits Complications of Hypertension Hypertension in Patients 45 years of age at the Tembok Dukuh  health center at Surabaya. The study was an observational cross-sectional study design. Sample size were 48 people that hypertensive patients more than 45 years old  who were treated at the Tembok Dukuh  health center. Independent variables, namely knowledge about the complications of hypertension patients and dependent variable is the regularity of visits to theTembok Dukuh health center patients with hypertension  Data analysis using the crosstab tes The results with cross-tabulation (crosstab can be seen as many as 30 people from 48 respondents have less knowledge and affect the regularity of visits to the Tembok Dukuh health center. The conclusion can be drawn that most hypertensive patients more than 45 years old whose came to Tembok Dukuh  health centers has less knowledge about hypertension complications that result in hypertensive patients regularity of visits decreased Keyword : hypertension, knowledge, regularity of visits

  3. Smoking and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  4. All about Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 7 All About Quitting Smoking Are you ready to quit smoking? You can find a way to do it. Once you’ve quit, you’ll feel healthier ... ve quit. What are the benefits of quitting smoking? You’ve probably already heard that smoking is ...

  5. School bullying and susceptibility to smoking among never-tried cigarette smoking students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday

    2016-04-01

    Bullying involvement has been linked with substance use; however, less is known about its relationship with pre-initiation stages of adolescent cigarette smoking behavior. This study examined the association between bullying involvement and smoking susceptibility among never tried or experimented with cigarette smoking students. Susceptibility to cigarette smoking in adolescence is a strong predictor of subsequent smoking initiation. A cross-sectional data on Canadian adolescent and youth were drawn from the 2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey (n=28,843). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between bullying and smoking susceptibility among never-smoking students. About 21% self-reported involvement in bullying (as a bully, victim or both). Middle school students (grades 6-8) reported more involvement in bullying (24%) than those in grades 9-12 (16%). The multivariable analyses showed that the association between bullying and smoking susceptibility was significantly different by grade level. Middle school students involved in bullying had higher odds of smoking susceptibility compared to uninvolved students (bully, adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.54, 95% CI=1.73-3.74; victim, AOR=1.29, 95% CI=1.11-1.48; bully-victim, AOR=2.19, 95% CI=1.75-2.74). There were no significant associations between all subgroups of bullying and smoking susceptibility for grades 9-12 students. Students involved in bullying were more susceptible to smoking, although patterns of association varied by grade level. In particular, the findings highlight that non-smoking middle school students involved in bullying were susceptible to future smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnosis of secondary hypertension: an age-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthony J; Neutze, Dana M

    2010-12-15

    Secondary hypertension is a type of hypertension with an underlying, potentially correctable cause. A secondary etiology may be suggested by symptoms (e.g., flushing and sweating suggestive of pheochromocytoma), examina- tion findings (e.g., a renal bruit suggestive of renal artery stenosis), or laboratory abnormalities (e.g., hypokalemia suggestive of aldosteronism). Secondary hypertension also should be considered in patients with resistant hyper- tension, and early or late onset of hypertension. The prevalence of secondary hypertension and the most common etiologies vary by age group. Approximately 5 to 10 percent of adults with hypertension have a secondary cause. In young adults, particu- larly women, renal artery stenosis caused by fibromuscular dyspla- sia is one of the most common secondary etiologies. Fibromuscular dysplasia can be detected by abdominal magnetic resonance imag- ing or computed tomography. These same imaging modalities can be used to detect atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis, a major cause of secondary hypertension in older adults. In middle-aged adults, aldosteronism is the most common secondary cause of hyperten- sion, and the recommended initial diagnostic test is an aldosterone/ renin ratio. Up to 85 percent of children with hypertension have an identifiable cause, most often renal parenchymal disease. Therefore, all children with confirmed hypertension should have an evaluation for an underlying etiology that includes renal ultrasonography.

  7. Pulmonary hypertension CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedevska, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The right heart catheterization is the gold standard in the diagnosis and determines the severity of pulmonary hypertension. The significant technical progress of noninvasive diagnostic imaging methods significantly improves the pixel density and spatial resolution in the study of cardiovascular structures, thus changes their role and place in the overall diagnostic plan. Learning points: What is the etiology, clinical manifestation and general pathophysiological disorders in pulmonary hypertension. What are the established diagnostic methods in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with pulmonary hypertension. What is the recommended protocol for CT scanning for patients with clinically suspected or documented pulmonary hypertension. What are the important diagnostic findings in CT scan of a patient with pulmonary hypertension. Discussion: The prospect of instantaneous complex - anatomical and functional cardiopulmonary and vascular diagnostics seems extremely attractive. The contrast enhanced multislice computed (CT ) and magnetic resonance imaging are very suitable methods for imaging the structures of the right heart, with the possibility of obtaining multiple projections and three-dimensional imaging reconstructions . There are specific morphological features that, if carefully analyzed, provide diagnostic information. Thus, it is possible to avoid or at least reduce the frequency of use of invasive diagnostic cardiac catheterization in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion: This review focuses on the use of contrast-enhanced CT for comprehensive evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension and presents the observed characteristic changes in the chest, lung parenchyma , the structures of the right half of the heart and pulmonary vessels

  8. Smoking and Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Panu Poutvaara; Lars-H.R. Siemers

    2007-01-01

    We study the social interaction of non-smokers and smokers as a sequential game, incorporating insights from social psychology and experimental economics into an economic model. Social norms a®ect human behavior such that non-smokers do not ask smokers to stop smoking and stay with them, even though disutility from smoking exceeds utility from social interaction. Overall, smoking is unduly often accepted when accommodating smoking is the social norm. The introduction of smoking and non-smokin...

  9. Effect of preoperative smoking cessation interventions on postoperative complications and smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, T; Tønnesen, H; Møller, A M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of preoperative smoking cessation interventions on postoperative complications and smoking cessation itself. METHODS: Relevant databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of preoperative smoking cessation interventions....... Trial inclusion, risk of bias assessment and data extraction were performed by two authors. Risk ratios for the above outcomes were calculated and pooled effects estimated using the fixed-effect method. RESULTS: Eleven RCTs were included containing 1194 patients. Smoking interventions were intensive......, medium intensity and less intensive. Follow-up for postoperative complications was 30 days. For smoking cessation it was from the day of surgery to 12 months thereafter. Overall, the interventions significantly reduced the occurrence of complications (pooled risk ratio 0.56 (95 per cent confidence...

  10. Exposure to smoking in soap operas and movies: smoking cessation and attempts to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madewell, Zachary J; Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Harbertson, Judith; Pérez, Ramona L; Novotny, Thomas

    2017-09-21

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate whether there was an association between seeing an actor smoke in telenovelas, Brazilian films, or international films, and trying to quit and quitting among adult Brazilian smokers. Data from 39,425 participants in the Global Adult Tobacco Survey were used. Quit ratio (former smoker/former smoker + ever smoker) and proportions of current, former, and never smokers were calculated. Multivariable weighted regression was used to determine significant associations between quitting smoking and exposure to telenovelas and films. For current smokers, the odds of trying to quit were significantly higher among those who saw an actor smoking in a Brazilian film. Those who believed smoking caused serious illness and had rules in the home prohibiting smoking were significantly more likely to have tried to quit or had quit smoking. Exposure to smoking in the media may be different in adults than adolescents. Influential factors for trying to quit and quitting are rules prohibiting smoking at home, belief that smoking causes serious illness, and hearing about dangers of smoking in media.

  11. Sedentary lifestyle in individuals with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Larissa Castelo Guedes; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Guedes, Nirla Gomes; Nunes, Marília Mendes; Diniz, Camila Maciel; Carvalho, Priscilla Magalhães de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    to identify the prevalence of nursing diagnosis Sedentary lifestyle (SL) and to analyze its association with clinical indicators (CI) and related factors (RF) in patients with hypertension. cross-sectional study with 285 patients with hypertension at a reference center for outpatient care in Northeastern Brazil. To collect data it was used an instrument based on operational defi nitions of the CI and RF previously validated. Four nurses rated SL as present or absent. To evaluate the association between CI and RF with the presence of SL it was applied the chi-square test. The prevalence ratio and confi dence interval was calculated to verify the magnitude of the effect between RF and SL. SL was identifi ed in 55.8% of the sample. Five IC and six RF showed a signifi cant association with SL. the study identifi es main indicators for inference of SL as well as their possible causal factors among people with hypertension.

  12. Smoking, physical exercise, BMI and late foetal death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria; Nohr, Ellen A; Bech, Bodil H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the effect of maternal and paternal smoking on foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth) and to estimate potential interactions with physical exercise and pre-pregnancy body mass index. We selected 87,930 pregnancies from the population-based Danish National......) for predominantly late foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth). An interaction contrast ratio was used to assess potential effect measure modification of smoking by physical exercise and body mass index. The adjusted hazard ratio of foetal death was 1.22 (95 % CI 1.02-1.46) for couples where both parents smoked...... with a slightly higher hazard ratio for foetal death if both parents smoked. This study suggests that smoking may increase the negative effect of a high BMI on foetal death, but results were not statistically significant for the interaction between smoking and physical exercise....

  13. [Comparison of arterial stiffness in non-hypertensive and hypertensive population of various age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y J; Wu, S L; Li, H Y; Zhao, Q H; Ning, C H; Zhang, R Y; Yu, J X; Li, W; Chen, S H; Gao, J S

    2018-01-24

    was 37.72, 27.30, 9.15, all Page, sex, pulse pressure(PP), body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC), smoking, drinking, physical exercise, antihypertensive medications, lipid-lowering medication. (4) Multivariate logistic regression analysis of baPWV-related factors: After adjustment for other confounding factors, including age, sex, PP, BMI, FBG, TC, smoking, drinking, physical exercise, antihypertensive medication, lipid-lowering medication, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that risks for increased arterial stiffness in hypertension group were higher than those in non-hypertension group, the OR in participants with hypertension was 2.54 (2.35-2.74) in the total participants, and same results were also found in sub-age groups, the OR s were 3.22(2.86-3.63), 2.48(2.23-2.76), and 1.91(1.42-2.56), respectively, in each sub-age group. Conclusion: SBP is positively related to arterial stiffness in different age groups, and hypertension is a risk factor for increased arterial stiffness in different age groups. Clinical Trial Registry Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-TNC-11001489.

  14. Increased bleeding risk during percutaneous coronary interventions by arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndrepepa, Gjin; Groha, Philipp; Lahmann, Anna L; Lohaus, Raphaela; Cassese, Salvatore; Schulz-Schüpke, Stefanie; Kufner, Sebastian; Mayer, Katharina; Bernlochner, Isabell; Byrne, Robert A; Fusaro, Massimiliano; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Schunkert, Heribert; Kastrati, Adnan

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to assess the association between arterial hypertension and bleeding in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The impact of arterial hypertension on bleeding risk of patients with coronary artery disease undergoing PCI is unknown. This study included 14,180 patients who underwent PCI. Bleeding was defined using the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) criteria. Arterial hypertension was defined as treatment with antihypertensive drugs or a systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure value >90 mm Hg documented on at least 2 occasions. The primary outcome was bleeding rate within 30 days of PCI. Overall, 11,066 patients (78.0%) had arterial hypertension. Bleeding events occurred in 1,232 patients with arterial hypertension and 278 patients without arterial hypertension (11.1% vs 8.9%; odds ratio [OR] = 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.46, P arterial hypertension and 175 patients without arterial hypertension (6.6% vs 5.6%: OR = 1.19 [1.01-1.41], P = 0.049). Non-access-site bleeding occurred in 502 patients with and 103 patients without arterial hypertension (4.5% vs 3.3%; OR = 1.39 [1.12-1.72], P = 0.003). After adjustment, arterial hypertension was significantly associated with any bleeding (adjusted OR = 1.41 [1.19-1.67], P arterial hypertension increased the risk of non-access-site bleeding (P = 0.002), whereas systolic blood pressure at the time of PCI increased the risk of access site bleeding (P = 0.018). Arterial hypertension is associated with increased risk of bleeding during PCI procedures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Evaluation of Total Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Hypertension and Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Cherniavska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Timely reveal of the patients at high risk of cardiovascular diseases for whom earlier intervention for cardiovascular risk correction is the most effective. Materials and methods. Seventy patients aged 30–55 years old with stage 2 hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and high cardiovascular risk were examined according to Framingham criteria. Cardiovascular risk was compared by SCORE and PROCAM results. Results. Percentage ratio of males with high cardiovascular risk was higher by 52.3 % in comparison to females by SCORE and by 2.3 % in comparison to females by PROCAM. Males did not present any significant discrepancy by evaluation of cardiovascular risk by both scores unlike females. Obtained results showed that total cardiovascular risk in females was twofold higher by PROCAM compared to SCORE scale. Conclusions. Total cardiovascular risk level in patients with stage 2 hypertension and IGT is influenced by age, systolic blood pressure level, smoking, lipid storage disease and carbohydrate metabolism disorder. When we evaluate total cardiovascular risk, we should not be limited only by determination of factors determined in SCORE. It is reasonable to evaluate risk factors by PROCAM, too, especially for females.

  16. Hypertension og nyresygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, Anne-Lise; Pedersen, Erling B; Strandgaard, Svend

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...... hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...

  17. Hypertension og nyresygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, Anne-Lise; Pedersen, Erling B; Strandgaard, Svend

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...... hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...... nephropathy, effective blood pressure lowering is of paramount importance, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are agents of choice....

  18. Hypertension and Cardiac Arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Coca, Antonio; Kahan, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is a common cardiovascular risk factor leading to heart failure (HF), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, peripheral artery disease and chronic renal failure. Hypertensive heart disease can manifest as many types of cardiac arrhythmias, most commonly being atrial fibrillation......) Council on Hypertension convened a Task Force, with representation from the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisiología (SOLEACE), with the remit of comprehensively reviewing the available evidence...

  19. Determinants of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazário Leão, R; Marques da Silva, P; Marques Pocinho, R; Alves, M; Virella, D; Palma Dos Reis, R

    2018-02-02

    The progression of hypertensive heart disease leads to the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD), which is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this analysis is to explore the determinants for LVDD in patients with hypertension. This is a secondary analysis of data of Impedance Cardiography in the Evaluation of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Patients with Arterial Hypertension (IMPEDDANS) Study. Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests were used for univariable analysis. Multiple logistic regression was used to model for LVDD occurrence and discriminative capacity of the model assessed by the value of the area under the curve given by the receiver-operating characteristic curve. Older age (65 vs. 58 years, p<0.001), longer duration of hypertension (160 vs. 48 months, p<0.001), uncontrolled hypertension (59.8 vs. 15.9%, p<0.001), tobacco smoking (17.8 vs. 3.8%, p=0.016), higher systolic blood pressure (133 vs. 124mmHg, p=0.001) and slower heart rate (62 vs. 66bpm, p=0.023) were associated with LVDD. Multivariate model identified uncontrolled hypertension (AdjOR 36.90; 95% CI 7.94-171.58; p<0.001), smoking (AdjOR 6.66; 95% CI 1.63-27.26; p=0.008), eccentric hypertrophy (AdjOR 3.59; 95% CI 0.89-14.39; p=0.072), duration of hypertension (AdjOR 1.03; 95% CI 1.02-1.05; p<0.001) and concentric remodeling (AdjOR 0.19; 95% CI 0.04-0.93; p=0.041) as the more determinant for occurrence of LVDD. The discriminative capacity of the model was AUC=0.95 (95% CI 0.91-0.98). The occurrence of LVDD in hypertensive patients was strongly associated to long-lasting, uncontrolled hypertension, tobacco smoking, concentric remodeling and eccentric hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 μg/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 μg/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 μg/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 μg/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. School connectedness and susceptibility to smoking among adolescents in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-08-01

    Smoking susceptibility in early adolescence is strongly predictive of subsequent smoking behavior in youth. As such, smoking susceptibility represents a key modifiable factor in reducing the onset of smoking in young people. A growing literature has documented a number of factors that influence susceptibility to smoking; however, there is limited amount of research examining associations of susceptibility to smoking and school connectedness. The current study examines whether school connectedness has an independent protective effect on smoking susceptibility among younger adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 12,894 Canadian students in grades 6-8 (11-14 years old), surveyed as part of the 2010-2011 Youth Smoking Survey, was analyzed. Multilevel logistic regression models examined unadjusted and adjusted associations between school connectedness and smoking susceptibility. The impacts of other covariates on smoking susceptibility were also explored. Approximately 29% of never-smokers students in grades 6-8 in Canada were susceptible to future smoking. Logistic regression analysis, controlling for standard covariates, found that school connectedness had strong protective effects on smoking susceptibility (odds ratio [OR] 0.91, 95% CI 0.89-0.94). The finding that school connectedness is protective of smoking susceptibility, together with previous research, provides further evidence that improving school conditions that promote school connectedness could reduce risky behavior in adolescents. While prevention efforts should be directed at youth of all ages, particular attention must be paid to younger adolescents in the formative period of 11-14 years of age.

  2. Risk of post-pregnancy hypertension in women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Ida; Basit, Saima; Melbye, Mads; Lykke, Jacob A; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Bundgaard, Henning; Thilaganathan, Baskaran; Boyd, Heather A

    2017-07-12

    Objectives  To determine how soon after delivery the risk of post-pregnancy hypertension increases in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and how the risk evolves over time. Design  Nationwide register based cohort study. Setting  Denmark. Populations  482 972 primiparous women with a first live birth or stillbirth between 1995 and 2012 (cumulative incidence analyses), and 1 025 118 women with at least one live birth or stillbirth between 1978 and 2012 (Cox regression analyses). Main outcome measures  10 year cumulative incidences of post-pregnancy hypertension requiring treatment with prescription drugs, and hazard ratios estimated using Cox regression. Results  Of women with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy in a first pregnancy in their 20s, 14% developed hypertension in the first decade post partum, compared with 4% of women with normotensive first pregnancies in their 20s. The corresponding percentages for women with a first pregnancy in their 40s were 32% and 11%, respectively. In the year after delivery, women with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy had 12-fold to 25-fold higher rates of hypertension than did women with a normotensive pregnancy. Rates in women with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy were threefold to 10-fold higher 1-10 years post partum and remained twice as high even 20 or more years later. Conclusions  The risk of hypertension associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is high immediately after an affected pregnancy and persists for more than 20 years. Up to one third of women with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy may develop hypertension within a decade of an affected pregnancy, indicating that cardiovascular disease prevention in these women should include blood pressure monitoring initiated soon after pregnancy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development...... of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most...

  4. Hypertension and liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Møller, Søren

    2004-01-01

    to increased arterial blood pressure. Subjects with established arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin......Arterial hypertension is a common disorder with a frequency of 10% to 15% in subjects in the 40- to 60-year age group. Yet most reports find the prevalence of arterial hypertension in patients with chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) much lower. In this review, we consider the alterations in systemic...... hemodynamics in cirrhosis. The most characteristic findings in cirrhotic patients are vasodilatation with low systemic vascular resistance, increased cardiac output, high arterial compliance, secondary activation of counterregulatory systems (sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system...

  5. Secondary hypertension in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puar, Troy Hai Kiat; Mok, Yingjuan; Debajyoti, Roy; Khoo, Joan; How, Choon How; Ng, Alvin Kok Heong

    2016-05-01

    Secondary hypertension occurs in a significant proportion of adult patients (~10%). In young patients, renal causes (glomerulonephritis) and coarctation of the aorta should be considered. In older patients, primary aldosteronism, obstructive sleep apnoea and renal artery stenosis are more prevalent than previously thought. Primary aldosteronism can be screened by taking morning aldosterone and renin levels, and should be considered in patients with severe, resistant or hypokalaemia-associated hypertension. Symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea should be sought. Worsening of renal function after starting an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor suggests the possibility of renal artery stenosis. Recognition, diagnosis and treatment of secondary causes of hypertension lead to good clinical outcomes and the possible reversal of end-organ damage, in addition to blood pressure control. As most patients with hypertension are managed at the primary care level, it is important for primary care physicians to recognise these conditions and refer patients appropriately. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  6. Pulmonary Hypertension Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as sleep apnea, are common causes of secondary pulmonary hypertension. Other causes include the following: Congestive heart failure Birth defects in the heart Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism (blood clots in the pulmonary arteries) Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( ...

