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Sample records for ratio analysis method

  1. Ratio of slopes method for quantitative analysis in ceramic bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainal Arifin Ahmad; Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Noor; Radzali Othman; Messer, P.F.

    1996-01-01

    A quantitative x-ray diffraction analysis technique developed at University of Sheffield was adopted, rather than the previously widely used internal standard method, to determine the amount of the phases present in a reformulated whiteware porcelain and a BaTiO sub 3 electrochemical material. This method, although still employs an internal standard, was found to be very easy and accurate. The required weight fraction of a phase in the mixture to be analysed is determined from the ratio of slopes of two linear plots, designated as the analysis and reference lines, passing through their origins using the least squares method

  2. Combined slope ratio analysis and linear-subtraction: An extension of the Pearce ratio method

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waal, Sybrand A.

    1996-07-01

    A new technique, called combined slope ratio analysis, has been developed by extending the Pearce element ratio or conserved-denominator method (Pearce, 1968) to its logical conclusions. If two stoichiometric substances are mixed and certain chemical components are uniquely contained in either one of the two mixing substances, then by treating these unique components as conserved, the composition of the substance not containing the relevant component can be accurately calculated within the limits allowed by analytical and geological error. The calculated composition can then be subjected to rigorous statistical testing using the linear-subtraction method recently advanced by Woronow (1994). Application of combined slope ratio analysis to the rocks of the Uwekahuna Laccolith, Hawaii, USA, and the lavas of the 1959-summit eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, USA, yields results that are consistent with field observations.

  3. System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

    2013-07-02

    A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

  4. Studies on the instrumental neutron activation analysis by cadmium ratio method and pair comparator method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, H E; Lu, W D; Wu, S C

    1977-12-01

    The cadmium ratio method and pair comparator method provide a solution for the effects on the effective activation factors resulting from the variation of neutron spectrum at different irradiation positions as usually encountered in the single comparator method. The relations between the activation factors and neutron spectrum in terms of cadmium ratio of the comparator Au or of the activation factor of Co-Au pair for the elements, Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, La, Ce, Sm, and Th have been determined. The activation factors of the elements at any irradiation position can then be obtained from the cadmium ratio of the comparator and/or the activation factor of the comparator pair. The relations determined should be able to apply to different reactors and/or different positions of a reactor. It is shown that, for the isotopes /sup 46/Sc, /sup 51/Cr, /sup 56/Mn, /sup 60/Co, /sup 140/La, /sup 141/Ce, /sup 153/Sm and /sup 233/Pa, the thermal neutron activation factors determined by these two methods were generally in agreement with theoretical values. Their I/sub 0//sigma/sub th/ values appeared to agree with literature values also. The methods were applied to determine the contents of elements Sc, Cr, Mn, La, Ce, Sm, and Th in U.S.G.S. Standard Rock G-2, and the results were also in agreement with literature values. The cadmium ratio method and pair comparator method improved the single comparator method, and they are more suitable to analysis for multi-elements of a large number of samples.

  5. Efficiency Analysis of Financial Management Administration of ABC Hospital using Financial Ratio Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Jonny

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the financial performance of ABC hospital within the period of 2012 to 2013. To overcome the problems faced by the hospital related to how to measure and presented its financial performance in which financial ratio analysis was undertaken. These financial ratios were employed to measure the liquidity, assets utilization, long-term solvency and profitability of the hospital. This analysis was conducted in order to prove whether the hospital has been managed efficiently or not in accordance to Indonesian Hospital Quality Accreditation as stated in its clause on Administration Standard No. 5 Parameter No. 3 that the hospital financial management shall be conducted in appropriate way in order to guarantee its operation efficiently. The result showed that overall financial performance of ABC hospital increased considerably in those two years of the analysis. A significant change was occurred on its solvency ratio which was decreased from -2% to -8%, indicating its loose dependency due to its founder’s strong financial support. Therefore, based on this favorable result, the hospital was regarded to have efficient hospital management and thus, together with other standard fulfillment, it was accredited by Indonesian Health Ministry.

  6. Likelihood ratio meta-analysis: New motivation and approach for an old method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormuth, Colin R; Filion, Kristian B; Platt, Robert W

    2016-03-01

    A 95% confidence interval (CI) in an updated meta-analysis may not have the expected 95% coverage. If a meta-analysis is simply updated with additional data, then the resulting 95% CI will be wrong because it will not have accounted for the fact that the earlier meta-analysis failed or succeeded to exclude the null. This situation can be avoided by using the likelihood ratio (LR) as a measure of evidence that does not depend on type-1 error. We show how an LR-based approach, first advanced by Goodman, can be used in a meta-analysis to pool data from separate studies to quantitatively assess where the total evidence points. The method works by estimating the log-likelihood ratio (LogLR) function from each study. Those functions are then summed to obtain a combined function, which is then used to retrieve the total effect estimate, and a corresponding 'intrinsic' confidence interval. Using as illustrations the CAPRIE trial of clopidogrel versus aspirin in the prevention of ischemic events, and our own meta-analysis of higher potency statins and the risk of acute kidney injury, we show that the LR-based method yields the same point estimate as the traditional analysis, but with an intrinsic confidence interval that is appropriately wider than the traditional 95% CI. The LR-based method can be used to conduct both fixed effect and random effects meta-analyses, it can be applied to old and new meta-analyses alike, and results can be presented in a format that is familiar to a meta-analytic audience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. EVALUATION OF FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF UNIVERSITY HOSPITALS BY RATIO ANALYSIS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda BÜLÜÇ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the financial performances of public university hospitals in Turkey; make contribution to the related literature in accordance with the findings and develop recommendations for the decision makers. Within the scope of the study, financial statements of revolving fund of the 43 public university hospitals for the years of 2013, 2014 and 2015 were obtained from the Ministry of Finance General Directorate of Public Accounts. Financial statements were evaluated by ratio analysis method. After analysing, it has been reached that the burden of debt of the hospitals were high,  they have been experiencing the problem of paying short term debts, stock turnover rates and turnover rates were low and the incomes of the hospitals can not cover their expenses. It is recomended that hospitals should use resources more efficiently and decision makers should consider education and research activities in budget allocation to university hospitals.

  8. A new hybrid double divisor ratio spectra method for the analysis of ternary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Rasha M.; Maher, Hadir M.

    2008-10-01

    A new spectrophotometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ternary mixtures, without prior separation steps. This method is based on convolution of the double divisor ratio spectra, obtained by dividing the absorption spectrum of the ternary mixture by a standard spectrum of two of the three compounds in the mixture, using combined trigonometric Fourier functions. The magnitude of the Fourier function coefficients, at either maximum or minimum points, is related to the concentration of each drug in the mixture. The mathematical explanation of the procedure is illustrated. The method was applied for the assay of a model mixture consisting of isoniazid (ISN), rifampicin (RIF) and pyrazinamide (PYZ) in synthetic mixtures, commercial tablets and human urine samples. The developed method was compared with the double divisor ratio spectra derivative method (DDRD) and derivative ratio spectra-zero-crossing method (DRSZ). Linearity, validation, accuracy, precision, limits of detection, limits of quantitation, and other aspects of analytical validation are included in the text.

  9. Finite Element Analysis of Increasing Column Section and CFRP Reinforcement Method under Different Axial Compression Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghai, Zhou; Tianbei, Kang; Fengchi, Wang; Xindong, Wang

    2017-11-01

    Eight less stirrups in the core area frame joints are simulated by ABAQUS finite element numerical software. The composite reinforcement method is strengthened with carbon fiber and increasing column section, the axial compression ratio of reinforced specimens is 0.3, 0.45 and 0.6 respectively. The results of the load-displacement curve, ductility and stiffness are analyzed, and it is found that the different axial compression ratio has great influence on the bearing capacity of increasing column section strengthening method, and has little influence on carbon fiber reinforcement method. The different strengthening schemes improve the ultimate bearing capacity and ductility of frame joints in a certain extent, composite reinforcement joints strengthening method to improve the most significant, followed by increasing column section, reinforcement method of carbon fiber reinforced joints to increase the minimum.

  10. SUMOFLUX: A Generalized Method for Targeted 13C Metabolic Flux Ratio Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogadeeva, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic fluxes are a cornerstone of cellular physiology that emerge from a complex interplay of enzymes, carriers, and nutrients. The experimental assessment of in vivo intracellular fluxes using stable isotopic tracers is essential if we are to understand metabolic function and regulation. Flux estimation based on 13C or 2H labeling relies on complex simulation and iterative fitting; processes that necessitate a level of expertise that ordinarily preclude the non-expert user. To overcome this, we have developed SUMOFLUX, a methodology that is broadly applicable to the targeted analysis of 13C-metabolic fluxes. By combining surrogate modeling and machine learning, we trained a predictor to specialize in estimating flux ratios from measurable 13C-data. SUMOFLUX targets specific flux features individually, which makes it fast, user-friendly, applicable to experimental design and robust in terms of experimental noise and exchange flux magnitude. Collectively, we predict that SUMOFLUX's properties realistically pave the way to high-throughput flux analyses. PMID:27626798

  11. Estimate of Small Stiffness and Damping Ratio in Residual Soil Using Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bawadi Nor Faizah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the important parameters for modeling the dynamic behavior of soils has led to rapid development of the small strain stiffness and damping ratio for use in the seismic method. It is because, the experimental determination of the damping ratio is problematic, especially for hard soils sample. Many researchers have proved that the surface wave method is a reliable tool to determine shear wave velocity and damping ratio profiles at a site with very small strains level. Surface wave methods based on Rayleigh waves propagation and the resulting attenuation curve can become erroneous when higher modes contribute to the soil’s response. In this study, two approaches has been used to determine the shear strain amplitude and damping ratio of residual soils at small strain level using Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW method. One is to derive shear strain amplitude from the frequency-response curve and the other is to derive damping ratio from travel-time data. Then, the results are compared to the conventional method.

  12. A Ratio-Analysis Method to the Dynamics of Excited State Proton Transfer: Pyranine in Water and Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Kalyanasis; Nandi, Nilanjana; Dolai, Suman; Bera, Avisek

    2018-06-05

    Emission spectrum of a fluorophore undergoing excited state proton transfer (ESPT) often exhibits two distinct bands each representing emissions from protonated and deprotonated forms. The relative contribution of the two bands, best represented by an emission intensity ratio (R) (intensity maximum of the protonated band / intensity maximum of the deprotonated band), is an important parameter which usually denotes feasibility or promptness of the ESPT process. However, the use of ratio is only limited to the interpretation of steady-state fluorescence spectra. Here, for the first time, we exploit the time-dependence of the ratio (R(t)), calculated from time-resolved emission spectra (TRES) at different times, to analyze ESPT dynamics. TRES at different times were fitted with a sum of two lognormal-functions representing each peaks and then, the peak intensity ratio, R(t) was calculated and further fitted with an analytical function. Recently, a time-resolved area-normalized emission spectra (TRANES)-based analysis was presented where the decay of protonated emission or the rise of deprotonated emission intensity conveniently accounts for the ESPT dynamics. We show that these two methods are equivalent but the new method provides more insights on the nature of the ESPT process.

  13. NON-CONVENTIONAL MACHINING PROCESSES SELECTION USING MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION ON THE BASIS OF RATIO ANALYSIS METHOD

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    MILOŠ MADIĆ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of non-conventional machining processes (NCMPs in today’s manufacturing environment has been well acknowledged. For effective utilization of the capabilities and advantages of different NCMPs, selection of the most appropriate NCMP for a given machining application requires consideration of different conflicting criteria. The right choice of the NCMP is critical to the success and competitiveness of the company. As the NCMP selection problem involves consideration of different conflicting criteria, of different relative importance, the multi-criteria decision making (MCDM methods are very useful in systematical selection of the most appropriate NCMP. This paper presents the application of a recent MCDM method, i.e., the multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA method to solve NCMP selection which has been defined considering different performance criteria of four most widely used NCMPs. In order to determine the relative significance of considered quality criteria a pair-wise comparison matrix of the analytic hierarchy process was used. The results obtained using the MOORA method showed perfect correlation with those obtained by the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS method which proves the applicability and potentiality of this MCDM method for solving complex NCMP selection problems.

  14. Application of Multi-Objective Optimization on the Basis of Ratio Analysis (MOORA Method for Bank Branch Location Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gorener

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Location selection problem in banking is an important issue for the commercial success in competitive environment. There is a strategic fit between the location selection decision and overall performance of a new branch. Providing physical service in requested location as well as alternative distribution channels to meet profitable client needs is the current problematic to achieve the competitive advantage over the rivalry in financial system. In this paper, an integrated model has been developed to support in the decision of branch location selection for a new bank branch. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP technique has been conducted to prioritize of evaluation criteria, and multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA method has been applied to rank location alternatives of bank branch.   

  15. Analysis of the overall energy intensity of alumina refinery process using unit process energy intensity and product ratio method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Liru; Aye, Lu [International Technologies Center (IDTC), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,The University of Melbourne, Vic. 3010 (Australia); Lu, Zhongwu [Institute of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Zhang, Peihong [Department of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Shenyang Architecture University, Shenyang 110168 (China)

    2006-07-15

    Alumina refinery is an energy intensive industry. Traditional energy saving methods employed have been single-equipment-orientated. Based on two concepts of 'energy carrier' and 'system', this paper presents a method that analyzes the effects of unit process energy intensity (e) and product ratio (p) on overall energy intensity of alumina. The important conclusion drawn from this method is that it is necessary to decrease both the unit process energy intensity and the product ratios in order to decrease the overall energy intensity of alumina, which may be taken as a future policy for energy saving. As a case study, the overall energy intensity of the Chinese Zhenzhou alumina refinery plant with Bayer-sinter combined method between 1995 and 2000 was analyzed. The result shows that the overall energy intensity of alumina in this plant decreased by 7.36 GJ/t-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} over this period, 49% of total energy saving is due to direct energy saving, and 51% is due to indirect energy saving. The emphasis in this paper is on decreasing product ratios of high-energy consumption unit processes, such as evaporation, slurry sintering, aluminium trihydrate calcining and desilication. Energy savings can be made (1) by increasing the proportion of Bayer and indirect digestion, (2) by increasing the grade of ore by ore dressing or importing some rich gibbsite and (3) by promoting the advancement in technology. (author)

  16. Fundmental Analysis for Stock Price Valuation by Using Price Earnings Ratio Method (Study at Mining Companies Listed on Indonesian Stock Exchange Year 2011-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuningtyas, Rovi; Suhadak,; Hidayat, Raden Rustam

    2015-01-01

    The research was conducted based on the misprice on the investment of stock. The misprice of investment on stock can be reduced with evaluate the reasonable of stock price by using fundamental analysis. The fundamental analysis that used in this research is Price Earnings Ratio (PER) method. The PER method aim to know the reasonableness of stock price with compare the intrinsic value of stock and the stock market price. The research is descriptive quantitative method. The research takes the s...

  17. Performance and sensitivity analysis of the generalized likelihood ratio method for failure detection. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Results of the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) technique for the detection of failures in aircraft application are presented, and its relationship to the properties of the Kalman-Bucy filter is examined. Under the assumption that the system is perfectly modeled, the detectability and distinguishability of four failure types are investigated by means of analysis and simulations. Detection of failures is found satisfactory, but problems in identifying correctly the mode of a failure may arise. These issues are closely examined as well as the sensitivity of GLR to modeling errors. The advantages and disadvantages of this technique are discussed, and various modifications are suggested to reduce its limitations in performance and computational complexity.

  18. X-ray spectrum analysis of multi-component samples by a method of fundamental parameters using empirical ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    A type of the fundamental parameter method based on empirical relation of corrections for absorption and additional-excitation with absorbing characteristics of samples is suggested. The method is used for X-ray fluorescence analysis of multi-component samples of charges of welded electrodes. It is shown that application of the method is justified only for determination of titanium, calcium and silicon content in charges taking into account only corrections for absorption. Irn and manganese content can be calculated by the simple method of the external standard

  19. Variation of ratio kinetic profiles as a simple and novel spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous kinetic analysis of binary mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseri Abdolhossein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new and very simple kinetic - spectrophotometric method is developed for the simultaneous determination of binary mixtures without prior separational steps. The method is based on the calculation of the variation of ratio kinetic profiles. The mathematical explanation of the procedure is also illustrated. The proposed method can be used for simultaneous determination of two analytes A and B that react with the same reagent to give the same absorbing species. In order to evaluate the applicability of the method, a model data as well as an experimental data were tested. The results from experimental data relating to the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of Co (II and V (IV based on their oxidation reactions with Fe (III in the presence 1, 10- Phenanthroline (Phen in micellar media were presented as a real model for resolution of the binary systems. The applicability of the method in tap water and synthesized alloy samples was also assessed by spiking experiments with different amount of Co (II and V (IV.

  20. Effect of rotor aspect ratio and solidity on a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine in three-dimensional analysis by the panel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qing'an; Maeda, Takao; Kamada, Yasunari; Shimizu, Kento; Ogasawara, Tatsuhiko; Nakai, Alisa; Kasuya, Takuji

    2017-01-01

    Due to the complated flow field and aerodynamic forces characteristics, the performance and safety standard of straight-bladed VAWT have not been full developed. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of rotor aspect ratio and solidity on the power performance in three-dimensional analysis by panel method. The panel method is based on the assumption of an incompressible and potential flow coupled with a free vortex wake. First of all, the fluctuations of power coefficient and the circulation amount distribution of the bound vortex are discussed at the fixed solidity of σ = 0.064 during rotation. Then, the fluctuations of power coefficient and the circulation amount ratio are also investigated in the spanwise direction of the blade. It can be observed from the results that the peak of power coefficient increases with the increase of the ratio of the diameter and blade span length H/D at the fixed solidity. However, the optimum tip speed ratio was expected to be increased with the increase of H/D. Moreover, in the case of the fixed rotor aspect ratio of H/c = 6, the power coefficient depends on the rotor aspect ratio, rather than the ratio of the diameter and blade span length. Compared with the H/D = 1.2, the circulation amount ratio of H/D = 0.9 indicates a large negative value in the blade center position. - Highlights: • Power and vortex characteristic are discussed with panel method. • Effects of the rotor aspect ratio and solidity on the performance are investigated. • For the σ = 0.064, the maximum power coefficient increases with increasing of H/D. • Circulation amount ratio indicates a large negative value in the case of H/D = 0.9. • Power at the blade central position increases with increasing of rotor aspect ratio.

