WorldWideScience

Sample records for ratio analysis protocol

  1. Mobile Internet Protocol Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brachfeld, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    ...) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet...

  2. The Network Protocol Analysis Technique in Snort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Xiu

    Network protocol analysis is a network sniffer to capture data for further analysis and understanding of the technical means necessary packets. Network sniffing is intercepted by packet assembly binary format of the original message content. In order to obtain the information contained. Required based on TCP / IP protocol stack protocol specification. Again to restore the data packets at protocol format and content in each protocol layer. Actual data transferred, as well as the application tier.

  3. Using Ratio Analysis to Evaluate Financial Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The ways in which ratio analysis can help in long-range planning, budgeting, and asset management to strengthen financial performance and help avoid financial difficulties are explained. Types of ratios considered include balance sheet ratios, net operating ratios, and contribution and demand ratios. (MSE)

  4. Financial Ratio Analysis Comes to Nonprofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabotar, Kent John

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate their financial health, a growing number of colleges, universities, and other nonprofit organizations are using financial ratio analysis, a technique used in business. The strengths and weaknesses of ratio analysis are assessed and suggestions are made on how nonprofits can use it most effectively. (Author/MLW)

  5. Symbolic Analysis of Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten

    We present our work on using abstract models for formally analysing cryptographic protocols: First, we present an ecient method for verifying trace-based authenticity properties of protocols using nonces, symmetric encryption, and asymmetric encryption. The method is based on a type system...... of Gordon et al., which we modify to support fully-automated type inference. Tests conducted via an implementation of our algorithm found it to be very ecient. Second, we show how privacy may be captured in a symbolic model using an equivalencebased property and give a formal denition. We formalise...

  6. Human Schedule Performance, Protocol Analysis, and the "Silent Dog" Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Francisco; Luciano, Carmen; Gomez, Inmaculada; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the current experiment was to investigate the role of private verbal behavior on the operant performances of human adults, using a protocol analysis procedure with additional methodological controls (the "silent dog" method). Twelve subjects were exposed to fixed ratio 8 and differential reinforcement of low rate 3-s schedules. For…

  7. A Logical Analysis of Quantum Voting Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Soroush Rafiee; Shirinkalam, Elahe; Smets, Sonja

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we provide a logical analysis of the Quantum Voting Protocol for Anonymous Surveying as developed by Horoshko and Kilin in (Phys. Lett. A 375, 1172-1175 2011). In particular we make use of the probabilistic logic of quantum programs as developed in (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 53, 3628-3647 2014) to provide a formal specification of the protocol and to derive its correctness. Our analysis is part of a wider program on the application of quantum logics to the formal verification of protocols in quantum communication and quantum computation.

  8. An Evaluation Methodology for Protocol Analysis Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Main Memory Requirement NS: Needham-Schroeder NSL: Needham-Schroeder-Lowe OCaml : Objective Caml POSIX: Portable Operating System...methodology is needed. A. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS FIELD As with any field, there is a specialized language used within the protocol analysis community. Figure...ProVerif requires that Objective Caml ( OCaml ) be installed on the system, OCaml version 3.09.3 was installed. C. WINDOWS CONFIGURATION OS

  9. Ratio Analysis: Where Investments Meet Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Susan D.; Woodbury, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses ratio analysis by which investments may be evaluated. Requires the use of fundamental mathematics, problem solving, and a comparison of the mathematical results within the framework of industry. (Author/NB)

  10. Rethinking Protocol Analysis from a Cultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Outlines a cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) perspective that accounts for protocol analysis along three key dimensions: the relationship between thinking and speech from a representational standpoint; the social role of speech in research methodology; and the influence of speech on thinking and data collection. (Author/VWL)

  11. Ambient organic carbon to elemental carbon ratios: Influence of the thermal–optical temperature protocol and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yuan, E-mail: ycheng@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); He, Ke-bin, E-mail: hekb@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Sources and Control of Air Pollution Complex, Beijing (China); Duan, Feng-kui; Du, Zhen-yu [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Zheng, Mei [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China); Ma, Yong-liang [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2014-01-01

    Ambient organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) ratios are strongly associated with not only the radiative forcing due to aerosols but also the extent of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. An inter-comparison study was conducted based on fine particulate matter samples collected during summer in Beijing to investigate the influence of the thermal–optical temperature protocol on the OC to EC ratio. Five temperature protocols were used such that the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) and EUSAAR (European Supersites for Atmospheric Aerosol Research) protocols were run by the Sunset carbon analyzer while the IMPROVE (the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network)-A protocol and two alternative protocols designed based on NIOSH and EUSAAR were run by the DRI analyzer. The optical attenuation measured by the Sunset carbon analyzer was more easily biased by the shadowing effect, whereas total carbon agreed well between the Sunset and DRI analyzers. The EC{sub IMPROVE-A} (EC measured by the IMPROVE-A protocol; similar hereinafter) to EC{sub NIOSH} ratio and the EC{sub IMPROVE-A} to EC{sub EUSAAR} ratio averaged 1.36 ± 0.21 and 0.91 ± 0.10, respectively, both of which exhibited little dependence on the biomass burning contribution. Though the temperature protocol had substantial influence on the OC to EC ratio, the contributions of secondary organic carbon (SOC) to OC, which were predicted by the EC-tracer method, did not differ significantly among the five protocols. Moreover, the SOC contributions obtained in this study were comparable with previous results based on field observation (typically between 45 and 65%), but were substantially higher than the estimation provided by an air quality model (only 18%). The comparison of SOC and WSOC suggests that when using the transmittance charring correction, all of the three common protocols (i.e., IMPROVE-A, NIOSH and EUSAAR) could be reliable for the estimation

  12. Ambient organic carbon to elemental carbon ratios: Influence of the thermal–optical temperature protocol and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yuan; He, Ke-bin; Duan, Feng-kui; Du, Zhen-yu; Zheng, Mei; Ma, Yong-liang

    2014-01-01

    Ambient organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) ratios are strongly associated with not only the radiative forcing due to aerosols but also the extent of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. An inter-comparison study was conducted based on fine particulate matter samples collected during summer in Beijing to investigate the influence of the thermal–optical temperature protocol on the OC to EC ratio. Five temperature protocols were used such that the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) and EUSAAR (European Supersites for Atmospheric Aerosol Research) protocols were run by the Sunset carbon analyzer while the IMPROVE (the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network)-A protocol and two alternative protocols designed based on NIOSH and EUSAAR were run by the DRI analyzer. The optical attenuation measured by the Sunset carbon analyzer was more easily biased by the shadowing effect, whereas total carbon agreed well between the Sunset and DRI analyzers. The EC IMPROVE-A (EC measured by the IMPROVE-A protocol; similar hereinafter) to EC NIOSH ratio and the EC IMPROVE-A to EC EUSAAR ratio averaged 1.36 ± 0.21 and 0.91 ± 0.10, respectively, both of which exhibited little dependence on the biomass burning contribution. Though the temperature protocol had substantial influence on the OC to EC ratio, the contributions of secondary organic carbon (SOC) to OC, which were predicted by the EC-tracer method, did not differ significantly among the five protocols. Moreover, the SOC contributions obtained in this study were comparable with previous results based on field observation (typically between 45 and 65%), but were substantially higher than the estimation provided by an air quality model (only 18%). The comparison of SOC and WSOC suggests that when using the transmittance charring correction, all of the three common protocols (i.e., IMPROVE-A, NIOSH and EUSAAR) could be reliable for the estimation of SOC by the EC

  13. Corporate prediction models, ratios or regression analysis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijnen, E.J.; Wijn, M.F.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The models developed in the literature with respect to the prediction of a company s failure are based on ratios. It has been shown before that these models should be rejected on theoretical grounds. Our study of industrial companies in the Netherlands shows that the ratios which are used in

  14. Bioinspired Security Analysis of Wireless Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrocchi, Marinella; Spognardi, Angelo; Santi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    work, this paper investigates feasibility of adopting fraglets as model for specifying security protocols and analysing their properties. In particular, we give concrete sample analyses over a secure RFID protocol, showing evolution of the protocol run as chemical dynamics and simulating an adversary...

  15. Formal analysis of a fair payment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Cederquist; M.T. Dashti (Mohammad)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe formally specify a payment protocol. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of time-sensitive data. Here the ?-CRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free ?-calculus. These properties are then verified

  16. Formal Analysis of a Fair Payment Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dashti, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    We formally specify a payment protocol. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of timesensitive data. Here the μCRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free μ-calculus. These properties are then verified using the finite

  17. Formal Analysis of a Fair Payment Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dashti, Muhammad Torabi; Dimitrakos, Theo; Martinelli, Fabio

    We formally specify a payment protocol described by Vogt et al. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of time-sensitive data. Here the mCRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free mu-calculus. These properties are then

  18. Security analysis of session initiation protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Lucas E.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The goal of this thesis is to investigate the security of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). This was accomplished by researching previously discovered protocol and implementation vulnerabilities, evaluating the current state of security tools and using those tools to discover new vulnerabilities in SIP software. The CVSS v2 system was used to score protocol and implementation vulnerabilities to give them a meaning that was us...

  19. Tool Supported Analysis of Web Services Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Abinoam P.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Srba, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    We describe an abstract protocol model suitable for modelling of web services and other protocols communicating via unreliable, asynchronous communication channels. The model is supported by a tool chain where the first step translates tables with state/transition protocol descriptions, often used...... e.g. in the design of web services protocols, into an intermediate XML format. We further translate this format into a network of communicating state machines directly suitable for verification in the model checking tool UPPAAL. We introduce two types of communication media abstractions in order...

  20. Analysis of a security protocol in ?CRL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Pang

    2002-01-01

    textabstractNeedham-Schroeder public-key protocol; With the growth and commercialization of the Internet, the security of communication between computers becomes a crucial point. A variety of security protocols based on cryptographic primitives are used to establish secure communication over

  1. Flutter analysis of low aspect ratio wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    Several very low aspect ratio flat plate wing configurations are analyzed for their aerodynamic instability (flutter) characteristics. All of the wings investigated are delta planforms with clipped tips, made of aluminum alloy plate and cantilevered from the supporting vehicle body. Results of both subsonic and supersonic NASTRAN aeroelastic analyses as well as those from another version of the program implementing the supersonic linearized aerodynamic theory are presented. Results are selectively compared with the experimental data; however, supersonic predictions of the Mach Box method in NASTRAN are found to be erratic and erroneous, requiring the use of a separate program.

  2. Technical Analysis of SSP-21 Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberger, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-09

    As part of the California Energy Systems for the Twenty-First Century (CES-21) program, in December 2016 San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) contracted with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to perform an independent verification and validation (IV&V) of a white paper describing their Secure SCADA Protocol for the Twenty-First Century (SSP-21) in order to analyze the effectiveness and propriety of cryptographic protocol use within the SSP-21 specification. SSP-21 is designed to use cryptographic protocols to provide (optional) encryption, authentication, and nonrepudiation, among other capabilities. The cryptographic protocols to be used reflect current industry standards; future versions of SSP-21 will use other advanced technologies to provide a subset of security services.

  3. Analysis of Security Protocols by Annotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han

    . The development of formal techniques, e.g. control flow analyses, that can check various security properties, is an important tool to meet this challenge. This dissertation contributes to the development of such techniques. In this dissertation, security protocols are modelled in the process calculus LYSA......The trend in Information Technology is that distributed systems and networks are becoming increasingly important, as most of the services and opportunities that characterise the modern society are based on these technologies. Communication among agents over networks has therefore acquired a great...... deal of research interest. In order to provide effective and reliable means of communication, more and more communication protocols are invented, and for most of them, security is a significant goal. It has long been a challenge to determine conclusively whether a given protocol is secure or not...

  4. Cryptographic protocol security analysis based on bounded constructing algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An efficient approach to analyzing cryptographic protocols is to develop automatic analysis tools based on formal methods. However, the approach has encountered the high computational complexity problem due to reasons that participants of protocols are arbitrary, their message structures are complex and their executions are concurrent. We propose an efficient automatic verifying algorithm for analyzing cryptographic protocols based on the Cryptographic Protocol Algebra (CPA) model proposed recently, in which algebraic techniques are used to simplify the description of cryptographic protocols and their executions. Redundant states generated in the analysis processes are much reduced by introducing a new algebraic technique called Universal Polynomial Equation and the algorithm can be used to verify the correctness of protocols in the infinite states space. We have implemented an efficient automatic analysis tool for cryptographic protocols, called ACT-SPA, based on this algorithm, and used the tool to check more than 20 cryptographic protocols. The analysis results show that this tool is more efficient, and an attack instance not offered previously is checked by using this tool.

  5. Mean-Field Analysis for the Evaluation of Gossip Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakshi, Rena; Cloth, L.; Fokkink, Wan; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    Gossip protocols are designed to operate in very large, decentralised networks. A node in such a network bases its decision to interact (gossip) with another node on its partial view of the global system. Because of the size of these networks, analysis of gossip protocols is mostly done using

  6. Mean-field analysis for the evaluation of gossip protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhshi, Rena; Cloth, L.; Fokkink, Wan; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Gossip protocols are designed to operate in very large, decentralised networks. A node in such a network bases its decision to interact (gossip) with another node on its partial view of the global system. Because of the size of these networks, analysis of gossip protocols is mostly done using

  7. A Calculus for Control Flow Analysis of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2004-01-01

    The design of a process calculus for anaysing security protocols is governed by three factors: how to express the security protocol in a precise and faithful manner, how to accommodate the variety of attack scenarios, and how to utilise the strengths (and limit the weaknesses) of the underlying...... analysis methodology. We pursue an analysis methodology based on control flow analysis in flow logic style and we have previously shown its ability to analyse a variety of security protocols. This paper develops a calculus, LysaNS that allows for much greater control and clarity in the description...

  8. A simple protocol for NMR analysis of the enantiomeric purity of chiral hydroxylamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickell, David A; Mahon, Mary F; Bull, Steven D; James, Tony D

    2013-02-15

    A practically simple three-component chiral derivatization protocol for determining the enantiopurity of chiral hydroxylamines by (1)H NMR spectroscopic analysis is described, involving their treatment with 2-formylphenylboronic acid and enantiopure BINOL to afford a mixture of diastereomeric nitrono-boronate esters whose ratio is an accurate reflection of the enantiopurity of the parent hydroxylamine.

  9. Ratio analysis specifics of the family dairies' financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Aleksandra; Knežević Snežana; Veličković Milica

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the evaluation of the financial analysis specifics of the dairy enterprises with a focus on the implementation of the ratio analysis of financial statements. The ratio analysis is a central part of financial analysis, since it is based on investigating the relationship between logically related items in the financial statements to assess the financial position of the observed enterprise and its earning capacity. Speaking about the reporting of financial performanc...

  10. Analysis of Security Protocols in Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Alessandro

    Embedded real-time systems have been adopted in a wide range of safety-critical applications—including automotive, avionics, and train control systems—where the focus has long been on safety (i.e., protecting the external world from the potential damage caused by the system) rather than security (i.......e., protecting the system from the external world). With increased connectivity of these systems to external networks the attack surface has grown, and consequently there is a need for securing the system from external attacks. Introducing security protocols in safety critical systems requires careful...... in this direction is to extend saturation-based techniques so that enough state information can be modelled and analysed. Finally, we present a methodology for proving the same security properties in the computational model, by means of typing protocol implementations....

  11. Explorations in statistics: the analysis of ratios and normalized data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2013-09-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This ninth installment of Explorations in Statistics explores the analysis of ratios and normalized-or standardized-data. As researchers, we compute a ratio-a numerator divided by a denominator-to compute a proportion for some biological response or to derive some standardized variable. In each situation, we want to control for differences in the denominator when the thing we really care about is the numerator. But there is peril lurking in a ratio: only if the relationship between numerator and denominator is a straight line through the origin will the ratio be meaningful. If not, the ratio will misrepresent the true relationship between numerator and denominator. In contrast, regression techniques-these include analysis of covariance-are versatile: they can accommodate an analysis of the relationship between numerator and denominator when a ratio is useless.

  12. Analysis of Security Protocols for Mobile Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazid, Mohammad; Zeadally, Sherali; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga

    2016-11-01

    Mobile Healthcare (mHealth) continues to improve because of significant improvements and the decreasing costs of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs). mHealth is a medical and public health practice, which is supported by mobile devices (for example, smartphones) and, patient monitoring devices (for example, various types of wearable sensors, etc.). An mHealth system enables healthcare experts and professionals to have ubiquitous access to a patient's health data along with providing any ongoing medical treatment at any time, any place, and from any device. It also helps the patient requiring continuous medical monitoring to stay in touch with the appropriate medical staff and healthcare experts remotely. Thus, mHealth has become a major driving force in improving the health of citizens today. First, we discuss the security requirements, issues and threats to the mHealth system. We then present a taxonomy of recently proposed security protocols for mHealth system based on features supported and possible attacks, computation cost and communication cost. Our detailed taxonomy demonstrates the strength and weaknesses of recently proposed security protocols for the mHealth system. Finally, we identify some of the challenges in the area of security protocols for mHealth systems that still need to be addressed in the future to enable cost-effective, secure and robust mHealth systems.

  13. Ratio analysis specifics of the family dairies' financial statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the evaluation of the financial analysis specifics of the dairy enterprises with a focus on the implementation of the ratio analysis of financial statements. The ratio analysis is a central part of financial analysis, since it is based on investigating the relationship between logically related items in the financial statements to assess the financial position of the observed enterprise and its earning capacity. Speaking about the reporting of financial performance in family dairies, the basis is created for displaying techniques of financial analysis, with a special indication on the specifics of their application in agricultural enterprises focusing on companies engaged in dairying. Applied in the paper is ratio analysis on the example of a dairy enterprise, i.e. a family dairy operating in Serbia. The ratio indicators are the basis for identifying relationships based on which by comparing the actual performance and certain business standards differences or variations are identified.

  14. Combined slope ratio analysis and linear-subtraction: An extension of the Pearce ratio method

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waal, Sybrand A.

    1996-07-01

    A new technique, called combined slope ratio analysis, has been developed by extending the Pearce element ratio or conserved-denominator method (Pearce, 1968) to its logical conclusions. If two stoichiometric substances are mixed and certain chemical components are uniquely contained in either one of the two mixing substances, then by treating these unique components as conserved, the composition of the substance not containing the relevant component can be accurately calculated within the limits allowed by analytical and geological error. The calculated composition can then be subjected to rigorous statistical testing using the linear-subtraction method recently advanced by Woronow (1994). Application of combined slope ratio analysis to the rocks of the Uwekahuna Laccolith, Hawaii, USA, and the lavas of the 1959-summit eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, USA, yields results that are consistent with field observations.

  15. Analysis of protection spanning-tree protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б.Я. Корнієнко

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available  Extraordinary sweeping  of  IT – development  causes vulnerabilities and, thereafter, attacks that use these vulnerabilities. That is why one must post factum or even in advance speed up invention of new information  security systems as well as develop the old ones. The matter of article concerns Spanning-Tree Protocol  – the vivid example of the case, when the cure of the vulnerability creates dozen of new "weak spots".

  16. Explorations in Statistics: The Analysis of Ratios and Normalized Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This ninth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores the analysis of ratios and normalized--or standardized--data. As researchers, we compute a ratio--a numerator divided by a denominator--to compute a…

  17. A financial Ratio Analysis of Commercial Bank Performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A financial Ratio Analysis of Commercial Bank Performance in South Africa. ... Journal Home > Vol 2, No 1 (2010) >. Log in or ... This paper investigates the performance of South Africa's commercial banking sector for the period 2005- 2009.

  18. Framework for Financial Ratio Analysis of Audited Federal Financial Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    this period were conducted on the statistical validity of the ratio method in financial analysis. McDonald and Morris conducted a study on the... franchising operations, allowing them to lower costs and share administrative support services with other agencies. [Ref. 60:sec. 402-403] The GMRA also...Press, Washington, D.C., 1955). 21. McDonald , Bill and Morris, Michael H., "The Statistical Validity of the Ratio Method in Financial Analysis: An

  19. Quality assurance in MRI breast screening: comparing signal-to-noise ratio in dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousi, Evanthia; Borri, Marco; Dean, Jamie; Panek, Rafal; Scurr, Erica; Leach, Martin O.; Schmidt, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    MRI has been extensively used in breast cancer staging, management and high risk screening. Detection sensitivity is paramount in breast screening, but variations of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a function of position are often overlooked. We propose and demonstrate practical methods to assess spatial SNR variations in dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) breast examinations and apply those methods to different protocols and systems. Four different protocols in three different MRI systems (1.5 and 3.0 T) with receiver coils of different design were employed on oil-filled test objects with and without uniformity filters. Twenty 3D datasets were acquired with each protocol; each dataset was acquired in under 60 s, thus complying with current breast DCE guidelines. In addition to the standard SNR calculated on a pixel-by-pixel basis, we propose other regional indices considering the mean and standard deviation of the signal over a small sub-region centred on each pixel. These regional indices include effects of the spatial variation of coil sensitivity and other structured artefacts. The proposed regional SNR indices demonstrate spatial variations in SNR as well as the presence of artefacts and sensitivity variations, which are otherwise difficult to quantify and might be overlooked in a clinical setting. Spatial variations in SNR depend on protocol choice and hardware characteristics. The use of uniformity filters was shown to lead to a rise of SNR values, altering the noise distribution. Correlation between noise in adjacent pixels was associated with data truncation along the phase encoding direction. Methods to characterise spatial SNR variations using regional information were demonstrated, with implications for quality assurance in breast screening and multi-centre trials.

  20. Representing the Past by Solid Modeling + Golden Ratio Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Suining

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the procedures of reconstructing ancient architecture using solid modeling with geometric analysis, especially the Golden Ratio analysis. In the past the recovery and reconstruction of ruins required bringing together fragments of evidence and vast amount of measurements from archaeological site. Although researchers and…

  1. Financial-Ratio Analysis and Medical School Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastaugh, Steven R.

    1980-01-01

    The value of a uniform program of financial assistance to medical education and research is questioned. Medical schools have an uneven ability to compensate for declining federal capitation and research grants. Financial-ratio analysis and cluster analysis are utilized to suggest four adaptive responses to future financial pressures. (Author/MLW)

  2. Business sustainability performance measurement: Eco-ratio analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins C. Ngwakwe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Eco-aware customers and stakeholders are demanding for a measurement that links environmental performance with other business operations. To bridge this seemingly measurement gap, this paper suggests ‘Eco-Ratio Analysis’ and proposes an approach for conducting eco-ratio analysis. It is argued that since accounting ratios function as a tool for evaluating corporate financial viability by management and investors, eco-ratio analysis should be brought to the fore to provide a succinct measurement about the linkage between environmental performance and conventional business performance. It is hoped that this suggestion will usher in a nuance debate and approach in the teaching, research and practice of environmental management and sustainability accounting

  3. System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

    2013-07-02

    A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

  4. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio in mood disorders: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Mario Gennaro; Lucchi, Sara; Tringali, Agnese Grazia Maria; Rossetti, Aurora; Botti, Eugenia Rossana; Clerici, Massimo

    2018-06-08

    The immune and inflammatory system is involved in the etiology of mood disorders. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and monocyte/lymphocyte ratio (MLR) are inexpensive and reproducible biomarkers of inflammation. This is the first meta-analysis exploring the role of NLR and PLR in mood disorder. We identified 11 studies according to our inclusion criteria from the main Electronic Databases. Meta-analyses were carried out generating pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) between index and healthy controls (HC). Heterogeneity was estimated. Relevant sensitivity and meta-regression analyses were conducted. Subjects with bipolar disorder (BD) had higher NLR and PLR as compared with HC (respectively SMD = 0.672; p analysis evidenced an influence of bipolar phase on the overall estimate whit studies including subjects in manic and any bipolar phase showing a significantly higher NLR and PLR as compared with HC whereas the effect was not significant among studies including only euthymic bipolar subjects. Meta-regression showed that age and sex influenced the relationship between BD and NLR but not the relationship between BD and PLR. Meta-analysis was not carried out for MLR because our search identified only one study when comparing BD to HC, and only one study when comparing MDD to HC. Subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) had higher NLR as compared with HC (SMD = 0.670; p = 0.028; I 2  = 89.931%). Heterogeneity-based sensitivity analyses and meta-regression confirmed these findings. Our meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that an inflammatory activation occurs in mood disorders and NLR and PLR may be useful to detect this activation. More researches including comparison of NLR, PLR and MLR between different bipolar phases and between BD and MDD are needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Protocol Analysis as a Method for Analyzing Conversational Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Carlos G.; Vangelisti, Anita L.

    Protocol analysis, a technique that uses people's verbal reports about their cognitions as they engage in an assigned task, has been used in a number of applications to provide insight into how people mentally plan, assess, and carry out those assignments. Using a system of networked computers where actors communicate with each other over…

  6. Formal Security Analysis of the MaCAN Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Alessandro; Sojka, Michal; Nielson, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    analysis identifies two flaws in the original protocol: one creates unavailability concerns during key establishment, and the other allows re-using authenticated signals for different purposes. We propose and analyse a modification that improves its behaviour while fitting the constraints of CAN bus...

  7. Emulation Platform for Cyber Analysis of Wireless Communication Network Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Leeuwen, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eldridge, John M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Wireless networking and mobile communications is increasing around the world and in all sectors of our lives. With increasing use, the density and complexity of the systems increase with more base stations and advanced protocols to enable higher data throughputs. The security of data transported over wireless networks must also evolve with the advances in technologies enabling more capable wireless networks. However, means for analysis of the effectiveness of security approaches and implementations used on wireless networks are lacking. More specifically a capability to analyze the lower-layer protocols (i.e., Link and Physical layers) is a major challenge. An analysis approach that incorporates protocol implementations without the need for RF emissions is necessary. In this research paper several emulation tools and custom extensions that enable an analysis platform to perform cyber security analysis of lower layer wireless networks is presented. A use case of a published exploit in the 802.11 (i.e., WiFi) protocol family is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the described emulation platform.

  8. Toward Synthesis, Analysis, and Certification of Security Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann

    2004-01-01

    Implemented security protocols are basically pieces of software which are used to (a) authenticate the other communication partners, (b) establish a secure communication channel between them (using insecure communication media), and (c) transfer data between the communication partners in such a way that these data only available to the desired receiver, but not to anyone else. Such an implementation usually consists of the following components: the protocol-engine, which controls in which sequence the messages of the protocol are sent over the network, and which controls the assembly/disassembly and processing (e.g., decryption) of the data. the cryptographic routines to actually encrypt or decrypt the data (using given keys), and t,he interface to the operating system and to the application. For a correct working of such a security protocol, all of these components must work flawlessly. Many formal-methods based techniques for the analysis of a security protocols have been developed. They range from using specific logics (e.g.: BAN-logic [4], or higher order logics [12] to model checking [2] approaches. In each approach, the analysis tries to prove that no (or at least not a modeled intruder) can get access to secret data. Otherwise, a scenario illustrating the &tack may be produced. Despite the seeming simplicity of security protocols ("only" a few messages are sent between the protocol partners in order to ensure a secure communication), many flaws have been detected. Unfortunately, even a perfect protocol engine does not guarantee flawless working of a security protocol, as incidents show. Many break-ins and security vulnerabilities are caused by exploiting errors in the implementation of the protocol engine or the underlying operating system. Attacks using buffer-overflows are a very common class of such attacks. Errors in the implementation of exception or error handling can open up additional vulnerabilities. For example, on a website with a log-in screen

  9. Uncertainty importance analysis using parametric moment ratio functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pengfei; Lu, Zhenzhou; Song, Jingwen

    2014-02-01

    This article presents a new importance analysis framework, called parametric moment ratio function, for measuring the reduction of model output uncertainty when the distribution parameters of inputs are changed, and the emphasis is put on the mean and variance ratio functions with respect to the variances of model inputs. The proposed concepts efficiently guide the analyst to achieve a targeted reduction on the model output mean and variance by operating on the variances of model inputs. The unbiased and progressive unbiased Monte Carlo estimators are also derived for the parametric mean and variance ratio functions, respectively. Only a set of samples is needed for implementing the proposed importance analysis by the proposed estimators, thus the computational cost is free of input dimensionality. An analytical test example with highly nonlinear behavior is introduced for illustrating the engineering significance of the proposed importance analysis technique and verifying the efficiency and convergence of the derived Monte Carlo estimators. Finally, the moment ratio function is applied to a planar 10-bar structure for achieving a targeted 50% reduction of the model output variance. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Progressive-Ratio Schedules and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Establishing appropriate relations between the basic and applied areas of behavior analysis has been of long and persistent interest to the author. In this article, the author illustrates that there is a direct relation between how hard an organism will work for access to an object or activity, as indexed by the largest ratio completed under a…

  11. IPv4 and IPv6 protocol compatibility options analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Misevičienė

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of the internet has led to a very rapid growth of IPv4 (Internet Protocol v4 users. This caused a shortage of IP addresses, so it was created a new version – IPv6 (Internet Protocol v6. Currently, there are two versions of IP for IPv4 and IPv6. Due to the large differences in addressing the protocols IPv4 and IPv6 are incompatible. It is therefore necessary to find ways to move from IPv4 to IPv6. To facilitate the transition from one version to another are developed various mechanisms and strategies. Comparative analysis is done for dual stack, 6to4 tunnel and NAT64 mechanisms in this work. It has helped to reveal the shortcomings of these mechanisms and their application in selection of realization decisions.

  12. RCRA groundwater data analysis protocol for the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.J.; Jackson, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) groundwater monitoring program currently involves site-specific monitoring of 20 facilities on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The RCRA groundwater monitoring program has collected abundant data on groundwater quality. These data are used to assess the impact of a facility on groundwater quality or whether remediation efforts under RCRA corrective action programs are effective. Both evaluations rely on statistical analysis of groundwater monitoring data. The need for information on groundwater quality by regulators and environmental managers makes statistical analysis of monitoring data an important part of RCRA groundwater monitoring programs. The complexity of groundwater monitoring programs and variabilities (spatial, temporal, and analytical) exhibited in groundwater quality variables indicate the need for a data analysis protocol to guide statistical analysis. A data analysis protocol was developed from the perspective of addressing regulatory requirements, data quality, and management information needs. This data analysis protocol contains four elements: data handling methods; graphical evaluation techniques; statistical tests for trend, central tendency, and excursion analysis; and reporting procedures for presenting results to users

  13. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Shells with Large Aspect Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T. Y.; Sawamiphakdi, K.

    1984-01-01

    A higher order degenerated shell element with nine nodes was selected for large deformation and post-buckling analysis of thick or thin shells. Elastic-plastic material properties are also included. The post-buckling analysis algorithm is given. Using a square plate, it was demonstrated that the none-node element does not have shear locking effect even if its aspect ratio was increased to the order 10 to the 8th power. Two sample problems are given to illustrate the analysis capability of the shell element.

  14. Protocol design and analysis for cooperative wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Wei; Jin, A-Long

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the design and analysis of protocols for cooperative wireless networks, especially at the medium access control (MAC) layer and for crosslayer design between the MAC layer and the physical layer. It highlights two main points that are often neglected in other books: energy-efficiency and spatial random distribution of wireless devices. Effective methods in stochastic geometry for the design and analysis of wireless networks are also explored. After providing a comprehensive review of existing studies in the literature, the authors point out the challenges that are worth further investigation. Then, they introduce several novel solutions for cooperative wireless network protocols that reduce energy consumption and address spatial random distribution of wireless nodes. For each solution, the book offers a clear system model and problem formulation, details of the proposed cooperative schemes, comprehensive performance analysis, and extensive numerical and simulation results that validate th...

  15. Results of Am isotopic ratio analysis in irradiated MOX fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Shin-ichi; Osaka, Masahiko; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki; Konno, Koichi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Kajitani, Mikio

    1997-04-01

    For analysis of a small quantity of americium, it is necessary to separate from curium which has similar chemical property. As a chemical separation method for americium and curium, the oxidation of americium with pentavalent bismuth and subsequent co-precipitation of trivalent curium with BIP O{sub 4} were applied to analyze americium in irradiated MOX fuels which contained about 30wt% plutonium and 0.9wt% {sup 241}Am before irradiation and were irradiated up to 26.2GWd/t in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. The purpose of this study is to measure isotopic ratio of americium and to evaluate the change of isotopic ratio with irradiation. Following results are obtained in this study. (1) The isotopic ratio of americium ({sup 241}Am, {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am) can be analyzed in the MOX fuels by isolating americium. The isotopic ratio of {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am increases up to 0.62at% and 0.82at% at maximum burnup, respectively, (2) The results of isotopic analysis indicates that the contents of {sup 241}Am decreases, whereas {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243}Am increase linearly with increasing burnup. (author)

  16. Ratio of slopes method for quantitative analysis in ceramic bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainal Arifin Ahmad; Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Noor; Radzali Othman; Messer, P.F.

    1996-01-01

    A quantitative x-ray diffraction analysis technique developed at University of Sheffield was adopted, rather than the previously widely used internal standard method, to determine the amount of the phases present in a reformulated whiteware porcelain and a BaTiO sub 3 electrochemical material. This method, although still employs an internal standard, was found to be very easy and accurate. The required weight fraction of a phase in the mixture to be analysed is determined from the ratio of slopes of two linear plots, designated as the analysis and reference lines, passing through their origins using the least squares method

  17. A security analysis of the 802.11s wireless mesh network routing protocol and its secure routing protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Whye Kit; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lam, Jun Huy; Yoo, Seong-Moo

    2013-09-02

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) can act as a scalable backbone by connecting separate sensor networks and even by connecting WMNs to a wired network. The Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) is the default routing protocol for the 802.11s WMN. The routing protocol is one of the most important parts of the network, and it requires protection, especially in the wireless environment. The existing security protocols, such as the Broadcast Integrity Protocol (BIP), Counter with cipher block chaining message authentication code protocol (CCMP), Secure Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (SHWMP), Identity Based Cryptography HWMP (IBC-HWMP), Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm HWMP (ECDSA-HWMP), and Watchdog-HWMP aim to protect the HWMP frames. In this paper, we have analyzed the vulnerabilities of the HWMP and developed security requirements to protect these identified vulnerabilities. We applied the security requirements to analyze the existing secure schemes for HWMP. The results of our analysis indicate that none of these protocols is able to satisfy all of the security requirements. We also present a quantitative complexity comparison among the protocols and an example of a security scheme for HWMP to demonstrate how the result of our research can be utilized. Our research results thus provide a tool for designing secure schemes for the HWMP.

  18. Analysis of security protocols based on challenge-response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO JunZhou; YANG Ming

    2007-01-01

    Security protocol is specified as the procedure of challenge-response, which uses applied cryptography to confirm the existence of other principals and fulfill some data negotiation such as session keys. Most of the existing analysis methods,which either adopt theorem proving techniques such as state exploration or logic reasoning techniques such as authentication logic, face the conflicts between analysis power and operability. To solve the problem, a new efficient method is proposed that provides SSM semantics-based definition of secrecy and authentication goals and applies authentication logic as fundamental analysis techniques,in which secrecy analysis is split into two parts: Explicit-Information-Leakage and Implicit-Information-Leakage, and correspondence analysis is concluded as the analysis of the existence relationship of Strands and the agreement of Strand parameters. This new method owns both the power of the Strand Space Model and concision of authentication logic.

  19. A markerless protocol for genetic analysis of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ya-An; Jee, Jason; Hsu, Genie; Huang, Yanyan; Chen, Casey; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Background/Purpose The genomes of different Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans strains contain many strain-specific genes and genomic islands (defined as DNA found in some but not all strains) of unknown functions. Genetic analysis for the functions of these islands will be constrained by the limited availability of genetic markers and vectors for A. actinomycetemcomitans. In this study we tested a novel genetic approach of gene deletion and restoration in a naturally competent A. actinomycetemcomitans strain D7S-1. Methods Specific genes’ deletion mutants and mutants restored with the deleted genes were constructed by a markerless loxP/Cre system. In mutants with sequential deletion of multiple genes loxP with different spacer regions were used to avoid unwanted recombinations between loxP sites. Results Eight single-gene deletion mutants, four multiple-gene deletion mutants, and two mutants with restored genes were constructed. No unintended non-specific deletion mutants were generated by this protocol. The protocol did not negatively affect the growth and biofilm formation of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Conclusion The protocol described in this study is efficient and specific for genetic manipulation of A. actinomycetemcomitans, and will be amenable for functional analysis of multiple genes in A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:24530245

  20. Deferred tax analysis and impact on firm's economic efficiency ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bohušová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Category of deferred income tax is a complex topic including the whole accounting system and the income tax. Calculation method can be time-consuming and demanding a high quality system of analytical evidence and a system of valuation and demanding the high level of accountants' knowledge. The aim in the theoretical level was to analyze process of calculation and recording of deferred tax. Importance of recording of deferred tax and the impact on financial analysis ratios was analyzed. Fourteen business entities were examined. Deferred tax recording is a legal way to reduce retained earnings a to protect of its careless alocation.

  1. Implementation and Analysis of Real-Time Streaming Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-González, Iván; Rivero-García, Alexandra; Molina-Gil, Jezabel; Caballero-Gil, Pino

    2017-04-12

    Communication media have become the primary way of interaction thanks to the discovery and innovation of many new technologies. One of the most widely used communication systems today is video streaming, which is constantly evolving. Such communications are a good alternative to face-to-face meetings, and are therefore very useful for coping with many problems caused by distance. However, they suffer from different issues such as bandwidth limitation, network congestion, energy efficiency, cost, reliability and connectivity. Hence, the quality of service and the quality of experience are considered the two most important issues for this type of communication. This work presents a complete comparative study of two of the most used protocols of video streaming, Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) and the Web Real-Time Communication (WebRTC). In addition, this paper proposes two new mobile applications that implement those protocols in Android whose objective is to know how they are influenced by the aspects that most affect the streaming quality of service, which are the connection establishment time and the stream reception time. The new video streaming applications are also compared with the most popular video streaming applications for Android, and the experimental results of the analysis show that the developed WebRTC implementation improves the performance of the most popular video streaming applications with respect to the stream packet delay.

  2. Analysis of Intracellular Metabolites from Microorganisms: Quenching and Extraction Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinu, Farhana R; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Aggio, Raphael

    2017-10-23

    Sample preparation is one of the most important steps in metabolome analysis. The challenges of determining microbial metabolome have been well discussed within the research community and many improvements have already been achieved in last decade. The analysis of intracellular metabolites is particularly challenging. Environmental perturbations may considerably affect microbial metabolism, which results in intracellular metabolites being rapidly degraded or metabolized by enzymatic reactions. Therefore, quenching or the complete stop of cell metabolism is a pre-requisite for accurate intracellular metabolite analysis. After quenching, metabolites need to be extracted from the intracellular compartment. The choice of the most suitable metabolite extraction method/s is another crucial step. The literature indicates that specific classes of metabolites are better extracted by different extraction protocols. In this review, we discuss the technical aspects and advancements of quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolite analysis from microbial cells.

  3. Analysis of Intracellular Metabolites from Microorganisms: Quenching and Extraction Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana R. Pinu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sample preparation is one of the most important steps in metabolome analysis. The challenges of determining microbial metabolome have been well discussed within the research community and many improvements have already been achieved in last decade. The analysis of intracellular metabolites is particularly challenging. Environmental perturbations may considerably affect microbial metabolism, which results in intracellular metabolites being rapidly degraded or metabolized by enzymatic reactions. Therefore, quenching or the complete stop of cell metabolism is a pre-requisite for accurate intracellular metabolite analysis. After quenching, metabolites need to be extracted from the intracellular compartment. The choice of the most suitable metabolite extraction method/s is another crucial step. The literature indicates that specific classes of metabolites are better extracted by different extraction protocols. In this review, we discuss the technical aspects and advancements of quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolite analysis from microbial cells.

  4. Inverse odds ratio-weighted estimation for causal mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J

    2013-11-20

    An important scientific goal of studies in the health and social sciences is increasingly to determine to what extent the total effect of a point exposure is mediated by an intermediate variable on the causal pathway between the exposure and the outcome. A causal framework has recently been proposed for mediation analysis, which gives rise to new definitions, formal identification results and novel estimators of direct and indirect effects. In the present paper, the author describes a new inverse odds ratio-weighted approach to estimate so-called natural direct and indirect effects. The approach, which uses as a weight the inverse of an estimate of the odds ratio function relating the exposure and the mediator, is universal in that it can be used to decompose total effects in a number of regression models commonly used in practice. Specifically, the approach may be used for effect decomposition in generalized linear models with a nonlinear link function, and in a number of other commonly used models such as the Cox proportional hazards regression for a survival outcome. The approach is simple and can be implemented in standard software provided a weight can be specified for each observation. An additional advantage of the method is that it easily incorporates multiple mediators of a categorical, discrete or continuous nature. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Numerical Analysis of Film Cooling at High Blowing Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gabry, Lamyaa; Heidmann, James; Ameri, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics is used in the analysis of a film cooling jet in crossflow. Predictions of film effectiveness are compared with experimental results for a circular jet at blowing ratios ranging from 0.5 to 2.0. Film effectiveness is a surface quantity which alone is insufficient in understanding the source and finding a remedy for shortcomings of the numerical model. Therefore, in addition, comparisons are made to flow field measurements of temperature along the jet centerline. These comparisons show that the CFD model is accurately predicting the extent and trajectory of the film cooling jet; however, there is a lack of agreement in the near-wall region downstream of the film hole. The effects of main stream turbulence conditions, boundary layer thickness, turbulence modeling, and numerical artificial dissipation are evaluated and found to have an insufficient impact in the wake region of separated films (i.e. cannot account for the discrepancy between measured and predicted centerline fluid temperatures). Analyses of low and moderate blowing ratio cases are carried out and results are in good agreement with data.

  6. Symbolic Model Checking and Analysis for E-Commerce Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Jing-Hua; ZHANG Mei; LI Xiang

    2005-01-01

    A new approach is proposed for analyzing non-repudiation and fairness of e-commerce protocols. The authentication e-mail protocol CMP1 is modeled as finite state machine and analyzed in two vital aspects - non-repudiation and fairness using SMV. As a result, the CMP1 protocol is not fair and we have improved it. This result shows that it is effective to analyze and check the new features of e-commerce protocols using SMV model checker

  7. The comparative cost analysis of EAP Re-authentication Protocol and EAP TLS Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Mehla; Bhawna Gupta

    2010-01-01

    the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is a generic framework supporting multiple types of authentication methods. In systems where EAP is used for authentication, it is desirable to not repeat the entire EAP exchange with another authenticator. The EAP reauthentication Protocol provides a consistent, methodindependentand low-latency re-authentication. It is extension to current EAP mechanism to support intradomain handoff authentication. This paper analyzed the performance of the EAP r...

  8. Analysis of Financial Ratio to Distinguish Indonesia Joint Venture General Insurance Company Performance using Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiakto Soekarno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance industry stands as a service business that plays a significant role in Indonesiaeconomical condition. The development of insurance industry in Indonesia, both of generalinsurance and life insurance, has increased very fast. The general insurance industry itselfdivided into two major players which are local private company and Joint Venture Company.Lately, the use of statistical techniques and financial ratios models to asses financial institutionsuch as insurance company have been used as one of the appropriate combination inpredicting the performance of an industry. This research aims to distinguish between JointVenture General Insurance Companies that have a good performance and those who are lessperforming well using Discriminant Analysis. Further, the findings led that DiscriminantAnalysis is able to distinguish Joint Venture General Insurance Companies that have a goodperformance and those who are not performing well. There are also six ratios which are RBC,Technical Reserve to Investment Ratio, Debt Ratio, Return on Equity, Loss Ratio, and ExpenseRatio that stand as the most influential ratios to distinguish the performance of joint venturegeneral insurance companies. In addition, the result suggest business people to be concernedtoward those six ratios, to increase their companies’ performance.Key words: general insurance, financial ratio, discriminant analysis

  9. Non-stationary (13)C-metabolic flux ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörl, Manuel; Schnidder, Julian; Sauer, Uwe; Zamboni, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    (13)C-metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) has become a key method for metabolic engineering and systems biology. In the most common methodology, fluxes are calculated by global isotopomer balancing and iterative fitting to stationary (13)C-labeling data. This approach requires a closed carbon balance, long-lasting metabolic steady state, and the detection of (13)C-patterns in a large number of metabolites. These restrictions mostly reduced the application of (13)C-MFA to the central carbon metabolism of well-studied model organisms grown in minimal media with a single carbon source. Here we introduce non-stationary (13)C-metabolic flux ratio analysis as a novel method for (13)C-MFA to allow estimating local, relative fluxes from ultra-short (13)C-labeling experiments and without the need for global isotopomer balancing. The approach relies on the acquisition of non-stationary (13)C-labeling data exclusively for metabolites in the proximity of a node of converging fluxes and a local parameter estimation with a system of ordinary differential equations. We developed a generalized workflow that takes into account reaction types and the availability of mass spectrometric data on molecular ions or fragments for data processing, modeling, parameter and error estimation. We demonstrated the approach by analyzing three key nodes of converging fluxes in central metabolism of Bacillus subtilis. We obtained flux estimates that are in agreement with published results obtained from steady state experiments, but reduced the duration of the necessary (13)C-labeling experiment to less than a minute. These results show that our strategy enables to formally estimate relative pathway fluxes on extremely short time scale, neglecting cellular carbon balancing. Hence this approach paves the road to targeted (13)C-MFA in dynamic systems with multiple carbon sources and towards rich media. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Comparative analysis of protocols for DNA extraction from soybean caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, J; Valmorbida, I; da Costa, I F D; Guedes, J V C

    2016-04-07

    Genomic DNA extraction is crucial for molecular research, including diagnostic and genome characterization of different organisms. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyze protocols of DNA extraction based on cell lysis by sarcosyl, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, and to determine the most efficient method applicable to soybean caterpillars. DNA was extracted from specimens of Chrysodeixis includens and Spodoptera eridania using the aforementioned three methods. DNA quantification was performed using spectrophotometry and high molecular weight DNA ladders. The purity of the extracted DNA was determined by calculating the A260/A280 ratio. Cost and time for each DNA extraction method were estimated and analyzed statistically. The amount of DNA extracted by these three methods was sufficient for PCR amplification. The sarcosyl method yielded DNA of higher purity, because it generated a clearer pellet without viscosity, and yielded high quality amplification products of the COI gene I. The sarcosyl method showed lower cost per extraction and did not differ from the other methods with respect to preparation times. Cell lysis by sarcosyl represents the best method for DNA extraction in terms of yield, quality, and cost effectiveness.

  11. Authentication Test-Based the RFID Authentication Protocol with Security Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To the problem of many recently proposed RFID authentication protocol was soon find security holes, we analyzed the main reason, which is that protocol design is not rigorous, and the correctness of the protocol cannot be guaranteed. To this end, authentication test method was adopted in the process of the formal analysis and strict proof to the proposed RFID protocol in this paper. Authentication Test is a new type of analysis and design method of security protocols based on Strand space model, and it can be used for most types of the security protocols. After analysis the security, the proposed protocol can meet the RFID security demand: information confidentiality, data integrity and identity authentication.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Different Protocols to Manage Large Scale Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Rao Pimplapure; Dr Jayant Dubey; Prashant Sen

    2013-01-01

    In recent year the numbers, complexity and size is increased in Large Scale Network. The best example of Large Scale Network is Internet, and recently once are Data-centers in Cloud Environment. In this process, involvement of several management tasks such as traffic monitoring, security and performance optimization is big task for Network Administrator. This research reports study the different protocols i.e. conventional protocols like Simple Network Management Protocol and newly Gossip bas...

  13. Performance analysis of signaling protocols on OBS switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirci, Pinar; Zaim, A. Halim

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, Just-In-Time (JIT), Just-Enough-Time (JET) and Horizon signalling schemes for Optical Burst Switched Networks (OBS) are presented. These signaling schemes run over a core dWDM network and a network architecture based on Optical Burst Switches (OBS) is proposed to support IP, ATM and Burst traffic. In IP and ATM traffic several packets are assembled in a single packet called burst and the burst contention is handled by burst dropping. The burst length distribution in IP traffic is arbitrary between 0 and 1, and is fixed in ATM traffic at 0,5. Burst traffic on the other hand is arbitrary between 1 and 5. The Setup and Setup ack length distributions are arbitrary. We apply the Poisson model with rate λ and Self-Similar model with pareto distribution rate α to identify inter-arrival times in these protocols. We consider a communication between a source client node and a destination client node over an ingress and one or more multiple intermediate switches.We use buffering only in the ingress node. The communication is based on single burst connections in which, the connection is set up just before sending a burst and then closed as soon as the burst is sent. Our analysis accounts for several important parameters, including the burst setup, burst setup ack, keepalive messages and the optical switching protocol. We compare the performance of the three signalling schemes on the network under as burst dropping probability under a range of network scenarios.

  14. Analysis of limiting information characteristics of quantum-cryptography protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sych, D V; Grishanin, Boris A; Zadkov, Viktor N

    2005-01-01

    The problem of increasing the critical error rate of quantum-cryptography protocols by varying a set of letters in a quantum alphabet for space of a fixed dimensionality is studied. Quantum alphabets forming regular polyhedra on the Bloch sphere and the continual alphabet equally including all the quantum states are considered. It is shown that, in the absence of basis reconciliation, a protocol with the tetrahedral alphabet has the highest critical error rate among the protocols considered, while after the basis reconciliation, a protocol with the continual alphabet possesses the highest critical error rate. (quantum optics and quantum computation)

  15. Analysis of the moderating ratio in BWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A.; Xolocostli, V.; Alonso, G.

    2001-01-01

    In all different light water nuclear reactors is very important the fuel assembly design. It has to be designed to achieve safety and efficiency performance in an economical way. The moderating ratio plays a very important role because an adequate election can provide an optimal energy production making the fuel assembly more efficient. This work analyze the moderation ratio as a function of the fuel assembly enrichment and ifs burnup, based on this study the optimal moderation ratio are obtained. Furthermore, based on numerical relations some simulation schemes are proposed to describe the behavior of the infinite multiplication factor as a function of the moderating ratio for a given fuel assembly enrichment at zero burnup. (Author)

  16. Analysis of cash flow ratios: A study on CMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Das

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cash flow ratios help financial users get relevant information about financial resources for a given time. Cash flow ratios are now used more than the traditional ones because it is more effective and justified. Cash flow based ratios are especially surprising because they do not only play a significant role in the credit rating of evaluation, but also forecast the failure of a corporation. In this study, we perform an empirical investigation on a company named CMC. From the study, it is clear that the liquidity and solvency positions of the company were moderate whereas the company maintained low profitability. On the other hand, the efficiency and sufficiency ratios of the study give us a new look on financial judgement.

  17. Regional sensitivity analysis using revised mean and variance ratio functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Pengfei; Lu, Zhenzhou; Ruan, Wenbin; Song, Jingwen

    2014-01-01

    The variance ratio function, derived from the contribution to sample variance (CSV) plot, is a regional sensitivity index for studying how much the output deviates from the original mean of model output when the distribution range of one input is reduced and to measure the contribution of different distribution ranges of each input to the variance of model output. In this paper, the revised mean and variance ratio functions are developed for quantifying the actual change of the model output mean and variance, respectively, when one reduces the range of one input. The connection between the revised variance ratio function and the original one is derived and discussed. It is shown that compared with the classical variance ratio function, the revised one is more suitable to the evaluation of model output variance due to reduced ranges of model inputs. A Monte Carlo procedure, which needs only a set of samples for implementing it, is developed for efficiently computing the revised mean and variance ratio functions. The revised mean and variance ratio functions are compared with the classical ones by using the Ishigami function. At last, they are applied to a planar 10-bar structure

  18. Communicating systems with UML 2 modeling and analysis of network protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Barrera, David Garduno

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a practical approach to modeling and analyzing communication protocols using UML 2. Network protocols are always presented with a point of view focusing on partial mechanisms and starting models. This book aims at giving the basis needed for anybody to model and validate their own protocols. It follows a practical approach and gives many examples for the description and analysis of well known basic network mechanisms for protocols.The book firstly shows how to describe and validate the main protocol issues (such as synchronization problems, client-server interactions, layer

  19. Performance Analysis of TDMA Protocol in a Femtocell Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanod Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate the performance of TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access protocol using queuing theory in a femtocell network. The fair use of wireless channel among the users of network is carried out using TDMA protocol. The arrival of data packets from M communicating nodes becomes multiple Poisson process. The time slots of TDMA protocol represent c servers to communicate data packets coming from communicating nodes to the input of FAP (Femtocell Access Point. The service time of each server (time slot is exponentially distributed. This complete communication scenario using TDMA protocol is modeled using M/M/c queue. The performance of the protocol is evaluated in terms of mean number in system, average system delay and utilization for varying traffic intensity

  20. Performance evaluation using bootstrapping DEA techniques: Evidence from industry ratio analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Nickolaos

    2010-01-01

    In Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) context financial data/ ratios have been used in order to produce a unified measure of performance metric. However, several scholars have indicated that the inclusion of financial ratios create biased efficiency estimates with implications on firms’ and industries’ performance evaluation. There have been several DEA formulations and techniques dealing with this problem including sensitivity analysis, Prior-Ratio-Analysis and DEA/ output–input ratio analysis ...

  1. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shameng; Meng, Qingkun; Feng, Chao; Tang, Chaojing

    2017-01-01

    Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  2. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameng Wen

    Full Text Available Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  3. Performance analysis of routing protocols for IoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Sridhar; Nalini, N.

    2018-04-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is an arrangement of advancements that are between disciplinary. It is utilized to have compelling combination of both physical and computerized things. With IoT physical things can have personal virtual identities and participate in distributed computing. Realization of IoT needs the usage of sensors based on the sector for which IoT is integrated. For instance, in healthcare domain, IoT needs to have integration with wearable sensors used by patients. As sensor devices produce huge amount of data, often called big data, there should be efficient routing protocols in place. To the extent remote systems is worried there are some current protocols, for example, OLSR, DSR and AODV. It additionally tosses light into Trust based routing protocol for low-power and lossy systems (TRPL) for IoT. These are broadly utilized remote directing protocols. As IoT is developing round the corner, it is basic to investigate routing protocols that and evaluate their execution regarding throughput, end to end delay, and directing overhead. The execution experiences can help in settling on very much educated choices while incorporating remote systems with IoT. In this paper, we analyzed different routing protocols and their performance is compared. It is found that AODV showed better performance than other routing protocols aforementioned.

  4. Protocol for sampling and analysis of bone specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, N.K.

    2000-01-01

    The iliac crest of hip bone was chosen as the most suitable sampling site for several reasons: Local variation in the elemental concentration along the iliac crest is minimal; Iliac crest biopsies are commonly taken clinically on patients; The cortical part of the sample is small (∼2 mm) and can be separated easily from the trabecular bone; The use of the trabecular part of the iliac crest for trace element analysis has the advantage of reflecting rapidly changes in the composition of bone due to external parameters, including medication. Biopsy studies, although in some ways more difficult than autopsy studies, because of the need to obtain the informed consents of the subjects, are potentially more useful than autopsy studies. Thereby many problems of postmortem migration of elements can be avoided and reliable dietary and other data can be collected simultaneously. Select the subjects among the patients undergoing orthopedic surgery due to any reason other than osteoporosis. Follow an established protocol to obtain bone biopsies. Patients undergoing synergy should fill in the 'Osteoporosis Project Questionnaire Form' including information on lifestyle variables, dietary intakes, the reason for surgery etc. If possible, measure the bone mineral density (BMD) prior to removal of the biopsy sample. However it may not possible to have BMD results on all the subjects because of difficulty of DEXA measurement after an accident

  5. Performance analysis of simultaneous dense coding protocol under decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiming; Zhang, Cai; Situ, Haozhen

    2017-09-01

    The simultaneous dense coding (SDC) protocol is useful in designing quantum protocols. We analyze the performance of the SDC protocol under the influence of noisy quantum channels. Six kinds of paradigmatic Markovian noise along with one kind of non-Markovian noise are considered. The joint success probability of both receivers and the success probabilities of one receiver are calculated for three different locking operators. Some interesting properties have been found, such as invariance and symmetry. Among the three locking operators we consider, the SWAP gate is most resistant to noise and results in the same success probabilities for both receivers.

  6. An approach to standardization of urine sediment analysis via suggestion of a common manual protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dae-Hyun; Ji, Misuk; Kim, Sollip; Cho, Eun-Jung; Lee, Woochang; Yun, Yeo-Min; Chun, Sail; Min, Won-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The results of urine sediment analysis have been reported semiquantitatively. However, as recent guidelines recommend quantitative reporting of urine sediment, and with the development of automated urine sediment analyzers, there is an increasing need for quantitative analysis of urine sediment. Here, we developed a protocol for urine sediment analysis and quantified the results. Based on questionnaires, various reports, guidelines, and experimental results, we developed a protocol for urine sediment analysis. The results of this new protocol were compared with those obtained with a standardized chamber and an automated sediment analyzer. Reference intervals were also estimated using new protocol. We developed a protocol with centrifugation at 400 g for 5 min, with the average concentration factor of 30. The correlation between quantitative results of urine sediment analysis, the standardized chamber, and the automated sediment analyzer were generally good. The conversion factor derived from the new protocol showed a better fit with the results of manual count than the default conversion factor in the automated sediment analyzer. We developed a protocol for manual urine sediment analysis to quantitatively report the results. This protocol may provide a mean for standardization of urine sediment analysis.

  7. Very high precision and accuracy analysis of triple isotopic ratios of water. A critical instrumentation comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkinis, Vasileios; Holme, Christian; Morris, Valerie; Thayer, Abigail Grace; Vaughn, Bruce; Kjaer, Helle Astrid; Vallelonga, Paul; Simonsen, Marius; Jensen, Camilla Marie; Svensson, Anders; Maffrezzoli, Niccolo; Vinther, Bo; Dallmayr, Remi

    2017-04-01

    We present a performance comparison study between two state of the art Cavity Ring Down Spectrometers (Picarro L2310-i, L2140-i). The comparison took place during the Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) campaign for the measurement of the Renland ice core, over a period of three months. Instant and complete vaporisation of the ice core melt stream, as well as of in-house water reference materials is achieved by accurate control of microflows of liquid into a homemade calibration system by following simple principles of the Hagen-Poiseuille law. Both instruments share the same vaporisation unit in a configuration that minimises sample preparation discrepancies between the two analyses. We describe our SMOW-SLAP calibration and measurement protocols for such a CFA application and present quality control metrics acquired during the full period of the campaign on a daily basis. The results indicate an unprecedented performance for all 3 isotopic ratios (δ2H, δ17O, δ18O ) in terms of precision, accuracy and resolution. We also comment on the precision and accuracy of the second order excess parameters of HD16O and H217O over H218O (Dxs, Δ17O ). To our knowledge these are the first reported CFA measurements at this level of precision and accuracy for all three isotopic ratios. Differences on the performance of the two instruments are carefully assessed during the measurement and reported here. Our quality control protocols extend to the area of low water mixing ratios, a regime in which often atmospheric vapour measurements take place and Cavity Ring Down Analysers show a poorer performance due to the lower signal to noise ratios. We address such issues and propose calibration protocols from which water vapour isotopic analyses can benefit from.