  7. Hypertension and Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    worldwide, and is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, myocardial ... pressure falls in different categories of systolic and diastolic pressure the higher ... Without this consensus, the management of the elderly hypertensive patient.

  8. Diabetes + Hypertension (comorbidity)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set provides de-identified population data for diabetes and hypertension comorbidity prevalence in Allegheny County.

  9. Understanding idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markey, Keira A; Mollan, Susan P; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a disorder characterised by raised intracranial pressure that predominantly affects young, obese women. Pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated, but several causal factors have been proposed. Symptoms can include headaches, visual loss, pulsatile tinnitus...

  10. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  11. Hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lip, Gregory Y.H.; Coca, Antonio; Kahan, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a common cardiovascular risk factor leading to heart failure (HF), coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease and chronic renal insufficiency. Hypertensive heart disease can manifest as many cardiac arrhythmias, most commonly being atrial fibrillation (AF). Both...... supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias may occur in hypertensive patients, especially in those with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or HF. Also, some of the antihypertensive drugs commonly used to reduce blood pressure, such as thiazide diuretics, may result in electrolyte abnormalities (e.g. hypokalaemia......, hypomagnesemia), further contributing to arrhythmias, whereas effective control of blood pressure may prevent the development of the arrhythmias such as AF. In recognizing this close relationship between hypertension and arrhythmias, the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and the European Society...

  12. Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Tuğrul, Armağan

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a major worldwide health problem. Its prevalence is 1.5-2 times higher in diabetic population than that in non-diabetic individuals. Its pathogenesis depends on diabetic nephropathy in type 1, whereas may be multifactorial in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In diabetics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are most widely preferred in the treatment of hypertension because of their numerous desirable effects. In this article, the most recent data are presented on the relationshi...

  13. Hypertension og hjernen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne; Strandgaard, Svend

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is a major and modifiable risk factor of stroke and dementia. Hypertension causes remodelling of the cerebral resistance vessels, impairing their tolerance to very low blood pressure. In primary prevention of stroke, the effect of beta-blockers is inferior to other classes...... of antihypertensives. In secondary prevention of stroke, ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin blockers may be recommended as first choice drugs. Lowering of the blood pressure is, however, more important than the choice of drug. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jun-8...

  14. Cervical Spondylosis and Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Baogan; Pang, Xiaodong; Li, Duanming; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cervical spondylosis and hypertension are all common diseases, but the relationship between them has never been studied. Patients with cervical spondylosis are often accompanied with vertigo. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is an effective method of treatment for cervical spondylosis with cervical vertigo that is unresponsive to conservative therapy. We report 2 patients of cervical spondylosis with concomitant cervical vertigo and hypertension who were treated successfully w...

  15. Thromboembolic chronicle pulmonary Hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovalle, Amador

    2003-01-01

    The thromboembolic chronicle pulmonary Hypertension, also well known as chronic lung thromboembolism not resolved; it is a form not very common of lung thromboembolism. Until very recently was considered a rare curiosity of autopsy, but as the methods of diagnoses have improved and our attitude has changed, the incidence of this nosological entity has experienced a notable increment, but the most excellent in this illness is maybe that it is a form of lung hypertension, potentially recoverable

  16. Renovascular hypertension: bibliographic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Guzman, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    A review of the literature on the management of the renovascular disease is performed to provide better attention to patients. Renovascular hypertension is defined. The clinical implications and complications of the disease are determined. Pharmacological and surgical management are specified. Endovascular therapy has allowed to determine some indication in the management of hypertension renovascular. Instances where endovascular therapy has been beneficial are detailed. The new interventions for the management of renovascular disease are exposed [es

  17. Diet quality and adherence to a healthy diet in Japanese male workers with untreated hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanauchi, Masao; Kanauchi, Kimiko

    2015-07-10

    As Japanese societies rapidly undergo westernisation, the prevalence of hypertension is increasing. We investigated the association between dietary quality and the prevalence of untreated hypertension in Japanese male workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 433 male workers who completed a brief food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to the WHO-based Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), the American Heart Association 2006 Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and Mediterranean-style diet was assessed using four adherence indexes (HDI score, AI-84 score, DASH score and MED score). Hypertension classes were classified into three categories: non-hypertension, untreated hypertension and treated hypertension (ie, taking antihypertensive medication). The prevalence of untreated hypertension and treated hypertension was 22.4% and 8.5%, respectively. Patients with untreated hypertension had significantly lower HDI and AI-84 scores compared with non-hypertension. DASH and MED scores across the three hypertension classes were comparable. After adjusting for age, energy intake, smoking habit, alcohol drinking, physical activity and salt intake, a low adherence to HDI and a lowest quartile of AI-84 score were associated with a significantly higher prevalence of untreated hypertension, with an OR of 3.33 (95% CI 1.39 to 7.94, p=0.007) and 2.23 (1.09 to 4.53, p=0.027), respectively. A lower dietary quality was associated with increased prevalence of untreated hypertension in Japanese male workers. Our findings support a potential beneficial impact of nutritional assessment using diet qualities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Determinants of Smoking and Quitting in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Regan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is widespread among HIV-infected patients, who confront increased risk of smoking-related co-morbidities. The effects of HIV infection and HIV-related variables on smoking and smoking cessation are incompletely understood. We investigated the correlates of smoking and quitting in an HIV-infected cohort using a validated natural language processor to determine smoking status.We developed and validated an algorithm using natural language processing (NLP to ascertain smoking status from electronic health record data. The algorithm was applied to records for a cohort of 3487 HIV-infected from a large health care system in Boston, USA, and 9446 uninfected control patients matched 3:1 on age, gender, race and clinical encounters. NLP was used to identify and classify smoking-related portions of free-text notes. These classifications were combined into patient-year smoking status and used to classify patients as ever versus never smokers and current smokers versus non-smokers. Generalized linear models were used to assess associations of HIV with 3 outcomes, ever smoking, current smoking, and current smoking in analyses limited to ever smokers (persistent smoking, while adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and psychiatric illness. Analyses were repeated within the HIV cohort, with the addition of CD4 cell count and HIV viral load to assess associations of these HIV-related factors with the smoking outcomes.Using the natural language processing algorithm to assign annual smoking status yielded sensitivity of 92.4, specificity of 86.2, and AUC of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.91. Ever and current smoking were more common in HIV-infected patients than controls (54% vs. 44% and 42% vs. 30%, respectively, both P<0.001. In multivariate models HIV was independently associated with ever smoking (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.13-1.24, P <0.001, current smoking (ARR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25-1.40, P<0.001, and

  19. Hypertension in leather tanning workers working in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, N; Işsever, H; Ince, H; Ozyildirim, B; Işik, E; Hapçioğlu, B; Ozdilli, K; Akçay, M E; Calak, B; Agkoç, N

    2008-11-01

    Leather tanning may result in various occupational diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the relation between blood pressure levels and vocations in leather tanning. Our study was conducted in Turkey's leading leather process plant located in Tuzla organised industry zone, between March 11 and May 30, 2005. All leather plants that consented to participate in our study were included. The blood pressure, height and weight of the workers were measured. Their ages, educational levels, smoking habits and hypertension history were obtained via interviewing the subjects. The relation between three main factors, i.e. age, body mass index (BMI), working period, and hypertension were analysed through multiple logistic regression analysis. 40.4 percent (295) of 730 workers' blood pressure values were found to be within normal limits. 59.6 percent (435) were found to be hypertensive. The hypertension correlation remained significant, along with BMI and their working period (p-values were 0.0001 and 0.035, respectively). Our study demonstrated that BMI and working period have a key influence on the increased risk of hypertension, which leads us to consider the importance of occupational exposure. Different hypertension studies to be conducted in various occupational fields would likely be able to confirm our findings.

  20. Biology of portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Matthew; Iwakiri, Yasuko

    2018-02-01

    Portal hypertension develops as a result of increased intrahepatic vascular resistance often caused by chronic liver disease that leads to structural distortion by fibrosis, microvascular thrombosis, dysfunction of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), and hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. While the basic mechanisms of LSEC and HSC dysregulation have been extensively studied, the role of microvascular thrombosis and platelet function in the pathogenesis of portal hypertension remains to be clearly characterized. As a secondary event, portal hypertension results in splanchnic and systemic arterial vasodilation, leading to the development of a hyperdynamic circulatory syndrome and subsequently to clinically devastating complications including gastroesophageal varices and variceal hemorrhage, hepatic encephalopathy from the formation of portosystemic shunts, ascites, and renal failure due to the hepatorenal syndrome. This review article discusses: (1) mechanisms of sinusoidal portal hypertension, focusing on HSC and LSEC biology, pathological angiogenesis, and the role of microvascular thrombosis and platelets, (2) the mesenteric vasculature in portal hypertension, and (3) future directions for vascular biology research in portal hypertension.

  1. Echocardiographic evaluation of the arterial stiffness in healthy subjects and hypertensive patients under 60 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiente Mustelier, Juan; Suarez Vazquez, Leisy; Cabrera Rego, Julio Oscar; Gandarilla Sarmientos, Julio Cesar

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study that included 83 patients (healthy, n=43; hypertensive, n=40) assisted in the external consultation of the National Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery Institute, from April to October, 2009. We included clinical (age, sex, personal antecedents of smoking habit, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension) and echocardiographic (diastolic function, arterial stiffness index [β], pressure strain elastic modulus [Ep], arterial compliance, local pulse wave velocity [LPWV]) variables

  2. Measurements of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, F.P.; Geusebroek, M.; Kos, G.P.A.; Van Egmond, B.F.

    2005-02-01

    For Euromate measurements are performed at 21 December 2004, in order to characterize their new smoking chamber 'rookabri S+G2'. At location gas analysis and particle measurements are performed. A number of off-line sampled organic smoke trace compounds were analysed at our laboratory. Sampling and measurements were performed at different smoke levels with 0, 2, 4 and 6 smoking volunteers. The smoke-abri is a specially designed space for smokers in which the environment is cleared from tobacco smoke and odor [nl

  3. PP038. Are women with gestational hypertension or preeclampsia at an increased long term risk of kidney function impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S; Ayansina, D; Black, C; Hall, S; Afolabi, E; Millar, C

    2012-07-01

    Preeclampsia is known to cause impairment of kidney function in pregnancy, which manifests as proteinuria. Previous studies have found an association between preeclampsia and kidney disease but were restricted in their numbers or had a short follow up time. To assess the long term effects of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy on kidney function in later life. From the Aberdeen maternity and neonatal databank (AMND), we identified the first singleton pregnancy of all women with date of birth on or before 30th June 1969. These women were linked by means of their identifying information to the local renal biochemistry database (GRBD). GRBD captures all kidney function tests from primary and secondary care in the health region. A cohort study design was used to assess the odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for chronic kidney disease stage 1-5 (predefined based on internationally accepted KDOQI definition) occurring at least 1year following delivery. Those with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia were compared to normotensive women using multivariate logistic regression to adjust for potential confounders. A total of 14675 women who had been linked to the RBD and had complete information regarding age, socio-economic class, smoking category, and body mass index (BMI) were included in a multivariate model. The unadjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of having chronic kidney disease (according to previously stated definition) in preeclamptic women was 2.04 (1.53,2.71) and that in women with gestational hypertension was 1.37 (1.15,1.65), while the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of having chronic kidney disease was 1.93 (1.44,2.57) and 1.36 (1.13,1.63) in preeclamptic women and women with gestational hypertension respectively compared to women who were normotensive in their first pregnancy. Women who had gestational hypertension or preeclampsia in their first pregnancy had a higher risk of impairment of renal function compared to women

  4. Combined Effect of Hyperhomocysteinemia and Hypertension on the Presence of Early Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongying; Fang, Xianghua; Hua, Yang; Liu, Beibei; Ji, Xunming; Tang, Zhe; Wang, Chunxiu; Guan, Shaochen; Wu, Xiaoguang; Liu, Hongjun; Gu, Xiang

    2016-05-01

    To examine the individual effect of elevated homocysteine and its combined effect with hypertension on early carotid artery atherosclerosis (ECAS). We recruited 1257 subjects from a community-based population in Beijing, China, aged 55 years and older. The definition of hyperhomocysteinemia was referred to as the presence of homocysteine concentrations greater than 15 µmol/L. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), plaque, the sum of plaque thickness (plaque score, PS), and plaque location in common carotid artery were established by ultrasonography. The presence of increased CIMT (≥1.0 mm) and plaque was defined as ECAS. Age, sex, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, total cholesterol, glucose, estimated glomerular filtration rate, hypoglycemic therapy, and lipid-lowering therapy were adjusted by logistic regression analysis. After adjustments for all potential confounders, the risks of presence of plaque, bilateral plaque, and high PS were significantly higher in the group with hyperhomocysteinemia as compared with reference group (the normal homocysteine and normotensive). The odds ratios (ORs) were 1.56 for presence of plaque (95% CI 1.05-2.33), 1.80 for bilateral plaque (95% CI 1.08-2.99), and 1.90 for high PS (95% CI 1.09-3.30), respectively. The group with both hyperhomocysteinemia and hypertension manifested the highest ORs of ECAS. The fully adjusted ORs were 1.67 for increased CIMT (95% CI 1.15-2.42), 2.48 for bilateral plaques (95% CI 1.54-3.99), and 2.69 for high PS (95% CI 1.61-4.47), correspondingly. Elevated homocysteine had a mild-to-moderate independent effect on ECAS. Combined with hypertension, hyperhomocysteinemia might increase the strength of the above-mentioned effects. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is a hypertension risk factor in young adulthood: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeoka, Atsushi; Tayama, Jun; Yamasaki, Hironori; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Ogawa, Sayaka; Saigo, Tatsuo; Kawano, Hiroaki; Abiru, Norio; Hayashida, Masaki; Maeda, Takahiro; Shirabe, Susumu

    2016-11-01

    Accumulation of intra-abdominal fat is related to hypertension. Despite this, a relationship between hypertension and intra-abdominal fat in young adulthood is not clear. In this study, we verify whether intra-abdominal fat accumulation increases a hypertension risk in young adult subjects.In a cross-sectional study, intra-abdominal fat area was measured using a dual bioelectrical impedance analysis instrument in 697 university students (20.3 ± 0.7 years, 425 men). Blood pressure and anthropometric factors were measured. Lifestyle variables including smoking, drinking, physical activity, and eating behavior were assessed with questionnaire. High blood pressure risk (systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mm Hg) with increasing intra-abdominal fat area was evaluated.Participants were divided into 5 groups according to their intra-abdominal fat area (≤24.9, 25-49.9, 50-74.9, 75-99.9, and ≥100 cm). As compared with the values of the smallest intra-abdominal fat area group, the crude and lifestyle-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were elevated in larger intra-abdominal fat area groups [OR 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66-2.80; OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.60-7.57; OR 7.71, 95% CI 2.75-22.22; OR 18.74, 95% CI 3.93-105.64, respectively). The risk increase was observed only in men.Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is related to high blood pressure in men around 20 years of age. These results indicate the importance of evaluation and reduction of intra-abdominal fat to prevent hypertension.

  6. Abdominal obesity vs general obesity for identifying arterial stiffness, subclinical atherosclerosis and wave reflection in healthy, diabetics and hypertensive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recio-Rodriguez Jose I

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to analyze the relationship between abdominal obesity and general obesity, with subclinical atherosclerosis, arterial stiffness and wave reflection in healthy, diabetics and hypertensive subjects. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was made of 305 individuals (diabetics 32.8%, hypertensive subjects 37.0% and healthy individuals 30.2%. Measurements: Body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, body fat percentage (BFP and waist/height ratio (WHtR. Arterial stiffness was assessed according to pulse wave velocity (PWV, intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (C-IMT, augmentation index (central and peripheral, ankle-brachial index (ABI, and central and peripheral pulse pressure. Results WC and WHtR showed a positive correlation to PWV and C-IMT in the studied groups. After adjusting for age, gender, high sensitivity c-reactive protein, serum glucose and the presence of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia, antidiabetic drugs, lipid-lowering drugs, and atherosclerotic plaques, it was seen that for every 0.1 point increase in WHtR, and for every cm increase in WC, the PWV increased 0.041 and 0.029 m/sec, and C-IMT increased 0.001 mm and 0.001 mm, respectively. Conclusions The measures of abdominal obesity (WHtR and WC correlates better than BMI and BFP with arterial stiffness evaluated by PWV, and with subclinical atherosclerosis evaluated by C-IMT, independently of the presence of diabetes or hypertension. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01325064

  7. Tobacco smoking among school children in Colombo district, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katulanda, Prasad; Liyanage, Isurujith Kongala; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin; Piyadigama, Indunil; Karunathilake, Indika M; Palmer, Paula H; Matthews, David R

    2015-03-01

    Tobacco smoking is an important problem among schoolchildren. The authors studied the patterns of tobacco smoking among schoolchildren in Colombo, Sri Lanka, using a self-administered questionnaire. Multistaged stratified random sampling was used to select 6000 students. Response rate was 90.7% (5446), out of which 53.4% were males. Prevalence rates for males and females, respectively, were as follows: having smoked at least 1 complete cigarette: 27.0% and 13.3%, smoked more than 100 cigarettes: 2.3% and 0.3%, daily smoking: 1.8% and 0.2%. Mean age of starting to smoke was 14.16 years. The tobacco products most used were cigarettes (91.5%) and bidis (3.8%). In univariate analysis, male gender, parental smoking, studying non-science subjects, peer smoking, and participating in sports were significantly associated with smoking of at least 1 complete cigarette (P < .05). In multivariate analysis, the most significant correlates were having close friends (odds ratio = 3.29, confidence interval = 2.47-4.37) or parents who smoked (odds ratio = 1.86, confidence interval = 1.28-2.71). Female smoking has increased from previously reported values. These high-risk groups can be targets for preventive programs. © 2013 APJPH.

  8. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L H; Osler, M; Roberts, C

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking.......To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking....