  1. Comparative study between different simple methods manipulating ratio spectra for the analysis of alogliptin and metformin co-formulated with highly different concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghary, Wafaa A; Mowaka, Shereen; Hassan, Mostafa A; Ayoub, Bassam M

    2017-11-05

    Different simple spectrophotometric methods were developed for simultaneous determination of alogliptin and metformin manipulating their ratio spectra with successful application on recently approved combination, Kazano® tablets. Spiking was implemented to detect alogliptin in spite of its low contribution in the pharmaceutical formulation as low quantity in comparison to metformin. Linearity was acceptable over the concentration range of 2.5-25.0μg/mL and 2.5-15.0μg/mL for alogliptin and metformin, respectively using derivative ratio, ratio subtraction coupled with extended ratio subtraction and spectrum subtraction coupled with constant multiplication. The optimized methods were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and proved to be accurate for assay of the investigated drugs in their pharmaceutical dosage form. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Site Characterization in the Urban Area of Tijuana, B. C., Mexico by Means of: H/V Spectral Ratios, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves, and Random Decrement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Herrera, R.; Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Results of site characterization for an experimental site in the metropolitan area of Tijuana, B. C., Mexico are presented as part of the on-going research in which time series of earthquakes, ambient noise, and induced vibrations were processed with three different methods: H/V spectral ratios, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW), and the Random Decrement Method, (RDM). Forward modeling using the wave propagation stiffness matrix method (Roësset and Kausel, 1981) was used to compute the theoretical SH/P, SV/P spectral ratios, and the experimental H/V spectral ratios were computed following the conventional concepts of Fourier analysis. The modeling/comparison between the theoretical and experimental H/V spectral ratios was carried out. For the SASW method the theoretical dispersion curves were also computed and compared with the experimental one, and finally the theoretical free vibration decay curve was compared with the experimental one obtained with the RDM. All three methods were tested with ambient noise, induced vibrations, and earthquake signals. Both experimental spectral ratios obtained with ambient noise as well as earthquake signals agree quite well with the theoretical spectral ratios, particularly at the fundamental vibration frequency of the recording site. Differences between the fundamental vibration frequencies are evident for sites located at alluvial fill (~0.6 Hz) and at sites located at conglomerate/sandstones fill (0.75 Hz). Shear wave velocities for the soft soil layers of the 4-layer discrete soil model ranges as low as 100 m/s and up to 280 m/s. The results with the SASW provided information that allows to identify low velocity layers, not seen before with the traditional seismic methods. The damping estimations obtained with the RDM are within the expected values, and the dominant frequency of the system also obtained with the RDM correlates within the range of plus-minus 20 % with the one obtained by means of the H/V spectral

  3. A thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method developed for estimating the stoichiometric ratio of solid-state {alpha}-cyclodextrin-based inclusion complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yuxiang; Wang, Jinpeng; Bashari, Mohanad; Hu, Xiuting [The State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Feng, Tao [School of Perfume and Aroma Technology, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Xu, Xueming [The State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Jin, Zhengyu, E-mail: jinlab2008@yahoo.com [The State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Tian, Yaoqi, E-mail: yqtian@jiangnan.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We develop a TGA method for the measurement of the stoichiometric ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A series of formulas are deduced to calculate the stoichiometric ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four {alpha}-CD-based inclusion complexes were successfully prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed method is applicable. - Abstract: An approach mainly based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was developed to evaluate the stoichiometric ratio (SR, guest to host) of the guest-{alpha}-cyclodextrin (Guest-{alpha}-CD) inclusion complexes (4-cresol-{alpha}-CD, benzyl alcohol-{alpha}-CD, ferrocene-{alpha}-CD and decanoic acid-{alpha}-CD). The present data obtained from Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy showed that all the {alpha}-CD-based inclusion complexes were successfully prepared in a solid-state form. The stoichiometric ratios of {alpha}-CD to the relative guests (4-cresol, benzyl alcohol, ferrocene and decanoic acid) determined by the developed method were 1:1, 1:2, 2:1 and 1:2, respectively. These SR data were well demonstrated by the previously reported X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and the NMR confirmatory experiments, except the SR of decanoic acid with a larger size and longer chain was not consistent. It is, therefore, suggested that the TGA-based method is applicable to follow the stoichiometric ratio of the polycrystalline {alpha}-CD-based inclusion complexes with smaller and shorter chain guests.

  4. A thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method developed for estimating the stoichiometric ratio of solid-state α-cyclodextrin-based inclusion complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yuxiang; Wang, Jinpeng; Bashari, Mohanad; Hu, Xiuting; Feng, Tao; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop a TGA method for the measurement of the stoichiometric ratio. ► A series of formulas are deduced to calculate the stoichiometric ratio. ► Four α-CD-based inclusion complexes were successfully prepared. ► The developed method is applicable. - Abstract: An approach mainly based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was developed to evaluate the stoichiometric ratio (SR, guest to host) of the guest–α-cyclodextrin (Guest-α-CD) inclusion complexes (4-cresol-α-CD, benzyl alcohol-α-CD, ferrocene-α-CD and decanoic acid-α-CD). The present data obtained from Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy showed that all the α-CD-based inclusion complexes were successfully prepared in a solid-state form. The stoichiometric ratios of α-CD to the relative guests (4-cresol, benzyl alcohol, ferrocene and decanoic acid) determined by the developed method were 1:1, 1:2, 2:1 and 1:2, respectively. These SR data were well demonstrated by the previously reported X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and the NMR confirmatory experiments, except the SR of decanoic acid with a larger size and longer chain was not consistent. It is, therefore, suggested that the TGA-based method is applicable to follow the stoichiometric ratio of the polycrystalline α-CD-based inclusion complexes with smaller and shorter chain guests.

  5. Can target-to-pons ratio be used as a reliable method for the analysis of [11C]PIB brain scans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, P; Hinz, R; Ramlackhansingh, A; Thomas, J; Gelosa, G; Archer, H A; Turkheimer, F E; Brooks, D J

    2012-04-15

    cortex and cerebellum. This study established 60-90 min target-to-pons RATIOs as a reliable method of analysis in [(11)C]PIB PET studies where cerebellum is not an appropriate reference region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ratio method of measuring W boson mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This dissertation describes an alternative method of measuring the W boson mass in DØ experiment. Instead of extracting MW from the fitting of W → ev fast Monte Carlo simulations to W → ev data as in the standard method, we make the direct fit of transverse mass between W → ev data and Z → ee data. One of the two electrons from Z boson is treated as a neutrino in the calculation of transverse mass. In ratio method, the best fitted scale factor corresponds to the ratio of W and Z boson mass (MW/MZ). Given the precisely measured Z boson mass, W mass is directly fitted from W → ev and Z → ee data. This dissertation demonstrates that ratio method is a plausible method of measuring the W boson mass. With the 1 fb-1 DØ Run IIa dataset, ratio method gives MW = 80435 ± 43(stat) ± 26(sys) MeV.

  7. Using Ratio Analysis to Evaluate Financial Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The ways in which ratio analysis can help in long-range planning, budgeting, and asset management to strengthen financial performance and help avoid financial difficulties are explained. Types of ratios considered include balance sheet ratios, net operating ratios, and contribution and demand ratios. (MSE)

  8. Validation of the Rotation Ratios Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, O.A.; Klaksvik, J.; Benum, P.; Anda, S.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The rotation ratios method describes rotations between pairs of sequential pelvic radiographs. The method seems promising but has not been validated. Purpose: To validate the accuracy of the rotation ratios method. Material and Methods: Known pelvic rotations between 165 radiographs obtained from five skeletal pelvises in an experimental material were compared with the corresponding calculated rotations to describe the accuracy of the method. The results from a clinical material of 262 pelvic radiographs from 46 patients defined the ranges of rotational differences compared. Repeated analyses, both on the experimental and the clinical material, were performed using the selected reference points to describe the robustness and the repeatability of the method. Results: The reference points were easy to identify and barely influenced by pelvic rotations. The mean differences between calculated and real pelvic rotations were 0.0 deg (SD 0.6) for vertical rotations and 0.1 deg (SD 0.7) for transversal rotations in the experimental material. The intra- and interobserver repeatability of the method was good. Conclusion: The accuracy of the method was reasonably high, and the method may prove to be clinically useful

  9. Performance evaluation of elemental analysis/isotope ratio mass spectrometry methods for the determination of the D/H ratio in tetramethylurea and other compounds--results of a laboratory inter-comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréas, Olivier; Thomas, Freddy; Zeleny, Reinhard; Calderone, Giovanni; Jamin, Eric; Guillou, Claude

    2007-01-01

    Tetramethylurea (TMU) with a certified D/H ratio is the internal standard for Site-specific Natural Isotope Fractionation measured by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNIF-NMR) analysis of wine ethanol for detection of possible adulterations (Commission Regulation 2676/90). A new batch of a TMU certified reference material (CRM) is currently being prepared. Whereas SNIF-NMR has been employed up to now, Elemental Analysis/Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry ((2)H-EA-IRMS) was envisaged as the method of choice for value assignment of the new CRM, as more precise (better repeatable) data might be obtained, resulting in lower uncertainty of the certified value. In order to evaluate the accuracy and intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of (2)H-EA-IRMS methods, a laboratory inter-comparison was carried out by analysing TMU and other organic compounds, as well as some waters. The results revealed that experienced laboratories are capable of generating robust and well comparable data, which highlights the emerging potential of IRMS in food authenticity testing. However, a systematic bias between IRMS and SNIF-NMR reference data was observed for TMU; this lack of data consistency rules out the (2)H-IRMS technique for the characterisation measurement of the new TMU CRM.

  10. Influence of diopside: feldspar ratio in ceramic reactions assessed by quantitative phase analysis (X-ray diffraction - Rietveld method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmickas, L.; Andrade, F.R.D.; Szabo, G.A.J.; Motta, J.F.M.; Cabral Junior, M.

    2013-01-01

    White ceramics were produced with raw mixtures prepared with varying proportions of diopside-rich rock (0 to 20 wt.%) and potassic feldspar (40 to 20 wt.%), and fixed proportions of kaolinite (40 wt.%) and quartz (20 wt.%), fired in a temperature range from 1170 to 1210 deg C. The phases identified in the experimental ceramics were quartz, anorthite, mullite and glass, and their relative mass proportions were determined by X-ray diffraction (Rietveld method). The addition of diopside as a partial substitute for potassic feldspar causes the formation of a calcium silicate, analogous of the natural anorthite (CaSi 2 Al 2 O 8 ) in the ceramics, with proportional reduction in its glass and mullite contents. Water absorption and porosity of the ceramic bodies clearly decrease with increasing firing temperature, while the effect of the raw mixture composition on the physical and mechanical properties of the ceramics is less evident. Diopside-rich rock has low iron content (1.5 wt.% Fe 2 O 3 ) and, therefore, promotes white burning. (author)

  11. Influence of diopside: feldspar ratio in ceramic reactions assessed by quantitative phase analysis (X-ray diffraction - Rietveld method)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmickas, L.; Andrade, F.R.D.; Szabo, G.A.J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IGc/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotecnia; Motta, J.F.M.; Cabral Junior, M., E-mail: lukuzmickas@gmail.com, E-mail: dias@usp.br, E-mail: gajszabo@usp.b, E-mail: motta.jf@gmail.com, E-mail: marsis@ipt.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Recursos Minerais e Tecnologia Ceramica

    2013-04-15

    White ceramics were produced with raw mixtures prepared with varying proportions of diopside-rich rock (0 to 20 wt.%) and potassic feldspar (40 to 20 wt.%), and fixed proportions of kaolinite (40 wt.%) and quartz (20 wt.%), fired in a temperature range from 1170 to 1210 deg C. The phases identified in the experimental ceramics were quartz, anorthite, mullite and glass, and their relative mass proportions were determined by X-ray diffraction (Rietveld method). The addition of diopside as a partial substitute for potassic feldspar causes the formation of a calcium silicate, analogous of the natural anorthite (CaSi{sub 2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 8}) in the ceramics, with proportional reduction in its glass and mullite contents. Water absorption and porosity of the ceramic bodies clearly decrease with increasing firing temperature, while the effect of the raw mixture composition on the physical and mechanical properties of the ceramics is less evident. Diopside-rich rock has low iron content (1.5 wt.% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and, therefore, promotes white burning. (author)

  12. Isotopic ratio method for determining uranium contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, R.E.; Sieben, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of high concentrations of uranium in the subsurface can be attributed either to contamination from uranium processing activities or to naturally occurring uranium. A mathematical method has been employed to evaluate the isotope ratios from subsurface soils at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant (RFP) and demonstrates conclusively that the soil contains uranium from a natural source and has not been contaminated with enriched uranium resulting from RFP releases. This paper describes the method used in this determination which has widespread application in site characterizations and can be adapted to other radioisotopes used in manufacturing industries. The determination of radioisotope source can lead to a reduction of the remediation effort

  13. A novel methylation derivatization method for δ(18)O analysis of individual carbohydrates by gas chromatography/pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marco M; Fischer, Maria; Blees, Jan; Zech, Michael; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Saurer, Matthias

    2016-01-15

    The oxygen isotope ratio (δ(18)O) of carbohydrates derived from animals, plants, sediments, and soils provides important information about biochemical and physiological processes, past environmental conditions, and geographical origins, which are otherwise not available. Nowadays, δ(18)O analyses are often performed on carbohydrate bulk material, while compound-specific δ(18)O analyses remain challenging and methods for a wide range of individual carbohydrates are rare. To improve the δ(18)O analysis of individual carbohydrates by gas chromatography/pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/Pyr-IRMS) we developed a new methylation derivatization method. Carbohydrates were fully methylated within 24 h in an easy-to-handle one-pot reaction in acetonitrile, using silver oxide as proton acceptor, methyl iodide as methyl group carrier, and dimethyl sulfide as catalyst. The precision of the method ranged between 0.12 and 1.09‰ for the δ(18)O values of various individual carbohydrates of different classes (mono-, di-, and trisaccharides, alditols), with an accuracy of a similar order of magnitude, despite high variation in peak areas. Based on the δ(18)O values of the main isomers, important monosaccharides such as glucose and fructose could also be precisely analyzed for the first time. We tested the method on standard mixtures, honey samples, and leaf carbohydrates extracted from Pinus sylvestris, showing that the method is also applicable to different carbohydrate mixtures. The new methylation method shows unrivalled accuracy and precision for δ(18)O analysis of various individual carbohydrates; it is fast and easy-to-handle, and may therefore find wide-spread application. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A novel auto-correlation function method and FORTRAN codes for the determination of the decay ratio in BWR stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behringer, K.

    2001-08-01

    A novel auto-correlation function (ACF) method has been investigated for determining the oscillation frequency and the decay ratio in BWR stability analyses. The report describes not only the method but also documents comprehensively the used and developed FORTRAN codes. The neutron signals are band-pass filtered to separate the oscillation peak in the power spectral density (PSD) from background. Two linear second-order oscillation models are considered. The ACF of each model, corrected for signal filtering and with the inclusion of a background term under the peak in the PSD, is then least-squares fitted to the ACF estimated on the previously filtered neutron signals, in order to determine the oscillation frequency and the decay ratio. The procedures of filtering and ACF estimation use fast Fourier transform techniques with signal segmentation. Gliding 'short-time' ACF estimates along a signal record allow the evaluation of uncertainties. Some numerical results are given which have been obtained from neutron signal data offered by the recent Forsmark I and Forsmark II NEA benchmark project. They are compared with those from other benchmark participants using different other analysis methods. (author)

  15. A novel auto-correlation function method and FORTRAN codes for the determination of the decay ratio in BWR stability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behringer, K

    2001-08-01

    A novel auto-correlation function (ACF) method has been investigated for determining the oscillation frequency and the decay ratio in BWR stability analyses. The report describes not only the method but also documents comprehensively the used and developed FORTRAN codes. The neutron signals are band-pass filtered to separate the oscillation peak in the power spectral density (PSD) from background. Two linear second-order oscillation models are considered. The ACF of each model, corrected for signal filtering and with the inclusion of a background term under the peak in the PSD, is then least-squares fitted to the ACF estimated on the previously filtered neutron signals, in order to determine the oscillation frequency and the decay ratio. The procedures of filtering and ACF estimation use fast Fourier transform techniques with signal segmentation. Gliding 'short-time' ACF estimates along a signal record allow the evaluation of uncertainties. Some numerical results are given which have been obtained from neutron signal data offered by the recent Forsmark I and Forsmark II NEA benchmark project. They are compared with those from other benchmark participants using different other analysis methods. (author)

  16. A Simple Plasma Retinol Isotope Ratio Method for Estimating β-Carotene Relative Bioefficacy in Humans: Validation with the Use of Model-Based Compartmental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jennifer Lynn; Green, Joanne Balmer; Lietz, Georg; Oxley, Anthony; Green, Michael H

    2017-09-01

    Background: Provitamin A carotenoids are an important source of dietary vitamin A for many populations. Thus, accurate and simple methods for estimating carotenoid bioefficacy are needed to evaluate the vitamin A value of test solutions and plant sources. β-Carotene bioefficacy is often estimated from the ratio of the areas under plasma isotope response curves after subjects ingest labeled β-carotene and a labeled retinyl acetate reference dose [isotope reference method (IRM)], but to our knowledge, the method has not yet been evaluated for accuracy. Objectives: Our objectives were to develop and test a physiologically based compartmental model that includes both absorptive and postabsorptive β-carotene bioconversion and to use the model to evaluate the accuracy of the IRM and a simple plasma retinol isotope ratio [(RIR), labeled β-carotene-derived retinol/labeled reference-dose-derived retinol in one plasma sample] for estimating relative bioefficacy. Methods: We used model-based compartmental analysis (Simulation, Analysis and Modeling software) to develop and apply a model that provided known values for β-carotene bioefficacy. Theoretical data for 10 subjects were generated by the model and used to determine bioefficacy by RIR and IRM; predictions were compared with known values. We also applied RIR and IRM to previously published data. Results: Plasma RIR accurately predicted β-carotene relative bioefficacy at 14 d or later. IRM also accurately predicted bioefficacy by 14 d, except that, when there was substantial postabsorptive bioconversion, IRM underestimated bioefficacy. Based on our model, 1-d predictions of relative bioefficacy include absorptive plus a portion of early postabsorptive conversion. Conclusion: The plasma RIR is a simple tracer method that accurately predicts β-carotene relative bioefficacy based on analysis of one blood sample obtained at ≥14 d after co-ingestion of labeled β-carotene and retinyl acetate. The method also provides

  17. Financial Ratio Analysis Comes to Nonprofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabotar, Kent John

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate their financial health, a growing number of colleges, universities, and other nonprofit organizations are using financial ratio analysis, a technique used in business. The strengths and weaknesses of ratio analysis are assessed and suggestions are made on how nonprofits can use it most effectively. (Author/MLW)

  18. A conifer-friendly high-throughput α-cellulose extraction method for δ13C and δ18O stable isotope ratio analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W.; Noormets, A.; domec, J.; King, J. S.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S.