  8. Business ratio report: an industry sector analysis. 7. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication not only compiles and assimilates a vast wealth of information relating to 126 UK companies in oil and gas exploration, refining and distribution, but it also presents it in an easily digestible form. Relative company performance is ranked in a series of tables and compared with an overall average for the industry. The report analyses a fixed sample of companies over a three year period. As an indication of the longer-term trend a graphical representation of the return on capital, profit margin, stock to sales, credit period, profit per employee and sales per employee ratios are featured for a period of up to seven years. (150 tables). (author)

  9. A new perspective on hospital financial ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, T L; Stanko, B B; Cleverley, W O

    1997-11-01

    Using audit financial data in a study of 2,189 not-for-profit hospitals for the period 1989-1992, six financial characteristics of performance were defined. These characteristics are profitability factor, fixed-asset efficiency, capital structure, fixed-asset age, working capital efficiency, and liquidity. The statistical output also shows the specific sets of financial ratios that can be used to measure the six characteristics of hospital performance. The results of this study can be beneficial to healthcare financial managers, hospital boards, policy groups, and other relevant entities because it affords them a clear understanding of an institution's financial performance.

  10. Analysis of the LTE Access Reservation Protocol for Real-Time Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henning; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2013-01-01

    LTE is increasingly seen as a system for serving real-time Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication needs. The asynchronous M2M user access in LTE is obtained through a two-phase access reservation protocol (contention and data phase). Existing analysis related to these protocols is based...... of the two-phase LTE reservation protocol and asses its performance, when assumptions (1) and (2) do not hold....

  11. Negative Control Outcomes and the Analysis of Standardized Mortality Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Keil, Alexander P; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Cooper, Glinda

    2015-09-01

    In occupational cohort mortality studies, epidemiologists often compare the observed number of deaths in the cohort to the expected number obtained by multiplying person-time accrued in the study cohort by the mortality rate in an external reference population. Interpretation of the result may be difficult due to noncomparability of the occupational cohort and reference population with respect to unmeasured risk factors for the outcome of interest. We describe an approach to estimate an adjusted standardized mortality ratio (aSMR) to control for such bias. The approach draws on methods developed for the use of negative control outcomes. Conditions necessary for unbiased estimation are described, as well as looser conditions necessary for bias reduction. The approach is illustrated using data on bladder cancer mortality among male Oak Ridge National Laboratory workers. The SMR for bladder cancer was elevated among hourly-paid males (SMR = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3, 2.7) but not among monthly-paid males (SMR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.67, 1.3). After indirect adjustment using the proposed approach, the mortality ratios were similar in magnitude among hourly- and monthly-paid men (aSMR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.5, 3.2; and, aSMR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 2.8, respectively). The proposed adjusted SMR offers a complement to typical SMR analyses.

  12. ACUTE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT STATIC STRETCHING PROTOCOLS ON PEAK TORQUE, CONVENTIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL HAMSTRINGS-TO-QUADRICEPS RATIOS IN ACTIVE WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada M. ALQaslah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study might have been directed to some degree because of clashing results in the past studies regarding the impacts for different SS protocols on muscle strength and possibility for injury. The objective of the study was to investigate the acute effects of different static stretching (SS durations (20, 30, and 60s on isokinetic concentric quadriceps (Q and hamstrings (H peak torque (PT, eccentric H PT and conventional and functional H:Q ratios under different stretching conditions and angular velocities (60°and180°/s in active women. Methods: Isokinetic tests were performed on 108 active women. A HUMAC system was used to measure unilateral concentric Q and H PT, and eccentric H PT at 60 and 180º/s at baseline and after a bout of H-only, Q-only, and combined H and Q muscles SS. The data were statistically treated using five separate three-way (time x conditions x velocity ANOVA. Results: There were no significant differences among groups at baseline (P > 0.05. Significant reductions of all outcome measures have been shown to occur after 30 and 60s of SS (P 0.05. Conclusion: Short-lasting stretching can be done before exercises that require strength. However, since 30s or 60s stretching protocols adversely affect the muscle strength, performance and lower H:Q ratios they are not recommended prior to activities demanding the production of high forces.

  13. Design and analysis of communication protocols for quantum repeater networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Cody; Kim, Danny; Rakher, Matthew T; Ladd, Thaddeus D; Kwiat, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    We analyze how the performance of a quantum-repeater network depends on the protocol employed to distribute entanglement, and we find that the choice of repeater-to-repeater link protocol has a profound impact on entanglement-distribution rate as a function of hardware parameters. We develop numerical simulations of quantum networks using different protocols, where the repeater hardware is modeled in terms of key performance parameters, such as photon generation rate and collection efficiency. These parameters are motivated by recent experimental demonstrations in quantum dots, trapped ions, and nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. We find that a quantum-dot repeater with the newest protocol (‘MidpointSource’) delivers the highest entanglement-distribution rate for typical cases where there is low probability of establishing entanglement per transmission, and in some cases the rate is orders of magnitude higher than other schemes. Our simulation tools can be used to evaluate communication protocols as part of designing a large-scale quantum network. (paper)

  14. Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)--part 1: instrument validation of the DELTAplusXP IRMS for bulk nitrogen isotope ratio measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Sarah J; Lennard, Christopher J; Hill, David M; Maynard, Philip; Roux, Claude

    2010-01-01

    A significant amount of research has been conducted into the use of stable isotopes to assist in determining the origin of various materials. The research conducted in the forensic field shows the potential of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to provide a level of discrimination not achievable utilizing traditional forensic techniques. Despite the research there have been few, if any, publications addressing the validation and measurement uncertainty of the technique for forensic applications. This study, the first in a planned series, presents validation data for the measurement of bulk nitrogen isotope ratios in ammonium nitrate (AN) using the DELTA(plus)XP (Thermo Finnigan) IRMS instrument equipped with a ConFlo III interface and FlashEA 1112 elemental analyzer (EA). Appropriate laboratory standards, analytical methods and correction calculations were developed and evaluated. A validation protocol was developed in line with the guidelines provided by the National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia (NATA). Performance characteristics including: accuracy, precision/repeatability, reproducibility/ruggedness, robustness, linear range, and measurement uncertainty were evaluated for the measurement of nitrogen isotope ratios in AN. AN (99.5%) and ammonium thiocyanate (99.99+%) were determined to be the most suitable laboratory standards and were calibrated against international standards (certified reference materials). All performance characteristics were within an acceptable range when potential uncertainties, including the manufacturer's uncertainty of the technique and standards, were taken into account. The experiments described in this article could be used as a model for validation of other instruments for similar purposes. Later studies in this series will address the more general issue of demonstrating that the IRMS technique is scientifically sound and fit-for-purpose in the forensic explosives analysis field.

  15. Dynamic Channel Slot Allocation Scheme and Performance Analysis of Cyclic Quorum Multichannel MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In high diversity node situation, multichannel MAC protocol can improve the frequency efficiency, owing to fewer collisions compared with single-channel MAC protocol. And the performance of cyclic quorum-based multichannel (CQM MAC protocol is outstanding. Based on cyclic quorum system and channel slot allocation, it can avoid the bottleneck that others suffered from and can be easily realized with only one transceiver. To obtain the accurate performance of CQM MAC protocol, a Markov chain model, which combines the channel-hopping strategy of CQM protocol and IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF, is proposed. The results of numerical analysis show that the optimal performance of CQM protocol can be obtained in saturation bound situation. And then we obtain the saturation bound of CQM system by bird swarm algorithm. In addition, to improve the performance of CQM protocol in unsaturation situation, a dynamic channel slot allocation of CQM (DCQM protocol is proposed, based on wavelet neural network. Finally, the performance of CQM protocol and DCQM protocol is simulated by Qualnet platform. And the simulation results show that the analytic and simulation results match very well; the DCQM performs better in unsaturation situation.

  16. Two-stage meta-analysis of survival data from individual participants using percentile ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jessica K; Farewell, Vern T; Siannis, Fotios; Tierney, Jayne; Higgins, Julian P T

    2012-01-01

    Methods for individual participant data meta-analysis of survival outcomes commonly focus on the hazard ratio as a measure of treatment effect. Recently, Siannis et al. (2010, Statistics in Medicine 29:3030–3045) proposed the use of percentile ratios as an alternative to hazard ratios. We describe a novel two-stage method for the meta-analysis of percentile ratios that avoids distributional assumptions at the study level. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22825835

  17. The effect of personalized versus standard patient protocols for radiostereometric analysis (RSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muharemovic, O; Troelsen, A; Thomsen, M G

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Increasing pressure in the clinic requires a more standardized approach to radiostereometric analysis (RSA) imaging. The aim of this study was to investigate whether implementation of personalized RSA patient protocols could increase image quality and decrease examination time...... imaging. Radiographers in the control group used a standard RSA protocol. RESULTS: At three months, radiographers in the case group significantly reduced (p .... No significant improvements were found in the control group at any time point. CONCLUSION: There is strong evidence that personalized RSA patient protocols have a positive effect on image quality and radiation dose savings. Implementation of personal patient protocols as a RSA standard will contribute...

  18. Analysis of the differential-phase-shift-keying protocol in the quantum-key-distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong-Zhen, Jiao; Chen-Xu, Feng; Hai-Qiang, Ma

    2009-01-01

    The analysis is based on the error rate and the secure communication rate as functions of distance for three quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols: the Bennett–Brassard 1984, the Bennett–Brassard–Mermin 1992, and the coherent differential-phase-shift keying (DPSK) protocols. We consider the secure communication rate of the DPSK protocol against an arbitrary individual attack, including the most commonly considered intercept-resend and photon-number splitting attacks, and concluded that the simple and efficient differential-phase-shift-keying protocol allows for more than 200 km of secure communication distance with high communication rates. (general)

  19. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DISTINCT SECURED AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOLS USED IN THE RESOURCE CONSTRAINED PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prasanna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the e-commerce and m-commerce applications in the current e-business world, has adopted asymmetric key cryptography technique in their authentication protocol to provide an efficient authentication of the involved parties. This paper exhibits the performance analysis of distinct authentication protocol which implements the public key cryptography like RSA, ECC and HECC. The comparison is made based on key generation, sign generation and sign verification processes. The results prove that the performance achieved through HECC based authentication protocol is better than the ECC- and RSA based authentication protocols.

  20. A Formal Analysis of the Web Services Atomic Transaction Protocol with UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders Peter; Srba, Jiri; Vighio, Saleem

    2010-01-01

    We present a formal analysis of the Web Services Atomic Transaction (WS-AT) protocol. WS-AT is a part of the WS-Coordination framework and describes an algorithm for reaching agreement on the outcome of a distributed transaction. The protocol is modelled and verified using the model checker UPPAAL...

  1. Design and Analysis of Transport Protocols for Reliable High-Speed Communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oláh, A.

    1997-01-01

    The design and analysis of transport protocols for reliable communications constitutes the topic of this dissertation. These transport protocols guarantee the sequenced and complete delivery of user data over networks which may lose, duplicate and reorder packets. Reliable transport services are

  2. High precision isotopic ratio analysis of volatile metal chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachey, D.L.; Blais, J.C.; Klein, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    High precision isotope ratio measurements have been made for a series of volatile alkaline earth and transition metal chelates using conventional GC/MS instrumentation. Electron ionization was used for alkaline earth chelates, whereas isobutane chemical ionization was used for transition metal studies. Natural isotopic abundances were determined for a series of Mg, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Zn chelates. Absolute accuracy ranged between 0.01 and 1.19 at. %. Absolute precision ranged between +-0.01-0.27 at. % (RSD +- 0.07-10.26%) for elements that contained as many as eight natural isotopes. Calibration curves were prepared using natural abundance metals and their enriched 50 Cr, 60 Ni, and 65 Cu isotopes covering the range 0.1-1010.7 at. % excess. A separate multiple isotope calibration curve was similarly prepared using enriched 60 Ni (0.02-2.15 at. % excess) and 62 Ni (0.23-18.5 at. % excess). The samples were analyzed by GC/CI/MS. Human plasma, containing enriched 26 Mg and 44 Ca, was analyzed by EI/MS. 1 figure, 5 tables

  3. Analysis of brood sex ratios: implications of offspring clustering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krackow, S.; Tkadlec, Emil

    Roc. 50, č. 4 (2001), s. 293-301 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/1316 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : generalized linear mixed models * random coefficients * multilevel analysis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2001

  4. A Hybrid Analysis for Security Protocols with State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-16

    http://www.mitre.org/publications/ technical-papers/completeness-of-cpsa. [19] Simon Meier, Cas Cremers , and David Basin. Efficient construction of...7] Cas Cremers and Sjouke Mauw. Operational semantics and verification of security protocols. Springer, 2012. [8] Anupam Datta, Ante Derek, John C

  5. Thermal/optical methods for elemental carbon quantification in soils and urban dusts: equivalence of different analysis protocols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Han

    Full Text Available Quantifying elemental carbon (EC content in geological samples is challenging due to interferences of crustal, salt, and organic material. Thermal/optical analysis, combined with acid pretreatment, represents a feasible approach. However, the consistency of various thermal/optical analysis protocols for this type of samples has never been examined. In this study, urban street dust and soil samples from Baoji, China were pretreated with acids and analyzed with four thermal/optical protocols to investigate how analytical conditions and optical correction affect EC measurement. The EC values measured with reflectance correction (ECR were found always higher and less sensitive to temperature program than the EC values measured with transmittance correction (ECT. A high-temperature method with extended heating times (STN120 showed the highest ECT/ECR ratio (0.86 while a low-temperature protocol (IMPROVE-550, with heating time adjusted for sample loading, showed the lowest (0.53. STN ECT was higher than IMPROVE ECT, in contrast to results from aerosol samples. A higher peak inert-mode temperature and extended heating times can elevate ECT/ECR ratios for pretreated geological samples by promoting pyrolyzed organic carbon (PyOC removal over EC under trace levels of oxygen. Considering that PyOC within filter increases ECR while decreases ECT from the actual EC levels, simultaneous ECR and ECT measurements would constrain the range of EC loading and provide information on method performance. Further testing with standard reference materials of common environmental matrices supports the findings. Char and soot fractions of EC can be further separated using the IMPROVE protocol. The char/soot ratio was lower in street dusts (2.2 on average than in soils (5.2 on average, most likely reflecting motor vehicle emissions. The soot concentrations agreed with EC from CTO-375, a pure thermal method.

  6. Thermal/optical methods for elemental carbon quantification in soils and urban dusts: equivalence of different analysis protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongming; Chen, Antony; Cao, Junji; Fung, Kochy; Ho, Fai; Yan, Beizhan; Zhan, Changlin; Liu, Suixin; Wei, Chong; An, Zhisheng

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying elemental carbon (EC) content in geological samples is challenging due to interferences of crustal, salt, and organic material. Thermal/optical analysis, combined with acid pretreatment, represents a feasible approach. However, the consistency of various thermal/optical analysis protocols for this type of samples has never been examined. In this study, urban street dust and soil samples from Baoji, China were pretreated with acids and analyzed with four thermal/optical protocols to investigate how analytical conditions and optical correction affect EC measurement. The EC values measured with reflectance correction (ECR) were found always higher and less sensitive to temperature program than the EC values measured with transmittance correction (ECT). A high-temperature method with extended heating times (STN120) showed the highest ECT/ECR ratio (0.86) while a low-temperature protocol (IMPROVE-550), with heating time adjusted for sample loading, showed the lowest (0.53). STN ECT was higher than IMPROVE ECT, in contrast to results from aerosol samples. A higher peak inert-mode temperature and extended heating times can elevate ECT/ECR ratios for pretreated geological samples by promoting pyrolyzed organic carbon (PyOC) removal over EC under trace levels of oxygen. Considering that PyOC within filter increases ECR while decreases ECT from the actual EC levels, simultaneous ECR and ECT measurements would constrain the range of EC loading and provide information on method performance. Further testing with standard reference materials of common environmental matrices supports the findings. Char and soot fractions of EC can be further separated using the IMPROVE protocol. The char/soot ratio was lower in street dusts (2.2 on average) than in soils (5.2 on average), most likely reflecting motor vehicle emissions. The soot concentrations agreed with EC from CTO-375, a pure thermal method.

  7. Statistical Analysis of the Grid Connected Photovoltaic System Performance Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Vilariño-García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A methodology based on the application of variance analysis and Tukey's method to a data set of solar radiation in the plane of the photovoltaic modules and the corresponding values of power delivered to the grid at intervals of 10 minutes presents from sunrise to sunset during the 52 weeks of the year 2013. These data were obtained through a monitoring system located in a photovoltaic plant of 10 MW of rated power located in Cordoba, consisting of 16 transformers and 98 investors. The application of the comparative method among the middle of the performance index of the processing centers to detect with an analysis of variance if there is significant difference in average at least the rest at a level of significance of 5% and then by testing Tukey which one or more processing centers that are below average due to a fault to be detected and corrected are.

  8. Analysis of the Structure Ratios of the Funding Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Daniela Bondoc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The funding sources of the assets and liabilities in the balance sheet include equity capitals and the debts of the entity. The analysis of the structure rates of the funding sources allows for making assessments related to the funding policy, highlighting the financial autonomy and how resources are provided. Using the literature specializing in economic and financial analysis, this paper aims at presenting these rates that focus, on the one hand, to reflect the degree of financial dependence (the rate of financial stability, the rate of global financial autonomy, the rate of on-term financial autonomy and on the other hand the debt structure (the rate of short-term debts, the global indebtedness rate, the on-term indebtedness rate. Based on the financial statements of an entity in the Argeş County, I analysed these indicators, and I drew conclusions and made assessments related to the autonomy, indebtedness and financial stability of the studied entity.

  9. Financial and Staffing Ratio Analysis: Predicting Fiscal Distress in School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert Alan

    1983-01-01

    From analysis of data from 579 school districts it is concluded that financial ratios have the ability to forecast fiscal distress a year in advance. Liquidity ratios and salary and fringe benefit ratios were found to be strong forecasters, while per pupil expenditure data had little predictive value. (MJL)

  10. Validation of a novel protocol for calculating estimated energy requirements and average daily physical activity ratio for the US population: 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Edward; Hand, Gregory A; Hébert, James R; Lau, Erica Y; Wang, Xuewen; Shook, Robin P; Fayad, Raja; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N

    2013-12-01

    To validate the PAR protocol, a novel method for calculating population-level estimated energy requirements (EERs) and average physical activity ratio (APAR), in a nationally representative sample of US adults. Estimates of EER and APAR values were calculated via a factorial equation from a nationally representative sample of 2597 adults aged 20 and 74 years (US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; data collected between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006). Validation of the PAR protocol-derived EER (EER(PAR)) values was performed via comparison with values from the Institute of Medicine EER equations (EER(IOM)). The correlation between EER(PAR) and EER(IOM) was high (0.98; Pmen to 148 kcal/d (5.7% higher) in obese women. The 2005-2006 EERs for the US population were 2940 kcal/d for men and 2275 kcal/d for women and ranged from 3230 kcal/d in obese (BMI ≥30) men to 2026 kcal/d in normal weight (BMI women. There were significant inverse relationships between APAR and both obesity and age. For men and women, the APAR values were 1.53 and 1.52, respectively. Obese men and women had lower APAR values than normal weight individuals (P¼.023 and P¼.015, respectively) [corrected], and younger individuals had higher APAR values than older individuals (Pphysical activity and health. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Time Error Analysis of SOE System Using Network Time Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Jong Yong; Park, Geun Ok; Park, Heui Youn

    2005-01-01

    To find the accuracy of time in the fully digitalized SOE (Sequence of Events) system, we used a formal specification of the Network Time Protocol (NTP) Version 3, which is used to synchronize time keeping among a set of distributed computers. Through constructing a simple experimental environments and experimenting internet time synchronization, we analyzed the time errors of local clocks of SOE system synchronized with a time server via computer networks

  12. Efficiency Analysis of Financial Management Administration of ABC Hospital using Financial Ratio Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Jonny

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the financial performance of ABC hospital within the period of 2012 to 2013. To overcome the problems faced by the hospital related to how to measure and presented its financial performance in which financial ratio analysis was undertaken. These financial ratios were employed to measure the liquidity, assets utilization, long-term solvency and profitability of the hospital. This analysis was conducted in order to prove whether the hospital has been managed efficiently or not in accordance to Indonesian Hospital Quality Accreditation as stated in its clause on Administration Standard No. 5 Parameter No. 3 that the hospital financial management shall be conducted in appropriate way in order to guarantee its operation efficiently. The result showed that overall financial performance of ABC hospital increased considerably in those two years of the analysis. A significant change was occurred on its solvency ratio which was decreased from -2% to -8%, indicating its loose dependency due to its founder’s strong financial support. Therefore, based on this favorable result, the hospital was regarded to have efficient hospital management and thus, together with other standard fulfillment, it was accredited by Indonesian Health Ministry.

  13. Analysis of Pervasive Mobile Ad Hoc Routing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Nadia N.; Liotta, Antonio

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a fundamental element of pervasive networks and therefore, of pervasive systems that truly support pervasive computing, where user can communicate anywhere, anytime and on-the-fly. In fact, future advances in pervasive computing rely on advancements in mobile communication, which includes both infrastructure-based wireless networks and non-infrastructure-based MANETs. MANETs introduce a new communication paradigm, which does not require a fixed infrastructure - they rely on wireless terminals for routing and transport services. Due to highly dynamic topology, absence of established infrastructure for centralized administration, bandwidth constrained wireless links, and limited resources in MANETs, it is challenging to design an efficient and reliable routing protocol. This chapter reviews the key studies carried out so far on the performance of mobile ad hoc routing protocols. We discuss performance issues and metrics required for the evaluation of ad hoc routing protocols. This leads to a survey of existing work, which captures the performance of ad hoc routing algorithms and their behaviour from different perspectives and highlights avenues for future research.

  14. Performance Analysis of Untraceability Protocols for Mobile Agents Using an Adaptable Framework

    OpenAIRE

    LESZCZYNA RAFAL; GORSKI Janusz Kazimierz

    2006-01-01

    Recently we had proposed two untraceability protocols for mobile agents and began investigating their quality. We believe that quality evaluation of security protocols should extend a sole validation of their security and cover other quality aspects, primarily their efficiency. Thus after conducting a security analysis, we wanted to complement it with a performance analysis. For this purpose we developed a performance evaluation framework, which, as we realised, with certain adjustments, can ...

  15. Performance Analysis of the Mobile IP Protocol (RFC 3344 and Related RFCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    field of 9 identifies the ICMP message as an adverstisement . Code Mobile IP home agents and foreign agents use the value of 16 to prevent any nodes...ANALYSIS OF THE MOBILE IP PROTOCOL (RFC 3344 AND RELATED RFCS) by Chin Chin Ng December 2006 Thesis Co-Advisors: George W. Dinolt J. D...December 2006 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Performance Analysis of the Mobile IP Protocol (RFC 3344 and

  16. [Clinical outcomes and economic analysis of two ovulation induction protocols in patients undergoing repeated IVF/ICSI cycles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Geng, Ling; Li, Hong

    2014-04-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of luteal phase down-regulation with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist protocol and GnRH antagonist protocol in patients undergoing repeated in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) cycles. A retrospective analysis of clinical outcomes and costs was conducted among 198 patients undergoing repeated IVF-ICSI cycles, including 109 receiving luteal phase down-regulation with GnRH agonist protocol (group A) and 89 receiving GnRH antagonist protocol (group B). The numbers of oocytes retrieved and good embryos, clinical pregnancy rate, abortion rate, the live birth rate, mean total cost, and the cost-effective ratio were compared between the two groups. In patients undergoing repeated IVF-ICSI cycles, the two protocols produced no significant differences in the number of good embryos, clinical pregnancy rate, abortion rate, or twin pregnancy rate. Compared with group B, group A had better clinical outcomes though this difference was not statistically significant. The number of retrieved oocytes was significantly greater and live birth rate significantly higher in group A than in group B (9.13=4.98 vs 7.11=4.74, and 20.2% vs 9.0%, respectively). Compared with group B, group A had higher mean total cost per cycle but lower costs for each oocyte retrieved (2729.11 vs 3038.60 RMB yuan), each good embryo (8867.19 vs 9644.85 RMB yuan), each clinical pregnancy (77598.06 vs 96139.85 RMB yuan). For patients undergoing repeated IVF/ICSI cycle, luteal phase down-regulation with GnRH agonist protocol produces good clinical outcomes with also good cost-effectiveness in spite an unsatisfactory ovarian reserve.

  17. Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4, Volume IV: Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterizations, Field Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, J. L.; Fargion, G. S.; McClain, C. R. (Editor); Pegau, S.; Zanefeld, J. R. V.; Mitchell, B. G.; Kahru, M.; Wieland, J.; Stramska, M.

    2003-01-01

    This document stipulates protocols for measuring bio-optical and radiometric data for the Sensor Intercomparision and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities and algorithm development. The document is organized into 6 separate volumes as Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4. Volume I: Introduction, Background, and Conventions; Volume II: Instrument Specifications, Characterization and Calibration; Volume III: Radiometric Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume IV: Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterization, Field Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols; Volume V: Biogeochemical and Bio-Optical Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume VI: Special Topics in Ocean Optics Protocols and Appendices. The earlier version of Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 3 is entirely superseded by the six volumes of Revision 4 listed above.

  18. Performance Analysis of Selective Decode-and-Forward Multinode Incremental Relaying with Maximal Ratio Combining

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjtaieb, Amir

    2013-09-12

    In this paper, we propose an incremental multinode relaying protocol with arbitrary N-relay nodes that allows an efficient use of the channel spectrum. The destination combines the received signals from the source and the relays using maximal ratio Combining (MRC). The transmission ends successfully once the accumulated signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) exceeds a predefined threshold. The number of relays participating in the transmission is adapted to the channel conditions based on the feedback from the destination. The use of incremental relaying allows obtaining a higher spectral efficiency. Moreover, the symbol error probability (SEP) performance is enhanced by using MRC at the relays. The use of MRC at the relays implies that each relay overhears the signals from the source and all previous relays and combines them using MRC. The proposed protocol differs from most of existing relaying protocol by the fact that it combines both incremental relaying and MRC at the relays for a multinode topology. Our analyses for a decode-and-forward mode show that: (i) compared to existing multinode relaying schemes, the proposed scheme can essentially achieve the same SEP performance but with less average number of time slots, (ii) compared to schemes without MRC at the relays, the proposed scheme can approximately achieve a 3 dB gain.

  19. The effect of personalized versus standard patient protocols for radiostereometric analysis (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharemovic, O; Troelsen, A; Thomsen, M G; Kallemose, T; Gosvig, K K

    2018-05-01

    Increasing pressure in the clinic requires a more standardized approach to radiostereometric analysis (RSA) imaging. The aim of this study was to investigate whether implementation of personalized RSA patient protocols could increase image quality and decrease examination time and the number of exposure repetitions. Forty patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty were equally randomized to either a case or a control group. Radiographers in the case group were assisted by personalized patient protocols containing information about each patient's post-operative RSA imaging. Radiographers in the control group used a standard RSA protocol. At three months, radiographers in the case group significantly reduced (p RSA patient protocols have a positive effect on image quality and radiation dose savings. Implementation of personal patient protocols as a RSA standard will contribute to the reduction of examination time, thus ensuring a cost benefit for department and patient safety. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of transmission speed of AX.25 Protocol implemented in satellital earth station UPTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fernando Vera Cely

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the important parameters for the proper functioning of satellital ground station projected on Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia (UPTC is the efficiency in transmission speed on communications protocol. This paper shows the results of analysis of the transmission speed of the AX.25 protocol implemented in the communication system of the satellital ground station UPTC. It begins with a brief description of the implemented hardware; the behavior of the transmission rate is evaluated using a theoretical analysis based on equations to estimate this parameter in the operation of the protocol, then tests are performed using the hardware that the satellital ground station UPTC has and finally, the conclusions are presented. Based on comparison of the theoretical analysis results obtained experimentally, it became apparent that AX.25 protocol efficiency is higher when increasing the number of frames.

  1. Performance Analysis of On-Demand Routing Protocols in Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafatur RAHMAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs have recently gained a lot of popularity due to their rapid deployment and instant communication capabilities. WMNs are dynamically self-organizing, self-configuring and self-healing with the nodes in the network automatically establishing an adiej hoc network and preserving the mesh connectivity. Designing a routing protocol for WMNs requires several aspects to consider, such as wireless networks, fixed applications, mobile applications, scalability, better performance metrics, efficient routing within infrastructure, load balancing, throughput enhancement, interference, robustness etc. To support communication, various routing protocols are designed for various networks (e.g. ad hoc, sensor, wired etc.. However, all these protocols are not suitable for WMNs, because of the architectural differences among the networks. In this paper, a detailed simulation based performance study and analysis is performed on the reactive routing protocols to verify the suitability of these protocols over such kind of networks. Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR and Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO routing protocol are considered as the representative of reactive routing protocols. The performance differentials are investigated using varying traffic load and number of source. Based on the simulation results, how the performance of each protocol can be improved is also recommended.

  2. Liquidity Analysis Using Cash Flow Ratios as Compared to Traditional Ratios in the Pharmaceutical Sector in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Sulayman H. Atieh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the liquidity position of the Jordanian pharmaceutical sector using the traditional ratios as compared to the more recently developed cash flow ratios. The research involved the comparison between traditional ratios and cash flow ratios of the big seven companies of the pharmaceutical industry in Jordan over six years period (2007¨C2012). The companies were all from the same sector, and the data was obtained from the annual reports of these companies. T...

  3. SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF GREEDY ROUTING PROTOCOL IN VIEW OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND NETWORK LIFETIME IN THREE DIMENSIONAL UNDERWATER WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEENA KOHLI

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN comprises of a number of miniature sized sensing devices deployed in the sea or ocean, connected by dint of acoustic links to each other. The sensors trap the ambient conditions and transmit the data from one end to another. For transmission of data in any medium, routing protocols play a crucial role. Moreover, being battery limited, an unavoidable parameter to be considered in operation and analysis of protocols is the network energy and the network lifetime. The paper discusses the greedy routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks. The simulation of this routing protocol also takes into consideration the characteristics of acoustic communication like attenuation, transmission loss, signal to noise ratio, noise, propagation delay. The results from these observations may be used to construct an accurate underwater communication model.

  4. Formal Analysis of SET and NSL Protocols Using the Interpretation Functions-Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Houmani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most applications in the Internet such as e-banking and e-commerce use the SET and the NSL protocols to protect the communication channel between the client and the server. Then, it is crucial to ensure that these protocols respect some security properties such as confidentiality, authentication, and integrity. In this paper, we analyze the SET and the NSL protocols with respect to the confidentiality (secrecy property. To perform this analysis, we use the interpretation functions-based method. The main idea behind the interpretation functions-based technique is to give sufficient conditions that allow to guarantee that a cryptographic protocol respects the secrecy property. The flexibility of the proposed conditions allows the verification of daily-life protocols such as SET and NSL. Also, this method could be used under different assumptions such as a variety of intruder abilities including algebraic properties of cryptographic primitives. The NSL protocol, for instance, is analyzed with and without the homomorphism property. We show also, using the SET protocol, the usefulness of this approach to correct weaknesses and problems discovered during the analysis.

  5. Characteristic vector analysis of inflection ratio spectra: New technique for analysis of ocean color data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grew, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    Characteristic vector analysis applied to inflection ratio spectra is a new approach to analyzing spectral data. The technique applied to remote data collected with the multichannel ocean color sensor (MOCS), a passive sensor, simultaneously maps the distribution of two different phytopigments, chlorophyll alpha and phycoerythrin, the ocean. The data set presented is from a series of warm core ring missions conducted during 1982. The data compare favorably with a theoretical model and with data collected on the same mission by an active sensor, the airborne oceanographic lidar (AOL).

  6. Analysis of NASA communications (Nascom) II network protocols and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom II (NII) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System, and other projects. NII is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The authors describe various baseline protocol architectures based on current and evolving technologies. They address the internetworking issues suggested for reliable transfer of data over heterogeneous segments. They also describe the NII architecture, topology, system components, and services. A comparative evaluation of the current and evolving technologies was made, and suggestions for further study are described. It is shown that the direction of the NII configuration and the subsystem component design will clearly depend on the advances made in the area of broadband integrated services.

  7. Sylvia Plath: a protocol analysis of her last poems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, A A; Wenckstern, S

    1998-01-01

    Personal documents have a significant place in psychological research. Suicide notes, diaries, novels, poems, and so on allow us to better understand the suicidal mind. The works of Sylvia Plath--a poet who killed herself at age 30--are prime examples for such protocol study. This article examines the last 6 months of Plath's poetry, revealing a suicidal malaise. Associating the results to the lives of Cesare Pavese and the case study of Natalie, a Terman-Shneidman subject of the intellectually gifted, the study shows a unit thema that facilitates the process of death. The poems reveal such themes as unbearable pain, loss, and abandonment that likely contributed significantly to death becoming the only solution.

  8. Practical Guidance for Conducting Mediation Analysis With Multiple Mediators Using Inverse Odds Ratio Weighting

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quynh C.; Osypuk, Theresa L.; Schmidt, Nicole M.; Glymour, M. Maria; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent flourishing of mediation analysis techniques, many modern approaches are difficult to implement or applicable to only a restricted range of regression models. This report provides practical guidance for implementing a new technique utilizing inverse odds ratio weighting (IORW) to estimate natural direct and indirect effects for mediation analyses. IORW takes advantage of the odds ratio's invariance property and condenses information on the odds ratio for the relationship be...

  9. Protocol: An updated integrated methodology for analysis of metabolites and enzyme activities of ethylene biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeraerd Annemie H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foundations for ethylene research were laid many years ago by researchers such as Lizada, Yang and Hoffman. Nowadays, most of the methods developed by them are still being used. Technological developments since then have led to small but significant improvements, contributing to a more efficient workflow. Despite this, many of these improvements have never been properly documented. Results This article provides an updated, integrated set of protocols suitable for the assembly of a complete picture of ethylene biosynthesis, including the measurement of ethylene itself. The original protocols for the metabolites 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and 1-(malonylaminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid have been updated and downscaled, while protocols to determine in vitro activities of the key enzymes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase have been optimised for efficiency, repeatability and accuracy. All the protocols described were optimised for apple fruit, but have been proven to be suitable for the analysis of tomato fruit as well. Conclusions This work collates an integrated set of detailed protocols for the measurement of components of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway, starting from well-established methods. These protocols have been optimised for smaller sample volumes, increased efficiency, repeatability and accuracy. The detailed protocol allows other scientists to rapidly implement these methods in their own laboratories in a consistent and efficient way.

  10. A Financial Ratio Analysis of For-Profit and Non-Profit Rural Referral Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J.; Nayar, Preethy

    2009-01-01

    Context: National financial data show that rural referral center (RRC) hospitals have performed well financially. RRC hospitals' median cash flow margin ratio was 10.04% in 2002 and grew to 11.04% in 2004. Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the ratio analysis of key operational and financial performance measures of for-profit RRCs to…

  11. A content analysis of posthumous sperm procurement protocols with considerations for developing an institutional policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahm, Sarah M; Karkazis, Katrina; Magnus, David

    2013-09-01

    To identify and analyze existing posthumous sperm procurement (PSP) protocols in order to outline central themes for institutions to consider when developing future policies. Qualitative content analysis. Large academic institutions across the United States. We performed a literature search and contacted 40 institutions to obtain nine full PSP protocols. We then performed a content analysis on these policies to identify major themes and factors to consider when developing a PSP protocol. Presence of a PSP policy. We identified six components of a thorough PSP protocol: Standard of Evidence, Terms of Eligibility, Sperm Designee, Restrictions on Use in Reproduction, Logistics, and Contraindications. We also identified two different approaches to policy structure. In the Limited Role approach, institutions have stricter consent requirements and limit their involvement to the time of procurement. In the Family-Centered approach, substituted judgment is permitted but a mandatory wait period is enforced before sperm use in reproduction. Institutions seeking to implement a PSP protocol will benefit from considering the six major building blocks of a thorough protocol and where they would like to fall on the spectrum from a Limited Role to a Family-Centered approach. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex ratio and time to pregnancy: analysis of four large European population surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, Mike; Bennett, James; Best, Nicky

    2007-01-01

    To test whether the secondary sex ratio (proportion of male births) is associated with time to pregnancy, a marker of fertility. Design Analysis of four large population surveys. Setting Denmark and the United Kingdom. Participants 49 506 pregnancies.......To test whether the secondary sex ratio (proportion of male births) is associated with time to pregnancy, a marker of fertility. Design Analysis of four large population surveys. Setting Denmark and the United Kingdom. Participants 49 506 pregnancies....

  13. Sr/Ca mass ratio determination in bones using fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hult, Mikael; Fessler, Andreas

    1998-01-01

    The Sr/Ca mass ratio in human bones reveals information regarding the diet which is of interest in archaeology. By using fast neutron activation analysis this ratio can be measured in a non-destructive manner, which is important when bones are considered too precious to allow for destructive analysis. Simulations and measurements showed that the nuclear reactions 88 Sr(n, 2n) 87m Sr and 44 Ca(n, p) 44 K are highly useful for the purpose

  14. Comprehensive assessment of firm financial performance using financial ratios and linguistic analysis of annual reports

    OpenAIRE

    Renáta Myšková; Petr Hájek

    2017-01-01

    Indicators of financial performance, especially financial ratio analysis, have become important financial decision-support information used by firm management and other stakeholders to assess financial stability and growth potential. However, additional information may be hidden in management communication. The article deals with the analysis of the annual reports of U.S. firms from both points of view, a financial one based on a set of financial ratios, and a linguistic one based on the anal...

  15. Evaluation of atmospheric particulate concentrations derived from analysis of ratio Thematic Mapper data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, W. H.; Mausel, P. W.; Zhou, G. P.

    1984-01-01

    An approach for atmospheric particulate concentration evaluation above urban areas using ratio Thematic Mapper (TM) data is discussed. October 25, 1982 TM data over Chicago, IL are analyzed using TM band ratios of 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, and 1/6 and particulate concentration estimates derived from TM ratios are tested over low reflective turbid water sites and highly reflective concrete highways. From analysis of the data it is evident that for water, the pattern of increasing particulate concentration is associated with decreasing ratio values in all band combinations used. Over concrete features, the TM band 1/4 ratio values follow the predicted pattern, while the TM band 1/6 has ratios which are reversed from anticipated values.

  16. Transient Elastography vs. Aspartate Aminotransferase to Platelet Ratio Index in Hepatitis C: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, A Z; Mattos, A A

    Many different non-invasive methods have been studied with the purpose of staging liver fibrosis. The objective of this study was verifying if transient elastography is superior to aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index for staging fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. A systematic review with meta-analysis of studies which evaluated both non-invasive tests and used biopsy as the reference standard was performed. A random-effects model was used, anticipating heterogeneity among studies. Diagnostic odds ratio was the main effect measure, and summary receiver operating characteristic curves were created. A sensitivity analysis was planned, in which the meta-analysis would be repeated excluding each study at a time. Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. Regarding the prediction of significant fibrosis, transient elastography and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index had diagnostic odds ratios of 11.70 (95% confidence interval = 7.13-19.21) and 8.56 (95% confidence interval = 4.90-14.94) respectively. Concerning the prediction of cirrhosis, transient elastography and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index had diagnostic odds ratios of 66.49 (95% confidence interval = 23.71-186.48) and 7.47 (95% confidence interval = 4.88-11.43) respectively. In conclusion, there was no evidence of significant superiority of transient elastography over aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index regarding the prediction of significant fibrosis, but the former proved to be better than the latter concerning prediction of cirrhosis.

  17. Timing Analysis of the FlexRay Communication Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2006-01-01

    FlexRay will very likely become the de-facto standard for in-vehicle communications. However, before it can be successfully used for safety-critical applications that require predictability, timing analysis techniques are necessary for providing bounds for the message communication times....... In this paper, we propose techniques for determining the timing properties of messages transmitted in both the static (ST) and the dynamic (DYN) segments of a FlexRay communication cycle. The analysis techniques for messages are integrated in the context of a holistic schedulability analysis that computes...

  18. Upper Midwest Gap Analysis Program, Image Processing Protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lillesand, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a series of technical guidelines by which land cover information is being extracted from Landsat Thematic Mapper data as part of the Upper Midwest Gap Analysis Program (UMGAP...

  19. Cost analysis of hybrid adaptive routing protocol for heterogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NONITA SHARMA

    Event detection; wireless sensor networks; hybrid routing; cost benefit analysis; proactive routing; reactive routing. 1. ... additional energy, high processing power, etc. are deployed to extend the .... transmit to its parent node. (2) Reactive ...

  20. Simple Public Key Infrastructure Protocol Analysis and Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vidergar, Alexander G

    2005-01-01

    ...). This thesis aims at proving the applicability of the Simple Public Key Infrastructure (SPKI) as a means of PKC. The strand space approach of Guttman and Thayer is used to provide an appropriate model for analysis...

  1. Practical security analysis of a quantum stream cipher by the Yuen 2000 protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    There exists a great gap between one-time pad with perfect secrecy and conventional mathematical encryption. The Yuen 2000 (Y00) protocol or αη scheme may provide a protocol which covers from the conventional security to the ultimate one, depending on implementations. This paper presents the complexity-theoretic security analysis on some models of the Y00 protocol with nonlinear pseudo-random-number-generator and quantum noise diffusion mapping (QDM). Algebraic attacks and fast correlation attacks are applied with a model of the Y00 protocol with nonlinear filtering like the Toyocrypt stream cipher as the running key generator, and it is shown that these attacks in principle do not work on such models even when the mapping between running key and quantum state signal is fixed. In addition, a security property of the Y00 protocol with QDM is clarified. Consequently, we show that the Y00 protocol has a potential which cannot be realized by conventional cryptography and that it goes beyond mathematical encryption with physical encryption

  2. IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs: Performance Analysis and Protocol Refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzimisios P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.11 protocol is emerging as a widely used standard and has become the most mature technology for wireless local area networks (WLANs. In this paper, we focus on the tuning of the IEEE 802.11 protocol parameters taking into consideration, in addition to throughput efficiency, performance metrics such as the average packet delay, the probability of a packet being discarded when it reaches the maximum retransmission limit, the average time to drop a packet, and the packet interarrival time. We present an analysis, which has been validated by simulation that is based on a Markov chain model commonly used in the literature. We further study the improvement on these performance metrics by employing suitable protocol parameters according to the specific communication needs of the IEEE 802.11 protocol for both basic access and RTS/CTS access schemes. We show that the use of a higher initial contention window size does not considerably degrade performance in small networks and performs significantly better in any other scenario. Moreover, we conclude that the combination of a lower maximum contention window size and a higher retry limit considerably improves performance. Results indicate that the appropriate adjustment of the protocol parameters enhances performance and improves the services that the IEEE 802.11 protocol provides to various communication applications.

  3. Financial Ratio Analysis: the Development of a Dedicated Management Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicu-Dan Dragomir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper disseminates the results of the development process for a financial analysis information system. The system has been subject to conceptual design using the Unified Modeling Language (UML and has been implemented in object-oriented manner using the Visual Basic .NET 2003 programming language. The classic financial analysis literature is focused on the chain-substitution method of computing the prior-year to current-year variation of linked financial ratios. We have applied this technique on the DuPont System of analysis concerning the Return on Equity ratio, by designing several structural UML diagrams depicting the breakdown and analysis of each financial ratio involved. The resulting computer application offers a flexible approach to the analytical tools: the user is required to introduce the raw data and the system provides both table-style and charted information on the output of computation. User-friendliness is also a key feature of this particular financial analysis application.

  4. Cardiothoracic ratio for prediction of left ventricular dilation: a systematic review and pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomba, Rohit S; Shah, Parinda H; Nijhawan, Karan; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Arora, Rohit

    2015-03-01

    Increased cardiothoracic ratio noted on chest radiographs often prompts concern and further evaluation with additional imaging. This study pools available data assessing the utility of cardiothoracic ratio in predicting left ventricular dilation. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify studies comparing cardiothoracic ratio by chest x-ray to left ventricular dilation by echocardiography. Electronic databases were used to identify studies which were then assessed for quality and bias, with those with adequate quality and minimal bias ultimately being included in the pooled analysis. The pooled data were used to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of cardiomegaly in predicting left ventricular dilation. A total of six studies consisting of 466 patients were included in this analysis. Cardiothoracic ratio had 83.3% sensitivity, 45.4% specificity, 43.5% positive predictive value and 82.7% negative predictive value. When a secondary analysis was conducted with a pediatric study excluded, a total of five studies consisting of 371 patients were included. Cardiothoracic ratio had 86.2% sensitivity, 25.2% specificity, 42.5% positive predictive value and 74.0% negative predictive value. Cardiothoracic ratio as determined by chest radiograph is sensitive but not specific for identifying left ventricular dilation. Cardiothoracic ratio also has a strong negative predictive value for identifying left ventricular dilation.

  5. Prognostic value of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lung cancer: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongmei; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xuedong; Gu, Lan; Pei, Hao; Kuai, Shougang; Zhang, Yingying; Shang, Zhongbo

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a series of studies explored the correlation between the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and the prognosis of lung cancer. However, the current opinion regarding the prognostic role of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lung cancer is inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of published articles to investigate the prognostic value of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lung cancer. The hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. An elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio predicted worse overall survival, with a pooled HR of 1.243 (95%CI: 1.106-1.397; P(heterogeneity)=0.001) from multivariate studies and 1.867 (95%CI: 1.487-2.344; P(heterogeneity)=0.047) from univariate studies. Subgroup analysis showed that a high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio yielded worse overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (HR=1.192, 95%CI: 1.061-1.399; P(heterogeneity)=0.003) as well as small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (HR=1.550, 95% CI: 1.156-2.077; P(heterogeneity)=0.625) in multivariate studies. The synthesized evidence from this meta-analysis of published articles demonstrated that an elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was a predictor of poor overall survival in patients with lung cancer.

  6. Comparison of gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for carbon stable-isotope analysis of carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja C. W.; Schierbeek, Henk; Houtekamer, Marco; van Engeland, Tom; Derrien, Delphine; Stal, Lucas J.; Boschker, Henricus T. S.

    2015-01-01

    We compared gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) for the measurement of δ(13)C values in carbohydrates. Contrary to GC/IRMS, no derivatisation is needed for LC/IRMS analysis of carbohydrates. Hence, although

  7. Comparison of gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for carbon stable-isotope analysis of carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Schierbeek, H.; Houtekamer, M.; van Engeland, T.; Derrien, D.; Stal, L.J.; Boschker, H.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    We compared gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) for the measurement of d13C values in carbohydrates. Contrary to GC/IRMS, no derivatisation is needed for LC/IRMS analysis of carbohydrates. Hence, although

  8. Comparison of gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for carbon stable-isotope analysis of carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Schierbeek, H.; Houtekamer, M.; van Engeland, T.; Derrien, D.; Stal, L.J.; Boschker, H.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: We compared gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) for the measurement of δ13C values in carbohydrates. Contrary to GC/IRMS, no derivatisation is needed for LC/IRMS analysis of carbohydrates. Hence,

  9. Performance Analysis of an Enhanced PRMA-HS Protocol for LEO Satellite Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO Yong-ning; YAN Shao-hu; WU Shi-qi

    2005-01-01

    The packet reservation multiple access with hindering state (PRMA-HS) is a protocol suitable for LEO satellite mobile communication. Although working well with light system payload (amount of user terminals), the protocol imposes high channel congestion on system with heavy payload, thus degrades the system's quality of service. To controlling the channel congestion, a scheme of enhanced PRMA-HS protocol is proposed, which aims to reduce the collision of voice packets by adopting a mechanism of access control. Through theoretic analysis, the system's mathematic model is presented and the packet drop probability of the scheme is deduced. To testify the performance of the scheme, a simulation is performed and the results support our analysis.

  10. The CD4+/CD8+ Ratio in Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Systematic and Meta-Analysis Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongmei; Qin, Jie; Dai, Yaping; Zeng, Fanwei; Pei, Hao; Wang, Jun

    2015-02-01

    The ratio of CD4+/CD8+ has been used as a clinically index to evaluate patients' immunity. Numerous researchers have studied CD4+/CD8+ ratio in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients. However, the change of CD4+/CD8+ ratio remains controversial. We present a meta-analysis of 15 case-control studies to identify the change of CD4+/CD8+ ratio in PTB patients. We assessed heterogeneity of effect estimates within each group using I(2) test. Subgroup analysis was performed to explore the potential source of heterogeneity. To investigate further the potential publication bias, we visually examined the funnel plots. For robustness of results, we performed sensitivity analysis by removing studies. Data entry and analyses were carried out with RevMan 5.2 (The Nordic Cochrane Centre). Twelve peripheral blood studies were categorized into two subgroups. Eight studies presented a significant decrease of CD4+/CD8+ ratio in PTB cases compared to healthy subjects (SMD: -0.45; 95% CI -0.65--0.25; I(2) = 7%). Other four studies researched on the newly diagnosed patients presented a more seriously and significantly decrease (SMD: -2.17; 95% CI -2.61--1.74; I(2) = 37%). The pooled analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) studies showed a significant increase of CD4+/CD8+ ratio using Flow Cytometry (FCM) (SMD: 4.75; 95% CI 3.44-6.05; I(2) =0%). The present meta-analysis indicated that there was a synthetic evidence for the reduced CD4+/CD8+ ratio in peripheral blood of PTB patients, especially newly diagnosed cases. However, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in BALF was increased using method of FCM.

  11. Performance evaluation of tile-based Fisher Ratio analysis using a benchmark yeast metabolome dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathanial E; Parsons, Brendon A; Synovec, Robert E

    2016-08-12

    Performance of tile-based Fisher Ratio (F-ratio) data analysis, recently developed for discovery-based studies using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS), is evaluated with a metabolomics dataset that had been previously analyzed in great detail, but while taking a brute force approach. The previously analyzed data (referred to herein as the benchmark dataset) were intracellular extracts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), either metabolizing glucose (repressed) or ethanol (derepressed), which define the two classes in the discovery-based analysis to find metabolites that are statistically different in concentration between the two classes. Beneficially, this previously analyzed dataset provides a concrete means to validate the tile-based F-ratio software. Herein, we demonstrate and validate the significant benefits of applying tile-based F-ratio analysis. The yeast metabolomics data are analyzed more rapidly in about one week versus one year for the prior studies with this dataset. Furthermore, a null distribution analysis is implemented to statistically determine an adequate F-ratio threshold, whereby the variables with F-ratio values below the threshold can be ignored as not class distinguishing, which provides the analyst with confidence when analyzing the hit table. Forty-six of the fifty-four benchmarked changing metabolites were discovered by the new methodology while consistently excluding all but one of the benchmarked nineteen false positive metabolites previously identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Numerical analysis on the ion species ratios in a steady state hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Saeki, Setsuo; Osaki, Katashi; Sakiyama, Satoshi; Itatani, Ryohei.

    1984-07-01

    Ion species ratios in a hydrogen plasma are calculated systematically as a function of plasma parameters, i.e. the electron density, the electron temperature, the pressure of hydrogen gas and the plasma volume. Furthermore, in the present analysis, the recombination factor for hydrogen atoms at the wall surface of a vacuum vessel is treated as another plasma parameter. The most significant point is that ion species ratios depend strongly not only on plasma parameters, but also on the recombination factor. The proton ratio increases with decreasing value of the recombination factor. Primary electrons also play an important role for ion species ratios, and the presence of primary electrons causes the proton ratio to decrease. (author)

  13. Understanding context in knowledge translation: a concept analysis study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Janet E; Graham, Ian D; Hutchinson, Alison M; Linklater, Stefanie; Brehaut, Jamie C; Curran, Janet; Ivers, Noah; Lavis, John N; Michie, Susan; Sales, Anne E; Fiander, Michelle; Fenton, Shannon; Noseworthy, Thomas; Vine, Jocelyn; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2015-05-01

    To conduct a concept analysis of clinical practice contexts (work environments) that facilitate or militate against the uptake of research evidence by healthcare professionals in clinical practice. This will involve developing a clear definition of context by describing its features, domains and defining characteristics. The context where clinical care is delivered influences that care. While research shows that context is important to knowledge translation (implementation), we lack conceptual clarity on what is context, which contextual factors probably modify the effect of knowledge translation interventions (and hence should be considered when designing interventions) and which contextual factors themselves could be targeted as part of a knowledge translation intervention (context modification). Concept analysis. The Walker and Avant concept analysis method, comprised of eight systematic steps, will be used: (1) concept selection; (2) determination of aims; (3) identification of uses of context; (4) determination of defining attributes of context; (5) identification/construction of a model case of context; (6) identification/construction of additional cases of context; (7) identification/construction of antecedents and consequences of context; and (8) definition of empirical referents of context. This study is funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (January 2014). This study will result in a much needed framework of context for knowledge translation, which identifies specific elements that, if assessed and used to tailor knowledge translation activities, will result in increased research use by nurses and other healthcare professionals in clinical practice, ultimately leading to better patient care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A systematic review protocol: social network analysis of tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Raglan; Davey, Rachel; Lovett, Ray; van der Sterren, Anke; Corbett, Joan; Cochrane, Tom

    2014-08-08

    Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death in the world. Evidence indicates that behaviours such as tobacco use can influence social networks, and that social network structures can influence behaviours. Social network analysis provides a set of analytic tools to undertake methodical analysis of social networks. We will undertake a systematic review to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the literature regarding social network analysis and tobacco use. The review will answer the following research questions: among participants who use tobacco, does social network structure/position influence tobacco use? Does tobacco use influence peer selection? Does peer selection influence tobacco use? We will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and search the following databases for relevant articles: CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature); Informit Health Collection; PsycINFO; PubMed/MEDLINE; Scopus/Embase; Web of Science; and the Wiley Online Library. Keywords include tobacco; smoking; smokeless; cigarettes; cigar and 'social network' and reference lists of included articles will be hand searched. Studies will be included that provide descriptions of social network analysis of tobacco use.Qualitative, quantitative and mixed method data that meets the inclusion criteria for the review, including methodological rigour, credibility and quality standards, will be synthesized using narrative synthesis. Results will be presented using outcome statistics that address each of the research questions. This systematic review will provide a timely evidence base on the role of social network analysis of tobacco use, forming a basis for future research, policy and practice in this area. This systematic review will synthesise the evidence, supporting the hypothesis that social network structures can influence tobacco use. This will also include exploring the relationship between social

  15. Biometrics from the carbon isotope ratio analysis of amino acids in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Glen P; An, Yan; Konstantynova, Kateryna I; Rashaid, Ayat H B

    2015-01-01

    This study compares and contrasts the ability to classify individuals into different grouping factors through either bulk isotope ratio analysis or amino-acid-specific isotope ratio analysis of human hair. Using LC-IRMS, we measured the isotope ratios of 14 amino acids in hair proteins independently, and leucine/isoleucine as a co-eluting pair, to provide 15 variables for classification. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids were mostly independent variables in the classification rules, thereby enabling the separation of dietary factors of isotope intake from intrinsic or phenotypic factors of isotope fractionation. Multivariate analysis revealed at least two potential sources of non-dietary factors influencing the carbon isotope ratio values of the amino acids in human hair: body mass index (BMI) and age. These results provide evidence that compound-specific isotope ratio analysis has the potential to go beyond region-of-origin or geospatial movements of individuals-obtainable through bulk isotope measurements-to the provision of physical and characteristic traits about the individuals, such as age and BMI. Further development and refinement, for example to genetic, metabolic, disease and hormonal factors could ultimately be of great assistance in forensic and clinical casework. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. FULLPROF as a new tool for flipping ratio analysis: further improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontera, C.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.

    2004-01-01

    In the international workshop on polarized neutron for condensed matter investigation (Juelich, September 2002), we presented the implementations done in FULLPROF in order to introduce the ability of performing flipping ratio analysis. During this year we have modified the program in order to extend the initial features. We have tested these new implementations by re-analyzing flipping ratio data on Metrz-Nit (C 10 H 16 N 5 O 2 ) compound

  17. Laser assisted ratio analysis - An alternative to GC/IRMS for CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murnick, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    A new technique for laser based analysis of carbon isotope ratios, with the acronym LARA, based on large isotope shifts in molecular spectra, the use of fixed frequency isotopic lasers, and sensitive detection via the laser optogalvanic effect is reviewed and compared with GC/IRMS for carbon dioxide in specific applications. The possibility for development of new classes of isotope ratio measurement systems with LARA is explored. (author)

  18. Analysis of signal to background ratio in synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kenji; Gohshi, Yohichi; Iida, Atsuo.

    1988-01-01

    The signal to background (S/B) ratio in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SR) was quantitatively analyzed. The S/B ratio, which has been significantly improved by taking advantage of the polarized nature of SR, was found to be strongly dependent on geometrical factors of the measurement system. From the analysis on the origin of the scattered background, the dependence of the S/B ratio on the geometry was quantitatively explained, mainly by the polarization properties of SR. Experimental conditions could be optimized by adjusting the degree of polarization of the incident beam and the detector solid angle. (author)

  19. [Use of sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in preeclampsia : a monocentric retrospective analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeurgt, L; Chantraine, F; De Marchin, J; Minon, J-M; Nisolle, M

    2017-09-01

    Soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) is an anti-angiogenic factor released in higher amounts in preeclampsia and implicated in endothelial dysfunction. sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is used in the prediction of preeclampsia. An sFlt-1/PlGF ratio inferior to 38 predicts the short-term absence of preeclampsia. A ratio ? 85 (early-onset PE) or ? 110 (late-onset of PE) could diagnose preeclampsia. In this study, sFlt-1/PlGF ratio has been measured in 183 patients. Sixty-seven preeclampsia have been diagnosed preeclamptic at delivery. The median sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was 100.3. The median ratio among women with preeclampsia (N=67) versus no preeclampsia (N=116) was 212.7 versus 35.4. In accordance with this analysis, an sFlt-1/PlGF ratio ? 38 has a sensibility of 95,5 % and a specificity of 73.3 %. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 67.4 % and 96.6 %, respectively. These results suggest that sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is helpful in the diagnosis of preeclampsia.

  20. 75 FR 74007 - Federal Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Risk Analysis Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... site, http://anstaskforce.gov/documents.php . To obtain a hard copy of the Protocol, see Document... aquatic species that are the target of this risk analysis. Language used in the NANPCA differentiates...: http://anstaskforce.gov/documents.php Write: Susan Pasko, National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  1. Protocol Analysis of Group Problem Solving in Mathematics: A Cognitive-Metacognitive Framework for Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzt, Alice F.; Armour-Thomas, Eleanor

    The roles of cognition and metacognition were examined in the mathematical problem-solving behaviors of students as they worked in small groups. As an outcome, a framework that links the literature of cognitive science and mathematical problem solving was developed for protocol analysis of mathematical problem solving. Within this framework, each…

  2. A Concise Protocol for the Validation of Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) Conversational Turn Counts in Vietnamese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganek, Hillary V.; Eriks-Brophy, Alice

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a protocol for the validation of the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) System's conversational turn count (CTC) for Vietnamese speakers. Ten families of children aged between 22 and 42 months, recruited near Ho Chi Minh City, participated in this project. Each child wore the LENA audio recorder for a full…

  3. Analysis of MD5 authentication in various routing protocols using simulation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakaran, M.; Darshan, K. N.; Patel, Harsh

    2017-11-01

    Authentication being an important paradigm of security and Computer Networks require secure paths to make the flow of the data even more secure through some security protocols. So MD-5(Message Digest 5) helps in providing data integrity to the data being sent through it and authentication to the network devices. This paper gives a brief introduction to the MD-5, simulation of the networks by including MD-5 authentication using various routing protocols like OSPF, EIGRP and RIPv2. GNS3 is being used to simulate the scenarios. Analysis of the MD-5 authentication is done in the later sections of the paper.