  9. Link between perceived smoking behaviour at school and students smoking status: a large survey among Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, I; D'Egidio, V; Grassucci, D; Gelardini, M; Ardizzone, C; La Torre, G

    2017-10-01

    To investigate a possible link between sociodemographic factors, the perception of smoking habits at school and smoking status of Italian adolescents attending secondary school. The study was a cross-sectional study. An anonymous online survey was employed to gather information on age, gender, smoking status and to examine the perception of smoking behaviour on the school premises. Chi-squared and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed for the univariate analysis and logistic and multinomial regressions for the multivariate analysis. The statistical analyses included 1889 students. Univariate analysis showed significant differences concerning knowledge between smoker and non-smoker concerning the harmfulness of smoking (P smoking at school (odds ratio: 1.54 [95% confidence interval 1.26-1.89]). Students older than 19 years most often begin smoking because their friends smoke compared with younger students (adjusted odds ratio: 1.18 [95% confidence interval 0.48-2.89]). School environment and behaviour of role models play a crucial part in student smoking. To prevent and reduce youth tobacco smoking, not merely the presence of preventive measures is important but greater attention needs to be placed on the enforcement of smoking policies. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk of preterm delivery and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in relation to maternal co-morbid mood and migraine disorders during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripe, Swee May; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Qiu, Chunfang; Williams, Michelle A

    2011-03-01

    We evaluated the risks of preterm delivery and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy among pregnant women with mood and migraine disorders, using a cohort study of 3432 pregnant women. Maternal pre-pregnancy or early pregnancy (migraine diagnoses were ascertained from interview and medical record review. We fitted generalised linear models to derive risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of preterm delivery and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy for women with isolated mood, isolated migraine and co-morbid mood-migraine disorders, respectively. Reported RR were adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, marital status, parity, smoking status, chronic hypertension or pre-existing diabetes mellitus, and pre-pregnancy body mass index. Women without mood or migraine disorders were defined as the reference group. The risks for preterm delivery and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were more consistently elevated among women with co-morbid mood-migraine disorders than among women with isolated mood or migraine disorder. Women with co-morbid disorders were almost twice as likely to deliver preterm (adjusted RR=1.87, 95% CI 1.05, 3.34) compared with the reference group. There was no clear evidence of increased risks of preterm delivery and its subtypes with isolated migraine disorder. Women with mood disorder had elevated risks of pre-eclampsia (adjusted RR=3.57, 95% CI 1.83, 6.99). Our results suggest an association between isolated migraine disorder and pregnancy-induced hypertension (adjusted RR=1.42, 95% CI 1.00, 2.01). This is the first study examining perinatal outcomes in women with co-morbid mood-migraine disorders. Pregnant women with a history of migraine may benefit from screening for depression during prenatal care and vigilant monitoring, especially for women with co-morbid mood and migraine disorders. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C O P Y PATIENT EDUCATION | INFORMATION SERIES Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs Marijuana, also known as ... a safe way to smoke marijuana. How can smoking marijuana damage my lungs? Tobacco smoke of any ...

  12. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps prevent osteoporosis and fractures later in life. However, it is never too late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  13. Allegheny County Smoking Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Smoking rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  14. Cigar Smoking and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cigar Smoking and Cancer On This Page How are cigars ... to quit? How can I get help quitting smoking? How are cigars different from cigarettes? Cigarettes usually ...

  15. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. Things that make your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger ...

  16. Smoking and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - smoking; COPD - secondhand smoke ... Things that make COPD symptoms worse are called triggers. Knowing what your triggers are and how to avoid them can help you feel ...

  17. Excessive daytime sleepiness and adherence to antihypertensive medications among Blacks: analysis of the counseling African Americans to control hypertension (CAATCH trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams NJ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natasha J Williams,1 Girardin Jean-Louis,1 Abhishek Pandey,2 Joseph Ravenell,1 Carla Boutin-Foster,3 Gbenga Ogedegbe1 1Center for Healthful Behavior Change, Division of Internal Medicine, NYU Medical Center, New York, 2Department of Family Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, 3Center of Excellence in Disparities Research, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA Background: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS often occurs as a result of insufficient sleep, sleep apnea, illicit substance use, and other medical and psychiatric conditions. This study tested the hypothesis that blacks exhibiting EDS would have poorer self-reported adherence to hypertensive medication using cross-sectional data from the Counseling African-Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH trial. Methods: A total of 1,058 hypertensive blacks (average age 57±12 years participated in CAATCH, a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a multilevel intervention for participants who receive care from community health centers in New York City. Data analyzed in this study included baseline sociodemographics, medical history, EDS, and medication adherence. We used the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, with a cutoff score of ≥10, to define EDS. Medication adherence was measured using an abbreviated Morisky Medication Adherence scale, with a score >0 indicating nonadherence. Results: Of the sample, 71% were female, 72% received at least a high school education, 51% reported a history of smoking, and 33% had a history of alcohol consumption. Overall, 27% of the participants exhibited EDS, and 44% of those who exhibited EDS were classified as adherent to prescribed antihypertensive medications. Multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusting for effects of age, body mass index, sex, education, and smoking and drinking history indicated that participants who exhibited EDS were more than twice as likely to be nonadherent (odds ratio 2.28, 95

  18. Blood pressure level and relation to other cardiovascular risk factors in male hypertensive patients without clinical evidence of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C T; Sørum, C; Hansen, J F

    2000-01-01

    , duration of hypertension, cholesterol and triglyceride level, smoking status, information of regular exercise, a family history of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and drug treatment, in 220 men treated for arterial hypertension. In the univariate analyses we found a higher systolic blood pressure (SBP......) with older age, higher SBP in smoking patients and lower SBP in patients with regular exercise. In a multivariate model age (p = 0.0004), smoking status (p = 0.01) and regular exercise (p= 0.06) were independently associated with SBP. There was a lower diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with older age, and age...... cardiovascular risk factors--43% was smoking, 21% had a family history of IHD, 77% had a se-cholesterol above 5.5 mmol/l and 48% had a se-triglyceride above 1.6 mmol/l. In a consecutive group of asymptomatic male treated hypertensive patients SBP is independently associated with age and smoking status, and DBP...

  19. Pregnancy with Portal Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neelam; Negi, Neha; Aggarwal, Aakash; Bodh, Vijay; Dhiman, Radha K.

    2014-01-01

    Even though pregnancy is rare with cirrhosis and advanced liver disease, but it may co-exist in the setting of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension as liver function is preserved but whenever encountered together is a complex clinical dilemma. Pregnancy in a patient with portal hypertension presents a special challenge to the obstetrician as so-called physiological hemodynamic changes associated with pregnancy, needed for meeting demands of the growing fetus, worsen the portal hypertension thereby putting mother at risk of potentially life-threatening complications like variceal hemorrhage. Risks of variceal bleed and hepatic decompensation increase many fold during pregnancy. Optimal management revolves round managing the portal hypertension and its complications. Thus management of such cases requires multi-speciality approach involving obstetricians experienced in dealing with high risk cases, hepatologists, anesthetists and neonatologists. With advancement in medical field, pregnancy is not contra-indicated in these women, as was previously believed. This article focuses on the different aspects of pregnancy with portal hypertension with special emphasis on specific cause wise treatment options to decrease the variceal bleed and hepatic decompensation. Based on extensive review of literature, management from pre-conceptional period to postpartum is outlined in order to have optimal maternal and perinatal outcomes. PMID:25755552

  20. Management of diabetic hypertensives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Jai; Viswanathan, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension occurs twice as commonly in diabetics than in comparable nondiabetics. Patients with both disorders have a markedly higher risk for premature microvascular and macrovascular complications. Aggressive control of blood pressure (BP) reduces both micro- and macrovascular complications. In diabetic hypertensives, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are the first line in management of hypertension, and can be replaced by angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) if patients are intolerant of them. Recent studies suggest ARBs to be on par with ACEI in reducing both macro- and microvascular risks. Adding both these agents may have a beneficial effect on proteinuria, but no extra macrovascular risk reduction. Thiazides can also be used as first line drugs, but are better used along with ACEI/ARBs. Beta-blockers [especially if the patient has coronary artery disease] and calcium channel blockers are used as second line add-on drugs. Multidrug regimens are commonly needed in diabetic hypertensives. Achieving the target BP of <130/80 is the priority rather than the drug combination used in order to arrest and prevent the progression of macro- and microvascular complications in diabetic hypertensives. PMID:22145142

  1. Adaptation, allometry, and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weder, A B; Schork, N J

    1994-08-01

    Essential hypertension is a "disease of civilization" but has a clear genetic component. From an evolutionary perspective, persistence in the human genome of elements capable of raising blood pressure presupposes their adaptive significance. Recently, two hypotheses that explicitly appeal to selectionist arguments, the "slavery" and "thrifty gene" theories, have been forwarded. We find neither completely successful, and we advance an alternative explanation of the adaptive importance of genes responsible for hypertension. We propose that blood pressure rises during childhood and adolescence to subserve homeostatic needs of the organism. Specifically, we contend that blood pressure is a flexible element in the repertoire of renal homeostatic mechanisms serving to match renal function to growth. The effect of modern diet and lifestyle on human growth stimulates earlier and more vigorous development, straining biologically necessary relationships between renal and general somatic growth and requiring compensation via homeostatic mechanisms preserved during evolution. Prime among such mechanisms is blood pressure, which rises as a compensation to maintain renal function in the face of greater growth. Since virtually all members of acculturated societies share in the modern lifestyle, the demands imposed by accelerated growth and development result in a populational shift to higher blood pressures, with a consequent increase in the prevalence of hypertension. We propose that hypertension is the product of maladaptation of highly genetically conserved mechanisms subserving important biological homeostatic needs. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying hypertension will require approaches that examine the developmental processes linking growth to blood pressure.

  2. [Using log-binomial model for estimating the prevalence ratio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Rong; Gao, Yan-hui; Yang, Yi; Chen, Yue

    2010-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence ratios, using a log-binomial model with or without continuous covariates. Prevalence ratios for individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation associated with smoking status, estimated by using a log-binomial model were compared with odds ratios estimated by logistic regression model. In the log-binomial modeling, maximum likelihood method was used when there were no continuous covariates and COPY approach was used if the model did not converge, for example due to the existence of continuous covariates. We examined the association between individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation and smoking status in men and women. Prevalence ratio and odds ratio estimation provided similar results for the association in women since smoking was not common. In men however, the odds ratio estimates were markedly larger than the prevalence ratios due to a higher prevalence of outcome. The log-binomial model did not converge when age was included as a continuous covariate and COPY method was used to deal with the situation. All analysis was performed by SAS. Prevalence ratio seemed to better measure the association than odds ratio when prevalence is high. SAS programs were provided to calculate the prevalence ratios with or without continuous covariates in the log-binomial regression analysis.

  3. Hypertension in postmenopausal women: how to approach hypertension in menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modena, Maria Grazia

    2014-09-01

    During fertile life women are usually normo or hypotensive. Hypertension may appear during pregnancy and this represents a peculiar phenomenon increasing nowadays for delay time of pregnancy. Gestational hypertension appears partially similar to hypertension in the context of metabolic syndrome for a similar condition of increased waste circumference. Parity, for the same pathogenesis, has been reported to be associated to peri and postmenopausal hypertension, not confirmed by our study of parous women with transitional non persistent perimenopausal hypertension. Estrogen's deficiency inducing endothelial dysfunction and increased body mass index are the main cause for hypertension in this phase of life. For these reasons lifestyle modification, diet and endothelial active drugs represent the ideal treatment. Antioxidant agents may have a role in prevention and treatment of hypertension. In conclusion, hypertension in women represents a peculiar constellation of different biological and pathogenic factors, which need a specific gender related approach, independent from the male model.

  4. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: Effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect

  5. Cardiac autonomic control in adolescents with primary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havlíceková Z

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impairment in cardiovascular autonomic regulation participates in the onset and maintenance of primary hypertension. Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic control using long-term heart rate variability (HRV analysis in adolescents with primary hypertension. Subjects and methods Twenty two adolescent patients with primary hypertension (5 girls/17 boys aged 14-19 years and 22 healthy subjects matched for age and gender were enrolled. Two periods from 24-hour ECG recording were evaluated by HRV analysis: awake state and sleep. HRV analysis included spectral power in low frequency band (LF, in high frequency band (HF, and LF/HF ratio. Results In awake state, adolescents with primary hypertension had lower HF and higher LF and LF/HF ratio. During sleep, HF was lower and LF/HF ratio was higher in patients with primary hypertension. Conclusions A combination of sympathetic predominance and reduced vagal activity might represent a potential link between psychosocial factors and primary hypertension, associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity.

  6. Impact of tobacco prices and smoke-free policy on smoking cessation, by gender and educational group: Spain, 1993-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Enrique; Pascual, Cruz; Giráldez-García, Carolina; Galindo, Silvia; Martínez, David; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco prices and the implementation of smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation in Spain, by educational level, across the period 1993-2012. National Health Surveys data for the above two decades were used to calculate smoking cessation in people aged 25-64 years. The relationship between tobacco prices and smoking quit-ratio was estimated using multiple linear regression adjusted for time and the presence of smoke-free legislation. The immediate as well as the longer-term impact of the 2006 smoke-free law on quit-ratio was estimated using segmented linear regression analysis. The analyses were performed separately in men and women with high and low education, respectively. No relationship was observed between tobacco prices and smoking quit-ratio, except in women having a low educational level, among whom a rise in price was associated with a decrease in quit-ratio. The smoke-free law altered the smoking quit-ratio in the short term and altered also pre-existing trends. Smoking quit-ratio increased immediately after the ban - though this increase was significant only among women with a low educational level - and then decreased in subsequent years except among men with a high educational level. A clear relationship between tobacco prices and smoking quit-ratio was not observed in a recent period. After the implementation of smoke-free legislation the trend in the quit ratio in most of the socio-economic groups was different from the trend observed before implementation, so existing inequalities in smoking quit-ratio were not widened or narrowed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular events and mortality among older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mons, Ute; Müezzinler, Aysel; Gellert, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary events, and stroke events in people aged 60 and older, and to calculate and report risk advancement periods for cardiovascular mortality in addition to traditional epidemiological...... 60 and older were included in this study, of whom 37 952 died from cardiovascular disease. Random effects meta-analysis of the association of smoking status with cardiovascular mortality yielded a summary hazard ratio of 2.07 (95% CI 1.82 to 2.36) for current smokers and 1.37 (1.25 to 1...... in showing that smoking is a strong independent risk factor of cardiovascular events and mortality even at older age, advancing cardiovascular mortality by more than five years, and demonstrating that smoking cessation in these age groups is still beneficial in reducing the excess risk....

  8. Hypertension og nyresygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, Anne-Lise; Pedersen, Erling B; Strandgaard, Svend

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...... hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...... nephropathy, effective blood pressure lowering is of paramount importance, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are agents of choice. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jun-15...

  9. [Hypertension and renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A.L.; Pedersen, E.B.; Strandgaard, S.

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...... hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...... nephropathy, effective blood pressure lowering is of paramount importance, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are agents of choice Udgivelsesdato: 2009/6/15...

  10. Echocardiography in Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Simone, Giovanni; Mancusi, Costantino; Esposito, Roberta; De Luca, Nicola; Galderisi, Maurizio

    2018-05-02

    Hypertension is a condition characterized by pressure and/or volume overloads and echocardiography is helpful and feasible to understand hemodynamic mechanisms. Echocardiographic information is sometimes critical and susceptible of modifying decision making. In this review, we provide detailed descriptions of the parameters that can be derived from a standard transthoracic echocardiogram, including some more recent techniques. We will also explain how each parameter might have impact in the evaluation of the hypertensive patient and give indications on when to refer patients to echo-labs, which parameters are critical and which ones might be redundant, and how to use the information obtained in the report. Cardiac geometry, LV systolic and diastolic function, LV pump performance, output impedance and left atrial function are parameters that might be altered in arterial hypertension, but not necessarily doctors need the whole information for decision making. The critical measures are provided.

  11. [Hypertension in females].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cífková, Renata

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disorder affecting more males in younger age groups; in the age group of 45-64, it is equally frequent in both genders, it is more common in elderly females. Blood pressure increases more in females around the menopause. Use of hormonal replacement therapy is not associated with an BP increase but, because of increased risk of coronary events, stroke, and thromboembolic events, HRT is not re-commended in CVD prevention. There is a similar decrease in BP by antihypertensive drugs in both genders as well as benefit from antihypertensive treatment. Women report about a double rate of adverse events of antihypertensive drugs. Oral contraception use is associated with a mild BP increase in most women and development of overt hypertension in about 5 %. Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of developing CVD later in life (more frequent development of hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke).

  12. Knowledge, Treatment, Control, and Risk Factors for Hypertension among Adults in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Fazel Zinat Motlagh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the first and the most common risk factor to diseases such as cardiovascular, stroke, and renal diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the factors relevant to hypertension knowledge, treatment, and control in southern Iran. In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Kohgiluye Boyer-Ahmad province, south of Iran, a total of 1836 hypertension patients were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Hypertension treatment and its control were defined during study. In addition, knowledge about hypertension was measured by hypertension knowledge level scale (HK-LS. Treatment rates were 75.5 and 37.7 percent for female and male, respectively. Habitat, education, income, family history with hypertension, smoking, and time of diagnosis to the disease were found to be related to the treatment of the disease. Control rates were 30.7 and 31.4 for males and females, respectively. Habitat, education, and time of diagnosis to the disease were related to control. Over 50 percent of patients had average knowledge on hypertension. Considering the low rate of control and knowledge on hypertension among patients, health care providers should reinforce their services to improve appropriate knowledge level among elders and, also, plan comprehensive programs to promote health in order to encourage patients change and reform their life style.

  13. Relationship of Hypertension to Coronary Atherosclerosis and Cardiac Events in Patients With Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Rine; Baskaran, Lohendran; Gransar, Heidi; Budoff, Matthew J; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J W; DeLago, Augustin; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Cury, Ricardo; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J; Villines, Todd C; Dunning, Allison; Marques, Hugo; Pontone, Gianluca; Andreini, Daniele; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Bax, Jeroen; Jones, Erica; Hindoyan, Niree; Gomez, Millie; Lin, Fay Y; Min, James K; Berman, Daniel S

    2017-08-01

    Hypertension is an atherosclerosis factor and is associated with cardiovascular risk. We investigated the relationship between hypertension and the presence, extent, and severity of coronary atherosclerosis in coronary computed tomographic angiography and cardiac events risk. Of 17 181 patients enrolled in the CONFIRM registry (Coronary CT Angiography Evaluation for Clinical Outcomes: An International Multicenter Registry) who underwent ≥64-detector row coronary computed tomographic angiography, we identified 14 803 patients without known coronary artery disease. Of these, 1434 hypertensive patients were matched to 1434 patients without hypertension. Major adverse cardiac events risk of hypertension and non-hypertensive patients was evaluated with Cox proportional hazards models. The prognostic associations between hypertension and no-hypertension with increasing degree of coronary stenosis severity (nonobstructive or obstructive ≥50%) and extent of coronary artery disease (segment involvement score of 1-5, >5) was also assessed. Hypertension patients less commonly had no coronary atherosclerosis and more commonly had nonobstructive and 1-, 2-, and 3-vessel disease than the no-hypertension group. During a mean follow-up of 5.2±1.2 years, 180 patients experienced cardiac events, with 104 (2.0%) occurring in the hypertension group and 76 (1.5%) occurring in the no-hypertension group (hazard ratios, 1.4; 95% confidence intervals, 1.0-1.9). Compared with no-hypertension patients without coronary atherosclerosis, hypertension patients with no coronary atherosclerosis and obstructive coronary disease tended to have higher risk of cardiac events. Similar trends were observed with respect to extent of coronary artery disease. Compared with no-hypertension patients, hypertensive patients have increased presence, extent, and severity of coronary atherosclerosis and tend to have an increase in major adverse cardiac events. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Stress-sensitive arterial hypertension, haemodynamic changes and brain metabolites in hypertensive ISIAH rats: MRI investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seryapina, A A; Shevelev, O B; Moshkin, M P; Markel, A L; Akulov, A E

    2017-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? Stress-sensitive arterial hypertension is considered to be controlled by changes in central and peripheral sympathetic regulating mechanisms, which eventually result in haemodynamic alterations and blood pressure elevation. Therefore, study of the early stages of development of hypertension is of particular interest, because it helps in understanding the aetiology of the disease. What is the main finding and its importance? Non-invasive in vivo investigation in ISIAH rats demonstrated that establishment of sustainable stress-sensitive hypertension is accompanied by a decrease in prefrontal cortex activity and mobilization of hypothalamic processes, with considerable correlations between haemodynamic parameters and individual metabolite ratios. The study of early development of arterial hypertension in association with emotional stress is of great importance for better understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of the hypertensive disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was applied to evaluate the changes in haemodynamics and brain metabolites in 1- and 3-month-old inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension (ISIAH) rats (10 male rats) with stress-sensitive arterial hypertension and in control normotensive Wistar Albino Glaxo (WAG) rats (eight male rats). In the 3-month-old ISIAH rats, the age-dependent increase in blood pressure was associated with increased blood flow through the renal arteries and decreased blood flow in the lower part of the abdominal aorta. The renal vascular resistance in the ISIAH rats decreased during ageing, although at both ages it remained higher than the renal vascular resistance in WAG rats. An integral metabolome portrait demonstrated that development of hypertension in the ISIAH rats was associated with an attenuation of the excitatory and energetic activity in the prefrontal cortex, whereas in the WAG rats the opposite age-dependent changes were observed. In contrast, in the

  15. Ibuprofen prevents synthetic smoke-induced pulmonary edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozawa, Y.; Hales, C.; Jung, W.; Burke, J.