    2012-12-01

    Wood stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ18O) offer insight to water source and plant water use efficiency (WUE), which in turn provide a glimpse to potential plant responses to changing climate, particularly rainfall patterns. The synthetic pathways of cell wall deposition in wood rings differ in their discrimination ratios between the light and heavy isotopes, and α-cellulose is broadly seen as the best indicator of plant water status due to its local and temporal fixation and to its high abundance within the wood. To use the effects of recent severe droughts on the WUE of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) throughout Southeastern USA as a harbinger of future changes, an effort has been undertaken to sample the entire range of the species and to sample the isotopic composition in a consistent manner. To be able to accommodate the large number of samples required by this analysis, we have developed a new high-throughput method for α-cellulose extraction, which is the rate-limiting step in such an endeavor. Although an entire family of methods has been developed and perform well, their throughput in a typical research lab setting is limited to 16-75 samples per week with intensive labor input. The resin exclusion step in conifersis is particularly time-consuming. We have combined the recent advances of α-cellulose extraction in plant ecology and wood science, including a high-throughput extraction device developed in the Potsdam Dendro Lab and a simple chemical-based resin exclusion method. By transferring the entire extraction process to a multiport-based system allows throughputs of up to several hundred samples in two weeks, while minimizing labor requirements to 2-3 days per batch of samples.

  19. Image analysis method to quantify the effect of different treatments on the visual meat/shell ratio of half-shelled green lipped mussels (Perna canaliculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Geun; Alçiçek, Zayde; Balaban, Murat O; Atar, Hasan Huseyin

    2014-04-01

    Aquacultured green lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) is the New Zealand export leader of seafood in terms of weight. Different treatments shrink mussel meat differently and affect the consumer perception of half-shelled mussels. In order to quantify this, digital images of half-shelled green lipped mussels subjected to two postharvest treatments (ultrahigh pressure (UHP) and heat treatment (HT)) and raw controls were taken. The ratio of the view area of the meat to that of the shell (labelled as 'visual condition index' (VCI)) was measured using image analysis. A polygonal region of interest was defined on the image to depict the boundary of the meat and to calculate the view area. Raw mussels had a VCI of 85%. HT mussels had a much reduced VCI of 41%, indicating shrinkage of the meat due to heat. UHP treatment used as a shucking method resulted in a VCI of 83%. Since VCI is one measure of quality for the consumer, this quantitative method can be used in the optimization of shucking treatment (HT or UHP). VCI can be used to optimize postharvest treatments to minimize meat shrinkage. This method can also be applied to other shellfish such as oysters and clams. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Ratio Analysis: Where Investments Meet Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Susan D.; Woodbury, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses ratio analysis by which investments may be evaluated. Requires the use of fundamental mathematics, problem solving, and a comparison of the mathematical results within the framework of industry. (Author/NB)

  1. The RATIO method for time-resolved Laue crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, P.; Pitak, M.; Gembicky, M.; Messerschmidt, M.; Scheins, S.; Benedict, J.; Adachi, S.-I.; Sato, T.; Nozawa, S.; Ichiyanagi, K.; Chollet, M.; Koshihara, S.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    A RATIO method for analysis of intensity changes in time-resolved pump-probe Laue diffraction experiments is described. The method eliminates the need for scaling the data with a wavelength curve representing the spectral distribution of the source and removes the effect of possible anisotropic absorption. It does not require relative scaling of series of frames and removes errors due to all but very short term fluctuations in the synchrotron beam.

  2. Development of a versatile sample preparation method and its application for rare-earth pattern and Nd isotope ratio analysis in nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajko, J.

    2015-01-01

    An improved sample preparation procedure for trace-levels of lanthanides in uranium-bearing samples was developed. The method involves a simple co-precipitation using Fe(III) carrier in ammonium carbonate medium to remove the uranium matrix. The procedure is an effective initial pre-concentration step for the subsequent extraction chromatographic separations. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the measurement of REE pattern and 143 Nd/ 144 Nd isotope ratio in uranium ore concentrate samples. (author)

  3. Framework for Financial Ratio Analysis of Audited Federal Financial Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    this period were conducted on the statistical validity of the ratio method in financial analysis. McDonald and Morris conducted a study on the... franchising operations, allowing them to lower costs and share administrative support services with other agencies. [Ref. 60:sec. 402-403] The GMRA also...Press, Washington, D.C., 1955). 21. McDonald , Bill and Morris, Michael H., "The Statistical Validity of the Ratio Method in Financial Analysis: An

  4. Theoretical variance analysis of single- and dual-energy computed tomography methods for calculating proton stopping power ratios of biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M; Zhu, X R; Mohan, R; Dong, L; Virshup, G; Clayton, J

    2010-01-01

    We discovered an empirical relationship between the logarithm of mean excitation energy (ln I m ) and the effective atomic number (EAN) of human tissues, which allows for computing patient-specific proton stopping power ratios (SPRs) using dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging. The accuracy of the DECT method was evaluated for 'standard' human tissues as well as their variance. The DECT method was compared to the existing standard clinical practice-a procedure introduced by Schneider et al at the Paul Scherrer Institute (the stoichiometric calibration method). In this simulation study, SPRs were derived from calculated CT numbers of known material compositions, rather than from measurement. For standard human tissues, both methods achieved good accuracy with the root-mean-square (RMS) error well below 1%. For human tissues with small perturbations from standard human tissue compositions, the DECT method was shown to be less sensitive than the stoichiometric calibration method. The RMS error remained below 1% for most cases using the DECT method, which implies that the DECT method might be more suitable for measuring patient-specific tissue compositions to improve the accuracy of treatment planning for charged particle therapy. In this study, the effects of CT imaging artifacts due to the beam hardening effect, scatter, noise, patient movement, etc were not analyzed. The true potential of the DECT method achieved in theoretical conditions may not be fully achievable in clinical settings. Further research and development may be needed to take advantage of the DECT method to characterize individual human tissues.

  5. Detection of adulteration in mulberry pekmez samples added various sugar syrups with ¹³C/¹²C isotope ratio analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Murat

    2014-12-15

    Mulberry pekmez can be adulterated in different ways either during the production process or after production is completed. To identify these adulterations, stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) was performed on the model examples prepared by adding saccharose syrup (SS), glucose syrup (GS) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) into two different pure mulberry pekmez samples in the ratios of 0%, 10%, 30% and 50%. The δ(13)C ratio of the pure mulberry pekmez was determined as -26.60‰ on average, the saccharose syrup as -24.80‰, the glucose syrup as -11.20‰ and the high-fructose corn syrup as -11.40‰. In identifying the adulteration made to pekmez, especially with the high-fructose corn syrup, which is obtained from corn starch, and with the glucose syrup, the δ(13)C ratio comes into prominence. However it remains impossible identify the adulterations made with the saccharose, which is obtained from beet sugar, or invert sugar syrups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficient Numerical Methods for Analysis of Square Ratio of κ-μ and η-μ Random Processes with Their Applications in Telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradimir V. Milovanović

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We will provide statistical analysis of the square ratio of κ-μ and η-μ random processes and its application in the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR based performance analysis of wireless transmission subjected to the influence of multipath fading, modelled by κ-μ fading model, and undesired occurrence of co-channel interference (CCI, distributed as η-μ random process. First contribution of the paper is deriving exact closed expressions for the probability density function (PDF and cumulative distribution function (CDF of square ratio of κ-μ and η-μ random processes. Further, a verification of accuracy of these PDF and CDF expressions was given by comparison with the corresponding approximations obtained by the high-precision quadrature formulas of Gaussian type with respect to the weight functions on (0,+∞. The computational procedure of such quadrature rules is provided by using the constructive theory of orthogonal polynomials and the MATHEMATICA package OrthogonalPolynomials created by Cvetković and Milovanović (2004. Capitalizing on obtained expression, important wireless performance criteria, namely, outage probability (OP, have been obtained, as functions of transmission parameters. Also, possible performance improvement is observed through a glance at SC (selection combining reception employment based on obtained expressions.

  7. Further comments on the sequential probability ratio testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulacsy, K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics

    1997-05-23

    The Bayesian method for belief updating proposed in Racz (1996) is examined. The interpretation of the belief function introduced therein is found, and the method is compared to the classical binary Sequential Probability Ratio Testing method (SPRT). (author).

  8. Flutter analysis of low aspect ratio wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    Several very low aspect ratio flat plate wing configurations are analyzed for their aerodynamic instability (flutter) characteristics. All of the wings investigated are delta planforms with clipped tips, made of aluminum alloy plate and cantilevered from the supporting vehicle body. Results of both subsonic and supersonic NASTRAN aeroelastic analyses as well as those from another version of the program implementing the supersonic linearized aerodynamic theory are presented. Results are selectively compared with the experimental data; however, supersonic predictions of the Mach Box method in NASTRAN are found to be erratic and erroneous, requiring the use of a separate program.

  9. Field Sample Preparation Method Development for Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibman, C.; Weisbrod, K.; Yoshida, T.

    2015-01-01

    Non-proliferation and International Security (NA-241) established a working group of researchers from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to evaluate the utilization of in-field mass spectrometry for safeguards applications. The survey of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) mass spectrometers (MS) revealed no instrumentation existed capable of meeting all the potential safeguards requirements for performance, portability, and ease of use. Additionally, fieldable instruments are unlikely to meet the International Target Values (ITVs) for accuracy and precision for isotope ratio measurements achieved with laboratory methods. The major gaps identified for in-field actinide isotope ratio analysis were in the areas of: 1. sample preparation and/or sample introduction, 2. size reduction of mass analyzers and ionization sources, 3. system automation, and 4. decreased system cost. Development work in 2 through 4, numerated above continues, in the private and public sector. LANL is focusing on developing sample preparation/sample introduction methods for use with the different sample types anticipated for safeguard applications. Addressing sample handling and sample preparation methods for MS analysis will enable use of new MS instrumentation as it becomes commercially available. As one example, we have developed a rapid, sample preparation method for dissolution of uranium and plutonium oxides using ammonium bifluoride (ABF). ABF is a significantly safer and faster alternative to digestion with boiling combinations of highly concentrated mineral acids. Actinides digested with ABF yield fluorides, which can then be analyzed directly or chemically converted and separated using established column chromatography techniques as needed prior to isotope analysis. The reagent volumes and the sample processing steps associated with ABF sample digestion lend themselves to automation and field

  10. Poisson's ratio analysis (Vp/Vs) on volcanoes and geothermal potential areas in Central Java using tomography travel time method of grid search relocation hypocenter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raharjo, W.; Palupi, I. R.; Nurdian, S. W.; Giamboro, W. S.; Soesilo, J.

    2016-01-01

    Poisson's Ratio illustrates the elasticity properties of a rock. The value is affected by the ratio between the value of P and S wave velocity, where the high value ratio associated with partial melting while the low associated with gas saturated rock. Java which has many volcanoes as a result of the collision between the Australian and Eurasian plates also effects of earthquakes that result the P and S wave. By tomography techniques the distribution of the value of Poisson's ratio can be known. Western Java was dominated by high Poisson's Ratio until Mount Slamet and Dieng in Central Java, while the eastern part of Java is dominated by low Poisson's Ratio. The difference of Poisson's Ratio is located in Central Java that is also supported by the difference characteristic of hot water manifestation in geothermal potential area in the west and east of Central Java Province. Poisson's ratio value is also lower with increasing depth proving that the cold oceanic plate entrance under the continental plate. (paper)

  11. A versatile method for simultaneous stable carbon isotope analysis of DNA and RNA nucleotides by liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Brasser, J.; de Ruiter, G.; Houtekamer, M.; Bolhuis, H.; Stal, L.J.; Boschker, H.T.S.

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALELiquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) is currently the most accurate and precise technique for the measurement of compound-specific stable carbon isotope ratios (C-13/C-12) in biological metabolites, at their natural abundance. However, until now this technique

  12. Analysis of White Matter Damage in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis via a Novel In Vivo MR Method for Measuring Myelin, Axons, and G-Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, A; Hori, M; Yokoyama, K; Nakazawa, M; Ueda, R; Horita, M; Andica, C; Abe, O; Aoki, S

    2017-10-01

    Myelin and axon volume fractions can now be estimated via MR imaging in vivo, as can the g-ratio, which equals the ratio of the inner to the outer diameter of a nerve fiber. The purpose of this study was to evaluate WM damage in patients with MS via this novel MR imaging technique. Twenty patients with relapsing-remitting MS with a combined total of 149 chronic plaques were analyzed. Myelin volume fraction was calculated based on simultaneous tissue relaxometry. Intracellular and CSF compartment volume fractions were quantified via neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging. Axon volume fraction and g-ratio were calculated by combining these measurements. Myelin and axon volume fractions and g-ratio were measured in plaques, periplaque WM, and normal-appearing WM. All metrics differed significantly across the 3 groups ( P ratio between periplaque WM and normal-appearing WM). Those in plaques differed most from those in normal-appearing WM. The percentage changes in plaque and periplaque WM metrics relative to normal-appearing WM were significantly larger in absolute value for myelin volume fraction than for axon volume fraction and g-ratio ( P ratio may potentially be useful for evaluating WM damage in patients with MS. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  13. Method of Poisson's ratio imaging within a material part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of displaying the Poisson's ratio image of a material part. In the present invention longitudinal data is produced using a longitudinal wave transducer and shear wave data is produced using a shear wave transducer. The respective data is then used to calculate the Poisson's ratio for the entire material part. The Poisson's ratio approximations are then used to displayed the image.

  14. Novel Ratio Subtraction and Isoabsorptive Point Methods for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate two innovative spectrophotometric methods used for the simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride and doxycycline in their binary mixture. Methods: Ratio subtraction and isoabsorptive point methods were used for the simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride ...

  15. Corporate prediction models, ratios or regression analysis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijnen, E.J.; Wijn, M.F.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The models developed in the literature with respect to the prediction of a company s failure are based on ratios. It has been shown before that these models should be rejected on theoretical grounds. Our study of industrial companies in the Netherlands shows that the ratios which are used in

  16. A MULTIPLE TESTING OF THE ABC METHOD AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SECOND-GENERATION MODEL. PART II, TEST RESULTS AND AN ANALYSIS OF RECALL RATIO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALTMANN, BERTHOLD

    AFTER A BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE TEST PROGRAM (DESCRIBED MORE FULLY IN LI 000 318), THE STATISTICAL RESULTS TABULATED AS OVERALL "ABC (APPROACH BY CONCEPT)-RELEVANCE RATIOS" AND "ABC-RECALL FIGURES" ARE PRESENTED AND REVIEWED. AN ABSTRACT MODEL DEVELOPED IN ACCORDANCE WITH MAX WEBER'S "IDEALTYPUS" ("DIE OBJEKTIVITAET…

  17. The carrying out of a radiometric analysis method applicable to Moroccan phosphates. Study of the uranium amounts, of the U/Ra equilibrium ratio and of 222-radon emanation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choukri, A.