  4. Optimization of oligonucleotide arrays and RNA amplification protocols for analysis of transcript structure and alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, John; Garrett-Engele, Phil; Armour, Christopher D; Duenwald, Sven J; Loerch, Patrick M; Meyer, Michael R; Schadt, Eric E; Stoughton, Roland; Parrish, Mark L; Shoemaker, Daniel D; Johnson, Jason M

    2003-01-01

    Microarrays offer a high-resolution means for monitoring pre-mRNA splicing on a genomic scale. We have developed a novel, unbiased amplification protocol that permits labeling of entire transcripts. Also, hybridization conditions, probe characteristics, and analysis algorithms were optimized for detection of exons, exon-intron edges, and exon junctions. These optimized protocols can be used to detect small variations and isoform mixtures, map the tissue specificity of known human alternative isoforms, and provide a robust, scalable platform for high-throughput discovery of alternative splicing.

  5. Allowing Students to Select Deliverables for Peer Review: Analysis of a Free-Selection Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas; Demetriadis, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the benefits and limitations of a “free-selection” peer assignment protocol by comparing them to the widely implemented “assigned-pair” protocol. The primary motivation was to circumvent the issues that often appear to the instructors implementing peer review activities with pre......-Selection, where students were able to explore and select peer work for review. Result analysis showed a very strong tendency in favor of the Free-Selection students regarding both domain specific (conceptual) and domain-general (reviewing) knowledge....

  6. Direct uranium isotope ratio analysis of single micrometer-sized glass particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Boulyga, Sergei F.; Prohaska, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present the application of nanosecond laser ablation (LA) coupled to a ‘Nu Plasma HR’ multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) for the direct analysis of U isotope ratios in single, 10–20 μm-sized, U-doped glass particles. Method development included studies with respect to (1) external correction of the measured U isotope ratios in glass particles, (2) the applied laser ablation carrier gas (i.e. Ar versus He) and (3) the accurate determination of lower abundant 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios (i.e. 10 −5 ). In addition, a data processing procedure was developed for evaluation of transient signals, which is of potential use for routine application of the developed method. We demonstrate that the developed method is reliable and well suited for determining U isotope ratios of individual particles. Analyses of twenty-eight S1 glass particles, measured under optimized conditions, yielded average biases of less than 0.6% from the certified values for 234 U/ 238 U and 235 U/ 238 U ratios. Experimental results obtained for 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios deviated by less than −2.5% from the certified values. Expanded relative total combined standard uncertainties U c (k = 2) of 2.6%, 1.4% and 5.8% were calculated for 234 U/ 238 U, 235 U/ 238 U and 236 U/ 238 U, respectively. - Highlights: ► LA-MC-ICP-MS was fully validated for the direct analysis of individual particles. ► Traceability was established by using an IRMM glass particle reference material. ► Measured U isotope ratios were in agreement with the certified range. ► A comprehensive total combined uncertainty evaluation was performed. ► The analysis of 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios was improved by using a deceleration filter.

  7. Protocol for Microplastics Sampling on the Sea Surface and Sample Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač Viršek, Manca; Palatinus, Andreja; Koren, Špela; Peterlin, Monika; Horvat, Petra; Kržan, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Microplastic pollution in the marine environment is a scientific topic that has received increasing attention over the last decade. The majority of scientific publications address microplastic pollution of the sea surface. The protocol below describes the methodology for sampling, sample preparation, separation and chemical identification of microplastic particles. A manta net fixed on an »A frame« attached to the side of the vessel was used for sampling. Microplastic particles caught in the cod end of the net were separated from samples by visual identification and use of stereomicroscopes. Particles were analyzed for their size using an image analysis program and for their chemical structure using ATR-FTIR and micro FTIR spectroscopy. The described protocol is in line with recommendations for microplastics monitoring published by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) Technical Subgroup on Marine Litter. This written protocol with video guide will support the work of researchers that deal with microplastics monitoring all over the world. PMID:28060297

  8. Security analysis of standards-driven communication protocols for healthcare scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Massimiliano; Pugliese, Rosario; Tiezzi, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    The importance of the Electronic Health Record (EHR), that stores all healthcare-related data belonging to a patient, has been recognised in recent years by governments, institutions and industry. Initiatives like the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) have been developed for the definition of standard methodologies for secure and interoperable EHR exchanges among clinics and hospitals. Using the requisites specified by these initiatives, many large scale projects have been set up for enabling healthcare professionals to handle patients' EHRs. The success of applications developed in these contexts crucially depends on ensuring such security properties as confidentiality, authentication, and authorization. In this paper, we first propose a communication protocol, based on the IHE specifications, for authenticating healthcare professionals and assuring patients' safety. By means of a formal analysis carried out by using the specification language COWS and the model checker CMC, we reveal a security flaw in the protocol thus demonstrating that to simply adopt the international standards does not guarantee the absence of such type of flaws. We then propose how to emend the IHE specifications and modify the protocol accordingly. Finally, we show how to tailor our protocol for application to more critical scenarios with no assumptions on the communication channels. To demonstrate feasibility and effectiveness of our protocols we have fully implemented them.

  9. White matter fiber-based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiwei; Budin, Francois; Noel, Jean; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Gilmore, John; Rasmussen, Jerod; Wadhwa, Pathik D.; Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Styner, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: To develop, test, evaluate and apply a novel tool for the white matter fiber-based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio maps quantifying myelin content. Background: The cerebral white matter in the human brain develops from a mostly non-myelinated state to a nearly fully mature white matter myelination within the first few years of life. High resolution T1w/T2w ratio maps are believed to be effective in quantitatively estimating myelin content on a voxel-wise basis. We propose the use of a fiber-tract-based analysis of such T1w/T2w ratio data, as it allows us to separate fiber bundles that a common regional analysis imprecisely groups together, and to associate effects to specific tracts rather than large, broad regions. Methods: We developed an intuitive, open source tool to facilitate such fiber-based studies of T1w/T2w ratio maps. Via its Graphical User Interface (GUI) the tool is accessible to non-technical users. The framework uses calibrated T1w/T2w ratio maps and a prior fiber atlas as an input to generate profiles of T1w/T2w values. The resulting fiber profiles are used in a statistical analysis that performs along-tract functional statistical analysis. We applied this approach to a preliminary study of early brain development in neonates. Results: We developed an open-source tool for the fiber based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio maps and tested it in a study of brain development.

  10. White Matter Fiber-based Analysis of T1w/T2w Ratio Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiwei; Budin, Francois; Noel, Jean; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Gilmore, John; Rasmussen, Jerod; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Styner, Martin

    2017-02-01

    To develop, test, evaluate and apply a novel tool for the white matter fiber-based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio maps quantifying myelin content. The cerebral white matter in the human brain develops from a mostly non-myelinated state to a nearly fully mature white matter myelination within the first few years of life. High resolution T1w/T2w ratio maps are believed to be effective in quantitatively estimating myelin content on a voxel-wise basis. We propose the use of a fiber-tract-based analysis of such T1w/T2w ratio data, as it allows us to separate fiber bundles that a common regional analysis imprecisely groups together, and to associate effects to specific tracts rather than large, broad regions. We developed an intuitive, open source tool to facilitate such fiber-based studies of T1w/T2w ratio maps. Via its Graphical User Interface (GUI) the tool is accessible to non-technical users. The framework uses calibrated T1w/T2w ratio maps and a prior fiber atlas as an input to generate profiles of T1w/T2w values. The resulting fiber profiles are used in a statistical analysis that performs along-tract functional statistical analysis. We applied this approach to a preliminary study of early brain development in neonates. We developed an open-source tool for the fiber based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio maps and tested it in a study of brain development.

  11. Validation of CBZ code system for post-irradiation examination analysis and sensitivity analysis of (n,γ) branching ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Yosuke; Chiba, Go; Tsuji, Masashi; Narabayashi, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    A code system CBZ is being developed in Hokkaido University. In order to validate it, PIE data, which are nuclide composition data of a spent fuel, have been analyzed with CBZ. The validity is evaluated as ratios of the calculation values to the experimental ones (C/E ratios). Differences between experimental values and calculation ones are smaller than 20% except some nuclides. Thus this code system is validated. Additionally, we evaluate influence of change of (n,γ) branching ratio on inventories of fission products and actinides. As a result, branching ratios of Sb-121, Pm-147, and Am-241 influence inventories of several nuclides. We perform PIE analysis using different (n,γ) branching ratio data from the ORIGEN-2 library, JNDC-Ver.2, and JEFF-3.1A, and find that differences in (n,γ) branching ratios between different nuclear libraries have a non-negligible influence on inventories of several nuclides. (author)

  12. Appearance of Abnormal Cardiothoracic Ratio of Fetuses with Hemoglobin Bart's Disease: Life Table Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapirak, Chanane; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Luewan, Suchaya; Srisupundit, Kasemsri; Tongprasert, Fuanglada; Tongsong, Theera

    2017-10-01

    Objective  To determine the timeline of the first appearance of an increased CT ratio of fetuses with hemoglobin (Hb) Bart's disease. Materials and Methods  A prospective longitudinal study was conducted on pregnancies at risk for fetal Hb Bart's disease. Sonographic markers including cardiothoracic (CT) ratio and middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) were serially assessed and recorded from the first trimester. The definite diagnosis of fetal Hb Bart's disease based on DNA analysis (CVS), or fetal Hb typing (HPLC; cordocentesis) was performed at the first appearance of an increased CT ratio. Results  Of 275 pregnancies at risk, 64 fetuses were finally proven to be affected and life table analysis was performed. Most affected fetuses showed an increased CT ratio in late first trimester and early second trimester, with median time of the first appearance at 13 weeks and all affected fetuses were detected at 23 weeks or less. The CT ratio yielded a sensitivity of 100 % at a gestational age of 23 weeks with a false-positive rate of 8 %. MCA-PSV appeared later than CT ratio. Only 9.4 % of affected cases developed abnormal MCA-PSV before an increased CT ratio. Conclusion  The timeline of the first appearance of an increased CT ratio of fetuses with Hb Bart's disease was established. This may help us identify Hb Bart's disease among fetuses at risk in earlier gestation and proper schedules for serial ultrasound could be made more effectively. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. iLAP: a workflow-driven software for experimental protocol development, data acquisition and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNally James

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the genome biology community has expended considerable effort to confront the challenges of managing heterogeneous data in a structured and organized way and developed laboratory information management systems (LIMS for both raw and processed data. On the other hand, electronic notebooks were developed to record and manage scientific data, and facilitate data-sharing. Software which enables both, management of large datasets and digital recording of laboratory procedures would serve a real need in laboratories using medium and high-throughput techniques. Results We have developed iLAP (Laboratory data management, Analysis, and Protocol development, a workflow-driven information management system specifically designed to create and manage experimental protocols, and to analyze and share laboratory data. The system combines experimental protocol development, wizard-based data acquisition, and high-throughput data analysis into a single, integrated system. We demonstrate the power and the flexibility of the platform using a microscopy case study based on a combinatorial multiple fluorescence in situ hybridization (m-FISH protocol and 3D-image reconstruction. iLAP is freely available under the open source license AGPL from http://genome.tugraz.at/iLAP/. Conclusion iLAP is a flexible and versatile information management system, which has the potential to close the gap between electronic notebooks and LIMS and can therefore be of great value for a broad scientific community.

  14. [Professional divers: analysis of critical issues and proposal of a health protocol for work fitness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedata, Paola; Corvino, Anna Rita; Napolitano, Raffaele Carmine; Garzillo, Elpidio Maria; Furfaro, Ciro; Lamberti, Monica

    2016-01-20

    From many years now, thanks to the development of modern diving techniques, there has been a rapid spread of diving activities everywhere. In fact, divers are ever more numerous both among the Armed Forces and civilians who dive for work, like fishing, biological research and archeology. The aim of the study was to propose a health protocol for work fitness of professional divers keeping in mind the peculiar work activity, existing Italian legislation that is almost out of date and the technical and scientific evolution in this occupational field. We performed an analysis of the most frequently occurring diseases among professional divers and of the clinical investigation and imaging techniques used for work fitness assessment of professional divers. From analysis of the health protocol recommended by D.M. 13 January 1979 (Ministerial Decree), that is most used by occupational health physician, several critical issues emerged. Very often the clinical investigation and imaging techniques still used are almost obsolete, ignoring the execution of simple and inexpensive investigations that are more useful for work fitness assessment. Considering the out-dated legislation concerning diving disciplines, it is necessary to draw up a common health protocol that takes into account clinical and scientific knowledge and skills acquired in this area. This protocol's aim is to propose a useful tool for occupational health physicians who work in this sector.

  15. Correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis of network traffics with different application protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun-Song; Yuan Jing; Li Qiang; Yuan Rui-Xi

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis approach to analyse the dynamics of network traffics with three different application protocols—HTTP, FTP and SMTP. First, the phase space is reconstructed and the embedding parameters are obtained by the mutual information method. Secondly, the correlation dimensions of three different traffics are calculated and the results of analysis have demonstrated that the dynamics of the three different application protocol traffics is different from each other in nature, i.e. HTTP and FTP traffics are chaotic, furthermore, the former is more complex than the later; on the other hand, SMTP traffic is stochastic. It is shown that correlation dimension approach is an efficient method to understand and to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of HTTP, FTP and SMTP protocol network traffics. This analysis provided insight into and a more accurate understanding of nonlinear dynamics of internet traffics which have a complex mixture of chaotic and stochastic components. (general)

  16. Trade-off analysis of high-aspect-ratio-cooling-channels for rocket engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzarelli, Marco; Nasuti, Francesco; Onofri, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Aspect ratio has a significant effect on cooling efficiency and hydraulic losses. • Minimizing power loss is of paramount importance in liquid rocket engine cooling. • A suitable quasi-2D model is used to get fast cooling system analysis. • Trade-off with assigned weight, temperature, and channel height or wall thickness. • Aspect ratio is found that minimizes power loss in the cooling circuit. -- Abstract: High performance liquid rocket engines are often characterized by rectangular cooling channels with high aspect ratio (channel height-to-width ratio) because of their proven superior cooling efficiency with respect to a conventional design. However, the identification of the optimum aspect ratio is not a trivial task. In the present study a trade-off analysis is performed on a cooling channel system that can be of interest for rocket engines. This analysis requires multiple cooling channel flow calculations and thus cannot be efficiently performed by CFD solvers. Therefore, a proper numerical approach, referred to as quasi-2D model, is used to have fast and accurate predictions of cooling system properties. This approach relies on its capability of describing the thermal stratification that occurs in the coolant and in the wall structure, as well as the coolant warming and pressure drop along the channel length. Validation of the model is carried out by comparison with solutions obtained with a validated CFD solver. Results of the analysis show the existence of an optimum channel aspect ratio that minimizes the requested pump power needed to overcome losses in the cooling circuit

  17. Tolerance analysis in manufacturing using process capability ratio with measurement uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahshid, Rasoul; Mansourvar, Zahra; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2017-01-01

    . In this paper, a new statistical analysis was applied to manufactured products to assess achieved tolerances when the process is known while using capability ratio and expanded uncertainty. The analysis has benefits for process planning, determining actual precision limits, process optimization, troubleshoot......Tolerance analysis provides valuable information regarding performance of manufacturing process. It allows determining the maximum possible variation of a quality feature in production. Previous researches have focused on application of tolerance analysis to the design of mechanical assemblies...... malfunctioning existing part. The capability measure is based on a number of measurements performed on part’s quality variable. Since the ratio relies on measurements, elimination of any possible error has notable negative impact on results. Therefore, measurement uncertainty was used in combination with process...

  18. Performance Analysis of AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network based Smart Metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, Hasan; Jung, Low Tang

    2013-01-01

    Today no one can deny the need for Smart Grid and it is being considered as of utmost importance to upgrade outdated electric infrastructure to cope with the ever increasing electric load demand. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is considered a promising candidate for internetworking of smart meters with the gateway using mesh topology. This paper investigates the performance of AODV routing protocol for WSN based smart metering deployment. Three case studies are presented to analyze its performance based on four metrics of (i) Packet Delivery Ratio, (ii) Average Energy Consumption of Nodes (iii) Average End-End Delay and (iv) Normalized Routing Load.

  19. Sensitivity Analysis of Per-Protocol Time-to-Event Treatment Efficacy in Randomized Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Peter B.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Hudgens, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Assessing per-protocol treatment effcacy on a time-to-event endpoint is a common objective of randomized clinical trials. The typical analysis uses the same method employed for the intention-to-treat analysis (e.g., standard survival analysis) applied to the subgroup meeting protocol adherence criteria. However, due to potential post-randomization selection bias, this analysis may mislead about treatment efficacy. Moreover, while there is extensive literature on methods for assessing causal treatment effects in compliers, these methods do not apply to a common class of trials where a) the primary objective compares survival curves, b) it is inconceivable to assign participants to be adherent and event-free before adherence is measured, and c) the exclusion restriction assumption fails to hold. HIV vaccine efficacy trials including the recent RV144 trial exemplify this class, because many primary endpoints (e.g., HIV infections) occur before adherence is measured, and nonadherent subjects who receive some of the planned immunizations may be partially protected. Therefore, we develop methods for assessing per-protocol treatment efficacy for this problem class, considering three causal estimands of interest. Because these estimands are not identifiable from the observable data, we develop nonparametric bounds and semiparametric sensitivity analysis methods that yield estimated ignorance and uncertainty intervals. The methods are applied to RV144. PMID:24187408

  20. Error Ratio Analysis: Alternate Mathematics Assessment for General and Special Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James H.; Carr, Sonya C.

    1997-01-01

    Eighty-seven elementary students in grades four, five, and six, were administered a 30-item multiplication instrument to assess performance in computation across grade levels. An interpretation of student performance using error ratio analysis is provided and the use of this method with groups of students for instructional decision making is…

  1. Direct uranium isotope ratio analysis of single micrometer-sized glass particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Boulyga, Sergei F; Prohaska, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    We present the application of nanosecond laser ablation (LA) coupled to a 'Nu Plasma HR' multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) for the direct analysis of U isotope ratios in single, 10-20 μm-sized, U-doped glass particles. Method development included studies with respect to (1) external correction of the measured U isotope ratios in glass particles, (2) the applied laser ablation carrier gas (i.e. Ar versus He) and (3) the accurate determination of lower abundant (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios (i.e. 10(-5)). In addition, a data processing procedure was developed for evaluation of transient signals, which is of potential use for routine application of the developed method. We demonstrate that the developed method is reliable and well suited for determining U isotope ratios of individual particles. Analyses of twenty-eight S1 glass particles, measured under optimized conditions, yielded average biases of less than 0.6% from the certified values for (234)U/(238)U and (235)U/(238)U ratios. Experimental results obtained for (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios deviated by less than -2.5% from the certified values. Expanded relative total combined standard uncertainties U(c) (k = 2) of 2.6%, 1.4% and 5.8% were calculated for (234)U/(238)U, (235)U/(238)U and (236)U/(238)U, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimation of Leakage Ratio Using Principal Component Analysis and Artificial Neural Network in Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwoo Jang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaks in a water distribution network (WDS constitute losses of water supply caused by pipeline failure, operational loss, and physical factors. This has raised the need for studies on the factors affecting the leakage ratio and estimation of leakage volume in a water supply system. In this study, principal component analysis (PCA and artificial neural network (ANN were used to estimate the volume of water leakage in a WDS. For the study, six main effective parameters were selected and standardized data obtained through the Z-score method. The PCA-ANN model was devised and the leakage ratio was estimated. An accuracy assessment was performed to compare the measured leakage ratio to that of the simulated model. The results showed that the PCA-ANN method was more accurate for estimating the leakage ratio than a single ANN simulation. In addition, the estimation results differed according to the number of neurons in the ANN model’s hidden layers. In this study, an ANN with multiple hidden layers was found to be the best method for estimating the leakage ratio with 12–12 neurons. This suggested approaches to improve the accuracy of leakage ratio estimation, as well as a scientific approach toward the sustainable management of water distribution systems.

  3. Direct uranium isotope ratio analysis of single micrometer-sized glass particles

    OpenAIRE

    Kappel, Stefanie; Boulyga, Sergei F.; Prohaska, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present the application of nanosecond laser ablation (LA) coupled to a ‘Nu Plasma HR’ multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) for the direct analysis of U isotope ratios in single, 10–20 μm-sized, U-doped glass particles. Method development included studies with respect to (1) external correction of the measured U isotope ratios in glass particles, (2) the applied laser ablation carrier gas (i.e. Ar versus He) and (3) the accurate determination of lower abu...

  4. Digital color analysis of color-ratio composite LANDSAT scenes. [Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented that can be used to calculate approximate Munsell coordinates of the colors produced by making a color composite from three registered images. Applied to the LANDSAT MSS data of the Goldfield, Nevada, area, this method permits precise and quantitative definition of the limonitic areas originally observed in a LANDSAT color ratio composite. In addition, areas of transported limonite can be discriminated from the limonite in the hydrothermally altered areas of the Goldfield mining district. From the analysis, the numerical distinction between limonitic and nonlimonitic ground is generally less than 3% using the LANDSAT bands and as much as 8% in ratios of LANDSAT MSS bands.

  5. Neutron activation analysis of calcium/phosphorus ratio in rib bone of healthy humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzaphlidou, Margaret; Zaichick, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    The Ca/P ratio was estimated in intact rib bone samples from healthy humans, 37 women and 45 men, aged from 15 to 55 years using instrumental neutron activation analysis. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) age- or sex-related differences in the Ca/P ratio were observed. The mean value (M±SD) for the investigated parameter for the whole group studied, 2.33±0.34, was within a very wide range of published data and close to the median value

  6. Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Analysis of Orbital Conjunction Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis; Gold, Dara

    2013-01-01

    We propose a Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test for analysis of commonly available predictions associated with spacecraft conjunctions. Such predictions generally consist of a relative state and relative state error covariance at the time of closest approach, under the assumption that prediction errors are Gaussian. We show that under these circumstances, the likelihood ratio of the Wald test reduces to an especially simple form, involving the current best estimate of collision probability, and a similar estimate of collision probability that is based on prior assumptions about the likelihood of collision.

  7. Lead isotope ratio analysis of bullet samples by using quadrupole ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Shu-ichi; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi; Oishi, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    The measurement conditions for the precise analysis of the lead stable isotope ratio by using an ICP-MS equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer were studied in order to apply the technique to the forensic identification of bullet samples. The values of the relative standard deviation obtained for the ratio of 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 204 Pb/ 206 Pb were lower than 0.2% after optimization of the analytical conditions, including the optimum lead concentration of the sample solution to be about 70 ppb and an integration time for 1 m/s of 15 s. This method was applied to an analysis of lead in bullets for rifles and handguns; a stable isotope ratio of lead was found to be suitable for the identification of bullets. This study has demonstrated that the lead isotope ratio measured by using a quadrupole ICP-MS was useful for a practical analysis of bullet samples in forensic science. (author)

  8. Analysis of enhanced modal damping ratio in porous materials using an acoustic-structure interaction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kook, Junghwan; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the enhancement of the damping ratio of a structure with embedded microbeam resonators in air-filled internal cavities. In this context, we discuss theoretical aspects in the framework of the effective modal damping ratio (MDR) and derive an approximate...... relation expressing how an increased damping due to the acoustic medium surrounding the microbeam affect the MDR of the macrobeam. We further analyze the effect of including dissipation of the acoustic medium by using finite element (FE) analysis with acoustic-structure interaction (ASI) using a simple...... phenomenological acoustic loss model. An eigenvalue analysis is carried out to demonstrate the improvement of the damping characteristic of the macrobeam with the resonating microbeam in the lossy air and the results are compared to a forced vibration analysis for a macrobeam with one or multiple embedded...

  9. A BLUEPRINT OF RATIO ANALYSIS AS INFORMATION BASIS OF CORPORATION FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Andrijasevic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ratio analysis, due to its simplicity, has, for a long time, been one of the most frequently used methods of financial analysis. However, the question is how its results are a good basis for assessment of financial condition of a company by the external users of financial reports. If one takes into account numerous limitations, one can rather say that ratio analysis is a rough approximation of financial situation. What are the limitations, can they be overcome and in what way, can they, at least, be reduced, and to what extent the user has to take a reserved attitude when making business decisions on the basis of ratio analysis? The last but not the least, we should accept the fact that by insisting on financial analysis other aspects of the analyses are, in practice frequently marginalized, thus neglecting the fact that actually they themselves in the most direct manner point to the causes of potential disorders in business activities of a company.

  10. Modelling and analysis of distributed simulation protocols with distributed graph transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, Juan de; Taentzer, Gabriele

    2005-01-01

    Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. J. de Lara, and G. Taentzer, "Modelling and analysis of distributed simulation protocols with distributed graph transformation...

  11. Cost-utility analysis of an advanced pressure ulcer management protocol followed by trained wound, ostomy, and continence nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitani, Toshiko; Nakagami, Gojiro; Iizaka, Shinji; Fukuda, Takashi; Oe, Makoto; Igarashi, Ataru; Mori, Taketoshi; Takemura, Yukie; Mizokami, Yuko; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of severe pressure ulcers (PUs) is an important issue that requires to be highlighted in Japan. In a previous study, we devised an advanced PU management protocol to enable early detection of and intervention for deep tissue injury and critical colonization. This protocol was effective for preventing more severe PUs. The present study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of the care provided using an advanced PU management protocol, from a medical provider's perspective, implemented by trained wound, ostomy, and continence nurses (WOCNs), with that of conventional care provided by a control group of WOCNs. A Markov model was constructed for a 1-year time horizon to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of advanced PU management compared with conventional care. The number of quality-adjusted life-years gained, and the cost in Japanese yen (¥) ($US1 = ¥120; 2015) was used as the outcome. Model inputs for clinical probabilities and related costs were based on our previous clinical trial results. Univariate sensitivity analyses were performed. Furthermore, a Bayesian multivariate probability sensitivity analysis was performed using Monte Carlo simulations with advanced PU management. Two different models were created for initial cohort distribution. For both models, the expected effectiveness for the intervention group using advanced PU management techniques was high, with a low expected cost value. The sensitivity analyses suggested that the results were robust. Intervention by WOCNs using advanced PU management techniques was more effective and cost-effective than conventional care. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  12. The comparison of microdose flare-up and multiple dose antagonist protocols based on hCG day estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and P/E2 ratio among poor responder patients in ICSI-ET cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, M N; Kahyaoglu, I; Kahyaoglu, S

    2015-02-01

    Elevated progesterone levels surpassing exact treshold values impede endometrial receptivity and decrease clinical pregnancy rates in different responder patients during assisted reproductive techniques. A progesterone (P): estradiol (E2) ratio of > 1 on the day of hCG administration has also been suggested to be a manifestation of low ovarian reserve. The clinical significance of P/E2 ratio on the day of hCG administration was investigated among poor responder patients. Based on the ESHRE Bologna consensus criteria related to poor ovarian response diagnosis, 48 poor responder patients were treated with the microdose flare-up regimen and 34 patients were treated with the multiple-dose GnRH antagonist protocol. All patients were destined to perform a ICSI-ET procedure at the end of the stimulation protocols. Progesterone levels and P/E2 ratios have been detected during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. In the microdose flare-up group; the duration of stimulation, total gonadotropin dose used and hCG day E2 levels were significantly higher than the multiple dose antagonist group. However, the mean hCG day P/E2 rate in the microdose flare-up group was less than that in the multiple-dose antagonist group. The clinical pregnancy rates were non significantly higher in the multiple dose antagonist protocol group than in microdose flare-up group. Impaired endometrial receptivity caused by elevated P levels results with lower pregnancy rates. Regardless of the selected stimulation protocol, poor responder patients are not prone to exhibit high P and E2 secretion. Increased P/E2 ratio of > 1 on hCG day has limited value to predict cycle outcomes in poor responder patients because of ovarian follicle depletion.

  13. An improved method of studying user-system interaction by combining transaction log analysis and protocol analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian R. Griffiths

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a novel approach to studying user-system interaction that captures a complete record of the searcher's actions, the system responses and synchronised talk-aloud comments from the searcher. The data is recorded unobtrusively and is available for later analysis. The approach is set in context by a discussion of transaction logging and protocol analysis and examples of the search logging in operation are presented

  14. New method development in prehistoric stone tool research: evaluating use duration and data analysis protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Adrian A; Macdonald, Danielle A; Giusca, Claudiu L; Leach, Richard K

    2014-10-01

    Lithic microwear is a research field of prehistoric stone tool (lithic) analysis that has been developed with the aim to identify how stone tools were used. It has been shown that laser scanning confocal microscopy has the potential to be a useful quantitative tool in the study of prehistoric stone tool function. In this paper, two important lines of inquiry are investigated: (1) whether the texture of worn surfaces is constant under varying durations of tool use, and (2) the development of rapid objective data analysis protocols. This study reports on the attempt to further develop these areas of study and results in a better understanding of the complexities underlying the development of flexible analytical algorithms for surface analysis. The results show that when sampling is optimised, surface texture may be linked to contact material type, independent of use duration. Further research is needed to validate this finding and test an expanded range of contact materials. The use of automated analytical protocols has shown promise but is only reliable if sampling location and scale are defined. Results suggest that the sampling protocol reports on the degree of worn surface invasiveness, complicating the ability to investigate duration related textural characterisation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Analysis of root surface properties by fluorescence/Raman intensity ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shino; Ando, Masahiro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-O; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the existence of residual calculus on root surfaces by determining the fluorescence/Raman intensity ratio. Thirty-two extracted human teeth, partially covered with calculus on the root surface, were evaluated by using a portable Raman spectrophotometer, and a 785-nm, 100-mW laser was applied for fluorescence/Raman excitation. The collected spectra were normalized to the hydroxyapatite Raman band intensity at 960 cm -1 . Raman spectra were recorded from the same point after changing the focal distance of the laser and the target radiating angle. In seven teeth, the condition of calculus, cementum, and dentin were evaluated. In 25 teeth, we determined the fluorescence/Raman intensity ratio following three strokes of debridement. Raman spectra collected from the dentin, cementum, and calculus were different. After normalization, spectra values were constant. The fluorescence/Raman intensity ratio of calculus region showed significant differences compared to the cementum and dentin (p Raman intensity ratio decreased with calculus debridement. For this analysis, the delta value was defined as the difference between the values before and after three strokes, with the final 2 delta values close to zero, indicating a gradual asymptotic curve and the change in intensity ratio approximating that of individual constants. Fluorescence/Raman intensity ratio was effectively used to cancel the angle- and distance-dependent fluctuations of fluorescence collection efficiency during measurement. Changes in the fluorescence/Raman intensity ratio near zero suggested that cementum or dentin was exposed, and calculus removed.

  16. [Paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and sex ratio of the offspring: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shu-Hui; Liu, Yi-Ting; Liu, Yang

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the association between paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and the sex ratio of the offspring. We searched various databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, OVID, Bioscience Information Service (BIOSIS), China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and Wanfang Database, for the literature relevant to the association of paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation with the sex ratio of the offspring. We conducted a meta-analysis on their correlation using Stata 11.0. There was no statistically significant difference in the sex ratio between the offspring with paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and those without (pooled OR = 1.00 [95% CI: 0.95 -1.05], P = 0.875). Subgroup analysis of both case-control and cohort studies revealed no significant difference (pooled OR = 1.03 [95% CI: 0.99 -1.08], P = 0.104 and pooled OR = 0.98 [95% CI: 0.99 -1.08], P = 0.186, respectively). Paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation is not correlated with the sex ratio of the offspring.

  17. Composite flexible skin with large negative Poisson’s ratio range: numerical and experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. J.; Scarpa, F.; Farrow, I. R.; Liu, Y. J.; Leng, J. S.

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the manufacturing, characterization and parametric modeling of a novel fiber-reinforced composite flexible skin with in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio (auxetic) behavior. The elastic mechanical performance of the auxetic skin is evaluated using a three-dimensional analytical model based on the classical laminate theory (CLT) and Sun’s thick laminate theory. Good agreement is observed between in-plane Poisson’s ratios and Young’s moduli of the composite skin obtained by the theoretical model and the experimental results. A parametric analysis carried out with the validated model shows that significant changes in the in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio can be achieved through different combinations of matrix and fiber materials and stacking sequences. It is also possible to identify fiber-reinforced composite skin configurations with the same in-plane auxeticity but different orthotropic stiffness performance, or the same orthotropic stiffness performance but different in-plane auxeticity. The analysis presented in this work provides useful guidelines to develop and manufacture flexible skins with negative Poisson’s ratio for applications focused on morphing aircraft wing designs.

  18. Composite flexible skin with large negative Poisson’s ratio range: numerical and experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y J; Leng, J S; Scarpa, F; Farrow, I R; Liu, Y J

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the manufacturing, characterization and parametric modeling of a novel fiber-reinforced composite flexible skin with in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio (auxetic) behavior. The elastic mechanical performance of the auxetic skin is evaluated using a three-dimensional analytical model based on the classical laminate theory (CLT) and Sun’s thick laminate theory. Good agreement is observed between in-plane Poisson’s ratios and Young’s moduli of the composite skin obtained by the theoretical model and the experimental results. A parametric analysis carried out with the validated model shows that significant changes in the in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio can be achieved through different combinations of matrix and fiber materials and stacking sequences. It is also possible to identify fiber-reinforced composite skin configurations with the same in-plane auxeticity but different orthotropic stiffness performance, or the same orthotropic stiffness performance but different in-plane auxeticity. The analysis presented in this work provides useful guidelines to develop and manufacture flexible skins with negative Poisson’s ratio for applications focused on morphing aircraft wing designs. (paper)

  19. [Perinatal bioethics: euthanasia or end-of-life decisions? Analysis of the Groningen Protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halac, Jacobo; Halac, Eduardo; Moya, Martín P; Olmas, José M; Dopazo, Silvina L; Dolagaray, Nora

    2009-12-01

    The so called "Groningen Protocol" was conceived as a framework to discuss the euthanasia in neonates. Originally, it presents three groups of babies who might be candidates to this option. We analyzed the protocol in its original context and that of the Dutch society in which it was created. The analysis started with a careful reading of the protocol in both English and Dutch versions, translated later into Spanish. The medical and nursing staff participated in discussing it. A final consensus was reached. The Institutional Ethics Committee at our hospital discussed it freely and made recommendations for its application as a guideline to honestly discuss with parents the clinical condition of their babies, without permitting the option included literally in the word euthanasia. We selected four extremely ill infants. Their parents were interviewed at least twice daily: three stages were identified: the initial one of promoting all possible treatments; a second one of guarded and cautious request for the staff to evaluate "suffering", and a last one where requests were made to reduce therapeutic efforts to provide dignified death. A week after the death of their infants, they were presented with the facts of the protocol and the limits of our legal system. In all four cases the parents suggested that they would have chosen ending the life of their infants, in order to avoid them undue suffering. They clearly pointed out that this option emerged as a viable one to them once the ultimate outcome was evident. The protocol must not be viewed as a guideline for euthanasia in newborns, but rather as a mean to discuss the critical condition of an infant with the parents. Its direct implementation in our setting remains difficult. As a clear limitation for its overall application remains the definition of what is considered "unbearable suffering" in newborns, and how to certify when the infant has "no prospect". We emphasize the benefits of securing the help of the Ethics

  20. Determination of the Geographical Origin of All Commercial Hake Species by Stable Isotope Ratio (SIR) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Mónica; Gallardo, José M

    2017-02-08

    The determination of the geographical origin of food products is relevant to comply with the legal regulations of traceability, to avoid food fraud, and to guarantee food quality and safety to the consumers. For these reasons, stable isotope ratio (SIR) analysis using an isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) instrument is one of the most useful techniques for evaluating food traceability and authenticity. The present study was aimed to determine, for the first time, the geographical origin for all commercial fish species belonging to the Merlucciidae family using SIR analysis of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N). The specific results enabled their clear classification according to the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) fishing areas, latitude, and geographical origin in the following six different clusters: European, North African, South African, North American, South American, and Australian hake species.

  1. Maintaining high precision of isotope ratio analysis over extended periods of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A

    2009-06-01

    Stable isotope ratios are reliable and long lasting process tracers. In order to compare data from different locations or different sampling times at a high level of precision, a measurement strategy must include reliable traceability to an international stable isotope scale via a reference material (RM). Since these international RMs are available in low quantities only, we have developed our own analysis schemes involving laboratory working RM. In addition, quality assurance RMs are used to control the long-term performance of the delta-value assignments. The analysis schemes allow the construction of quality assurance performance charts over years of operation. In this contribution, the performance of three typical techniques established in IsoLab at the MPI-BGC in Jena is discussed. The techniques are (1) isotope ratio mass spectrometry with an elemental analyser for delta(15)N and delta(13)C analysis of bulk (organic) material, (2) high precision delta(13)C and delta(18)O analysis of CO(2) in clean-air samples, and (3) stable isotope analysis of water samples using a high-temperature reaction with carbon. In addition, reference strategies on a laser ablation system for high spatial resolution delta(13)C analysis in tree rings is exemplified briefly.

  2. Traceability of synthetic drugs by position-specific deuterium isotope ratio analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenna, Elisabetta [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e di Ingegneria Chimica del Politecnico di Milano and Istituto CNR per la Chimica del Riconoscimento Molecolare, Via Mancinelli 7, Milan I-20131 (Italy)], E-mail: elisabetta.brenna@polimi.it; Fronza, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e di Ingegneria Chimica del Politecnico di Milano (Italy) and Instituto CNR per la Chimica del Riconoscimento Molecolare, Via Mancinelli 7, Milan I-20131 (Italy)], E-mail: giovanni.fronza@polimi.it; Fuganti, Claudio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e di Ingegneria Chimica del Politecnico di Milano (Italy) and Istituto CNR per la Chimica del Riconoscimento Molecolare, Via Mancinelli 7, Milan I-20131 (Italy)

    2007-10-10

    Samples of fluoxetine of different origin were submitted to natural abundance {sup 2}H NMR spectroscopy. The deuterium content at the various sites of the molecule was found to depend on its synthetic history. Hints on the synthetic procedure can be obtained by comparison with standard compounds, whose synthesis is known. These preliminary results give an idea of the potential of site-specific isotope ratio analysis in the fight against patent infringement and drug counterfeiting.

  3. Traceability of synthetic drugs by position-specific deuterium isotope ratio analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenna, Elisabetta; Fronza, Giovanni; Fuganti, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Samples of fluoxetine of different origin were submitted to natural abundance 2 H NMR spectroscopy. The deuterium content at the various sites of the molecule was found to depend on its synthetic history. Hints on the synthetic procedure can be obtained by comparison with standard compounds, whose synthesis is known. These preliminary results give an idea of the potential of site-specific isotope ratio analysis in the fight against patent infringement and drug counterfeiting

  4. Analysis on burnup step effect for evaluating reactor criticality and fuel breeding ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saputra, Geby; Purnama, Aditya Rizki; Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi

    2014-01-01

    Criticality condition of the reactors is one of the important factors for evaluating reactor operation and nuclear fuel breeding ratio is another factor to show nuclear fuel sustainability. This study analyzes the effect of burnup steps and cycle operation step for evaluating the criticality condition of the reactor as well as the performance of nuclear fuel breeding or breeding ratio (BR). Burnup step is performed based on a day step analysis which is varied from 10 days up to 800 days and for cycle operation from 1 cycle up to 8 cycles reactor operations. In addition, calculation efficiency based on the variation of computer processors to run the analysis in term of time (time efficiency in the calculation) have been also investigated. Optimization method for reactor design analysis which is used a large fast breeder reactor type as a reference case was performed by adopting an established reactor design code of JOINT-FR. The results show a criticality condition becomes higher for smaller burnup step (day) and for breeding ratio becomes less for smaller burnup step (day). Some nuclides contribute to make better criticality when smaller burnup step due to individul nuclide half-live. Calculation time for different burnup step shows a correlation with the time consuming requirement for more details step calculation, although the consuming time is not directly equivalent with the how many time the burnup time step is divided

  5. Security Analysis of DTN Architecture and Bundle Protocol Specification for Space-Based Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2009-01-01

    A Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) Architecture (Request for Comment, RFC-4838) and Bundle Protocol Specification, RFC-5050, have been proposed for space and terrestrial networks. Additional security specifications have been provided via the Bundle Security Specification (currently a work in progress as an Internet Research Task Force internet-draft) and, for link-layer protocols applicable to Space networks, the Licklider Transport Protocol Security Extensions. This document provides a security analysis of the current DTN RFCs and proposed security related internet drafts with a focus on space-based communication networks, which is a rather restricted subset of DTN networks. Note, the original focus and motivation of DTN work was for the Interplanetary Internet . This document does not address general store-and-forward network overlays, just the current work being done by the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Space Internetworking Services Area (SIS) - DTN working group under the DTN and Bundle umbrellas. However, much of the analysis is relevant to general store-and-forward overlays.

  6. Performance Analysis of a Cluster-Based MAC Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alonso-Zárate

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model to evaluate the non-saturated performance of the Distributed Queuing Medium Access Control Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks (DQMANs in single-hop networks is presented in this paper. DQMAN is comprised of a spontaneous, temporary, and dynamic clustering mechanism integrated with a near-optimum distributed queuing Medium Access Control (MAC protocol. Clustering is executed in a distributed manner using a mechanism inspired by the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF of the IEEE 802.11. Once a station seizes the channel, it becomes the temporary clusterhead of a spontaneous cluster and it coordinates the peer-to-peer communications between the clustermembers. Within each cluster, a near-optimum distributed queuing MAC protocol is executed. The theoretical performance analysis of DQMAN in single-hop networks under non-saturation conditions is presented in this paper. The approach integrates the analysis of the clustering mechanism into the MAC layer model. Up to the knowledge of the authors, this approach is novel in the literature. In addition, the performance of an ad hoc network using DQMAN is compared to that obtained when using the DCF of the IEEE 802.11, as a benchmark reference.

  7. Organ donation in the ICU: A document analysis of institutional policies, protocols, and order sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oczkowski, Simon J W; Centofanti, John E; Durepos, Pamela; Arseneau, Erika; Kelecevic, Julija; Cook, Deborah J; Meade, Maureen O

    2018-04-01

    To better understand how local policies influence organ donation rates. We conducted a document analysis of our ICU organ donation policies, protocols and order sets. We used a systematic search of our institution's policy library to identify documents related to organ donation. We used Mindnode software to create a publication timeline, basic statistics to describe document characteristics, and qualitative content analysis to extract document themes. Documents were retrieved from Hamilton Health Sciences, an academic hospital system with a high volume of organ donation, from database inception to October 2015. We retrieved 12 active organ donation documents, including six protocols, two policies, two order sets, and two unclassified documents, a majority (75%) after the introduction of donation after circulatory death in 2006. Four major themes emerged: organ donation process, quality of care, patient and family-centred care, and the role of the institution. These themes indicate areas where documented institutional standards may be beneficial. Further research is necessary to determine the relationship of local policies, protocols, and order sets to actual organ donation practices, and to identify barriers and facilitators to improving donation rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Rejuvenating Effect in Hot Asphalt Recycling by Mortar Transfer Ratio and Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fusong; Wang, Zipeng; Li, Chao; Xiao, Yue; Wu, Shaopeng; Pan, Pan

    2017-05-24

    Using a rejuvenator to improve the performance of asphalt pavement is an effective and economic way of hot asphalt recycling. This research analyzes the rejuvenating effect on aged asphalt by means of a Mortar Transfer Ratio (MTR) test, which concerns the ratio of asphalt mortar that moves from recycled aggregates (RAP aggregates) to fresh added aggregates when aged asphalt is treated with a regenerating agent and comes into contact with fresh aggregates. The proposed MTR test analyzes the regeneration in terms of the softening degree on aged asphalt when the rejuvenator is applied. The covered area ratio is studied with an image analyzing tool to understand the possibility of mortar transferring from RAP aggregates to fresh aggregates. Additionally, a micro-crack closure test is conducted and observed through a microscope. The repairing ability and diffusion characteristics of micro-cracks can therefore be analyzed. The test results demonstrate that the proposed mortar transfer ratio is a feasible way to evaluate rejuvenator diffusion during hot recycling. The mortar transfer ratio and uncovered area ratio on fresh aggregates are compatible, and can be used to quantify the contribution of the rejuvenator. Within a certain temperature range, the diffusing effect of the rejuvenator is better when the diffusing temperature is higher. The diffusion time of the rejuvenator is optimum when diffusion occurs for 4-8 h. When the rejuvenator is properly applied, the rough and cracking surface can be repaired, resulting in better covered aggregates. The micro-closure analysis visually indicates that rejuvenators can be used to repair the RAP aggregates during hot recycling.

  9. Replication protocol analysis: a method for the study of real-world design thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per; Kovacs, L. B.

    1996-01-01

    ’ is refined into a method called ‘replication protocol analysis’ (RPA), and discussed from a methodological perspective of design research. It is argued that for the study of real-world design thinking this method offers distinct advantages over traditional ‘design protocol analysis’, which seeks to capture......Given the brief of an architectural competition on site planning, and the design awarded the first prize, the first author (trained as an architect but not a participant in the competition) produced a line of reasoning that might have led from brief to design. In the paper, such ‘design replication...... the designer’s authentic line of reasoning. To illustrate how RPA can be used, the site planning case is briefly presented, and part of the replicated line of reasoning analysed. One result of the analysis is a glimpse of a ‘logic of design’; another is an insight which sheds new light on Darke’s classical...

  10. Performance Analysis of an Optical CDMA MAC Protocol With Variable-Size Sliding Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed Aly A.; Shalaby, Hossam M. H.; Abdel-Moety El-Badawy, El-Sayed

    2006-10-01

    A media access control protocol for optical code-division multiple-access packet networks with variable length data traffic is proposed. This protocol exhibits a sliding window with variable size. A model for interference-level fluctuation and an accurate analysis for channel usage are presented. Both multiple-access interference (MAI) and photodetector's shot noise are considered. Both chip-level and correlation receivers are adopted. The system performance is evaluated using a traditional average system throughput and average delay. Finally, in order to enhance the overall performance, error control codes (ECCs) are applied. The results indicate that the performance can be enhanced to reach its peak using the ECC with an optimum number of correctable errors. Furthermore, chip-level receivers are shown to give much higher performance than that of correlation receivers. Also, it has been shown that MAI is the main source of signal degradation.

  11. The awareness and want matrix with adoption gap ratio analysis for e-service diffusion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Te-Hsin

    2011-03-01

    Since the hierarchical stages of a customer purchasing decision or innovation adoption process are interrelated, an analysis of all their stages, including awareness, want, and adoption, in relation to product or service diffusion, is urgently needed. Therefore, this study proposes the use of an awareness and want matrix, together with an adoption gap ratio analysis, to assess the effectiveness of innovation and technology diffusion for e-services. This study also conducts an empirical test on the promotion performance evaluation of 12 e-services promoted by the Taiwanese government.

  12. Analysis of 213 currently used rehabilitation protocols in foot and ankle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Christian G; Grechenig, Stephan; Frankewycz, Borys; Ernstberger, Antonio; Nerlich, Michael; Krutsch, Werner

    2015-10-01

    Fractures of the ankle, hind- and midfoot are amongst the five most common fractures. Besides initial operative or non-operative treatment, rehabilitation of the patients plays a crucial role for fracture union and long term functional outcome. Limited evidence is available with regard to what a rehabilitation regimen should include and what guidelines should be in place for the initial clinical course of these patients. This study therefore investigated the current rehabilitation concepts after fractures of the ankle, hind- and midfoot. Written rehabilitation protocols provided by orthopedic and trauma surgery institutions in terms of recommendations for weight bearing, range of motion (ROM), physiotherapy and choice of orthosis were screened and analysed. All protocols for lateral ankle fractures type AO 44A1, AO 44B1 and AO 44C1, for calcaneal fractures and fractures of the metatarsal as well as other not specific were included. Descriptive analysis was carried out and statistical analysis applied where appropriate. 209 rehabilitation protocols for ankle fractures type AO 44B1 and AO 44C1, 98 for AO 44A1, 193 for metatarsal fractures, 142 for calcaneal fractures, 107 for 5(th) metatarsal base fractures and 70 for 5(th) metatarsal Jones fractures were evaluated. The mean time recommended for orthosis treatment was 6.04 (SD 0.04) weeks. While the majority of protocols showed a trend towards increased weight bearing and increased ROM over time, the best consensus was noted for weight bearing recommendations. Our study shows that there exists a huge variability in rehabilitation of fractures of the ankle-, hind- and midfoot. This may be contributed to a lack of consensus (e.g. missing publication of guidelines), individualized patient care (e.g. in fragility fractures) or lack of specialization. This study might serve as basis for prospective randomized controlled trials in order to optimize rehabilitation for these common fractures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  13. [Quantitative Analysis of Heavy Metals in Water with LIBS Based on Signal-to-Background Ratio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li; Zhao, Nan-jing; Liu, Wen-qing; Fang, Li; Zhang, Da-hai; Wang, Yin; Meng, De Shuo; Yu, Yang; Ma, Ming-jun

    2015-07-01

    There are many influence factors in the precision and accuracy of the quantitative analysis with LIBS technology. According to approximately the same characteristics trend of background spectrum and characteristic spectrum along with the change of temperature through in-depth analysis, signal-to-background ratio (S/B) measurement and regression analysis could compensate the spectral line intensity changes caused by system parameters such as laser power, spectral efficiency of receiving. Because the measurement dates were limited and nonlinear, we used support vector machine (SVM) for regression algorithm. The experimental results showed that the method could improve the stability and the accuracy of quantitative analysis of LIBS, and the relative standard deviation and average relative error of test set respectively were 4.7% and 9.5%. Data fitting method based on signal-to-background ratio(S/B) is Less susceptible to matrix elements and background spectrum etc, and provides data processing reference for real-time online LIBS quantitative analysis technology.

  14. TH-C-18A-08: A Management Tool for CT Dose Monitoring, Analysis, and Protocol Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J; Chan, F; Newman, B; Larson, D; Leung, A; Fleischmann, D; Molvin, L; Marsh, D; Zorich, C; Phillips, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a customizable tool for enterprise-wide managing of CT protocols and analyzing radiation dose information of CT exams for a variety of quality control applications Methods: All clinical CT protocols implemented on the 11 CT scanners at our institution were extracted in digital format. The original protocols had been preset by our CT management team. A commercial CT dose tracking software (DoseWatch,GE healthcare,WI) was used to collect exam information (exam date, patient age etc.), scanning parameters, and radiation doses for all CT exams. We developed a Matlab-based program (MathWorks,MA) with graphic user interface which allows to analyze the scanning protocols with the actual dose estimates, and compare the data to national (ACR,AAPM) and internal reference values for CT quality control. Results: The CT protocol review portion of our tool allows the user to look up the scanning and image reconstruction parameters of any protocol on any of the installed CT systems among about 120 protocols per scanner. In the dose analysis tool, dose information of all CT exams (from 05/2013 to 02/2014) was stratified on a protocol level, and within a protocol down to series level, i.e. each individual exposure event. This allows numerical and graphical review of dose information of any combination of scanner models, protocols and series. The key functions of the tool include: statistics of CTDI, DLP and SSDE, dose monitoring using user-set CTDI/DLP/SSDE thresholds, look-up of any CT exam dose data, and CT protocol review. Conclusion: our inhouse CT management tool provides radiologists, technologists and administration a first-hand near real-time enterprise-wide knowledge on CT dose levels of different exam types. Medical physicists use this tool to manage CT protocols, compare and optimize dose levels across different scanner models. It provides technologists feedback on CT scanning operation, and knowledge on important dose baselines and thresholds

  15. The Measurement of Fuel-Air Ratio by Analysis for the Oxidized Exhaust Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold C.; Meem, J. Lawrence, Jr.

    1943-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine a method of measuring fuel-air ratio that could be used for test purposes in flight and for checking conventional equipment in the laboratory. Two single-cylinder test engines equipped with typical commercial engine cylinders were used. The fuel-air ratio of the mixture delivered to the engines was determined by direct measurement of the quantity of air and of fuel supplied and also by analysis of the oxidized exhaust gas and of the normal exhaust gas. Five fuels were used: gasoline that complied with Army-Navy fuel Specification No. AN-VV-F-781 and four mixtures of this gasoline with toluene, benzene, and xylene. The method of determining the fuel-air ratio described in this report involves the measurement of the carbon-dioxide content of the oxidized exhaust gas and the use of graphs for the presented equation. This method is considered useful in aircraft, in the field, or in the laboratory for a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.047 to 0.124.

  16. The Measurement of Fuel-air Ratio by Analysis of the Oxidized Exhaust Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memm, J. Lawrence, Jr.

    1943-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine a method of measuring fuel-air ratio that could be used for test purposes in flight and for checking conventional equipment in the laboratory. Two single-cylinder test engines equipped with typical commercial engine cylinders were used. The fuel-air ratio of the mixture delivered to the engines was determined by direct measurement of the quantity of air and of fuel supplied and also by analysis of the oxidized exhaust gas and of the normal exhaust gas. Five fuels were used: gasoline that complied with Army-Navy Fuel Specification, No. AN-VV-F-781 and four mixtures of this gasoline with toluene, benzene, and xylene. The method of determining the fuel-air ratio described in this report involves the measurement of the carbon-dioxide content of the oxidized exhaust gas and the use of graphs or the presented equation. This method is considered useful in aircraft, in the field, or in the laboratory for a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.047 to 0.124

  17. Ratio analysis and Piotroski scoring system in the automobile industry in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morana Mesarić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To gain insight into operational efficiency, sustainable profitability, the ability to fulfil commitments, use of funds borrowed or investment risk or operational self-sufficiency, it is necessary to conduct analyses of financial statements usually known as ratio analysis. The paper provides analyses of five Croatian general distributors of the automobile industry. Ratios used in the analyses are those used in the Piotroski f-scoring analyses, which are famous for assessing financial capacities of enterprises on the stock exchange market. Based on ratios used in Piotroski scoring systems the assessment of five enterprises, as well as the sector as a whole was carried out. The analysis covers the period 2007-2012. That is the period of the rise, falling and recovery of the automotive industry throughout the world as well as the rise, falling and recession of the whole economy including the automobile market. In general, the sector itself is financially unstable and consequently risk exposed. Results are used for preliminary analyses and prediction of the future financial strength of the auto industry in Croatia.

  18. Steady state likelihood ratio sensitivity analysis for stiff kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, M; Vlachos, D G

    2015-01-28

    Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation is an integral tool in the study of complex physical phenomena present in applications ranging from heterogeneous catalysis to biological systems to crystal growth and atmospheric sciences. Sensitivity analysis is useful for identifying important parameters and rate-determining steps, but the finite-difference application of sensitivity analysis is computationally demanding. Techniques based on the likelihood ratio method reduce the computational cost of sensitivity analysis by obtaining all gradient information in a single run. However, we show that disparity in time scales of microscopic events, which is ubiquitous in real systems, introduces drastic statistical noise into derivative estimates for parameters affecting the fast events. In this work, the steady-state likelihood ratio sensitivity analysis is extended to singularly perturbed systems by invoking partial equilibration for fast reactions, that is, by working on the fast and slow manifolds of the chemistry. Derivatives on each time scale are computed independently and combined to the desired sensitivity coefficients to considerably reduce the noise in derivative estimates for stiff systems. The approach is demonstrated in an analytically solvable linear system.

  19. Two-step estimation in ratio-of-mediator-probability weighted causal mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bein, Edward; Deutsch, Jonah; Hong, Guanglei; Porter, Kristin E; Qin, Xu; Yang, Cheng

    2018-04-15

    This study investigates appropriate estimation of estimator variability in the context of causal mediation analysis that employs propensity score-based weighting. Such an analysis decomposes the total effect of a treatment on the outcome into an indirect effect transmitted through a focal mediator and a direct effect bypassing the mediator. Ratio-of-mediator-probability weighting estimates these causal effects by adjusting for the confounding impact of a large number of pretreatment covariates through propensity score-based weighting. In step 1, a propensity score model is estimated. In step 2, the causal effects of interest are estimated using weights derived from the prior step's regression coefficient estimates. Statistical inferences obtained from this 2-step estimation procedure are potentially problematic if the estimated standard errors of the causal effect estimates do not reflect the sampling uncertainty in the estimation of the weights. This study extends to ratio-of-mediator-probability weighting analysis a solution to the 2-step estimation problem by stacking the score functions from both steps. We derive the asymptotic variance-covariance matrix for the indirect effect and direct effect 2-step estimators, provide simulation results, and illustrate with an application study. Our simulation results indicate that the sampling uncertainty in the estimated weights should not be ignored. The standard error estimation using the stacking procedure offers a viable alternative to bootstrap standard error estimation. We discuss broad implications of this approach for causal analysis involving propensity score-based weighting. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Analysis of Large-Strain Extrusion Machining with Different Chip Compression Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jun Deng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-Strain Extrusion Machining (LSEM is a novel-introduced process for deforming materials to very high plastic strains to produce ultra-fine nanostructured materials. Before the technique can be exploited, it is important to understand the deformation behavior of the workpiece and its relationship to the machining parameters and friction conditions. This paper reports finite-element method (FEM analysis of the LSEM process to understand the evolution of temperature field, effective strain, and strain rate under different chip compression ratios. The cutting and thrust forces are also analyzed with respect to time. The results show that LSEM can produce very high strains by changing in the value of chip compression ratio, thereby enabling the production of nanostructured materials. The shape of the chip produced by LSEM can also be geometrically well constrained.