    1986-12-01

    Multiple potentially injurious agents are present in smoke but the importance of each of these agents in producing lung injury as well as the mechanisms by which the lung injury is produced are unknown. In order to study smoke inhalation injury, we developed a synthetic smoke composed of a carrier of hot carbon particles of known size to which a single known common toxic agent in smoke, in this case HCI, could be added. We then exposed rats to the smoke, assayed their blood for the metabolites of thromboxane and prostacyclin, and intervened shortly after smoke with the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin or ibuprofen to see if the resulting lung injury could be prevented. Smoke exposure produced mild pulmonary edema after 6 h with a wet-to-dry weight ratio of 5.6 +/- 0.2 SEM (n = 11) compared with the non-smoke-exposed control animals with a wet-to-dry weight ratio of 4.3 +/- 0.2 (n = 12), p less than 0.001. Thromboxane B, and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha rose to 1660 +/- 250 pg/ml (p less than 0.01) and to 600 +/- 100 pg/ml (p greater than 0.1), respectively, in the smoke-injured animals compared with 770 +/- 150 pg/ml and 400 +/- 100 pg/ml in the non-smoke-exposed control animals. Indomethacin (n = 11) blocked the increase in both thromboxane and prostacyclin metabolites but failed to prevent lung edema.

  16. The association between chronic disease and smoking beliefs and behaviors in African American young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilla, Cassandra; Cheney, Marshall K

    2014-01-01

    African American young adults have higher rates of smoking and chronic disease than Whites. Understanding the association between chronic disease and smoking beliefs and behaviors could improve cessation strategies for young adult smokers. African American young adult smokers aged 18-29 years (n = 243) were administered surveys assessing smoking beliefs and behaviors. Participants indicated if they had physician-diagnosed asthma, diabetes, and/or hypertension. Responses were analyzed using logistic regression, comparing responses of those diagnosed with a chronic disease to those without that disease. Smokers with asthma were 2.20 times more likely to acknowledge smoking negatively affected their health yet were no more likely to make a quit attempt than those without asthma. Diabetic smokers were 4.10 times more likely than those without to have made a quit attempt, yet were 3.24 times more likely to disagree that they were in control of their smoking. Hypertensive smokers were more likely to be heavier smokers and were 3.12 times more likely to disagree that they would stop smoking if they knew it affected the health of others than those without hypertension. Smokers with chronic disease were less likely to be influenced to quit by their physician than smokers without. African American young adult smokers with a chronic disease often diverge from smokers without that chronic disease in smoking beliefs and behaviors. These may influence how young adults respond to cessation messages and programs.

  17. Peripheral adrenergic receptors in hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Brodde, O. E.; Insel, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Increased sympathoadrenal activity appears to play an important role in the development or maintenance of elevated blood pressure in hypertensive patients and various animal models of hypertension. Alterations of adrenergic receptor number or responsiveness might contribute to this increased

  18. Radiation-induced renovascular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staab, G.E.; Tegtmeyer, C.J.; Constable, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation is known to produce changes in the small vessels and interstitium of the kidneys resulting in hypertension. Two cases of renal artery stenosis and resultant hypertension secondary to abdominal irradiation are reported and the literature is reviewed

  19. Pulmonary arterial hypertension : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendermis, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), defined as group 1 of the World Heart Organisation (WHO) classification of pulmonary hypertension, is an uncommon disorder of the pulmonary vascular system. It is characterised by an increased pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance

  20. Parental smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke at home, and smoking initiation among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Lam, Tai Hing

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the associations of parental smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home with smoking initiation among young children in Hong Kong. A prospective school-based survey of Hong Kong primary 2-4 students was conducted at baseline in 2006 and followed up in 2008. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires were used to collect information about smoking, SHS exposure at home, parental smoking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and prospective associations of SHS exposure at home and parental smoking with student smoking were analyzed using logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Cross-sectional association between parental smoking and ever smoking was significant with adjustment of sociodemographic characteristics but became insignificant after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Home SHS exposure mediated the association between parental smoking and students smoking (p = .03). Prospectively, parental smoking was not associated with smoking initiation after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Each day increase in home SHS exposure significantly predicted 16% excess risk of smoking initiation after adjusting for parental smoking. The prospective effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was significantly mediated by baseline home SHS exposure (p smoking initiation of young Chinese children in Hong Kong independent of parental smoking status. On the other hand, the effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was mediated through SHS exposure at home. To prevent children from smoking as well as the harm of SHS exposure, parents and other family members should quit smoking or at least reduce smoking at home.

  1. Smoking in the movies increases adolescent smoking: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Annemarie; Glantz, Stanton A

    2005-12-01

    Despite voluntary restrictions prohibiting direct and indirect cigarette marketing to youth and paid product placement, tobacco use remains prevalent in movies. This article presents a systematic review of the evidence on the nature and effect of smoking in the movies on adolescents (and others). We performed a comprehensive literature review. We identified 40 studies. Smoking in the movies decreased from 1950 to approximately 1990 and then increased rapidly. In 2002, smoking in movies was as common as it was in 1950. Movies rarely depict the negative health outcomes associated with smoking and contribute to increased perceptions of smoking prevalence and the benefits of smoking. Movie smoking is presented as adult behavior. Exposure to movie smoking makes viewers' attitudes and beliefs about smoking and smokers more favorable and has a dose-response relationship with adolescent smoking behavior. Parental restrictions on R-rated movies significantly reduces youth exposure to movie smoking and subsequent smoking uptake. Beginning in 2002, the total amount of smoking in movies was greater in youth-rated (G/PG/PG-13) films than adult-rated (R) films, significantly increasing adolescent exposure to movie smoking. Viewing antismoking advertisements before viewing movie smoking seems to blunt the stimulating effects of movie smoking on adolescent smoking. Strong empirical evidence indicates that smoking in movies increases adolescent smoking initiation. Amending the movie-rating system to rate movies containing smoking as "R" should reduce adolescent exposure to smoking and subsequent smoking.

  2. Knowing hypertension and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2015-01-01

    In Uganda, hypertension and diabetes have only recently been included in the health policy agenda. As they become treatable disorders, they take on more distinct contours in people's minds. This article relates knowledge about these two conditions to health institutions and technology...... for diagnosing and treating them. The response to the AIDS epidemic in Uganda provides an important context for, and contrast with, the emergence of hypertension and diabetes as social phenomena. Ethnographic fieldwork shows the interplay between experience of these conditions and the political economy...

  3. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yri, Hanne M; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The aims of this article are to characterize the headache in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and to field-test the ICHD diagnostic criteria for headache attributed to IIH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 44 patients with new-onset IIH. Thirty-four patients with suspected but u...... tinnitus may suggest intracranial hypertension. Based on data from a well-defined IIH cohort, we propose a revision of the ICDH-3 beta diagnostic criteria with improved clinical applicability and increased sensitivity and specificity....

  4. Hypertension and renovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, P; Ibsen, H; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn

    2002-01-01

    The clinical value of renal vein renin sampling (RVRS) as a prognostic tool in the treatment of renovascular hypertension was evaluated. One hundred consecutive patients were included over a 4-year period of time. About half of the patients (49%) were treated interventionally by PTRA (21%), nephr......The clinical value of renal vein renin sampling (RVRS) as a prognostic tool in the treatment of renovascular hypertension was evaluated. One hundred consecutive patients were included over a 4-year period of time. About half of the patients (49%) were treated interventionally by PTRA (21...

  5. [Smoking history worldwide--cigarette smoking, passive smoking and smoke free environment in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändli, Otto

    2010-08-01

    After the invention of the cigarette 1881 the health consequences of active smoking were fully known only in 1964. Since 1986 research findings allow increasingly stronger conclusions about the impact of passive smoking on health, especially for lung cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease in adults and children and the sudden infant death syndrome. On the basis of current consumption patterns, approximately 450 million adults will be killed by smoking between 2000 and 2050. At least half of these adults will die between age 30 and 69. Cancer and total deaths due to smoking have fallen so far only in men in high-income countries but will rise globally unless current smokers stop smoking before or during middle age. Higher taxes, regulations on smoking, including 100 % smoke free indoor spaces, and information for consumers could avoid smoking-associated deaths. Irland was 2004 the first country worldwide introducing smoke free bars and restaurants with positive effects on compliance, health of employees and business. In the first year after the introduction these policies have resulted in a 10 - 20 % reduction of acute coronary events. In Switzerland smoke free regulations have been accepted by popular vote first in the canton of Ticino in 2006 and since then in 15 more cantons. The smoking rate dropped from 33 to 27 % since 2001.

  6. Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus: Coprediction and Time Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimihodimos, Vasilis; Gonzalez-Villalpando, Clicerio; Meigs, James B; Ferrannini, Ele

    2018-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension overlap in the population. In many subjects, development of diabetes mellitus is characterized by a relatively rapid increase in plasma glucose values. Whether a similar phenomenon occurs during the development of hypertension is not known. We analyzed the pattern of blood pressure (BP) changes during the development of hypertension in patients with or without diabetes mellitus using data from the MCDS (Mexico City Diabetes Study; a population-based study of diabetes mellitus in Hispanic whites) and in the FOS (Framingham Offspring Study, a community-based study in non-Hispanic whites) during a 7-year follow-up. Diabetes mellitus at baseline was a significant predictor of incident hypertension (in FOS, odds ratio, 3.14; 95% confidence interval, 2.17-4.54) independently of sex, age, body mass index, and familial diabetes mellitus. Conversely, hypertension at baseline was an independent predictor of incident diabetes mellitus (in FOS, odds ratio, 3.33; 95% CI, 2.50-4.44). In >60% of the converters, progression from normotension to hypertension was characterized by a steep increase in BP values, averaging 20 mm Hg for systolic BP within 3.5 years (in MCDS). In comparison with the nonconverters group, hypertension and diabetes mellitus converters shared a metabolic syndrome phenotype (hyperinsulinemia, higher body mass index, waist girth, BP, heart rate and pulse pressure, and dyslipidemia). Overall, results were similar in the 2 ethnic groups. We conclude that (1) development of hypertension and diabetes mellitus track each other over time, (2) transition from normotension to hypertension is characterized by a sharp increase in BP values, and (3) insulin resistance is one common feature of both prediabetes and prehypertension and an antecedent of progression to 2 respective disease states. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Smoking patterns among adolescents with asthma attending upper secondary schools: a community-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Keiding, Lis; Madsen, Mette

    2003-01-01

    adjusted for age, gender, parents' job and smoking, family type, body mass index, and exercise habits. RESULTS: In total, 37.7% smoked currently and 16.5% smoked daily; more girls than boys smoked. More pupils with asthma than without smoked daily (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.15; 95% confidence interval......OBJECTIVE: Smoking among people who have asthma may be a serious health problem. We studied the prevalence of smoking and the relations between smoking and asthma, symptoms, medicine, and gender differences among adolescents with asthma. METHODS: A national cross-sectional study on health...... and lifestyles was performed in 1996-1997 using a computerized questionnaire in upper secondary schools in Denmark. We included 1887 pupils with asthma (defined as self-reported asthma diagnosed by a physician) and 20 688 controls. Smoking was categorized as daily, occasional, ex-smokers, and never smoked. We...

  8. Hyperuricemia in Childhood Primary Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Feig, Daniel I.; Johnson, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    Experimental animal models suggest that uric acid might have a pathogenic role in the early development of primary hypertension. We hypothesized that serum uric acid is correlated with blood pressure in children with new-onset, untreated, primary hypertension. We evaluated 125 consecutive children referred to the Baylor Pediatric Renal Program for evaluation of hypertension. None of the subjects had previously been evaluated or treated for hypertension. The children ranged in age from 6 to 18...

  9. Hypertension and experimental stroke therapies

    OpenAIRE

    O'Collins, Victoria E; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Macleod, Malcolm R; Howells, David W

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is an established target for long-term stroke prevention but procedures for management of hypertension in acute stroke are less certain. Here, we analyze basic science data to examine the impact of hypertension on candidate stroke therapies and of anti-hypertensive treatments on stroke outcome. Methods: Data were pooled from 3,288 acute ischemic stroke experiments (47,899 animals) testing the effect of therapies on infarct size (published 1978–2010). Data were combined using meta...

  10. Comparison of CT-Determined Pulmonary Artery Diameter, Aortic Diameter, and Their Ratio in Healthy and Diverse Clinical Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available The main pulmonary artery diameter (mPA, aortic diameter (Ao, and the mPA/Ao ratio, easily measured using chest computed tomography (CT, provide information that enables the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiopulmonary diseases. Here, we used CT to determine the sex- and age-specific distribution of normal reference values for mPA, Ao, and mPA/Ao ratio in an adult Korean population.Data from non-contrast, ECG-gated, coronary-calcium-scoring CT images of 2,547 individuals who visited the Health Screening Center of the Severance Hospital were analyzed. Healthy individuals (n = 813 included those who do not have hypertension, diabetes, asthma, obstructive lung disease, ischemic heart disease, stroke, smoking, obesity, and abnormal CT findings. Both mPA and Ao were measured at the level of bifurcation of the main pulmonary artery.The mean mPA and Ao were 25.9 mm and 30.0 mm in healthy participants, respectively, while the mean mPA/Ao ratio was 0.87. Medical conditions associated with a larger mPA were male, obesity, smoking history, hypertension, and diabetes. A larger mPA/Ao ratio was associated with female, the obese, non-smoker, normotensive, and normal serum level of lipids, while a smaller mPA/Ao ratio was associated with older age. In healthy individuals, the 90th percentile sex-specific mPA, Ao, and mPA/Ao ratio were, 31.3 mm (95% CI 29.9-32.2, 36.8 mm (95% CI 35.7-37.5, and 1.05 (95% CI 0.99-1.07 in males, and 29.6 mm (95% CI 29.1-30.2, 34.5 mm (95% CI 34.1-34.9, and 1.03 (95% CI 1.02-1.06 in females, respectively.In the Korean population, the mean mPA reference values in male and female were 26.5 mm and 25.8 mm, respectively, while the mean mPA/Ao ratio was 0.87. These values were influenced by a variety of underlying medical conditions.

  11. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  12. EMERGENCY STATES IN ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gurevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes in detail potential emergency states in patients with different stages of arterial hypertension with special attention to diagnosis and rational management of hypertensive crisis. Differentiated approach to management of different forms of hypertensive crisis is specified.

  13. Major depression and secondhand smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Scott B; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina H; Woolf, Benjamin; Wang, Jian Li; Bulloch, Andrew G M; Sajobi, Tolulope

    2018-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently linked smoking to poor mental health. Among non-smokers, some studies have also reported associations between secondhand smoke exposure and psychological symptoms. However, an association between secondhand smoke exposure and depressive disorders has not been well established. This analysis used cross-sectional data from a series of 10 population surveys conducted in Canada between 2003 and 2013. The surveys targeted the Canadian household population, included a brief structured interview for past year major depressive episode (MDE) and included items assessing secondhand smoke exposure. We used two-stage individual-level random-effects meta-regression to synthesize results from these surveys. Over the study interval, about 20% of non-smokers reported substantial exposure to secondhand smoke. In this group, the pooled annual prevalence of MDE was 6.1% (95% CI 5.3-6.9) compared to 4.0% (95% CI 3.7-4.3) in non-smokers without secondhand smoke exposure. The crude odds ratio was 1.5 (95% CI 1.4-1.7). With adjustment for a set of potential confounding variables the odds ratio was unchanged, 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 - 1.6). These results provide additional support for public health measures aimed at reducing secondhand smoke exposure. A causal connection between secondhand smoke exposure and MDEs cannot be confirmed due to the cross-sectional nature of the data. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish temporal sequencing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Smoking in Movies and Adolescent Smoking Initiation: A Longitudinal Study among Argentinian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Raul; Pérez, Adriana; Peña, Lorena; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Morello, Paola; Braun, Sandra; Hardin, James W.; Thrasher, James F.; Sargent, James

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether exposure to movie smoking is associated with cigarette smoking among Argentinian adolescents. Study design School-based longitudinal study involving 33 secondary schools in Argentina. The sample included 2502 never smokers (average age at entry =12.5y), 1,700 (67.9%) of whom completed follow-up surveys 17 months later. Exposure to the top 100 grossing films for each year between 2009 and 2013 was assessed by content-coding films for tobacco, and then asking adolescents whether they had seen each of 50 titles, randomly selected from the larger pool, then parsing exposure into tertiles. Logistic regression models estimated adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for the following transitions: non-susceptible to susceptible never smoker, never smoker to ever smoker, and never smoker to current smoking (last 30 days). Results At follow-up, 34.4% of non-susceptible never smokers became susceptible, 24.1% reported having tried smoking, and 9.6% were current smokers. Most exposure to movie smoking was from US-produced films (average 60.3 minutes compared with only 3.4 minutes from Argentine films). Higher exposure to smoking in movies was significantly associated with increased odds of becoming susceptible (AOR1st vs 3rd tertile = 1.77, 95% confidence interval 1.30–2.41), of trying smoking (AOR1st vs 3rd tertile = 1.54, 1.14–2.08), and marginally associated with current smoking (AOR1st vs 3rd tertile = 1.54, 0.99–2.40). Exposure to smoking in US- or Argentine-produced films had similar associations. Conclusion In Argentina, exposure to smoking in the movies predicted future smoking transitions among early adolescents, with most exposure coming from viewing US movies. PMID:28029343

  15. Predictors of treatment success in smoking cessation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for this ratio may change the predictors of success. From a behavioural science perspective, another recent study found that financial incentives were associated with successful smoking cessation and that harnessing the individual's aversion to loss in a cessation programme may encourage a change in smoking behaviour.

  16. Primary lung hypertension in-patient with hypertension portal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo Uribe; Villa Restrepo, Alfredo

    1990-01-01

    Thorax x-rays were reviewed in 18 patients with portal hypertension. In 28% of these we found radiologic signs of pulmonary hypertension of the precapillary type. The existing relation between primary pulmonary hypertension and portal hypertension has been established in different scientific papers. In the published series the incidence of primary pulmonary hypertension is less than the one of found in these patients the physiopathology of this association is reviewed, and as a hypothetic manner it is postulated the possible roll of the hypoxaemia of the residents, at the altitude of the Bogota city. (2.640 mts) as a helping factor in this phenomenon

  17. Radionuclide splenoportography in patients with portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriya, Kouji; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Ohnishi, Takashi; Jinnouchi, Masashi; Futami, Sigemi; Yoshida, Akira; Watanabe, Katsuji

    1991-01-01

    Splenoportography using 99m Tc-pertechnetate was performed in 18 patients with portal hypertension. 99m Tc pertechnetate (370 MBq) was directly injected into the spleen. Co-lateral circulation of portal vein was observed in 13 of 18 patients (72%). L/H ratio was also calculated by the time activity curve of dynamic images. L/H ratio was significantly lower (p<0.05) in patients with colateral vessels and severe esophageal varix. Radionuclide splenography was an useful method for evaluating hemodynamics of portal vein. (author)

  18. Blood Pressure Control in Hypertensive Patients, Cardiovascular Risk Profile and the Prevalence of Masked Uncontrolled Hypertension (MUCH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Nabil; Dzubur, Alen; Durak, Azra; Kulic, Mehmed; Naser, Nura

    2016-07-27

    patients for at least 24h. Despite the combined medical treatment (78% of the patients), clinic control (risk (smokers, diabetes, obesity). Masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUCH) was most often due to poor control of nocturnal BP, with the proportion of patients in whom MUCH was solely attributable to an elevated nocturnal BP almost double that solely attributable to daytime BP elevation (22.3 vs. 10.1%, P 0.001). The prevalence of masked suboptimal BP control in patients with treated and well-controlled clinic BP is high. The characteristics of patients with MUCH (male, longer duration of hypertension, obesity, smoking history, and diabetes) indicate that this is a higher-risk group with most to gain from improved BP.