    1987-01-01

    A radiometric analysis method for the determination of the uranium and the radium amounts in Moroccan phosphate has been carried out, using NaI(Tl) scintillator to detect gamma radiation of 238-U and 235-U radioactive daughters. The analysis results permit to calculate the U/Ra equilibrium ratio and the emanation rates of 222-Rn versus temperature. The U/Ra disequilibria permit to detect the secondary contribution of a recent uranium. The 222-Rn emanation rates are useful in the evaluation of the radiological hazards related to the phosphate radioactivity. This method was applied to study the phosphate Ganntour deposit and showed that the uranium content ranges from 25ppm to 350ppm, that the U/Ra ratio ranges from 0.6 to 2.2 with an exceptional value of 4.5. The emanation rate of natural radon is between 0% and 27%. The radon forced emanation by heating or by adding different acids has also been studied. The phosphate attack with H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 , using the analysis method, showed that a maximum degassing appears at 0.9cc/g for H 2 SO 4 and 1.1cc/g for HNO 3 . By adding H 2 SO 4 , 30% of uranium (without radium) passed in the solution and by adding HNO 3 uranium and radium are divided among the solid and the liquid phases. 22 refs., 49 figs., 25 tabs. (author)

  18. Combustion engine variable compression ratio apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence,; Keith, E [Peoria, IL; Strawbridge, Bryan E [Dunlap, IL; Dutart, Charles H [Washington, IL

    2006-06-06

    An apparatus and method for varying a compression ratio of an engine having a block and a head mounted thereto. The apparatus and method includes a cylinder having a block portion and a head portion, a piston linearly movable in the block portion of the cylinder, a cylinder plug linearly movable in the head portion of the cylinder, and a valve located in the cylinder plug and operable to provide controlled fluid communication with the block portion of the cylinder.

  19. Results of Am isotopic ratio analysis in irradiated MOX fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Shin-ichi; Osaka, Masahiko; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki; Konno, Koichi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Kajitani, Mikio

    1997-04-01

    For analysis of a small quantity of americium, it is necessary to separate from curium which has similar chemical property. As a chemical separation method for americium and curium, the oxidation of americium with pentavalent bismuth and subsequent co-precipitation of trivalent curium with BIP O{sub 4} were applied to analyze americium in irradiated MOX fuels which contained about 30wt% plutonium and 0.9wt% {sup 241}Am before irradiation and were irradiated up to 26.2GWd/t in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. The purpose of this study is to measure isotopic ratio of americium and to evaluate the change of isotopic ratio with irradiation. Following results are obtained in this study. (1) The isotopic ratio of americium ({sup 241}Am, {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am) can be analyzed in the MOX fuels by isolating americium. The isotopic ratio of {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am increases up to 0.62at% and 0.82at% at maximum burnup, respectively, (2) The results of isotopic analysis indicates that the contents of {sup 241}Am decreases, whereas {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243}Am increase linearly with increasing burnup. (author)

  20. Stable carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis of methyl tert-butyl ether and tert-amyl methyl ether by purge and trap-gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry: method evaluation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawinski, Dorothea M; Stephan, Manuel; Jochmann, Maik A; Krajenke, Karen; Haas, Joe; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2010-01-01

    In order to monitor the behaviour of contaminants in the aqueous environment effective enrichment techniques often have to be employed due to their low concentrations. In this work a robust and sensitive purge and trap-gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry method for carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis of fuel oxygenates in water is presented. The method evaluation included the determination of method detection limits, accuracy and reproducibility of deltaD and delta(13)C values. Lowest concentrations at which reliable delta(13)C values could be determined were 5 microg L(-1) and 28 microg L(-1) for TAME and MTBE, respectively. Stable deltaD values for MTBE and TAME could be achieved for concentrations as low as 25 and 50 microg L(-1). Good long-term reproducibility of delta(13)C and deltaD values was obtained for all target compounds. But deltaD values varying more than 5 per thousand were observed using different thermal conversion tubes. Thus, a correction of deltaD values in the analysis of groundwater samples was necessary to guarantee comparability of the results. The applicability of this method was shown by the analysis of groundwater samples from a gasoline contaminated site. By two dimensional isotope analysis two locations within this site were identified at which anaerobic and aerobic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether occurred.

  1. Two-stage meta-analysis of survival data from individual participants using percentile ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jessica K; Farewell, Vern T; Siannis, Fotios; Tierney, Jayne; Higgins, Julian P T

    2012-01-01

    Methods for individual participant data meta-analysis of survival outcomes commonly focus on the hazard ratio as a measure of treatment effect. Recently, Siannis et al. (2010, Statistics in Medicine 29:3030–3045) proposed the use of percentile ratios as an alternative to hazard ratios. We describe a novel two-stage method for the meta-analysis of percentile ratios that avoids distributional assumptions at the study level. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22825835

  2. Financial Ratio Analysis using ARMS Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrendsen, Bruce L.; Katchova, Ani L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the financial performance measures calculated and reported by Economic Resource Service (ERS) from ARMS data. The evaluation includes the calculation method and the underlying assumptions used in obtaining the reported values. The financial measures calculated and reported are compared with those recommended by the Farm Financial Standards Council (FFSC). The underlying assumptions are identified by analyzing the software code used in calculating th...

  3. A continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry method for high precision determination of dissolved gas ratios and isotopic composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charoenpong, C. N.; Bristow, L. A.; Altabet, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). A continuous flow of He carrier gas completely degasses the sample, and passes through the preparation and purification system before entering the IRMS for analysis. The use of this continuous He carrier permits short analysis times (less than 8 min per sample......) as compared with current high-precision methods. In addition to reference gases, calibration is achieved using air-equilibrated water standards of known temperature and salinity. Assessment of reference gas injections, air equilibrated standards, as well as samples collected in the field shows the accuracy...

  4. Comments on the sequential probability ratio testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, A. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics

    1996-07-01

    In this paper the classical sequential probability ratio testing method (SPRT) is reconsidered. Every individual boundary crossing event of the SPRT is regarded as a new piece of evidence about the problem under hypothesis testing. The Bayes method is applied for belief updating, i.e. integrating these individual decisions. The procedure is recommended to use when the user (1) would like to be informed about the tested hypothesis continuously and (2) would like to achieve his final conclusion with high confidence level. (Author).

  5. Deferred tax analysis and impact on firm's economic efficiency ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bohušová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Category of deferred income tax is a complex topic including the whole accounting system and the income tax. Calculation method can be time-consuming and demanding a high quality system of analytical evidence and a system of valuation and demanding the high level of accountants' knowledge. The aim in the theoretical level was to analyze process of calculation and recording of deferred tax. Importance of recording of deferred tax and the impact on financial analysis ratios was analyzed. Fourteen business entities were examined. Deferred tax recording is a legal way to reduce retained earnings a to protect of its careless alocation.

  6. An identification method for damping ratio in rotor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin; Li, Qihang; Gao, Jinji; Yao, Jianfei; Allaire, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Centrifugal compressor testing with magnetic bearing excitations is the last step to assure the compressor rotordynamic stability in the designed operating conditions. To meet the challenges of stability evaluation, a new method combining the rational polynomials method (RPM) with the weighted instrumental variables (WIV) estimator to fit the directional frequency response function (dFRF) is presented. Numerical simulation results show that the method suggested in this paper can identify the damping ratio of the first forward and backward modes with high accuracy, even in a severe noise environment. Experimental tests were conducted to study the effect of different bearing configurations on the stability of rotor. Furthermore, two example centrifugal compressors (a nine-stage straight-through and a six-stage back-to-back) were employed to verify the feasibility of identification method in industrial configurations as well.

  7. Ratio analysis specifics of the family dairies' financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Aleksandra; Knežević Snežana; Veličković Milica

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the evaluation of the financial analysis specifics of the dairy enterprises with a focus on the implementation of the ratio analysis of financial statements. The ratio analysis is a central part of financial analysis, since it is based on investigating the relationship between logically related items in the financial statements to assess the financial position of the observed enterprise and its earning capacity. Speaking about the reporting of financial performanc...

  8. Explorations in statistics: the analysis of ratios and normalized data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2013-09-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This ninth installment of Explorations in Statistics explores the analysis of ratios and normalized-or standardized-data. As researchers, we compute a ratio-a numerator divided by a denominator-to compute a proportion for some biological response or to derive some standardized variable. In each situation, we want to control for differences in the denominator when the thing we really care about is the numerator. But there is peril lurking in a ratio: only if the relationship between numerator and denominator is a straight line through the origin will the ratio be meaningful. If not, the ratio will misrepresent the true relationship between numerator and denominator. In contrast, regression techniques-these include analysis of covariance-are versatile: they can accommodate an analysis of the relationship between numerator and denominator when a ratio is useless.

  9. Ratio analysis specifics of the family dairies' financial statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the evaluation of the financial analysis specifics of the dairy enterprises with a focus on the implementation of the ratio analysis of financial statements. The ratio analysis is a central part of financial analysis, since it is based on investigating the relationship between logically related items in the financial statements to assess the financial position of the observed enterprise and its earning capacity. Speaking about the reporting of financial performance in family dairies, the basis is created for displaying techniques of financial analysis, with a special indication on the specifics of their application in agricultural enterprises focusing on companies engaged in dairying. Applied in the paper is ratio analysis on the example of a dairy enterprise, i.e. a family dairy operating in Serbia. The ratio indicators are the basis for identifying relationships based on which by comparing the actual performance and certain business standards differences or variations are identified.

  10. An endogenous standard, radioisotopic ratio method in NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Dermelj, M.

    1997-01-01

    A derivative form of NAA is proposed which is based on the use of an endogenous internal standard of already known concentration in the sample. If a comparator with a known ratio of the determinand and endogenous standard are co-irradiated with the sample, the determinand concentration is derived in terms of the endogenous standard concentration and the activity ratios of the two induced nuclides in the sample and comparator. As well as eliminating the sample mass and greatly reducing errors caused by pulse pile-up and geometrical differences, it was shown that in the radiochemical mode, if the endogenous standard is chosen so that the induced activity is radioisotopic with that from the determinand, the radiochemical yield is also eliminated and the risk non-achievement of isotopic exchange greatly reduced. The method is demonstrated with good results on reference materials for the determination of I, Mn and Ni. The advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed. It is suggested that it may be of application in quality control and in extending the range of certified elements in reference materials. (author)

  11. Explorations in Statistics: The Analysis of Ratios and Normalized Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This ninth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores the analysis of ratios and normalized--or standardized--data. As researchers, we compute a ratio--a numerator divided by a denominator--to compute a…

  12. A financial Ratio Analysis of Commercial Bank Performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A financial Ratio Analysis of Commercial Bank Performance in South Africa. ... Journal Home > Vol 2, No 1 (2010) >. Log in or ... This paper investigates the performance of South Africa's commercial banking sector for the period 2005- 2009.

  13. Inverse odds ratio-weighted estimation for causal mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J

    2013-11-20

    An important scientific goal of studies in the health and social sciences is increasingly to determine to what extent the total effect of a point exposure is mediated by an intermediate variable on the causal pathway between the exposure and the outcome. A causal framework has recently been proposed for mediation analysis, which gives rise to new definitions, formal identification results and novel estimators of direct and indirect effects. In the present paper, the author describes a new inverse odds ratio-weighted approach to estimate so-called natural direct and indirect effects. The approach, which uses as a weight the inverse of an estimate of the odds ratio function relating the exposure and the mediator, is universal in that it can be used to decompose total effects in a number of regression models commonly used in practice. Specifically, the approach may be used for effect decomposition in generalized linear models with a nonlinear link function, and in a number of other commonly used models such as the Cox proportional hazards regression for a survival outcome. The approach is simple and can be implemented in standard software provided a weight can be specified for each observation. An additional advantage of the method is that it easily incorporates multiple mediators of a categorical, discrete or continuous nature. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. GAIN RATIO BASED FEATURE SELECTION METHOD FOR PRIVACY PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Praveena Priyadarsini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Privacy-preservation is a step in data mining that tries to safeguard sensitive information from unsanctioned disclosure and hence protecting individual data records and their privacy. There are various privacy preservation techniques like k-anonymity, l-diversity and t-closeness and data perturbation. In this paper k-anonymity privacy protection technique is applied to high dimensional datasets like adult and census. since, both the data sets are high dimensional, feature subset selection method like Gain Ratio is applied and the attributes of the datasets are ranked and low ranking attributes are filtered to form new reduced data subsets. K-anonymization privacy preservation technique is then applied on reduced datasets. The accuracy of the privacy preserved reduced datasets and the original datasets are compared for their accuracy on the two functionalities of data mining namely classification and clustering using naïve Bayesian and k-means algorithm respectively. Experimental results show that classification and clustering accuracy are comparatively the same for reduced k-anonym zed datasets and the original data sets.

  15. Representing the Past by Solid Modeling + Golden Ratio Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Suining

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the procedures of reconstructing ancient architecture using solid modeling with geometric analysis, especially the Golden Ratio analysis. In the past the recovery and reconstruction of ruins required bringing together fragments of evidence and vast amount of measurements from archaeological site. Although researchers and…

  16. Financial-Ratio Analysis and Medical School Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastaugh, Steven R.

    1980-01-01

    The value of a uniform program of financial assistance to medical education and research is questioned. Medical schools have an uneven ability to compensate for declining federal capitation and research grants. Financial-ratio analysis and cluster analysis are utilized to suggest four adaptive responses to future financial pressures. (Author/MLW)

  17. Business sustainability performance measurement: Eco-ratio analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins C. Ngwakwe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Eco-aware customers and stakeholders are demanding for a measurement that links environmental performance with other business operations. To bridge this seemingly measurement gap, this paper suggests ‘Eco-Ratio Analysis’ and proposes an approach for conducting eco-ratio analysis. It is argued that since accounting ratios function as a tool for evaluating corporate financial viability by management and investors, eco-ratio analysis should be brought to the fore to provide a succinct measurement about the linkage between environmental performance and conventional business performance. It is hoped that this suggestion will usher in a nuance debate and approach in the teaching, research and practice of environmental management and sustainability accounting

  18. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio in mood disorders: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Mario Gennaro; Lucchi, Sara; Tringali, Agnese Grazia Maria; Rossetti, Aurora; Botti, Eugenia Rossana; Clerici, Massimo

    2018-06-08

    The immune and inflammatory system is involved in the etiology of mood disorders. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and monocyte/lymphocyte ratio (MLR) are inexpensive and reproducible biomarkers of inflammation. This is the first meta-analysis exploring the role of NLR and PLR in mood disorder. We identified 11 studies according to our inclusion criteria from the main Electronic Databases. Meta-analyses were carried out generating pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) between index and healthy controls (HC). Heterogeneity was estimated. Relevant sensitivity and meta-regression analyses were conducted. Subjects with bipolar disorder (BD) had higher NLR and PLR as compared with HC (respectively SMD = 0.672; p analysis evidenced an influence of bipolar phase on the overall estimate whit studies including subjects in manic and any bipolar phase showing a significantly higher NLR and PLR as compared with HC whereas the effect was not significant among studies including only euthymic bipolar subjects. Meta-regression showed that age and sex influenced the relationship between BD and NLR but not the relationship between BD and PLR. Meta-analysis was not carried out for MLR because our search identified only one study when comparing BD to HC, and only one study when comparing MDD to HC. Subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) had higher NLR as compared with HC (SMD = 0.670; p = 0.028; I 2  = 89.931%). Heterogeneity-based sensitivity analyses and meta-regression confirmed these findings. Our meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that an inflammatory activation occurs in mood disorders and NLR and PLR may be useful to detect this activation. More researches including comparison of NLR, PLR and MLR between different bipolar phases and between BD and MDD are needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel method for the accurate evaluation of Poisson's ratio of soft polymer materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Soo; Chang, Jun-Dong; Thompson, Mark S; Kang, Dong-Joong; Park, Sungchan; Park, Seonghun

    2013-01-01

    A new method with a simple algorithm was developed to accurately measure Poisson's ratio of soft materials such as polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA-H) with a custom experimental apparatus consisting of a tension device, a micro X-Y stage, an optical microscope, and a charge-coupled device camera. In the proposed method, the initial positions of the four vertices of an arbitrarily selected quadrilateral from the sample surface were first measured to generate a 2D 1st-order 4-node quadrilateral element for finite element numerical analysis. Next, minimum and maximum principal strains were calculated from differences between the initial and deformed shapes of the quadrilateral under tension. Finally, Poisson's ratio of PVA-H was determined by the ratio of minimum principal strain to maximum principal strain. This novel method has an advantage in the accurate evaluation of Poisson's ratio despite misalignment between specimens and experimental devices. In this study, Poisson's ratio of PVA-H was 0.44 ± 0.025 (n = 6) for 2.6-47.0% elongations with a tendency to decrease with increasing elongation. The current evaluation method of Poisson's ratio with a simple measurement system can be employed to a real-time automated vision-tracking system which is used to accurately evaluate the material properties of various soft materials.

  20. A Novel Method for the Accurate Evaluation of Poisson’s Ratio of Soft Polymer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hoon Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method with a simple algorithm was developed to accurately measure Poisson’s ratio of soft materials such as polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA-H with a custom experimental apparatus consisting of a tension device, a micro X-Y stage, an optical microscope, and a charge-coupled device camera. In the proposed method, the initial positions of the four vertices of an arbitrarily selected quadrilateral from the sample surface were first measured to generate a 2D 1st-order 4-node quadrilateral element for finite element numerical analysis. Next, minimum and maximum principal strains were calculated from differences between the initial and deformed shapes of the quadrilateral under tension. Finally, Poisson’s ratio of PVA-H was determined by the ratio of minimum principal strain to maximum principal strain. This novel method has an advantage in the accurate evaluation of Poisson’s ratio despite misalignment between specimens and experimental devices. In this study, Poisson’s ratio of PVA-H was 0.44 ± 0.025 (n=6 for 2.6–47.0% elongations with a tendency to decrease with increasing elongation. The current evaluation method of Poisson’s ratio with a simple measurement system can be employed to a real-time automated vision-tracking system which is used to accurately evaluate the material properties of various soft materials.