  1. Practical guidance for conducting mediation analysis with multiple mediators using inverse odds ratio weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh C; Osypuk, Theresa L; Schmidt, Nicole M; Glymour, M Maria; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J

    2015-03-01

    Despite the recent flourishing of mediation analysis techniques, many modern approaches are difficult to implement or applicable to only a restricted range of regression models. This report provides practical guidance for implementing a new technique utilizing inverse odds ratio weighting (IORW) to estimate natural direct and indirect effects for mediation analyses. IORW takes advantage of the odds ratio's invariance property and condenses information on the odds ratio for the relationship between the exposure (treatment) and multiple mediators, conditional on covariates, by regressing exposure on mediators and covariates. The inverse of the covariate-adjusted exposure-mediator odds ratio association is used to weight the primary analytical regression of the outcome on treatment. The treatment coefficient in such a weighted regression estimates the natural direct effect of treatment on the outcome, and indirect effects are identified by subtracting direct effects from total effects. Weighting renders treatment and mediators independent, thereby deactivating indirect pathways of the mediators. This new mediation technique accommodates multiple discrete or continuous mediators. IORW is easily implemented and is appropriate for any standard regression model, including quantile regression and survival analysis. An empirical example is given using data from the Moving to Opportunity (1994-2002) experiment, testing whether neighborhood context mediated the effects of a housing voucher program on obesity. Relevant Stata code (StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas) is provided. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Prognostic value of pretreatment albumin/globulin ratio in digestive system cancers: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui-Wen; Yuan, Tang-Zhan; Chen, Jia-Xi; Zheng, Yang

    2018-01-01

    The albumin/globulin ratio (AGR) has been widely reported to be a potential predictor of prognosis in digestive system cancers (DSCs), but convincing conclusions have not been made. Therefore, herein, we performed a meta-analysis of relevant studies regarding this topic to evaluate the prognostic value of AGR in patients with DSCs. Three databases, including PubMed, EMBase, and Web of science, were searched comprehensively for eligible studies through September 8, 2017. The outcomes of interest included overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS). In our meta-analysis, pooled analysis of 13 studies with 9269 patients showed that a low AGR was significantly correlated with poor OS (HR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.57-2.38; P digestive system cancers. A low pretreatment AGR may be a useful predictive prognostic biomarker in human digestive system cancers.

  3. Directional ratio based on parabolic molecules and its application to the analysis of tubular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labate, Demetrio; Negi, Pooran; Ozcan, Burcin; Papadakis, Manos

    2015-09-01

    As advances in imaging technologies make more and more data available for biomedical applications, there is an increasing need to develop efficient quantitative algorithms for the analysis and processing of imaging data. In this paper, we introduce an innovative multiscale approach called Directional Ratio which is especially effective to distingush isotropic from anisotropic structures. This task is especially useful in the analysis of images of neurons, the main units of the nervous systems which consist of a main cell body called the soma and many elongated processes called neurites. We analyze the theoretical properties of our method on idealized models of neurons and develop a numerical implementation of this approach for analysis of fluorescent images of cultured neurons. We show that this algorithm is very effective for the detection of somas and the extraction of neurites in images of small circuits of neurons.

  4. Likelihood ratio meta-analysis: New motivation and approach for an old method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormuth, Colin R; Filion, Kristian B; Platt, Robert W

    2016-03-01

    A 95% confidence interval (CI) in an updated meta-analysis may not have the expected 95% coverage. If a meta-analysis is simply updated with additional data, then the resulting 95% CI will be wrong because it will not have accounted for the fact that the earlier meta-analysis failed or succeeded to exclude the null. This situation can be avoided by using the likelihood ratio (LR) as a measure of evidence that does not depend on type-1 error. We show how an LR-based approach, first advanced by Goodman, can be used in a meta-analysis to pool data from separate studies to quantitatively assess where the total evidence points. The method works by estimating the log-likelihood ratio (LogLR) function from each study. Those functions are then summed to obtain a combined function, which is then used to retrieve the total effect estimate, and a corresponding 'intrinsic' confidence interval. Using as illustrations the CAPRIE trial of clopidogrel versus aspirin in the prevention of ischemic events, and our own meta-analysis of higher potency statins and the risk of acute kidney injury, we show that the LR-based method yields the same point estimate as the traditional analysis, but with an intrinsic confidence interval that is appropriately wider than the traditional 95% CI. The LR-based method can be used to conduct both fixed effect and random effects meta-analyses, it can be applied to old and new meta-analyses alike, and results can be presented in a format that is familiar to a meta-analytic audience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prognostic roles of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio in ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis of retrospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhe; Zhao, Xinrui; Lu, Jingjing; Xue, Jing; Liu, Peishu; Mao, Hongluan

    2018-04-01

    The systemic inflammatory response markers have been reported to be associated with the prognosis of various cancers. We conducted this meta-analysis of retrospective studies to evaluate and identify the prognostic impact of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) on ovarian cancer. PubMed, EMBASE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were included to search for eligible studies. The following terms were used: "neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio", "NLR", "platelet to lymphocyte ratio", "PLR", "ovarian cancer", "ovary cancer", "ovarian carcinoma", "ovary carcinoma", "ovarian neoplasm", "ovary neoplasm", "ovarian tumor", and "ovary tumor". The random-effects model was chosen to estimate the pooled HR with 95% CI. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by Higgins I 2 value. The stability and heterogeneity of studies were analyzed by sensitivity analysis. Publication bias was examined by Egger's test and Begg's test with the funnel plots. 13 studies consisting of 3467 patients were considered for meta-analysis. We found that the high NLR had a poor prognostic impact on OS and PFS in ovarian cancer, with a pooled HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.35-2.15 and HR 1.77, 95% CI 1.48-2.12, respectively. Similarly, the results showed the high PLR adversely affected OS and PFS in ovarian cancer, with a pooled HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.70-2.48 and HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.53-2.25, respectively. In conclusion, we found that both NLR and PLR had an unfavorable impact on PFS and OS of patients with ovarian cancer. Our meta-analysis supported that NLR/PLR could be effective prognostic predictors of ovarian cancer.

  6. Prognostic value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio in acute pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Ma, Junfen; Jiang, Zhiyun; Ming, Liang

    2018-02-01

    Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been reported to predict prognosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the prognostic value of NLR and PLR remained inconsistent between studies. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the prognostic role of NLR and PLR in acute PE. We systematically searched Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science and CNKI for relative literature up to March 2017. The pooled statistics for all outcomes were expressed as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The statistical analyses were performed using Review Manager 5.3.5 analysis software and Stata software. Totally 7 eligible studies consisting of 2323 patients were enrolled in our meta-analysis. Elevated NLR was significantly associated with overall (short-term and long-term) mortality (OR 10.13, 95% CI 6.57-15.64, Panalysis revealed that NLR and PLR are promising biomarkers in predicting prognosis in acute PE patients. We suggest NLR and PLR be used routinely in the PE prognostic assessment.

  7. A fresh look at the freeze-all protocol: a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockeel, Christophe; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Santos-Ribeiro, Samuel; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Tournaye, Herman

    2016-03-01

    The 'freeze-all' strategy with the segmentation of IVF treatment, namely with the use of a GnRH antagonist protocol, GnRH agonist triggering, the elective cryopreservation of all embryos by vitrification and a frozen-thawed embryo transfer in a subsequent cycle, has become more popular. However, the approach still encounters drawbacks. In this opinion paper, a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis sheds light on the different aspects of this strategy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Isotope ratio analysis by a combination of element analyzer and mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichlmayer, F.

    1987-06-01

    The use of stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur as analytical tool in many fields of research is of growing interest. A method has therefore been developed, consisting in essential of coupling an Elemental Analyzer with an Isotope Mass Spectrometer, which enables the gas preparation of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and sulfur dioxide from any solid or liquid sample in a fast and easy way. Results of carbon isotope measurements in food analysis are presented, whereat it is possible to check origin and treatment of sugar, oils, fats, mineral waters, spirituous liquors etc. and to detect adulterations as well. Also applications in the field of environmental research are given. (Author)

  9. Design and Analysis of an Enhanced Patient-Server Mutual Authentication Protocol for Telecare Medical Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ruhul; Islam, S K Hafizul; Biswas, G P; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Obaidat, Mohammad S

    2015-11-01

    In order to access remote medical server, generally the patients utilize smart card to login to the server. It has been observed that most of the user (patient) authentication protocols suffer from smart card stolen attack that means the attacker can mount several common attacks after extracting smart card information. Recently, Lu et al.'s proposes a session key agreement protocol between the patient and remote medical server and claims that the same protocol is secure against relevant security attacks. However, this paper presents several security attacks on Lu et al.'s protocol such as identity trace attack, new smart card issue attack, patient impersonation attack and medical server impersonation attack. In order to fix the mentioned security pitfalls including smart card stolen attack, this paper proposes an efficient remote mutual authentication protocol using smart card. We have then simulated the proposed protocol using widely-accepted AVISPA simulation tool whose results make certain that the same protocol is secure against active and passive attacks including replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. Moreover, the rigorous security analysis proves that the proposed protocol provides strong security protection on the relevant security attacks including smart card stolen attack. We compare the proposed scheme with several related schemes in terms of computation cost and communication cost as well as security functionalities. It has been observed that the proposed scheme is comparatively better than related existing schemes.

  10. Establishing a protocol for element determination in human nail clippings by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanches, Thalita Pinheiro; Saiki, Mitiko

    2011-01-01

    Human nail samples have been analyzed to evaluate occupational exposure, nutritional status and to diagnose certain diseases. However, sampling and washing protocols for nail analyses vary from study to study not allowing comparisons between studies. One of the difficulties in analyzing nail samples is to eliminate only surface contamination without removing elements of interest in this tissue. In the present study, a protocol was defined in order to obtain reliable results of element concentrations in human nail clippings. Nail clippings collected from all 10 fingers or toes were previously pre cleaned using an ethyl alcohol solution to eliminate microbes. Then, the clippings were cut in small pieces and submitted to different reagents for washing by shaking. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied for nail samples analysis which consisted of irradiating aliquots of samples together with synthetic elemental standards in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor followed by gamma ray spectrometry. Comparisons made between the results obtained for nails submitted to different reagents for cleaning indicated that the procedure using acetone and Triton X100 solution is more effective than that of nitric acid solution. Analyses in triplicates of a nail sample indicated results with relative standard deviations lower than 15% for most of elements, showing the homogeneity of the prepared sample. Qualitative analyses of different nail polishes showed that the presence of elements determined in the present study is negligible in these products. Quality control of the analytical results indicated that the applied NAA procedure is adequate for human nail analysis. (author)

  11. Monthly analysis of PM ratio characteristics and its relation to AOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; Broday, David M; Chatfield, Robert; Esswein, Robert; Stafoggia, Massimo; Lepeule, Johanna; Lyapustin, Alexei; Kloog, Itai

    2017-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) is derived from diverse sources-natural and anthropogenic. Climate change processes and remote sensing measurements are affected by the PM properties, which are often lumped into homogeneous size fractions that show spatiotemporal variation. Since different sources are attributed to different geographic locations and show specific spatial and temporal PM patterns, we explored the spatiotemporal characteristics of the PM 2.5 /PM 10 ratio in different areas. Furthermore, we examined the statistical relationships between AERONET aerosol optical depth (AOD) products, satellite-based AOD, and the PM ratio, as well as the specific PM size fractions. PM data from the northeastern United States, from San Joaquin Valley, CA, and from Italy, Israel, and France were analyzed, as well as the spatial and temporal co-measured AOD products obtained from the MultiAngle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm. Our results suggest that when both the AERONET AOD and the AERONET fine-mode AOD are available, the AERONET AOD ratio can be a fair proxy for the ground PM ratio. Therefore, we recommend incorporating the fine-mode AERONET AOD in the calibration of MAIAC. Along with a relatively large variation in the observed PM ratio (especially in the northeastern United States), this shows the need to revisit MAIAC assumptions on aerosol microphysical properties, and perhaps their seasonal variability, which are used to generate the look-up tables and conduct aerosol retrievals. Our results call for further scrutiny of satellite-borne AOD, in particular its errors, limitations, and relation to the vertical aerosol profile and the particle size, shape, and composition distribution. This work is one step of the required analyses to gain better understanding of what the satellite-based AOD represents. The analysis results recommend incorporating the fine-mode AERONET AOD in MAIAC calibration. Specifically, they indicate the need to revisit

  12. The Prognostic Role of the Platelet-Lymphocytes Ratio in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengshui Xu

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory parameters, such as the elevator PLR (platelet-lymphocyte ratio, the NLR (neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and the platelet count (PLT, have been found to be associated with the prognosis in gastric cancer; however, these results, especially those relating to the PLR, remain inconsistent. So we aimed to evaluate the prognostic role of the PLR in gastric cancer by conducting and presenting the findings of this meta-analysis.We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library to evaluate the prognostic value of the PLR in gastric cancer. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using the Newcastle Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS. The hazard ratio (HR /Odds Ratio (OR and its 95% confidence were pooled using a random effects model. A funnel plot based on overall survival was used to evaluate the publication bias.It total, 8 studies comprising 4513 patients with gastric cancer met the pre-setting inclusion criteria. In comparison to the normal PLR, an elevated PLR was correlated with a higher risk of lymph node metastasis with an OR of 1.50 (95% Cl:1.24-1.82; I2 = 17% and serosal invasion (T3 +T4 risk with an OR of 2.01 (95% Cl: 1.49-2.73; I2 = 55%, and an elevated PLR also increased the advanced stage (III +IV risk with an OR of 1.99 (95% Cl: 1.60-2.46; I2 = 28%. An elevated PLR was not a reliable predictor for OS with an HR of 0.99 (95% CI: 0.9-1.1; I2 = 12%.An elevated PLR was correlated with a higher risk of lymph node metastasis, serosal invasion and advanced stage (III +IV risk in gastric cancer; however, the PLR may not act as a negative predictor for the overall survival of gastric cancer.

  13. Studies on the instrumental neutron activation analysis by cadmium ratio method and pair comparator method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, H E; Lu, W D; Wu, S C

    1977-12-01

    The cadmium ratio method and pair comparator method provide a solution for the effects on the effective activation factors resulting from the variation of neutron spectrum at different irradiation positions as usually encountered in the single comparator method. The relations between the activation factors and neutron spectrum in terms of cadmium ratio of the comparator Au or of the activation factor of Co-Au pair for the elements, Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, La, Ce, Sm, and Th have been determined. The activation factors of the elements at any irradiation position can then be obtained from the cadmium ratio of the comparator and/or the activation factor of the comparator pair. The relations determined should be able to apply to different reactors and/or different positions of a reactor. It is shown that, for the isotopes /sup 46/Sc, /sup 51/Cr, /sup 56/Mn, /sup 60/Co, /sup 140/La, /sup 141/Ce, /sup 153/Sm and /sup 233/Pa, the thermal neutron activation factors determined by these two methods were generally in agreement with theoretical values. Their I/sub 0//sigma/sub th/ values appeared to agree with literature values also. The methods were applied to determine the contents of elements Sc, Cr, Mn, La, Ce, Sm, and Th in U.S.G.S. Standard Rock G-2, and the results were also in agreement with literature values. The cadmium ratio method and pair comparator method improved the single comparator method, and they are more suitable to analysis for multi-elements of a large number of samples.

  14. Comprehensive protocol of traceability during IVF: the result of a multicentre failure mode and effect analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzi, L; Bariani, F; Dalla Zorza, M; Albani, E; Benini, F; Chamayou, S; Minasi, M G; Parmegiani, L; Restelli, L; Vizziello, G; Costa, A Nanni

    2017-08-01

    Can traceability of gametes and embryos be ensured during IVF? The use of a simple and comprehensive traceability system that includes the most susceptible phases during the IVF process minimizes the risk of mismatches. Mismatches in IVF are very rare but unfortunately possible with dramatic consequences for both patients and health care professionals. Traceability is thus a fundamental aspect of the treatment. A clear process of patient and cell identification involving witnessing protocols has to be in place in every unit. To identify potential failures in the traceability process and to develop strategies to mitigate the risk of mismatches, previously failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) has been used effectively. The FMEA approach is however a subjective analysis, strictly related to specific protocols and thus the results are not always widely applicable. To reduce subjectivity and to obtain a widespread comprehensive protocol of traceability, a multicentre centrally coordinated FMEA was performed. Seven representative Italian centres (three public and four private) were selected. The study had a duration of 21 months (from April 2015 to December 2016) and was centrally coordinated by a team of experts: a risk analysis specialist, an expert embryologist and a specialist in human factor. Principal investigators of each centre were first instructed about proactive risk assessment and FMEA methodology. A multidisciplinary team to perform the FMEA analysis was then formed in each centre. After mapping the traceability process, each team identified the possible causes of mistakes in their protocol. A risk priority number (RPN) for each identified potential failure mode was calculated. The results of the FMEA analyses were centrally investigated and consistent corrective measures suggested. The teams performed new FMEA analyses after the recommended implementations. In each centre, this study involved: the laboratory director, the Quality Control & Quality

  15. Quantitative assessment of in-solution digestion efficiency identifies optimal protocols for unbiased protein analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leon, Ileana R; Schwämmle, Veit; Jensen, Ole N

    2013-01-01

    a combination of qualitative and quantitative LC-MS/MS methods and statistical data analysis. In contrast to previous studies we employed both standard qualitative as well as data-independent quantitative workflows to systematically assess trypsin digestion efficiency and bias using mitochondrial protein...... conditions (buffer, RapiGest, deoxycholate, urea), and two methods for removal of detergents prior to analysis of peptides (acid precipitation or phase separation with ethyl acetate). Our data-independent quantitative LC-MS/MS workflow quantified over 3700 distinct peptides with 96% completeness between all...... protocols and replicates, with an average 40% protein sequence coverage and an average of 11 peptides identified per protein. Systematic quantitative and statistical analysis of physicochemical parameters demonstrated that deoxycholate-assisted in-solution digestion combined with phase transfer allows...

  16. Integrating usability testing and think-aloud protocol analysis with "near-live" clinical simulations in evaluating clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alice C; Kannry, Joseph L; Kushniruk, Andre; Chrimes, Dillon; McGinn, Thomas G; Edonyabo, Daniel; Mann, Devin M

    2012-11-01

    Usability evaluations can improve the usability and workflow integration of clinical decision support (CDS). Traditional usability testing using scripted scenarios with think-aloud protocol analysis provide a useful but incomplete assessment of how new CDS tools interact with users and clinical workflow. "Near-live" clinical simulations are a newer usability evaluation tool that more closely mimics clinical workflow and that allows for a complementary evaluation of CDS usability as well as impact on workflow. This study employed two phases of testing a new CDS tool that embedded clinical prediction rules (an evidence-based medicine tool) into primary care workflow within a commercial electronic health record. Phase I applied usability testing involving "think-aloud" protocol analysis of 8 primary care providers encountering several scripted clinical scenarios. Phase II used "near-live" clinical simulations of 8 providers interacting with video clips of standardized trained patient actors enacting the clinical scenario. In both phases, all sessions were audiotaped and had screen-capture software activated for onscreen recordings. Transcripts were coded using qualitative analysis methods. In Phase I, the impact of the CDS on navigation and workflow were associated with the largest volume of negative comments (accounting for over 90% of user raised issues) while the overall usability and the content of the CDS were associated with the most positive comments. However, usability had a positive-to-negative comment ratio of only 0.93 reflecting mixed perceptions about the usability of the CDS. In Phase II, the duration of encounters with simulated patients was approximately 12 min with 71% of the clinical prediction rules being activated after half of the visit had already elapsed. Upon activation, providers accepted the CDS tool pathway 82% of times offered and completed all of its elements in 53% of all simulation cases. Only 12.2% of encounter time was spent using the

  17. Source Attribution of Cyanides using Anionic Impurity Profiling, Stable Isotope Ratios, Trace Elemental Analysis and Chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirjankar, Nikhil S.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Carman, April J.; Moran, James J.

    2016-01-08

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) for chemical threat agents (CTAs) are being investigated to provide an evidentiary link between CTAs and specific sources to support criminal investigations and prosecutions. In a previous study, anionic impurity profiles developed using high performance ion chromatography (HPIC) were demonstrated as CAS for matching samples from eight potassium cyanide (KCN) stocks to their reported countries of origin. Herein, a larger number of solid KCN stocks (n = 13) and, for the first time, solid sodium cyanide (NaCN) stocks (n = 15) were examined to determine what additional sourcing information can be obtained through anion, carbon stable isotope, and elemental analyses of cyanide stocks by HPIC, isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), respectively. The HPIC anion data was evaluated using the variable selection methods of Fisher-ratio (F-ratio), interval partial least squares (iPLS), and genetic algorithm-based partial least squares (GAPLS) and the classification methods of partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLSDA), K nearest neighbors (KNN), and support vector machines discriminate analysis (SVMDA). In summary, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of anion impurity profiles from multiple cyanide stocks from six reported country of origins resulted in cyanide samples clustering into three groups: Czech Republic, Germany, and United States, independent of the associated alkali metal (K or Na). The three country groups were independently corroborated by HCA of cyanide elemental profiles and corresponded to countries with known solid cyanide factories. Both the anion and elemental CAS are believed to originate from the aqueous alkali hydroxides used in cyanide manufacture. Carbon stable isotope measurements resulted in two clusters: Germany and United States (the single Czech stock grouped with United States stocks). The carbon isotope CAS is believed to

  18. ANALYSIS OF RICIN TOXIN PREPARATIONS FOR CARBOHYDRATE AND FATTY ACID ABUNDANCE AND ISOTOPE RATIO INFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Colburn, Heather A.; Moran, James J.; Melville, Angela M.

    2009-12-01

    This report describes method development and preliminary evaluation for analyzing castor samples for signatures of purifying ricin. Ricin purification from the source castor seeds is essentially a problem of protein purification using common biochemical methods. Indications of protein purification will likely manifest themselves as removal of the non-protein fractions of the seed. Two major, non-protein, types of biochemical constituents in the seed are the castor oil and various carbohydrates. The oil comprises roughly half the seed weight while the carbohydrate component comprises roughly half of the remaining “mash” left after oil and hull removal. Different castor oil and carbohydrate components can serve as indicators of specific toxin processing steps. Ricinoleic acid is a relatively unique fatty acid in nature and is the most abundant component of castor oil. The loss of ricinoleic acid indicates a step to remove oil from the seeds. The relative amounts of carbohydrates and carbohydrate-like compounds, including arabinose, xylose, myo-inositol fucose, rhamnose, glucosamine and mannose detected in the sample can also indicate specific processing steps. For instance, the differential loss of arabinose relative to mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine indicates enrichment for the protein fraction of the seed using protein precipitation. The methods developed in this project center on fatty acid and carbohydrate extraction from castor samples followed by derivatization to permit analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Method descriptions herein include: the source and preparation of castor materials used for method evaluation, the equipment and description of procedure required for chemical derivatization, and the instrument parameters used in the analysis. Two types of derivatization methods describe analysis of carbohydrates and one procedure for analysis of fatty acids. Two types of GC-MS analysis is included in the method development, one

  19. Prognostic and clinicopathological significance of platelet to lymphocyte ratio in esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Juhong; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Yue; Peng, Ping; Huang, Yu

    2018-03-01

    The prognostic and clinicopathological significance of the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) has been studied in various cancers. However, studies examining the role of PLR in esophageal cancer have not yielded consistent results. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to study the prognostic and clinicopathological significance of PLR in esophageal cancer patients. We performed a literature search in three major databases: PubMed, Web of Science and Embase (up until May 1, 2017). The clinicopathologic significance of PLR and its prognostic significance were analyzed. Our meta-analysis consisted of 13 studies with 4,621 patients. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) showed that a high PLR was associated with poor survival of esophageal cancer [HR =1.283; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.173-1.404; Panalysis revealed that elevated PLR was associated with poor survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (HR =1.281; 95% CI: 1.098-1.493; P=0.002). The pooled odds ratio (OR) indicated that high PLR was also associated with the depth of tumor invasion (OR =1.543, 95% CI: 1.269-1.876, P<0.001), lymph node metastasis (OR =1.427, 95% CI: 1.195-1.705, P<0.001), tumor length (OR =1.81, 95% CI: 1.331-2.461, P<0.001), and Tumor stage (OR =1.459, 95% CI: 1.235-1.724, P<0.001). Our results demonstrate that elevated PLR was significantly associated with poor prognosis of esophageal cancer. Furthermore, the high PLR might predict worse clinicopathological features of esophageal cancer patients.

  20. Time Series Analysis of Monte Carlo Fission Sources - I: Dominance Ratio Computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Taro; Brown, Forrest B.; Parsons, D. Kent; Warsa, James S.

    2004-01-01

    In the nuclear engineering community, the error propagation of the Monte Carlo fission source distribution through cycles is known to be a linear Markov process when the number of histories per cycle is sufficiently large. In the statistics community, linear Markov processes with linear observation functions are known to have an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) representation of orders p and p - 1. Therefore, one can perform ARMA fitting of the binned Monte Carlo fission source in order to compute physical and statistical quantities relevant to nuclear criticality analysis. In this work, the ARMA fitting of a binary Monte Carlo fission source has been successfully developed as a method to compute the dominance ratio, i.e., the ratio of the second-largest to the largest eigenvalues. The method is free of binning mesh refinement and does not require the alteration of the basic source iteration cycle algorithm. Numerical results are presented for problems with one-group isotropic, two-group linearly anisotropic, and continuous-energy cross sections. Also, a strategy for the analysis of eigenmodes higher than the second-largest eigenvalue is demonstrated numerically

  1. Mixture Analysis and Mammalian Sex Ratio Among Middle Pleistocene Mouflon of Arago Cave, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchot, Hervé

    1999-09-01

    In archaeological studies, it is often important to be able assess sexual dimorphism and sex ratios in populations. Obtaining sex ratio is easy if each individual in the population can be accurately sexed through the use of one more objective variables. But this is often impossible, due to incompleteness of the osteological record. A modern statistical approach to handle this problem is Mixture Analysis using the method of maximum likelihood. It consists of determining how many groups are present in the sample, two in this case, in which proportions they occur, and to estimate the parameters accordingly. This paper shows the use of this method on vertebrate fossil populations in a prehistoric context with implications on prey acquisition by early humans. For instance, the analysis of mouflon bones from Arago cave (Tautavel, France) indicates that there are more females than males in the F layer. According to the ethology of the animal, this indicates that the hunting strategy could be the result of selective choice of the prey. Moreover, we may deduce the presence of Anteneandertalians on the site during spring and summer periods.

  2. Measurement of mercury isotopic ratio in stone meteorites by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    196 Hg and 202 Hg isotopes have been measured by neutron activation analysis in samples of twelve stone meteorites. Hg is extracted from an irradiated sample by stepwise heating. The mercury concentrations vary from 0.07 to 33 ppm. While most of the samples give 196 Hg/ 202 Hg ratios similar to terrestrial value within error limits, in some cases large anomalies are observed. A number of control experiments have been devised, that show the absence of experimental artifacts, during sample preparation, neutron irradiation, chemical separation and counting stages. Several anomalous and normal Hg distillate have been re-irradiated as Hg-diethyl-dithio-carbamate complex to eliminate the influence of neutron self shielding and interfering reactions from matrix elements. The isotopic ratio patterns persist in the distillates too proving that any artifacts during meteorite irradiation and measurement are essentially absent. Both positive and negative anomalies are observed: however, the negative anomalies are much more frequent and abundant. In an extreme case of fine grained magnetic particles of Ambapur Nagla the 196 Hg is apparently absent in the Hg released at 100 deg C. A 2σ 196 Hg/ 202 Hg value is only 6% relative to the monitor. This experiment shows the robustness of neutron activation analysis and suggest some constrains on the formation history of stone meteorites. (author)

  3. Propensity score analysis of recurrence for neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balde, Alpha I; Fang, Suzhen; He, Linyun; Cai, Zhai; Han, Shuai; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Zhou; Kang, Liang

    2017-11-01

    The perioperative serum neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been proposed to predict adverse prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its interpretation remains unclear. The present study aimed to clarify the prognostic value of NLR in predicting survival among CRC patients. A single-centre, retrospective, propensity score-matched study of adenocarcinoma patients who underwent D3 lymphadenectomy via laparoscopic or open surgery between 2010 and 2016 was conducted. A cutoff of 3.5 was used based on the receiver operating characteristic curve. To overcome selection biases, we performed a 1:1 match using six covariates. The high-preoperative NLR group had a higher recurrence rate than the low group (P analysis showed that increased NLR (P analysis showed that N2 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.492; P = 0.008) was an adverse prognostic factor for RFS. Univariate analysis for overall survival (OS) revealed that high perioperative NLR (P = 0.001), N1 (P = 0.01), N2 (P analysis showed that M1 (HR, 3.973; P < 0.001) and N2 (HR, 2.381; P = 0.013) were highly adverse factors for OS. Clinical assessments performed during a 21.14 (±16.20)-mo follow-up revealed that OS (P = 0.001) and RFS (P < 0.001) were worse in the high-perioperative group than in the low group between the matched groups. An elevated preoperative NLR is a strong predictor of worse RFS and OS in CRC patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Does the aldosterone: renin ratio predict the efficacy of spironolactone over bendroflumethiazide in hypertension? A clinical trial protocol for RENALDO (RENin-ALDOsterone study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McInnes Gordon T

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High blood pressure is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. Treated hypertensives do not attain a risk level equivalent to normotensives. This may be a consequence of suboptimal blood pressure control to which indiscriminate use of antihypertensive drugs may contribute. Indeed the recent ALLHAT1study suggests that thiazides should be given first to virtually all hypertensives. Whether this is correct or whether different antihypertensive therapies should be targeted towards different patients is a major unresolved issue, which we address in this study. The measurement of the ratio of aldosterone: renin is used to identify hypertensive subjects who may respond well to treatment with the aldosterone antagonist spironolactone. It is not known if subjects with a high ratio have aldosteronism or aldosterone-sensitive hypertension is debated but it is important to know whether spironolactone is superior to other diuretics such as bendroflumethiazide in this setting. Methods/design The study is a double-blind, randomised, crossover, controlled trial that will randomise 120 hypertensive subjects to 12 weeks treatment with spironolactone 50 mg once daily and 12 weeks treatment with bendroflumethiazide 2.5 mg once daily. The 2 treatment periods are separated by a 2-week washout period. Randomisation is stratified by aldosterone: renin ratio to include equal numbers of subjects with high and low aldosterone: renin ratios. Primary Objective – To test the hypothesis that the aldosterone: renin ratio predicts the antihypertensive response to spironolactone, specifically that the effect of spironolactone 50 mg is greater than that of bendroflumethiazide 2.5 mg in hypertensive subjects with high aldosterone: renin ratios. Secondary Objectives – To determine whether bendroflumethiazide induces adverse metabolic abnormalities, especially in subjects with high aldosterone: renin ratios and if baseline renin measurement

  5. Failure mode and effects analysis of witnessing protocols for ensuring traceability during IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzi, Laura; Bariani, Fiorenza; Dalla Zorza, Michela; Romano, Stefania; Scarica, Catello; Maggiulli, Roberta; Nanni Costa, Alessandro; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria

    2015-10-01

    Traceability of cells during IVF is a fundamental aspect of treatment, and involves witnessing protocols. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a method of identifying real or potential breakdowns in processes, and allows strategies to mitigate risks to be developed. To examine the risks associated with witnessing protocols, an FMEA was carried out in a busy IVF centre, before and after implementation of an electronic witnessing system (EWS). A multidisciplinary team was formed and moderated by human factors specialists. Possible causes of failures, and their potential effects, were identified and risk priority number (RPN) for each failure calculated. A second FMEA analysis was carried out after implementation of an EWS. The IVF team identified seven main process phases, 19 associated process steps and 32 possible failure modes. The highest RPN was 30, confirming the relatively low risk that mismatches may occur in IVF when a manual witnessing system is used. The introduction of the EWS allowed a reduction in the moderate-risk failure mode by two-thirds (highest RPN = 10). In our experience, FMEA is effective in supporting multidisciplinary IVF groups to understand the witnessing process, identifying critical steps and planning changes in practice to enable safety to be enhanced. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of agreement between cardiac risk stratification protocols applied to participants of a center for cardiac rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana A. S. Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Cardiac risk stratification is related to the risk of the occurrence of events induced by exercise. Despite the existence of several protocols to calculate risk stratification, studies indicating that there is similarity between these protocols are still unknown. Objective To evaluate the agreement between the existing protocols on cardiac risk rating in cardiac patients. Method The records of 50 patients from a cardiac rehabilitation program were analyzed, from which the following information was extracted: age, sex, weight, height, clinical diagnosis, medical history, risk factors, associated diseases, and the results from the most recent laboratory and complementary tests performed. This information was used for risk stratification of the patients in the protocols of the American College of Sports Medicine, the Brazilian Society of Cardiology, the American Heart Association, the protocol designed by Frederic J. Pashkow, the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation, the Société Française de Cardiologie, and the Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and the analysis of agreement between the protocols was calculated using the Kappa coefficient. Differences were considered with a significance level of 5%. Results Of the 21 analyses of agreement, 12 were considered significant between the protocols used for risk classification, with nine classified as moderate and three as low. No agreements were classified as excellent. Different proportions were observed in each risk category, with significant differences between the protocols for all risk categories. Conclusion The agreements between the protocols were considered low and moderate and the risk proportions differed between protocols.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of a variable compression ratio diesel engine running with palm oil methyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, Biplab K.; Sahoo, Niranjan; Saha, Ujjwal K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Energy and exergy analysis of palm oil methyl ester (POME) run diesel engine. ► Engine was run at various compression ratios (CRs) and injection timings (ITs). ► POME can recover around 26% of the energy supplied by the fuel. ► CR rise and IT change cause shaft energy per unit fuel supply to increase. ► CR of 18 and IT of 20°BTDC reduce more entropy generation. - Abstract: The present work is set to explore the effect of compression ratio (CR) and injection timing (IT) on energy and exergy potential of a palm oil methyl ester (POME) run diesel engine. Experiments are carried out in a single cylinder, direct injection, water cooled variable compression ratio diesel engine at a constant peed of 1500 rpm under a full load of 4.24 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The study involves four different CRs of 16, 17, 17.5 and 18; and three different ITs of 20°, 23° and 28°BTDC. Here, the CR of 17.5 and IT of 23°BTDC are the standard ones. The energy analysis performed for the experimental data includes shaft power, energy input through fuel, output by cooling water and exhaust, uncounted loss per unit time. Side by side, the effects of varying CR and IT on peak pressure, peak heat release rate, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust gas temperature are also studied. The exergy analysis is carried out for availability input, shaft, cooling water and exhaust availability, availability destruction and entropy generation. It shows that higher values of CR increase the shaft availability and cooling water availability, however, they decrease the exhaust flow availability. The retardation and advancement of IT give similar results. The exergy analysis also shows that with the increase of CR, the injection retardation and advancement increase the shaft availability and exergy efficiency, while it reduces the exergy destruction. The entropy generation is also reduced for the similar CR and IT modifications.

  8. Improvements in Precise and Accurate Isotope Ratio Determination via LA-MC-ICP-MS by Application of an Alternative Data Reduction Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietzke, J.; Liebetrau, V.; Guenther, D.; Frische, M.; Zumholz, K.; Hansteen, T. H.; Eisenhauer, A.

    2008-12-01

    An alternative approach for the evaluation of isotope ratio data using LA-MC-ICP-MS will be presented. In contrast to previously applied methods it is based on the simultaneous responses of all analyte isotopes of interest and the relevant interferences without performing a conventional background correction. Significant improvements in precision and accuracy can be achieved when applying this new method and will be discussed based on the results of two first methodical applications: a) radiogenic and stable Sr isotopes in carbonates b) stable chlorine isotopes of pyrohydrolytic extracts. In carbonates an external reproducibility of the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of about 19 ppm (RSD) was achieved, an improvement of about a factor of 5. For recent and sub-recent marine carbonates a mean radiogenic strontium isotope ratio 87Sr/86Sr of 0.709170±0.000007 (2SE) was determined, which agrees well with the value of 0.7091741±0.0000024 (2SE) reported for modern sea water [1,2]. Stable chlorine isotope ratios were determined ablating pyrohydrolytic extracts with a reproducibility of about 0.05‰ (RSD). For basaltic reference material JB1a and JB2 chlorine isotope ratios were determined relative to SMOC (standard mean ocean chlorinity) δ37ClJB-1a = (-0.99±0.06) ‰ and δ37ClJB-1a = (-0.60±0.03) ‰ (SD), respectively, in accordance with published data [3]. The described strategies for data reduction are considered to be generally applicable for all isotope ratio measurements using LA-MC-ICP-MS. [1] J.M. McArthur, D. Rio, F. Massari, D. Castradori, T.R. Bailey, M. Thirlwall, S. Houghton, Palaeogeo. Palaeoclim. Palaeoeco., 2006, 242 (126), doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.06.004 [2] J. Fietzke, V. Liebetrau, D. Guenther, K. Guers, K. Hametner, K. Zumholz, T.H. Hansteen and A. Eisenhauer, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2008, 23, 955-961, doi:10.1039/B717706B [3] J. Fietzke, M. Frische, T.H. Hansteen and A. Eisenhauer, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2008, 23, 769-772, doi:10.1039/B718597A

  9. Romanian wines characterization with CF-IRMS (Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) isotopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costinel, Diana; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Vremera, Raluca; Stanciu, Vasile

    2007-01-01

    Wine growing has been known for centuries long in Romania. The country has been favored by its geographical position in south-eastern Europe, by its proximity to the Black Sea, as well as by the specificity of the local soil and climate. Alongside France, Italy, Spain, Germany, countries in this area like Romania could also be called 'a vine homeland' in Europe. High quality wines produced in this region were object of trade ever since ancient times. Under current EU research projects, it is necessary to develop new methods of evidencing wine adulteration and safety. The use of mass spectrometry (MS) to determine the ratios of stable isotopes in bio-molecules now provides the means to prove the botanical and geographical origin of a wide variety of foodstuffs - and therefore, to authenticate and eliminate fraud. Isotope analysis has been officially adopted by the EU as a means of controlling adulteration of wine. Adulteration of wine can happen in many ways, e.g. addition of non-grape ethanol, addition of non-grape sugar, water or other unauthorized substances, undeclared mixing of wines from different wards, geographical areas or countries, mislabelling of variety and age. The present paper emphasize the isotopic analysis for D/H, 18 O/ 16 O, 13 C/ 12 C from wines, using a new generation Isotope Ratio MS, Finnigan Delta V Plus, coupling with a three flexible continuous flow preparation device (GasBench II, TC Elemental Analyser and GC-C/TC). Therefore authentication of wines is an important problem to which isotopic analysis has made a significant contribution. (authors)

  10. Prognostic significance of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Wei-Kai; Chen, Dong; Li, Shao-Qiang; Fu, Shun-Jun; Peng, Bao-Gang; Liang, Li-Jian

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has recently been reported as a predictor of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its prognostic value in HCC still remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between NLR and clinical outcome of HCC patients by performing meta-analysis. A comprehensive literature search for relevant studies published up to August 2013 was performed by using PubMed, Ovid, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. Meta-analysis was performed using hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) as effect measures. A total of 15 studies encompassing 3094 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Our pooled results showed that high NLR was associated with poor overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) in HCC initially treated by liver transplantation (HR = 3.42, 95% CI:2.41-4.85,P = 0.000; HR = 5.90, 95% CI:3.99-8.70,P = 0.000, respectively) and surgical resection (HR = 3.33, 95% CI:2.23-4.98, P = 0.000; HR = 2.10, 95% CI: 2.06–2.14, respectively). High NLR was also associated with poor OS in HCC treated by radiofrequency-ablation (HR = 1.28, 95%CI: 1.10-1.48, P = 0.000), TACE (HR = 2.52, 95% CI: 1.64-3.86, P = 0.000) and mixed treatment (HR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.40-2.44, P = 0.000), respectively. In addition, high NLR was significantly correlated with the presence of vascular invasion (OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 2.01–3.59, P = 0.000), tumor multifocality (OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.30–2.34, P = 0.000) and higher incidence of AFP ≥ 400 ng/ml (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.01–2.09, P = 0.04). Elevated NLR indicates a poor prognosis for patients with HCC. NLR may be a convenient, easily-obtained, low cost and reliable biomarker with prognostic potential for HCC

  11. Ratio of geometric means to analyze continuous outcomes in meta-analysis: comparison to mean differences and ratio of arithmetic means using empiric data and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Jan O; Adhikari, Neill K J; Beyene, Joseph

    2012-07-30

    Meta-analyses pooling continuous outcomes can use mean differences (MD), standardized MD (MD in pooled standard deviation units, SMD), or ratio of arithmetic means (RoM). Recently, ratio of geometric means using ad hoc (RoGM (ad hoc) ) or Taylor series (RoGM (Taylor) ) methods for estimating variances have been proposed as alternative effect measures for skewed continuous data. Skewed data are suggested for summary measures of clinical parameters restricted to positive values which have large coefficients of variation (CV). Our objective was to compare performance characteristics of RoGM (ad hoc) and RoGM (Taylor) to MD, SMD, and RoM. We used empiric data from systematic reviews reporting continuous outcomes and selected from each the meta-analysis with the most and at least 5 trials (Cochrane Database [2008, Issue 1]). We supplemented this with simulations conducted with representative parameters. Pooled results were calculated using each effect measure. Of the reviews, 232/5053 met the inclusion criteria. Empiric data and simulation showed that RoGM (ad hoc) exhibits more extreme treatment effects and greater heterogeneity than all other effect measures. Compared with MD, SMD, and RoM, RoGM (Taylor) exhibits similar treatment effects, more heterogeneity when CV ≤0.7, and less heterogeneity when CV > 0.7. In conclusion, RoGM (Taylor) may be considered for pooling continuous outcomes in meta-analysis when data are skewed, but RoGM (ad hoc) should not be used. However, clinicians' lack of familiarity with geometric means combined with acceptable performance characteristics of RoM in most situations suggests that RoM may be the preferable ratio method for pooling continuous outcomes in meta-analysis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Microscopic silicon-based lateral high-aspect-ratio structures for thin film conformality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Feng; Arpiainen, Sanna; Puurunen, Riikka L.

    2015-01-01

    Film conformality is one of the major drivers for the interest in atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes. This work presents new silicon-based microscopic lateral high-aspect-ratio (LHAR) test structures for the analysis of the conformality of thin films deposited by ALD and by other chemical vapor deposition means. The microscopic LHAR structures consist of a lateral cavity inside silicon with a roof supported by pillars. The cavity length (e.g., 20–5000 μm) and cavity height (e.g., 200–1000 nm) can be varied, giving aspect ratios of, e.g., 20:1 to 25 000:1. Film conformality can be analyzed with the microscopic LHAR by several means, as demonstrated for the ALD Al 2 O 3 and TiO 2 processes from Me 3 Al/H 2 O and TiCl 4 /H 2 O. The microscopic LHAR test structures introduced in this work expose a new parameter space for thin film conformality investigations expected to prove useful in the development, tuning and modeling of ALD and other chemical vapor deposition processes

  13. Stable isotope ratio analysis: A potential analytical tool for the authentication of South African lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Sara Wilhelmina; Muller, Magdalena; van der Rijst, Marieta; Hoffman, Louwrens Christiaan

    2016-02-01

    Stable isotope ratios ((13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N) of South African Dorper lambs from farms with different vegetation types were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), to evaluate it as a tool for the authentication of origin and feeding regime. Homogenised and defatted meat of the Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle of lambs from seven different farms was assessed. The δ(13)C values were affected by the origin of the meat, mainly reflecting the diet. The Rûens and Free State farms had the lowest (p ⩽ 0.05) δ(15)N values, followed by the Northern Cape farms, with Hantam Karoo/Calvinia having the highest δ(15)N values. Discriminant analysis showed δ(13)C and δ(15)N differences as promising results for the use of IRMS as a reliable analytical tool for lamb meat authentication. The results suggest that diet, linked to origin, is an important factor to consider regarding region of origin classification for South African lamb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Split bolus technique in polytrauma: a prospective study on scan protocols for trauma analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenen, Ludo F. M.; Sierink, Joanne C.; Kolkman, Saskia; Nio, C. Yung; Saltzherr, Teun Peter; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Goslings, J. Carel

    2015-01-01

    For the evaluation of severely injured trauma patients a variety of total body computed tomography (CT) scanning protocols exist. Frequently multiple pass protocols are used. A split bolus contrast protocol can reduce the number of passes through the body, and thereby radiation exposure, in this

  15. Prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in biliary tract cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haowen; Lu, Wenping; Li, Bingmin; Li, Chonghui; Xu, Yinzhe; Dong, Jiahong

    2017-05-30

    Inflammation was considered to perform crucial roles in the development and metastasis of malignancies. A heightened neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio has been described to be associated with detrimental survivals in different malignancies. Debate remains over the impact of heightened neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio on survivals in biliary tract cancer. The review evaluated the prognostic value of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in biliary tract cancer. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and the Chinese SinoMed were systematically searched for relevant articles. Associations between neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and long-term outcomes were expressed as the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The odds ratio was utilized to assess the association between neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and clinicopathological parameters. Fourteen studies consisting of 3217 patients were analyzed: 1278 (39.73%) in the high pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio group and 1939 (60.27%) in the low pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio one. The results proved that heightened pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was significantly associated with detrimental overall survival and relapse free survival for biliary tract cancer patients. In addition, elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was positively correlated with higher carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels, advanced TNM staging and greater lymph node involvement. This meta-analysis marked that an increased pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was significantly linked with detrimental long-term outcomes and clinicopathological parameters for patients with biliary tract cancer.

  16. A standardised protocol for texture feature analysis of endoscopic images in gynaecological cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattichis Marios S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the development of tissue classification methods, classifiers rely on significant differences between texture features extracted from normal and abnormal regions. Yet, significant differences can arise due to variations in the image acquisition method. For endoscopic imaging of the endometrium, we propose a standardized image acquisition protocol to eliminate significant statistical differences due to variations in: (i the distance from the tissue (panoramic vs close up, (ii difference in viewing angles and (iii color correction. Methods We investigate texture feature variability for a variety of targets encountered in clinical endoscopy. All images were captured at clinically optimum illumination and focus using 720 × 576 pixels and 24 bits color for: (i a variety of testing targets from a color palette with a known color distribution, (ii different viewing angles, (iv two different distances from a calf endometrial and from a chicken cavity. Also, human images from the endometrium were captured and analysed. For texture feature analysis, three different sets were considered: (i Statistical Features (SF, (ii Spatial Gray Level Dependence Matrices (SGLDM, and (iii Gray Level Difference Statistics (GLDS. All images were gamma corrected and the extracted texture feature values were compared against the texture feature values extracted from the uncorrected images. Statistical tests were applied to compare images from different viewing conditions so as to determine any significant differences. Results For the proposed acquisition procedure, results indicate that there is no significant difference in texture features between the panoramic and close up views and between angles. For a calibrated target image, gamma correction provided an acquired image that was a significantly better approximation to the original target image. In turn, this implies that the texture features extracted from the corrected images provided for better

  17. Variability of signal-to-noise ratio and the network analysis of gravitational wave burst signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, S D; Rakhmanov, M; Klimenko, S; Mitselmakher, G

    2006-01-01

    The detection and estimation of gravitational wave burst signals, with a priori unknown polarization waveforms, requires the use of data from a network of detectors. Maximizing the network likelihood functional over all waveforms and sky positions yields point estimates for them as well as a detection statistic. However, the transformation from the data to estimates can become ill-conditioned over parts of the sky, resulting in significant errors in estimation. We modify the likelihood procedure by introducing a penalty functional which suppresses candidate solutions that display large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) variability as the source is displaced on the sky. Simulations show that the resulting network analysis method performs significantly better in estimating the sky position of a source. Further, this method can be applied to any network, irrespective of the number or mutual alignment of detectors

  18. An analysis of the Mariner 10 color ratio map of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rava, Barry; Hapke, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Errors that emerged in the Hapke et al. (1980) geological analysis reproduction of the Mariner 10 orange/UV color ratio map of Mercury are presently noted, and it is judged that the relationships that emerge between the color and the terrain are nonlunar in that they lack Mercurian analogs of high Fe-Ti lunar maria basalts. The crust is found to be low in Fe(2+) and Ti(4+) in view of three major considerations: (1) rays and ejecta blankets are exceptionally blue; (2) the Fe(2+) band of the reflectance spectrum of Mercury is weak; and (3) Mercury albedo contrasts are less pronounced than the lunar ones. The extrusive origin of the smooth plains is supported by these observations.

  19. EVALUATION OF FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF UNIVERSITY HOSPITALS BY RATIO ANALYSIS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda BÜLÜÇ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the financial performances of public university hospitals in Turkey; make contribution to the related literature in accordance with the findings and develop recommendations for the decision makers. Within the scope of the study, financial statements of revolving fund of the 43 public university hospitals for the years of 2013, 2014 and 2015 were obtained from the Ministry of Finance General Directorate of Public Accounts. Financial statements were evaluated by ratio analysis method. After analysing, it has been reached that the burden of debt of the hospitals were high,  they have been experiencing the problem of paying short term debts, stock turnover rates and turnover rates were low and the incomes of the hospitals can not cover their expenses. It is recomended that hospitals should use resources more efficiently and decision makers should consider education and research activities in budget allocation to university hospitals.

  20. Improvements in heavy water analysis using a ratio recording infrared spectrophotometer (Preprint No. CA-12)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutawane, U B; Alphonse, K P; Rathi, B N [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Heavy Water Div.

    1989-04-01

    With a view to optimise existing analytical procedures for routine analyses of heavy water, studies were carried out using a ratio recording instrument with and without a reference beam attenuator in infrared spectrophotometric method. Absorbance difference as well as absorbance values with different path length cells were used for measurements. Due to various practical considerations, a method based on measurement of absorbance values rather than absorbance difference was found to be convenient for all routine work. However, scanning is essential since there is slight shifting of peak position. Measurements at fixed wave lengths should generally be avoided. Use of standards for calibration of instrument is essential and frequent check of calibration is recommended. Optimum conditions for analysis of heavy water in different ranges on the instrument used in this study are tabulated. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Improvements in heavy water analysis using a ratio recording infrared spectrophotometer (Preprint No. CA-12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutawane, U.B.; Alphonse, K.P.; Rathi, B.N.

    1989-04-01

    With a view to optimise existing analytical procedures for routine analyses of heavy water, studies were carried out using a ratio recording instrument with and without a reference beam attenuator in infrared spectrophotometric method. Absorbance difference as well as absorbance values with different path length cells were used for measurements. Due to various practical considerations, a method based on measurement of absorbance values rather than absorbance difference was found to be convenient for all routine work. However, scanning is essential since there is slight shifting of peak position. Measurements at fixed wave lengths should generally be avoided. Use of standards for calibration of instrument is essential and frequent check of calibration is recommended. Optimum conditions for analysis of heavy water in different ranges on the instrument used in this study are tabulated. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  2. Short Circuit Ratio analysis of multi-infeed HVDC system with a VSC-HVDC link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    As an important indicator of system stability, Short Circuit Ratio (SCR) is commonly used in power system analysis. For systems include HVDC link connection, the Effective SCR (ESCR) is mostly applied to indicate the strength of HVDC infeed bus. The contribution of VSC-HVDC link to multi......-infeed HVDC system stability has been analyzed a lot but the study on ESCR of this kind of system is still insufficient. This paper presents a calculation method for ESCR of the hybrid multi infeed HVDC system based on a simple two-infeed HVDC system model. The equivalent circuit of this system under short...... circuit situation is firstly obtained based on the model. Then its Thevenin equivalent circuit is derived and system ESCR can be calculated. At last, simulation study verified that the calculated ESCR value under different cases can indicate the change of system stability....

  3. Contrast to Noise Ratio and Contrast Detail Analysis in Mammography:A Monte Carlo Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metaxas, V; Delis, H; Panayiotakis, G; Kalogeropoulou, C; Zampakis, P

    2015-01-01

    The mammographic spectrum is one of the major factors affecting image quality in mammography. In this study, a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation model was used to evaluate image quality characteristics of various mammographic spectra. The anode/filter combinations evaluated, were those traditionally used in mammography, for tube voltages between 26 and 30 kVp. The imaging performance was investigated in terms of Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) and Contrast Detail (CD) analysis, by involving human observers, utilizing a mathematical CD phantom. Soft spectra provided the best characteristics in terms of both CNR and CD scores, while tube voltage had a limited effect. W-anode spectra filtered with k-edge filters demonstrated an improved performance, that sometimes was better compared to softer x-ray spectra, produced by Mo or Rh anode. Regarding the filter material, k-edge filters showed superior performance compared to Al filters. (paper)

  4. Signal-to-noise ratio application to seismic marker analysis and fracture detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui-Qun; Gui, Zhi-Xian

    2014-03-01

    Seismic data with high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are useful in reservoir exploration. To obtain high SNR seismic data, significant effort is required to achieve noise attenuation in seismic data processing, which is costly in materials, and human and financial resources. We introduce a method for improving the SNR of seismic data. The SNR is calculated by using the frequency domain method. Furthermore, we optimize and discuss the critical parameters and calculation procedure. We applied the proposed method on real data and found that the SNR is high in the seismic marker and low in the fracture zone. Consequently, this can be used to extract detailed information about fracture zones that are inferred by structural analysis but not observed in conventional seismic data.

  5. Improved analysis of bacterial CGH data beyond the log-ratio paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakra Ågot

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing methods for analyzing bacterial CGH data from two-color arrays are based on log-ratios only, a paradigm inherited from expression studies. We propose an alternative approach, where microarray signals are used in a different way and sequence identity is predicted using a supervised learning approach. Results A data set containing 32 hybridizations of sequenced versus sequenced genomes have been used to test and compare methods. A ROC-analysis has been performed to illustrate the ability to rank probes with respect to Present/Absent calls. Classification into Present and Absent is compared with that of a gaussian mixture model. Conclusion The results indicate our proposed method is an improvement of existing methods with respect to ranking and classification of probes, especially for multi-genome arrays.

  6. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND CYTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF TRANSMISSIBLE VENEREAL TUMOR IN DOGS AFTER TWO TREATMENT PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Aguena Sales Lapa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The transmissible venereal tumor (TVT is a contagious neoplasm of round cells that frequently affect dogs. The treatment consists of chemotherapy being more effective the vincristine alone, however the resistance emergence to this agent due multidrug resistance of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp, a transporter protein encoded by the MDR1 gene, has been taking the association with other drugs. Recent studies demonstrated the antitumoral effect of the avermectins when associated to the vincristine in the treatment of some neoplasms. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of standard treatment of TVT with vincristine only when compared to combined treatment with vincristine and ivermectin, evaluated through number of applications of the two protocols, histopathological and cytological analysis from 50 dogs diagnosed with TVT during the period of 2007 to 2010. The combined protocol significant reduced the number of applications and cytological and histopathological findings collaborate with the hypothesis that the combination of vincristine and ivermectin promotes faster healing than the use of vincristine alone. Combination treatment with vincristine and ivermectin could be in the future an excellent therapeutic alternative for the treatment of TVT for probably reducing the resistance to vincristine, simultaneously reducing the cost of TVT treatment and promoting a faster recovery of the dog.

  7. A new approach for the analysis of facial growth and age estimation: Iris ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Palhares Machado

    Full Text Available The study of facial growth is explored in many fields of science, including anatomy, genetics, and forensics. In the field of forensics, it acts as a valuable tool for combating child pornography. The present research proposes a new method, based on relative measurements and fixed references of the human face-specifically considering measurements of the diameter of the iris (iris ratio-for the analysis of facial growth in association with age in children and sub-adults. The experimental sample consisted of digital photographs of 1000 Brazilian subjects, aged between 6 and 22 years, distributed equally by sex and divided into five specific age groups (6, 10, 14, 18, and 22 year olds ± one month. The software package SAFF-2D® (Forensic Facial Analysis System, Brazilian Federal Police, Brazil was used for positioning 11 landmarks on the images. Ten measurements were calculated and used as fixed references to evaluate the growth of the other measurements for each age group, as well the accumulated growth (6-22 years old. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC was applied for the evaluation of intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliability within a specific set of images. Pearson's Correlation Coefficient was used to assess the association between each measurement taken and the respective age groups. ANOVA and Post-hoc Tukey tests were used to search for statistical differences between the age groups. The outcomes indicated that facial structures grow with different timing in children and adolescents. Moreover, the growth allometry expressed in this study may be used to understand what structures have more or less proportional variation in function for the age ranges studied. The diameter of the iris was found to be the most stable measurement compared to the others and represented the best cephalometric measurement as a fixed reference for facial growth ratios (or indices. The method described shows promising potential for forensic

  8. Rocket nozzle expansion ratio analysis for dual-fuel earth-to-orbit vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James A.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from a recent study of the effects of Space Shuttle Main Engine expansion ratio modifications, in the cases of both single-stage and two-stage systems. Two-position nozzles were employed; after varying the lower expansion ratio while the higher was held constant at 120, the lower expansion ratio was held constant at 40 or 60 while the higher expansion ratio was varied. The expansion ratios for minimum vehicle dry mass are different for single-stage and two-stage systems. For two-stage systems, a single expansion ratio of 77.5 provides a lower dry mass than any two-position nozzle.

  9. The interventional effect of new drugs combined with the Stupp protocol on glioblastoma: A network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Song, Xiangqi; Zhu, Jun; Fu, Aijun; Li, Jianmin; Chen, Tong

    2017-08-01

    New therapeutic agents in combination with the standard Stupp protocol (a protocol about the temozolomide combined with radiotherapy treatment with glioblastoma was research by Stupp R in 2005) were assessed to evaluate whether they were superior to the Stupp protocol alone, to determine the optimum treatment regimen for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. We implemented a search strategy to identify studies in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CNKI, CBM, Wanfang, and VIP, and assessed the quality of extracted data from the trials included. Statistical software was used to perform network meta-analysis. The use of novel therapeutic agents in combination with the Stupp protocol were all shown to be superior than the Stupp protocol alone for the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma, ranked as follows: cilengitide 2000mg/5/week, bevacizumab in combination with irinotecan, nimotuzumab, bevacizumab, cilengitide 2000mg/2/week, cytokine-induced killer cell immunotherapy, and the Stupp protocol. In terms of serious adverse effects, the intervention group showed a 29% increase in the incidence of adverse events compared with the control group (patients treated only with Stupp protocol) with a statistically significant difference (RR=1.29; 95%CI 1.17-1.43; P<0.001). The most common adverse events were thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, pneumonia, nausea, and vomiting, none of which were significantly different between the groups except for neutropenia, pneumonia, and embolism. All intervention drugs evaluated in our study were superior to the Stupp protocol alone when used in combination with it. However, we could not conclusively confirm whether cilengitide 2000mg/5/week was the optimum regime, as only one trial using this protocol was included in our study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The clinical use of the platelet/lymphocyte ratio and lymphocyte/monocyte ratio as prognostic predictors in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya-Huan; Sun, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Yan-Bing; Liao, Zi-Jun; Zhao, Lei; Cui, Jie; Wu, Tao; Lu, Jian-Rong; Nan, Ke-Jun; Wang, Shu-Hong

    2017-03-21

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding the effects of platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and lymphocyte/monocyte ratio(LMR) on the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. This study aimed to evaluate the roles of the PLR and LMR in predicting the prognosis of CRC patients via meta-analysis. Eligible studies were retrieved from the PubMed, Embase,andChina National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases, supplemented by a manual search of references from retrieved articles. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using the generic inverse variance and random-effect model to evaluate the association of PLR and LMR with prognostic variables in CRC, including overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Thirty-three studies containing 15,404 patients met criteria for inclusion. Pooled analysis suggested that elevated PLR was associated with poorer OS (pooled HR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.41 - 1.75, p< 0.00001, I2=26%) and DFS (pooled HR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.31 - 1.92, p< 0.00001, I2=66%). Conversely, high LMR correlated with more favorable OS (pooled HR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.50 - 0.68, p< 0.00001, I2=44%), CSS (pooled HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.40 - 0.72, p< 0.00001, I2=11%) and DFS (pooled HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.71- 0.94,p=0.005, I2=29%). Elevated PLR was associated with poor prognosis, while high LMR correlated with more favorable outcomes in CRC patients. Pretreatment PLR and LMR could serve as prognostic predictors in CRC patients.