  19. Decoding white coat hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Dennis A; Park, Alex

    2017-01-01

    There is arguably no less understood or more intriguing problem in hypertension that the “white coat” condition, the standard concept of which is significantly blood pressure reading obtained by medical personnel of authoritative standing than that obtained by more junior and less authoritative personnel and by the patients themselves. Using hospital-initiated ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, the while effect manifests as initial and ending pressure elevations, and, in treated patients, a low daytime profile. The effect is essentially systolic. Pure diastolic white coat hypertension appears to be exceedingly rare. On the basis of the studies, we believe that the white coat phenomenon is a common, periodic, neuro-endocrine reflex conditioned by anticipation of having the blood pressure taken and the fear of what this measurement may indicate concerning future illness. It does not change with time, or with prolonged association with the physician, particularly with advancing years, it may be superimposed upon essential hypertension, and in patients receiving hypertensive medication, blunting of the nighttime dip, which occurs in about half the patients, may be a compensatory mechanisms, rather than an indication of cardiovascular risk. Rather than the blunted dip, the morning surge or the widened pulse pressure, cardiovascular risk appears to be related to elevation of the average night time pressure. PMID:28352632

  20. Angiography for renal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, V.P.; Ernst, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    As angioplasty and operative techniques have become more precise and successful, so have evaluation techniques. Preoperative arteriography is indispensible for deciding on the appropriate treatment modality and the specifics of the procedure. Arteriography, therefore, remains the cornerstone in managing renovascular hypertension and renal arterial disease

  1. Children and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Denise

    1983-01-01

    Since children as young as seven years old can suffer from hypertension, all children should have blood pressure checked during physical examinations. Guidelines for testing children's blood pressure are presented along with suggestions about what schools and parents can do to help deal with the problem. (PP)

  2. Project "Hypertension Alert."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailors, Emma Lou

    1983-01-01

    "Hypertension Alert," a 1979-80 blood pressure screening-awareness project of the Yonkers, New York Public Schools, is described. Data is analyzed in tables for ethnic composition, and range of blood pressure readings for the high school, junior high school, and elementary school students tested. (Author/JMK)

  3. Hypertensive Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Hypertensive heart disease is prevalent and during the last decade it has been determined that patients with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy have increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, many have doubted the effectiveness of LV mass assessment because it is difficult...

  4. What Is Pulmonary Hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Pulmonary Hypertension - High Blood Pressure in the Heart-to-Lung System Updated:Jan ... Pressure" This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  5. Hypertension og hjertet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, Kristian; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Svendsen, Tage Lysbo

    2009-01-01

    of left ventricular mass is associated with substantial and significant reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Hypertension is strongly associated with increased risk of subsequent heart failure. Meta analysis data suggests that reduction in blood pressure is also associated with very...

  6. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...

  7. Nitroglycerin kan give hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Peter; Levinsen, Tine Holbæk; Hovind, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Hg. The conclusion was that her response was a paradoxical response to glycerylnitrate, orthostatism and a pathological response to massage of the carotid artery. This is the third reported case on paradoxical hypertension induced by glyceryl nitrates. It is speculated that dysfunction of the cerebral bloodflow...

  8. Association between cigarette smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, S.M.; Ershadian, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the association between cigarette smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis. Methodology: In this retrospective study which was carried out in Razi hospital, in Ahvaz a city southwest Iran, medical charts of patients with tuberculosis between 2005 and 2007 were reviewed. Sixty one patients aged 15-96 years with documented pulmonary tuberculosis (smear positive) were selected as cases and 122 age and sex matched persons without tuberculosis(patients hospitalized in surgery and orthopedic wards) were selected randomly as controls. Data on smoking status, quantity of cigarette smoked, and duration of smoking was collected from medical charts. The data in the two groups were statistically compared with SPSS version 16. The chi square test was used to compare the frequency of cigarette smoking in two groups. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were calculated when appropriate. Differences with a P value of <0.05 were considered significant. Results: Of total 61 case, 42 (68.9%) were smoker, while, of total 122 controls 22(18%) were smoker. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of the relation between smoking and tuberculosis was 10.1 [(95% confidence interval (CI) 4.3 to 23.5), P<0.001]. The mean of pocket - year of smoked cigarette (20/pocket) in cases and controls were 15.9 +- 13.7 and 13.5 +- 9.1, respectively (P=0.5). Conclusion: This study showed that pulmonary tuberculosis is associated to cigarette smoking. The association is not dose-dependent. Smoking may be a risk factor for TB acquisition. (author)

  9. Impact of the Spanish smoking laws on tobacco consumption and secondhand smoke exposure: A longitudinal population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Fu, Marcela; Ballbè, Montse; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Martínez, Cristina; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M

    2017-12-01

    In Spain, two smoke-free laws have been passed after the approval of the WHO-FCTC. This study assesses the impact of these Spanish smoking legislations on the active and passive smoking through a population cohort in Barcelona (Spain). This is a longitudinal study before and after the implementation of two national smoking bans in Spain in a representative sample (n=1245) of adults (≥16years old) from Barcelona (Spain) surveyed in 2004-2005 and followed-up in 2013-2014. The final sample analyzed was 736 individuals. Both questionnaires (before and after the two laws) included the same variables about active and passive smoking. We calculated the prevalence and the prevalence ratio (PR, with their 95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of smoking cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco and also the prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home, work, public transport, leisure time and at any setting after vs. before Spanish legislations. After the implementation of the two Spanish smoke-free bans, a significant decrease was observed in the smoking prevalence (from 34.5% to 26.1%, PR=0.76, psmoke-free legislations in Spain is related to a reduction in smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. However, the smoking of other tobacco products, particularly hand-rolled tobacco, has increased among young population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enabling parents who smoke to prevent their children from initiating smoking: results from a 3-year intervention evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christine; Dickinson, Denise

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate effects of a home-based antismoking socialization program on the initiation of smoking among children whose parents smoke. Three-year randomized controlled trial. Parents who were current smokers and had a child in the third grade who had not tried smoking were eligible; 873 parents-offspring pairs met these criteria, completed baseline interviews, and were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition; 776 children (89%) completed an interview 3 years after baseline and were included in the study. During 3 months, the intervention group (n = 371) received 5 printed activity guides, parenting tip sheets, child newsletters, and incentives; this group also received a booster activity guide 1 year later. The control group (n = 405) received fact sheets about smoking. Initiation of smoking (first instance of puffing on a cigarette) was reported by 12% vs 19% of children in the intervention vs control groups. Logistic regression analysis indicated that children in the control condition had twice the odds of reporting initiation of smoking as children in the intervention condition (adjusted odds ratio, 2.16; Pparent sex, parent race, parent educational achievement, child's best friends' smoking, parent smoking rate at baseline, and parent cessation status. Children in the pre-initiation phase of smoking who receive antismoking socialization from their parents are less likely to initiate smoking, even if their parents smoke.

  11. Smoking and adolescent health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-hee Park

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents’ smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents’ habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents’ smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents’ smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents’ smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents’ health and improve their quality of life.

  12. Hypertension, a health economics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcocer, Luis; Cueto, Liliana

    2008-06-01

    The economic aspects of hypertension are critical to modern medicine. The medical, economic, and human costs of untreated and inadequately controlled hypertension are enormous. Hypertension is distributed unequally and with iniquity in different countries and regions of the world. Treatment of hypertension requires an investment over many years to prolong disease-free quality years of life. The high prevalence and high cost of the disease impacts on the microeconomics and macroeconomics of countries and regions. The criteria used for inclusion in clinical guidelines for hypertension impact on the cost and cost/utility of diagnosis or treatment.

  13. Pulmonary Hypertension and Pulmonary Vasodilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Roberta L

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension in the perinatal period can present acutely (persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn) or chronically. Clinical and echocardiographic diagnosis of acute pulmonary hypertension is well accepted but there are no broadly validated criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension later in the clinical course, although there are significant populations of infants with lung disease at risk for this diagnosis. Contributing cardiovascular comorbidities are common in infants with pulmonary hypertension and lung disease. It is not clear who should be treated without confirmation of pulmonary vascular disease by cardiac catheterization, with concurrent evaluation of any contributing cardiovascular comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased systolic ambulatory blood pressure and microalbuminuria in treated and non-treated hypertensive smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Kristensen, Kjeld S; Bang, Lia E

    2004-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of smoking status on both clinic and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) by using 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring in treated and non-treated hypertensive smokers and non-smokers. A secondary aim was to evaluate...

  15. Maternal educational level and risk of gestational hypertension: the Generation R Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Silva (Lindsay); M. Coolman (Marianne); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); A. Hofman (Albert); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); H. Raat (Hein)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe examined whether maternal educational level as an indicator of socioeconomic status is associated with gestational hypertension. We also examined the extent to which the effect of education is mediated by maternal substance use (that is smoking, alcohol consumption and illegal drug

  16. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbuehler, K.; Peters, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  17. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Peters, P.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and whether this

  18. Attitudes to smoking and smoking cessation among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakumar, Sreejith; Adams, John

    2015-10-28

    This article presents a literature review on smoking rates among nurses and the nursing role in promoting smoking cessation worldwide. Findings included wide variations between countries in smoking rates among nurses, and the important influence of peers and family members on smoking behaviours. Several studies indicated that nurses would value more education on techniques to promote smoking cessation.

  19. Characteristics, Risk Factors, and Treatment Practices of Known Adult Hypertensive Patients in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Al-Hamdan

    2010-01-01

    Methods. Cross-sectional community-based study using the WHO stepwise approach. Saudi adults were randomly chosen from Primary Health Care Centers catchment areas. Data was collected using a questionnaire which included sociodemographic data, history of hypertension, risk factors, treatment practices, biochemical and anthropometric measurements. Collected data was cheeked, computer fed, and analysed using SPSS V17. Results. Out of 4719 subjects (99.2% response, 542 (11.5% subjects were known hypertensives or detected by health workers in the past 12 months. Hypertension was significantly associated with age, gender, geographical location, education, employment, diabetes, physical inactivity, excess body weight, and ever smoking. Multiple logistic analysis controlling for age showed that significant predictors of hypertension were diabetes mellitus, ever smoking, obesity, and hypercholesteremia. Several treatment modalities and practices were significantly associated with gender, age, education, and occupation. About 74% were under prescribed treatment by physicians, 62% on dietary modification, 37% attempted weight reduction, 27% performed physical exercise, and less than 7% used herbs, consulted traditional healers or quitted smoking. Income was not significantly associated with any treatment modality or patient practices. Conclusion. Hypertension (known and undetected is a major chronic health problem among adults in Saudi Arabia. Many patients' practices need changes. A comprehensive approach is needed to prevent, early detect, and control the disease targeting, the risk factors, and predictors identified.

  20. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  1. Tomographic and functional findings in severe COPD: comparison between the wood smoke-related and smoking-related disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Mauricio; Maldonado Gomez, Dario; Torres-Duque, Carlos A.; Barrero, Margarita; Jaramillo Villegas, Claudia; Perez, Juan Manuel; Varon, Humberto [Colombian Pulmonology Foundation, Bogota (Colombia); Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Cardiology Foundation, Cardiology Institute, Bogota (Colombia)

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Wood smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. For a given degree of airway obstruction, the reduction in DLCO is smaller in individuals with wood smoke-related COPD than in those with smoking-related COPD, suggesting that there is less emphysema in the former. The objective of this study was to compare HRCT findings between women with wood smoke-related COPD and women with smoking-related COPD. Methods: Twenty-two women with severe COPD (FEV1/FVC ratio < 70% and FEV1 < 50%) were divided into two groups: those with wood smoke-related COPD (n = 12) and those with smoking-related COPD (n = 10). The two groups were compared regarding emphysema scores and airway involvement (as determined by HRCT); and functional abnormalities-spirometry results, DLCO, alveolar volume (VA), the DLCO/VA ratio, lung volumes, and specific airway resistance (sRaw). Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of FEV1, sRaw, or lung hyperinflation. Decreases in DLCO and in the DLCO/VA ratio were greater in the smoking-related COPD group subjects, who also had higher emphysema scores, in comparison with the wood smoke-related COPD group subjects. In the wood smoke-related COPD group, HRCT scans showed no significant emphysema, the main findings being peribronchial thickening, bronchial dilation, and subsegmental atelectasis. Conclusions: Female patients with severe wood smoke-related COPD do not appear to develop emphysema, although they do show severe airway involvement. The reduction in DLCO and VA, with a normal DLCO/VA ratio, is probably due to severe bronchial obstruction and incomplete mixing of inspired gas during the determination of single-breath DLCO. (author)

  2. Tomographic and functional findings in severe COPD: comparison between the wood smoke-related and smoking-related disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Mauricio; Maldonado Gomez, Dario; Torres-Duque, Carlos A.; Barrero, Margarita; Jaramillo Villegas, Claudia; Perez, Juan Manuel; Varon, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Wood smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. For a given degree of airway obstruction, the reduction in DLCO is smaller in individuals with wood smoke-related COPD than in those with smoking-related COPD, suggesting that there is less emphysema in the former. The objective of this study was to compare HRCT findings between women with wood smoke-related COPD and women with smoking-related COPD. Methods: Twenty-two women with severe COPD (FEV1/FVC ratio < 70% and FEV1 < 50%) were divided into two groups: those with wood smoke-related COPD (n = 12) and those with smoking-related COPD (n = 10). The two groups were compared regarding emphysema scores and airway involvement (as determined by HRCT); and functional abnormalities—spirometry results, DLCO, alveolar volume (VA), the DLCO/VA ratio, lung volumes, and specific airway resistance (sRaw). Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of FEV1, sRaw, or lung hyperinflation. Decreases in DLCO and in the DLCO/VA ratio were greater in the smoking-related COPD group subjects, who also had higher emphysema scores, in comparison with the wood smoke-related COPD group subjects. In the wood smoke-related COPD group, HRCT scans showed no significant emphysema, the main findings being peribronchial thickening, bronchial dilation, and subsegmental atelectasis. Conclusions: Female patients with severe wood smoke-related COPD do not appear to develop emphysema, although they do show severe airway involvement. The reduction in DLCO and VA, with a normal DLCO/VA ratio, is probably due to severe bronchial obstruction and incomplete mixing of inspired gas during the determination of single-breath DLCO. (author)

  3. Gender differences in the association of hazardous alcohol use with hypertension in an urban cohort of people living with HIV in South Florida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Míguez-Burbano

    Full Text Available Industrialized countries are currently experiencing an epidemic of high blood pressure (HBP extending to people living with HIV (PLWH. Given the prevalence of hazardous alcohol use (HAU, this study examines the relationship between alcohol consumption and hypertension in PLWH. Including a gender analysis is critical, given the high rates of HAU and HIV among females.We followed PLWH including both HAU and non-HAU (200 each. Participants were assessed twice for body weight, blood pressure, alcohol consumption, and other BP-associated lifestyle factors. High blood pressure (defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg and/or treatment of HBP was the primary outcome.Overall prevalence of hypertension was 38% and higher among HAU compared to non-HAU (42% vs. 34%, p = 0.02. Less than half with HBP (42% were receiving treatment for hypertension. Overall, males had a 50% higher risk of HBP than women (odds ratio: 1.5, 95% CI: 1-2.6, p = 0.05. However among HAU, females were twice as likely to suffer HBP as their male counterparts (95% CI: 1-3.9, p = 0.02. Those HAU who preferred liquor, versus wine, had higher adjusted mean BP (132.6±18 vs. 122.3±14 mm Hg, p = 0.05. Additional analyses indicated that consumption of >1 standard drink of liquor or beer/day was associated with HBP. Risk of hypertension was noted in those with daily consumption of >3 glasses of wine. For those reporting <1 drink per day, the odds ratio of having HBP was 0.97 (CI: 0.6-0.99, p = 0.05. Factors associated with hypertension in the multivariate model included increased age, gender, BMI, HAU particularly of liquor, and smoking.Excessive hypertension burden in this population and its association with HAU and sub-optimal care indicate the need for preventive and educational intervention in PLWH. Analyses highlight the necessity of gender and type-of-beverage specific approaches.

  4. Gender equality and smoking: a theory-driven approach to smoking gender differences in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Usama; Beltrán, Paula; Fernández, Esteve; Navas-Acien, Ana; Bolumar, Francisco; Franco, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    The intersection between gender and class can aid in understanding gender differences in smoking. To analyse how changes in gender inequality relate to differences in smoking prevalence by gender, education and birth cohort in Spain over the past five decades (1960-2010). The Gender Inequality Index (GII) was calculated in 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2010. GII ranges from 0 to 1 (1=highest inequality) and encompasses three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and labour market. Estimates of female and male smoking prevalence were reconstructed from representative National Health Surveys and stratified by birth cohort and level of education. We calculated female-to-male smoking ratios from 1960 to 2010 stratified by education and birth cohort. Gender inequality in Spain decreased from 0.65 to 0.09 over the past 50 years. This rapid decline was inversely correlated (r=-0.99) to a rising female-to-male smoking ratio. The youngest birth cohort of the study (born 1980-1990) and women with high education levels had similar smoking prevalences compared with men. Women with high levels of education were also the first to show a reduction in smoking prevalence, compared with less educated women. Gender inequality fell significantly in Spain over the past 50 years. This process was accompanied by converging trends in smoking prevalence for men and women. Smoking prevalence patterns varied greatly by birth cohort and education levels. Countries in earlier stages of the tobacco epidemic should consider gender-sensitive tobacco control measures and policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Reproducibility of the ambulatory arterial stiffness index in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechering, D.G.; Steen, M.S. van der; Adiyaman, A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We studied the repeatability of the ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI), which can be computed from 24-h blood pressure (BP) recordings as unity minus the regression slope of diastolic on systolic BP. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-two hypertensive outpatients recruited...... in Nijmegen (mean age = 46.2 years; 76.3% with systolic and diastolic hypertension) and 145 patients enrolled in the Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) trial (71.0 years) underwent 24-h BP monitoring at a median interval of 8 and 31 days, respectively. We used the repeatability coefficient, which...... were approximately 30%. Differences in AASI between paired recordings were correlated with differences in the goodness of fit (r2) of the AASI regression line as well as with differences in the night-to-day BP ratio. However, in sensitivity analyses stratified for type of hypertension, r2, or dipping...