  1. Compound-Specific Chlorine Isotope Analysis of Tetrachloromethane and Trichloromethane by Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry vs Gas Chromatography-Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry: Method Development and Evaluation of Precision and Trueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckel, Benjamin; Rodríguez-Fernández, Diana; Torrentó, Clara; Meyer, Armin; Palau, Jordi; Domènech, Cristina; Rosell, Mònica; Soler, Albert; Hunkeler, Daniel; Elsner, Martin

    2017-03-21

    Compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis of tetrachloromethane (CCl 4 ) and trichloromethane (CHCl 3 ) was explored by both, gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) and GC-quadrupole MS (GC-qMS), where GC-qMS was validated in an interlaboratory comparison between Munich and Neuchâtel with the same type of commercial GC-qMS instrument. GC-IRMS measurements analyzed CCl isotopologue ions, whereas GC-qMS analyzed the isotopologue ions CCl 3 , CCl 2 , CCl (of CCl 4 ) and CHCl 3 , CHCl 2 , CHCl (of CHCl 3 ), respectively. Lowest amount dependence (good linearity) was obtained (i) in H-containing fragment ions where interference of 35 Cl- to 37 Cl-containing ions was avoided; (ii) with tuning parameters favoring one predominant rather than multiple fragment ions in the mass spectra. Optimized GC-qMS parameters (dwell time 70 ms, 2 most abundant ions) resulted in standard deviations of 0.2‰ (CHCl 3 ) and 0.4‰ (CCl 4 ), which are only about twice as large as 0.1‰ and 0.2‰ for GC-IRMS. To compare also the trueness of both methods and laboratories, samples from CCl 4 and CHCl 3 degradation experiments were analyzed and calibrated against isotopically different reference standards for both CCl 4 and CHCl 3 (two of each). Excellent agreement confirms that true results can be obtained by both methods provided that a consistent set of isotopically characterized reference materials is used.

  2. Non-stationary (13)C-metabolic flux ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörl, Manuel; Schnidder, Julian; Sauer, Uwe; Zamboni, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    (13)C-metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) has become a key method for metabolic engineering and systems biology. In the most common methodology, fluxes are calculated by global isotopomer balancing and iterative fitting to stationary (13)C-labeling data. This approach requires a closed carbon balance, long-lasting metabolic steady state, and the detection of (13)C-patterns in a large number of metabolites. These restrictions mostly reduced the application of (13)C-MFA to the central carbon metabolism of well-studied model organisms grown in minimal media with a single carbon source. Here we introduce non-stationary (13)C-metabolic flux ratio analysis as a novel method for (13)C-MFA to allow estimating local, relative fluxes from ultra-short (13)C-labeling experiments and without the need for global isotopomer balancing. The approach relies on the acquisition of non-stationary (13)C-labeling data exclusively for metabolites in the proximity of a node of converging fluxes and a local parameter estimation with a system of ordinary differential equations. We developed a generalized workflow that takes into account reaction types and the availability of mass spectrometric data on molecular ions or fragments for data processing, modeling, parameter and error estimation. We demonstrated the approach by analyzing three key nodes of converging fluxes in central metabolism of Bacillus subtilis. We obtained flux estimates that are in agreement with published results obtained from steady state experiments, but reduced the duration of the necessary (13)C-labeling experiment to less than a minute. These results show that our strategy enables to formally estimate relative pathway fluxes on extremely short time scale, neglecting cellular carbon balancing. Hence this approach paves the road to targeted (13)C-MFA in dynamic systems with multiple carbon sources and towards rich media. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Uncertainty importance analysis using parametric moment ratio functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pengfei; Lu, Zhenzhou; Song, Jingwen

    2014-02-01

    This article presents a new importance analysis framework, called parametric moment ratio function, for measuring the reduction of model output uncertainty when the distribution parameters of inputs are changed, and the emphasis is put on the mean and variance ratio functions with respect to the variances of model inputs. The proposed concepts efficiently guide the analyst to achieve a targeted reduction on the model output mean and variance by operating on the variances of model inputs. The unbiased and progressive unbiased Monte Carlo estimators are also derived for the parametric mean and variance ratio functions, respectively. Only a set of samples is needed for implementing the proposed importance analysis by the proposed estimators, thus the computational cost is free of input dimensionality. An analytical test example with highly nonlinear behavior is introduced for illustrating the engineering significance of the proposed importance analysis technique and verifying the efficiency and convergence of the derived Monte Carlo estimators. Finally, the moment ratio function is applied to a planar 10-bar structure for achieving a targeted 50% reduction of the model output variance. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Progressive-Ratio Schedules and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Establishing appropriate relations between the basic and applied areas of behavior analysis has been of long and persistent interest to the author. In this article, the author illustrates that there is a direct relation between how hard an organism will work for access to an object or activity, as indexed by the largest ratio completed under a…

  5. Testing of January Anomaly at ISE-100 Index with Power Ratio Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Yüksel Yiğiter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNone of investors that can access all informations in the same ratio is not possible to earn higher returns according to Efficient Market Hypothesis. However, it has been set forth effect of time on returns in several studies and reached conflicting conclusions with hypothesis. In this context, one of the most important existing anomalies is also January month anomaly. In this study, it has been researched that if there is  January effect in BIST-100 index covering 2008-2014 period by using power ratio method. The presence of January month anomaly in BIST-100 index within specified period determined by analysis results.Keywords: Efficient Markets Hypothesis, January Month Anomaly, Power Ratio MethodJEL Classification Codes: G1,C22

  6. Mean centering of ratio spectra and successive derivative ratio spectrophotometric methods for determination of isopropamide iodide, trifluoperazine hydrochloride and trifluoperazine oxidative degradate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M. Abdelrahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two sensitive, selective and precise stability indicating methods for the determination of isopropamide iodide (ISO, trifluoperazine hydrochloride (TPZ and trifluoperazine oxidative degradate (DEG were developed and validated. Method A is a successive derivative ratio spectrophotometric one, which depends on the successive derivative of ratio spectra in two steps using 0.1 N HCl as a solvent and measuring TPZ at 250.4 and 257.2 nm, ISO at 223 and 228 nm and DEG at 210.6, 213 and 270.2 nm. Method B is mean centering of ratio spectra which depends on using the mean centered ratio spectra in two successive steps and measuring the mean centered values of the second ratio spectra at 322, 355 and 339 nm for TPZ, ISO and DEG, respectively. Factors affecting the developed methods were studied and optimized, moreover, they have been validated as per ICH guidelines and the results demonstrated that the suggested methods are reliable, reproducible and suitable for routine use with short analysis time. Statistical analysis of the two developed methods with the reported one using F- and Student’s t-test showed no significant difference regarding accuracy and precision.

  7. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Shells with Large Aspect Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T. Y.; Sawamiphakdi, K.

    1984-01-01

    A higher order degenerated shell element with nine nodes was selected for large deformation and post-buckling analysis of thick or thin shells. Elastic-plastic material properties are also included. The post-buckling analysis algorithm is given. Using a square plate, it was demonstrated that the none-node element does not have shear locking effect even if its aspect ratio was increased to the order 10 to the 8th power. Two sample problems are given to illustrate the analysis capability of the shell element.

  8. Methods for oxygen/uranium ratio determination in substoichiometric uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, V.G.; Godin, Yu.G.; S'edin, Yu.D.; Kosykh, V.G.; Nepryakhin, A.M.; Komarenko, F.F.; Kutyreva, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Investigations are performed into a possibility to use the methods of thermal gravimetric analysis, gas chromatography, hydration-dehydration, and e.m.f. of high-temperature solid-electrode galvanic cell for determining O-U atomic ratio in UO 2-x . It is shown that the investigated methods have an analysis error of ± 0.001 O/U units. However, the e.m.f. method, which feature a high accuracy near stoichiometry can be applied only within the limits of UO 2-x homogeneity. A possibility is shown to expend the area of e.m.f. method application during the analysis of substoichiometric uranium dioxide. 9 refs.; 1 tab

  9. Effects of drying method, storage period and carbon: nitrogen ratio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taghwo

    2012-12-03

    Dec 3, 2012 ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 6(12), pp. .... Drying method 2 (method 2) involved air drying field- fresh soil ... then packed in polyethylene bags and stored at -10°C until inorganic N extraction ...

  10. Mix ratio measurements of pozzolanic blends by Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.

    1992-07-01

    The disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, involves mixing the wastes with pozzolanic grout-forming solid blends. Checking the quality of each blend component and its mix ratio will ensure processibility of the blend and the long-term performance of the resulting waste grout. In earlier work at Hanford laboratories, Fourier transform infrared-transmission method (FTIR-TR) using KBr pellet was applied successfully in the analysis of blends consisting of cement, fly ash, and clays. This method involves time-consuming sample preparation resulting in slow turnaround for repetitive sampling. Because reflection methods do not require elaborate sample preparation, they have the potential to reduce turnaround analysis time. Neat samples may be examined making these methods attractive for quality control. This study investigates the capability of Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance method (FTIR-ATR) to analyze pozzolanic blends

  11. Novel Ratio Subtraction and Isoabsorptive Point Methods for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, PO Box ... Purpose: To develop and validate two innovative spectrophotometric methods used for the ..... research through the Research Group Project no.

  12. A direct method for estimating the alpha/beta ratio from quantitative dose-response data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuschke, M.

    1989-01-01

    A one-step optimization method based on a least squares fit of the linear quadratic model to quantitative tissue response data after fractionated irradiation is proposed. Suitable end-points that can be analysed by this method are growth delay, host survival and quantitative biochemical or clinical laboratory data. The functional dependence between the transformed dose and the measured response is approximated by a polynomial. The method allows for the estimation of the alpha/beta ratio and its confidence limits from all observed responses of the different fractionation schedules. Censored data can be included in the analysis. A method to test the appropriateness of the fit is presented. A computer simulation illustrates the method and its accuracy as examplified by the growth delay end point. A comparison with a fit of the linear quadratic model to interpolated isoeffect doses shows the advantages of the direct method. (orig./HP) [de

  13. NMR measurement of identical polymer samples by round robin method. 4. Analysis of composition and monomer sequence distribution in poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylonitrile) leading to determinations of monomer reactivity ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatada, Koichi; Kitayama, Tatsuki; Terawaki, Yoshio

    1995-01-01

    In order to assess the reliability of NMR measurement of polymers, 1 H and 13 C NMR data for three copolymers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and acrylonitrile (AN) prepared with AIBN were collected from 46 spectrometers whose resonance frequencies for 1 H NMR measurements ranging from 90 to 500 MHz. 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra were measured in nitrobenzene-d 5 at 110degC and acetonitrile-d 3 at 70degC, respectively. Standard deviations (σ's) for chemical shift measurements of the 1 H and 13 C NMR signals were 0.003-0.008 ppm and 0.03-0.05 ppm, respectively. Compositions of the copolymers were determined from the relative intensities of the signals due to the OCH 3 (MMA) and CH (AN) protons, and the σ values for the determinations were 3.7-9.5%. The compositions determined from 13 C NMR (C = O for MMA unit, CN for AN unit) agreed well with those obtained from 1 H NMR. Monomer reactivity ratios r ij (i,j = 1 or 2) for a penultimate model were determined from monomer feed ratios and triad fractions obtained from the C = O (MMA) and CH (AN) carbon signals. Most of the σ values for r ij determinations were 5-14%. While r 22 and r 12 are nearly equivalent, r 11 and r 21 are significantly different from each other, indicating a possible existence of the penultimate-unit effect in the copolymerization of MMA and AN. Terminal model reactivity ratios, r 1 and r 2 , determined formally from the compositions of three samples by Fineman-Ross method showed large σ values (22-24%). (author)

  14. Comparison of the oxygen enhancement ratio for γ-ray-induced double-strand breaks in the DNA of bacteriophage T7 as determined by two different methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schans, G.P. van der; Drift, A.C.M. van der.

    1975-01-01

    Bacteriophage T7 was irradiated in a protecting medium under nitrogen and oxygen with 60 Co gamma rays. Double-strand breaks were measured by sucrose gradient sedimentation and by boundary sedimentation analysis. Both methods showed that the presence of oxygen during irradiation enhances the production of double-strand breaks. This is in contrast to a recent report which suggests that boundary sedimentation analysis does not show the effect of oxygen. The discrepancy must be ascribed to differences in the interpretation of the sedimentation data

  15. Financial Ratio Analysis: the Development of a Dedicated Management Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicu-Dan Dragomir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper disseminates the results of the development process for a financial analysis information system. The system has been subject to conceptual design using the Unified Modeling Language (UML and has been implemented in object-oriented manner using the Visual Basic .NET 2003 programming language. The classic financial analysis literature is focused on the chain-substitution method of computing the prior-year to current-year variation of linked financial ratios. We have applied this technique on the DuPont System of analysis concerning the Return on Equity ratio, by designing several structural UML diagrams depicting the breakdown and analysis of each financial ratio involved. The resulting computer application offers a flexible approach to the analytical tools: the user is required to introduce the raw data and the system provides both table-style and charted information on the output of computation. User-friendliness is also a key feature of this particular financial analysis application.

  16. The surface analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Nowadays, there are a lot of surfaces analysis methods, each having its specificity, its qualities, its constraints (for instance vacuum) and its limits. Expensive in time and in investment, these methods have to be used deliberately. This article appeals to non specialists. It gives some elements of choice according to the studied information, the sensitivity, the use constraints or the answer to a precise question. After having recalled the fundamental principles which govern these analysis methods, based on the interaction between radiations (ultraviolet, X) or particles (ions, electrons) with matter, two methods will be more particularly described: the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-rays photoemission spectroscopy (ESCA or XPS). Indeed, they are the most widespread methods in laboratories, the easier for use and probably the most productive for the analysis of surface of industrial materials or samples submitted to treatments in aggressive media. (O.M.)

  17. Transient Elastography vs. Aspartate Aminotransferase to Platelet Ratio Index in Hepatitis C: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, A Z; Mattos, A A

    Many different non-invasive methods have been studied with the purpose of staging liver fibrosis. The objective of this study was verifying if transient elastography is superior to aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index for staging fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. A systematic review with meta-analysis of studies which evaluated both non-invasive tests and used biopsy as the reference standard was performed. A random-effects model was used, anticipating heterogeneity among studies. Diagnostic odds ratio was the main effect measure, and summary receiver operating characteristic curves were created. A sensitivity analysis was planned, in which the meta-analysis would be repeated excluding each study at a time. Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. Regarding the prediction of significant fibrosis, transient elastography and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index had diagnostic odds ratios of 11.70 (95% confidence interval = 7.13-19.21) and 8.56 (95% confidence interval = 4.90-14.94) respectively. Concerning the prediction of cirrhosis, transient elastography and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index had diagnostic odds ratios of 66.49 (95% confidence interval = 23.71-186.48) and 7.47 (95% confidence interval = 4.88-11.43) respectively. In conclusion, there was no evidence of significant superiority of transient elastography over aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index regarding the prediction of significant fibrosis, but the former proved to be better than the latter concerning prediction of cirrhosis.

  18. Methods of Multivariate Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rencher, Alvin C

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book is a systematic, well-written, well-organized text on multivariate analysis packed with intuition and insight . . . There is much practical wisdom in this book that is hard to find elsewhere."-IIE Transactions Filled with new and timely content, Methods of Multivariate Analysis, Third Edition provides examples and exercises based on more than sixty real data sets from a wide variety of scientific fields. It takes a "methods" approach to the subject, placing an emphasis on how students and practitioners can employ multivariate analysis in real-life sit

  19. Numerical Analysis of Film Cooling at High Blowing Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gabry, Lamyaa; Heidmann, James; Ameri, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics is used in the analysis of a film cooling jet in crossflow. Predictions of film effectiveness are compared with experimental results for a circular jet at blowing ratios ranging from 0.5 to 2.0. Film effectiveness is a surface quantity which alone is insufficient in understanding the source and finding a remedy for shortcomings of the numerical model. Therefore, in addition, comparisons are made to flow field measurements of temperature along the jet centerline. These comparisons show that the CFD model is accurately predicting the extent and trajectory of the film cooling jet; however, there is a lack of agreement in the near-wall region downstream of the film hole. The effects of main stream turbulence conditions, boundary layer thickness, turbulence modeling, and numerical artificial dissipation are evaluated and found to have an insufficient impact in the wake region of separated films (i.e. cannot account for the discrepancy between measured and predicted centerline fluid temperatures). Analyses of low and moderate blowing ratio cases are carried out and results are in good agreement with data.

  20. Negative Control Outcomes and the Analysis of Standardized Mortality Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Keil, Alexander P; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Cooper, Glinda

    2015-09-01

    In occupational cohort mortality studies, epidemiologists often compare the observed number of deaths in the cohort to the expected number obtained by multiplying person-time accrued in the study cohort by the mortality rate in an external reference population. Interpretation of the result may be difficult due to noncomparability of the occupational cohort and reference population with respect to unmeasured risk factors for the outcome of interest. We describe an approach to estimate an adjusted standardized mortality ratio (aSMR) to control for such bias. The approach draws on methods developed for the use of negative control outcomes. Conditions necessary for unbiased estimation are described, as well as looser conditions necessary for bias reduction. The approach is illustrated using data on bladder cancer mortality among male Oak Ridge National Laboratory workers. The SMR for bladder cancer was elevated among hourly-paid males (SMR = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3, 2.7) but not among monthly-paid males (SMR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.67, 1.3). After indirect adjustment using the proposed approach, the mortality ratios were similar in magnitude among hourly- and monthly-paid men (aSMR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.5, 3.2; and, aSMR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 2.8, respectively). The proposed adjusted SMR offers a complement to typical SMR analyses.