  11. Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio as Novel Markers for Diagnosis of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Bahrami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL is a common otologic disease characterized by a loss of hearing greater than 30 dB in three consecutive frequen­cies which occurs in less than 72 hours. Objective: To investigate the role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR on sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL. Search strategy: A PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, OVID, EMBASE and Google Scholar search (date last searched April 2016 without any time, language and location restriction was done. Inclusion criteria: All case-control studies, which have been investigated the relationship of NLR and PLR with the occurrence of SSNHL were included in our meta-analysis. Results: A total of 5 case-control studies were included in the study. All 5 studies have been reported NLR of patients and control groups (611 patients and 804 controls. Our analysis showed that the mean NLR of patients is 1.12 (0.82-1.43 unit higher than that of controls with 95% CI which is statistically significant. Also, 3 studies have been reported PLR of patients and control groups (512 patients and 705 controls. Our analysis showed that the mean PLR of patients is 0.57 (0.08-1.05 unit higher than that of controls with 95% CI which is statistically significant too. Conclusions: This meta-analysis confirmed the relationship of NLR and PLR with SSNHL. Therefore, these parameters can be considered as new markers in diagnosis of SSNHL. 

  12. Beta-binomial model for meta-analysis of odds ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakbergenuly, Ilyas; Kulinskaya, Elena

    2017-05-20

    In meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs), heterogeneity between the studies is usually modelled via the additive random effects model (REM). An alternative, multiplicative REM for ORs uses overdispersion. The multiplicative factor in this overdispersion model (ODM) can be interpreted as an intra-class correlation (ICC) parameter. This model naturally arises when the probabilities of an event in one or both arms of a comparative study are themselves beta-distributed, resulting in beta-binomial distributions. We propose two new estimators of the ICC for meta-analysis in this setting. One is based on the inverted Breslow-Day test, and the other on the improved gamma approximation by Kulinskaya and Dollinger (2015, p. 26) to the distribution of Cochran's Q. The performance of these and several other estimators of ICC on bias and coverage is studied by simulation. Additionally, the Mantel-Haenszel approach to estimation of ORs is extended to the beta-binomial model, and we study performance of various ICC estimators when used in the Mantel-Haenszel or the inverse-variance method to combine ORs in meta-analysis. The results of the simulations show that the improved gamma-based estimator of ICC is superior for small sample sizes, and the Breslow-Day-based estimator is the best for n⩾100. The Mantel-Haenszel-based estimator of OR is very biased and is not recommended. The inverse-variance approach is also somewhat biased for ORs≠1, but this bias is not very large in practical settings. Developed methods and R programs, provided in the Web Appendix, make the beta-binomial model a feasible alternative to the standard REM for meta-analysis of ORs. © 2017 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. An alternative approach to estimate the W/C ratio of hardened concrete using image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valcke, S.; Nijland, T.G.; Larbi, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The water cement (w/c) ratio is a typical quality parameter for concrete. The NT Build 361 Nordtest method is a standard for estimating the w/c ratio in hardened concrete and is based on the relationship between the ilc ratio and the capillary porosity in the cement paste. The latter can be

  14. Part 1--Factors Associated with School Nurse Ratios: An Analysis of State Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Despite the recognized importance of school nurses, the ratios of nurse to pupil are insufficient in many states across the country. The purpose of this study was to describe school nurse-to-pupil ratios by state and to statistically identify factors that may influence these ratios. Funding per pupil unit in general and support services and laws…

  15. Analysis of the End-by-Hop Protocol for Secure Aggregation in Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenner, Erik

    In order to save bandwidth and thus battery power, sensor network measurements are sometimes aggregated en-route while being reported back to the querying server. Authentication of the measurements then becomes a challenge if message integrity is important for the application. At ESAS 2007, the End......-by-Hop protocol for securing in-network aggregation for sensor nodes was presented. The solution was claimed to be secure and efficient and to provide the possibility of trading off bandwidth against computation time on the server. In this paper, we disprove these claims. We describe several attacks against...... the proposed solution and point out shortcomings in the original complexity analysis. In particular, we show that the proposed solution is inferior to a naive solution without in-network aggregation both in security and in efficiency....

  16. Measurement system analysis (MSA) of the isotopic ratio for uranium isotope enrichment process control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Josue C. de; Barbosa, Rodrigo A.; Carnaval, Joao Paulo R., E-mail: josue@inb.gov.br, E-mail: rodrigobarbosa@inb.gov.br, E-mail: joaocarnaval@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Rezende, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Currently, one of the stages in nuclear fuel cycle development is the process of uranium isotope enrichment, which will provide the amount of low enriched uranium for the nuclear fuel production to supply 100% Angra 1 and 20% Angra 2 demands. Determination of isotopic ration n({sup 235}U)/n({sup 238}U) in uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6} - used as process gas) is essential in order to control of enrichment process of isotopic separation by gaseous centrifugation cascades. The uranium hexafluoride process is performed by gas continuous feeding in separation unit which uses the centrifuge force principle, establishing a density gradient in a gas containing components of different molecular weights. The elemental separation effect occurs in a single ultracentrifuge that results in a partial separation of the feed in two fractions: an enriched on (product) and another depleted (waste) in the desired isotope ({sup 235}UF{sub 6}). Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) has used quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) by electron impact (EI) to perform isotopic ratio n({sup 235}U)/n({sup 238}U) analysis in the process. The decision of adjustments and change te input variables are based on the results presented in these analysis. A study of stability, bias and linearity determination has been performed in order to evaluate the applied method, variations and systematic errors in the measurement system. The software used to analyze the techniques above was the Minitab 15. (author)

  17. Carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric methane by isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Dawn A.; Hayes, J. M.; Des Marais, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Less than 15 min are required for the determination of delta C(sub PDB)-13 with a precision of 0.2 ppt(1 sigma, single measurement) in 5-mL samples of air containing CH4 at natural levels (1.7 ppm). An analytical system including a sample-introduction unit incorporating a preparative gas chromatograph (GC) column for separation of CH4 from N2, O2, and Ar is described. The 15-min procedure includes time for operation of that system, high-resolution chromatographic separation of the CH4, on-line combustion and purification of the products, and isotopic calibration. Analyses of standards demonstrate that systematic errors are absent and that there is no dependence of observed values of delta on sample size. For samples containing 100 ppm or more CH4, preconcentration is not required and the analysis time is less than 5 min. The system utilizes a commercially available, high-sensitivity isotope-ratio mass spectrometer. For optimal conditions of smaple handling and combustion, performance of the system is within a factor of 2 of the shot-noise limit. The potential exists therefore for analysis of samples as small as 15 pmol CH4 with a standard deviation of less than 1 ppt.

  18. Comparison of analysis and experiment for dynamics of low-contact-ratio spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Rebbechi, Brian; Zakrajsek, James J.; Townsend, Dennis P.; Lin, Hsiang Hsi

    1991-01-01

    Low-contact-ratio spur gears were tested in NASA gear-noise-rig to study gear dynamics including dynamic load, tooth bending stress, vibration, and noise. The experimental results were compared with a NASA gear dynamics code to validate the code as a design tool for predicting transmission vibration and noise. Analytical predictions and experimental data for gear-tooth dynamic loads and tooth-root bending stress were compared at 28 operating conditions. Strain gage data were used to compute the normal load between meshing teeth and the bending stress at the tooth root for direct comparison with the analysis. The computed and measured waveforms for dynamic load and stress were compared for several test conditions. These are very similar in shape, which means the analysis successfully simulates the physical behavior of the test gears. The predicted peak value of the dynamic load agrees with the measurement results within an average error of 4.9 percent except at low-torque, high-speed conditions. Predictions of peak dynamic root stress are generally within 10 to 15 percent of the measured values.

  19. Is there a social gradient of sarcopenia? A meta-analysis and systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Darci; Duque, Gustavo; Fredman, Nick; Rizvi, Aoun; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon Lee

    2018-01-13

    Sarcopenia (or loss of muscle mass and function) is a relatively new area within the field of musculoskeletal research and medicine. Investigating whether there is a social gradient, including occupation type and income level, of sarcopenia, as observed for other diseases, will contribute significantly to the limited evidence base for this disease. This new information may inform the prevention and management of sarcopenia and widen the evidence base to support existing and future health campaigns. We will conduct a systematic search of the databases PubMed, Ovid, CINAHL, Scopus and EMBASE to identify articles that investigate associations between social determinants of health and sarcopenia in adults aged 50 years and older. Eligibility of the selected studies will be determined by two independent reviewers. The methodological quality of eligible studies will be assessed according to predetermined criteria. Established statistical methods to identify and control for heterogeneity will be used, and where appropriate, we will conduct a meta-analysis. In the event that heterogeneity prevents numerical synthesis, a best evidence analysis will be employed. This systematic review protocol adheres to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols reporting guidelines and will be registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO). This systematic review will use published data, thus ethical permissions will not be required. In addition to peer-reviewed publication, our results will be presented at (inter)national conferences relevant to the field of sarcopenia, ageing and/or musculoskeletal health and disseminated both electronically and in print. CRD42017072253. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Similarity ratio analysis for early stage fault detection with optical emission spectrometer in plasma etching process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    Full Text Available A Similarity Ratio Analysis (SRA method is proposed for early-stage Fault Detection (FD in plasma etching processes using real-time Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES data as input. The SRA method can help to realise a highly precise control system by detecting abnormal etch-rate faults in real-time during an etching process. The method processes spectrum scans at successive time points and uses a windowing mechanism over the time series to alleviate problems with timing uncertainties due to process shift from one process run to another. A SRA library is first built to capture features of a healthy etching process. By comparing with the SRA library, a Similarity Ratio (SR statistic is then calculated for each spectrum scan as the monitored process progresses. A fault detection mechanism, named 3-Warning-1-Alarm (3W1A, takes the SR values as inputs and triggers a system alarm when certain conditions are satisfied. This design reduces the chance of false alarm, and provides a reliable fault reporting service. The SRA method is demonstrated on a real semiconductor manufacturing dataset. The effectiveness of SRA-based fault detection is evaluated using a time-series SR test and also using a post-process SR test. The time-series SR provides an early-stage fault detection service, so less energy and materials will be wasted by faulty processing. The post-process SR provides a fault detection service with higher reliability than the time-series SR, but with fault testing conducted only after each process run completes.

  1. Determination of isotopic ratios of osmium and ruthenium in meteorites by pretreatment and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinfang Chai; Yongzhong Liu; Xueying Mao

    1996-01-01

    The isotopic abundance ratios of 190 Os/ 184 Os and 96 Ru/ 102 Ru for the metal phases of the Jilin and Taonan stone meteorites were determined by pretreatment and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. All experimental factors affecting Os and Ru isotopic ratios were discussed, including sampling, standard, irradiation, separation and counting. The statistical errors of measurements for the 199 Os/ 184 Os ratio can be controlled within 1%. The experimental results indicate that the statistically significant anomalies of the 190 Os/ 184 Os and 96 Ru/ 102 Ru ratios have not been found relative to the terrestrial Os and Ru standards. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  2. Quantitative analysis of the myelin g-ratio from electron microscopy images of the macaque corpus callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stikov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We provide a detailed morphometric analysis of eight transmission electron micrographs (TEMs obtained from the corpus callosum of one cynomolgus macaque. The raw TEM images are included in the article, along with the distributions of the axon caliber and the myelin g-ratio in each image. The distributions are analyzed to determine the relationship between axon caliber and g-ratio, and compared against the aggregate metrics (myelin volume fraction, fiber volume fraction, and the aggregate g-ratio, as defined in the accompanying research article entitled ‘In vivo histology of the myelin g-ratio with magnetic resonance imaging’ (Stikov et al., NeuroImage, 2015.

  3. Comparative study on DuPont analysis and DEA models for measuring stock performance using financial ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsad, Roslah; Shaari, Siti Nabilah Mohd; Isa, Zaidi

    2017-11-01

    Determining stock performance using financial ratio is challenging for many investors and researchers. Financial ratio can indicate the strengths and weaknesses of a company's stock performance. There are five categories of financial ratios namely liquidity, efficiency, leverage, profitability and market ratios. It is important to interpret the ratio correctly for proper financial decision making. The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of listed companies in Bursa Malaysia using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and DuPont analysis Models. The study is conducted in 2015 involving 116 consumer products companies listed in Bursa Malaysia. The estimation method of Data Envelopment Analysis computes the efficiency scores and ranks the companies accordingly. The Alirezaee and Afsharian's method of analysis based Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (CCR) where Constant Return to Scale (CRS) is employed. The DuPont analysis is a traditional tool for measuring the operating performance of companies. In this study, DuPont analysis is used to evaluate three different aspects such as profitability, efficiency of assets utilization and financial leverage. Return on Equity (ROE) is also calculated in DuPont analysis. This study finds that both analysis models provide different rankings of the selected samples. Hypothesis testing based on Pearson's correlation, indicates that there is no correlation between rankings produced by DEA and DuPont analysis. The DEA ranking model proposed by Alirezaee and Asharian is unstable. The method cannot provide complete ranking because the values of Balance Index is equal and zero.

  4. Real-Time QoS Routing Protocols in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Study and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Adwan; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-09-02

    Many routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. These routing protocols are almost always based on energy efficiency. However, recent advances in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras and small microphones have led to the development of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN) as a class of wireless sensor networks which pose additional challenges. The transmission of imaging and video data needs routing protocols with both energy efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) characteristics in order to guarantee the efficient use of the sensor nodes and effective access to the collected data. Also, with integration of real time applications in Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs), the use of QoS routing protocols is not only becoming a significant topic, but is also gaining the attention of researchers. In designing an efficient QoS routing protocol, the reliability and guarantee of end-to-end delay are critical events while conserving energy. Thus, considerable research has been focused on designing energy efficient and robust QoS routing protocols. In this paper, we present a state of the art research work based on real-time QoS routing protocols for WMSNs that have already been proposed. This paper categorizes the real-time QoS routing protocols into probabilistic and deterministic protocols. In addition, both categories are classified into soft and hard real time protocols by highlighting the QoS issues including the limitations and features of each protocol. Furthermore, we have compared the performance of mobility-aware query based real-time QoS routing protocols from each category using Network Simulator-2 (NS2). This paper also focuses on the design challenges and future research directions as well as highlights the characteristics of each QoS routing protocol.

  5. T2 relaxation time analysis in patients with multiple sclerosis: correlation with magnetization transfer ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Papadaki, Eufrosini; Karampekios, Spyros; Maris, Thomas; Prassopoulos, Panos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; Spilioti, Martha

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to perform T2 relaxation time measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and correlate them with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) measurements, in order to investigate in more detail the various histopathological changes that occur in lesions and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). A total number of 291 measurements of MTR and T2 relaxation times were performed in 13 MS patients and 10 age-matched healthy volunteers. Measurements concerned MS plaques (105), NAWM (80), and ''dirty'' white matter (DWM; 30), evenly divided between the MS patients, and normal white matter (NWM; 76) in the healthy volunteers. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time analysis was performed, and also possible linearity between MTR and mean T2 relaxation times was evaluated using linear regression analysis in all subgroups. Biexponential relaxation was more pronounced in ''black-hole'' lesions (16.6%) and homogeneous enhancing plaques (10%), whereas DWM, NAWM, and mildly hypointense lesions presented biexponential behavior with a lower frequency(6.6, 5, and 3.1%, respectively). Non-enhancing isointense lesions and normal white matter did not reveal any biexponentional behavior. Linear regression analysis between monoexponential T2 relaxation time and MTR measurements demonstrated excellent correlation for DWM(r=-0.78, p<0.0001), very good correlation for black-hole lesions(r=-0.71, p=0.002), good correlation for isointense lesions(r=-0.60, p=0.005), moderate correlation for mildly hypointense lesions(r=-0.34, p=0.007), and non-significant correlation for homogeneous enhancing plaques, NAWM, and NWM. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time behavior is seen in only very few lesions (mainly on plaques with high degree of demyelination and axonal loss). A strong correlation between MTR and monoexponential T2 values was found in regions where either inflammation or demyelination predominates; however, when both pathological conditions coexist, this linear

  6. Recent advances in hopanoids analysis: Quantification protocols overview, main research targets and selected problems of complex data exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Portka, Joanna K

    2015-09-01

    Pentacyclic triterpenoids, particularly hopanoids, are organism-specific compounds and are generally considered as useful biomarkers that allow fingerprinting and classification of biological, environmental and geological samples. Simultaneous quantification of various hopanoids together with battery of related non-polar and low-molecular mass compounds may provide principal information for geochemical and environmental research focusing on both modern and ancient investigations. Target compounds can be derived from microbial biomass, water columns, sediments, coals, crude fossils or rocks. This create number of analytical problems due to different composition of the analytical matrix and interfering compounds and therefore, proper optimization of quantification protocols for such biomarkers is still the challenge. In this work we summarizing typical analytical protocols that were recently applied for quantification of hopanoids like compounds from different samples. Main steps including components of interest extraction, pre-purification, fractionation, derivatization and quantification involving gas (1D and 2D) as well as liquid separation techniques (liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, planar and low resolution column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography) are described and discussed from practical point of view, mainly based on the experimental papers that were published within last two years, where significant increase in hopanoids research was noticed. The second aim of this review is to describe the latest research trends concerning determination of hopanoids and related low-molecular mass lipids analyzed in various samples including sediments, rocks, coals, crude oils and plant fossils as well as stromatolites and microbial biomass cultivated under different conditions. It has been found that majority of the most recent papers are based on uni- or bivariate approach for complex data analysis. Data interpretation involves

  7. Regional analysis of the magnetization transfer ratio of the brain in mild Alzheimer disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascalchi, M; Ginestroni, A; Bessi, V; Toschi, N; Padiglioni, S; Ciulli, S; Tessa, C; Giannelli, M; Bracco, L; Diciotti, S

    2013-01-01

    Manually drawn VOI-based analysis shows a decrease in magnetization transfer ratio in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer disease. We investigated with whole-brain voxelwise analysis the regional changes of the magnetization transfer ratio in patients with mild Alzheimer disease and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Twenty patients with mild Alzheimer disease, 27 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and 30 healthy elderly control subjects were examined with high-resolution T1WI and 3-mm-thick magnetization transfer images. Whole-brain voxelwise analysis of magnetization transfer ratio maps was performed by use of Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software and was supplemented by the analysis of the magnetization transfer ratio in FreeSurfer parcellation-derived VOIs. Voxelwise analysis showed 2 clusters of significantly decreased magnetization transfer ratio in the left hippocampus and amygdala and in the left posterior mesial temporal cortex (fusiform gyrus) of patients with Alzheimer disease as compared with control subjects but no difference between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and either patients with Alzheimer disease or control subjects. VOI analysis showed that the magnetization transfer ratio in the hippocampus and amygdala was significantly lower (bilaterally) in patients with Alzheimer disease when compared with control subjects (ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, at P ratio values in the hippocampus and amygdala in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment were between those of healthy control subjects and those of patients with mild Alzheimer disease. Support vector machine-based classification demonstrated improved classification performance after inclusion of magnetization transfer ratio-related features, especially between patients with Alzheimer disease versus healthy subjects. Bilateral but asymmetric decrease of magnetization transfer ratio reflecting microstructural changes of the

  8. A new approach for the analysis of facial growth and age estimation: Iris ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Carlos Eduardo Palhares; Flores, Marta Regina Pinheiro; Lima, Laíse Nascimento Correia; Tinoco, Rachel Lima Ribeiro; Bezerra, Ana Cristina Barreto; Evison, Martin Paul; Guimarães, Marco Aurélio

    2017-01-01

    The study of facial growth is explored in many fields of science, including anatomy, genetics, and forensics. In the field of forensics, it acts as a valuable tool for combating child pornography. The present research proposes a new method, based on relative measurements and fixed references of the human face—specifically considering measurements of the diameter of the iris (iris ratio)—for the analysis of facial growth in association with age in children and sub-adults. The experimental sample consisted of digital photographs of 1000 Brazilian subjects, aged between 6 and 22 years, distributed equally by sex and divided into five specific age groups (6, 10, 14, 18, and 22 year olds ± one month). The software package SAFF-2D® (Forensic Facial Analysis System, Brazilian Federal Police, Brazil) was used for positioning 11 landmarks on the images. Ten measurements were calculated and used as fixed references to evaluate the growth of the other measurements for each age group, as well the accumulated growth (6–22 years old). The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was applied for the evaluation of intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliability within a specific set of images. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient was used to assess the association between each measurement taken and the respective age groups. ANOVA and Post-hoc Tukey tests were used to search for statistical differences between the age groups. The outcomes indicated that facial structures grow with different timing in children and adolescents. Moreover, the growth allometry expressed in this study may be used to understand what structures have more or less proportional variation in function for the age ranges studied. The diameter of the iris was found to be the most stable measurement compared to the others and represented the best cephalometric measurement as a fixed reference for facial growth ratios (or indices). The method described shows promising potential for forensic applications

  9. Profitability and efficiency of Italian utilities: cluster analysis of financial statement ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, E.

    2008-01-01

    The last ten years have witnessed conspicuous changes in European and Italian regulation of public utility services and in the strategies of the major players in these fields. In response to these changes Italian utilities have made a variety of choices regarding size, presence in more or less capital-intensive stages of different value chains, and diversification. These choices have been implemented both through internal growth and by means of mergers and acquisitions. In this context it is interesting to try to establish whether there is a nexus between these choices and the performance of Italian utilities in terms of profitability and efficiency. Therefore statistical multivariate analysis techniques (cluster analysis and factor analysis) have been applied to several ratios obtained from the 2005 financial statement of 34 utilities. First, a hierarchical cluster analysis method has been applied to financial statement data in order to identify homogeneous groups based on several indicators of the incidence of costs (external costs, personnel costs, depreciation and amortization), profitability (return on sales, return on assets, return on equity) and efficiency (in the utilization of personnel, of total assets, of property, plant and equipment). Five clusters have been found. Then the clusters have been characterized in terms of the aforementioned indicators, the presence in different stages of the energy value chains (electricity and gas) and other descriptive variables (such as turnover, number of employees, assets, percentage of property, plant and equipment on total assets, sales revenues from electricity, gas, water supply and sanitation, waste collection and treatment and other services). In a second round cluster analysis has been preceded by factor analysis, in order to find a smaller set of variables. This procedure has revealed three not directly observable factors that can be interpreted as follows: i) efficiency in ordinary and financial management

  10. Canyon transfer neutron absorber to fissile material ratio analysis. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmons, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Waste tank fissile material and non-fissile material estimates are used to evaluate criticality safety for the existing sludge inventory and batches of sludge sent to Extended Sludge Processing (ESP). This report documents the weight ratios of several non-fissile waste constituents to fissile waste constituents from canyon reprocessing waste streams. Weight ratios of Fe, Mn, Al, Mi, and U-238 to fissile material are calculated from monthly loss estimates from the F and H Canyon Low Heat Waste (LHW) and High Heat Waste (HHW) streams. The monthly weight ratios for Fe, Mn and U-238 are then compared to calculated minimum safe weight ratios. Documented minimum safe weight ratios for Al and Ni to fissile material are currently not available. Total mass data for the subject sludge constituents is provided along with scatter plots of the monthly weight ratios for each waste stream

  11. Hedging Effectiveness and Optimal Hedge Ratios: An Analysis of Malaysian Crude Palm Oil Futures Market

    OpenAIRE

    OH, STELLA JIA XIN

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of hedge ratios and hedging effectiveness of crude palm oil futures market in Malaysia for the period from January 2000 to August 2015. To measure hedging performances of optimal hedge ratio, different measures have been employed such as the static hedge ratio estimation models of conventional Ordinary Least Square (OLS) model and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), while the time-varying model is presented by the Diagonal Vech Multivariate Generalized A...

  12. An analysis of moderate sedation protocols used in dental specialty programs: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setty, Madhavi; Montagnese, Thomas A; Baur, Dale; Aminoshariae, Anita; Mickel, Andre

    2014-09-01

    Pain and anxiety control is critical in dental practice. Moderate sedation is a useful adjunct in managing a variety of conditions that make it difficult or impossible for some people to undergo certain dental procedures. The purpose of this study was to analyze the sedation protocols used in 3 dental specialty programs at the Case Western Reserve University School of Dental Medicine, Cleveland, OH. A retrospective analysis was performed using dental school records of patients receiving moderate sedation in the graduate endodontic, periodontic, and oral surgery programs from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2012. Information was gathered and the data compiled regarding the reasons for sedation, age, sex, pertinent medical conditions, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classifications, routes of administration, drugs, dosages, failures, complications, and other information that was recorded. The reasons for the use of moderate sedation were anxiety (54%), local anesthesia failures (15%), fear of needles (15%), severe gag reflex (8%), and claustrophobia with the rubber dam (8%). The most common medical conditions were hypertension (17%), asthma (15%), and bipolar disorder (8%). Most patients were classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists class II. More women (63.1%) were treated than men (36.9%). The mean age was 45 years. Monitoring and drugs varied among the programs. The most common tooth treated in the endodontic program was the mandibular molar. There are differences in the moderate sedation protocols used in the endodontic, periodontic, and oral surgery programs regarding monitoring, drugs used, and record keeping. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hierarchical evaluation of electrical stimulation protocols for chronic wound healing: An effect size meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouri, Charles; Kotzki, Sylvain; Roustit, Matthieu; Blaise, Sophie; Gueyffier, Francois; Cracowski, Jean-Luc

    2017-09-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) has been tested for decades to improve chronic wound healing. However, uncertainty remains on the magnitude of the efficacy and on the best applicable protocol. We conducted an effect size meta-analysis to assess the overall efficacy of ES on wound healing, to compare the efficacy of the different modalities of electrical stimulation, and to determine whether efficacy differs depending on the wound etiology, size, and age of the chronic wound. Twenty-nine randomized clinical trials with 1,510 patients and 1,753 ulcers were selected. Overall efficacy of ES on would healing was a 0.72 SMD (95% CI: 0.48, 1) corresponding to a moderate to large effect size. We found that unidirectional high voltage pulsed current (HVPC) with the active electrode over the wound was the best evidence-based protocol to improve wound healing with a 0.8 SMD (95% CI: 0.38, 1.21), while evaluation of the efficacy of direct current was limited by the small number of studies. ES was more effective on pressure ulcers compared to venous and diabetic ulcers, and efficacy trended to be inversely associated with the wound size and duration. This study confirms the overall efficacy of ES to enhance healing of chronic wounds and highlights the superiority of HVPC over other type of currents, which is more effective on pressure ulcers, and inversely associated with the wound size and duration. This will enable to standardize future ES practices. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.

  14. A preliminary analysis of the Mariner 10 color ratio map of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rava, Barry; Hapke, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary geological analysis of the Mariner 10 orange/UV color ratio map of Mercury is given, assuming a basaltic crust. Certain errors in the map are pointed out. The relationship between color and terrain are distinctly non-lunar. Rays and ejecta are bluer than average on Mercury, whereas they are redder on the Moon. This fact, along with the lack of the ferrous band in Mercury's spectral reflectance and smaller albedo contrasts, implies that the crust is low in Fe and Ti. There is no correlation between color boundaries and the smooth plains on Mercury, in contrast with the strong correlation between color and maria-highlands contacts on the Moon. The smooth plains are not Mercurian analogs of lunar maria, and a lunar-type of second wave melting did not occur. Ambiguous correlations between color and topography indicate that older, redder materials underlie younger, bluer rocks in many places on the planet, implying that the last stages of volcanism involved low-Fe lavas covering higher-Fe rocks. There is some evidence of late Fe-rich pyroclastic activity.

  15. SUMOFLUX: A Generalized Method for Targeted 13C Metabolic Flux Ratio Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogadeeva, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic fluxes are a cornerstone of cellular physiology that emerge from a complex interplay of enzymes, carriers, and nutrients. The experimental assessment of in vivo intracellular fluxes using stable isotopic tracers is essential if we are to understand metabolic function and regulation. Flux estimation based on 13C or 2H labeling relies on complex simulation and iterative fitting; processes that necessitate a level of expertise that ordinarily preclude the non-expert user. To overcome this, we have developed SUMOFLUX, a methodology that is broadly applicable to the targeted analysis of 13C-metabolic fluxes. By combining surrogate modeling and machine learning, we trained a predictor to specialize in estimating flux ratios from measurable 13C-data. SUMOFLUX targets specific flux features individually, which makes it fast, user-friendly, applicable to experimental design and robust in terms of experimental noise and exchange flux magnitude. Collectively, we predict that SUMOFLUX's properties realistically pave the way to high-throughput flux analyses. PMID:27626798

  16. Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)--discrimination of ammonium nitrate sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Sarah J; Lennard, Christopher J; Maynard, Philip; Hill, David M; Andrew, Anita S; Roux, Claude

    2009-06-01

    An evaluation was undertaken to determine if isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) could assist in the investigation of complex forensic cases by providing a level of discrimination not achievable utilising traditional forensic techniques. The focus of the research was on ammonium nitrate (AN), a common oxidiser used in improvised explosive mixtures. The potential value of IRMS to attribute Australian AN samples to the manufacturing source was demonstrated through the development of a preliminary AN classification scheme based on nitrogen isotopes. Although the discrimination utilising nitrogen isotopes alone was limited and only relevant to samples from the three Australian manufacturers during the evaluated time period, the classification scheme has potential as an investigative aid. Combining oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope values permitted the differentiation of AN prills from three different Australian manufacturers. Samples from five different overseas sources could be differentiated utilising a combination of the nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen isotope values. Limited differentiation between Australian and overseas prills was achieved for the samples analysed. The comparison of nitrogen isotope values from intact AN prill samples with those from post-blast AN prill residues highlighted that the nitrogen isotopic composition of the prills was not maintained post-blast; hence, limiting the technique to analysis of un-reacted explosive material.

  17. Determination of SB2 masses and age: introduction of the mass ratio in the Bayesian analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarrusso, M.; Leone, F.; Tognelli, E.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Prada Moroni, P. G.

    2018-04-01

    Stellar age assignment still represents a difficult task in Astrophysics. This unobservable fundamental parameter can be estimated only through indirect methods, as well as generally the mass. Bayesian analysis is a statistical approach largely used to derive stellar properties by taking into account the available information about the quantities we are looking for. In this paper we propose to apply the method to the double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2), for which the only available information about masses is the observed mass ratio of the two components. We validated the method on a synthetic sample of Pre-Main Sequence (PMS) SB2 systems showing the capability of the technique to recover the simulated age and masses. Then, we applied our procedure to the PMS eclipsing binaries Parenago 1802 and RX J0529.4+0041 A, whose masses of both components are known, by treating them as SB2 systems. The estimated masses are in agreement with those dynamically measured. We conclude that the method, if based on high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopy, represents a robust way to infer the masses of the very numerous SB2 systems together with their age, allowing to date the hosting astrophysical environments.

  18. Determination of SB2 masses and age: introduction of the mass ratio in the Bayesian analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarrusso, M.; Leone, F.; Tognelli, E.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Prada Moroni, P. G.

    2018-07-01

    Stellar age assignment still represents a difficult task in Astrophysics. This unobservable fundamental parameter can be estimated only through indirect methods, as well as generally the mass. Bayesian analysis is a statistical approach largely used to derive stellar properties by taking into account the available information about the quantities we are looking for. In this paper, we propose to apply the method to the double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2), for which the only available information about masses is the observed mass ratio of the two components. We validated the method on a synthetic sample of pre-main-sequence (PMS) SB2 systems showing the capability of the technique to recover the simulated age and masses. Then, we applied our procedure to the PMS eclipsing binaries Parenago 1802 and RX J0529.4+0041 A, whose masses of both components are known, by treating them as SB2 systems. The estimated masses are in agreement with those dynamically measured. We conclude that the method, if based on high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopy, represents a robust way to infer the masses of the very numerous SB2 systems together with their age, allowing to date the hosting astrophysical environments.

  19. Analysis of spastic gait in cervical myelopathy: Linking compression ratio to spatiotemporal and pedobarographic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Taro; Takahashi, Yasuhito; Endo, Kenji; Ikegami, Ryo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2018-01-01

    Gait dysfunction associated with spasticity and hyperreflexia is a primary symptom in patients with compression of cervical spinal cord. The objective of this study was to link maximum compression ratio (CR) to spatiotemporal/pedobarographic parameters. Quantitative gait analysis was performed by using a pedobarograph in 75 elderly males with a wide range of cervical compression severity. CR values were characterized on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Statistical significances in gait analysis parameters (speed, cadence, stride length, step with, and toe-out angle) were evaluated among different CR groups by the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Mann-Whitney U test using Bonferroni correction. The Spearman test was performed to verify correlations between CR and gait parameters. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant decline in gait speed and stride length and significant increase in toe-out angle with progression of cervical compression myelopathy. The post-hoc Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences in these parameters between the control group (0.45test revealed that CR was significantly correlated with speed, cadence, stride length, and toe-out angle. Gait speed, stride length, and toe-out angle can serve as useful indexes for evaluating progressive gait abnormality in cervical myelopathy. Our findings suggest that CR≤0.25 is associated with significantly poorer gait performance. Nevertheless, future prospective studies are needed to determine a potential benefit from decompressive surgery in such severe compression patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of serial free/total prostate-specific antigen ratios in a watchful observation protocol for men with localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, V; Choo, R; De Boer, G; Klotz, L; Danjoux, C; Morton, G; Szumacher, E; Fleshner, N; Bunting, P

    2002-05-01

    To examine the change in the free/total prostate specific antigen ratio (f/tPSA) with time and to assess the potential value of serial measurements of f/tPSA as a determinant of disease progression in untreated, low-to-intermediate grade prostate cancer (T1b-T2b N0M0, Gleason score < or = 7 and PSA < or = 15 ng/mL). In a prospective single-arm cohort study from November 1995, patients were conservatively managed with watchful observation alone unless they met arbitrarily defined criteria (clinical, histological and biochemical) of disease progression. Patients were followed regularly and underwent blood tests including PSA and f/tPSA. The initial and mean f/tPSA and the rate of change of f/tPSA with time were evaluated against the rate constant for the PSA doubling time (PSATd). Correlation analyses were used to evaluate any association between baseline clinical variables and either the rate of change of f/tPSA or initial f/tPSA. As of December 2000, 161 of a total of 206 accrued patients had three or more f/tPSA measurements and formed the basis of the study (median age 70 years; median follow-up 2.7 years). The median initial f/tPSA was 0.16; there was a significant negative correlation between this value and the initial total PSA. The mean f/tPSA and rate of change of f/tPSA with time were significantly negatively correlated with the rate constant for PSATd. Also, the rate of change of f/tPSA correlated negatively with clinical T stage, but not with other baseline variables, including initial PSA, age and Gleason score. The f/tPSA in men with untreated, clinically localized prostate cancer varied widely. The negative correlation between the rate of change of f/tPSA with time and rate constant for PSATd suggests that both might provide valuable information to allow clinicians to develop a strategy for optimizing the timing of therapeutic intervention for those patients choosing watchful observation alone.

  1. Evaluation of Extraction Protocols for Simultaneous Polar and Non-Polar Yeast Metabolite Analysis Using Multivariate Projection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas P. Tambellini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic and lipidomic approaches aim to measure metabolites or lipids in the cell. Metabolite extraction is a key step in obtaining useful and reliable data for successful metabolite studies. Significant efforts have been made to identify the optimal extraction protocol for various platforms and biological systems, for both polar and non-polar metabolites. Here we report an approach utilizing chemoinformatics for systematic comparison of protocols to extract both from a single sample of the model yeast organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three chloroform/methanol/water partitioning based extraction protocols found in literature were evaluated for their effectiveness at reproducibly extracting both polar and non-polar metabolites. Fatty acid methyl esters and methoxyamine/trimethylsilyl derivatized aqueous compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to evaluate non-polar or polar metabolite analysis. The comparative breadth and amount of recovered metabolites was evaluated using multivariate projection methods. This approach identified an optimal protocol consisting of 64 identified polar metabolites from 105 ion hits and 12 fatty acids recovered, and will potentially attenuate the error and variation associated with combining metabolite profiles from different samples for untargeted analysis with both polar and non-polar analytes. It also confirmed the value of using multivariate projection methods to compare established extraction protocols.

  2. Mobile Health Technology Interventions for Suicide Prevention: Protocol for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Ruth; Francis, Kady; Duggan, Jim; Bogue, John; O'Sullivan, Mary; Chambers, Derek; Young, Karen

    2018-01-26

    Previous research has reported that two of the major barriers to help-seeking for individuals at risk of suicide are stigma and geographical isolation. Mobile technology offers a potential means of delivering evidence-based interventions with greater specificity to the individual, and at the time that it is needed. Despite documented motivation by at-risk individuals to use mobile technology to track mental health and to support psychological interventions, there is a shortfall of outcomes data on the efficacy of mobile health (mHealth) technology on suicide-specific outcomes. The objective of this study is to develop a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis that aims to evaluate the effectiveness of mobile technology-based interventions for suicide prevention. The search includes the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL: The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CRESP and relevant sources of gray literature. Studies that have evaluated psychological or nonpsychological interventions delivered via mobile computing and communication technology, and have suicidality as an outcome measure will be included. Two authors will independently extract data and assess the study suitability in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool. Studies will be included if they measure at least one suicide outcome variable (ie, suicidal ideation, suicidal intent, nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, suicidal behavior). Secondary outcomes will be measures of symptoms of depression. Where studies are sufficiently homogenous and reported outcomes are amenable for pooled synthesis, meta-analysis will be performed. A narrative synthesis will be conducted if the data is unsuitable for a meta-analysis. The review is in progress, with findings expected by summer 2018. To date, evaluations of mobile technology-based interventions in suicide prevention have focused on evaluating content as opposed to efficacy. Indeed, previous research has

  3. A critical analysis of a locally agreed protocol for clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, A.; Hogg, P.; Nightingale, J.

    2004-01-01

    Within the traditional scope of radiographic practice (including advanced practice) there is a need to demonstrate effective patient care and management. Such practice should be set within a context of appropriate evidence and should also reflect peer practice. In order to achieve such practice the use of protocols is encouraged. Effective protocols can maximise care and management by minimising inter- and intra-professional variation; they can also allow for detailed procedural records to be kept in case of legal claims. However, whilst literature exists to encourage the use of protocols there is little published material available to indicate how to create, manage and archive them. This article uses an analytical approach to propose a suitable method for protocol creation and archival, it also offers suggestions on the scope and content of a protocol. To achieve this an existing clinical protocol for radiographer reporting barium enemas is analysed to draw out the general issues. Proposals for protocol creation, management, and archival were identified. The clinical practice described or inferred in the protocol should be drawn from evidence, such evidence could include peer-reviewed material, national standards and peer practice. The protocol should include an explanation of how to proceed when the radiographers reach the limit of their ability. It should refer to the initial training required to undertake the clinical duties as well as the on-going continual professional updating required to maintain competence. Audit of practice should be indicated, including the preferred audit methodology, and associated with this should be a clear statement about standards and what to do if standards are not adequately met. Protocols should be archived, in a paper-based form, for lengthy periods in case of legal claims. On the archived protocol the date it was in clinical use should be included

  4. Statistical analysis of the ratio of electric and magnetic fields in random fields generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, R.; Nijenhuis, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present statistical models of the ratio of random electric and magnetic fields in mode-stirred reverberation chambers. This ratio is based on the electric and magnetic field statistics derived for ideal reverberation conditions. It provides a further performance indicator for

  5. Analysis of Case-Parent Trios Using a Loglinear Model with Adjustment for Transmission Ratio Distortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lam Opal; Infante-RIvard, Claire; Labbe, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of the two parental alleles to offspring deviating from the Mendelian ratio is termed Transmission Ratio Distortion (TRD), occurs throughout gametic and embryonic development. TRD has been well-studied in animals, but remains largely unknown in humans. The Transmission Disequilibrium...

  6. FRAN: financial ratio analysis and more (Version 2.0 for Windows)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Hansen; Arnold J., Jr. Palmer

    1999-01-01

    FRAN is a computer-based, stand-alone program designed to generate important financial and operating ratios from tax and wage forms filed with the Internal Revenue Service. FRAN generates standard profitability, financial/leverage, liquidity/solvency, and activity ratios, as well as unique measures of workforce and capital cost and acquisition. Information produced by...

  7. Aged and Dependency Ratios among Autism, Intellectual Disability and Other Disabilities: 10-Year Trend Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Dependency ratios are useful as general indicators of future economic and social health. The present paper focuses on the description of dependency ratios and over time change in different kind of disability which include autism, intellectual disability, vision, hearing, and limb impairments. We analyzed data mainly from the public web-access…

  8. Flood susceptibility analysis through remote sensing, GIS and frequency ratio model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Sailesh; Pal, Dilip Kumar; Palsamanta, Babita

    2018-05-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) is saddled with frequent natural disasters like earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, drought, flood etc. Flood, as a hydrological disaster to humankind's niche brings about a powerful and often sudden, pernicious change in the surface distribution of water on land, while the benevolence of flood manifests in restoring the health of the thalweg from excessive siltation by redistributing the fertile sediments on the riverine floodplains. In respect to social, economic and environmental perspective, flood is one of the most devastating disasters in PNG. This research was conducted to investigate the usefulness of remote sensing, geographic information system and the frequency ratio (FR) for flood susceptibility mapping. FR model was used to handle different independent variables via weighted-based bivariate probability values to generate a plausible flood susceptibility map. This study was conducted in the Markham riverine precinct under Morobe province in PNG. A historical flood inventory database of PNG resource information system (PNGRIS) was used to generate 143 flood locations based on "create fishnet" analysis. 100 (70%) flood sample locations were selected randomly for model building. Ten independent variables, namely land use/land cover, elevation, slope, topographic wetness index, surface runoff, landform, lithology, distance from the main river, soil texture and soil drainage were used into the FR model for flood vulnerability analysis. Finally, the database was developed for areas vulnerable to flood. The result demonstrated a span of FR values ranging from 2.66 (least flood prone) to 19.02 (most flood prone) for the study area. The developed database was reclassified into five (5) flood vulnerability zones segmenting on the FR values, namely very low (less that 5.0), low (5.0-7.5), moderate (7.5-10.0), high (10.0-12.5) and very high susceptibility (more than 12.5). The result indicated that about 19.4% land area as `very high

  9. An Analysis of Agency Costs and Dividend Payout Ratio of Non-financial Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Natalia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aim to analyze the effect of Insider Ownership, Institutional Ownership, Dispersion of Ownership, Debt to Total Assets, Collateralizable Assets and Free Cash Flow on the Dividend Payout Ratio. These independent variables are proxies of agency costs. This study uses panel data of 90 non-financial companies in the period of 2009-2011. The findings indicate that (1 All independent variables (Insider Ownership, Institutional Ownership, Dispersion of Ownership, Debt to Total Assets, Collateralizable Assets and Free Cash Flow have significant effect on the dependent variable (Dividend Payout Ratio simultaneously; (2 Institutional Ownership and Collateralizable Assets have a significant positive effect on Dividend Payout Ratio; (3 Insider Ownership, Debt to Total Assets, and Dispersion of Ownership have a significant negative effect on Dividend Payout Ratio; (4 Free Cash Flow has no significant positive effect on Dividend Payout Ratio.

  10. Specimen preparation, imaging, and analysis protocols for knife-edge scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Yoonsuck; Mayerich, David; Kwon, Jaerock; Miller, Daniel E; Sung, Chul; Chung, Ji Ryang; Huffman, Todd; Keyser, John; Abbott, Louise C

    2011-12-09

    Major advances in high-throughput, high-resolution, 3D microscopy techniques have enabled the acquisition of large volumes of neuroanatomical data at submicrometer resolution. One of the first such instruments producing whole-brain-scale data is the Knife-Edge Scanning Microscope (KESM), developed and hosted in the authors' lab. KESM has been used to section and image whole mouse brains at submicrometer resolution, revealing the intricate details of the neuronal networks (Golgi), vascular networks (India ink), and cell body distribution (Nissl). The use of KESM is not restricted to the mouse nor the brain. We have successfully imaged the octopus brain, mouse lung, and rat brain. We are currently working on whole zebra fish embryos. Data like these can greatly contribute to connectomics research; to microcirculation and hemodynamic research; and to stereology research by providing an exact ground-truth. In this article, we will describe the pipeline, including specimen preparation (fixing, staining, and embedding), KESM configuration and setup, sectioning and imaging with the KESM, image processing, data preparation, and data visualization and analysis. The emphasis will be on specimen preparation and visualization/analysis of obtained KESM data. We expect the detailed protocol presented in this article to help broaden the access to KESM and increase its utilization.

  11. Analysis of the width ratio and wear rate of maxillary anterior teeth in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yeon-Ah; Yang, Hong-So; Park, Sang-Won; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Park, Chan

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the width ratio of maxillary anterior teeth according to age in the Korean population and to evaluate the maxillary central incisor width-to-length (W/L) ratio, given differences in age and gender. Ninety-three Korean adults were divided into 3 groups (n = 31) by age. Group I was 20 - 39 years old, Group II was 40 - 59 years old, and Group III was over 60 years of age. After taking an impression and a cast model of the maxillary arch, the anterior teeth width ratio and central incisor W/L ratio were calculated from standard digital images of the cast models using a graph paper with a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera. The calculated ratios were compared among all groups and central incisor W/L ratio were analyzed according to age and gender. All comparative data were statistically analyzed with one-sample t-tests, one-way ANOVAs with Tukey tests, and independent t-tests. No significant differences in maxillary anterior teeth ratios were found among the age groups. The maxillary central incisor W/L ratios in Group III were the greatest and were significantly higher than those in the other groups. The central incisor W/L ratio of men was higher than that of women in Group II. Maxillary anterior teeth width ratios were similar in all age groups in the Korean population. The maxillary central incisor was observed as worn teeth in the group over 60 years of age, and a significant difference between genders was found in 40 to 50 year olds.

  12. Metabolic flux ratio analysis and cell staining suggest the existence of C4 photosynthesis in Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, A; Liu, L; Zhao, P; Yang, C; Wang, G C

    2016-03-01

    Mechanisms for carbon fixation via photosynthesis in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin were studied recently but there remains a long-standing debate concerning the occurrence of C4 photosynthesis in this species. A thorough investigation of carbon metabolism and the evidence for C4 photosynthesis based on organelle partitioning was needed. In this study, we identified the flux ratios between C3 and C4 compounds in P. tricornutum using (13)C-labelling metabolic flux ratio analysis, and stained cells with various cell-permeant fluorescent probes to investigate the likely organelle partitioning required for single-cell C4 photosynthesis. Metabolic flux ratio analysis indicated the C3/C4 exchange ratios were high. Cell staining indicated organelle partitioning required for single-cell C4 photosynthesis might exist in P. tricornutum. The results of (13)C-labelling metabolic flux ratio analysis and cell staining suggest single-cell C4 photosynthesis exists in P. tricornutum. This study provides insights into photosynthesis patterns of P. tricornutum and the evidence for C4 photosynthesis based on (13)C-labelling metabolic flux ratio analysis and organelle partitioning. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Modelling, Verification, and Comparative Performance Analysis of the B.A.T.M.A.N. Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaudhary, Kaylash; Fehnker, Ansgar; Mehta, Vinay; Hermanns, Holger; Höfner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers on a network routing protocol known as Better Approach to Mobile Ad hoc Networks (B.A.T.M.A.N.). The protocol serves two aims: first, to discover all bidirectional links, and second, to identify the best-next-hop for every other node in the network. A key element is that each

  14. An Overview and Analysis of Mobile Internet Protocols in Cellular Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Han-Chieh

    2001-01-01

    Notes that cellular is the inevitable future architecture for the personal communication service system. Discusses the current cellular support based on Mobile Internet Protocol version 6 (Ipv6) and points out the shortfalls of using Mobile IP. Highlights protocols especially for mobile management schemes which can optimize a high-speed mobile…

  15. 75 FR 53273 - Federal Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Risk Analysis Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force (ANSTF). The Protocol is available for public review and comment... the draft revised Protocol are available on the ANSTF website, http://anstaskforce.gov/documents.php... nonindigenous species (ANS) and is designed to reduce the risk that research activities may cause introduction...

  16. Teaching Integrity in Empirical Research: A Protocol for Documenting Data Management and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Richard; Medeiros, Norm

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a protocol the authors developed for teaching undergraduates to document their statistical analyses for empirical research projects so that their results are completely reproducible and verifiable. The protocol is guided by the principle that the documentation prepared to accompany an empirical research project should be…

  17. Modified Scoring, Traditional Item Analysis, and Sato's Caution Index Used To Investigate the Reading Recall Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Craig W.; Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    A study demonstrated the utility of item analyses to investigate which items function well or poorly in a second language reading recall protocol instrument. Data were drawn from a larger study of 56 learners of German as a second language at various proficiency levels. Pausal units of scored recall protocols were analyzed using both classical…

  18. Introducing axonal myelination in connectomics: A preliminary analysis of g-ratio distribution in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Matteo; Giulietti, Giovanni; Dowell, Nicholas; Spanò, Barbara; Harrison, Neil; Bozzali, Marco; Cercignani, Mara

    2017-09-14

    Microstructural imaging and connectomics are two research areas that hold great potential for investigating brain structure and function. Combining these two approaches can lead to a better and more complete characterization of the brain as a network. The aim of this work is characterizing the connectome from a novel perspective using the myelination measure given by the g-ratio. The g-ratio is the ratio of the inner to the outer diameters of a myelinated axon, whose aggregated value can now be estimated in vivo using MRI. In two different datasets of healthy subjects, we reconstructed the structural connectome and then used the g-ratio estimated from diffusion and magnetization transfer data to characterize the network structure. Significant characteristics of g-ratio weighted graphs emerged. First, the g-ratio distribution across the edges of the graph did not show the power-law distribution observed using the number of streamlines as a weight. Second, connections involving regions related to motor and sensory functions were the highest in myelin content. We also observed significant differences in terms of the hub structure and the rich-club organization suggesting that connections involving hub regions present higher myelination than peripheral connections. Taken together, these findings offer a characterization of g-ratio distribution across the connectome in healthy subjects and lay the foundations for further investigating plasticity and pathology using a similar approach. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The analysis of optimal crack ratio for PWR pressure vessel cladding using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mike Susmikanti; Roziq Himawan; Jos Budi Sulistyo

    2018-01-01

    Several aspects of material failure have been investigated, especially for materials used in Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) cladding. One aspect that needs to be analyzed is the crack ratio. The crack ratio is a parameter that compares the depth of the gap to its width. The optimal value of the crack ratio reflects the material's resistance to the fracture. Fracture resistance of the material to fracture mechanics is indicated by the value of Stress Intensity Factor (SIF). This value can be obtained from a J-integral calculation that expresses the energy release rate. The detection of the crack ratio is conducted through the calculation of J-integral value. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) is one way to determine the optimal value for a problem. The purpose of this study is to analyze the possibility of fracture caused by crack. It was conducted by optimizing the crack ratio of AISI 308L and AISI 309L stainless steels using GA. Those materials are used for RPV cladding. The minimum crack ratio and J-Integral values were obtained for AISI 308L and AISI 309L. The SIF value was derived from the J-Integral calculation. The SIF value was then compared with the fracture toughness of those material. With the optimal crack ratio, it can be predicted that the material boundaries are protected from damaged events. It can be a reference material for the durability of a mechanical fracture event. (author)

  20. Effect of crown-to-implant ratio on peri-implant stress: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verri, Fellippo Ramos; Batista, Victor Eduardo de Souza; Santiago, Joel Ferreira; Almeida, Daniel Augusto de Faria; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate stress distribution in the fixation screws and bone tissue around implants in single-implant supported prostheses with crowns of different heights (10, 12.5, 15 mm - crown-to-implant ratio 1:1, 1.25:1, 1.5:1, respectively). It was designed using three 3-D models. Each model was developed with a mandibular segment of bone block including an internal hexagon implant supporting a screw-retained, single metal-ceramic crown. The crown height was set at 10, 12.5, and 15 mm with crown-to-implant ratio of 1:1, 1.25:1, 1.5:1, respectively. The applied forces were 200N (axial) and 100 N (oblique). The increase of crown height showed differences with the oblique load in some situations. By von Mises' criterion, a high stress area was concentrated at the implant/fixation screw and abutment/implant interfaces at crown-to-implant ratio of 1:1, 1.25:1, 1.5:1, respectively. Using the maximum principal criteria, the buccal regions showed higher traction stress intensity, whereas the distal regions showed the largest compressive stress in all models. The increase of C/I ratio must be carefully evaluated by the dentist since the increase of this C/I ratio is proportional to the increase of average stress for both screw fixation (C/I 1:1 to 1:1.25 ratio=30.1% and C/I 1:1 to 1:1.5 ratio=46.3%) and bone tissue (C/I 1:1 to 1:1.25 ratio=30% and C/I 1:1 to 1:1.5 ratio=51.5%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing connectivity of estuarine fishes based on stable isotope ratio analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzka, Sharon Z.

    2005-07-01

    Assessing connectivity is fundamental to understanding the population dynamics of fishes. I propose that isotopic analyses can greatly contribute to studies of connectivity in estuarine fishes due to the high diversity of isotopic signatures found among estuarine habitats and the fact that variations in isotopic composition at the base of a food web are reflected in the tissues of consumers. Isotopic analysis can be used for identifying nursery habitats and estimating their contribution to adult populations. If movement to a new habitat is accompanied by a shift to foods of distinct isotopic composition, recent immigrants and residents can be distinguished based on their isotopic ratios. Movement patterns thus can be reconstructed based on information obtained from individuals. A key consideration is the rate of isotopic turnover, which determines the length of time that an immigrant to a given habitat will be distinguishable from a longtime resident. A literature survey indicated that few studies have measured turnover rates in fishes and that these have focused on larvae and juveniles. These studies reveal that biomass gain is the primary process driving turnover rates, while metabolic turnover is either minimal or undetectable. Using a simple dilution model and biomass-specific growth rates, I estimated that young fishes with fast growth rates will reflect the isotopic composition of a new diet within days or weeks. Older or slower-growing individuals may take years or never fully equilibrate. Future studies should evaluate the factors that influence turnover rates in fishes during various stages of the life cycle and in different tissues, as well as explore the potential for combining stable isotope and otolith microstructure analyses to examine the relationship between demographic parameters, movement and connectivity.

  2. Analysis of the influence factors on myocardium to liver ratio of 99Tcm-MIBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinming; Tian Jiahe; Zhao Xiaoguang; Liu Zilai; Wang Shengcai

    1995-01-01

    The resting myocardial SPECT by different MIBI kits for 113 cases of normal and ischemic heart disease is performed. The preparation of kits, reducing agents, and the time of imaging are checked using myocardium to liver (M/L) ratio as the parameter of myocardium uptake of MIBI. It shows that MIBI uptake of myocardium has no relation with the reducing agents, the time of imaging between 60-120 min, while M/L ratio varied in every individual case. The ratio of M/L has also no relation to the Radiochemical Purity (RCP) as long as RCP is more than 95%

  3. Successful implementation of a perioperative glycemic control protocol in cardiac surgery: barrier analysis and intervention using lean six sigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Elizabeth A; Chavez-Valdez, Raul; Holt, Natalie F; Grogan, Kelly L; Khalifeh, Katherine W; Slater, Tammy; Winner, Laura E; Moyer, Jennifer; Lehmann, Christoph U

    2011-01-01

    Although the evidence strongly supports perioperative glycemic control among cardiac surgical patients, there is scant literature to describe the practical application of such a protocol in the complex ICU environment. This paper describes the use of the Lean Six Sigma methodology to implement a perioperative insulin protocol in a cardiac surgical intensive care unit (CSICU) in a large academic hospital. A preintervention chart audit revealed that fewer than 10% of patients were admitted to the CSICU with glucose <200 mg/dL, prompting the initiation of the quality improvement project. Following protocol implementation, more than 90% of patients were admitted with a glucose <200 mg/dL. Key elements to success include barrier analysis and intervention, provider education, and broadening the project scope to address the intraoperative period.

  4. Successful Implementation of a Perioperative Glycemic Control Protocol in Cardiac Surgery: Barrier Analysis and Intervention Using Lean Six Sigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Elizabeth A.; Chavez-Valdez, Raul; Holt, Natalie F.; Grogan, Kelly L.; Khalifeh, Katherine W.; Slater, Tammy; Winner, Laura E.; Moyer, Jennifer; Lehmann, Christoph U.

    2011-01-01

    Although the evidence strongly supports perioperative glycemic control among cardiac surgical patients, there is scant literature to describe the practical application of such a protocol in the complex ICU environment. This paper describes the use of the Lean Six Sigma methodology to implement a perioperative insulin protocol in a cardiac surgical intensive care unit (CSICU) in a large academic hospital. A preintervention chart audit revealed that fewer than 10% of patients were admitted to the CSICU with glucose <200 mg/dL, prompting the initiation of the quality improvement project. Following protocol implementation, more than 90% of patients were admitted with a glucose <200 mg/dL. Key elements to success include barrier analysis and intervention, provider education, and broadening the project scope to address the intraoperative period. PMID:22091218

  5. Successful Implementation of a Perioperative Glycemic Control Protocol in Cardiac Surgery: Barrier Analysis and Intervention Using Lean Six Sigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the evidence strongly supports perioperative glycemic control among cardiac surgical patients, there is scant literature to describe the practical application of such a protocol in the complex ICU environment. This paper describes the use of the Lean Six Sigma methodology to implement a perioperative insulin protocol in a cardiac surgical intensive care unit (CSICU in a large academic hospital. A preintervention chart audit revealed that fewer than 10% of patients were admitted to the CSICU with glucose <200 mg/dL, prompting the initiation of the quality improvement project. Following protocol implementation, more than 90% of patients were admitted with a glucose <200 mg/dL. Key elements to success include barrier analysis and intervention, provider education, and broadening the project scope to address the intraoperative period.