  6. [Hypertension in polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem Hachmi, L; Ben Salem Hachmi, S; Bouzid, C; Younsi, N; Smida, H; Bouguerra, R; Ben Slama, C

    2006-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. The aims of this study are to investigate the prevalence of hypertension in a female population with PCOS and to correlate hypertension with her clinical and hormonal profile. it is a transversal study of 79 PCOS patients with mean age of 25 +/- 7 years (range 13-44). PCOS diagnosis is made by Rotterdam consensus criteria's (2003). WHO definition of hypertension is used (BP 140/90 mmHg). Blood pressure is measured three times in each patient. Ovarian echography and biochemical assays (GnRH test, androgens, cholesterol, triglycerides, and oral glucose tolerance test) are made before the 5th day of the menstrual cycle. 12% of PCOS women have hypertension. Family history of hypertension is not a predictive factor of hypertension in our study. PCOS patients with hypertension are not significantly older than those without hypertension (28.4 +/- 6.5 vs. 25.2 +/- 7; p = 0.12). If compared to PCOS women without hypertension, those with hypertension have a significantly higher BMI (39.2 +/- 7 vs. 29.6; p = 0.0004). PCOS patients with and without hypertension do not differ significantly in their level of androgens and total cholesterol. Triglycerides level is higher in PCOS patients with hypertension (p = 0.06). In oral glucose tolerance test, areas under the curve of insulin and glucose are significantly higher in PCOS patients with hypertension (respectively p = 0.06 and 0.02). The area under the curve of LH during GnRH test is lower in PCOS patients with hypertension (p = 0.04).

  7. Mineralocorticoid hypertension and hypokalaemia induced by posaconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Charlotte; Taylor, David; Ghataore, Lea; Taylor, Norman; Whitelaw, Benjamin C

    2018-01-01

    We describe severe hypokalaemia and hypertension due to a mineralocorticoid effect in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome taking posaconazole as antifungal prophylaxis. Two distinct mechanisms due to posaconazole are identified: inhibition of 11β hydroxylase leading to the accumulation of the mineralocorticoid hormone 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and secondly, inhibition of 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2), as demonstrated by an elevated serum cortisol-to-cortisone ratio. The effects were ameliorated by spironolactone. We also suggest that posaconazole may cause cortisol insufficiency. Patients taking posaconazole should therefore be monitored for hypokalaemia, hypertension and symptoms of hypocortisolaemia, at the onset of treatment and on a monthly basis. Treatment with mineralocorticoid antagonists (spironolactone or eplerenone), supplementation of glucocorticoids (e.g. hydrocortisone) or dose reduction or cessation of posaconazole should all be considered as management strategies. Combined hypertension and hypokalaemia are suggestive of mineralocorticoid excess; further investigation is appropriate.If serum aldosterone is suppressed, then further investigation to assess for an alternative mineralocorticoid is appropriate, potentially using urine steroid profiling and/or serum steroid panelling.Posaconazole can cause both hypokalaemia and hypertension, and we propose that this is due to two mechanisms - both 11β hydroxylase inhibition and 11β HSD2 inhibition.Posaconazole treatment may lead to cortisol insufficiency, which may require treatment; however, in this clinical case, the effect was mild.First-line treatment of this presentation would likely be use of a mineralocorticoid antagonist.Patients taking posaconazole should be monitored for hypertension and hypokalaemia on initiation and monthly thereafter.

  8. Knowledge regarding risk factors of hypertension among entry year students of a medical university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana B Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hypertension in youth is increasing, but there is a dearth of data about the knowledge of risk factors in this age group. Aims: To assess the knowledge of risk factors of hypertension among university students and associate it with the blood pressure, physical activity, family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD, and sociodemographic variables. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey among students enrolled in the first year, in the four academic programs, with the use of a validated, self-administered questionnaire on physical activity in the past 30 days and knowledge of risk factors of hypertension. A score of 6 on 11 was considered as good knowledge for modifiable risk factors. Blood pressure was also measured. The data was analyzed using PASW-17, Chi square test, and binary logistic regression analysis was done. Results: Of the 110 participants, 69.2% were < 20 years of age, 76.4% were females, and 40% were Arabs. Stress, high cholesterol, obesity, and smoking were identified as risk factors by 75.5, 73.6, 77.6, and 71.8%, respectively; 69.1% considered high salt intake and 62.7% considered high calorie diet as risk factors. Energy drink was considered as a risk factor by 64.5%, coffee consumption 35.5%, physical inactivity 47%, and oral contraceptives 13.6%. Half the group did not consider a family history of CVD as a risk factor, 60% did not consider older age as a risk factor, and 88% did not think male gender was a risk factor. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors was better than that of non-modifiable risk factors. Although nationality, course of study, raised blood pressure, and history of diabetes showed significant association with good knowledge, their net effect was not significant by the Adjusted Odd′s Ratio. Conclusions: The study identified some gaps in knowledge regarding both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors of hypertension among students. A larger study would enable health promotion activities

  9. Renal sympathetic denervation attenuates hypertension and vascular remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Huang, Pei-Pei; Yang, Yun; Liu, Chi; Lu, Yan; Wang, Fang; Sun, Wei; Kong, Xiang-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Li P, Huang P, Yang Y, Liu C, Lu Y, Wang F, Sun W, Kong X. Renal sympathetic denervation attenuates hypertension and vascular remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats. J Appl Physiol 122: 121-129, 2017. First published October 14, 2016; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01019.2015-Sympathetic activity is enhanced in patients with essential or secondary hypertension, as well as in various hypertensive animal models. Therapeutic targeting of sympathetic activation is considered an effective antihypertensive strategy. We hypothesized that renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) attenuates hypertension and improves vascular remodeling and renal disease in the 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) rat model. Rats underwent 2K1C modeling or sham surgery; then rats underwent RSD or sham surgery 4 wk later, thus resulting in four groups (normotensive-sham, normotensive-RSD, 2K1C-sham, and 2K1C-RSD). Norepinephrine was measured by ELISA. Echocardiography was used to assess heart function. Fibrosis and apoptosis were assessed by Masson and TUNEL staining. Changes in mean arterial blood pressure in response to hexamethonium and plasma norepinephrine levels were used to evaluate basal sympathetic nerve activity. The 2K1C modeling success rate was 86.8%. RSD reversed the elevated systolic blood pressure induced by 2K1C, but had no effect on body weight. Compared with rats in the 2K1C-sham group, rats in the 2K1C-RSD group showed lower left ventricular mass/body weight ratio, interventricular septal thickness in diastole, left ventricular end-systolic diameter, and left ventricular posterior wall thickness in systole, whereas fractional shortening and ejection fraction were higher. Right kidney apoptosis and left kidney hypertrophy were not changed by RSD. Arterial fibrosis was lower in animals in the 2K1C-RSD group compared with those in the 2K1C-sham group. RSD reduced plasma norepinephrine and basal sympathetic activity in rats in the 2K1C-RSD group compared with rats in the 2K1C-sham group. These

  10. Smoking out carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Baines, David; Griffiths, Huw; Parker, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Smoked foods are becoming increasingly popular and are being produced by large and small food operations, artisan producers, chefs and consumers themselves. Epidemiological studies conducted over a number of decades have linked the consumption of smoked foods with various cancers and these findings have been supported by animal testing. Smoke contains a group of dangerous carcinogens that are responsible for lung cancer in cigarette smokers and implicated as causative agents for colorectal an...

  11. Health literacy and smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Panahi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although both population-based and clinical interventions have been successful in lowering rates of smoking in the USA over time, the prevalence of smoking remains considerably higher than the Healthy People 2020 objective of 12% [1]. The latest national study conducted in Iran showed that 25% of the population aged 18- 65 years were smokers and age, education, gender, occupation, and marital status variables had a significant relationship with smoking [2].

  12. Perceptions of parental smoking and sociodemographic factors associated with the adoption of home smoking bans among parents of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Ping-Ling

    2014-08-01

    Although public smoking restrictions have been implemented, children are still exposed to household smoking. Parental smoking is the main source of children's exposure to secondhand smoke. This study was conducted to examine the factors associated with parents' adoption of home smoking bans. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to collect data from 768 parents of school-aged children in Taiwan. The home smoking restriction status, parents' perceptions of smoking in the presence of children and its influences, and parents' sociodemographic characteristics were assessed. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was used to determine the best-fit model. More than 80% of the parents agreed with home smoking bans, whereas only approximately 26% of the parents actually restricted smoking at home completely. The crude odds ratios showed that parents who perceived the influence of parental smoking on children to be negative were more likely to adopt home smoking bans. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed factors associated with the adoption of home smoking bans, including a higher education level and older age of parents, a family composed of nonparent adults, and opposition to parental smoking in the presence of children. Children's health is a major concern for parents considering home smoking bans. Helping parents clarify misunderstandings regarding parental smoking, emphasizing the adverse effects of children's exposure to parental smoking, suggesting healthy substitutes for smoking, and providing effective strategies for maintaining a smoke-free home can motivate families to adopt home smoking bans. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1995-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  14. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L; Kokkala, M [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1996-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  15. The evolving definition of systemic arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, C Venkata S; Giles, Thomas D

    2010-05-01

    Systemic hypertension is an important risk factor for premature cardiovascular disease. Hypertension also contributes to excessive morbidity and mortality. Whereas excellent therapeutic options are available to treat hypertension, there is an unsettled issue about the very definition of hypertension. At what level of blood pressure should we treat hypertension? Does the definition of hypertension change in the presence of co-morbid conditions? This article covers in detail the evolving concepts in the diagnosis and management of hypertension.

  16. Do favorite movie stars influence adolescent smoking initiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefan, Janet M; Pierce, John P; Gilpin, Elizabeth A

    2004-07-01

    We sought to determine whether adolescents whose favorite movie stars smoke on-screen are at increased risk of tobacco use. During interviews, adolescent never smokers taking part in the California Tobacco Survey nominated their favorite stars. We reviewed popular films released during 1994 through 1996 to determine whether stars smoked on-screen in at least 2 films. One third of never smokers nominated a star who smoked on-screen, which independently predicted later smoking risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02, 1.82). The effect was strong among girls (OR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.26, 2.73). Among boys, there was no independent effect after control for receptivity to tobacco industry promotions. Public health efforts to reduce adolescent smoking must confront smoking in films as a tobacco marketing strategy.

  17. Environmental tobacco smoke and breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammon, M.D.; Eng, S.M.; Teitelbaum, S.L.; Britton, J.A.; Kabat, G.C.; Hatch, Maureen; Paykin, A.B.; Neugut, A.I.; Santella, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate whether environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) influences breast cancer incidence, data from a population-based case-control study were analyzed. Respondents with available ETS information assessed by in-person questionnaires included 1356 newly diagnosed cases and 1383 controls. Relative to nonsmokers who reported no residential ETS exposure throughout the life course, the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer were not substantially elevated in relation to ETS exposure, active smoking, or a joint measure of active and passive smoking (OR, 1.15, 95% CI, 0.90, 1.48). An increased OR, however, was noted among nonsmokers who lived with a smoking spouse for over 27 years (2.10, 95% CI, 1.47, 3.02), although no dose-response was evident. Also, among women with hormone-receptor-positive tumors only, the OR for both active and passive smoking was increased (1.42 for ER + PR + , 95% CI, 1.00, 2.00). Our data suggest that if there is an effect for ETS on breast cancer, that effect is restricted to selected subgroups of women, such as those with long-term exposure from a smoking spouse

  18. Maternal body composition, smoking, and hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikanes, Ase; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Vangen, Siri; Gunnes, Nina; Samuelsen, Sven O; Magnus, Per

    2010-08-01

    To study associations between maternal prepregnant body mass index (BMI), smoking, and hyperemesis gravidarum (hyperemesis). The sample consisted of 33,467 primiparous women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008). Data on hyperemesis, BMI, education, maternal age, eating disorders, maternal and paternal smoking habits were obtained from questionnaires. All associations were studied by logistic regression. Altogether, 353 (1.1%) women had hyperemesis. Among non-smokers, both underweight and obese women were more likely to develop hyperemesis than normal-weighted women: odds ratio (OR), 2.36; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.43-3.88 and OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.00-2.20, respectively. No associations were found among smokers. Women who smoked daily (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.32-0.60) or occasionally (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.93) had lower risk of hyperemesis than non-smokers. No effect of partner's smoking habits was observed. Both underweight and obesity were associated with hyperemesis, but only among non-smokers. Maternal prepregnant smoking reduced the risk of hyperemesis, whereas partner's smoking habits had no effect. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, Rochelle E., E-mail: rochelle.garner@canada.ca [Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Levallois, Patrick [Direction de la santé environnementale et de la toxicologie, Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Québec City, Québec (Canada); Axe santé des populations et pratiques optimales en santé, Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Québec City, Québec (Canada)

    2017-05-15

    Background: Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. Methods: The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Results: Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8 mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6 mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25–1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74 mmHg, 95% CI=0.30–1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32–0.85, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood pressure

  20. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, Rochelle E.; Levallois, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. Methods: The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Results: Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8 mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6 mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25–1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74 mmHg, 95% CI=0.30–1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32–0.85, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood pressure

  1. Unilateral renal artery stenosis and hypertension. II. Angiographic findings correlated with blood pressure response after surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I; Bergentz, S E; Ericsson, B F; Dymling, J F; Hansson, B G; Hoekfelt, B [Department of Diagnostic Radiography, Surgery and Endocrinology, Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus, Malmoe, Sweden

    1979-01-01

    The findings at preoperative nephroanigiography of 42 hypertensive patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis or occlusion were correlated with the blood pressure response following surgery and also with the preoperative renal vein renin activity ratio. A stenosis reducing luminal area by at least 90 per cent (or occlusion) and the presence of collateral circulation are considered to be highly suggestive of renovascular hypertension.

  2. Hepatic angiography: Portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, T.W. Jr.; Sones, P.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Portal hypertension is usually a manifestation of underlying hepatic parenchymal disease, although it may be secondary to portal or hepatic venous thrombosis and rarely to hyperdynamic portal states. Portal hypertension may present as encephalopathy, ascites, jaundice, hepatic failure, or catastrophic upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Radiologic investigation should include indirect or direct measurements of portal pressure, assessment of portal venous perfusion, visualization of collaterals, and demonstration of arterial and venous anatomy for potential shunt procedure. Following survival of initial variceal bleeding, the most effective procedure to prevent recurrent hemorrhage is a shunt to decompress the varices. The decision whether to intervene medically or surgically during the acute hemorrhagic episode as well as the type of shunt used to prevent future hemorrhage is the subject of continuing controversy

  3. [Exercise in arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg; Schramm, Thomas

    2006-09-01

    Regular endurance training has established itself as a major therapeutic principle in the specter of nonpharmacological measures in arterial hypertension. An initial medical check as well as an adequate technique, dosage and intensity of the prescribed exercise training are mandatory. With respect to the concomitant pharmacological treatment, it should be considered that the beneficial effects of lifestyle modification will not be counteracted by the chosen antihypertensive drug but, ideally, synergistically supported. Based on the individual clinical situation, principally all antihypertensive drugs recommended by the current European guidelines, may be prescribed as mono- or combination therapy.beta-receptor blockers are especially capable of controlling excessive exercise-induced blood pressure increase; however, they have metabolic and exercise physiological limitations. The neutrality concerning metabolic and exercise physiological parameters as well as the positive profile of side effects favor ACE inhibitors, long-acting calcium channel blockers and especially AT(1) antagonists in physically active hypertensive patients with concomitant metabolic syndrome.

  4. [Chronic hypertension and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecarpentier, Edouard; Tsatsaris, Vassili

    2012-09-01

    Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. The management of patients with chronic hypertension requires a multidisciplinary approach prior to conception, during pregnancy and post-partum. In the preconception period, fetotoxic agents should be discontinued. It is also essential to undertake a full cardiovascular examination which may, in some cases, question the possibility of pregnancy. During pregnancy, blood pressure should be monitored and controlled, but not necessarily returned to a normal value. Low blood pressure levels could indeed lead to placental hypoperfusion and fetal growth restriction. Close clinical, biological and ultrasound monitoring is recommended, even postpartum, since those patients are at higher risk for preeclampsia.

  5. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking initiation: assessing the role of intrauterine exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amy E; Howe, Laura D; Heron, Jon E; Ware, Jennifer J; Hickman, Matthew; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-01-01

    Aims To assess whether associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking initiation are due to intrauterine mechanisms. Design Comparison of associations of maternal and partner smoking behaviour during pregnancy with offspring smoking initiation using partner smoking as a negative control (n = 6484) and a Mendelian randomization analysis (n = 1020), using a genetic variant in the mothers as a proxy for smoking cessation during pregnancy. Setting A longitudinal birth cohort in South West England. Participants Participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Measurements Smoking status during pregnancy was self-reported by mother and partner in questionnaires administered at pregnancy. Latent classes of offspring smoking initiation (non-smokers, experimenters, late-onset regular smokers and early-onset regular smokers) were previously developed from questionnaires administered at 14–16 years. A genetic variant, rs1051730, was genotyped in the mothers. Findings Both mother and partner smoking were similarly positively associated with offspring smoking initiation classes, even after adjustment for confounders. Odds ratios (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for class membership compared with non-smokers were: experimenters: mother OR = 1.33 (95% CI = 1.06, 1.67), partner OR = 1.28 (95% CI = 1.06, 1.55), late-onset regular smokers: mother OR = 1.80 (95% CI = 1.43, 2.26), partner OR = 1.86 (95% CI = 1.52, 2.28) and early-onset regular smokers: mother OR = 2.89 (95% CI = 2.12, 3.94), partner OR = 2.50 (95% CI = 1.85, 3.37). There was no clear evidence for a dose–response effect of either mother or partner smoking heaviness on class membership. Maternal rs1051730 genotype was not clearly associated with offspring smoking initiation class in pre-pregnancy smokers (P = 0.35). Conclusion The association between smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking

  6. Effects of Cigarettes Smoking on Pulmonary Function among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariri Azian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary function testing is a physiological test that measures how an individual inhales or exhales volumes of air as a function of time. Smoking is greatly associated with reduction of pulmonary function. This research is aimed to estimate the values of peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC and ratio between FEV1/FVC among smoking and non-smoking students in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. Smoking is often related to obstructive disorder with low value of FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. These pulmonary functions were analyzed based on several variables such as; the number of cigarette smoked per day, duration of smoking, age, and body mass index (BMI values. 70 healthy volunteers consist of smoking and non- smoking students was selected through several sessions. Students were interviewed to answer questionnaire on demographic, lifestyles and their smoking habit. The pulmonary function tests were conducted according to American Thoracic Society (ATS standards. The results of the pulmonary functions were analyzed by using SPSS software to compare the pulmonary functions between the smoker and the non-smoker students. The results of the studies showed that the number of cigarettes smoked by respondent and the BMI values were the significant predictors of the decrease in FEV1/FVC values among university students

  7. The contribution of benzene to smoking-induced leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, J E; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Schulz, M R; Ball, L M; Duell, E J

    2000-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of leukemia; benzene, an established leukemogen, is present in cigarette smoke. By combining epidemiologic data on the health effects of smoking with risk assessment techniques for low-dose extrapolation, we assessed the proportion of smoking-induced total leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) attributable to the benzene in cigarette smoke. We fit both linear and quadratic models to data from two benzene-exposed occupational cohorts to estimate the leukemogenic potency of benzene. Using multiple-decrement life tables, we calculated lifetime risks of total leukemia and AML deaths for never, light, and heavy smokers. We repeated these calculations, removing the effect of benzene in cigarettes based on the estimated potencies. From these life tables we determined smoking-attributable risks and benzene-attributable risks. The ratio of the latter to the former constitutes the proportion of smoking-induced cases attributable to benzene. Based on linear potency models, the benzene in cigarette smoke contributed from 8 to 48% of smoking-induced total leukemia deaths [95% upper confidence limit (UCL), 20-66%], and from 12 to 58% of smoking-induced AML deaths (95% UCL, 19-121%). The inclusion of a quadratic term yielded results that were comparable; however, potency models with only quadratic terms resulted in much lower attributable fractions--all models substantially overestimate low-dose risk, linear extrapolations from empirical data over a dose range of 10- to 100-fold resulted in plausible predictions.