  1. Fractal fluctuations and quantum-like chaos in the brain by analysis of variability of brain waves: A new method based on a fractal variance function and random matrix theory: A link with El Naschie fractal Cantorian space-time and V. Weiss and H. Weiss golden ratio in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, Elio; Khrennikov, Andrei; Federici, Antonio; Zbilut, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a new method for analysis of fundamental brain waves as recorded by the EEG. To this purpose we introduce a Fractal Variance Function that is based on the calculation of the variogram. The method is completed by using Random Matrix Theory. Some examples are given. We also discuss the link of such formulation with H. Weiss and V. Weiss golden ratio found in the brain, and with El Naschie fractal Cantorian space-time theory.

  2. Direct uranium isotope ratio analysis of single micrometer-sized glass particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Boulyga, Sergei F.; Prohaska, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present the application of nanosecond laser ablation (LA) coupled to a ‘Nu Plasma HR’ multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) for the direct analysis of U isotope ratios in single, 10–20 μm-sized, U-doped glass particles. Method development included studies with respect to (1) external correction of the measured U isotope ratios in glass particles, (2) the applied laser ablation carrier gas (i.e. Ar versus He) and (3) the accurate determination of lower abundant 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios (i.e. 10 −5 ). In addition, a data processing procedure was developed for evaluation of transient signals, which is of potential use for routine application of the developed method. We demonstrate that the developed method is reliable and well suited for determining U isotope ratios of individual particles. Analyses of twenty-eight S1 glass particles, measured under optimized conditions, yielded average biases of less than 0.6% from the certified values for 234 U/ 238 U and 235 U/ 238 U ratios. Experimental results obtained for 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios deviated by less than −2.5% from the certified values. Expanded relative total combined standard uncertainties U c (k = 2) of 2.6%, 1.4% and 5.8% were calculated for 234 U/ 238 U, 235 U/ 238 U and 236 U/ 238 U, respectively. - Highlights: ► LA-MC-ICP-MS was fully validated for the direct analysis of individual particles. ► Traceability was established by using an IRMM glass particle reference material. ► Measured U isotope ratios were in agreement with the certified range. ► A comprehensive total combined uncertainty evaluation was performed. ► The analysis of 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios was improved by using a deceleration filter.

  3. Error Ratio Analysis: Alternate Mathematics Assessment for General and Special Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James H.; Carr, Sonya C.

    1997-01-01

    Eighty-seven elementary students in grades four, five, and six, were administered a 30-item multiplication instrument to assess performance in computation across grade levels. An interpretation of student performance using error ratio analysis is provided and the use of this method with groups of students for instructional decision making is…

  4. Ratio-based vs. model-based methods to correct for urinary creatinine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-08-01

    Creatinine-corrected urinary analyte concentration is usually computed as the ratio of the observed level of analyte concentration divided by the observed level of the urinary creatinine concentration (UCR). This ratio-based method is flawed since it implicitly assumes that hydration is the only factor that affects urinary creatinine concentrations. On the contrary, it has been shown in the literature, that age, gender, race/ethnicity, and other factors also affect UCR. Consequently, an optimal method to correct for UCR should correct for hydration as well as other factors like age, gender, and race/ethnicity that affect UCR. Model-based creatinine correction in which observed UCRs are used as an independent variable in regression models has been proposed. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of ratio-based and model-based creatinine correction methods when the effects of gender, age, and race/ethnicity are evaluated one factor at a time for selected urinary analytes and metabolites. It was observed that ratio-based method leads to statistically significant pairwise differences, for example, between males and females or between non-Hispanic whites (NHW) and non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), more often than the model-based method. However, depending upon the analyte of interest, the reverse is also possible. The estimated ratios of geometric means (GM), for example, male to female or NHW to NHB, were also compared for the two methods. When estimated UCRs were higher for the group (for example, males) in the numerator of this ratio, these ratios were higher for the model-based method, for example, male to female ratio of GMs. When estimated UCR were lower for the group (for example, NHW) in the numerator of this ratio, these ratios were higher for the ratio-based method, for example, NHW to NHB ratio of GMs. Model-based method is the method of choice if all factors that affect UCR are to be accounted for.

  5. Statistical Analysis of the Grid Connected Photovoltaic System Performance Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Vilariño-García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A methodology based on the application of variance analysis and Tukey's method to a data set of solar radiation in the plane of the photovoltaic modules and the corresponding values of power delivered to the grid at intervals of 10 minutes presents from sunrise to sunset during the 52 weeks of the year 2013. These data were obtained through a monitoring system located in a photovoltaic plant of 10 MW of rated power located in Cordoba, consisting of 16 transformers and 98 investors. The application of the comparative method among the middle of the performance index of the processing centers to detect with an analysis of variance if there is significant difference in average at least the rest at a level of significance of 5% and then by testing Tukey which one or more processing centers that are below average due to a fault to be detected and corrected are.

  6. Digital color analysis of color-ratio composite LANDSAT scenes. [Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented that can be used to calculate approximate Munsell coordinates of the colors produced by making a color composite from three registered images. Applied to the LANDSAT MSS data of the Goldfield, Nevada, area, this method permits precise and quantitative definition of the limonitic areas originally observed in a LANDSAT color ratio composite. In addition, areas of transported limonite can be discriminated from the limonite in the hydrothermally altered areas of the Goldfield mining district. From the analysis, the numerical distinction between limonitic and nonlimonitic ground is generally less than 3% using the LANDSAT bands and as much as 8% in ratios of LANDSAT MSS bands.

  7. The CD4+/CD8+ Ratio in Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Systematic and Meta-Analysis Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongmei; Qin, Jie; Dai, Yaping; Zeng, Fanwei; Pei, Hao; Wang, Jun

    2015-02-01

    The ratio of CD4+/CD8+ has been used as a clinically index to evaluate patients' immunity. Numerous researchers have studied CD4+/CD8+ ratio in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients. However, the change of CD4+/CD8+ ratio remains controversial. We present a meta-analysis of 15 case-control studies to identify the change of CD4+/CD8+ ratio in PTB patients. We assessed heterogeneity of effect estimates within each group using I(2) test. Subgroup analysis was performed to explore the potential source of heterogeneity. To investigate further the potential publication bias, we visually examined the funnel plots. For robustness of results, we performed sensitivity analysis by removing studies. Data entry and analyses were carried out with RevMan 5.2 (The Nordic Cochrane Centre). Twelve peripheral blood studies were categorized into two subgroups. Eight studies presented a significant decrease of CD4+/CD8+ ratio in PTB cases compared to healthy subjects (SMD: -0.45; 95% CI -0.65--0.25; I(2) = 7%). Other four studies researched on the newly diagnosed patients presented a more seriously and significantly decrease (SMD: -2.17; 95% CI -2.61--1.74; I(2) = 37%). The pooled analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) studies showed a significant increase of CD4+/CD8+ ratio using Flow Cytometry (FCM) (SMD: 4.75; 95% CI 3.44-6.05; I(2) =0%). The present meta-analysis indicated that there was a synthetic evidence for the reduced CD4+/CD8+ ratio in peripheral blood of PTB patients, especially newly diagnosed cases. However, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in BALF was increased using method of FCM.

  8. Methods for RNA Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Signe

    of the transcriptome, 5’ end capture of RNA is combined with next-generation sequencing for high-throughput quantitative assessment of transcription start sites by two different methods. The methods presented here allow for functional investigation of coding as well as noncoding RNA and contribute to future...... RNAs rely on interactions with proteins, the establishment of protein-binding profiles is essential for the characterization of RNAs. Aiming to facilitate RNA analysis, this thesis introduces proteomics- as well as transcriptomics-based methods for the functional characterization of RNA. First, RNA...

  9. Analysis of numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Isaacson, Eugene

    1994-01-01

    This excellent text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students covers norms, numerical solution of linear systems and matrix factoring, iterative solutions of nonlinear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, polynomial approximation, and other topics. It offers a careful analysis and stresses techniques for developing new methods, plus many examples and problems. 1966 edition.

  10. Method for determination of stable carbon isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moukhtar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A technique for the measurement of the stable isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter is presented. Atmospheric samples from rural and suburban areas were collected for evaluation of the procedure. Particulate matter was collected on quartz fibre filters using dichotomous high volume air samplers. Methylnitrophenols were extracted from the filters using acetonitrile. The sample was then purified using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and solid phase extraction. The final solution was then divided into two aliquots. To one aliquot, a derivatising agent, Bis(trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide, was added for Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis. The second half of the sample was stored in a refrigerator. For samples with concentrations exceeding 1 ng μl−1, the second half of the sample was used for measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios by Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry.

    The procedure described in this paper provides a method for the analysis of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter at concentrations as low as 0.3 pg m−3 and for stable isotope ratios with an accuracy of better than ±0.5‰ for concentrations exceeding 100 pg m−3.

    In all atmospheric particulate matter samples analysed, 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol was found to be the most abundant methylnitrophenol, with concentrations ranging from the low pg m−3 range in rural areas to more than 200 pg m−3 in some samples from a suburban location.

  11. Reproducibility Between Brain Uptake Ratio Using Anatomic Standardization and Patlak-Plot Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibutani, Takayuki; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Noguchi, Atsushi; Yamada, Tomoki; Tsuchihashi, Hiroko; Nakajima, Tadashi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2015-12-01

    The Patlak-plot and conventional methods of determining brain uptake ratio (BUR) have some problems with reproducibility. We formulated a method of determining BUR using anatomic standardization (BUR-AS) in a statistical parametric mapping algorithm to improve reproducibility. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the inter- and intraoperator reproducibility of mean cerebral blood flow as determined using BUR-AS in comparison to the conventional-BUR (BUR-C) and Patlak-plot methods. The images of 30 patients who underwent brain perfusion SPECT were retrospectively used in this study. The images were reconstructed using ordered-subset expectation maximization and processed using an automatic quantitative analysis for cerebral blood flow of ECD tool. The mean SPECT count was calculated from axial basal ganglia slices of the normal side (slices 31-40) drawn using a 3-dimensional stereotactic region-of-interest template after anatomic standardization. The mean cerebral blood flow was calculated from the mean SPECT count. Reproducibility was evaluated using coefficient of variation and Bland-Altman plotting. For both inter- and intraoperator reproducibility, the BUR-AS method had the lowest coefficient of variation and smallest error range about the Bland-Altman plot. Mean CBF obtained using the BUR-AS method had the highest reproducibility. Compared with the Patlak-plot and BUR-C methods, the BUR-AS method provides greater inter- and intraoperator reproducibility of cerebral blood flow measurement. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  12. Analysis of Financial Ratio to Distinguish Indonesia Joint Venture General Insurance Company Performance using Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiakto Soekarno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance industry stands as a service business that plays a significant role in Indonesiaeconomical condition. The development of insurance industry in Indonesia, both of generalinsurance and life insurance, has increased very fast. The general insurance industry itselfdivided into two major players which are local private company and Joint Venture Company.Lately, the use of statistical techniques and financial ratios models to asses financial institutionsuch as insurance company have been used as one of the appropriate combination inpredicting the performance of an industry. This research aims to distinguish between JointVenture General Insurance Companies that have a good performance and those who are lessperforming well using Discriminant Analysis. Further, the findings led that DiscriminantAnalysis is able to distinguish Joint Venture General Insurance Companies that have a goodperformance and those who are not performing well. There are also six ratios which are RBC,Technical Reserve to Investment Ratio, Debt Ratio, Return on Equity, Loss Ratio, and ExpenseRatio that stand as the most influential ratios to distinguish the performance of joint venturegeneral insurance companies. In addition, the result suggest business people to be concernedtoward those six ratios, to increase their companies’ performance.Key words: general insurance, financial ratio, discriminant analysis

  13. Direct uranium isotope ratio analysis of single micrometer-sized glass particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Boulyga, Sergei F; Prohaska, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    We present the application of nanosecond laser ablation (LA) coupled to a 'Nu Plasma HR' multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) for the direct analysis of U isotope ratios in single, 10-20 μm-sized, U-doped glass particles. Method development included studies with respect to (1) external correction of the measured U isotope ratios in glass particles, (2) the applied laser ablation carrier gas (i.e. Ar versus He) and (3) the accurate determination of lower abundant (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios (i.e. 10(-5)). In addition, a data processing procedure was developed for evaluation of transient signals, which is of potential use for routine application of the developed method. We demonstrate that the developed method is reliable and well suited for determining U isotope ratios of individual particles. Analyses of twenty-eight S1 glass particles, measured under optimized conditions, yielded average biases of less than 0.6% from the certified values for (234)U/(238)U and (235)U/(238)U ratios. Experimental results obtained for (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios deviated by less than -2.5% from the certified values. Expanded relative total combined standard uncertainties U(c) (k = 2) of 2.6%, 1.4% and 5.8% were calculated for (234)U/(238)U, (235)U/(238)U and (236)U/(238)U, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimation of Leakage Ratio Using Principal Component Analysis and Artificial Neural Network in Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwoo Jang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaks in a water distribution network (WDS constitute losses of water supply caused by pipeline failure, operational loss, and physical factors. This has raised the need for studies on the factors affecting the leakage ratio and estimation of leakage volume in a water supply system. In this study, principal component analysis (PCA and artificial neural network (ANN were used to estimate the volume of water leakage in a WDS. For the study, six main effective parameters were selected and standardized data obtained through the Z-score method. The PCA-ANN model was devised and the leakage ratio was estimated. An accuracy assessment was performed to compare the measured leakage ratio to that of the simulated model. The results showed that the PCA-ANN method was more accurate for estimating the leakage ratio than a single ANN simulation. In addition, the estimation results differed according to the number of neurons in the ANN model’s hidden layers. In this study, an ANN with multiple hidden layers was found to be the best method for estimating the leakage ratio with 12–12 neurons. This suggested approaches to improve the accuracy of leakage ratio estimation, as well as a scientific approach toward the sustainable management of water distribution systems.

  15. New Vehicle Detection Method with Aspect Ratio Estimation for Hypothesized Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisu Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All kinds of vehicles have different ratios of width to height, which are called the aspect ratios. Most previous works, however, use a fixed aspect ratio for vehicle detection (VD. The use of a fixed vehicle aspect ratio for VD degrades the performance. Thus, the estimation of a vehicle aspect ratio is an important part of robust VD. Taking this idea into account, a new on-road vehicle detection system is proposed in this paper. The proposed method estimates the aspect ratio of the hypothesized windows to improve the VD performance. Our proposed method uses an Aggregate Channel Feature (ACF and a support vector machine (SVM to verify the hypothesized windows with the estimated aspect ratio. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, the estimation of vehicle aspect ratio is inserted between the HG (hypothesis generation and the HV (hypothesis verification. Second, a simple HG method named a signed horizontal edge map is proposed to speed up VD. Third, a new measure is proposed to represent the overlapping ratio between the ground truth and the detection results. This new measure is used to show that the proposed method is better than previous works in terms of robust VD. Finally, the Pittsburgh dataset is used to verify the performance of the proposed method.

  16. Comparison of Potentiometric and Gravimetric Methods for Determination of O/U Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farida; Windaryati, L; Putro Kasino, P

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of determination O/U ratio by using potentiometric and gravimetric methods has been done. Those methods are simple, economical and having high precision and accuracy. Determination O/U ratio for UO 2 powder using potentiometric is carried out by adopting the davies-gray method. This technique is based on the redox reaction of uranium species such as U(IV) and U(VI). In gravimetric method,the UO 2 power as a sample is calcined at temperature of 900 C, and the weight of the sample is measured after calcination process. The t-student test show that there are no different result significantly between those methods. However, for low concentration in the sample the potentiometric method has a highed precision and accuracy compare to the gravimetric method. O/U ratio obtained is 2.00768 ± 0,00170 for potentiometric method 2.01089 ± 0,02395 for gravimetric method

  17. Direct gas injection method: A simple modification to an elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometer for stable isotope analysis of N and C from N2O and CO2 gases in nanomolar concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple modification to the Elemental Analyzer coupled to Isotope Ratio Mass-Spectrometer (EA-IRMS) setup is described. This modification allows the users to measure nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) by injecting the gases directly into an online injector placed befor...

  18. Methods for Risk Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alverbro, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Many decision-making situations today affect humans and the environment. In practice, many such decisions are made without an overall view and prioritise one or other of the two areas. Now and then these two areas of regulation come into conflict, e.g. the best alternative as regards environmental considerations is not always the best from a human safety perspective and vice versa. This report was prepared within a major project with the aim of developing a framework in which both the environmental aspects and the human safety aspects are integrated, and decisions can be made taking both fields into consideration. The safety risks have to be analysed in order to be successfully avoided and one way of doing this is to use different kinds of risk analysis methods. There is an abundance of existing methods to choose from and new methods are constantly being developed. This report describes some of the risk analysis methods currently available for analysing safety and examines the relationships between them. The focus here is mainly on human safety aspects

  19. Methods for confidence interval estimation of a ratio parameter with application to location quotients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyene Joseph

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The location quotient (LQ ratio, a measure designed to quantify and benchmark the degree of relative concentration of an activity in the analysis of area localization, has received considerable attention in the geographic and economics literature. This index can also naturally be applied in the context of population health to quantify and compare health outcomes across spatial domains. However, one commonly observed limitation of LQ is its widespread use as only a point estimate without an accompanying confidence interval. Methods In this paper we present statistical methods that can be used to construct confidence intervals for location quotients. The delta and Fieller's methods are generic approaches for a ratio parameter and the generalized linear modelling framework is a useful re-parameterization particularly helpful for generating profile-likelihood based confidence intervals for the location quotient. A simulation experiment is carried out to assess the performance of each of the analytic approaches and a health utilization data set is used for illustration. Results Both the simulation results as well as the findings from the empirical data show that the different analytical methods produce very similar confidence limits for location quotients. When incidence of outcome is not rare and sample sizes are large, the confidence limits are almost indistinguishable. The confidence limits from the generalized linear model approach might be preferable in small sample situations. Conclusion LQ is a useful measure which allows quantification and comparison of health and other outcomes across defined geographical regions. It is a very simple index to compute and has a straightforward interpretation. Reporting this estimate with appropriate confidence limits using methods presented in this paper will make the measure particularly attractive for policy and decision makers.