  6. Insect Venom Immunotherapy: Analysis of the Safety and Tolerance of 3 Buildup Protocols Frequently Used in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Fernández, D; Moreno-Ancillo, A; Fernández Meléndez, S; Domínguez-Noche, C; Gálvez Ruiz, P; Alfaya Arias, T; Carballada González, F; Alonso Llamazares, A; Marques Amat, L; Vega Castro, A; Antolín Amérigo, D; Cruz Granados, S; Ruiz León, B; Sánchez Morillas, L; Fernández Sánchez, J; Soriano Gomis, V; Borja Segade, J; Dalmau Duch, G; Guspi Bori, R; Miranda Páez, A

    2016-01-01

    Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy (VIT) is an effective treatment but not one devoid of risk, as both local and systemic adverse reactions may occur, especially in the initial phases. We compared the tolerance to 3 VIT buildup protocols and analyzed risk factors associated with adverse reactions during this phase. We enrolled 165 patients divided into 3 groups based on the buildup protocol used (3, 4, and 9 weeks). The severity of systemic reactions was evaluated according to the World Allergy Organization model. Results were analyzed using exploratory descriptive statistics, and variables were compared using analysis of variance. Adverse reactions were recorded in 53 patients (32%) (43 local and 10 systemic). Local reactions were immediate in 27 patients (63%) and delayed in 16 (37%). The severity of the local reaction was slight/moderate in 15 patients and severe in 13. Systemic reactions were grade 1-2. No significant association was found between the treatment modality and the onset of local or systemic adverse reactions or the type of local reaction. We only found a statistically significant association between severity of the local reaction and female gender. As for the risk factors associated with systemic reactions during the buildup phase, we found no significant differences in values depending on the protocol used or the insect responsible. The buildup protocols compared proved to be safe and did not differ significantly from one another. In the population studied, patients undergoing the 9-week schedule presented no systemic reactions. Therefore, this protocol can be considered the safest approach.

  7. Comparison of gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for carbon stable-isotope analysis of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja C W; Schierbeek, Henk; Houtekamer, Marco; van Engeland, Tom; Derrien, Delphine; Stal, Lucas J; Boschker, Henricus T S

    2015-07-15

    We compared gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) for the measurement of δ(13)C values in carbohydrates. Contrary to GC/IRMS, no derivatisation is needed for LC/IRMS analysis of carbohydrates. Hence, although LC/IRMS is expected to be more accurate and precise, no direct comparison has been reported. GC/IRMS with the aldonitrile penta-acetate (ANPA) derivatisation method was compared with LC/IRMS without derivatisation. A large number of glucose standards and a variety of natural samples were analysed for five neutral carbohydrates at natural abundance as well as at (13)C-enriched levels. Gas chromatography/chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (GC/CIMS) was applied to check for incomplete derivatisation of the carbohydrate, which would impair the accuracy of the GC/IRMS method. The LC/IRMS technique provided excellent precision (±0.08‰ and ±3.1‰ at natural abundance and enrichment levels, respectively) for the glucose standards and this technique proved to be superior to GC/IRMS (±0.62‰ and ±19.8‰ at natural abundance and enrichment levels, respectively). For GC/IRMS measurements the derivatisation correction and the conversion of carbohydrates into CO2 had a considerable effect on the measured δ(13)C values. However, we did not find any significant differences in the accuracy of the two techniques over the full range of natural δ(13)C abundances and (13)C-labelled glucose. The difference in the performance of GC/IRMS and LC/IRMS diminished when the δ(13)C values were measured in natural samples, because the chromatographic performance and background correction became critical factors, particularly for LC/IRMS. The derivatisation of carbohydrates for the GC/IRMS method was complete. Although both LC/IRMS and GC/IRMS are reliable techniques for compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of carbohydrates (provided that derivatisation is complete and the

  8. Parameter estimation in astronomy through application of the likelihood ratio. [satellite data analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, W.

    1979-01-01

    Many problems in the experimental estimation of parameters for models can be solved through use of the likelihood ratio test. Applications of the likelihood ratio, with particular attention to photon counting experiments, are discussed. The procedures presented solve a greater range of problems than those currently in use, yet are no more difficult to apply. The procedures are proved analytically, and examples from current problems in astronomy are discussed.

  9. Parametric analysis of diffuser requirements for high expansion ratio space engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, C. J.; Anderson, P. G.

    1981-01-01

    A supersonic diffuser ejector design computer program was developed. Using empirically modified one dimensional flow methods the diffuser ejector geometry is specified by the code. The design code results for calculations up to the end of the diffuser second throat were verified. Diffuser requirements for sea level testing of high expansion ratio space engines were defined. The feasibility of an ejector system using two commonly available turbojet engines feeding two variable area ratio ejectors was demonstrated.

  10. A Ten Step Protocol and Plan for CCS Site Characterization, Based on an Analysis of the Rocky Mountain Region, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, Brian; Matthews, Vince

    2013-09-15

    This report expresses a Ten-Step Protocol for CO2 Storage Site Characterization, the final outcome of an extensive Site Characterization analysis of the Rocky Mountain region, USA. These ten steps include: (1) regional assessment and data gathering; (2) identification and analysis of appropriate local sites for characterization; (3) public engagement; (4) geologic and geophysical analysis of local site(s); (5) stratigraphic well drilling and coring; (6) core analysis and interpretation with other data; (7) database assembly and static model development; (8) storage capacity assessment; (9) simulation and uncertainty assessment; (10) risk assessment. While the results detailed here are primarily germane to the Rocky Mountain region, the intent of this protocol is to be portable or generally applicable for CO2 storage site characterization.

  11. Pharmacotherapies for fatigue in chronic liver disease (CLD): a systematic review and meta-analysis (protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effiong, Andem; Kumari, Prerna

    2018-02-14

    This is the protocol for a systematic review (and meta-analysis) of an intervention. The primary objective of this systematic review will be to assess the benefits and harms of pharmacological therapies (pharmacotherapies) for the management of fatigue in adults with CLD of any etiology. The effects of pharmacological therapies on fatigue in CLD will be compared against those of placebo, no intervention, or non-pharmacological interventions. Specifically, this review will examine whether pharmacological therapies improve CLD-associated fatigue, and if they do, what key elements are associated with their effectiveness. The results of this systematic review will assist clinicians, policy-makers, researchers, and people with CLD in decision-making on how best to manage fatigue and its associated symptoms. MEDLINE, SCOPUS, EMBASE, EU Clinical Trials Register, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), ClinicalTrials.gov, reference lists of articles and conference proceedings will be searched for relevant studies. No language or date restrictions will be applied. Eligible studies will include adults with CLD of any etiology. Included studies will be randomized controlled trials. From included studies, data on participant characteristics, study design, setting, research ethics compliance, and intervention outcomes will be extracted. Risk of bias in included studies will be assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. A random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted. If substantial or considerable levels of heterogeneity are detected, analysis will be limited to a narrative synthesis. This systematic review will examine the effectiveness of pharmacological therapies on fatigue reduction in people with CLD. Such therapies may be more effective than non-pharmacological interventions in treating fatigue symptoms in CLD. Evidence derived from the findings of this study will guide future practice, policy, and research. PROSPERO, CRD

  12. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sung-Eun; Park, Min-Ji; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; Phamstring-to-quadriceps ratio was 4% greater in ACL deficient than in uninjured limbs (95% CI: 1.7% to 6.3%; Phamstring muscles of patients with ACL tear, with the decrease in quadriceps strength being 3-fold greater. These uneven reductions slightly increase the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in ACL deficient knees. PMID:26745808

  13. The likelihood ratio as a random variable for linked markers in kinship analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Thore; Slooten, Klaas

    2016-11-01

    The likelihood ratio is the fundamental quantity that summarizes the evidence in forensic cases. Therefore, it is important to understand the theoretical properties of this statistic. This paper is the last in a series of three, and the first to study linked markers. We show that for all non-inbred pairwise kinship comparisons, the expected likelihood ratio in favor of a type of relatedness depends on the allele frequencies only via the number of alleles, also for linked markers, and also if the true relationship is another one than is tested for by the likelihood ratio. Exact expressions for the expectation and variance are derived for all these cases. Furthermore, we show that the expected likelihood ratio is a non-increasing function if the recombination rate increases between 0 and 0.5 when the actual relationship is the one investigated by the LR. Besides being of theoretical interest, exact expressions such as obtained here can be used for software validation as they allow to verify the correctness up to arbitrary precision. The paper also presents results and advice of practical importance. For example, we argue that the logarithm of the likelihood ratio behaves in a fundamentally different way than the likelihood ratio itself in terms of expectation and variance, in agreement with its interpretation as weight of evidence. Equipped with the results presented and freely available software, one may check calculations and software and also do power calculations.

  14. A Protocol for the Comprehensive Flow Cytometric Analysis of Immune Cells in Normal and Inflamed Murine Non-Lymphoid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yen-Rei A.; O’Koren, Emily G.; Hotten, Danielle F.; Kan, Matthew J.; Kopin, David; Nelson, Erik R.; Que, Loretta; Gunn, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry is used extensively to examine immune cells in non-lymphoid tissues. However, a method of flow cytometric analysis that is both comprehensive and widely applicable has not been described. We developed a protocol for the flow cytometric analysis of non-lymphoid tissues, including methods of tissue preparation, a 10-fluorochrome panel for cell staining, and a standardized gating strategy, that allows the simultaneous identification and quantification of all major immune cell types in a variety of normal and inflamed non-lymphoid tissues. We demonstrate that our basic protocol minimizes cell loss, reliably distinguishes macrophages from dendritic cells (DC), and identifies all major granulocytic and mononuclear phagocytic cell types. This protocol is able to accurately quantify 11 distinct immune cell types, including T cells, B cells, NK cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, inflammatory monocytes, resident monocytes, alveolar macrophages, resident/interstitial macrophages, CD11b- DC, and CD11b+ DC, in normal lung, heart, liver, kidney, intestine, skin, eyes, and mammary gland. We also characterized the expression patterns of several commonly used myeloid and macrophage markers. This basic protocol can be expanded to identify additional cell types such as mast cells, basophils, and plasmacytoid DC, or perform detailed phenotyping of specific cell types. In examining models of primary and metastatic mammary tumors, this protocol allowed the identification of several distinct tumor associated macrophage phenotypes, the appearance of which was highly specific to individual tumor cell lines. This protocol provides a valuable tool to examine immune cell repertoires and follow immune responses in a wide variety of tissues and experimental conditions. PMID:26938654

  15. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P 2015 statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Estarli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews should build on a protocol that describes the rationale, hypothesis, and planned methods of the review; few reviews report whether a protocol exists. Detailed, well-described protocols can facilitate the understanding and appraisal of the review methods, as well as the detection of modifications to methods and selective reporting in completed reviews. We describe the development of a reporting guideline, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols 2015 (PRISMA-P 2015. PRISMA-P consists of a 17-item checklist intended to facilitate the preparation and reporting of a robust protocol for the systematic review. Funders and those commissioning reviews might consider mandating the use of the checklist to facilitate the submission of relevant protocol information in funding applications. Similarly, peer reviewers and editors can use the guidance to gauge the completeness and transparency of a systematic review protocol submitted for publication in a journal or other medium. Translation with permission of the authors. The original authors have not revised and verified the Spanish translation, and they do not necessarily endorse it.

  16. Performance Analysis of Secure and Private Billing Protocols for Smart Metering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Eccles

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional utility metering is to be replaced by smart metering. Smart metering enables fine-grained utility consumption measurements. These fine-grained measurements raise privacy concerns due to the lifestyle information which can be inferred from the precise time at which utilities were consumed. This paper outlines and compares two privacy-respecting time of use billing protocols for smart metering and investigates their performance on a variety of hardware. These protocols protect the privacy of customers by never transmitting the fine-grained utility readings outside of the customer’s home network. One protocol favors complexity on the trusted smart meter hardware while the other uses homomorphic commitments to offload computation to a third device. Both protocols are designed to operate on top of existing cryptographic secure channel protocols in place on smart meters. Proof of concept software implementations of these protocols have been written and their suitability for real world application to low-performance smart meter hardware is discussed. These protocols may also have application to other privacy conscious aggregation systems, such as electronic voting.

  17. Hepatic MR imaging for in vivo differentiation of steatosis, iron deposition and combined storage disorder: Single-ratio in/opposed phase analysis vs. dual-ratio Dixon discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, Mustafa R.; Merkle, Elmar M.; Smith, Alastair D.; Boll, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether in vivo dual-ratio Dixon discrimination can improve detection of diffuse liver disease, specifically steatosis, iron deposition and combined disease over traditional single-ratio in/opposed phase analysis. Methods: Seventy-one patients with biopsy-proven (17.7 ± 17.0 days) hepatic steatosis (n = 16), iron deposition (n = 11), combined deposition (n = 3) and neither disease (n = 41) underwent MR examinations. Dual-echo in/opposed-phase MR with Dixon water/fat reconstructions were acquired. Analysis consisted of: (a) single-ratio hepatic region-of-interest (ROI)-based assessment of in/opposed ratios; (b) dual-ratio hepatic ROI assessment of in/opposed and fat/water ratios; (c) computer-aided dual-ratio assessment evaluating all hepatic voxels. Disease-specific thresholds were determined; statistical analyses assessed disease-dependent voxel ratios, based on single-ratio (a) and dual-ratio (b and c) techniques. Results: Single-ratio discrimination succeeded in identifying iron deposition (I/O Ironthreshold Fatthreshold>1.15 ) from normal parenchyma, sensitivity 70.0%; it failed to detect combined disease. Dual-ratio discrimination succeeded in identifying abnormal hepatic parenchyma (F/W Normalthreshold > 0.05), sensitivity 96.7%; logarithmic functions for iron deposition (I/O Iron d iscriminator (0.01−F/W Iron )/0.48 ) and for steatosis (I/O Fatdiscriminator > e (F/W Fat −0.01)/0.48 ) differentiated combined from isolated diseases, sensitivity 100.0%; computer-aided dual-ratio analysis was comparably sensitive but less specific, 90.2% vs. 97.6%. Conclusion: MR two-point-Dixon imaging using dual-ratio post-processing based on in/opposed and fat/water ratios improved in vivo detection of hepatic steatosis, iron deposition, and combined storage disease beyond traditional in/opposed analysis.

  18. Constructing Benchmark Databases and Protocols for Medical Image Analysis: Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Kauppi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the performance evaluation practices for developing medical image analysis methods, in particular, how to establish and share databases of medical images with verified ground truth and solid evaluation protocols. Such databases support the development of better algorithms, execution of profound method comparisons, and, consequently, technology transfer from research laboratories to clinical practice. For this purpose, we propose a framework consisting of reusable methods and tools for the laborious task of constructing a benchmark database. We provide a software tool for medical image annotation helping to collect class label, spatial span, and expert's confidence on lesions and a method to appropriately combine the manual segmentations from multiple experts. The tool and all necessary functionality for method evaluation are provided as public software packages. As a case study, we utilized the framework and tools to establish the DiaRetDB1 V2.1 database for benchmarking diabetic retinopathy detection algorithms. The database contains a set of retinal images, ground truth based on information from multiple experts, and a baseline algorithm for the detection of retinopathy lesions.

  19. A critical comparison of systematic calibration protocols for activated sludge models: a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Gürkan; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; De Pauw, Dirk J W; van Griensven, Ann; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2005-07-01

    Modelling activated sludge systems has gained an increasing momentum after the introduction of activated sludge models (ASMs) in 1987. Application of dynamic models for full-scale systems requires essentially a calibration of the chosen ASM to the case under study. Numerous full-scale model applications have been performed so far which were mostly based on ad hoc approaches and expert knowledge. Further, each modelling study has followed a different calibration approach: e.g. different influent wastewater characterization methods, different kinetic parameter estimation methods, different selection of parameters to be calibrated, different priorities within the calibration steps, etc. In short, there was no standard approach in performing the calibration study, which makes it difficult, if not impossible, to (1) compare different calibrations of ASMs with each other and (2) perform internal quality checks for each calibration study. To address these concerns, systematic calibration protocols have recently been proposed to bring guidance to the modeling of activated sludge systems and in particular to the calibration of full-scale models. In this contribution four existing calibration approaches (BIOMATH, HSG, STOWA and WERF) will be critically discussed using a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis. It will also be assessed in what way these approaches can be further developed in view of further improving the quality of ASM calibration. In this respect, the potential of automating some steps of the calibration procedure by use of mathematical algorithms is highlighted.

  20. Electroacupuncture for women with stress urinary incontinence: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weixin; Li, Xiaohui; Wang, Yuanping; Yan, Xia; Wu, Siping

    2017-12-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a widespread complaint in the adult women. Electroacupuncture has been widely applied in the treatment of SUI. But its efficacy has not been evaluated scientifically and systematically. Therefore, we provide a protocol of systematic evaluation to assess the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture treatment on women with SUI. The retrieved databases include 3 English literature databases, namely PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library, and 3 Chinese literature databases, namely Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Database. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the electroacupuncture treatment on women with SUI will be searched in the above-mentioned databases from the time when the respective databases were established to December 2017. The change from baseline in the amount of urine leakage measured by the 1-hour pad test will be accepted as the primary outcomes. We will use RevMan V.5.3 software as well to compute the data synthesis carefully when a meta-analysis is allowed. This study will provide a high-quality synthesis to assess the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture treatment on women with SUI. The conclusion of our systematic review will provide evidence to judge whether electroacupuncture is an effective intervention for women with SUI. PROSPERO CRD42017070947.

  1. 15N/14N isotopic ratio and statistical analysis: an efficient way of linking seized Ecstasy tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palhol, Fabien; Lamoureux, Catherine; Chabrillat, Martine; Naulet, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the 15 N/ 14 N isotopic ratios of 106 samples of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) extracted from Ecstasy tablets are presented. These ratios, measured using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS), show a large discrimination between samples with a range of δ 15 N values between -17 and +19%o, depending on the precursors and the method used in clandestine laboratories. Thus, δ 15 N values can be used in a statistical analysis carried out in order to link Ecstasy tablets prepared with the same precursors and synthetic pathway. The similarity index obtained after principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis appears to be an efficient way to group tablets seized in different places

  2. {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N isotopic ratio and statistical analysis: an efficient way of linking seized Ecstasy tablets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhol, Fabien; Lamoureux, Catherine; Chabrillat, Martine; Naulet, Norbert

    2004-05-10

    In this study, the {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N isotopic ratios of 106 samples of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) extracted from Ecstasy tablets are presented. These ratios, measured using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS), show a large discrimination between samples with a range of {delta}{sup 15}N values between -17 and +19%o, depending on the precursors and the method used in clandestine laboratories. Thus, {delta}{sup 15}N values can be used in a statistical analysis carried out in order to link Ecstasy tablets prepared with the same precursors and synthetic pathway. The similarity index obtained after principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis appears to be an efficient way to group tablets seized in different places.

  3. Analysis of an employment of a gear ratio rate in CVT control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegożek, W.; Szczepka, M.

    2016-09-01

    Continuously variable transmissions(CVTs) potentially ensure the selection of such a gear ratio that scooter fuel consumption can reach minimum value. Traditionally these CVT gearboxes are mechanically controlled, causing a gear ratio to be an engine revs function. This solution does not ensure optimum gear ratio. In this paper the solution for fuel optimal control problem is presented. The results obtained during brake stand research of scooter powertrains show the significant values of brake specific fuel consumption for the velocity that is maximum for a scooter according to highway code. With the introduction of CVT gearbox in which the selection of gear ratio can be controlled according to the worked out strategy the solution for fuel consumption problem is possible. Electromechanical actuators ensure the selection of a gear ratio independently of engine revs. Such type of construction solution makes working out the suitable control strategy that ensures decreasing of scooter fuel consumption possible. Presented strategies do not use precise optimization techniques. The CVT efficiency has a strong influence on transient operation. In the paper the control strategy owing to which fuel consumption decreases by over 40% is presented. The strategy was worked out on the basis of fuel consumption map for a defined scooter exploitation model. The possibilities of realization of the worked out strategy were tested on the brake test stand.

  4. The analysis of 15N/14N ratios in natural samples, with emphasis on nitrate and ammonium in precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, T.H.E.; Collett, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    The nitrogen cycle is one of the most important of the earth's elemental cycles. The report describes the procedures used for the analysis of 15 N/ 14 N ratios in ammonium and nitrate (and organic nitrogen), and summaries without discussion the data obtained for precipitation (by rain and dust) collected at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research site. The 15 N/ 14 N ratios of nitrogen compounds were determined on N2 gas. This was measured by means of a mass spectrometer. The isotopic analysis of organic nitrogen were conducted in two ways: Kjeldahl digestion to form ammonium, and Dumas combustion directly to N2

  5. Group differences in physician responses to handheld presentation of clinical evidence: a verbal protocol analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovic Nada J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify individual differences in physicians' needs for the presentation of evidence resources and preferences for mobile devices. Methods Within-groups analysis of responses to semi-structured interviews. Interviews consisted of using prototypes in response to task-based scenarios. The prototypes were implemented on two different form factors: a tablet style PC and a pocketPC. Participants were from three user groups: general internists, family physicians and medicine residents, and from two different settings: urban and semi-urban. Verbal protocol analysis, which consists of coding utterances, was conducted on the transcripts of the testing sessions. Statistical relationships were investigated between staff physicians' and residents' background variables, self-reported experiences with the interfaces, and verbal code frequencies. Results 47 physicians were recruited from general internal medicine, family practice clinics and a residency training program. The mean age of participants was 42.6 years. Physician specialty had a greater effect on device and information-presentation preferences than gender, age, setting or previous technical experience. Family physicians preferred the screen size of the tablet computer and were less concerned about its portability. Residents liked the screen size of the tablet, but preferred the portability of the pocketPC. Internists liked the portability of the pocketPC, but saw less advantage to the large screen of the tablet computer (F[2,44] = 4.94, p = .012. Conclusion Different types of physicians have different needs and preferences for evidence-based resources and handheld devices. This study shows how user testing can be incorporated into the process of design to inform group-based customization.

  6. An optimized protocol for generation and analysis of Ion Proton sequencing reads for RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongxian; Xu, Huaiqian; Leung, Ross Ka-Kit

    2016-05-26

    Previous studies compared running cost, time and other performance measures of popular sequencing platforms. However, comprehensive assessment of library construction and analysis protocols for Proton sequencing platform remains unexplored. Unlike Illumina sequencing platforms, Proton reads are heterogeneous in length and quality. When sequencing data from different platforms are combined, this can result in reads with various read length. Whether the performance of the commonly used software for handling such kind of data is satisfactory is unknown. By using universal human reference RNA as the initial material, RNaseIII and chemical fragmentation methods in library construction showed similar result in gene and junction discovery number and expression level estimated accuracy. In contrast, sequencing quality, read length and the choice of software affected mapping rate to a much larger extent. Unspliced aligner TMAP attained the highest mapping rate (97.27 % to genome, 86.46 % to transcriptome), though 47.83 % of mapped reads were clipped. Long reads could paradoxically reduce mapping in junctions. With reference annotation guide, the mapping rate of TopHat2 significantly increased from 75.79 to 92.09 %, especially for long (>150 bp) reads. Sailfish, a k-mer based gene expression quantifier attained highly consistent results with that of TaqMan array and highest sensitivity. We provided for the first time, the reference statistics of library preparation methods, gene detection and quantification and junction discovery for RNA-Seq by the Ion Proton platform. Chemical fragmentation performed equally well with the enzyme-based one. The optimal Ion Proton sequencing options and analysis software have been evaluated.

  7. Analysis of the radius and diameter protocols in terms of pricing telecommunication services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna M. Radonjić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Accounting of telecommunication services is closely related to the functions of authentication and authorization. These functions are usually considered together and implemented within the same server using a common protocol. The most renowned protocols for authentication, authorization and accounting are the RADIUS and Diameter protocols.   AAA functions and related protocols   In this chapter, the accounting management architecture developed by IETF is presented. It includes the interaction between network elements, accounting servers and billing and charging servers. Accounting data can be used for management, planning and charging users as well as other (specific purposes. Authentication is the process of confirming a user's digital identity, usually through some type of identifiers and related data. Authorization determines whether a particular entity is authorized to perform an activity.   Basic Functions of the RADIUS Protocol   The RADIUS architecture is based on a client-server model. It uses UDP on the transport layer. Transactions between the client and the server are authenticated, which is achieved by using a common secret key that is never sent through the network. Given the limited resources available to network devices, RADIUS facilitates and centralizes charging end users, provides some protection against active attacks by unauthorized users and it has great support from different network equipment vendors. Although RADIUS is a widely accepted protocol for the mechanisms of authentication, authorization and accounting, it has certain shortcomings that may be caused by the protocol itself or by its poor implementation.   Architecture and Operation of the Diameter Protocol   Diameter is a scalable protocol designed by the IETF working group in order to eliminate shortcomings and functional limitations of the RADIUS protocol and eventually to replace it in the near future. Most of the basic Diameter mechanisms and its

  8. A new hybrid double divisor ratio spectra method for the analysis of ternary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Rasha M.; Maher, Hadir M.

    2008-10-01

    A new spectrophotometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ternary mixtures, without prior separation steps. This method is based on convolution of the double divisor ratio spectra, obtained by dividing the absorption spectrum of the ternary mixture by a standard spectrum of two of the three compounds in the mixture, using combined trigonometric Fourier functions. The magnitude of the Fourier function coefficients, at either maximum or minimum points, is related to the concentration of each drug in the mixture. The mathematical explanation of the procedure is illustrated. The method was applied for the assay of a model mixture consisting of isoniazid (ISN), rifampicin (RIF) and pyrazinamide (PYZ) in synthetic mixtures, commercial tablets and human urine samples. The developed method was compared with the double divisor ratio spectra derivative method (DDRD) and derivative ratio spectra-zero-crossing method (DRSZ). Linearity, validation, accuracy, precision, limits of detection, limits of quantitation, and other aspects of analytical validation are included in the text.

  9. Simulation Analysis of Computer-Controlled pressurization for Mixture Ratio Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Leslie A.; Bishop-Behel, Karen; Benfield, Michael P. J.; Kelley, Anthony; Woodcock, Gordon R.

    2005-01-01

    A procedural code (C++) simulation was developed to investigate potentials for mixture ratio control of pressure-fed spacecraft rocket propulsion systems by measuring propellant flows, tank liquid quantities, or both, and using feedback from these measurements to adjust propellant tank pressures to set the correct operating mixture ratio for minimum propellant residuals. The pressurization system eliminated mechanical regulators in favor of a computer-controlled, servo- driven throttling valve. We found that a quasi-steady state simulation (pressure and flow transients in the pressurization systems resulting from changes in flow control valve position are ignored) is adequate for this purpose. Monte-Carlo methods are used to obtain simulated statistics on propellant depletion. Mixture ratio control algorithms based on proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller methods were developed. These algorithms actually set target tank pressures; the tank pressures are controlled by another PID controller. Simulation indicates this approach can provide reductions in residual propellants.

  10. Flutter analysis of hybrid metal-composite low aspect ratio trapezoidal wings in supersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrollahi Saeed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An effective 3D supersonic Mach box approach in combination with non-classical hybrid metal-composite plate theory has been used to investigate flutter boundaries of trapezoidal low aspect ratio wings. The wing structure is composed of two main components including aluminum material (in-board section and laminated composite material (out-board section. A global Ritz method is used with simple polynomials being employed as the trial functions. The most important objective of the present research is to study the effect of composite to metal proportion of hybrid wing structure on flutter boundaries in low supersonic regime. In addition, the effect of some important geometrical parameters such as sweep angle, taper ratio and aspect ratio on flutter boundaries were studied. The results obtained by present approach for special cases like pure metallic wings and results for high supersonic regime based on piston theory show a good agreement with those obtained by other investigators.

  11. Optimization of the wavelength shifter ratio in a polystyrene based plastic scintillator through energy spectrum analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ye Won; Kim, Myung Soo; Yoo, Hyun Jun; Lee, Dae Hee; Cho, Gyu Seong [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Myung Kook [Neutron Instrumentation Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The scintillation efficiency of the polystyrene based plastic scintillator depends on the ratio of the wavelength shifters, organic fluors (PPO and POPOP). Thus, 24 samples of the plastic scintillator were fabricated in order to find out the optimum ratio of the wavelength shifters in the plastic scintillator. The fabricated plastic scintillators were trimmed through a cutting and polishing process. They were used in gamma energy spectrum measurement with the {sup 137}Cs emitting monoenergy photon with 662 keV for the comparison of the scintillation efficiency. As a result, it was found out that the scintillator sample with 1.00 g of PPO (2,5-Diphenyloxazole) and 0.50 g of POPOP (1,4-Bis(5-phnyl-2oxidazolyl)benzene) dissolved in 100 g of styrene solution has the optimum ratio in terms of the light yield of the polystyrene based plastic scintillator.

  12. [Analysis of palliative sedation in hospitalised elderly patients: Effectiveness of a protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Nozal, Jesús; García-Cabrera, Lorena; Montero Errasquín, Beatriz; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso José; Rexach Cano, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    To measure changes in the practice of palliative sedation during agony in hospitalised elderly patients before and after the implementation of a palliative sedation protocol. A retrospective before-after study was performed in hospitalised patients over 65 years old who received midazolam during hospital admission and died in the hospital in two 3-month periods, before and after the implementation of the protocol. Non-sedative uses of midazolam and patients in intensive care were excluded. Patient and admission characteristics, the consent process, withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments, and the sedation process (refractory symptom treated, drug doses, assessment and use of other drugs) were recorded. Association was analysed using the Chi(2) and Student t tests. A total of 143 patients were included, with no significant differences between groups in demographic characteristics or symptoms. Do not resuscitate (DNR) orders were recorded in approximately 70% of the subjects of each group, and informed consent for sedation was recorded in 91% before vs. 84% after the protocol. Induction and maintenance doses of midazolam followed protocol recommendations in 1.3% before vs 10.4% after the protocol was implemented (P=.02) and adequate rescue doses were used in 1.3% vs 11.9% respectively (P=.01). Midazolam doses were significantly lower (9.86mg vs 18.67mg, Psedation score was used in 8% vs. 12% and the Palliative Care Team was involved in 35.5% and 16.4% of the cases (P=.008) before and after the protocol, respectively. Use of midazolam slightly improved after the implementation of a hospital protocol on palliative sedation. The percentage of adequate sedations and the general process of sedation were mostly unchanged by the protocol. More education and further assessment is needed to gauge the effect of these measures in the future. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis and Verification of a Key Agreement Protocol over Cloud Computing Using Scyther Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Hazem A Elbaz

    2015-01-01

    The mostly cloud computing authentication mechanisms use public key infrastructure (PKI). Hierarchical Identity Based Cryptography (HIBC) has several advantages that sound well align with the demands of cloud computing. The main objectives of cloud computing authentication protocols are security and efficiency. In this paper, we clarify Hierarchical Identity Based Authentication Key Agreement (HIB-AKA) protocol, providing lightweight key management approach for cloud computing users. Then, we...

  14. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Benjamin E; Hendrick, Paul; Bateman, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    avoidance behaviours, catastrophising, self-efficacy, sport and leisure activity participation, and general quality of life. Follow-up will be 3 and 6 months. The analysis will focus on descriptive statistics and confidence intervals. The qualitative components will follow a thematic analysis approach....... DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate the feasibility of running a definitive large-scale trial on patients with patellofemoral pain, within the NHS in the UK. We will identify strengths and weaknesses of the proposed protocol and the utility and characteristics of the outcome measures. The results from...... this study will inform the design of a multicentre trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN35272486....

  15. Hepatoblastoma Biology Using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry: Utility of a Unique Technique for the Analysis of Oncological Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, Katarzyna; Frączek, Tomasz; Sitkiewicz, Anna; Sikora-Szubert, Anita; Kobos, Józef; Paneth, Piotr

    2016-07-07

    Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary liver tumor in children. However, it occurs rarely, with an incidence of 0.5-1.5 cases per million children. There is no clear explanation of the relationship between clinicopathologic features, therapy, and outcome in hepatoblastoma cases, so far. One of the most widely accepted prognostic factors in hepatoblastoma is histology of the tumor. The aim of the study was to determine the potential differences in biology of hepatoblastoma histological subtypes at the atomic level using the unique method of isotope ratio mass spectrometry, which is especially valuable in examination of small groups of biological samples. Twenty-four measurements of nitrogen stable isotope ratio, carbon stable isotope ratio and total carbon to nitrogen mass ratio in fetal and embryonal hepatoblastoma tissue were performed using a Sercon 20-22 Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (CF-IRMS) coupled with a Sercon SL elemental analyzer for simultaneous carbon-nitrogen-sulfur (NCS) analysis. A difference of about 1.781‰ in stable nitrogen isotope 15N/14N ratio was found between examined hepatoblastoma histological subtypes. The prognosis in liver tumors cases in children may be challenging particularly because of the lack of versatile methods of its evaluation. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry allows one to determine the difference between hepatoblastoma histological subtypes and clearly indicates the cases with the best outcome.

  16. Hepatoblastoma Biology Using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry: Utility of a Unique Technique for the Analysis of Oncological Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Taran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary liver tumor in children. However, it occurs rarely, with an incidence of 0.5-1.5 cases per million children. There is no clear explanation of the relationship between clinicopathologic features, therapy, and outcome in hepatoblastoma cases, so far. One of the most widely accepted prognostic factors in hepatoblastoma is histology of the tumor. The aim of the study was to determine the potential differences in biology of hepatoblastoma histological subtypes at the atomic level using the unique method of isotope ratio mass spectrometry, which is especially valuable in examination of small groups of biological samples.Material/Methods: Twenty-four measurements of nitrogen stable isotope ratio, carbon stable isotope ratio and total carbon to nitrogen mass ratio in fetal and embryonal hepatoblastoma tissue were performed using a Sercon 20-22 Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (CF-IRMS coupled with a Sercon SL elemental analyzer for simultaneous carbon-nitrogen-sulfur (NCS analysis.Results: A difference of about 1.781‰ in stable nitrogen isotope 15N/14N ratio was found between examined hepatoblastoma histological subtypes.Conclusions: The prognosis in liver tumors cases in children may be challenging particularly because of the lack of versatile methods of its evaluation. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry allows one to determine the difference between hepatoblastoma histological subtypes and clearly indicates the cases with the best outcome.

  17. Analysis of fission gas release-to-birth ratio data from the AGR irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einerson, Jeffrey J.; Pham, Binh T.; Scates, Dawn M.; Maki, John T.; Petti, David A.

    2016-01-01

    A series of advanced gas reactor (AGR) irradiation tests is being conducted in the advanced test reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in support of development and qualification of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel used in the High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Each AGR test consists of multiple independent capsules containing fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder shrouded by a steel shell. These capsules are instrumented with thermocouples (TC) embedded in the graphite enabling temperature control. For AGR-1, the first US irradiation of modern TRISO fuel completed in 2009, there were no particle failures detected. For AGR-2, a few exposed kernels existed in the fuel compacts based upon quality control data. For the AGR-3/4 experiment, particle failures in all capsules were expected because of the use of designed-to-fail (DTF) fuel particles whose kernels are identical to the driver fuel kernels and whose coatings are designed to fail under irradiation. The release-rate-to-birth-rate ratio (R/B) for each of krypton and xenon isotopes is calculated from release rates measured by the germanium detectors used in the AGR fission product monitoring (FPM) system installed downstream from each irradiated capsule. Birth rates are calculated based on the fission power in the experiment and fission product generation models. Thus, this R/B is a measure of the ability of fuel particle coating layers and compact matrix to retain fission gas atoms preventing their release into the sweep gas flow. The major factors that govern gaseous diffusion and release processes are found to be fuel material diffusion coefficient, temperature, and isotopic decay constant. To compare the release behavior among the AGR capsules and historic experiments, the R/B per failed particle is used. HTGR designers use this parameter in their fission product behavior models. For the U.S. TRISO fuel, a regression analysis is performed to establish functional relationships

  18. Analysis of Fission Gas Release-to-Birth Ratio Data from the AGR Irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einerson, Jeffrey J.; Pham, Binh T.; Scates, Dawn M.; Maki, John T.; Petti, David A.

    2014-01-01

    A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation tests is being conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in support of development and qualification of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel used in the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). Each AGR test consists of multiple independent capsules containing fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder shrouded by a steel shell. These capsules are instrumented with thermocouples (TC) embedded in the graphite enabling temperature control. For AGR-1, the first US irradiation of modern TRISO fuel completed in 2009, there were no particle failures detected. For AGR-2, a few exposed kernels existed in the fuel compacts based upon quality control data. For the AGR-3/4 experiment, particle failures in all capsules were expected because of the use of designed-to-fail (DTF) fuel particles whose kernels are identical to the driver fuel kernels and whose coatings are designed to fail under irradiation. The release-rate-to-birth-rate ratio (R/B) for each of krypton and xenon isotopes is calculated from release rates measured by the germanium detectors used in the AGR Fission Product Monitoring (FPM) System installed downstream from each irradiated capsule. Birth rates are calculated based on the fission power in the experiment and fission product generation models. Thus, this R/B is a measure of the ability of fuel particle coating layers and compact matrix to retain fission gas atoms preventing their release into the sweep gas flow. The major factors that govern gaseous diffusion and release processes are found to be fuel material diffusion coefficient, temperature, and isotopic decay constant. To compare the release behavior among the AGR capsules and historic experiments, the R/B per failed particle is used. HTGR designers use this parameter in their fission product behavior models. For the U.S. TRISO fuel, a regression analysis is performed to establish functional relationships

  19. Analysis of fission gas release-to-birth ratio data from the AGR irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einerson, Jeffrey J., E-mail: jeffrey.einerson@inl.gov; Pham, Binh T.; Scates, Dawn M.; Maki, John T.; Petti, David A.

    2016-09-15

    A series of advanced gas reactor (AGR) irradiation tests is being conducted in the advanced test reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in support of development and qualification of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel used in the High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Each AGR test consists of multiple independent capsules containing fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder shrouded by a steel shell. These capsules are instrumented with thermocouples (TC) embedded in the graphite enabling temperature control. For AGR-1, the first US irradiation of modern TRISO fuel completed in 2009, there were no particle failures detected. For AGR-2, a few exposed kernels existed in the fuel compacts based upon quality control data. For the AGR-3/4 experiment, particle failures in all capsules were expected because of the use of designed-to-fail (DTF) fuel particles whose kernels are identical to the driver fuel kernels and whose coatings are designed to fail under irradiation. The release-rate-to-birth-rate ratio (R/B) for each of krypton and xenon isotopes is calculated from release rates measured by the germanium detectors used in the AGR fission product monitoring (FPM) system installed downstream from each irradiated capsule. Birth rates are calculated based on the fission power in the experiment and fission product generation models. Thus, this R/B is a measure of the ability of fuel particle coating layers and compact matrix to retain fission gas atoms preventing their release into the sweep gas flow. The major factors that govern gaseous diffusion and release processes are found to be fuel material diffusion coefficient, temperature, and isotopic decay constant. To compare the release behavior among the AGR capsules and historic experiments, the R/B per failed particle is used. HTGR designers use this parameter in their fission product behavior models. For the U.S. TRISO fuel, a regression analysis is performed to establish functional relationships

  20. Elevation-relief ratio, hypsometric integral, and geomorphic area-altitude analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, R. J.; Wilson, S. E.

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical proof establishes identity of hypsometric integral and elevation-relief ratio, two quantitative topographic descriptors developed independently of one another for entirely different purposes. Operationally, values of both measures are in excellent agreement for arbitrarily bounded topographic samples, as well as for low-order fluvial watersheds. By using a point-sampling technique rather than planimetry, elevation-relief ratio (defined as mean elevation minus minimum elevation divided by relief) is calculated manually in about a third of the time required for the hypsometric integral.

  1. Analysis of syringyl and guaiacyl (S/G) ratio in lignin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spark, A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available the acidolysis products – Validate the new S/G ratio method Why are S/G ratios important? Gives a good indication of the reactivity of the lignin Experimental design Literature Review Establishing Acidolysis conditions Permanganate oxidation Lignin...-method is quick • Permanganate oxidation-method is slow but it is the standard method used at present • Nitrobenzene Oxidation, Pyrolysis, Cupric Oxidation and Thioacidolysis Lignin can be broken down to syringyl and guaiacyl subunits: OCH3 OH OCH3 OH...

  2. Determinants of small firm debt ratios: an analysis of retail panel data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van der Wijst (Nico); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, the relevance of some debt ratio determinants from the recent theory of finance is empirically investigated in a small business sector. The data used in this study consist of average financial data of 27 shoptypes in 20 different years, covering a period of 24 years. The

  3. Signal-to-noise ratio analysis and evaluation of the Hadamard imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, D. J.; Katzberg, S. J.; Spiers, R. B., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The signal-to-noise ratio performance of the Hadamard imaging technique is analyzed and an experimental evaluation of a laboratory Hadamard imager is presented. A comparison between the performances of Hadamard and conventional imaging techniques shows that the Hadamard technique is superior only when the imaging objective lens is required to have an effective F (focus) number of about 2 or slower.

  4. Is the principle of a stable heinrich ratio a myth? - A multimethod analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallivan, Steve; Taxis, Katja; Franklin, Bryony Dean; Barber, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Background: Safety improvements are sometimes based on the premise that introducing measures to combat minor or no-harm incidents proportionately reduces the incidence of major incidents involving harm. This is in line with the principle of the Heinrich ratio, which asserts that there is a

  5. Finite element analysis of surface acoustic waves in high aspect ratio electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2008-01-01

    This paper elaborates on how the finite element method is employed to model surface acoustic waves generated by high aspect ratio electrodes and their interaction with optical waves in a waveguide. With a periodic model it is shown that these electrodes act as a mechanical resonator which slows...

  6. Symmetry and the Golden Ratio in the Analysis of a Regular Pentagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina; Baldi, Mauro Maria

    2017-01-01

    The regular pentagon had a symbolic meaning in the Pythagorean and Platonic philosophies and a subsequent important role in Western thought, appearing also in arts and architecture. A property of regular pentagons, which was probably discovered by the Pythagoreans, is that the ratio between the diagonal and the side of these pentagons is equal to…

  7. Space shuttle launch vehicle performance trajectory, exchange ratios, and dispersion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toelle, R. G.; Blackwell, D. L.; Lott, L. N.

    1973-01-01

    A baseline space shuttle performance trajectory for Mission 3A launched from WTR has been generated. Design constraints of maximum dynamic pressure, longitudinal acceleration, and delivered payload were satisfied. Payload exchange ratios are presented with explanation on use. Design envelopes of dynamic pressure, SRB staging point, aerodynamic heating and flight performance reserves are calculated and included.

  8. Seasonal Sex Ratio Trend in the European Kestrel : An Evolutionarily Stable Strategy Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, I.R.; Weissing, F.J.; Daan, S.

    We present an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) model to analyze selection on seasonal variation in the brood sex ratio, as observed in several species of raptorial birds. The model is specifically tailored to the life history of the European kestrel, and it reflects the maturation time

  9. Analysis of Signal-to-Noise Ratio of the Laser Doppler Velocimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Lars

    1973-01-01

    The signal-to-shot-noise ratio of the photocurrent of a laser Doppler anemometer is calculated as a function of the parameters which describe the system. It is found that the S/N is generally a growing function of receiver area, that few large particles are better than many small ones, and that g...

  10. Ratio-of-Mediator-Probability Weighting for Causal Mediation Analysis in the Presence of Treatment-by-Mediator Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guanglei; Deutsch, Jonah; Hill, Heather D.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional methods for mediation analysis generate biased results when the mediator--outcome relationship depends on the treatment condition. This article shows how the ratio-of-mediator-probability weighting (RMPW) method can be used to decompose total effects into natural direct and indirect effects in the presence of treatment-by-mediator…

  11. Measuring situation awareness of operation teams in NPPs using a verbal protocol analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Park, Jinkyun; Kim, Ar ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A method for measuring team situation awareness is developed. ► Verbal protocol analysis is adopted in this method. ► This method resolves uncertainties from conventional methods. ► This method can be used in evaluating the human–system interfaces. - Abstract: Situation awareness (SA) continues to receive a considerable amount of attention from the ergonomics community given that need for operators to maintain SA is frequently cited as a key to effective and efficient performance. Although complex and dynamic environments such as that of a main control room (MCR) in a nuclear power plant (NPP) are operated by operation teams, and while team situation awareness (TSA) is also cited as an important factor, research is limited to individual SA. However, understanding TSA can provide a window onto the characteristics of team acquisition as well as the performance of a complex skill. Therefore, such knowledge can be valuable in diagnosing team performance successes and failures. Moreover, training and design interventions can target the cognitive underpinnings of team performance, with implications for the design of technological aids to improve team performance. Despite these advantages and the importance of understanding TSA, measures and methods targeting TSA are sparse and fail to address it properly. In this study, an objective TSA measurement method is developed in an effort to understand TSA. First, key considerations for developing a method are derived. Based on these considerations, the proposed method is developed while mainly focusing on the creation of logical connections between team communications and TSA. A speech act coding scheme is also implemented to analyze team communications. The TSA measurement method developed in this study provides a measure for each level of TSA. It was revealed from a preliminary study that this TSA measurement method is feasible for measuring TSA to a fair extent. Useful insight into TSA is also derived.

  12. Analysis of the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol Model on Academic Performance of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Sandra W.

    This quantitative comparative descriptive study involved analyzing archival data from end-of-course (EOC) test scores in biology of English language learners (ELLs) taught or not taught using the sheltered instruction observation protocol (SIOP) model. The study includes descriptions and explanations of the benefits of the SIOP model to ELLs, especially in content area subjects such as biology. Researchers have shown that ELLs in high school lag behind their peers in academic achievement in content area subjects. Much of the research on the SIOP model took place in elementary and middle school, and more research was necessary at the high school level. This study involved analyzing student records from archival data to describe and explain if the SIOP model had an effect on the EOC test scores of ELLs taught or not taught using it. The sample consisted of 527 Hispanic students (283 females and 244 males) from Grades 9-12. An independent sample t-test determined if a significant difference existed in the mean EOC test scores of ELLs taught using the SIOP model as opposed to ELLs not taught using the SIOP model. The results indicated that a significant difference existed between EOC test scores of ELLs taught using the SIOP model and ELLs not taught using the SIOP model (p = .02). A regression analysis indicated a significant difference existed in the academic performance of ELLs taught using the SIOP model in high school science, controlling for free and reduced-price lunch (p = .001) in predicting passing scores on the EOC test in biology at the school level. The data analyzed for free and reduced-price lunch together with SIOP data indicated that both together were not significant (p = .175) for predicting passing scores on the EOC test in high school biology. Future researchers should repeat the study with student-level data as opposed to school-level data, and data should span at least three years.

  13. Extraction and Analysis of Information Related to Research & Development Declared Under an Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idinger, J.; Labella, R.; Rialhe, A.; Teller, N.

    2015-01-01

    The additional protocol (AP) provides important tools to strengthen and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the safeguards system. Safeguards are designed to verify that States comply with their international commitments not to use nuclear material or to engage in nuclear-related activities for the purpose of developing nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Under an AP based on INFCIRC/540, a State must provide to the IAEA additional information about, and inspector access to, all parts of its nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the State has to supply information about its nuclear fuel cycle-related research and development (R&D) activities. The majority of States declare their R&D activities under the AP Articles 2.a.(i), 2.a.(x), and 2.b.(i) as part of initial declarations and their annual updates under the AP. In order to verify consistency and completeness of information provided under the AP by States, the Agency has started to analyze declared R&D information by identifying interrelationships between States in different R&D areas relevant to safeguards. The paper outlines the quality of R&D information provided by States to the Agency, describes how the extraction and analysis of relevant declarations are currently carried out at the Agency and specifies what kinds of difficulties arise during evaluation in respect to cross-linking international projects and finding gaps in reporting. In addition, the paper tries to elaborate how the reporting quality of AP information with reference to R&D activities and the assessment process of R&D information could be improved. (author)

  14. Analysis of fission ratio distribution in spherical lithium metal assembly with a graphite reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yasushi; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Toru; Hirota, Jitsuya; Moriyama, Masatoshi.

    1975-08-01

    For the investigation of neutronics in the fusion reactor blanket, a spherical lithium assembly with a graphite reflector was prepared by piling up lithium and graphite blocks. The ratio of U-238 to U-235 fission rates was measured by micro fission chambers, and the result of the measurement was compared with that of the preliminary calculation. It has been shown that there is a large discrepancy between experiment and calculation, which is too large to be explained only by the experimental error. In this paper, the calculational procedure is reviewed and probable causes of the calculational error are listed. Further calculation of the fission ratio is carried out employing refined methods and with varied calculational models. As the result, it is concluded that the cause of the discrepancy is most likely the uncertainties of the nuclear data of the constituent elements of the assembly. (auth.)

  15. Finite Element Analysis of Increasing Column Section and CFRP Reinforcement Method under Different Axial Compression Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghai, Zhou; Tianbei, Kang; Fengchi, Wang; Xindong, Wang

    2017-11-01

    Eight less stirrups in the core area frame joints are simulated by ABAQUS finite element numerical software. The composite reinforcement method is strengthened with carbon fiber and increasing column section, the axial compression ratio of reinforced specimens is 0.3, 0.45 and 0.6 respectively. The results of the load-displacement curve, ductility and stiffness are analyzed, and it is found that the different axial compression ratio has great influence on the bearing capacity of increasing column section strengthening method, and has little influence on carbon fiber reinforcement method. The different strengthening schemes improve the ultimate bearing capacity and ductility of frame joints in a certain extent, composite reinforcement joints strengthening method to improve the most significant, followed by increasing column section, reinforcement method of carbon fiber reinforced joints to increase the minimum.

  16. Design and Analysis of a Triple Stop-band Filter Using Ratioed Periodical Defected Microstrip Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Wang, Yanyan; Li, Yingsong

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a triple stop-band filter with a ratioed periodical defected microstrip structure is proposed for wireless communication applications. The proposed ratioed periodical defected microstrip structures are spiral slots, which are embedded into a 50 Ω microstrip line to obtain multiple stop-bands. The performance of the proposed triple stop-band filter is investigated numerically and experimentally. Moreover, the equivalent circuit model of the proposed filter is also established and discussed. The results are given to verify that the proposed triple stop-band filter has three stop bands at 3.3 GHz, 5.2 GHz, 6.8 GHz to reject the unwanted signals, which is promising for integrating into UWB communication systems to efficiently prevent the potential interferences from unexpected narrowband signals such as WiMAX, WLAN and RFID communication systems.

  17. Analysis of tin-ore samples by the ratio of Rayleigh to Compton backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao Qi; Cao Liguo; Ding Yimin

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the ratio of gamma-ray Rayleigh to Compton backscattering intensities (R/C) and the weight fraction of heavy element in light matrixes were investigated. An improved (R/C) eff analytical technique for tin-ore samples was described. The technique can be regarded as a substitute for the XRF method in which the self-absorption process worsens the analytical accuracy of heavy elements

  18. ANALYSIS BENEFIT COST RATIO OF BIOCHAR IN AGRICULTURE LAND TO INCREASE INCOME HOUSEHOLD IN MERAUKE REGENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Magdalena Diana Widiastuti

    2016-01-01

    Biochar has been proven to increase the availability of soil nutrient, yield productivity and farmers income. Biochar can be made from forestry/agricultural waste and do not required high technology. The objective of this study were: (1) to analyze Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) of biochar made from rice husk, (2) to compare yield productivity of paddy with biochar treatment, and (3) to analyze of paddy farming system with biochar treatment. The methodology by using BCR and productivity approa...

  19. An Analysis of Agency Costs and Dividend Payout Ratio of Non-financial Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Natalia; Retno Kusumastuti

    2017-01-01

    This study aim to analyze the effect of Insider Ownership, Institutional Ownership, Dispersion of Ownership, Debt to Total Assets, Collateralizable Assets and Free Cash Flow on the Dividend Payout Ratio. These independent variables are proxies of agency costs. This study uses panel data of 90 non-financial companies in the period of 2009-2011. The findings indicate that (1) All independent variables (Insider Ownership, Institutional Ownership, Dispersion of Ownership, Debt to Total Assets, Co...

  20. Numerical analysis of energetic particle stabilization of ballooning modes in finite-aspect-ratio tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qibing; Peng Qiyang; Qu Wenxiao

    1993-09-01

    The effect of energetic trapped particles on the stabilization of ballooning modes in finite-aspect-ratio tokamaks is numerically analyzed. The numerical solution of boundary value problem of an integro-differential equation is successfully obtained by RKF integral method with variable step size. The results show that the instability domain of ballooning modes becomes small along with the increase of energetic particles pressure. The energetic trapped particles can partially or completely suppress the instability of ballooning modes

  1. Analiza protokola kvaliteta usluga telekomunikacionih mreža / Analysis of quality of service protocols in telecommunication networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojko Jevtović

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Protokoli kvaliteta usluga (Quality of Service - QoS sadašnjih i budućih telekomunikacionih mreža razvijeni su, pored ostalog, sa ciljem da podrže različite klase usluga (Class of Service - CoS komunikaciju u realnom vremenu, kao i prenos multimedijalnih poruka preko paketskih IP (Internet Protocol mreža. U raduje dat pregled karakteristika tih protokola i ocena njihovih konkretnih mogućnosti u obezbeđenju kvaliteta usluga unutar sistema ('s vrha do dna', tj. vertikalno u OSI arhitekturi kao i 'horizontalno' odnosno s kraja na kraj veze, tj. između izvora i odredišta. / Today's and future telecommunication networks must enable transmission throughout heterogeneous environment, using different Quality of Service protocols, Quality of Service protocols use a variety of complementary mechanisms to enable deterministic end-to-end different data delivery. The analysis of these protocols and their efficiency in providing QoS and CoS has been given in this paper.

  2. Performance Analysis of the IEEE 802.11p Multichannel MAC Protocol in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Caixia

    2017-12-12

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) employ multichannel to provide a variety of safety and non-safety applications, based on the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. The safety applications require timely and reliable transmissions, while the non-safety applications require efficient and high throughput. In the IEEE 1609.4 protocol, operating interval is divided into alternating Control Channel (CCH) interval and Service Channel (SCH) interval with an identical length. During the CCH interval, nodes transmit safety-related messages and control messages, and Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) mechanism is employed to allow four Access Categories (ACs) within a station with different priorities according to their criticality for the vehicle's safety. During the SCH interval, the non-safety massages are transmitted. An analytical model is proposed in this paper to evaluate performance, reliability and efficiency of the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. The proposed model improves the existing work by taking serval aspects and the character of multichannel switching into design consideration. Extensive performance evaluations based on analysis and simulation help to validate the accuracy of the proposed model and analyze the capabilities and limitations of the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols, and enhancement suggestions are given.

  3. The effect of different aspect ratio and bottom heat flux towards contaminant removal using numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadun, M N A; Manaf, M Z A; Zakaria, M S; Hafidzal, M H M; Azwadi, C S Nor; Malek, Z A A

    2013-01-01

    Cubic Interpolated Pseudo-particle (CIP) numerical simulation scheme has been anticipated to predict the interaction involving fluids and solid particles in an open channel with rectangular shaped cavity flow. The rectangular shaped cavity is looking by different aspect ratio in modelling the real pipeline joints that are in a range of sizes. Various inlet velocities are also being applied in predicting various fluid flow characteristics. In this paper, the constant heat flux is introduced at the bottom wall, showing the buoyancy effects towards the contaminant's removal rate. In order to characterize the fluid flow, the numerical scheme alone is initially tested and validated in a lid driven cavity with a single particle. The study of buoyancy effects and different aspect ratio of rectangular geometry were carried out using a MATLAB govern by Navier-Stokes equation. CIP is used as a model for a numerical scheme solver for fluid solid particles interaction. The result shows that the higher aspect ratio coupled with heated bottom wall give higher percentage of contaminant's removal rate. Comparing with the benchmark results has demonstrated the applicability of the method to reproduce fluid structure which is complex in the system. Despite a slight deviation of the formations of vortices from some of the literature results, the general pattern is considered to be in close agreement with those published in the literature

  4. On the Decay Ratio Determination in BWR Stability Analysis by Auto-Correlation Function Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behringer, K.; Hennig, D.

    2002-11-01

    A novel auto-correlation function (ACF) method has been investigated for determining the oscillation frequency and the decay ratio in BWR stability analyses. The neutron signals are band-pass filtered to separate the oscillation peak in the power spectral density (PSD) from background. Two linear second-order oscillation models are considered. These models, corrected for signal filtering and including a background term under the peak in the PSD, are then least-squares fitted to the ACF of the previously filtered neutron signal, in order to determine the oscillation frequency and the decay ratio. Our method uses fast Fourier transform techniques with signal segmentation for filtering and ACF estimation. Gliding 'short-term' ACF estimates on a record allow the evaluation of uncertainties. Numerical results are given which have been obtained from neutron data of the recent Forsmark I and Forsmark II NEA benchmark project. Our results are compared with those obtained by other participants in the benchmark project. The present PSI report is an extended version of the publication K. Behringer, D. Hennig 'A novel auto-correlation function method for the determination of the decay ratio in BWR stability studies' (Behringer, Hennig, 2002)

  5. Statistical analysis of COMPTEL maximum likelihood-ratio distributions: evidence for a signal from previously undetected AGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, O. R.; Bennett, K.; Much, R.; Schoenfelder, V.; Blom, J. J.; Ryan, J.

    1997-01-01

    The maximum likelihood-ratio method is frequently used in COMPTEL analysis to determine the significance of a point source at a given location. In this paper we do not consider whether the likelihood-ratio at a particular location indicates a detection, but rather whether distributions of likelihood-ratios derived from many locations depart from that expected for source free data. We have constructed distributions of likelihood-ratios by reading values from standard COMPTEL maximum-likelihood ratio maps at positions corresponding to the locations of different categories of AGN. Distributions derived from the locations of Seyfert galaxies are indistinguishable, according to a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, from those obtained from ''random'' locations, but differ slightly from those obtained from the locations of flat spectrum radio loud quasars, OVVs, and BL Lac objects. This difference is not due to known COMPTEL sources, since regions near these sources are excluded from the analysis. We suggest that it might arise from a number of sources with fluxes below the COMPTEL detection threshold

  6. Diagnostic Performance of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid CD4/CD8 Ratio for Sarcoidosis: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yongchun; Pang, Caishuang; Wu, Yanqiu; Li, Diandian; Wan, Chun; Liao, Zenglin; Yang, Ting; Chen, Lei; Wen, Fuqiang

    2016-06-01

    The usefulness of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) CD4/CD8 ratio for diagnosing sarcoidosis has been reported in many studies with variable results. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to estimate the overall diagnostic accuracy of BALF CD4/CD8 ratio based on the bulk of published evidence. Studies published prior to June 2015 and indexed in PubMed, OVID, Web of Science, Scopus and other databases were evaluated for inclusion. Data on sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were pooled from included studies. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves were used to summarize overall test performance. Deeks's funnel plot was used to detect publication bias. Sixteen publications with 1885 subjects met our inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Summary estimates of the diagnostic performance of the BALF CD4/CD8 ratio were as follows: sensitivity, 0.70 (95%CI 0.64-0.75); specificity, 0.83 (95%CI 0.78-0.86); PLR, 4.04 (95%CI 3.13-5.20); NLR, 0.36 (95%CI 0.30-0.44); and DOR, 11.17 (95%CI 7.31-17.07). The area under the SROC curve was 0.84 (95%CI 0.81-0.87). There was no evidence of publication bias. Measuring the BALF CD4/CD8 ratio may assist in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis when interpreted in parallel with other diagnostic factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative effects of composting state variables on C/N ratio through GA-aided multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Huang, Guo H.; Zeng Guangming; Qin Xiaosheng; Yu Hui

    2011-01-01

    It is widely known that variation of the C/N ratio is dependent on many state variables during composting processes. This study attempted to develop a genetic algorithm aided stepwise cluster analysis (GASCA) method to describe the nonlinear relationships between the selected state variables and the C/N ratio in food waste composting. The experimental data from six bench-scale composting reactors were used to demonstrate the applicability of GASCA. Within the GASCA framework, GA searched optimal sets of both specified state variables and SCA's internal parameters; SCA established statistical nonlinear relationships between state variables and the C/N ratio; to avoid unnecessary and time-consuming calculation, a proxy table was introduced to save around 70% computational efforts. The obtained GASCA cluster trees had smaller sizes and higher prediction accuracy than the conventional SCA trees. Based on the optimal GASCA tree, the effects of the GA-selected state variables on the C/N ratio were ranged in a descending order as: NH 4 + -N concentration > Moisture content > Ash Content > Mean Temperature > Mesophilic bacteria biomass. Such a rank implied that the variation of ammonium nitrogen concentration, the associated temperature and the moisture conditions, the total loss of both organic matters and available mineral constituents, and the mesophilic bacteria activity, were critical factors affecting the C/N ratio during the investigated food waste composting. This first application of GASCA to composting modelling indicated that more direct search algorithms could be coupled with SCA or other multivariate analysis methods to analyze complicated relationships during composting and many other environmental processes. - Research Highlights: → A genetic algorithm aided stepwise cluster analysis method in food waste composting. → Nonlinear relationships between the selected state variables and the C/N ratio. → Introduced proxy tables save around 70% computational

  8. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jung Kim

    Full Text Available Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; P<0.001 and 7.4 N∙m (95% CI: 4.3 to 10.5 N∙m; P<0.001 lower, respectively, on the injured than on the uninjured side. The mean hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio was 4% greater in ACL deficient than in uninjured limbs (95% CI: 1.7% to 6.3%; P<0.001. Conclusively, Decreases were observed in both the quadriceps and hamstring muscles of patients with ACL tear, with the decrease in quadriceps strength being 3-fold greater. These uneven reductions slightly increase the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in ACL deficient knees.