  8. Impact of maternal and paternal smoking on birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Sachiko; Naruse, Hiroo; Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Subramanian, S V

    2017-09-01

    The adverse effects of maternal and paternal smoking on child health have been studied. However, few studies demonstrate the interaction effects of maternal/paternal smoking, and birth outcomes other than birth weight have not been evaluated. The present study examined individual effects of maternal/paternal smoking and their interactions on birth outcomes. A follow-up hospital-based study from pregnancy to delivery was conducted from 1997 to 2010 with parents and newborn infants who delivered at a large hospital in Hamamatsu, Japan. The relationships between smoking and growth were evaluated with logistic regression. The individual effects of maternal smoking are related to low birth weight (LBW), short birth length and small head circumference. The individual effects of paternal smoking are related to short birth length and small head circumference. In the adjusted model, both parents' smoking showed clear associations with LBW (odds ratio [OR] = 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.27) and short birth length (-1 standard deviation [SD] OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.07-1.79; -2 SD OR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.84-4.10). Maternal smoking was significantly associated with birth weight and length, but paternal smoking was not. However, if both parents smoked, the risk of shorter birth length increased. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Comparison of Newly Diagnosed Ocular Hypertension and Open-Angle Glaucoma: Ocular Variables, Risk Factors, and Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne M. Buys

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the distribution of ocular variables, risk factors, and disease severity in newly diagnosed ocular hypertension (OH or open-angle glaucoma (OAG. Methods. Eligible subjects underwent a complete history and examination. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs obtained from multiple logistic regression models were used to compare OAG to OH and advanced to early/moderate OAG. Results. 405 subjects were enrolled: 292 (72.1% with OAG and 113 (27.9% with OH. 51.7% had early, 27.1% moderate, and 20.9% advanced OAG. The OR for OAG versus OH was 8.19 (P<0.0001 for disc notch, 5.36 (P<0.0001 for abnormal visual field, 1.45 (P=0.001 for worsening mean deviation, 1.91 (P<0.0001 for increased cupping, 1.03 for increased age (P=0.030, and 0.36 (P=0.010 for smoking. Conclusions. Increased age was a risk for OAG, and smoking decreased the risk of OAG compared to OH. Almost half of the OAG subjects had moderate/advanced disease at diagnosis.

  10. Adrenal Mass Causing Secondary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Darlene Y

    2015-11-01

    Most hypertensive patients have essential (primary) hypertension; only 5% to 10% have a secondary cause. Two clinical characteristics suggestive of secondary hypertension are early onset (hypertension (>180/110 mm Hg). When faced with these findings, clinicians should consider a secondary cause of hypertension. A 22-year-old woman being evaluated for asthma exacerbation in the emergency department was noted to have severe persistent hypertension. Additional evaluation revealed severe hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypernatremia. The patient was admitted to the hospital for blood pressure management, electrolyte replacement, and further evaluation of presumed hyperaldosteronism. Diagnostic imaging revealed a large adrenal mass. Surgical resection was performed, leading to a diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism caused by adrenal carcinoma. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Secondary hypertension is far less common than essential hypertension; however, considering the large volume of patients seen in emergency departments, it is likely that some will have secondary hypertension. Emergency physicians should be aware of the clinical characteristics that suggest secondary hypertension so that the appropriate diagnostic and treatment pathways can be pursued. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurological disorders in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Vakhnina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the most common vascular diseases. The brain as target organs in hypertension is damaged more often and earlier. Neurological complications due to hypertension are frequently hyperdiagnosed in Russian neurological practice. Thus, headache, dizziness, impaired recall of recent events, nocturnal sleep disorders, and many other complaints in a hypertensive patient are usually regarded as a manifestation of dyscirculatory encephalopathy. At the same time headaches (tension headache and migraine in hypertensive patients are predominantly primary; headache associated with dramatic marked elevations in blood pressure is encountered in only a small number of patients. The role of cerebrovascular diseases in the development of dizziness in hypertensive patients is also overestimated. The vast majority of cases, patients with this complaint are in fact identified to have benign paroxysmal postural vertigo, Mеniеre’s disease, vestibular neuronitis, or vestibular migraine. Psychogenic disorders or multisensory insufficiency are generally responsible for non-systemic vertigo in hypertensive patients. Chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency may cause non-systemic vertigo as a subjective equivalent of postural instability.Cognitive impairments (CIs are the most common and earliest manifestation of cerebrovascular lesion in hypertension. In most cases, CIs in hypertension were vascular and associated with cerebrovascular lesion due to lacunar infarcts and leukoaraiosis. However, mixed CIs frequently occur when hypertensive patients are also found to have signs of a degenerative disease, most commonly in Alzheimer’s disease.

  12. Epidemiology of hypertensive kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Suneel; Lazich, Ivana; Bakris, George L

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) attributable to hypertension continues to rise worldwide. Identifying the precise prevalence of CKD attributable to hypertension is difficult owing to the absence of uniform criteria to establish a diagnosis of hypertensive nephropathy. Despite the increasing prevalence of CKD-associated hypertension, awareness of hypertension among individuals with CKD remains suboptimal and rates of blood-pressure control remain poor. Targeted subgroups involved in studies of CKD seem to reach better rates of blood-pressure control, suggesting that this therapeutic goal can be achieved in patients with CKD. Elevated blood-pressure levels are associated with CKD progression. However, the optimal blood-pressure level and pharmacological agent remains unclear. Physicians treating patients with CKD must recognize the importance of maintaining optimal salt and volume balance to achieve blood-pressure goals. Furthermore, agents that modify the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis can be an important adjunct to therapy and physicians must monitor expected changes in serum creatinine and electrolyte levels after their administration. Hypertension remains a common factor complicating CKD. Future investigations identifying early signs of hypertension-related CKD, increasing awareness of the effects of hypertension in CKD and determining optimal therapeutic interventions might help reduce the incidence of hypertensive nephropathy.

  13. Myocardial Performance Index in Childhood Onset Essential Hypertension and White Coat Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Hamzeh, Rabih K; Poffenbarger, Tim; McNiece-Redwine, Karen; Hashmi, Syed Shahrukh

    2016-03-01

    As a global measure of ventricular systolic and diastolic function, the myocardial performance index (MPI) can be an early indicator of hypertensive cardiomyopathy in children with essential hypertension (EH). Children with untreated newly diagnosed EH and white coat hypertension (WCH) by a 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), both groups without any identifiable etiology for the hypertension, were enrolled for the study. Echocardiograms and vascular ultrasounds for carotid artery intimal medial thickness were performed on all children prior to therapy. Diastolic function (peak E and A velocities, E/A ratio, isovolumic relaxation time, and deceleration times) and MPI were evaluated by simultaneous transmitral and transaortic spectral Doppler flow velocities. Systolic function was evaluated by shortening fraction and ejection fraction. A cohort of 66 children (24 with EH, 42 with WCH, males 61%, median age of 13 years, range 10-17 years) were enrolled in the study. The demographic, anthropometric, laboratory tests, vascular ultrasound, and conventional echocardiographic parameters were similar between the 2 groups. There was a very small difference in MPI between the EH and WCH children (0.28 SD: 0.07 vs. 0.31 SD: 0.08, P = 0.045). However, in EH children, MPI increased by 0.14 units for every 10 unit increase in mean ABPM systolic BP (95% confidence interval: 0.03-0.25). We found the increasing MPI was associated with increasing 24-hour mean systolic BP in children with EH. Therefore, MPI may have utility as a single, quick, noninvasive method of detection and tracking of subclinical hypertensive heart disease. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Independent and combined effect of bilirubin and smoking on the progression of chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jiancheng Wang,1,* Binyan Wang,1,2,* Min Liang,1 Guobao Wang,1 Jianping Li,3 Yan Zhang,3 Yong Huo,3 Yimin Cui,4 Xiping Xu,1,5 Xianhui Qin1 1National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory for Organ Failure Research, Renal Division, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 2Institute for Biomedicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 3Department of Cardiology, 4Department of Pharmacy, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, 5Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Key Laboratory of Functional Dairy, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Whether serum bilirubin and cigarette smoking affect the risk of renal function decline remains inconclusive. We aimed to test the independent and combined effects of bilirubin and cigarette smoking on the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD in hypertensive adults. Methods: The study population consisted of 12,633 patients in the renal sub-study of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. The primary outcome was progression of CKD, defined as a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR of ≥30% and to a level of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 if baseline eGFR was ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2, or a decrease in eGFR of ≥50% if baseline eGFR was <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, or end-stage renal disease. The secondary outcomes included 1 rapid decline in renal function and 2 annual rate of eGFR decline. Results: The median follow-up duration was 4.4 years. Cigarette smoking had no significant effect on the progression of CKD (odds ratio [OR]: 1.11, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.78–1.57. However, a significantly lower risk of the primary event (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.55–0.95 was found in participants in tertile 3 compared to those in tertiles 1–2 for total bilirubin (TBiL levels. More importantly, there was an interaction

  15. Angiography in portal hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitler, E

    1982-04-05

    We report on the cooperative possibilities the radiologist has as to diagnosis and therapy of portal hypertension. The catheter angiography allows to make a differentiation between pre- and intrahepatic bloc and the localization of bleeding esophagus varices. Only after all endoscopic measures with sclerotherapy and Laser coagulation have failed, catheter angiography will be carried out as a therapeutic measure. The future development, however, will give the opportunity to a series of therapeutic attempts on the field of interventional radiology.

  16. Renal denervation and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaich, Markus P; Krum, Henry; Sobotka, Paul A; Esler, Murray D

    2011-06-01

    Essential hypertension remains one of the biggest challenges in medicine with an enormous impact on both individual and society levels. With the exception of relatively rare monogenetic forms of hypertension, there is now general agreement that the condition is multifactorial in nature and hence requires therapeutic approaches targeting several aspects of the underlying pathophysiology. Accordingly, all major guidelines promote a combination of lifestyle interventions and combination pharmacotherapy to reach target blood pressure (BP) levels in order to reduce overall cardiovascular risk in affected patients. Although this approach works for many, it fails in a considerable number of patients for various reasons including drug-intolerance, noncompliance, physician inertia, and others, leaving them at unacceptably high cardiovascular risk. The quest for additional therapeutic approaches to safely and effectively manage hypertension continues and expands to the reappraisal of older concepts such as renal denervation. Based on the robust preclinical and clinical data surrounding the role of renal sympathetic nerves in various aspects of BP control very recent efforts have led to the development of a novel catheter-based approach using radiofrequency (RF) energy to selectively target and disrupt the renal nerves. The available evidence from the limited number of uncontrolled hypertensive patients in whom renal denervation has been performed are auspicious and indicate that the procedure has a favorable safety profile and is associated with a substantial and presumably sustained BP reduction. Although promising, a myriad of questions are far from being conclusively answered and require our concerted research efforts to explore the full potential and possible risks of this approach. Here we briefly review the science surrounding renal denervation, summarize the current data on safety and efficacy of renal nerve ablation, and discuss some of the open questions that need

  17. Angiography in portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitler, E.

    1982-01-01

    We report on the cooperative possibilities the radiologist has as to diagnosis and therapy of portal hypertension. The catheter angiography allows to make a differentiation between pre- and intrahepatic bloc and the localization of bleeding esophagus varices. Only after all endoscopic measures with sclerotherapy and Laser coagulation have failed, catheter angiography will be carried out as a therapeutic measure. The future development, however, will give the opportunity to a series of therapeutic attempts on the field of interventional radiology. (orig.) [de

  18. Clinical factors associated with readmission for postpartum hypertension in women with pregnancy-related hypertension: a nested case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshberg, A; Levine, L D; Srinivas, S K

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the association between mode of delivery and length of labor on readmission for postpartum hypertension in women with pregnancy-related hypertension. Nested case control study within a cohort of 99 women with pregnancy-related hypertension who delivered at our institution between 2005 and 2009. Data were abstracted for clinical and labor information. Mode of delivery and length of labor were compared between women with previously diagnosed pregnancy-related hypertension readmitted within 4 weeks post partum (25 cases) and those not readmitted (74 controls). Categorical and continuous variables were compared using χ(2) and T-tests, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression controlled for confounders. Hypertension readmission was not associated with mode of delivery (cases: 10(40%) spontaneous vaginal delivery, 15(60%) cesarean delivery; controls: 38(51%) spontaneous vaginal delivery, 36(49%) cesarean delivery, P=0.33). Length of labor appeared longer in cases, with a trend toward significance (median: 15.5 [7,28] h vs 10.75 [5.8,15.9] h, P=0.12) and was significantly associated with readmission after controlling for delivery mode, induction and parity (adjusted odds ratio=1.06 [1 to 1.12], P=0.048). Readmitted patients were less likely to have initially been started on antihypertensive medications after controlling for age, race and chronic hypertension (adjusted odds ratio=0.23 [0.06 to 0.88], P=0.03). Postpartum readmission for hypertension in women with known pregnancy-related hypertension is not associated with mode of delivery, appears increased in those with longer length of labor and decreased in those initially started on antihypertensive medications. This provides targets for future research to continue to improve transitions of care and reduce preventable readmissions.

  19. Managing hypertension by polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Camps, Jordi; Menendez, Javier A; Joven, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Some polyphenols, obtained from plants of broad use, induce a favorable endothelial response in hypertension and beneficial effects in the management of other metabolic cardiovascular risks. Previous studies in our laboratories using the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa as a source of polyphenols show that significant effects on hypertension are noticeable in humans only when provided in high amounts. Available data are suggestive in animal models and ex vivo experiments, but data in humans are difficult to acquire. Additionally, and despite the low bioavailability of polyphenols, intervention studies provide evidence for the protective effects of secondary plant metabolites. Assumptions on public health benefits are limited by the lack of scientific knowledge, robust data derived from large randomized clinical trials, and an accurate assessment of the bioactive components provided by common foodstuff. Because it is likely that clinical effects are the result of multiple interactions among different polyphenols rather than the isolated action of unique compounds, to provide polyphenol-rich botanical extracts as dietary supplements is a suggestive option. Unfortunately, the lack of patent perspectives for the pharmaceutical industries and the high cost of production and release for alimentary industries will hamper the performance of the necessary clinical trials. Here we briefly discuss whether and how such limitations may complicate the extensive use of plant-derived products in the management of hypertension and which steps are the necessary to deal with the predictable complexity in a possible clinical practice. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. [Resistant hypertension: An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, N F

    2018-02-04

    An estimated 10% to 20% of hypertensive patients could be considered resistant to treatment (RH). These are patients who are not controlled using three drugs, at the maximum tolerated doses, including a diuretic, as well as those with high blood pressure controlled using four or more drugs. The term is used to identify patients that might benefit from special diagnostic and/or therapeutic consideration. The term 'refractory hypertension' has recently been proposed as a novel phenotype of antihypertensive failure. It refers to patients whose blood pressure cannot be controlled with maximum treatment. The first studies of this phenotype indicate that it is rare and affects less than 5% of patients with RH. Adherence to or compliance with medical treatment is key to defining resistant hypertension. Closer attention has been paid to clinical and experimental research since the first scientific statement for the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of RH from the American Heart Association, and in the European guidelines, was published in 2008. This review will set out the concepts relating to prevalence, prognosis and compliance and cover the latest developments on this subject. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Fruit and vegetable intake and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, T; Dallongeville, J; Evans, A; Ducimetierre, P; Amouyel, P; Yarnell, J; Bingham, A; Kee, F; Dauchet, L

    2012-11-01

    In cohort studies, fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is associated with lower cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Former smokers often have a higher F&V intake than current smokers. If a high intake of F&V precedes smoking cessation, the latter may explain the favorable association between F&V intake and CVD among smokers. The objective was to assess whether higher F&V intake precedes smoking cessation. The study population comprised 1056 male smokers from Lille (France) and Belfast (Northern Ireland) aged 50-59 years on inclusion in 1991. At baseline, participants completed self-administered questionnaires related to smoking habits, demographic, socioeconomic factors and diet. At the 10-year follow-up, smoking habits were assessed by mailed questionnaire. After 10 years, 590 out of 1056 smokers had quit smoking (70.7% of smoker in Lille and 37.8% in Belfast). After adjusting for center, consumption of F&V was associated with quitting (odds ratio (OR) for high versus low F&V intake: 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.22-2.45); P-trend=0.002). After further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, body mass index and medical diet, the association was still statistically significant (OR: 1.59; 95% CI (1.12-2.27); P-trend = 0.01). In a model fully adjusted for age, smoking intensity, alcohol consumption and physical activity, the association was no longer significant (P = 0.14). Higher F&V intake precedes smoking cessation. Hence, smoking cessation could affect the causal interpretation of the association between F&V and CVD in smokers.

  2. Smoke Ready Toolbox for Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site provides an online Smoke Ready Toolbox for Wildfires, which lists resources and tools that provide information on health impacts from smoke exposure, current fire conditions and forecasts and strategies to reduce exposure to smoke.

  3. Smoking and Your Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Smoking and the Digestive System Smoking affects the entire body, increasing the ... caused by cigarette smoking. 2 What is the digestive system? The digestive system is made up of ...

  4. Environmental tobacco smoke aerosol in non-smoking households of patients with chronic respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalbot, Marie-Cecile; Vei, Ino-Christina; Lianou, Maria; Kotronarou, Anastasia; Karakatsani, Anna; Katsouyanni, Klea; Hoek, Gerard; Kavouras, Ilias G.

    2012-12-01

    Fine particulate matter samples were collected in an urban ambient fixed site and, outside and inside residencies in Athens greater area, Greece. n-Alkanes, iso/anteiso-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The values of concentration diagnostic ratios indicated a mixture of vehicular emissions, fuel evaporation, oil residues and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in outdoor and indoor samples. Particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes, specific tracers of ETS, were detected in both non-smoking and smoking households. The indoor-to-outdoor ratios of particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes and unresolved complex mixture (a tracer of outdoor air pollution) in non-smoking households were comparable to the measured air exchange rate. This suggested that penetration of outdoor air was solely responsible for the detection of tobacco smoke particulate tracers in indoor non-smoking environments. Overall, residential outdoor concentrations accounted for a large fraction (from 25 up to 79%) of indoor aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Open windows/doors and the operation of an air condition unit yielded also in higher indoor concentrations than those measured outdoors.

  5. Flawed oral health of a non-smoking adolescent suggests smoking in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Antti J; Kentala, Jukka; Mattila, Kari J

    2015-06-01

    Smokers often have oral health problems. We studied whether poor oral health among non-smoking adolescents is connected to smoking behaviour in adulthood. We used an age cohort born in 1979 (n = 2582) taking part in annual oral health check-ups between the ages of 13 and 15. Self-reported non-smokers were used as the study population. As measures we used decayed, missing or filled teeth/surfaces (DMF) and decayed teeth (D) and smoking behaviour at ages 13-15 and the depending measure was smoking behaviour at the age of 29. Those who were non-smokers at ages 13-15 and had tooth decay (D > 0) in an oral check-up during that period had higher risk (OR (Odds Ratio) 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.9) of being a smoker by age 29. Tooth decay at age 15 predicted earlier onset of smoking for those, who became smokers later in life. Dental caries (DMF > 0) was not associated with higher risk of becoming a smoking adult, but those with dental caries at age 13 were more likely to start smoking earlier. Poorer dental health, especially tooth decay in adolescence is a possible indicator of a greater likelihood of transforming from being a non-smoker to a smoker. Dentists should notice this for allocated health promotion. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Family Smoking, Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home and Family Unhappiness in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Jiu Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use adversely affects many aspects of well-being and is disliked by non-smokers. However, its association with family happiness is unknown. We investigated the associations of family unhappiness with smoking in family members and secondhand smoke (SHS exposure at home in Hong Kong children. In a school-based survey in 2012–2013, 1238 primary school students (mean age 8.5 years, standard deviation 0.9; 42.6% boys reported family smoking, SHS exposure at home and whether their families had any unpleasant experience caused by smoking or SHS in the past 30 days (tobacco-related unpleasant experience, and rated the overall level of happiness in their families (family unhappiness. Multivariable logistic regression was used to study the associations of tobacco-related unpleasant experience and family unhappiness with family smoking and SHS exposure at home. Tobacco-related unpleasant experience and family unhappiness were reported by 27.5% and 16.5% of students. Unpleasant experience was more strongly associated with family smoking than SHS exposure at home. Family unhappiness was associated with both family smoking (odds ratio 2.37; 95% confidence interval 1.51–3.71 and SHS exposure at home (1.82; 1.39–2.40. These results suggest a previously neglected possible impact of tobacco use on family happiness.