  20. Preliminary results of oxygen isotope ratio measurement with a particle-gamma coincidence method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borysiuk, Maciek, E-mail: maciek.borysiuk@pixe.lth.se; Kristiansson, Per; Ros, Linus; Abdel, Nassem S.; Elfman, Mikael; Nilsson, Charlotta; Pallon, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The possibility to study variations in the oxygen isotopic ratio with photon tagged nuclear reaction analysis (pNRA) is evaluated in the current work. The experiment described in the article was performed at Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF) with a 2 MeV deuteron beam. Isotopic fractionation of light elements such as carbon, oxygen and nitrogen is the basis of many analytical tools in hydrology, geology, paleobiology and paleogeology. IBA methods provide one possible tool for measurement of isotopic content. During this experimental run we focused on measurement of the oxygen isotopic ratio. The measurement of stable isotopes of oxygen has a number of applications; the particular one driving the current investigation belongs to the field of astrogeology and specifically evaluation of fossil extraterrestrial material. There are three stable isotopes of oxygen: {sup 16}O, {sup 17}O and {sup 18}O. We procured samples highly enriched with all three isotopes. Isotopes {sup 16}O and {sup 18}O were easily detected in the enriched samples, but no significant signal from {sup 17}O was detected in the same samples. The measured yield was too low to detect {sup 18}O in a sample with natural abundances of oxygen isotopes, at least in the current experimental setup, but the spectral line from the reaction with {sup 16}O was clearly visible.

  1. White matter fiber-based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiwei; Budin, Francois; Noel, Jean; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Gilmore, John; Rasmussen, Jerod; Wadhwa, Pathik D.; Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Styner, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: To develop, test, evaluate and apply a novel tool for the white matter fiber-based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio maps quantifying myelin content. Background: The cerebral white matter in the human brain develops from a mostly non-myelinated state to a nearly fully mature white matter myelination within the first few years of life. High resolution T1w/T2w ratio maps are believed to be effective in quantitatively estimating myelin content on a voxel-wise basis. We propose the use of a fiber-tract-based analysis of such T1w/T2w ratio data, as it allows us to separate fiber bundles that a common regional analysis imprecisely groups together, and to associate effects to specific tracts rather than large, broad regions. Methods: We developed an intuitive, open source tool to facilitate such fiber-based studies of T1w/T2w ratio maps. Via its Graphical User Interface (GUI) the tool is accessible to non-technical users. The framework uses calibrated T1w/T2w ratio maps and a prior fiber atlas as an input to generate profiles of T1w/T2w values. The resulting fiber profiles are used in a statistical analysis that performs along-tract functional statistical analysis. We applied this approach to a preliminary study of early brain development in neonates. Results: We developed an open-source tool for the fiber based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio maps and tested it in a study of brain development.

  2. The ratio method: a new way to look at halo nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capel P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new reaction observable is presented to study exotic loosely-bound structures, such as halo nuclei. It consists of the ratio of two angular distributions, e. g. one for breakup and one for elastic scattering. This ratio is nearly independent of the reaction mechanism and is very sensitive to the projectile structure. This new ratio method is illustrated on the particular case of 11Be, the archetypal one-neutron halo nucleus.

  3. Analysis of the moderating ratio in BWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A.; Xolocostli, V.; Alonso, G.

    2001-01-01

    In all different light water nuclear reactors is very important the fuel assembly design. It has to be designed to achieve safety and efficiency performance in an economical way. The moderating ratio plays a very important role because an adequate election can provide an optimal energy production making the fuel assembly more efficient. This work analyze the moderation ratio as a function of the fuel assembly enrichment and ifs burnup, based on this study the optimal moderation ratio are obtained. Furthermore, based on numerical relations some simulation schemes are proposed to describe the behavior of the infinite multiplication factor as a function of the moderating ratio for a given fuel assembly enrichment at zero burnup. (Author)

  4. Analysis of cash flow ratios: A study on CMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Das

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cash flow ratios help financial users get relevant information about financial resources for a given time. Cash flow ratios are now used more than the traditional ones because it is more effective and justified. Cash flow based ratios are especially surprising because they do not only play a significant role in the credit rating of evaluation, but also forecast the failure of a corporation. In this study, we perform an empirical investigation on a company named CMC. From the study, it is clear that the liquidity and solvency positions of the company were moderate whereas the company maintained low profitability. On the other hand, the efficiency and sufficiency ratios of the study give us a new look on financial judgement.

  5. A Graphite Isotope Ratio Method: A Primer on Estimating Plutonium Production in Graphite Moderated Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesh, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    The Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM) is a technique used to estimate the total plutonium production in a graphite-moderated reactor. The cumulative plutonium production in that reactor can be accurately determined by measuring neutron irradiation induced isotopic ratio changes in certain impurity elements within the graphite moderator. The method does not require detailed knowledge of a reactor's operating history, although that knowledge can decrease the uncertainty of the production estimate. The basic premise of the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method is that the fluence in non-fuel core components is directly related to the cumulative plutonium production in the nuclear fuel

  6. Three different spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra for determination of binary mixture of Amlodipine and Atorvastatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Hany W.; Hassan, Said A.; Salem, Maissa Y.; El-Zeiny, Badr A.

    2011-12-01

    Three simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra are developed for the simultaneous determination of Amlodipine besylate (AM) and Atorvastatin calcium (AT) in tablet dosage forms. The first method is first derivative of the ratio spectra ( 1DD), the second is ratio subtraction and the third is the method of mean centering of ratio spectra. The calibration curve is linear over the concentration range of 3-40 and 8-32 μg/ml for AM and AT, respectively. These methods are tested by analyzing synthetic mixtures of the above drugs and they are applied to commercial pharmaceutical preparation of the subjected drugs. Standard deviation is <1.5 in the assay of raw materials and tablets. Methods are validated as per ICH guidelines and accuracy, precision, repeatability and robustness are found to be within the acceptable limit.

  7. Regional sensitivity analysis using revised mean and variance ratio functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Pengfei; Lu, Zhenzhou; Ruan, Wenbin; Song, Jingwen

    2014-01-01

    The variance ratio function, derived from the contribution to sample variance (CSV) plot, is a regional sensitivity index for studying how much the output deviates from the original mean of model output when the distribution range of one input is reduced and to measure the contribution of different distribution ranges of each input to the variance of model output. In this paper, the revised mean and variance ratio functions are developed for quantifying the actual change of the model output mean and variance, respectively, when one reduces the range of one input. The connection between the revised variance ratio function and the original one is derived and discussed. It is shown that compared with the classical variance ratio function, the revised one is more suitable to the evaluation of model output variance due to reduced ranges of model inputs. A Monte Carlo procedure, which needs only a set of samples for implementing it, is developed for efficiently computing the revised mean and variance ratio functions. The revised mean and variance ratio functions are compared with the classical ones by using the Ishigami function. At last, they are applied to a planar 10-bar structure

  8. Direct uranium isotope ratio analysis of single micrometer-sized glass particles

    OpenAIRE

    Kappel, Stefanie; Boulyga, Sergei F.; Prohaska, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present the application of nanosecond laser ablation (LA) coupled to a ‘Nu Plasma HR’ multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) for the direct analysis of U isotope ratios in single, 10–20 μm-sized, U-doped glass particles. Method development included studies with respect to (1) external correction of the measured U isotope ratios in glass particles, (2) the applied laser ablation carrier gas (i.e. Ar versus He) and (3) the accurate determination of lower abu...

  9. TL glow ratios at different temperature intervals of integration in thermoluminescence method. Comparison of Japanese standard (MHLW notified) method with CEN standard methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Saito, Kimie; Tsujimoto, Yuka

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the integration temperature intervals of TL intensities on the TL glow ratio was examined in comparison of the notified method of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW method) with EN1788. Two kinds of un-irradiated geological standard rock and three kinds of spices (black pepper, turmeric, and oregano) irradiated at 0.3 kGy or 1.0 kGy were subjected to TL analysis. Although the TL glow ratio exceeded 0.1 in the andesite according to the calculation of the MHLW notified method (integration interval; 70-490degC), the maximum of the first glow were observed at 300degC or more, attributed the influence of the natural radioactivity and distinguished from food irradiation. When the integration interval was set to 166-227degC according to EN1788, the TL glow ratios became remarkably smaller than 0.1, and the evaluation of the un-irradiated sample became more clear. For spices, the TL glow ratios by the MHLW notified method fell below 0.1 in un-irradiated samples and exceeded 0.1 in irradiated ones. Moreover, Glow1 maximum temperatures of the irradiated samples were observed at the range of 168-196degC, and those of un-irradiated samples were 258degC or more. Therefore, all samples were correctly judged by the criteria of the MHLW method. However, based on the temperature range of integration defined by EN1788, the TL glow ratio of un-irradiated samples remarkably became small compared with that of the MHLW method, and the discrimination of the irradiated sample from non-irradiation sample became clearer. (author)

  10. Likelihood ratio data to report the validation of a forensic fingerprint evaluation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, Daniel; Haraksim, Rudolf; Meuwly, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Data to which the authors refer to throughout this article are likelihood ratios (LR) computed from the comparison of 5–12 minutiae fingermarks with fingerprints. These LRs data are used for the validation of a likelihood ratio (LR) method in forensic evidence evaluation. These data present a

  11. A guideline for the validation of likelihood ratio methods used for forensic evidence evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Ramos, Daniel; Haraksim, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    This Guideline proposes a protocol for the validation of forensic evaluation methods at the source level, using the Likelihood Ratio framework as defined within the Bayes’ inference model. In the context of the inference of identity of source, the Likelihood Ratio is used to evaluate the strength of

  12. Measurement of circumsolar ratio in high dust loading regions using a photographic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansary, Hany; Shafiq, Talha; Rizvi, Arslan; El-Leathy, Abdelrahman

    2017-06-01

    Performance of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is highly affected by direct normal irradiance (DNI). However, it is also important to consider circumsolar radiation in any simulation of a CSP plant, especially in desert regions where dust loading in the atmosphere is expected. There are a number of methods to measure circumsolar radiation. However, most of them require expensive instrumentation. This work introduces a simple method to estimate circumsolar radiation. It involves taking high-resolution photographs of the sun and processing them using a computer code that identifies the sun's disk. The code then uses pixel intensities to obtain the solar intensity distribution across the sun's disk and in the aureole region. The solar intensity distribution is then used to obtain the circumsolar ratio (CSR) which represents the shape of the sun. To test this method, numerous photos of the sun were taken during the month of April and September 2016 at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Riyadh is a region that is well known for high dust-loading, especially during the summer. Two days of different atmospheric conditions were selected in September for comparative analysis. Results show that this method produces repeatable results, and that the CSR can increase significantly due to high dust loading and passing clouds. The CSR is found to be a strong function of DNI, ranging from about 4.5% at DNI values above 800 W/m2 and increasing to as much as 8.5% when DNI drops to about 400 W/m2, due to passing clouds. Furthermore, the results show that circumsolar ratio tends to be high in the early morning and late afternoon due to the high air mass, while its values tend to be lowest around solar noon when the air mass is lowest.

  13. Development, optimisation, and application of ICP-SFMS methods for the measurement of isotope ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuerup, S.

    2000-07-01

    The measurement of isotopic composition and isotope ratios in biological and environmental samples requires sensitive, precise, and accurate analytical techniques. The analytical techniques used are traditionally based on mass spectrometry, among these techniques is the ICP-SFMS technique, which became commercially available in the mid 1990s. This technique is characterised by high sensitivity, low background, and the ability to separate analyte signals from spectral interferences. These features are beneficial for the measurement of isotope ratios and enable the measurement of isotope ratios of elements, which it has not previously been possible to measure due to either spectral interferences or poor sensitivity. The overall purpose of the project was to investigate the potential of the single detector ICP-SFMS technique for the measurement of isotope ratios in biological and environmental samples. One part of the work has focused on the fundamental aspects of the ICP-SFMS technique with special emphasize on the features important to the measurement of isotope ratios, while another part has focused on the development, optimisation and application of specific methods for the measurement of isotope ratios of elements of nutritional interest and radionuclides. The fundamental aspects of the ICP-SFMS technique were investigated theoretically and experimentally by the measurement of isotope ratios applying different experimental conditions. It was demonstrated that isotope ratios could be measured reliably using ICP-SFMS by educated choice of acquisition parameters, scanning mode, mass discrimination correction, and by eliminating the influence of detector dead time. Applying the knowledge gained through the fundamental study, ICP-SFMS methods for the measurement of isotope ratios of calcium, zinc, molybdenum and iron in human samples and a method for the measurement of plutonium isotope ratios and ultratrace levels of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples

  14. Appearance of Abnormal Cardiothoracic Ratio of Fetuses with Hemoglobin Bart's Disease: Life Table Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapirak, Chanane; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Luewan, Suchaya; Srisupundit, Kasemsri; Tongprasert, Fuanglada; Tongsong, Theera

    2017-10-01

    Objective  To determine the timeline of the first appearance of an increased CT ratio of fetuses with hemoglobin (Hb) Bart's disease. Materials and Methods  A prospective longitudinal study was conducted on pregnancies at risk for fetal Hb Bart's disease. Sonographic markers including cardiothoracic (CT) ratio and middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) were serially assessed and recorded from the first trimester. The definite diagnosis of fetal Hb Bart's disease based on DNA analysis (CVS), or fetal Hb typing (HPLC; cordocentesis) was performed at the first appearance of an increased CT ratio. Results  Of 275 pregnancies at risk, 64 fetuses were finally proven to be affected and life table analysis was performed. Most affected fetuses showed an increased CT ratio in late first trimester and early second trimester, with median time of the first appearance at 13 weeks and all affected fetuses were detected at 23 weeks or less. The CT ratio yielded a sensitivity of 100 % at a gestational age of 23 weeks with a false-positive rate of 8 %. MCA-PSV appeared later than CT ratio. Only 9.4 % of affected cases developed abnormal MCA-PSV before an increased CT ratio. Conclusion  The timeline of the first appearance of an increased CT ratio of fetuses with Hb Bart's disease was established. This may help us identify Hb Bart's disease among fetuses at risk in earlier gestation and proper schedules for serial ultrasound could be made more effectively. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Method of signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthomier, Charles

    1975-01-01

    A method capable of handling the amplitude and the frequency time laws of a certain kind of geophysical signals is described here. This method is based upon the analytical signal idea of Gabor and Ville, which is constructed either in the time domain by adding an imaginary part to the real signal (in-quadrature signal), or in the frequency domain by suppressing negative frequency components. The instantaneous frequency of the initial signal is then defined as the time derivative of the phase of the analytical signal, and his amplitude, or envelope, as the modulus of this complex signal. The method is applied to three types of magnetospheric signals: chorus, whistlers and pearls. The results obtained by analog and numerical calculations are compared to results obtained by classical systems using filters, i.e. based upon a different definition of the concept of frequency. The precision with which the frequency-time laws are determined leads then to the examination of the principle of the method and to a definition of instantaneous power density spectrum attached to the signal, and to the first consequences of this definition. In this way, a two-dimensional representation of the signal is introduced which is less deformed by the analysis system properties than the usual representation, and which moreover has the advantage of being obtainable practically in real time [fr

  16. Determining the multi-scale hedge ratios of stock index futures using the lower partial moments method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jun; Zhou, Haigang; Zhao, Shaoquan

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers a multi-scale future hedge strategy that minimizes lower partial moments (LPM). To do this, wavelet analysis is adopted to decompose time series data into different components. Next, different parametric estimation methods with known distributions are applied to calculate the LPM of hedged portfolios, which is the key to determining multi-scale hedge ratios over different time scales. Then these parametric methods are compared with the prevailing nonparametric kernel metric method. Empirical results indicate that in the China Securities Index 300 (CSI 300) index futures and spot markets, hedge ratios and hedge efficiency estimated by the nonparametric kernel metric method are inferior to those estimated by parametric hedging model based on the features of sequence distributions. In addition, if minimum-LPM is selected as a hedge target, the hedging periods, degree of risk aversion, and target returns can affect the multi-scale hedge ratios and hedge efficiency, respectively.

  17. Performance evaluation using bootstrapping DEA techniques: Evidence from industry ratio analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Nickolaos

    2010-01-01

    In Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) context financial data/ ratios have been used in order to produce a unified measure of performance metric. However, several scholars have indicated that the inclusion of financial ratios create biased efficiency estimates with implications on firms’ and industries’ performance evaluation. There have been several DEA formulations and techniques dealing with this problem including sensitivity analysis, Prior-Ratio-Analysis and DEA/ output–input ratio analysis ...