  9. Quantitative effects of composting state variables on C/N ratio through GA-aided multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Wei [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada); Huang, Guo H., E-mail: huangg@iseis.org [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada); MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, Sino-Canada Energy and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Zeng Guangming [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan, 410082 (China); Qin Xiaosheng [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yu Hui [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada)

    2011-03-01

    It is widely known that variation of the C/N ratio is dependent on many state variables during composting processes. This study attempted to develop a genetic algorithm aided stepwise cluster analysis (GASCA) method to describe the nonlinear relationships between the selected state variables and the C/N ratio in food waste composting. The experimental data from six bench-scale composting reactors were used to demonstrate the applicability of GASCA. Within the GASCA framework, GA searched optimal sets of both specified state variables and SCA's internal parameters; SCA established statistical nonlinear relationships between state variables and the C/N ratio; to avoid unnecessary and time-consuming calculation, a proxy table was introduced to save around 70% computational efforts. The obtained GASCA cluster trees had smaller sizes and higher prediction accuracy than the conventional SCA trees. Based on the optimal GASCA tree, the effects of the GA-selected state variables on the C/N ratio were ranged in a descending order as: NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N concentration > Moisture content > Ash Content > Mean Temperature > Mesophilic bacteria biomass. Such a rank implied that the variation of ammonium nitrogen concentration, the associated temperature and the moisture conditions, the total loss of both organic matters and available mineral constituents, and the mesophilic bacteria activity, were critical factors affecting the C/N ratio during the investigated food waste composting. This first application of GASCA to composting modelling indicated that more direct search algorithms could be coupled with SCA or other multivariate analysis methods to analyze complicated relationships during composting and many other environmental processes. - Research Highlights: {yields} A genetic algorithm aided stepwise cluster analysis method in food waste composting. {yields} Nonlinear relationships between the selected state variables and the C/N ratio. {yields} Introduced proxy tables

  10. [Professor Xu Fu-song's traditional Chinese medicine protocols for male diseases: A descriptive analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-yong; Xu, Fu-song

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the efficacy and medication principles of Professor Xu Fu-songs traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) protocols for male diseases. We reviewed and descriptively analyzed the unpublished complete medical records of 100 male cases treated by Professor Xu Fu-song with his TCM protocols from 1978 to 1992. The 100 cases involved 32 male diseases, most of which were difficult and complicated cases. The drug compliance was 95%. Each prescription was made up of 14 traditional Chinese drugs on average. The cure rate was 32% , and the effective rate was 85%. Professor Xu Fu-song advanced and proved some new theories and therapeutic methods. Professor Xu Fu-song's TCM protocols can be applied to a wide range of male diseases, mostly complicated, and are characterized by accurate differentiation of symptoms and signs, high drug compliance, and excellent therapeutic efficacy.

  11. A SURVEY ON MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR PERFORMANCE EVALUATION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suruliandi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multicast is a process used to transfer same message to multiple receivers at the same time. This paper presents the simulation and analysis of the performance of six different multicast routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. They are On Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP, Protocol for Unified Multicasting through Announcement (PUMA, Multicast Adhoc On demand Distance Vector Protocol (MAODV, Overlay Boruvka-based Adhoc Multicast Protocol (OBAMP, Application Layer Multicast Algorithm (ALMA and enhanced version of ALMA (ALMA-H for WSN. Among them, ODMRP, MAODV and PUMA are reactive protocols while OBAMP, ALMA and ALMA-H are proactive protocols. This paper compares the performance of these protocols with common parameters such as Throughput, Reliability, End-to-End delay and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR with increasing the numbers of nodes and increasing the speed of the nodes. The main objective of this work is to select the efficient multicast routing protocol for WSN among six multicast routing protocol based on relative strength and weakness of each protocol. The summary of above six multicast routing protocols is presented with a table of different performance characteristics. Experimental result shows that ODMRP attains higher throughput, reliability and higher packet delivery ratio than other multicast routing protocol, while incurring far less end-to-end delay.

  12. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Jin-Hyuck; Ahn, Sung-Eun; Park, Min-Ji; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; Pratio was 4% greater in ACL deficient than in uninjured limbs (95% CI: 1.7% to 6.3%; Pratio in ACL deficient knees.

  13. Green Pharmaceutical Analysis of Drugs Coformulated with Highly Different Concentrations Using Spiking and Manipulation of Their Ratio Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Bassam M

    2017-07-01

    Introducing green analysis to pharmaceutical products is considered a significant approach to preserving the environment. This method can be an environmentally friendly alternative to the existing methods, accompanied by a validated automated procedure for the analysis of a drug with the lowest possible number of samples. Different simple spectrophotometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of empagliflozin (EG) and metformin (MT) by manipulating their ratio spectra in their application on a recently approved pharmaceutical combination, Synjardy tablets. A spiking technique was used to increase the concentration of EG in samples prepared from the tablets to allow for the simultaneous determination of EG with MT without prior separation. Validation parameters according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines were acceptable over a concentration range of 2-12 μg/mL for both drugs using derivative ratio and ratio subtraction coupled with extended ratio subtraction. The optimized methods were compared using one-way analysis of variance and proved to be suitable as ecofriendly approaches for industrial QC laboratories.

  14. Energy-exergy analysis of compressor pressure ratio effects on thermodynamic performance of ammonia water combined cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohtaram, Soheil; Chen, Wen; Zargar, T.; Lin, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy exergy analysis is conducted to find the effects of RP. • EES software is utilized to perform the detailed energy-exergy analyses. • Effects investigated through energy and exergy destruction, enthalpy, yields, etc. • Detailed results are reported showing the performance of gas and combined cycle. - Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of compressor pressure ratio (RP) on the thermodynamic performances of ammonia-water combined cycle through energy and exergy destruction, enthalpy temperature, yields, and flow velocity. The energy-exergy analysis is conducted on the ammonia water combined cycle and the Rankine cycle, respectively. Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software is utilized to perform the detailed analyses. Values and ratios regarding heat drop and exergy loss are presented in separate tables for different equipments. The results obtained by the energy-exergy analysis indicate that by increasing the pressure ratio compressor, exergy destruction of high-pressure compressors, intercooler, gas turbine and the special produced work of gas turbine cycle constantly increase and the exergy destruction of recuperator, in contrast, decreases continuously. In addition, the least amount of input fuel into the combined cycle is observed when the pressure ratio is no less than 7.5. Subsequently, the efficiency of the cycle in gas turbine and combined cycle is reduced because the fuel input into the combined cycle is increased.

  15. Modelling and Analysis of a Collision Avoidance Protocol using SPIN and UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Arne; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Jensen, Henrik Ejersbo

    1997-01-01

    , the modelling of the media becomes ackward due to the lack of broadcast communication in the PROMELA language. On the other hand we find it easy to model the timed aspects using the UPPAAL tool. Especially, the notion of committed locations supports the modelling of broadcast communication. However......This paper compares the tools SPIN and UPPAAL by modelling and verifying a Collision Avoidance Protocol for an Ethernet-like medium. We find that SPIN is well suited for modelling the untimed aspects of the protocol processes and for expressing the relevant (untimed) properties. However...

  16. Replication protocol analysis: a method for the study of real-world design thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per; Kovacs, L. B.

    1996-01-01

    Given the brief of an architectural competition on site planning, and the design awarded the first prize, the first author (trained as an architect but not a participant in the competition) produced a line of reasoning that might have led from brief to design. In the paper, such ‘design replication......’ is refined into a method called ‘replication protocol analysis’ (RPA), and discussed from a methodological perspective of design research. It is argued that for the study of real-world design thinking this method offers distinct advantages over traditional ‘design protocol analysis’, which seeks to capture...

  17. Analysis of quality control protocol implementation of equipment in radiotherapy services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcina, Carmen S. Guzman; Lima, Luciana P. de; Rubo, Rodrigo A.; Ferraz, Eduardo; Almeida, Adelaide de

    2000-01-01

    Considering the importance of the Quality Assurance in the radiotherapy services, there was an interest to make tests' evaluation for a Quality Control for the cobalt equipment, linear accelerator and simulator as a classification and comparison. The work proposed is a suggestion that can serve as tool for medical physicists that are starting to work in the radiotherapy area and for the most experts. The discussions were made by the gathering of local tests and official protocols, resulting in a minimum protocol as a suggestion for a routine work, emphasizing the periodicity and level of tolerance of each one of the tests. (author)

  18. Association between platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and overall survival (OS) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, D-H; Yu, S-M

    2017-08-30

    Some studies investigated the association between platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and the survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the results remained inconclusive. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis. Published studies were searched in PubMed and EMBASE. The strength of association was assessed by calculating odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). In total, 6 studies with 1446 HCC patients were included in this meta-analysis. HCC with higher PLR showed an increased death risk (OR = 1.59; 95%CI, 1.15-2.20; P < 0.0001). However, the heterogeneity was high (I2=89.2%). When the study by Li et al. was excluded, the heterogeneity decreased (I2=20%). Further, the result was still positive (OR = 1.70; 95%CI, 1.42-2.04; P < 0.00001). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that PLR was significantly associated with the OS of HCC.

  19. Amino acid δ13C analysis of hair proteins and bone collagen using liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; McCullagh, James S. O.; Lynnerup, Niels

    2010-01-01

    We report a novel method for the chromatographic separation and measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios (delta(13)C) of individual amino acids in hair proteins and bone collagen using the LC-IsoLink system, which interfaces liquid chromatography (LC) with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS......). This paper provides baseline separation of 15 and 13 of the 18 amino acids in bone collagen and hair proteins, respectively. We also describe an approach to analysing small hair samples for compound-specific analysis of segmental hair sections. The LC/IRMS method is applied in a historical context...... by the delta(13)C analysis of hair proteins and bone collagen recovered from six individuals from Uummannaq in Greenland. The analysis of hair and bone amino acids from the same individual, compared for the first time in this study, is of importance in palaeodietary reconstruction. If hair proteins can be used...

  20. Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-01

    Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

  1. Analysis of high aspect ratio jet flap wings of arbitrary geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissaman, P. B. S.

    1973-01-01

    Paper presents a design technique for rapidly computing lift, induced drag, and spanwise loading of unswept jet flap wings of arbitrary thickness, chord, twist, blowing, and jet angle, including discontinuities. Linear theory is used, extending Spence's method for elliptically loaded jet flap wings. Curves for uniformly blown rectangular wings are presented for direct performance estimation. Arbitrary planforms require a simple computer program. Method of reducing wing to equivalent stretched, twisted, unblown planform for hand calculation is also given. Results correlate with limited existing data, and show lifting line theory is reasonable down to aspect ratios of 5.

  2. GPS Modeling and Analysis. Summary of Research: GPS Satellite Axial Ratio Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrad, Penina; Reeh, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    This report outlines the algorithms developed at the Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research to model yaw and predict the axial ratio as measured from a ground station. The algorithms are implemented in a collection of Matlab functions and scripts that read certain user input, such as ground station coordinates, the UTC time, and the desired GPS (Global Positioning System) satellites, and compute the above-mentioned parameters. The position information for the GPS satellites is obtained from Yuma almanac files corresponding to the prescribed date. The results are displayed graphically through time histories and azimuth-elevation plots.

  3. Calculation analysis of Wims/D4-Batan-2DIFF neutron spectrum on RSG-GAS with cadmium ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radianti, I.B.; Zuhair; Hamzah, A.

    1998-01-01

    The calculation analysis of WIMS/D4-BATAN-2DIFF neutron spectrum was performed by comparison the calculation result of cadmium ratio with the experiment result on CIP, IP2, IP3 and IP4 irradiation positions of RSG GAS tenth core. The foils of Au, Mn and Co were used for determination of the measured and calculated cadmium ratios. Spectrum calculation was done in 69 energy group with 541 energy group (till 10 MeV) cross section of foil absorption reaction. The difference values between cadmium ratio calculation and experiment result for all cases were in interval of 11.0%-26.3% which are out of measurement deviation range. From these result, it concluded that the use of WIM /D4 in generating group constant is not sufficient to obtain the neutron spectrum, especially for non-fuel region

  4. MicroCT analysis of calcium/phosphorus ratio maps at different bone sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speller, R.; Pani, S.; Tzaphlidou, M.; Horrocks, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Ca/P ratio was measured in cortical bone samples from the femoral neck, front and rear tibia of rats, rabbits and lambs using synchrotron microCT. Use of a monoenergetic X-ray beam, as provided by the synchrotron facility, generates accurate 3-D maps of the linear attenuation coefficient within the sample and hence gives the ability to map different chemical components. Data were taken at 20keV for each bone sample and calibration phantoms. From the 3-D data sets, multiple 2-D slices were reconstructed with a slice thickness of ∼28μm and converted to Ca/P ratios using the calibration phantom results. Average values for each animal and bone site were estimated. Differences between the same bone sites from different animals are not significant (0.3 -3 ) demonstrating a dependence upon lifestyle and bone use. The spatial distribution of Ca/P was found to be non-uniform for some bones and some animals possibly indicating the structural mechanism for obtaining bone strength

  5. MicroCT analysis of calcium/phosphorus ratio maps at different bone sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speller, R. [Medical Physics and Bioengineering Department, UCL, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rspeller@medphys.ucl.ac.uk; Pani, S. [Department of Physics, University of Trieste (Italy); Tzaphlidou, M. [Lab Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Horrocks, J. [Clinical Physics Group, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London, EC1A 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-11

    The Ca/P ratio was measured in cortical bone samples from the femoral neck, front and rear tibia of rats, rabbits and lambs using synchrotron microCT. Use of a monoenergetic X-ray beam, as provided by the synchrotron facility, generates accurate 3-D maps of the linear attenuation coefficient within the sample and hence gives the ability to map different chemical components. Data were taken at 20keV for each bone sample and calibration phantoms. From the 3-D data sets, multiple 2-D slices were reconstructed with a slice thickness of {approx}28{mu}m and converted to Ca/P ratios using the calibration phantom results. Average values for each animal and bone site were estimated. Differences between the same bone sites from different animals are not significant (0.3

  6. Misuse of odds ratios in obesity literature: an empirical analysis of published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeu, Gabriel S; Sen, Bisakha; Allison, David B; Menachemi, Nir

    2012-08-01

    Odds ratios (ORs) are widely used in scientific research to demonstrate the associations between outcome variables and covariates (risk factors) of interest, and are often described in language suitable for risks or probabilities, but odds and probabilities are related, not equivalent. In situations where the outcome is not rare (e.g., obesity), ORs no longer approximate the relative risk ratio (RR) and may be misinterpreted. Our study examines the extent of misinterpretation of ORs in Obesity and International Journal of Obesity. We reviewed all 2010 issues of these journals to identify all articles that presented ORs. Included articles were then primarily reviewed for correct presentation and interpretation of ORs; and secondarily reviewed for article characteristics that may have been associated with how ORs are presented and interpreted. Of the 855 articles examined, 62 (7.3%) presented ORs. ORs were presented incorrectly in 23.2% of these articles. Clinical articles were more likely to present ORs correctly than social science or basic science articles. Studies with outcome variables that had higher relative prevalence were less likely to present ORs correctly. Overall, almost one-quarter of the studies presenting ORs in two leading journals on obesity misinterpreted them. Furthermore, even when researchers present ORs correctly, the lay media may misinterpret them as relative RRs. Therefore, we suggest that when the magnitude of associations is of interest, researchers should carefully and accurately present interpretable measures of association--including RRs and risk differences--to minimize confusion and misrepresentation of research results.

  7. Traceability of different apple varieties by multivariate analysis of isotope ratio mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimmo, Tanja; Camin, Federica; Bontempo, Luana; Capici, Calogero; Tagliavini, Massimo; Cesco, Stefano; Scampicchio, Matteo

    2015-11-15

    The awareness of customers of the origin of foods has become an important issue. The growing demand for foods that are healthy, safe and of high quality has increased the need for traceability and clear labelling. Thus, this study investigates the capability of C and N stable isotope ratios to determine the geographical origin of several apple varieties grown in northern Italy. Four apple varieties (Cripps Pink, Gala, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith) have been sampled in orchards located in the Districts of Bolzano, Ferrara, Verona and Udine (northern Italy). Carbon (δ(13) C) and nitrogen (δ(15) N) isotope values of the whole apple fruits and three sub-fractions (peel, pulp and seed) have been determined simultaneously by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The δ(13) C and δ(15) N values of apples and apple sub-fractions, such as peel, seed and pulp, were significantly affected by the geographical origin and the fruit variety. The four varieties could be distinguished to a certain extent only within each district. A 99% correct identification of the samples according to their origin was, however, achieved by cross validation with the 'leave-one-out' method. This study proves the potential of stable isotopes to discriminate the geographical origin of apples grown in orchards located only a few hundreds of kilometres apart. Stable isotopes were also able to discriminate different apple varieties, although only within small geographical areas. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. ANALYSIS BENEFIT COST RATIO OF BIOCHAR IN AGRICULTURE LAND TO INCREASE INCOME HOUSEHOLD IN MERAUKE REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Diana Widiastuti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has been proven to increase the availability of soil nutrient, yield productivity and farmers income. Biochar can be made from forestry/agricultural waste and do not required high technology. The objective of this study were: (1 to analyze Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR of biochar made from rice husk, (2 to compare yield productivity of paddy with biochar treatment, and (3 to analyze of paddy farming system with biochar treatment. The methodology by using BCR and productivity approach. The result showed that, firstly, the BCR of biochar from rice husks was 1.35 which indicated that biochar productivity as feasible. Secondly, the provision of biochar and fertilizer on agricultural could increase rice productivity of 4.2 ton/ha (control treatment to 5.5 ton/ha (treatment biochar + organic fertilizer and 6 ton/ha (treatment biochar + organic fertilizer + chemical fertilizers. Thirdly, the benefit cost ratio of paddy farming system for control treatment (1.54, higher than biochar+organic fertilizer treatment (1.46 and biochar+organic fertilizer+chemical fertilizer treatment.

  9. Taxonomy and Analysis of IP Micro-Mobility Protocols in Single and Simultaneous Movements Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. De Marco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The micro-mobility is an important aspect in mobile communications, where the applications are anywhere and used anytime. One of the problems of micro-mobility is the hand-off latency. In this paper, we analyse two solutions for IP micro-mobility by means of a general taxonomy. The first one is based on the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP, which allows the dynamic address configuration of an association. The second one is based on the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP, which is the most popular protocol for multimedia communications over IP networks. We show that for the SCTP solution, there is room for further optimisations of the hand-off latency by adding slight changes to the protocol. However, as full end-to-end solution, SCTP is not able to handle simultaneous movement of hosts, whose probability in general cannot be neglected. On the other hand, the SIP can handle both single and simultaneous movements cases, although the hand-off latency can increase with respect to the SCTP solution. We show that for a correct and fast hand-off, the SIP server should be statefull.

  10. Timing Analysis of Rate Constrained Traffic for the TTEthernet Communication Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul; Steiner, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Ethernet is a low-cost communication solution offering high transmission speeds. Although its applications extend beyond computer networking, Ethernet is not suitable for real-time and safety-critical systems. To alleviate this, several real-time Ethernet-based communication protocols have been...

  11. Feature-Driven Domain Analysis of Session Layer Protocols of Internet of Things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köksal, Omer; Tekinerdogan, B.

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) architecture is defined as a layered structure in which each layer represents a coherent set of services. For supporting the communication among the different IoT entities many different communication protocols are now available in practice. For practitioners, it is

  12. The Association of Digit Ratio (2D : 4D) with Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunevicius, Adomas

    2018-01-01

    Intrauterine sex hormone environment as indicated by the second to the fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D) can be associated with cancer risk. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association of 2D : 4D with cancer diagnosis, malignancy, and age at presentation. Studies that evaluated the association of 2D : 4D with cancer risk were collected from Pubmed/MEDLINE and Clarivate Analytics databases. Nineteen studies were included in the qualitative analysis. The 2D : 4D ratio was studied in prostate cancer, breast cancer, testicular cancer, gastric cancer, oral cancer, brain tumors, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Low 2D : 4D was associated with prostate cancer, gastric cancer, and brain tumors, while high 2D : 4D, with breast cancer risk and cervical dysplasia. The 2D : 4D ratio was not associated with prostate, breast, and gastric cancer stage. Greater 2D : 4D ratio was associated with younger presentation of breast cancer and brain tumors. The meta-analyses demonstrated that testicular cancer was not associated with right-hand 2D : 4D ratio ( p = 0.74) and gastric cancer was not associated with right-hand ( p = 0.15) and left-hand ( p = 0.95) 2D : 4D ratio. Sex hormone environment during early development is associated with cancer risk later in life. Further studies exploring the link between intrauterine hormone environment and cancer risk are encouraged.

  13. Estimate of Small Stiffness and Damping Ratio in Residual Soil Using Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bawadi Nor Faizah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the important parameters for modeling the dynamic behavior of soils has led to rapid development of the small strain stiffness and damping ratio for use in the seismic method. It is because, the experimental determination of the damping ratio is problematic, especially for hard soils sample. Many researchers have proved that the surface wave method is a reliable tool to determine shear wave velocity and damping ratio profiles at a site with very small strains level. Surface wave methods based on Rayleigh waves propagation and the resulting attenuation curve can become erroneous when higher modes contribute to the soil’s response. In this study, two approaches has been used to determine the shear strain amplitude and damping ratio of residual soils at small strain level using Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW method. One is to derive shear strain amplitude from the frequency-response curve and the other is to derive damping ratio from travel-time data. Then, the results are compared to the conventional method.

  14. Life cycle analysis on fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel: effects of nitrogen deficiency and oil extraction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hou; Jing, Yang; Peidong, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been widely used to analyze various pathways of biofuel preparation from "cradle to grave." Effects of nitrogen supply for algae cultivation and technology of algal oil extraction on life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel are assessed in this study. Life cycle fossil energy ratio of Chlorella vulgaris based biodiesel is improved by growing algae under nitrogen-limited conditions, while the life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel production from Phaeodactylum tricornutum grown with nitrogen deprivation decreases. Compared to extraction of oil from dried algae, extraction of lipid from wet algae with subcritical cosolvents achieves a 43.83% improvement in fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel when oilcake drying is not considered. The outcome for sensitivity analysis indicates that the algal oil conversion rate and energy content of algae are found to have the greatest effects on the LCA results of algal biodiesel production, followed by utilization ratio of algal residue, energy demand for algae drying, capacity of water mixing, and productivity of algae.

  15. What makes red quasars red?. Observational evidence for dust extinction from line ratio analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Im, Myungshin

    2018-02-01

    Red quasars are very red in the optical through near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, which is possibly due to dust extinction in their host galaxies as expected in a scenario in which red quasars are an intermediate population between merger-driven star-forming galaxies and unobscured type 1 quasars. However, alternative mechanisms also exist to explain their red colors: (i) an intrinsically red continuum; (ii) an unusual high covering factor of the hot dust component, that is, CFHD = LHD/Lbol, where the LHD is the luminosity from the hot dust component and the Lbol is the bolometric luminosity; and (iii) a moderate viewing angle. In order to investigate why red quasars are red, we studied optical and NIR spectra of 20 red quasars at z 0.3 and 0.7, where the usage of the NIR spectra allowed us to look into red quasar properties in ways that are little affected by dust extinction. The Paschen to Balmer line ratios were derived for 13 red quasars and the values were found to be 10 times higher than unobscured type 1 quasars, suggesting a heavy dust extinction with AV > 2.5 mag. Furthermore, the Paschen to Balmer line ratios of red quasars are difficult to explain with plausible physical conditions without adopting the concept of the dust extinction. The CFHD of red quasars are similar to, or marginally higher than, those of unobscured type 1 quasars. The Eddington ratios, computed for 19 out of 20 red quasars, are higher than those of unobscured type 1 quasars (by factors of 3-5), and hence the moderate viewing angle scenario is disfavored. Consequently, these results strongly suggest the dust extinction that is connected to an enhanced nuclear activity as the origin of the red color of red quasars, which is consistent with the merger-driven quasar evolution scenario. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A31

  16. Mesomechanical model and analysis of an artificial muscle functioning: role of Poisson’s ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shil'ko, Serge; Chernous, Dmitry; Basinyuk, Vladimir

    2016-05-01

    The mechanism of force generation in a polymer monofilament actuator element with auxetic characteristics is modeled to assess the development and the optimization of a controlled drive based on the use of electrostrictive polymers. The monofilament is considered as a viscoelastic rod. By assuming a ‘sliding thread’ deformation occurring within the system, the variation of the monofilament length during the uniform contraction and force generated during a uniaxial mode of actuation have been obtained. The distribution of the axial stress was determined along the length of the monofilament at various stages during the uniform contraction. The rate of contraction reaches a maximum, together with a minimum of the stress intensity when the equivalent Poisson’s ratio of the actuator is negative.

  17. Analysis of dynamic capacity of low-contact-ratio spur gears using Lundberg-Palmgren theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    A concise mathematical model is developed for surface fatigue life of low-contact-ratio spur gears. The expected fatigue life of the pinion, gear, or gear sets may be calculated from the model. An equation for the dynamic capacity of the gear set was also derived in terms of the transmitted tangential tooth load which will give a 10-percent fatigue life of one million pinion revolutions. The theoretical life was compared with experimental data for a set of VAR AISI 9310 gears operating at a Hertz stress of 1.71X10 to the 9th power newtons per square meter (248,000 psi) and 10 000 revolutions per minute. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental and theoretical surface fatigue life of the gears.

  18. Shuttle bit rate synchronizer. [signal to noise ratios and error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, D. C.; Fultz, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    A shuttle bit rate synchronizer brassboard unit was designed, fabricated, and tested, which meets or exceeds the contractual specifications. The bit rate synchronizer operates at signal-to-noise ratios (in a bit rate bandwidth) down to -5 dB while exhibiting less than 0.6 dB bit error rate degradation. The mean acquisition time was measured to be less than 2 seconds. The synchronizer is designed around a digital data transition tracking loop whose phase and data detectors are integrate-and-dump filters matched to the Manchester encoded bits specified. It meets the reliability (no adjustments or tweaking) and versatility (multiple bit rates) of the shuttle S-band communication system through an implementation which is all digital after the initial stage of analog AGC and A/D conversion.

  19. Analysis of high-aspect-ratio jet-flap wings of arbitrary geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissaman, P. B. S.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical technique to compute the performance of an arbitrary jet-flapped wing is developed. The solution technique is based on the method of Maskell and Spence in which the well-known lifting-line approach is coupled with an auxiliary equation providing the extra function needed in jet-flap theory. The present method is generalized to handle straight, uncambered wings of arbitrary planform, twist, and blowing (including unsymmetrical cases). An analytical procedure is developed for continuous variations in the above geometric data with special functions to exactly treat discontinuities in any of the geometric and blowing data. A rational theory for the effect of finite wing thickness is introduced as well as simplified concepts of effective aspect ratio for rapid estimation of performance.

  20. Efficiency and exhaust gas analysis of variable compression ratio spark ignition engine fuelled with alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshaiah, N. [Mechanical Engineering Department, M.I.T.S, Madanapalle, Angallu-517325, A.P. (India)

    2010-07-01

    Considering energy crises and pollution problems today, investigations have been concentrated on decreasing fuel consumption by using alternative fuels and on lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products. In the present work, the variable compression ratio spark ignition engine designed to run on gasoline has been tested with pure gasoline, LPG (Isobutene), and gasoline blended with ethanol 10%, 15%, 25% and 35% by volume. Also, the gasoline mixed with kerosene at 15%, 25% and 35% by volume without any engine modifications has been tested and presented the result. Brake thermal and volumetric efficiency variation with brake load is compared and presented. CO and CO2 emissions have been also compared for all tested fuels.

  1. Biomedical and Forensic Applications of Combined Catalytic Hydrogenation-Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Sephton

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of biological molecules such as fatty acids and the steroid hormones have the potential to benefit enormously from stable carbon isotope ratio measurements of individual molecules. In their natural form, however, the body’s molecules interact too readily with laboratory equipment designed to separate them for accurate measurements to be made.Some methods overcome this problem by adding carbon to the target molecule, but this can irreversibly overprint the carbon source ‘signal’. Hydropyrolysis is a newly-applied catalytic technique that delicately strips molecules of their functional groups but retains their carbon skeletons and stereochemistries intact, allowing precise determination of the carbon source. By solving analytical problems, the new technique is increasing the ability of scientists to pinpoint molecular indicators of disease, elucidate metabolic pathways and recognise administered substances in forensic investigations.

  2. Biomedical and Forensic Applications of Combined Catalytic Hydrogenation-Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sephton, Mark A.; Meredith, Will; Sun, Cheng-Gong; Snape, Colin E.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of biological molecules such as fatty acids and the steroid hormones have the potential to benefit enormously from stable carbon isotope ratio measurements of individual molecules. In their natural form, however, the body’s molecules interact too readily with laboratory equipment designed to separate them for accurate measurements to be made. Some methods overcome this problem by adding carbon to the target molecule, but this can irreversibly overprint the carbon source ‘signal’. Hydropyrolysis is a newly-applied catalytic technique that delicately strips molecules of their functional groups but retains their carbon skeletons and stereochemistries intact, allowing precise determination of the carbon source. By solving analytical problems, the new technique is increasing the ability of scientists to pinpoint molecular indicators of disease, elucidate metabolic pathways and recognise administered substances in forensic investigations. PMID:19662175

  3. Sensitivity analysis of tritium breeding ratio and startup inventory for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Lei; Chen, Hongli; Zeng, Qin, E-mail: zengqin@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Through the calculation method of the model, it was found that the increase of the artificially determined startup inventory I0 causes significant increase of TBRreq and the increase of the achievable tritium breeding ratio TBRachiv leads to the decrease of the Im. • The increase of fueling efficiency and fractional burnup significantly contributes to the decrease of both Im and TBRreq, while the increase of the duty time and availability results in the decrease of TBRreq and the proportional increase of Im. • The outer tritium plant parameters of some subsystems that have relatively big tritium throughput have intense influence on either Im or TBRreq. - Abstract: In order to evaluate the tritium self-sufficiency of fusion plant, citing CFETR (Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor) as an example, a modified tritium fuel cycle model was developed. The calculation method of this model to obtain the minimum startup inventory I{sub m} and its corresponding required minimum tritium breeding ratio TBR{sub req} was first introduced. Then the model was utilized to analyze the influence on I{sub m} and TBR{sub req} by all tritium cycle parameters that were classified into two categories, namely, the tritium burning parameters and the outer tritium plant parameters. As for the tritium burning parameters, the increase of fueling efficiency and fractional burnup significantly contributes to the decrease of both I{sub m} and TBR{sub req}, while the increase of the duty time and availability results in the decrease of TBR{sub req} and the proportional increase of I{sub m}. As for the outer tritium plant parameters, it was found that the outer tritium plant parameters of some subsystems that have relatively big tritium throughput have intense influence on either I{sub m} or TBR{sub req}.

  4. Performance Analysis of the Enhanced DSR Routing Protocol for the Short Time Disconnected MANET to the OPNET Modeler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAPAJ Ján

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Disconnected mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET are very important areas of the research. In this article, the performance analysis of the enhanced dynamic source routing protocol (OPP_DSR is introduced. This modification enables the routing process in the case when there are no connections to other mobile nodes. It also will enable the routing mechanisms when the routes, selected by routing mechanisms, are disconnected for some time. Disconnection can be for a short time and standard routing protocol DSR cannot reflect on this situation.The main idea is based on opportunistic forwarding where the nodes not only forward data but it's stored in the cache during long time. The network parameters throughput, routing load and are analysed.

  5. Spatially resolved δ13C analysis using laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, J.; Riha, K. M.; Nims, M. K.; Linley, T. J.; Hess, N. J.; Nico, P. S.

    2014-12-01

    Inherent geochemical, organic matter, and microbial heterogeneity over small spatial scales can complicate studies of carbon dynamics through soils. Stable isotope analysis has a strong history of helping track substrate turnover, delineate rhizosphere activity zones, and identifying transitions in vegetation cover, but most traditional isotope approaches are limited in spatial resolution by a combination of physical separation techniques (manual dissection) and IRMS instrument sensitivity. We coupled laser ablation sampling with isotope measurement via IRMS to enable spatially resolved analysis over solid surfaces. Once a targeted sample region is ablated the resulting particulates are entrained in a helium carrier gas and passed through a combustion reactor where carbon is converted to CO2. Cyrotrapping of the resulting CO2 enables a reduction in carrier gas flow which improves overall measurement sensitivity versus traditional, high flow sample introduction. Currently we are performing sample analysis at 50 μm resolution, require 65 ng C per analysis, and achieve measurement precision consistent with other continuous flow techniques. We will discuss applications of the laser ablation IRMS (LA-IRMS) system to microbial communities and fish ecology studies to demonstrate the merits of this technique and how similar analytical approaches can be transitioned to soil systems. Preliminary efforts at analyzing soil samples will be used to highlight strengths and limitations of the LA-IRMS approach, paying particular attention to sample preparation requirements, spatial resolution, sample analysis time, and the types of questions most conducive to analysis via LA-IRMS.

  6. What the drivers do and do not tell you: using verbal protocol analysis to investigate driver behaviour in emergency situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Victoria A; Stanton, Neville A; Harvey, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Although task analysis of pedestrian detection can provide us with useful insights into how a driver may behave in emergency situations, the cognitive elements of driver decision-making are less well understood. To assist in the design of future Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, such as Autonomous Emergency Brake systems, it is essential that the cognitive elements of the driving task are better understood. This paper uses verbal protocol analysis in an exploratory fashion to uncover the thought processes underlying behavioural outcomes represented by hard data collected using the Southampton University Driving Simulator.

  7. Security Protocols in a Nutshell

    OpenAIRE

    Toorani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Security protocols are building blocks in secure communications. They deploy some security mechanisms to provide certain security services. Security protocols are considered abstract when analyzed, but they can have extra vulnerabilities when implemented. This manuscript provides a holistic study on security protocols. It reviews foundations of security protocols, taxonomy of attacks on security protocols and their implementations, and different methods and models for security analysis of pro...

  8. Forecast and analysis of the ratio of electric energy to terminal energy consumption for global energy internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhong, Ming; Cheng, Ling; Jin, Lu; Shen, Si

    2018-02-01

    In the background of building global energy internet, it has both theoretical and realistic significance for forecasting and analysing the ratio of electric energy to terminal energy consumption. This paper firstly analysed the influencing factors of the ratio of electric energy to terminal energy and then used combination method to forecast and analyse the global proportion of electric energy. And then, construct the cointegration model for the proportion of electric energy by using influence factor such as electricity price index, GDP, economic structure, energy use efficiency and total population level. At last, this paper got prediction map of the proportion of electric energy by using the combination-forecasting model based on multiple linear regression method, trend analysis method, and variance-covariance method. This map describes the development trend of the proportion of electric energy in 2017-2050 and the proportion of electric energy in 2050 was analysed in detail using scenario analysis.

  9. The usage of ratio analysis in the assessing of the operation of commercial entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljušić Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers both the financial analysis and the analysis of net working capital that are most commonly used in assessing the operations of economic entities. It is of sig- nificant importance to analyze the operations of each corporate entity through financial aspect (assessment of liquidity and credit worthiness, economic phenomena, reputation and inner strength. The analysis of the operational assessment of the economic entity is of significant importance for the management as it is taken as one of the necessary para- meters in decision – making. Thus gained results can greatly affect and guide managers towards future steps in the process of decision making. On the other hand, by the insight into the financial analysis, the attitude of both the investitors and creditors towards busi- ness entity is determined and therefore they can become interested for various forms of cooperation, including joint ventures. The aim of this paper is to determine, through financial analysis, the status, operation and also the financial situation of the company Sog Line L.T.D. Belgrade, as well as to highlight the important business segments and pos- sibly propose the measures for the improvement of the operation of the entity.

  10. Implant loading protocols for edentulous patients with fixed prostheses: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaspyridakos, Panos; Chen, Chun-Jung; Chuang, Sung-Kiang; Weber, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    To report on the effect of immediate implant loading with fixed prostheses compared to early and conventional loading on implant and prosthesis survival, failure, and complications. An electronic and manual search was conducted to identify randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) as well as prospective and retrospective studies involving rough surface implants and implant fixed complete dental prostheses for edentulous patients. The 62 studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria featured 4 RCTs, 2 prospective case-control studies, 34 prospective cohort studies, and 22 retrospective cohort studies. These studies yielded data from 2,695 patients (2,757 edentulous arches) with 13,653 implants. Studies were grouped according to the loading protocol applied; 45 studies reported on immediate loading, 8 on early loading, and 11 on conventional loading. For the immediate loading protocol with flap surgery, the implant and prosthesis survival rates ranged from 90.1% to 100% and 93.75% to 100%, respectively (range of follow-up, 1 to 10 years). When immediate loading was combined with guided flapless implant placement, the implant survival rates ranged from 90% to 99.4%. For the early loading protocol, the implant and prosthesis survival rates ranged from 94.74% to 100% and 93.75% to 100%, respectively (range of follow-up, 1 to 10 years). For the conventional loading protocol, the implant and prosthesis survival rates ranged from 94.95% to 100% and 87.5% to 100%, respectively (range of follow-up, 2 to 15 years). No difference was identified between maxilla and mandible. When selecting cases carefully and using dental implants with a rough surface, immediate loading with fixed prostheses in edentulous patients results in similar implant and prosthesis survival and failure rates as early and conventional loading. For immediate loading, most of the studies recommended a minimal insertion torque of 30 Ncm. The estimated 1-year implant survival was above 99% with all three

  11. Digital image analysis supports a nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio cutoff value of 0.5 for atypical urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Jen-Fan; Charu, Vivek; Zhang, M Lisa; VandenBussche, Christopher J

    2017-09-01

    An elevated nuclear-to-cytoplasmic (N:C) ratio of ≥0.5 is a required criterion for the diagnosis of atypical urothelial cells (AUC) in The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology. To validate the N:C ratio cutoff value and its predictive power for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC), the authors retrospectively reviewed the urinary tract cytology specimens of 15 cases of AUC with HGUC on follow-up (AUC-HGUC) and 33 cases of AUC without HGUC on follow-up (AUC-N-HGUC). The number of atypical cells in each case was recorded, and each atypical cell was photographed and digitally examined to calculate the nuclear size and N:C ratio. On average, the maximum N:C ratios of atypical cells were significantly different between the AUC-HGUC and AUC-N-HGUC cohorts (0.53 vs 0.43; P =.00009), whereas the maximum nuclear sizes of atypical cells (153.43 μM 2 vs 201.47 μM 2 ; P = .69) and the number of atypical cells per case (10.13 vs 7.88; P = .12) were not found to be significantly different. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the maximum N:C ratio alone had high discriminatory capacity (area under the curve, 79.19%; 95% confidence interval, 64.19%-94.19%). The optimal maximum N:C ratio threshold was 0.486, giving a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 84.8% for predicting HGUC on follow-up. The identification of AUC with an N:C ratio >0.486 has a high predictive power for HGUC on follow-up in AUC specimens. This justifies using the N:C ratio as a required criterion for the AUC category. Individual laboratories using different cytopreparation methods may require independent validation of the N:C ratio cutoff value. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:710-6. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. Isotopic ratio analysis of cattle tail hair: A potential tool in building the database for cow milk geographical traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behkami, Shima; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Gholami, Mehrdad; Bakirdere, Sezgin

    2017-02-15

    The potential for the isotopic ratio analysis of cattle tail hair in determining the geographical origin of raw cow milk in Peninsular Malaysia had been investigated in this research using exploratory visualization. A significant positive correlation (pdiscrimination had been clearly demonstrated when several commercial milk samples from the same regions under the study were correctly assigned to the appropriate geographical clusters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stationary analysis of signals and ratio decay determination in BWR type reactors by neuronal network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchis, R.; Palomo, M. J.; Munoz-Cobo, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    The signals registered in the nuclear plants have non stationary characteristics, in numerous times. This made difficult the application of the methods of analysis. There are determinate temporal intervals in that the signal is stationary with determinate mean, value together of zones with corrupt registers, and other zones with mean value distinct, but stationary during a temporal interval. The methodology consist in a stationary analysis to the signal received of the nuclear plant. With the Gabor Transformation are determined the temporal intervals of the stationary signals, synthesised it, as previous phase to the application of the methods of the analysis of stability parameters with methods ARMA, SVD, Neural Net,... to the reconstructed signal. 4 refs. (Author)

  14. Analysis on Filling Ratio and Shield Supporting Pressure for Overburden Movement Control in Coal Mining with Compacted Backfilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the weight of overburden is sustained by both the backfill body and the unmined solid coal in coal mining with compacted backfilling (CMCB panels, the stress and deformation characteristics of the surrounding rocks in coal mining are radically changed. The overburden movement control mechanism by coordinating with backfill body and shield in CMCB was studied systematically in this paper. Based on the analysis of deformational and structural characteristics of surrounding rock in CMCB panels, the methods of theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and engineering test are employed. The results show that the fracture of the main roof is mainly controlled by the filling ratio φ and is non-correlated to the shield supporting pressure p. However, p has a significant control effect on the deflection of roof within the shield canopy length, and adversely affects the filling ratio. With the increase of the filling ratio of the gob, the maximum sagging of the immediate and the main roofs, the peak front and the influence range of the abutment pressures are gradually reduced. Correspondingly, the stable period of internal pressure of backfill body in the gob is shortened. Engineering practice shows that the sagging of the gob roof, the distribution of the abutment pressure, the distribution of the internal pressure in the backfill body, and the ground surface sagging results obtained by the in-situ measurement are approximately corresponding to the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results.

  15. Fixed ratio combinations of glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists with basal insulin: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakopoulou, Paraskevi; Liakos, Aris; Vasilakou, Despoina; Athanasiadou, Eleni; Bekiari, Eleni; Kazakos, Kyriakos; Tsapas, Apostolos

    2017-06-01

    Basal insulin controls primarily fasting plasma glucose but causes hypoglycaemia and weight gain, whilst glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists induce weight loss without increasing risk for hypoglycaemia. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to investigate the efficacy and safety of fixed ratio combinations of basal insulin with glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists. We searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library as well as conference abstracts up to December 2016. We assessed change in haemoglobin A 1c , body weight, and incidence of hypoglycaemia and gastrointestinal adverse events. We included eight studies with 5732 participants in the systematic review. Switch from basal insulin to fixed ratio combinations with a glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonist was associated with 0.72% reduction in haemoglobin A 1c [95% confidence interval -1.03 to -0.41; I 2  = 93%] and 2.35 kg reduction in body weight (95% confidence interval -3.52 to -1.19; I 2  = 93%), reducing also risk for hypoglycaemia [odds ratio 0.70; 95% confidence interval 0.57 to 0.86; I 2  = 85%] but increasing incidence of nausea (odds ratio 6.89; 95% confidence interval 3.73-12.74; I 2  = 79%). Similarly, switching patients from treatment with a glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonist to a fixed ratio combination with basal insulin was associated with 0.94% reduction in haemoglobin A 1c (95% confidence interval -1.11 to -0.77) and an increase in body weight by 2.89 kg (95% confidence interval 2.17-3.61). Fixed ratio combinations of basal insulin with glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists improve glycaemic control whilst balancing out risk for hypoglycaemia and gastrointestinal side effects.

  16. Performance analysis of wind turbines at low tip-speed ratio using the Betz-Goldstein model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Jerson R.P.; Wood, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • General formulations for power and thrust at any tip-speed ratio are developed. • The Joukowsky model for the blades is modified with specific vortex distributions. • Betz-Goldstein model is shown to be the most consistent at low tip-speed ratio. • The effects of finite blade number are assessed using tip loss factors. • Tip loss for finite blade number may complicate the vortex breakdown. - Abstract: Analyzing wind turbine performance at low tip-speed ratio is challenging due to the relatively high level of swirl in the wake. This work presents a new approach to wind turbine analysis including swirl for any tip-speed ratio. The methodology uses the induced velocity field from vortex theory in the general momentum theory, in the form of the turbine thrust and torque equations. Using the constant bound circulation model of Joukowsky, the swirl velocity becomes infinite on the wake centreline even at high tip-speed ratio. Rankine, Vatistas and Delery vortices were used to regularize the Joukowsky model near the centreline. The new formulation prevents the power coefficient from exceeding the Betz-Joukowsky limit. An alternative calculation, based on the varying circulation for Betz-Goldstein optimized rotors is shown to have the best general behavior. Prandtl’s approximation for the tip loss and a recent alternative were employed to account for the effects of a finite number of blades. The Betz-Goldstein model appears to be the only one resistant to vortex breakdown immediately behind the rotor for an infinite number of blades. Furthermore, the dependence of the induced velocity on radius in the Betz-Goldstein model allows the power coefficient to remain below Betz-Joukowsky limit which does not occur for the Joukowsky model at low tip-speed ratio.

  17. Lift to Drag Ratio Analysis in Magnetic Levitation with an Electrodynamic Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutarra-Leon, Angel; Cordrey, Vincent; Majewski, Walerian

    Our experiments explored inductive magnetic levitation (MagLev) using simple permanent magnets and conductive tracks. Our investigations used a circular Halbach array with a 1 Tesla variable magnetic field on the outer rim of the ring. Such a system is usually called an Electrodynamic Wheel (EDW). Rotating this wheel around a horizontal axis above or below a flat conducting surface should induce eddy currents in said surface through the variable magnetic flux. The eddy currents produce, in turn, their own magnetic fields, which interact with the magnets of the EDW. We constructed a four-inch diameter Electrodynamic Wheel using twelve Neodymium permanent magnets and demonstrated that the magnetic interactions produce both lift and drag forces on the EDW. These forces can be used for levitation and propulsion of the EDW to produce magnetic levitation without coils and complex control circuitry. We achieved full levitation of the non-magnetic aluminum and copper plates. Our results confirm the expected behavior of lift to drag ratio as proportional to (L/R) ω, with L and R being the inductance and resistance of the track plate, and ω being the angular velocity of the magnetic flux. Supported by grants from the Virginia Academy of Science, Society of Physics Students, Virginia Community College System, and the NVCC Educational Foundation.

  18. Managing female urinary incontinence: A regional prospective analysis of cost-utility ratios (curs and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Costantini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To evaluate the cost-utility of incontinence treatments, particularly anticholinergic therapy, by examining costs and quality-adjusted life years. Materials and methods: A prospective cohort study of women who were consecutively referred by general practitioners (GPs to the Urology Department because of urinary incontinence. The primary outcome was evaluation of the cost-utility of incontinence treatments (surgery, medical therapy and physiotherapy for stress and/or urgency incontinence by examining costs and quality-adjusted life years. Results: 137 consecutive female patients (mean age 60.6 ± 11.6; range 36-81 were enrolled and stratified according to pathologies: SUI and UUI. Group A: SUI grade II-III: 43 patients who underwent mid-urethral sling (MUS; Group B: SUI grade I-II 57 patients who underwent pelvic floor muscle exercise and Group C: UUI: 37 patients who underwent antimuscarinic treatment with 5 mg solifenacin daily. The cost utility ratio (CUR was estimated as saving more than €1200 per QALY for surgery and physiotherapy and as costing under € 100 per QALY for drug therapy. Conclusions: This study shows that appropriate diagnosis and treatment of a patient with incontinence lowers National Health Service costs and improves the benefits of treatment and quality of life.

  19. Comparative analysis of cell proliferation ratio in plaque and erosive oral lichen planus: An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redder, C Pramod; Pandit, Siddharth; Desai, Dinkar; Kandagal, V Suresh; Ingaleshwar, Pramod S; Shetty, Sharan J; Vibhute, Nupura

    2014-05-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a nuclear protein synthesized in the late G1 and S-phase of the cell cycle. Detection of this protein represents a useful marker of the proliferation status of lesions. This study has been carried out to evaluate the cell proliferation rate in oral lichen planus (OLP) and comparison between plaque and erosive lichen planus, which indicates the potential for malignant transformation. This study was comprised of 64 cases of histologically proven lichen planus, out of which 32 cases of plaque and erosive each was taken. Two sections were taken from each, one for H and E staining to verify histological diagnosis according to Eisenberg criteria, other sections were stained according to super sensitive polymer horse radish peroxidise method for identifying immunohistochemical expression of PCNA. Data were statistically analyzed by Tukey high-range statistical domain test. Statistically significant P value was considered lichen planus, erosive type (66.86%) showed higher expression of PCNA followed by plaque (17.07%). Overall, P value was lichen planus followed by plaque type, which ultimately results in increased rate of malignant transformation. PCNA is a good nuclear protein marker to evaluate the proliferation status of OLP. Out of the two types of lichen planus, erosive type possesses more proliferative ratio and chances of malignant change is more in this type. It emphasizes the importance of long-term follow-up with erosive type when compared with plaque type.

  20. Subcritical ethylic biodiesel production from wet animal fat and vegetable oils: A net energy ratio analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, Emerson A.; Ghirardi, Maria L.; Jorquera, Orlando

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Using ethanol in subcritical thermodynamic conditions, without catalysts. • The net energy ratio-NER identifies opportunities for industrial application. • The presence of water and free fatty acids improved the TG conversion. • Transesterification reactions of animal fat, soybean and palm oils. - Abstract: Ethylic transesterification process for biodiesel production without any chemical or biochemical catalysts at different subcritical thermodynamic conditions was performed using wet animal fat, soybean and palm oils as feedstock. The results indicate that 2 h of reaction at 240 °C with pressures varying from 20 to 45 bar was sufficient to transform almost all lipid fraction of the samples to biodiesel, depending on the reactor dead volume and proportions between reactants. Conversions of 100%, 84% and 98.5% were obtained for animal fat, soybean oil and palm oil, respectively, in the presence of water, with a net energy ration values of 2.6, 2.1 and 2.5 respectively. These results indicate that the process is energetically favorable, and thus represents a cleaner technology with environmental advantages when compared to traditional esterification or transesterification processes.

  1. Application of neutron-gamma analysis for determination of C/N ratio in compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutron-gamma analysis is based on the acquisition of gamma rays from neutron irradiated study objects. The intensity and energy of the registered gamma rays gives information on the types and amounts of elements in the studied object. The use of this method for measurements of soil carbon demonstra...

  2. Quantitative effects of composting state variables on C/N ratio through GA-aided multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Huang, Guo H; Zeng, Guangming; Qin, Xiaosheng; Yu, Hui

    2011-03-01

    It is widely known that variation of the C/N ratio is dependent on many state variables during composting processes. This study attempted to develop a genetic algorithm aided stepwise cluster analysis (GASCA) method to describe the nonlinear relationships between the selected state variables and the C/N ratio in food waste composting. The experimental data from six bench-scale composting reactors were used to demonstrate the applicability of GASCA. Within the GASCA framework, GA searched optimal sets of both specified state variables and SCA's internal parameters; SCA established statistical nonlinear relationships between state variables and the C/N ratio; to avoid unnecessary and time-consuming calculation, a proxy table was introduced to save around 70% computational efforts. The obtained GASCA cluster trees had smaller sizes and higher prediction accuracy than the conventional SCA trees. Based on the optimal GASCA tree, the effects of the GA-selected state variables on the C/N ratio were ranged in a descending order as: NH₄+-N concentration>Moisture content>Ash Content>Mean Temperature>Mesophilic bacteria biomass. Such a rank implied that the variation of ammonium nitrogen concentration, the associated temperature and the moisture conditions, the total loss of both organic matters and available mineral constituents, and the mesophilic bacteria activity, were critical factors affecting the C/N ratio during the investigated food waste composting. This first application of GASCA to composting modelling indicated that more direct search algorithms could be coupled with SCA or other multivariate analysis methods to analyze complicated relationships during composting and many other environmental processes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Computational local stiffness analysis of biological cell: High aspect ratio single wall carbon nanotube tip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TermehYousefi, Amin, E-mail: at.tyousefi@gmail.com [Department of Human Intelligence Systems, Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology (Kyutech) (Japan); Bagheri, Samira; Shahnazar, Sheida [Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT), IPS Building, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahman, Md. Habibur [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Asia Pacific, Green Road, Dhaka-1215 (Bangladesh); Kadri, Nahrizul Adib [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are potentially ideal tips for atomic force microscopy (AFM) due to the robust mechanical properties, nanoscale diameter and also their ability to be functionalized by chemical and biological components at the tip ends. This contribution develops the idea of using CNTs as an AFM tip in computational analysis of the biological cells. The proposed software was ABAQUS 6.13 CAE/CEL provided by Dassault Systems, which is a powerful finite element (FE) tool to perform the numerical analysis and visualize the interactions between proposed tip and membrane of the cell. Finite element analysis employed for each section and displacement of the nodes located in the contact area was monitored by using an output database (ODB). Mooney–Rivlin hyperelastic model of the cell allows the simulation to obtain a new method for estimating the stiffness and spring constant of the cell. Stress and strain curve indicates the yield stress point which defines as a vertical stress and plan stress. Spring constant of the cell and the local stiffness was measured as well as the applied force of CNT-AFM tip on the contact area of the cell. This reliable integration of CNT-AFM tip process provides a new class of high performance nanoprobes for single biological cell analysis. - Graphical abstract: This contribution develops the idea of using CNTs as an AFM tip in computational analysis of the biological cells. The proposed software was ABAQUS 6.13 CAE/CEL provided by Dassault Systems. Finite element analysis employed for each section and displacement of the nodes located in the contact area was monitored by using an output database (ODB). Mooney–Rivlin hyperelastic model of the cell allows the simulation to obtain a new method for estimating the stiffness and spring constant of the cell. Stress and strain curve indicates the yield stress point which defines as a vertical stress and plan stress. Spring constant of the cell and the local stiffness was measured as well

  4. Impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Iberian Electricity Market: A scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reneses, Javier; Centeno, Efraim

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Iberian Electricity Market during two periods: the first phase (2005-2007) and the second phase (2008-2012). A market-equilibrium model is used in order to analyze different conditions faced by generation companies. Scenarios involving CO 2 -emission prices, hydro conditions, demand, fuel prices and renewable generation are considered. This valuation will show the significance of CO 2 -emission prices as regards Spanish and Portuguese electricity prices, generation mix, utilities profits and the total CO 2 emissions. Furthermore, the results will illustrate how energy policies implemented by regulators are critical for Spain and Portugal in order to mitigate the negative impact of the Kyoto Protocol. In conclusion, the Iberian electricity system will not be able to reach the Kyoto targets, except in very favorable conditions (CO 2 -emission prices over Euro 15/ton and the implementation of very efficient energy policies)

  5. An Analysis of Error Reconciliation Protocols for use in Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN // CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR...of the messages passed, and that the time to prepare or separate the message information is negligible . Finally, for this experiment all errors...of interactions becomes negligible . In fact, of the three protocols, experiments performed here have shown that Winnow produces the highest average

  6. Design and Analysis of Secure Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiong; Zhang, Hua

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, with the development of science and technology and the progress of the times, China's wireless network technology has become increasingly prosperous and it plays an important role in social production and life. In this context, in order to further to enhance the stability of wireless network data transmission and security enhancements, the staff need to focus on routing security and carry out related work. Based on this, this paper analyzes the design of wireless sensor based on secure routing protocol.

  7. Design and Analysis of a secure multi-party communication protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Herberth, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In the past years digital communication became an important aspect in every day life. Everything is shared and discussed in groups of friends, family or business part- ners without a proper way to protect that information. This master thesis introduces the first secure robust multi-party communication protocol which mimics a physical conversation with the help of a Diffie-Hellman key tree and social behaviours. Robust- ness against offline group members is reached by taking advantage of trans...

  8. Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols in Ad-hoc and Sensor Networking Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gavrilovska

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc and sensor networks are becoming an increasingly popular wireless networking concepts lately. This paper analyzes and compares prominent routing schemes in these networking environments. The knowledge obtained can serve users to better understand short range wireless network solutions thus leading to options for implementation in various scenarios. In addition, it should aid researchers develop protocol improvements reliable for the technologies of interest.

  9. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  10. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...