  7. Hypertensive target organ damage in Ghanaian civil servants with hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Addo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of detection, treatment and control of hypertension have repeatedly been reported from sub Saharan Africa, potentially increasing the likelihood of target organ damage.A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1015 urban civil servants aged > or = 25 years from seven central government ministries in Accra, Ghana. Participants diagnosed to have hypertension were examined for target organ involvement. Hypertensive target organ damage was defined as the detection of any of the following: left ventricular hypertrophy diagnosed by electrocardiogram, reduction in glomerular filtration rate, the presence of hypertensive retinopathy or a history of a stroke.Of the 219 hypertensive participants examined, 104 (47.5% had evidence of target organ damage. The presence of target organ damage was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels. The odds of developing hypertensive target organ damage was five to six times higher in participants with blood pressure (BP > or = 180/110 mmHg compared to those with BP < 140/90 mmHg, and there was a trend to higher odds of target organ damage with increasing BP (p = 0.001. Women had about lower odds of developing target organ damage compared to men.The high prevalence of target organ damage in this working population associated with increasing blood pressure, emphasises the need for hypertension control programs aimed at improving the detection of hypertension, and importantly addressing the issues inhibiting the effective treatment and control of people with hypertension in the population.

  8. The combined influence of hypertension and common mental disorder on all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; Batty, G David; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kivimaki, Mika

    2010-12-01

    Common mental disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are risk factors for mortality among cardiac patients, although this topic has gained little attention in individuals with hypertension. We examined the combined effects of hypertension and common mental disorder on mortality in participants with both treated and untreated hypertension. In a representative, prospective study of 31 495 adults (aged 52.5 ± 12.5 years, 45.7% men) we measured baseline levels of common mental disorder using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and collected data on blood pressure, history of hypertension diagnosis, and medication use. High blood pressure (systolic/diastolic >140/90 mmHg) in study members with an existing diagnosis of hypertension indicated uncontrolled hypertension and, in undiagnosed individuals, untreated hypertension. There were 3200 deaths from all causes [943 cardiovascular disease (CVD)] over 8.4 years follow-up. As expected, the risk of CVD was elevated in participants with controlled [multivariate hazard ratio = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-2.12] and uncontrolled (multivariate hazard ratio = 1.57, 95% CI 1.08-2.27) hypertension compared with normotensive participants. Common mental disorder (GHQ-12 score of ≥4) was also associated with CVD death (multivariate hazard ratio = 1.60, 95% CI 1.35-1.90). The risk of CVD death was highest in participants with both diagnosed hypertension and common mental disorder, especially in study members with controlled (multivariate hazard ratio = 2.32, 95% CI 1.70-3.17) hypertension but also in uncontrolled hypertension (multivariate hazard ratio = 1.90, 95% CI 1.18-3.05). The combined effect of common mental disorder was also apparent in participants with undiagnosed (untreated) hypertension, especially for all-cause mortality. These findings suggest that the association of hypertension with total and CVD mortality is stronger when combined with common mental disorder.

  9. Refractory Hypertension: Determination of Prevalence, Risk Factors and Comorbidities in a Large, Population-Based Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, David A.; Booth, John N.; Oparil, Suzanne; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Shimbo, Daichi; Lackland, Daniel T.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Refractory hypertension is an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure. Participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a large (n=30,239), population-based cohort were evaluated to determine the prevalence of refractory hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Refractory hypertension was defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (systolic/diastolic ≥ 140/90 mm Hg) on ≥ 5 antihypertensive drug classes. Participants with resistant hypertension (systolic/diastolic ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥ 3 orhypertensive participants served as comparator groups. Of 14,809 REGARDS participants receiving antihypertensive treatment, 78 (0.5%) had refractory hypertension. The prevalence of refractory hypertension was 3.6% among participants with resistant hypertension(n=2,144) and 41.7% among participants on 5 or more antihypertensive drug classes. Among all hypertensive participants, African American race, male gender, living in the stroke belt or buckle, higher body mass index, lower heart rate, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, diabetes and history of stroke and coronary heart disease were associated with refractory hypertension. Compared to resistant hypertension, prevalence ratios for refractory hypertension were increased for African Americans (3.00, 95% CI 1.68 – 5.37) and those with albuminuria (2.22, 95% CI 1.40 – 3.52) and diabetes (2.09, 95% CI 1.32 – 3.31). The median 10-year Framingham risk for coronary heart disease and stroke was higher among participants with refractory hypertension compared to either comparator group. These data indicate that while resistant hypertension is relatively common among treated hypertensive patients, true antihypertensive treatment failure is rare. PMID:24324035

  10. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to determine whether cigarette smoking increases the probability of plutonium-induced lung cancer. Initial experiments, designed to characterize the effect of chronic cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary clearance of plutonium aerosols, are described

  11. Secondhand Smoke and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the workplace, and public places, such as bars, restaurants, and recreational settings. In the United States, the source of most secondhand smoke is from cigarettes, followed by pipes, cigars, and other tobacco products ( 4 ). The amount of smoke created by a tobacco product depends on the amount ...

  12. Smoking - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Well-Being 3 - Smoking - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ... and Well-Being 3 - Smoking - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Dari (دری) Expand Section ...

  13. Secondhand Smoke PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.

  14. Smoking and Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Smoking and Eye Disease Leer en Español: El cigarrillo ... By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Apr. 27, 2017 Smoking contributes to a number of major health problems, ...

  15. Wildfire Smoke Health Watch

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    Smoke from wildfires can be dangerous to your health. In this podcast, you will learn the health threats of wildfire smoke and steps you can take to minimize these effects.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  16. Smoking and risk of kidney failure in the Singapore Chinese health study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizhen Jin

    Full Text Available The relationship between smoking and risk of kidney failure, especially in people of Chinese origin, is not clear. We analyzed data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study to investigate whether smoking increases the risk of kidney failure.The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based cohort of 63,257 Chinese adults enrolled between 1993 and 1998. Information on smoking status was collected at baseline. Incidence of kidney failure was identified via record linkage with the nationwide Singapore Renal Registry until 2008. Kidney failure was defined by one of the following: 1 serum creatinine level of more than or equal to 500 µmol/l (5.7 mg/dl, 2 estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 15 ml/min/1.73 m(2, 3 undergoing hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, 4 undergone kidney transplantation. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed for the outcome of kidney failure after adjusting for age, education, dialect, herbal medications, body mass index, sex, physician-diagnosed hypertension and diabetes mellitus.The mean age of subjects was 55.6 years at baseline, and 44% were men. Overall 30.6% were ever smokers (current or former at baseline. A total of 674 incident cases of kidney failure occurred during a median follow-up of 13.3 years. Among men, smokers had a significant increase in the adjusted risk of kidney failure [hazard ratio (HR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.02-1.64] compared to never smokers. There was a strong dose-dependent association between number of years of smoking and kidney failure, (p for trend = 0.011. The risk decreased with prolonged cessation (quitting ≥10 years since baseline. The number of women smokers was too few for conclusive relationship.Information on baseline kidney function was not available.Cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of kidney failure among Chinese men. The risk appears to be dose- and duration-dependent and modifiable after long duration of cessation.

  17. Impact of Age at Smoking Initiation on Smoking-Related Morbidity and All-Cause Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Hee; Stommel, Manfred

    2017-07-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults, the aims of this study were to examine the impact of early smoking initiation on the development of self-reported smoking-related morbidity and all-cause mortality. National Health Interview Survey data from 1997 through 2005 were linked to the National Death Index with follow-up to December 31, 2011. Two primary dependent variables were smoking-related morbidity and all-cause mortality; the primary independent variable was age of smoking initiation. The analyses included U.S. population of current and former smokers aged ≥30 years (N=90,278; population estimate, 73.4 million). The analysis relied on fitting logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models. Among the U.S. population of smokers, 7.3% started smoking before age 13 years, 11.0% at ages 13-14 years, 24.2% at ages 15-16 years, 24.5% at ages 17-18 years, 14.5% at ages 19-20 years, and 18.5% at ages ≥21 years. Early smoking initiation before age 13 years was associated with increased risks for cardiovascular/metabolic (OR=1.67) and pulmonary (OR=1.79) diseases as well as smoking-related cancers (OR=2.1) among current smokers; the risks among former smokers were cardiovascular/metabolic (OR=1.38); pulmonary (OR=1.89); and cancers (OR=1.44). Elevated mortality was also related to early smoking initiation among both current (hazard ratio, 1.18) and former smokers (hazard ratio, 1.19). Early smoking initiation increases risks of experiencing smoking-related morbidities and all-cause mortality. These risks are independent of demographic characteristics, SES, health behaviors, and subsequent smoking intensity. Comprehensive tobacco control programs should be implemented to prevent smoking initiation and promote cessation among youth. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular events and mortality among older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mons, Ute; Müezzinler, Aysel; Gellert, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary events, and stroke events in people aged 60 and older, and to calculate and report risk advancement periods for cardiovascular mortality in addition to traditional epidemiological...... 60 and older were included in this study, of whom 37 952 died from cardiovascular disease. Random effects meta-analysis of the association of smoking status with cardiovascular mortality yielded a summary hazard ratio of 2.07 (95% CI 1.82 to 2.36) for current smokers and 1.37 (1.25 to 1......, and decreased continuously with time since smoking cessation in former smokers. Relative risk estimates for acute coronary events and for stroke events were somewhat lower than for cardiovascular mortality, but patterns were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Our study corroborates and expands evidence from previous studies...

  19. [Control of hypertension in nursing homes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Alvarez, W; Mulaj, M; De Breucker, S; Leeman, M; Pepersack, T

    2006-09-01

    In a cross sectional study we determined prevalence of hypertension among institutionalized old subjects. Prevalence of hypertension was 69%. Among detected hypertensive patients, 76% received an antihypertensive drug treatment. 61% of the declared hypertensive patients and 80% of the treated hypertensive patients had their blood pressure controlled. The general practitioners should better detect and treat this common geriatric problem associated with a high comorbidity.

  20. Taste and hypertension in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon; Winklebach, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The association between salty taste and NaCl intake with hypertension is well-established, although it is far from completely understood. Other taste types such as sweet, umami or bitter have also been related to alterations in blood pressure. Here, we review the mutual relationship between taste...... and hypertension to identify potential avenues to better control blood pressure. This review focuses on published data involving humans, with the exception of a section on molecular mechanisms. There is compelling evidence to suggest that changes in salty taste sensitivity can be used to predict the onset...... of hypertension. This goes hand in hand with the medical concept of sodium sensitivity, which also increases with age, particularly in hypertensive patients. The association of hypertension with the loss of taste acuity less definitive with some data/conclusions masked by the use of anti-hypertensive drugs...

  1. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  2. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, B; Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E

    1996-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental factors that influence children to smoke, and to understand the reasons why children smoke. The results of this study may help lead to the development of more effective smoking prevention programs. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of all students in grades 6 to 11 (ages: 11 to 17 years) in two high schools in the Jerusalem area, using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire. The students were asked questions regarding the age at which they began smoking, initiation, their smoking habits, their reasons for smoking, and their views on children who smoke. In addition, they were asked about the smoking status of their parents, siblings, and friends. Finally they were asked about the health hazards of smoking. Of the 847 students who answered the questionnaire, 35% stated that they had smoked at least once and 14% stated that they were currently smoking. The percentage of students who were currently smoking increased gradually with age to 36%. There was a sharp increase in experimental smoking after seventh grade (ages 12 to 13 years). Having a friend who smoked substantially increased the likelihood of smoking, whereas parental smoking or having a sibling who smoked did not increase the likelihood of smoking. The most common reason for starting to smoke was "to try something new" (55%). There was a significant difference between the views of students with different smoking statuses regarding children who smoke: nonsmoking children associated more negative characteristics to smoking. All of the children studied were well aware of the health hazards of cigarette smoking. Smoking is highly prevalent among schoolchildren in Jerusalem. The increase in the rate of smoking at the age of 12

  3. Hypertension--forekomst og behandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Hans; Jørgensen, Torben; Jensen, Gorm B

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, less than half of all hypertensives have their blood pressure reduced to relevant goals. The prevalence of hypertension in Denmark was found to be between 26% and 40% of the adult population. Just over ...... half were aware of the diagnosis, but less than half were in treatment. Blood pressure control in patients who are undergoing treatment has improved during recent years, but there is still a gap to achievable control rates....

  4. Hypertension--forekomst og behandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Hans; Jørgensen, Torben; Jensen, Gorm B

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, less than half of all hypertensives have their blood pressure reduced to relevant goals. The prevalence of hypertension in Denmark was found to be between 26% and 40% of the adult population. Just over...... half were aware of the diagnosis, but less than half were in treatment. Blood pressure control in patients who are undergoing treatment has improved during recent years, but there is still a gap to achievable control rates....

  5. Hypertension og det metaboliske syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael Hecht; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Larsen, Mogens Lytken

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a relatively prevalent condition characterized by co-existence of several metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension. Patients with hypertension have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome which, in turn, increases the cardiovascular...... syndrome is of clinical importance as it makes the treating physician test for other elements of the syndrome in patients with one of the elements, e.g. hypertension. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jun...

  6. Hypertension og det metaboliske syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Larsen, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a relatively prevalent condition characterized by co-existence of several metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension. Patients with hypertension have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome which, in turn, increases the cardiovascular...... syndrome is of clinical importance as it makes the treating physician test for other elements of the syndrome in patients with one of the elements, e.g. hypertension. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jun-15...

  7. Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Jacobsen, Rikke K; Skaaby, Tea

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Smoking is an important cardiovascular disease risk factor, but the mechanisms linking smoking to blood pressure are poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Data on 141,317 participants (62,666 never, 40,669 former, 37,982 current smokers) from 23 population-based studies were...... for smoking heaviness in current smokers. In observational analyses, current as compared with never smoking was associated with lower SBP, DBP, and lower hypertension risk, but with higher resting heart rate. In observational analyses amongst current smokers, one cigarette/day higher level of smoking...... heaviness was associated with higher (0.21 beats/minute; 95% CI 0.19; 0.24) resting heart rate, and slightly higher DBP (0.05 mmHg; 95% CI 0.02; 0.08) and SBP (0.08 mmHg; 95% CI 0.03; 0.13). However, in MR analyses amongst current smokers, while each smoking increasing allele of rs16969968/rs1051730...

  8. Self-reported history of childhood smoking is associated with an increased risk for peripheral arterial disease independent of lifetime smoking burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Priest

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic disorders are well known to be associated with obesity, lipid profile, smoking, hypertension and other medical comorbidities, and large cohort studies have explored the childhood correlates to these adult risk factors. However, there has been little investigation into the childhood risk factors for peripheral arterial disease (PAD. We endeavored to better understand the role of smoking in childhood in the risk for PAD in a well described cohort of 1,537 adults at high risk for cardiovascular disease. In a multivariate regression model, we observed an increased risk of PAD among those who reported a history of smoking during childhood (OR = 2.86; 95% CI, 1.99-4.11; P<0.001, which remained statistically significant after controlling for lifetime smoking burden (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.00-2.41; P = 0.049. Our novel observation of disproportionate risk of PAD conferred by a history of childhood smoking may reflect an unrecognized biological mechanism such as a unique susceptibility to vascular injury or an unaccounted for covariate such as secondhand smoke exposure in childhood. This observation suggests further investigation is required into the pathophysiology of smoking in the developing vasculature and the need for detailed clinical data about patterns of childhood smoking and smoke exposure.

  9. Obesity indices predict hypertension among indigenous adults in Krau Wildlife Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Ee Yin; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Haemamalar, Karppaya; Norhasmah, Sulaiman; Geeta, Appannah

    2017-05-25

    The disease burden of indigenous peoples has been augmented by the rising prevalence of obesity and hypertension in this population. This study assessed the ability of obesity indices to predict hypertension among indigenous adults of Peninsular Malaysia. In this cross-sectional study, 482 adults (223 men, 259 women) aged ≥18 years old were measured for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-height ratio (WHtR), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and blood pressure. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the predictive ability of obesity indices for hypertension in men and women. Gender-specific logistic regression analyses were done to examine the association between obesity, defined by BMI, WC, WHtR and WHR, and hypertension. Prevalence of hypertension was 25.5%. Overall, WHtR was the best predictor of the presence of hypertension, in both men and women. The optimal WHtR cut-off values for hypertension were 0.45 and 0.52 in men and women, respectively. Obese adults with WHtR ≥0.5 had about two times increased odds of having hypertension compared to non-obese adults. WHtR may serve as a simple and inexpensive screening tool to identify individuals with hypertension in this relatively difficult to reach population.

  10. The role of environmental smoking in smoking-related cognitions and susceptibility to smoking in never-smoking 9-12 year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental smoking has numerous adverse effects on child health, and children are frequently exposed to environmental smoking. In the present study, we investigated the role of environmental smoking (parental smoking, sibling smoking, peer smoking) in smoking-related cognitions (pros of smoking,

  11. [Hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Cristina; Schiffer, Eduardo; Aubert, John-David; Vionnet, Julien; Yerly, Patrick; Deltenre, Pierre; Marot, Astrid

    2017-08-30

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) and portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) are two frequent pulmonary complications of liver disease. Portal hypertension is a key element in the pathogenesis of both disorders, which are however distinct in terms of pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. HPS corresponds to an abnormal arterial oxygenation in relation with the development of intrapulmonary vascular dilatations. POPH is a pulmonary arterial hypertension in the setting of portal hypertension and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. As both diseases are associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, it is important to screen and evaluate the severity of these two disorders particularly in liver transplant candidates.

  12. Vascular inflammatory cells in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Harrison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common disorder with uncertain etiology. In the last several years, it has become evident that components of both the innate and adaptive immune system play an essential role in hypertension. Macrophages and T cells accumulate in the perivascular fat, the heart and the kidney of hypertensive patients and in animals with experimental hypertension. Various immunosuppressive agents lower blood pressure and prevent end-organ damage. Mice lacking lymphocytes are protected against hypertension, and adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells in the animals restores their blood pressure response to stimuli such as angiotensin II or high salt. Recent studies have shown that mice lacking macrophages have blunted hypertension in response to angiotensin II and that genetic deletion of macrophages markedly reduces experimental hypertension. Dendritic cells have also been implicated in this disease. Many hypertensive stimuli have triggering effects on the central nervous system and signals arising from the circumventricular organ seem to promote inflammation. Studies have suggested that central signals activate macrophages and T cells, which home to the kidney and vasculature and release cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-17, which in turn cause renal and vascular dysfunction and lead to blood pressure elevation. These recent discoveries provide a new understanding of hypertension and provide novel therapeutic opportunities for treatment of this serious disease.

  13. Pulmonary hypertension in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, John R; Trow, Terence K; Lerz, Kathryn

    2007-12-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a frequently encountered problem in older patients. True idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension can also be seen and requires careful exclusion in older patients. Institution of therapies must be tempered with an appreciation of individual comorbidities and functional limitations that may affect patients' ability to comply and benefit from the complex treatments available for pulmonary arterial hypertension. This article reviews the existing data on the various forms of pulmonary hypertension presenting in older patients and on appropriate therapy in this challenging population.