  11. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  12. Investigation of the Study Characteristics Affecting Clinical Trial Quality Using the Protocol Deviations Leading to Exclusion of Subjects From the Per Protocol Set Data in Studies for New Drug Application: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Norihito; Kaneko, Masayuki; Narukawa, Mamoru

    2018-01-01

    The concept of the risk-based approach has been introduced as an effort to secure the quality of clinical trials. In the risk-based approach, identification and evaluation of risk in advance are considered important. For recently completed clinical trials, we investigated the relationship between study characteristics and protocol deviations leading to the exclusion of subjects from Per Protocol Set (PPS) efficacy analysis. New drugs approved in Japan in the fiscal year 2014-2015 were targeted in the research. The reasons for excluding subjects from the PPS efficacy analysis were described in 102 trials out of 492 in the summary of new drug application documents, which was publicly disclosed after the drug's regulatory approval. The author extracted these reasons along with the numbers of the cases and the study characteristics of each clinical trial. Then, the direct comparison, univariate regression analysis, and multivariate regression analysis was carried out based on the exclusion rate. The study characteristics for which exclusion of subjects from the PPS efficacy analysis were frequently observed was multiregional clinical trials in study region; inhalant and external use in administration route; Anti-infective for systemic use; Respiratory system, Dermatologicals, and Nervous system in therapeutic drug under the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification. In the multivariate regression analysis, the clinical trial variables of inhalant, Respiratory system, or Dermatologicals were selected as study characteristics leading to a higher exclusion rate. The characteristics of the clinical trial that is likely to cause protocol deviations that will affect efficacy analysis were suggested. These studies should be considered for specific attention and priority observation in the trial protocol or its monitoring plan and execution, such as a clear description of inclusion/exclusion criteria in the protocol, development of training materials to site staff, and

  13. Analysis of energy efficient routing protocols for implementation of a ubiquitous health system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jongwon; Park, Yongman; Koo, Sangjun; Ayurzana, Odgeral; Kim, Hiesik

    2007-12-01

    The innovative Ubiquitous-Health was born through convergence of medical service, with development of up to date information technologies and ubiquitous IT. The U-Health can be applied to a variety of special situations for managing functions of each medical center efficiently. This paper focuses on estimation of various routing protocols for implementation of U-health monitoring system. In order to facilitate wireless communication over the network, a routing protocol on the network layer is used to establish precise and efficient route between sensor nodes so that information acquired from sensors may be delivered in a timely manner. A route establishment should be considered to minimize overhead, data loss and power consumption because wireless networks for U-health are organized by a large number of sensor nodes which are small in size and have limited processing power, memory and battery life. In this paper a overview of wireless sensor network technologies commonly known is described as well as evaluation of three multi hop routing protocols which are flooding, gossiping and modified low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy(LEACH) for use with these networks using TOSSIM simulator. As a result of evaluation the integrated wireless sensor board was developed in particular. The board is embedded device based on AVR128 porting TinyOS. Also it employs bio sensor measures blood pressure, pulse frequency and ZigBee module for wireless communication. This paper accelerates the digital convergence age through continual research and development of technologies related the U-Health.

  14. Development of a protocol for sampling and analysis of ballast water in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achsah A Mitchell

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of ballast by the international shipping industry has negatively impacted the environment. To design such a protocol for the area, the ballast water tanks of seven bulk cargo vessels entering a Jamaican port were sampled between January 28, 2010 and August 17, 2010. Vessels originated from five ports and used three main routes, some of which conducted ballast water exchange. Twenty-six preserved and 22 live replicate zooplankton samples were obtained. Abundance and richness were higher than at temperate ports. Exchange did not alter the biotic composition but reduced the abundance. Two of the live sample replicates, containing 31.67 and 16.75 viable individuals m-3, were non-compliant with the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments. Approximately 12% of the species identified in the ballast water were present in the waters nearest the port in 1995 and 11% were present in the entire bay in 2005. The protocol designed from this study can be used to aid the establishment of a ballast water management system in the Caribbean or used as a foundation for the development of further protocols.

  15. Design and Analysis of Optimization Algorithms to Minimize Cryptographic Processing in BGP Security Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Vinay K; Montgomery, Doug

    2017-07-01

    The Internet is subject to attacks due to vulnerabilities in its routing protocols. One proposed approach to attain greater security is to cryptographically protect network reachability announcements exchanged between Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routers. This study proposes and evaluates the performance and efficiency of various optimization algorithms for validation of digitally signed BGP updates. In particular, this investigation focuses on the BGPSEC (BGP with SECurity extensions) protocol, currently under consideration for standardization in the Internet Engineering Task Force. We analyze three basic BGPSEC update processing algorithms: Unoptimized, Cache Common Segments (CCS) optimization, and Best Path Only (BPO) optimization. We further propose and study cache management schemes to be used in conjunction with the CCS and BPO algorithms. The performance metrics used in the analyses are: (1) routing table convergence time after BGPSEC peering reset or router reboot events and (2) peak-second signature verification workload. Both analytical modeling and detailed trace-driven simulation were performed. Results show that the BPO algorithm is 330% to 628% faster than the unoptimized algorithm for routing table convergence in a typical Internet core-facing provider edge router.

  16. Analysis of the new code stroke protocol in Asturias after one year. Experience at one hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cabo, C; Benavente, L; Martínez-Ramos, J; Pérez-Álvarez, Á; Trigo, A; Calleja, S

    2018-03-01

    Prehospital code stroke (CS) systems have been proved effective for improving access to specialised medical care in acute stroke cases. They also improve the prognosis of this disease, which is one of the leading causes of death and disability in our setting. The aim of this study is to analyse results one year after implementation of the new code stroke protocol at one hospital in Asturias. We prospectively included patients who were admitted to our tertiary care centre as per the code stroke protocol for the period of one year. We analysed 363 patients. Mean age was 69 years and 54% of the cases were men. During the same period in the previous year, there were 236 non-hospital CS activations. One hundred forty-seven recanalisation treatments were performed (66 fibrinolysis and 81 mechanical thrombectomies or combined treatments), representing a 25% increase with regard to the previous year. Recent advances in the management of acute stroke call for coordinated code stroke protocols that are adapted to the needs of each specific region. This may result in an increased number of patients receiving early care, as well as revascularisation treatments. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. CO2 emissions embodied in China-US trade: Input-output analysis based on the emergy/dollar ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Huibin; Guo Jianghong; Mao Guozhu; Smith, Alexander M.; Wang Xuxu; Wang, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight into changes in CO 2 emissions embodied in China-US trade, an input-output analysis based on the emergy/dollar ratio (EDR) is used to estimate embodied CO 2 emissions; a structural decomposition analysis (SDA) is employed to analyze the driving factors for changes in CO 2 emissions embodied in China's exports to the US during 2002-2007. The results of the input-output analysis show that net export of CO 2 emissions increased quickly from 2002 to 2005 but decreased from 2005 to 2007. These trends are due to a reduction in total CO 2 emission intensity, a decrease in the exchange rate, and small imports of embodied CO 2 emissions. The results of the SDA demonstrate that total export volume was the largest driving factor for the increase in embodied CO 2 emissions during 2002-2007, followed by intermediate input structure. Direct CO 2 emissions intensity had a negative effect on changes in embodied CO 2 emissions. The results suggest that China should establish a framework for allocating emission responsibilities, enhance energy efficiency, and improve intermediate input structure. - Highlights: → An input-output analysis based on the emergy/dollar ratio estimated embodied CO 2 . → A structural decomposition analysis analyzed the driving factors. → Net export of CO 2 increased from 2002 to 2005 but decreased from 2005 to 2007. → Total export volume was the largest driving factor. → A framework for allocating emission responsibilities.

  18. Comparative analysis of cell proliferation ratio in plaque and erosive oral lichen planus: An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Pramod Redder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is a nuclear protein synthesized in the late G1 and S-phase of the cell cycle. Detection of this protein represents a useful marker of the proliferation status of lesions. This study has been carried out to evaluate the cell proliferation rate in oral lichen planus (OLP and comparison between plaque and erosive lichen planus, which indicates the potential for malignant transformation. Materials and Methods: This study was comprised of 64 cases of histologically proven lichen planus, out of which 32 cases of plaque and erosive each was taken. Two sections were taken from each, one for H and E staining to verify histological diagnosis according to Eisenberg criteria, other sections were stained according to super sensitive polymer horse radish peroxidise method for identifying immunohistochemical expression of PCNA. Data were statistically analyzed by Tukey high-range statistical domain test. Statistically significant P value was considered <0.05. Results: In two types of lichen planus, erosive type (66.86% showed higher expression of PCNA followed by plaque (17.07%. Overall, P value was <0.001, which was statistically significant. It indicates that proliferation activity is more in erosive lichen planus followed by plaque type, which ultimately results in increased rate of malignant transformation. Conclusion: PCNA is a good nuclear protein marker to evaluate the proliferation status of OLP. Out of the two types of lichen planus, erosive type possesses more proliferative ratio and chances of malignant change is more in this type. It emphasizes the importance of long-term follow-up with erosive type when compared with plaque type.

  19. Visualization of time series statistical data by shape analysis (GDP ratio changes among Asia countries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirota, Yukari; Hashimoto, Takako; Fitri Sari, Riri

    2018-03-01

    It has been very significant to visualize time series big data. In the paper we shall discuss a new analysis method called “statistical shape analysis” or “geometry driven statistics” on time series statistical data in economics. In the paper, we analyse the agriculture, value added and industry, value added (percentage of GDP) changes from 2000 to 2010 in Asia. We handle the data as a set of landmarks on a two-dimensional image to see the deformation using the principal components. The point of the analysis method is the principal components of the given formation which are eigenvectors of its bending energy matrix. The local deformation can be expressed as the set of non-Affine transformations. The transformations give us information about the local differences between in 2000 and in 2010. Because the non-Affine transformation can be decomposed into a set of partial warps, we present the partial warps visually. The statistical shape analysis is widely used in biology but, in economics, no application can be found. In the paper, we investigate its potential to analyse the economic data.

  20. Comparative analysis of five DNA isolation protocols and three drying methods for leaves samples of Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Severo da Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish a DNA isolation protocol Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez., able to obtain samples of high yield and quality for use in genomic analysis. A commercial kit and four classical methods of DNA extraction were tested, including three cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB-based and one sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-based methods. Three drying methods for leaves samples were also evaluated including drying at room temperature (RT, in an oven at 40ºC (S40, and in a microwave oven (FMO. The DNA solutions obtained from different types of leaves samples using the five protocols were assessed in terms of cost, execution time, and quality and yield of extracted DNA. The commercial kit did not extract DNA with sufficient quantity or quality for successful PCR reactions. Among the classic methods, only the protocols of Dellaporta and of Khanuja yielded DNA extractions for all three types of foliar samples that resulted in successful PCR reactions and subsequent enzyme restriction assays. Based on the evaluated variables, the most appropriate DNA extraction method for Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez. was that of Dellaporta, regardless of the method used to dry the samples. The selected method has a relatively low cost and total execution time. Moreover, the quality and quantity of DNA extracted using this method was sufficient for DNA sequence amplification using PCR reactions and to get restriction fragments.

  1. Mixed protocols: Multiple ratios of FSH and LH bioactivity using highly purified, human-derived FSH (BRAVELLE and highly purified hMG (MENOPUR are unaltered by mixing together in the same syringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raike Elizabeth

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of mixed or blended protocols, that utilize both FSH and hMG, for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation is increasing in use. To reduce the number of injections a patient must administer, many physicians instruct their patients to mix their FSH and hMG together to be given as a single injection. Therefore, the goal of this study was to definitively determine if the FSH and LH bioactivities of highly purified, human-derived FSH (Bravelle(R and highly purified hMG (Menopur(R were altered by reconstituting in 0.9% saline and mixing in the same syringe. Methods Bravelle(R and Menopur(R were reconstituted in 0.9% saline and mixed in a Becton Dickinson plastic syringe. The FSH and LH bioactivities of the products were determined after injecting female and male rats, respectively, with Bravelle(R, Menopur(R, or a mixture of Bravelle(R and Menopur(R. Ratios of FSH:LH activity tested were 150:75 IU (1 vial Bravelle(R: 1 vial Menopur(R, 300:75 IU (3 vials Bravelle(R: 1 vial Menopur(R or 300:225 IU (1 vial Bravelle(R: 3 vials of Menopur(R. Results There were no statistically significant changes in either FSH or LH bioactivity that occurred after mixing Bravelle(R with Menopur(R in the same syringe. The theoretical vs. actual FSH bioactivity for Bravelle(R and Menopur(R were 75 vs. 76.58 IU/mL and 75 vs. 76.0 IU/mL, respectively. For the 3 ratios of FSH:LH activity tested, 150:75 IU (1 vial Bravelle(R: 1 vial Menopur(R, 300:75 IU (3 vials Bravelle(R: 1 vial Menopur(R or 300:225 IU (1 vial Bravelle(R: 3 vials of Menopur(R tested, the theoretical vs. actual FSH bioactivities were 150 vs. 156.86 IU/mL, 300 vs. 308.69 IU/mL and 300 vs. 306.58 IU/mL, respectively. The theoretical vs. actual LH bioactivity for Menopur(R in the above mentioned ratios tested were 75 vs. 77.50 IU/mL. For the 3 ratios of FSH:LH activity tested, 150:75 IU (1 vial Bravelle(R: 1 vial Menopur(R, 300:75 IU (3 vials Bravelle(R: 1 vial Menopur(R or 300:225 IU (1

  2. Bioremediation protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, David

    1997-01-01

    ..., .. . . . . .. ,. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. 3 2 Granular Nina Sludge Christiansen, Consortia lndra for Bioremediation, M. Mathrani, and Birgitte K. Ahring . 23 PART II PROTOCOLS...

  3. A critical prognostic analysis of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio for patients undergoing nephroureterectomy due to upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Mesut; Haberal, Hakan Bahadır; Akdoğan, Bülent; Özen, Haluk

    2017-10-01

    To determine preoperative serum complete blood count parameters that affects survival of patients who underwent surgery for upper urinary tract urothelial cancer (UUT-UC). Since 1990, 150 patients underwent nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff excision for UUT-UC at Hacettepe University. Patients with a history of muscle-invasive bladder cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy or metastasis at the time of diagnosis were excluded. One hundred and thirteen patients without infective symptoms and with a full set of serum data were evaluated retrospectively. Effects of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and leukocyte count on disease-free survival (DFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were investigated. Threshold values for each parameter to predict PFS were calculated. The mean age and median follow-up were 63.7 ± 11.1 years and 34 (3-186) months, respectively. Male to female ratio was 86/27. The 5-years PFS (bladder recurrence was excluded) and DFS were 59.6 and 38.4%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, NLR was independent prognostic factor for PFS and DFS (p = 0.006 and p = 0.021, respectively) while LMR was prognostic only for PFS (p = 0.037). For UUT-UC, NLR is a prognostic factor for PFS and DFS, while LMR is a prognostic indicator for PFS in present series.

  4. Prognostic value of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio in pancreatic cancer: a comprehensive meta-analysis of 17 cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongping; Cheng, Sijin; Fathy, Abdel Hamid; Qian, Haixin; Zhao, Yongzhao

    2018-01-01

    Several studies were conducted to explore the prognostic value of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in pancreatic cancer and have reported contradictory results. This study aims to summarize the prognostic role of PLR in pancreatic cancer. Embase, PubMed and Cochrane Library were completely searched. The cohort studies focusing on the prognostic role of PLR in pancreatic cancer were eligible. The overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. Fifteen papers containing 17 cohort studies with pancreatic cancer were identified. The results showed patients that with low PLR might have longer OS when compared to the patients with high PLR (hazard ratio=1.28, 95% CI=1.17-1.40, P analysis model, ethnicity, sample size and cut-off value. Further analyses based on the adjusted potential confounders were conducted, including CA199, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, modified Glasgow Prognostic Score, albumin, C-reactive protein, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, stage, tumor size, nodal involvement, tumor differentiation, margin status, age and gender, which confirmed that low PLR was a protective factor in pancreatic cancer. In addition, low PLR was significantly associated with longer PFS when compared to high PLR in pancreatic cancer (hazard ratio=1.27, 95% CI=1.03-1.57, P =0.03; I 2 =33%). In conclusion, it was found that high PLR is an unfavorable predictor of OS and PFS in patients with pancreatic cancer, and PLR is a promising prognostic biomarker for pancreatic cancer.

  5. A Ratio-Analysis Method to the Dynamics of Excited State Proton Transfer: Pyranine in Water and Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Kalyanasis; Nandi, Nilanjana; Dolai, Suman; Bera, Avisek

    2018-06-05

    Emission spectrum of a fluorophore undergoing excited state proton transfer (ESPT) often exhibits two distinct bands each representing emissions from protonated and deprotonated forms. The relative contribution of the two bands, best represented by an emission intensity ratio (R) (intensity maximum of the protonated band / intensity maximum of the deprotonated band), is an important parameter which usually denotes feasibility or promptness of the ESPT process. However, the use of ratio is only limited to the interpretation of steady-state fluorescence spectra. Here, for the first time, we exploit the time-dependence of the ratio (R(t)), calculated from time-resolved emission spectra (TRES) at different times, to analyze ESPT dynamics. TRES at different times were fitted with a sum of two lognormal-functions representing each peaks and then, the peak intensity ratio, R(t) was calculated and further fitted with an analytical function. Recently, a time-resolved area-normalized emission spectra (TRANES)-based analysis was presented where the decay of protonated emission or the rise of deprotonated emission intensity conveniently accounts for the ESPT dynamics. We show that these two methods are equivalent but the new method provides more insights on the nature of the ESPT process.

  6. Effect of tranexamic acid on coagulation and fibrinolysis in women with postpartum haemorrhage (WOMAN-ETAC): protocol and statistical analysis plan for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Haleema; Fawole, Bukola; Kuti, Modupe; Olayemi, Oladapo; Bello, Adenike; Ogunbode, Olayinka; Kotila, Taiwo; Aimakhu, Chris O; Huque, Sumaya; Gregg, Meghann; Roberts, Ian

    2016-12-16

    Background : Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death. Tranexamic acid has the potential to reduce bleeding and a large randomized controlled trial of its effect on maternal health outcomes in women with PPH (The WOMAN trial) is ongoing. We will examine the effect of tranexamic acid on fibrinolysis and coagulation in a subset of WOMAN trial participants. Methods . Adult women with clinically diagnosed primary PPH after vaginal or caesarean delivery are eligible for inclusion in the WOMAN trial. In a sub-group of trial participants, blood samples will be collected at baseline and 30 minutes after the first dose of tranexamic acid or matching placebo.  Our primary objective is to evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid on fibrinolysis. Fibrinolysis will be assessed by measuring D-dimers and by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Secondary outcomes are international normalized ratio (INR), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, haemoglobin and platelets. We aim to include about 180 women from the University College Hospital, Ibadan in Nigeria. Discussion:  This sub-study of WOMAN trial participants should provide information on the mechanism of action of tranexamic acid in women with postpartum haemorrhage. We present the trial protocol and statistical analysis plan. The trial protocol was registered prior to the start of patient recruitment. The statistical analysis plan was completed before un-blinding. Trial registration: The trial was registered: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier NCT00872469 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00872469; ISRCTN registry, Identifier ISRCTN76912190 http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN76912190 (Registration date: 22/03/2012).

  7. Damping ratio analysis of tooth stability under various simulated degrees of vertical alveolar bone loss and different root types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kuo-Ning; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Huang, Haw-Ming

    2017-08-03

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using damping ratio (DR) analysis combined with resonance frequency (RF) and periotest (PTV) analyses to provide additional information about natural tooth stability under various simulated degrees of alveolar vertical bone loss and various root types. Three experimental tooth models, including upper central incisor, upper first premolar, and upper first molar were fabricated using Ti6Al4V alloy. In the tooth models, the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone were simulated using a soft lining material and gypsum, respectively. Various degrees of vertical bone loss were simulated by decreasing the surrounding bone level apically from the cementoenamel junction in 2-mm steps incrementally downward for 10 mm. A commercially available RF analyzer was used to measure the RF and DR of impulse-forced vibrations on the tooth models. The results showed that DRs increased as alveolar vertical bone height decreased and had high coefficients of determination in the linear regression analysis. The damping ratio of the central incisor model without a simulated periodontal ligament were 11.95 ± 1.92 and 27.50 ± 0.67% respectively when their bone levels were set at 2 and 10 mm apically from the cementoenamel junction. These values significantly changed to 28.85 ± 2.54% (p = 0.000) and 51.25 ± 4.78% (p = 0.003) when the tooth model was covered with simulated periodontal ligament. Moreover, teeth with different root types showed different DR and RF patterns. Teeth with multiple roots had lower DRs than teeth with single roots. Damping ratio analysis combined with PTV and RF analysis provides more useful information on the assessment of changes in vertical alveolar bone loss than PTV or RF analysis alone.

  8. Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio distributions in polish and german schoolchildren: Comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Nawarycz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To analyze differences in the distributions of waist circumference (WC and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR between Polish (PL and German (GE children and adolescents. Methods: Two samples of children and adolescents aged 7-18 y: From PL ( n = 11,326 GE ( n = 8,218 participated. The two WC cut-off points (WC1 as central fat distribution and WC2 as central obesity corresponding at age 18 to the adult criteria were determined. Furthermore, the mean WC cut-off points (WC1m, WC2m for boys and girls aged 14-18 from both countries were evaluated. For the WHtR, values over 0.5 were used as a definition of central fat distribution. The effect of different WC and WHtR criteria on the prevalence of abdominal obesity in both study groups was evaluated. Results: The mean and percentile values of WC and WHtR were generally higher in all German children as compared to their peers from Poland. When WC1m is used, the mean (95% CI prevalence of central fat distribution in the 14-18 y Polish groups was lower ( P 0.5, the results were similar for boys - 6.7% (5.9-7.5 vs. 8.5% (8.1-8.9; they were significantly ( P < 0.05 lower for Polish and German girls: 5.3% (5.0-5.6 vs. 12.7% (9.7-16.4. The prevalence of central obesity using WC2m as a criterion in the Polish vs. German groups was as follows: (boys - 1.1% (0.8-1.4 vs. 3.1% (2.2-4.0, P < 0.05; girls - 3.1% (2.5-3.7 vs. 10.2% (8.4-12.0, P < 0.05. Conclusions: The results highlight the greater central obesity associated with the German children, both in terms of WC and WHtR, in comparison to their peers from Poland. The prevalence of AO is significantly associated with the criteria used. The results demonstrate the need for the development of international WC references for pediatric subjects.

  9. Prognostic value of the pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in cervical cancer: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiayuan; Chen, Manyu; Liang, Caixia; Su, Wenmei

    2017-02-21

    The prognostic value of pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in cervical cancer remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis based on the data from 13 studies with 3729 patients to evaluate the association between the pretreatment NLR and the clinical outcomes of overall survival and progression-free survival in patients with cervical cancer. The relationship between NLR and clinicopathological parameters was also assessed. Hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the effect size estimate. Our analysis indicated that elevated pretreatment NLR was a poor prognostic marker for patients with cervical cancer because it predicted unfavorable overall survival (HR = 1.375, 95% CI: 1.200-1.576) and progression-free survival (HR = 1.646, 95% CI: 1.313-2.065). Increased NLR is also significantly associated with the larger tumor size (OR = 1.780, 95% CI: 1.090-2.908), advanced clinical stage (OR = 2.443, 95% CI: 1.730-3.451), and positive lymph node metastasis (OR = 2.380, 95% CI: 1.775-3.190). By these results, high pretreatment NLR predicted a shorter survival period for patients with cervical cancer, and it could be served as a novel index of prognostic evaluation in patients with cervical cancer.

  10. Characterization and production and consumption processes of N2O emitted from temperate agricultural soils determined via isotopomer ratio analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Sakae; Yano, Midori; Nishimura, Sei-Ichi; Akiyama, Hiroko; Hayakawa, Atsushi; Koba, Keisuke; Sudo, Shigeto; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Makabe, Akiko; Tobari, Yoshifumi; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Yamada, Keita; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2011-06-01

    Isotopomer ratios of N2O (bulk nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, δ15Nbulk and δ18O, and intramolecular 15N site preference, SP) are useful parameters that characterize sources of this greenhouse gas and also provide insight into production and consumption mechanisms. We measured isotopomer ratios of N2O emitted from typical Japanese agricultural soils (Fluvisols and Andisols) planted with rice, wheat, soybean, and vegetables, and treated with synthetic (urea or ammonium) and organic (poultry manure) fertilizers. The results were analyzed using a previously reported isotopomeric N2O signature produced by nitrifying/denitrifying bacteria and a characteristic relationship between δ15Nbulk and SP during N2O reduction by denitrifying bacteria. Relative contributions from nitrification (hydroxylamine oxidation) and denitrification (nitrite reduction) to gross N2O production deduced from the analysis depended on soil type and fertilizer. The contribution from nitrification was relatively high (40%-70%) in Andisols amended with synthetic ammonium fertilizer, while denitrification was dominant (50%-90%) in the same soils amended with poultry manure during the period when N2O production occurred in the surface layer. This information on production processes is in accordance with that obtained from flux/concentration analysis of N2O and soil inorganic nitrogen. However, isotopomer analysis further revealed that partial reduction of N2O was pronounced in high-bulk density, alluvial soil (Fluvisol) compared to low-bulk density, volcanic ash soil (Andisol), and that the observed difference in N2O flux between normal and pelleted manure could have resulted from a similar mechanism with different rates of gross production and gross consumption. The isotopomeric analysis is based on data from pure culture bacteria and would be improved by further studies on in situ biological processes in soils including those by fungi. When flux/concentration-weighted average isotopomer

  11. Establishment of a protocol for the gene expression analysis of laser microdissected rat kidney samples with affymetrix genechips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stemmer, Kerstin; Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun; Lotz, Kerstin; Ahr, Hans-J.; Dietrich, Daniel R.

    2006-01-01

    Laser microdissection in conjunction with microarray technology allows selective isolation and analysis of specific cell populations, e.g., preneoplastic renal lesions. To date, only limited information is available on sample preparation and preservation techniques that result in both optimal histomorphological preservation of sections and high-quality RNA for microarray analysis. Furthermore, amplification of minute amounts of RNA from microdissected renal samples allowing analysis with genechips has only scantily been addressed to date. The objective of this study was therefore to establish a reliable and reproducible protocol for laser microdissection in conjunction with microarray technology using kidney tissue from Eker rats p.o. treated for 7 days and 6 months with 10 and 1 mg Aristolochic acid/kg bw, respectively. Kidney tissues were preserved in RNAlater or snap frozen. Cryosections were cut and stained with either H and E or cresyl violet for subsequent morphological and RNA quality assessment and laser microdissection. RNA quality was comparable in snap frozen and RNAlater-preserved samples, however, the histomorphological preservation of renal sections was much better following cryopreservation. Moreover, the different staining techniques in combination with sample processing time at room temperature can have an influence on RNA quality. Different RNA amplification protocols were shown to have an impact on gene expression profiles as demonstrated with Affymetrix Rat Genome 230 2 .0 arrays. Considering all the parameters analyzed in this study, a protocol for RNA isolation from laser microdissected samples with subsequent Affymetrix chip hybridization was established that was also successfully applied to preneoplastic lesions laser microdissected from Aristolochic acid-treated rats

  12. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors and coronary collateral circulation: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhenhua; Pei, Junyu; Tang, Liang; Hu, Xinqun

    2018-04-01

    Well-developed coronary collateral circulation usually results in fewer infarct size, improved cardiac function, and fewer mortality. Traditional coronary risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, and smoking) have some effects on coronary collateral circulation. However, the association between these risk factors and coronary collateral circulation are controversial. Given the confusing evidences regarding traditional cardiovascular risk factors on coronary collateral circulation, we performed this meta-analysis protocol to investigate the relationship between traditional risk factors of coronary artery disease and coronary collateral circulation. MEDINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index will be searched to identify relevant studies. The primary outcomes of this meta-analysis are well-developed coronary collateral circulation. Meta-analysis was performed to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of traditional coronary risk factors (diabetes, smoking, hypertriton). Pooled ORs were computed as the Mantel-Haenszel-weighted average of the ORs for all included studies. Sensitivity analysis, quality assessment, publication bias analysis, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach (GRADE) will be performed to ensure the reliability of our results. This study will provide a high-quality synthesis of current evidence of traditional risk factors on collateral circulation. This conclusion of our systematic review and meta-analysis will provide evidence to judge whether traditional risk factors affects coronary collateral circulation.Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval is not required because our systematic review and meta-analysis will be based on published data without interventions on patients. The findings of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal.

  13. Spot protein-creatinine ratio and spot albumin-creatinine ratio in the assessment of pre-eclampsia: a diagnostic accuracy study with decision-analytic model-based economic evaluation and acceptability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Jason; Hooper, Richard; Lamb, Edmund; Robson, Stephen; Shennan, Andrew; Milne, Fiona; Price, Christopher; Thangaratinam, Shakila; Berdunov, Vladislav; Bingham, Jenn

    2017-10-01

    diagnosis of severe PE, which is defined as treatment with magnesium sulphate or with severe PE protocol; adverse perinatal outcome; one or more of perinatal or infant mortality, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotising enterocolitis or grade III/IV intraventricular haemorrhage; and economic cost and outcomes. Health service data on service use and costs followed published economic models. In total, 959 women were available for primary analysis and 417 of them had severe PE. The diagnostic accuracy of the four assays on spot urine samples against the reference standards was similar. The three SPCR tests had sensitivities in excess of 90% at prespecified thresholds, with poor specificities and negative likelihood ratios of ≥ 0.1. The SACR test had a significantly higher sensitivity of 99% (confidence interval 98% to 100%) and lower specificity. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were similar (area under ROC curve between 0.87 and 0.89); the area under the central laboratory's SACR curve was significantly higher ( p  = 0.004). The central laboratory's SACR test was the most cost-effective option, generating an additional 0.03 quality-adjusted life-years at an additional cost of £45.07 compared with the local laboratory's SPCR test. The probabilistic analysis showed it to have a 100% probability of being cost-effective at the standard willingness-to-pay threshold recommended by NICE. Implementation of NICE guidelines has led to an increased intervention rate in the study population that affected recruitment rates and led to revised sample size calculations. Evidence from this clinical study does not support the recommendation of 24-hour urine sample collection in hypertensive pregnant women. The SACR test had better diagnostic performance when predicting severe pre-eclampsia. All four tests could potentially be used as rule-out tests for the NICE definition of severe PE. Testing SACR at a threshold of 8 mg/mmol should be studied as a 'rule-out' test of

  14. Analysis of the golden proportion and width/height ratios of maxillary anterior dentition in patients with lateral incisor agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Núbia Pavesi; de-Marchi, Luciana Manzotti; Gribel, Bruno Frazão; Ubaldini, Adriana Lemos Mori; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2012-12-01

      The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of the golden proportion (GP) in the facial view tooth-to-tooth width proportion of the six maxillary anterior teeth and to evaluate the width/height (W/H) ratios of the incisors of patients with maxillary lateral incisor (LI) agenesis treated either with implants or orthodontically (by moving canines into the position of the laterals, recontouring them, and placing composite restorations over the repositioned teeth).   Forty-eight patients with LI agenesis were divided into four experimental groups: unilateral recontouring group (N = 10), bilateral recontouring group (BRG, N = 18), unilateral implant group (UIG, N = 10), bilateral implant group (N = 10), and a control group (CG, N = 25) of patients without agenesis. GP ratios were determined on patients' dental casts placed over Levin's grids, whereas W/H ratios were measured directly on the casts and a millimeter ruler to determine these distances. Statistical analysis was performed with Shapiro-Wilk, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, Friedman, and Wilcoxon tests (p mean W/H ratios of the laterals ranged between 0.75 and 0.90.   Although the GP may be a useful diagnostic guide, it was not observed in the majority of esthetic outcomes of patients treated with maxillary LI agenesis in this study. The assessment of the golden proportion and width/height ratio of upper anterior teeth in patients with upper lateral incisor agenesis treated with either implants or tooth re-contouring may assist dentists and patients in deciding the best treatment option based on the peculiarities of each case. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Pretreatment neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in determining the prognosis of head and neck cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yalian; Wang, Hongbo; Yan, Aihui; Wang, Hailong; Li, Xinyao; Liu, Jiangtao; Li, Wei

    2018-04-04

    Recent studies have reported a relationship between prognosis and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). As the results are still controversial, we conducted a meta-analysis of pretreatment NLR in peripheral blood and prognosis in HNC patients. We retrieved articles from PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science. A comparative analysis was conducted for the effect of pretreatment NLR in peripheral blood on overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival, metastasis-free survival, and recurrence-free survival of HNC patients. The analysis applied the criteria for systematic reviews described in the Cochrane Handbook and was conducted using hazard ratios (HRs) to estimate effect size, and calculated by Stata/SE version 13.0. The meta-analysis included eligible cohort studies (5475 cases). The OS data indicated increased mortality risk in HNC patients with a high NLR (HR = 1.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53-2.23; P Analysis of subgroups stratified by NLR cutoff values revealed increased mortality risk and significantly shorter DFS in patients with high NLR compared to those with low NLR (HR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.46-3.24; P analysis results were stable, as shown by sensitivity analysis. No publication bias was detected by the Egger test (P = 0.135). HNC patients with elevated pretreatment NLR in peripheral blood have poor prognosis and are prone to local invasion and distant metastasis. NLR values are easily obtained from routinely collected blood samples and could assist clinicians to determine prognosis of HNC patients.

  16. Spectral analysis software improves confidence in plant and soil water stable isotope analyses performed by isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A G; Goldsmith, G R; Matimati, I; Dawson, T E

    2011-08-30

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for large errors to occur when analyzing waters containing organic contaminants using isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS). In an attempt to address this problem, IRIS manufacturers now provide post-processing spectral analysis software capable of identifying samples with the types of spectral interference that compromises their stable isotope analysis. Here we report two independent tests of this post-processing spectral analysis software on two IRIS systems, OA-ICOS (Los Gatos Research Inc.) and WS-CRDS (Picarro Inc.). Following a similar methodology to a previous study, we cryogenically extracted plant leaf water and soil water and measured the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of identical samples by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and IRIS. As an additional test, we analyzed plant stem waters and tap waters by IRMS and IRIS in an independent laboratory. For all tests we assumed that the IRMS value represented the "true" value against which we could compare the stable isotope results from the IRIS methods. Samples showing significant deviations from the IRMS value (>2σ) were considered to be contaminated and representative of spectral interference in the IRIS measurement. Over the two studies, 83% of plant species were considered contaminated on OA-ICOS and 58% on WS-CRDS. Post-analysis, spectra were analyzed using the manufacturer's spectral analysis software, in order to see if the software correctly identified contaminated samples. In our tests the software performed well, identifying all the samples with major errors. However, some false negatives indicate that user evaluation and testing of the software are necessary. Repeat sampling of plants showed considerable variation in the discrepancies between IRIS and IRMS. As such, we recommend that spectral analysis of IRIS data must be incorporated into standard post-processing routines. Furthermore, we suggest that the results from spectral analysis be

  17. Introduction to Body Composition Assessment Using the Deuterium Dilution Technique with Analysis of Urine Samples by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of a stable isotope technique to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. It has done this by supporting national and regional nutrition projects through its technical cooperation programme and coordinated research projects over many years. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where analysis of stable isotope ratios in biological samples is to be made by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The publication is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical applications of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in IAEA Human Health Series No. 3, Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques

  18. Emerging techniques in vegetable oil analysis using stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhodes, Christopher

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available As the practice of vegetable oil adulteration becomes more sophisticated, the possibility to subvert detection using established techniques such as capillary gas chromatography is increasing. One of the most powerful techniques to be used in food authenticity studies is stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (SIRMS which utilises differences in the natural abundance of the stable isotopes of the ‘light’ bio-elements hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen and sulfur to detect food fraud. SIRMS has found application in the authentication of a wide range of foodstuffs, including fruit juices, wines, spirits, honey and to detect the adulteration of flavour compounds with synthetic analogues. This papers reviews the current state-of-the-art for the authentication of vegetable oils using SIRMS and highlights emergent techniques such as compound- and position specific-isotope mass spectrometry. These latter developments offer the potential to provide more rapid and improved detection of the economic adulteration of vegetable oils.A medida que la práctica de la adulteración de aceites vegetales se hace más sofisticada, las posibilidades de evitar la detección utilizando técnicas tradicionales como la cromatografía de gases en columna capilar aumentan. Una de las técnicas más poderosas que más se utilizan en los estudios de autentificación de alimentos es la espectrometría de masas de relaciones isotópicas, que utiliza diferencias en la abundancia natural de isótopos estables de elementos ligeros biológicos hidrógeno, nitrógeno, carbón, oxigeno y azufre para detectar fraude en los alimentos. La espectrometría de masas de relaciones isotópicas ha encontrado aplicación en la autentificación de una amplia gama de alimentos, incluyendo zumos de frutas, vinos, bebidas alcohólicas de alta graduación, miel, y en la detección de la adulteración de los compuestos aromáticos con sus análogos de origen sintético. Este trabajo

  19. Socially responsible companies performance: an analysis with financial and accounting ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alvaro da Silva Macedo

    2008-07-01

    listed, were the Paper and Pulp and Steel and Metallurgy. From this point, it was made a comparison of the behavior of the socially responsible companies with the other belonging to their sector, which were listed among the Best and Bigger, “Maiores e Melhores” from the Exame Magazine (2006. The idea is to check if the companies which have adopted “politically” correct practices through social and environmental actions showed a performance, in terms of liquidity, debt and profitability, statistically higher in relation to the market. The results show that, it isn’t observed significant differences in the indexes under analysis between the two companies groups (socially responsible and the market. Key-words: Social Responsibility; Performance; ISE.

  20. Ratio of muscle mass to fat mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis is significantly correlated with liver fat accumulation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurinami, Noboru; Sugiyama, Seigo; Morita, Ayami; Yoshida, Akira; Hieshima, Kunio; Miyamoto, Fumio; Kajiwara, Keizo; Jinnouch, Katsunori; Jinnouchi, Tomio; Jinnouchi, Hideaki

    2018-05-01

    Obesity and ectopic fat accumulation are important conditions of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Our aim was to determine whether bioelectrical impedance body composition analysis combined with blood test results could estimate liver ectopic fat accumulation in patients with treatment-naïve T2DM. Subjects were 119 untreated T2DM patients. Computed tomography scans were performed to calculate the liver to spleen attenuation ratio (L/S ratio) as a measure of liver fat accumulation, with excess liver fat accumulation defined as an L/S ratio analysis using InBody770. The Nagelkerke R 2 test showed that the muscle mass/fat mass ratio (muscle/fat ratio) was the most suitable variable among anthropometric factors and body component indexes for estimating liver fat accumulation. The muscle/fat ratio was significantly correlated with the L/S ratio (ρ = 0.4386, P analysis showed that the muscle/fat ratio (odds ratio 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.22-0.73, P ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.10, P analysis, the cutoff value of the muscle/fat ratio for excess liver fat accumulation was 2.34. In patients with treatment-naïve T2DM, the muscle/fat ratio and ALT are useful for estimating the presence of excess liver fat accumulation in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Genomics and relative expression analysis identifies key genes associated with high female to male flower ratio in Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Manali; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2016-04-01

    Jatropha curcas, has been projected as a major source of biodiesel due to high seed oil content (42 %). A major roadblock for commercialization of Jatropha-based biodiesel is low seed yield per inflorescence, which is affected by low female to male flower ratio (1:25-30). Molecular dissection of female flower development by analyzing genes involved in phase transitions and floral organ development is, therefore, crucial for increasing seed yield. Expression analysis of 42 genes implicated in floral organ development and sex determination was done at six floral developmental stages of a J. curcas genotype (IC561235) with inherently higher female to male flower ratio (1:8-10). Relative expression analysis of these genes was done on low ratio genotype. Genes TFL1, SUP, AP1, CRY2, CUC2, CKX1, TAA1 and PIN1 were associated with reproductive phase transition. Further, genes CUC2, TAA1, CKX1 and PIN1 were associated with female flowering while SUP and CRY2 in female flower transition. Relative expression of these genes with respect to low female flower ratio genotype showed up to ~7 folds increase in transcript abundance of SUP, TAA1, CRY2 and CKX1 genes in intermediate buds but not a significant increase (~1.25 folds) in female flowers, thereby suggesting that these genes possibly play a significant role in increased transition towards female flowering by promoting abortion of male flower primordia. The outcome of study has implications in feedstock improvement of J. curcas through functional validation and eventual utilization of key genes associated with female flowering.

  2. Performance analysis for a QoS-aware hybrid token-CDMA MAC protocol

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Liu, YS

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available ) 20000 Bad state duration ( i badτ ) 3.2 ms Bad state ibadPEP 1.0 Good state igoodPEP Holtzman’s approximation WTRP Channel bit rate 1.28 Mbps Signal to Noise Rato (SNR) 8 dB .... INTRODUCTION d hoc and wireless mesh networks (WMNs) [1] are commonly known to implement IEEE 802.11 related schemes as their medium access control (MAC) protocols. It is known from [2,3] that with the 802.11 based scheme; the performance is degraded...

  3. Development of a protocol for the kinematic analysis of movement in patients with total hip arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Mateu Pla, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this final degree project is to study and analyze the kinematics of the human body lower limbs. First of all, it is extremely important to establish a protocol in order to compare two patients operated with two different techniques of total hip arthroplasty. The three usual movements that are employed to make this comparison are gait, sit-to-stand and stairs climbing. A three-dimensional full body model is implemented and the kinematic parameters (angles) necessary for the st...

  4. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  5. Beyond protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Branquart, Etienne; Casaer, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment tools for listing invasive alien species need to incorporate all available evidence and expertise. Beyond the wealth of protocols developed to date, we argue that the current way of performing risk analysis has several shortcomings. In particular, lack of data on ecological impact...... information on risk and the exploration of improved methods for decision making on biodiversity management. This is crucial for efficient conservation resource allocation and uptake by stakeholders and the public......., transparency and repeatability of assessments as well as the incorporation of uncertainty should all be explicitly considered. We recommend improved quality control of risk assessments through formalized peer review with clear feedback between assessors and reviewers. Alternatively, a consensus building...

  6. New and conventional evaporative systems in concentrating nitrogen samples prior to isotope-ratio analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lober, R.W.; Reeder, J.D.; Porter, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    Studies were conducted to quantify and compare the efficiencies of various evaporative systems used in evaporating 15 N samples prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Two new forced-air systems were designed and compared with a conventional forced-air system and with an open-air dry bath technique for effectiveness in preventing atmospheric contamination of evaporating samples. The forced-air evaporative systems significantly reduced the time needed to evaporate samples as compared to the open-air dry bath technique; samples were evaporated to dryness in 2.5 h with the forced-air systems as compared to 8 to 10 h on the open-air dry bath. The effectiveness of a given forced-air system to prevent atmospheric contamination of evaporating samples was significantly affected by the flow rate of the air stream flowing over the samples. The average atmospheric contaminant N found in samples evaporated on the open-air dry bath was 0.3 μ N, indicating very low concentrations of atmospheric NH 3 during this study. However, in previous studies the authors have experienced significant contamination of 15 N samples evaporated on an open-air dry bath because the level of contaminant N in the laboratory atmosphere varied and could not be adequately controlled. Average cross-contaminant levels of 0.28, 0.20, and 1.01 μ of N were measured between samples evaporated on the open-air dry bath, the newly-designed forced-air system, and the conventional forced-air system, respectively. The cross-contamination level is significantly higher on the conventional forced-air system than on the other two systems, and could significantly alter the atom % 15 N of high-enriched, low [N] evaporating samples

  7. Analysis of fission-rate-ratio measurements in the NIST iron sphere field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oerel, R L; Wagschall, J J; Yeivin, Y [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics

    1996-12-01

    The evaluation of radiation damage in stainless-steel reactor pressure vessels requires reliable iron cross sections. However, cross sections in general, and those of iron in particular, in even the more recent evaluated-cross-section libraries (e.g. ENDF/B-VI r) are not yet reliable enough to satisfy the needs of the dosimetry as well as those of other user communities. Even if the uncertainties due to the approximations involved in the calculational models and numerical schemes are negligible, the uncertainties in calculated responses - due to the uncertainties in the given cross sections - generally are such as to make these responses rather doubtful. Speaking of cross-section (limited) reliability, we refer not only to their nominal values, but also to the uncertainties (collective noun for variance and covariance) in these values. In the analysis of any problem, involving the calculation of physical quantities which are functions of certain cross sections, an essential element is the evaluation of the partial derivatives, i.e. the sensitivities of each response to every parameter. The sensitivities are, first of all, necessary to determine the uncertainties in the calculated responses, and for a given response the sensitivities serve to find the `snore important` parameters. As the geometry of an assembly becomes even moderately complex, if time-dependent solutions are required, or when point, rather than multi-group, cross sections are called for. then deterministic calculations become unacceptably time consuming. To overcome these difficulties we turn to MC calculation of the responses and their sensitivities. Then the geometry poses no serious problems, time-dependent problems are as easy to solve as stationary ones and, surprisingly, the differential-operator method, facilitates the evaluation of all the sensitivities of all the responses in the one MC run that calculates the responses. (authors).

  8. Analysis of fission-rate-ratio measurements in the NIST iron sphere field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oerel, R.L.; Wagschall, J.J.; Yeivin, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The evaluation of radiation damage in stainless-steel reactor pressure vessels requires reliable iron cross sections. However, cross sections in general, and those of iron in particular, in even the more recent evaluated-cross-section libraries (e.g. ENDF/B-VI r) are not yet reliable enough to satisfy the needs of the dosimetry as well as those of other user communities. Even if the uncertainties due to the approximations involved in the calculational models and numerical schemes are negligible, the uncertainties in calculated responses - due to the uncertainties in the given cross sections - generally are such as to make these responses rather doubtful. Speaking of cross-section (limited) reliability, we refer not only to their nominal values, but also to the uncertainties (collective noun for variance and covariance) in these values. In the analysis of any problem, involving the calculation of physical quantities which are functions of certain cross sections, an essential element is the evaluation of the partial derivatives, i.e. the sensitivities of each response to every parameter. The sensitivities are, first of all, necessary to determine the uncertainties in the calculated responses, and for a given response the sensitivities serve to find the 'snore important' parameters. As the geometry of an assembly becomes even moderately complex, if time-dependent solutions are required, or when point, rather than multi-group, cross sections are called for. then deterministic calculations become unacceptably time consuming. To overcome these difficulties we turn to MC calculation of the responses and their sensitivities. Then the geometry poses no serious problems, time-dependent problems are as easy to solve as stationary ones and, surprisingly, the differential-operator method, facilitates the evaluation of all the sensitivities of all the responses in the one MC run that calculates the responses. (authors)

  9. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as an independent predictor for survival in patients with localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation: a propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Tieshi; Wang, Wei; Guo, Hongqian

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic indicator in patients with localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma treated with radiofrequency ablation. We retrospectively analyzed data from patients with renal cell carcinoma who underwent radiofrequency ablation from 2006 to 2013. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to generate the survival curves according to different categories of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. Relationships between preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio or the change of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and survival were evaluated with multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A propensity score matching analysis was carried out to avoid confounding bias. A total of 185 patients were included in present study. When stratified by preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio cutoff value of 2.79, 5-year recurrence-free survival, 5-year disease-free survival, and 5-year overall survival rates of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio analysis, 5-year recurrence-free survival, 5-year disease-free survival, and 5-year overall survival rates of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ratio with the change of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, patients with both preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥2.79 and the change of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥0.40 had the worst disease-free survival. Results of multivariable analysis showed that preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and the change of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio correlated with cancer relapse remarkably. High preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and elevated postoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio are associated with significant increase in risk of local recurrence as well as distant metastasis. The combination of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio with the other prognostic indicators can be applied in the evaluation of relapse risk in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation.

  10. Comparative analysis of different DNA extraction protocols in fresh and herbarium specimens of the genus Dalbergia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, R A; Lovato, M B

    2007-03-29

    Five published DNA extraction protocols were compared for their ability to produce good quality DNA from fresh and herbarium leaves of several species of the genus Dalbergia. The leaves of these species contain high amounts of secondary metabolites, which make it difficult to perform a clean DNA extraction and thereby interfering with subsequent PCR amplification. The protocol that produced the best DNA quality in most of the Dalbergia species analyzed, utilizes polyvinylpyrrolidone to bind the phenolic compounds, a high molar concentration of NaCl to inhibit co-precipitation of polysaccharides and DNA, and LiCl for removing RNA by selective precipitation. The DNA quality of herbarium specimens was worse than that for fresh leaves, due to collecting conditions and preservation of samples. We analyzed 54 herbarium specimens, but the recovered DNA allowed successful PCR amplification in only eight. For the genus Dalbergia, the herbarium is an important source of material for phylogenetic and evolutionary studies; due to the occurrence of the different species in various geographical regions in Brazil, it is difficult to obtain fresh material in nature. Our results demonstrated that for Dalbergia species the methods used for the collection and preservation of herbarium specimens have a mayor influence on DNA quality and in the success of phylogenetic studies of the species.

  11. Quality of life and myelomeningocele: an ethical and evidence-based analysis of the Groningen Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Sean

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, a group of pediatricians at the University Medical Center in Groningen, The Netherlands, published the Groningen Protocol (GP) for Euthanasia in Newborns. This protocol is a set of guidelines devised in 2001 to clarify and facilitate the assessment of clinically stable neonates deemed to be in unbearable suffering for whom the prognosis is felt to be hopeless. At the time of publication, the GP had been in use for 7 years, and 22 patients, all with diagnosed myelomeningocele (MMC), had met the selection criteria for euthanasia by lethal injection. MMC is the most common neurological congenital anomaly, affecting approximately 300,000 newborns yearly worldwide. Neurosurgeons have a unique perspective on this disease and therefore an important voice, given the significant role they have in caring for these patients at all stages of their lives. This paper reviews the principal ethical arguments presented to date in the literature regarding the GP. It also provides an evidence-based critique of the GP in light of quality-of-life studies addressing adults with MMC, and ascertains whether or not the GP meets the criteria for an evidence-based guideline. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Performance Analysis of Modified Accelerative Preallocation MAC Protocol for Passive Star-Coupled WDMA Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Changho; Kim, Kiseon

    2006-04-01

    For the passive star-coupled wavelength-division multiple-access (WDMA) network, a modified accelerative preallocation WDMA (MAP-WDMA) media access control (MAC) protocol is proposed, which is based on AP-WDMA. To show the advantages of MAP-WDMA as an adequate MAC protocol for the network over AP-WDMA, the channel utilization, the channel-access delay, and the latency of MAP-WDMA are investigated and compared with those of AP-WDMA under various data traffic patterns, including uniform, quasi-uniform type, disconnected type, mesh type, and ring type data traffics, as well as the assumption that a given number of network stations is equal to that of channels, in other words, without channel sharing. As a result, the channel utilization of MAP-WDMA can be competitive with respect to that of AP-WDMA at the expense of insignificantly higher latency. Namely, if the number of network stations is small, MAP-WDMA provides better channel utilization for uniform, quasi-uniform-type, and disconnected-type data traffics at all data traffic loads, as well as for mesh and ring-type data traffics at low data traffic loads. Otherwise, MAP-WDMA only outperforms AP-WDMA for the first three data traffics at higher data traffic loads. In the aspect of channel-access delay, MAP-WDMA gives better performance than AP-WDMA, regardless of data traffic patterns and the number of network stations.

  13. Improved protocol and data analysis for accelerated shelf-life estimation of solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Kenneth C; Carella, Anthony J; Gumkowski, Michael J; Lukulay, Patrick; MacDonald, Bruce C; Roy, Michael C; Shamblin, Sheri L

    2007-04-01

    To propose and test a new accelerated aging protocol for solid-state, small molecule pharmaceuticals which provides faster predictions for drug substance and drug product shelf-life. The concept of an isoconversion paradigm, where times in different temperature and humidity-controlled stability chambers are set to provide a critical degradant level, is introduced for solid-state pharmaceuticals. Reliable estimates for temperature and relative humidity effects are handled using a humidity-corrected Arrhenius equation, where temperature and relative humidity are assumed to be orthogonal. Imprecision is incorporated into a Monte-Carlo simulation to propagate the variations inherent in the experiment. In early development phases, greater imprecision in predictions is tolerated to allow faster screening with reduced sampling. Early development data are then used to design appropriate test conditions for more reliable later stability estimations. Examples are reported showing that predicted shelf-life values for lower temperatures and different relative humidities are consistent with the measured shelf-life values at those conditions. The new protocols and analyses provide accurate and precise shelf-life estimations in a reduced time from current state of the art.

  14. Targeted agents for patients with advanced/metastatic pancreatic cancer: A protocol for systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Baoshan; Pan, Bei; Ge, Long; Ma, Jichun; Wu, Yiting; Guo, Tiankang

    2018-03-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a devastating malignant tumor. Although surgical resection may offer a good prognosis and prolong survival, approximately 80% patients with PC are always diagnosed as unresectable tumor. National Comprehensive Cancer Network's (NCCN) recommended gemcitabine-based chemotherapy as efficient treatment. While, according to recent studies, targeted agents might be a better available option for advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer patients. The aim of this systematic review and network meta-analysis will be to examine the differences of different targeted interventions for advanced/metastatic PC patients. We will conduct this systematic review and network meta-analysis using Bayesian method and according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) statement. To identify relevant studies, 6 electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of science, CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure), and CBM (Chinese Biological Medical Database) will be searched. The risk of bias in included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) will be assessed using the Cochrane Handbook version 5.1.0. And we will use GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence from network meta-analysis. Data will be analyzed using R 3.4.1 software. To the best of our knowledge, this systematic review and network meta-analysis will firstly use both direct and indirect evidence to compare the differences of different targeted agents and targeted agents plus chemotherapy for advanced/metastatic pancreatic cancer patients. This is a protocol of systematic review and meta-analysis, so the ethical approval and patient consent are not required. We will disseminate the results of this review by submitting to a peer-reviewed journal.

  15. Performance and sensitivity analysis of the generalized likelihood ratio method for failure detection. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Results of the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) technique for the detection of failures in aircraft application are presented, and its relationship to the properties of the Kalman-Bucy filter is examined. Under the assumption that the system is perfectly modeled, the detectability and distinguishability of four failure types are investigated by means of analysis and simulations. Detection of failures is found satisfactory, but problems in identifying correctly the mode of a failure may arise. These issues are closely examined as well as the sensitivity of GLR to modeling errors. The advantages and disadvantages of this technique are discussed, and various modifications are suggested to reduce its limitations in performance and computational complexity.

  16. The Distribution of Minimum of Ratios of Two Random Variables and Its Application in Analysis of Multi-hop Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stankovic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of random variables are of interest in many areas of science. In this paper, ascertaining on the importance of multi-hop transmission in contemporary wireless communications systems operating over fading channels in the presence of cochannel interference, the probability density functions (PDFs of minimum of arbitrary number of ratios of Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m, Weibull and α-µ random variables are derived. These expressions can be used to study the outage probability as an important multi-hop system performance measure. Various numerical results complement the proposed mathematical analysis.

  17. The clinical use of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in bladder cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xingxing; Du, Peng; Yang, Yong

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the evidence regarding the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as a factor predictive of survival in bladder cancer patients. A search of PubMed and Embase for relevant studies between January 1, 1966 and November 10, 2016 was performed with the terms [NLR OR (neutrophil lymphocyte ratio)] AND [(bladder cancer) OR BCa OR NMIBC OR MIBC]. Inclusion required studies published in English containing bladder cancer patients and evaluating NLR as a predictive factor. Endpoints of NLR and survival data were extracted for pooled analysis. The pooled results showed that an elevated NLR was a predictor for poor overall survival (OS) [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.31], cancer-specific survival (CSS) (HR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.17-1.69), recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.24-2.03) and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.19-1.49) in patients with bladder cancer. Heterogeneity between studies was observed for OS, CSS and RFS, but not for PFS. Publication bias was detected for all these outcomes. Our results showed that elevated NLR might be valuable as a predictive factor of survival in bladder cancer patients.

  18. The Security Analysis of Two-Step Quantum Direct Communication Protocol in Collective-Rotation Noise Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Sun Feng-Qi; Pan Ze-Shi; Nie Jin-Rui; Chen Yan-Hua; Yuan Kai-Guo

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the security of two-step quantum direct communication protocol (QDCP) by using Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen pair proposed by Deng et al. [Phys. Rev. A 68 (2003) 042317] in collective-rotation noise channel, an excellent model of noise analysis is proposed. In the security analysis, the method of the entropy theory is introduced, and is compared with QDCP, an error rate point Q 0 (M : (Q 0 , 1.0)) is given. In different noise levels, if Eve wants to obtain the same amount of information, the error rate Q is distinguishable. The larger the noise level ϵ is, the larger the error rate Q is. When the noise level ϵ is lower than 11%, the high error rate is 0.153 without eavesdropping. Lastly, the security of the proposed protocol is discussed. It turns out that the quantum channel will be safe when Q < 0.153. Similarly, if error rate Q > 0.153 = Q 0 , eavesdropping information I > 1, which means that there exist eavesdroppers in the quantum channel, and the quantum channel will not be safe anymore. (paper)

  19. Metabolomics Workbench: An international repository for metabolomics data and metadata, metabolite standards, protocols, tutorials and training, and analysis tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Manish; Fahy, Eoin; Cotter, Dawn; Azam, Kenan; Vadivelu, Ilango; Burant, Charles; Edison, Arthur; Fiehn, Oliver; Higashi, Richard; Nair, K Sreekumaran; Sumner, Susan; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2016-01-04

    The Metabolomics Workbench, available at www.metabolomicsworkbench.org, is a public repository for metabolomics metadata and experimental data spanning various species and experimental platforms, metabolite standards, metabolite structures, protocols, tutorials, and training material and other educational resources. It provides a computational platform to integrate, analyze, track, deposit and disseminate large volumes of heterogeneous data from a wide variety of metabolomics studies including mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR) data spanning over 20 different species covering all the major taxonomic categories including humans and other mammals, plants, insects, invertebrates and microorganisms. Additionally, a number of protocols are provided for a range of metabolite classes, sample types, and both MS and NMR-based studies, along with a metabolite structure database. The metabolites characterized in the studies available on the Metabolomics Workbench are linked to chemical structures in the metabolite structure database to facilitate comparative analysis across studies. The Metabolomics Workbench, part of the data coordinating effort of the National Institute of Health (NIH) Common Fund's Metabolomics Program, provides data from the Common Fund's Metabolomics Resource Cores, metabolite standards, and analysis tools to the wider metabolomics community and seeks data depositions from metabolomics researchers across the world. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. IMPLEMENTATION AND VALIDATION OF STATISTICAL TESTS IN RESEARCH'S SOFTWARE HELPING DATA COLLECTION AND PROTOCOLS ANALYSIS IN SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuretzki, Carlos Henrique; Campos, Antônio Carlos Ligocki; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Soares, Sandramara Scandelari Kusano de Paula; Tenório, Sérgio Bernardo; Timi, Jorge Rufino Ribas

    2016-03-01

    The use of information technology is often applied in healthcare. With regard to scientific research, the SINPE(c) - Integrated Electronic Protocols was created as a tool to support researchers, offering clinical data standardization. By the time, SINPE(c) lacked statistical tests obtained by automatic analysis. Add to SINPE(c) features for automatic realization of the main statistical methods used in medicine . The study was divided into four topics: check the interest of users towards the implementation of the tests; search the frequency of their use in health care; carry out the implementation; and validate the results with researchers and their protocols. It was applied in a group of users of this software in their thesis in the strict sensu master and doctorate degrees in one postgraduate program in surgery. To assess the reliability of the statistics was compared the data obtained both automatically by SINPE(c) as manually held by a professional in statistics with experience with this type of study. There was concern for the use of automatic statistical tests, with good acceptance. The chi-square, Mann-Whitney, Fisher and t-Student were considered as tests frequently used by participants in medical studies. These methods have been implemented and thereafter approved as expected. The incorporation of the automatic SINPE (c) Statistical Analysis was shown to be reliable and equal to the manually done, validating its use as a research tool for medical research.