  18. Data Clustering on Breast Cancer Data Using Firefly Algorithm with Golden Ratio Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEMIR, M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heuristic methods are problem solving methods. In general, they obtain near-optimal solutions, and they do not take the care of provability of this case. The heuristic methods do not guarantee to obtain the optimal results; however, they guarantee to obtain near-optimal solutions in considerable time. In this paper, an application was performed by using firefly algorithm - one of the heuristic methods. The golden ratio was applied to different steps of firefly algorithm and different parameters of firefly algorithm to develop a new algorithm - called Firefly Algorithm with Golden Ratio (FAGR. It was shown that the golden ratio made firefly algorithm be superior to the firefly algorithm without golden ratio. At this aim, the developed algorithm was applied to WBCD database (breast cancer database to cluster data obtained from breast cancer patients. The highest obtained success rate among all executions is 96% and the highest obtained average success rate in all executions is 94.5%.

  19. Improving accuracy and capabilities of X-ray fluorescence method using intensity ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garmay, Andrey V., E-mail: andrew-garmay@yandex.ru; Oskolok, Kirill V.

    2017-04-15

    An X-ray fluorescence analysis algorithm is proposed which is based on a use of ratios of X-ray fluorescence lines intensities. Such an analytical signal is more stable and leads to improved accuracy. Novel calibration equations are proposed which are suitable for analysis in a broad range of matrix compositions. To apply the algorithm to analysis of samples containing significant amount of undetectable elements a use of a dependence of a Rayleigh-to-Compton intensity ratio on a total content of these elements is suggested. The technique's validity is shown by analysis of standard steel samples, model metal oxides mixture and iron ore samples.

  20. Methods for geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, Philip A.

    1987-01-01

    The laboratories for analytical chemistry within the Geologic Division of the U.S. Geological Survey are administered by the Office of Mineral Resources. The laboratory analysts provide analytical support to those programs of the Geologic Division that require chemical information and conduct basic research in analytical and geochemical areas vital to the furtherance of Division program goals. Laboratories for research and geochemical analysis are maintained at the three major centers in Reston, Virginia, Denver, Colorado, and Menlo Park, California. The Division has an expertise in a broad spectrum of analytical techniques, and the analytical research is designed to advance the state of the art of existing techniques and to develop new methods of analysis in response to special problems in geochemical analysis. The geochemical research and analytical results are applied to the solution of fundamental geochemical problems relating to the origin of mineral deposits and fossil fuels, as well as to studies relating to the distribution of elements in varied geologic systems, the mechanisms by which they are transported, and their impact on the environment.

  1. Optimization of suitable ethanol blend ratio for motorcycle engine using response surface method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Liang; Chen, Suming; Tsai, Jin-Ming; Tsai, Chao-Yin; Fang, Hsin-Hsiung; Yang, I-Chang; Liu, Sen-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In view of energy shortage and air pollution, ethanol-gasoline blended fuel used for motorcycle engine was studied in this work. The emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) and engine performance of a 125 cc four-stroke motorcycle engine with original carburetor using ethanol-gasoline fuels were investigated. The model of three-variable Box Behnken design (BBD) was used for experimental design, the ethanol blend ratios were prepared at 0, 10, 20 vol%; the speeds of motorcycle were selected as 30, 45, 60 km/h; and the throttle positions were set at 30, 60, 90 %. Both engine performance and air pollutant emissions were then analyzed by response surface method (RSM) to yield optimum operation parameters for tolerable pollutant emissions and maximum engine performance. The RSM optimization analysis indicated that the most suitable ethanol-gasoline blended ratio was found at the range of 3.92-4.12 vol% to yield a comparable fuel conversion efficiency, while considerable reductions of exhaust pollutant emissions of CO (-29 %) and NO(X) (-12 %) when compared to pure gasoline fuel. This study demonstrated low ethanol-gasoline blended fuels could be used in motorcycle carburetor engines without any modification to keep engine power while reducing exhaust pollutants.

  2. COMPUTER METHODS OF GENETIC ANALYSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Osipov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic statistical methods used in conducting the genetic analysis of human traits. We studied by segregation analysis, linkage analysis and allelic associations. Developed software for the implementation of these methods support.

  3. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation method and apparatus for controlling combustion instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, George A.; Janus, Michael C.; Griffith, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    The periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) method and apparatus significantly reduces and/or eliminates unstable conditions within a combustion chamber. The method involves modulating the equivalence ratio for the combustion device, such that the combustion device periodically operates outside of an identified unstable oscillation region. The equivalence ratio is modulated between preselected reference points, according to the shape of the oscillation region and operating parameters of the system. Preferably, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a first stable condition to a second stable condition, and, alternatively, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a stable condition to an unstable condition. The method is further applicable to multi-nozzle combustor designs, whereby individual nozzles are alternately modulated from stable to unstable conditions. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) is accomplished by active control involving periodic, low frequency fuel modulation, whereby low frequency fuel pulses are injected into the main fuel delivery. Importantly, the fuel pulses are injected at a rate so as not to affect the desired time-average equivalence ratio for the combustion device.

  4. Lead isotope ratio analysis of bullet samples by using quadrupole ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Shu-ichi; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi; Oishi, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    The measurement conditions for the precise analysis of the lead stable isotope ratio by using an ICP-MS equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer were studied in order to apply the technique to the forensic identification of bullet samples. The values of the relative standard deviation obtained for the ratio of 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 204 Pb/ 206 Pb were lower than 0.2% after optimization of the analytical conditions, including the optimum lead concentration of the sample solution to be about 70 ppb and an integration time for 1 m/s of 15 s. This method was applied to an analysis of lead in bullets for rifles and handguns; a stable isotope ratio of lead was found to be suitable for the identification of bullets. This study has demonstrated that the lead isotope ratio measured by using a quadrupole ICP-MS was useful for a practical analysis of bullet samples in forensic science. (author)

  5. A BLUEPRINT OF RATIO ANALYSIS AS INFORMATION BASIS OF CORPORATION FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Andrijasevic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ratio analysis, due to its simplicity, has, for a long time, been one of the most frequently used methods of financial analysis. However, the question is how its results are a good basis for assessment of financial condition of a company by the external users of financial reports. If one takes into account numerous limitations, one can rather say that ratio analysis is a rough approximation of financial situation. What are the limitations, can they be overcome and in what way, can they, at least, be reduced, and to what extent the user has to take a reserved attitude when making business decisions on the basis of ratio analysis? The last but not the least, we should accept the fact that by insisting on financial analysis other aspects of the analyses are, in practice frequently marginalized, thus neglecting the fact that actually they themselves in the most direct manner point to the causes of potential disorders in business activities of a company.

  6. Adjusted Empirical Likelihood Method in the Presence of Nuisance Parameters with Application to the Sharpe Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuejiao Fu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Sharpe ratio is a widely used risk-adjusted performance measurement in economics and finance. Most of the known statistical inferential methods devoted to the Sharpe ratio are based on the assumption that the data are normally distributed. In this article, without making any distributional assumption on the data, we develop the adjusted empirical likelihood method to obtain inference for a parameter of interest in the presence of nuisance parameters. We show that the log adjusted empirical likelihood ratio statistic is asymptotically distributed as the chi-square distribution. The proposed method is applied to obtain inference for the Sharpe ratio. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed method is comparable to Jobson and Korkie’s method (1981 and outperforms the empirical likelihood method when the data are from a symmetric distribution. In addition, when the data are from a skewed distribution, the proposed method significantly outperforms all other existing methods. A real-data example is analyzed to exemplify the application of the proposed method.

  7. The Measurement of Fuel-Air Ratio by Analysis for the Oxidized Exhaust Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold C.; Meem, J. Lawrence, Jr.

    1943-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine a method of measuring fuel-air ratio that could be used for test purposes in flight and for checking conventional equipment in the laboratory. Two single-cylinder test engines equipped with typical commercial engine cylinders were used. The fuel-air ratio of the mixture delivered to the engines was determined by direct measurement of the quantity of air and of fuel supplied and also by analysis of the oxidized exhaust gas and of the normal exhaust gas. Five fuels were used: gasoline that complied with Army-Navy fuel Specification No. AN-VV-F-781 and four mixtures of this gasoline with toluene, benzene, and xylene. The method of determining the fuel-air ratio described in this report involves the measurement of the carbon-dioxide content of the oxidized exhaust gas and the use of graphs for the presented equation. This method is considered useful in aircraft, in the field, or in the laboratory for a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.047 to 0.124.

  8. The Measurement of Fuel-air Ratio by Analysis of the Oxidized Exhaust Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memm, J. Lawrence, Jr.

    1943-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine a method of measuring fuel-air ratio that could be used for test purposes in flight and for checking conventional equipment in the laboratory. Two single-cylinder test engines equipped with typical commercial engine cylinders were used. The fuel-air ratio of the mixture delivered to the engines was determined by direct measurement of the quantity of air and of fuel supplied and also by analysis of the oxidized exhaust gas and of the normal exhaust gas. Five fuels were used: gasoline that complied with Army-Navy Fuel Specification, No. AN-VV-F-781 and four mixtures of this gasoline with toluene, benzene, and xylene. The method of determining the fuel-air ratio described in this report involves the measurement of the carbon-dioxide content of the oxidized exhaust gas and the use of graphs or the presented equation. This method is considered useful in aircraft, in the field, or in the laboratory for a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.047 to 0.124

  9. Desalination Processes Evaluation at Common Platform: A Universal Performance Ratio (UPR) Method

    KAUST Repository

    Wakil Shahzad, Muhammad

    2018-01-31

    The inevitable escalation in economic development have serious implications on energy and environment nexus. The International Energy Outlook 2016 (IEO2016) predicted that the Non Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (non-OECD) countries will lead with 71% rise in energy demand in contrast with only 18% in developed countries from 2012-2040. In Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, about 40% of primary energy is consumed for cogeneration based power and desalination plants. The cogeneration based plants are struggling with unfair primary fuel cost apportionment to electricity and desalination. Also, the desalination processes performance evaluated based on derived energy, providing misleading selection of processes. There is a need of (i) appropriate primary fuel cost appointment method for multi-purposed plants and (ii) desalination processes performance evaluation method based on primary energy. As a solution, we proposed exergetic analysis for primary fuel percentage apportionment to all components in the cycle according to the quality of working fluid utilized. The proposed method showed that the gas turbine was under charged by 40%, steam turbine was overcharged by 71% and desalination was overcharged by 350% by conventional energetic apportionment methods. We also proposed a new and most suitable desalination processes performance evaluation method based on primary energy, called universal performance ratio (UPR). Since UPR is based on primary energy, it can be used to evaluate any kind of desalination processes, thermally driven, pressure driven & humidification-dehumidification etc. on common platform. We showed that all desalination processes are operating only at 10-13% of thermodynamic limit (TL) of UPR. For future sustainability, desalination must achieve 25-30% of TL and it is only possible either by hybridization of different processes or by innovative membrane materials.

  10. Determination of Light Water Reactor Fuel Burnup with the Isotope Ratio Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, David C.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.

    2007-01-01

    For the current project to demonstrate that isotope ratio measurements can be extended to zirconium alloys used in LWR fuel assemblies we report new analyses on irradiated samples obtained from a reactor. Zirconium alloys are used for structural elements of fuel assemblies and for the fuel element cladding. This report covers new measurements done on irradiated and unirradiated zirconium alloys, Unirradiated zircaloy samples serve as reference samples and indicate starting values or natural values for the Ti isotope ratio measured. New measurements of irradiated samples include results for 3 samples provided by AREVA. New results indicate: 1. Titanium isotope ratios were measured again in unirradiated samples to obtain reference or starting values at the same time irradiated samples were analyzed. In particular, 49Ti/48Ti ratios were indistinguishably close to values determined several months earlier and to expected natural values. 2. 49Ti/48Ti ratios were measured in 3 irradiated samples thus far, and demonstrate marked departures from natural or initial ratios, well beyond analytical uncertainty, and the ratios vary with reported fluence values. The irradiated samples appear to have significant surface contamination or radiation damage which required more time for SIMS analyses. 3. Other activated impurity elements still limit the sample size for SIMS analysis of irradiated samples. The sub-samples chosen for SIMS analysis, although smaller than optimal, were still analyzed successfully without violating the conditions of the applicable Radiological Work Permit

  11. Business ratio report: an industry sector analysis. 7. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication not only compiles and assimilates a vast wealth of information relating to 126 UK companies in oil and gas exploration, refining and distribution, but it also presents it in an easily digestible form. Relative company performance is ranked in a series of tables and compared with an overall average for the industry. The report analyses a fixed sample of companies over a three year period. As an indication of the longer-term trend a graphical representation of the return on capital, profit margin, stock to sales, credit period, profit per employee and sales per employee ratios are featured for a period of up to seven years. (150 tables). (author)

  12. A new perspective on hospital financial ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, T L; Stanko, B B; Cleverley, W O

    1997-11-01

    Using audit financial data in a study of 2,189 not-for-profit hospitals for the period 1989-1992, six financial characteristics of performance were defined. These characteristics are profitability factor, fixed-asset efficiency, capital structure, fixed-asset age, working capital efficiency, and liquidity. The statistical output also shows the specific sets of financial ratios that can be used to measure the six characteristics of hospital performance. The results of this study can be beneficial to healthcare financial managers, hospital boards, policy groups, and other relevant entities because it affords them a clear understanding of an institution's financial performance.

  13. Critical Values for Lawshe's Content Validity Ratio: Revisiting the Original Methods of Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayre, Colin; Scally, Andrew John

    2014-01-01

    The content validity ratio originally proposed by Lawshe is widely used to quantify content validity and yet methods used to calculate the original critical values were never reported. Methods for original calculation of critical values are suggested along with tables of exact binomial probabilities.

  14. Comparison of gravimetric and spectrophotometric methods for the determination of O/U ratios in uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, Adolfo; Eppis, Maria Rosa

    2004-01-01

    One important parameter to specify in nuclear fuels is the oxygen-metal ratio; many tests were described in literature to determine it. Possibly, gravimetric methods are the most used and usually a good precision was obtained analysing sintered materials. However, the humidity sorbed in the samples and impurities affect these methods, especially in powders. On the other hand, the spectrophotometric methods determine oxygen-uranium ratio by measuring the absorbances of different ionic species in phosphoric acid. This technique is simply and is not affected by humidity and impurities. Owing to discrepancy in the results between both methods, it was carried out in our laboratory, a study on various gravimetric and spectrophotometric methods. Several assays and analysis were performed comparing test procedures, trying to obtain better precision and accuracy. This work presents the results obtained and the recommend procedure to use with sintered and unsintered materials

  15. Graphite Isotope Ratio Method Development Report: Irradiation Test Demonstration of Uranium as a Low Fluence Indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, B.D.; Gerlach, D.C.; Love, E.F.; McNeece, J.P.; Livingston, J.V.; Greenwood, L.R.; Petersen, S.L.; Morgan, W.C.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes an irradiation test designed to investigate the suitability of uranium as a graphite isotope ratio method (GIRM) low fluence indicator. GIRM is a demonstrated concept that gives a graphite-moderated reactor's lifetime production based on measuring changes in the isotopic ratio of elements known to exist in trace quantities within reactor-grade graphite. Appendix I of this report provides a tutorial on the GIRM concept

  16. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of the O/M ratio in MOX pellets - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This International Standard describes a method for determining the oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio in mixed uranium-plutonium oxide pellets. The (U,Pu)O 2 x sample is submitted to controlled oxidation-reduction under thermodynamic conditions designed to change the O/M ratio to a value of 2,000. The initial stoichiometric deviation, X, is determined from the sample mass difference before and after heat treatment

  17. Application of Taguchi methods to dual mixture ratio propulsion system optimization for SSTO vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Douglas O.; Unal, Resit; Joyner, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The application of advanced technologies to future launch vehicle designs would allow the introduction of a rocket-powered, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch system early in the next century. For a selected SSTO concept, a dual mixture ratio, staged combustion cycle engine that employs a number of innovative technologies was selected as the baseline propulsion system. A series of parametric trade studies are presented to optimize both a dual mixture ratio engine and a single mixture ratio engine of similar design and technology level. The effect of varying lift-off thrust-to-weight ratio, engine mode transition Mach number, mixture ratios, area ratios, and chamber pressure values on overall vehicle weight is examined. The sensitivity of the advanced SSTO vehicle to variations in each of these parameters is presented, taking into account the interaction of each of the parameters with each other. This parametric optimization and sensitivity study employs a Taguchi design method. The Taguchi method is an efficient approach for determining near-optimum design parameters using orthogonal matrices from design of experiments (DOE) theory. Using orthogonal matrices significantly reduces the number of experimental configurations to be studied. The effectiveness and limitations of the Taguchi method for propulsion/vehicle optimization studies as compared to traditional single-variable parametric trade studies is also discussed.

  18. High aspect ratio lead zirconate titanate tube structures: I. Template assisted fabrication - vacuum infiltration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Kovaľ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT microtubes are fabricated by a vacuum infiltration method. The method is based on repeated infiltration of precursor solution into macroporous silicon (Si templates at a sub-atmospheric pressure. The pyrolyzed PZT tubes of a 2-µm outer diameter, extending to over 30 µm in length were released from the template using a selective isotropic-pulsed XeF2 reactive ion etching of silicon. Free-standing microtubes, partially anchored at the bottom of the Si template, were then crystallized in pure oxygen atmosphere at 750 °C for 2 min using a rapid thermal annealer. The perovskite phase of the final PZT tubes was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The XRD spectrum also revealed a small amount of the pyrochlore phase in the structure and signs of possible fluoride contamination caused most likely by the XeF2 etching process. The surface morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that the whole surface of the pore walls was conformally coated during the repeated infiltration of templates, resulting in straight tubes with closed tips formed on the opposite ends as replicas of the pore bottoms. These high aspect ratio ferroelectric structures are suggested as building units for developing miniaturized electronic devices, such as memory storage (DRAM trenched capacitors, piezoelectric scanners and actuators, and are of fundamental value for the theory of ferroelectricity in systems with low dimensionality.

  19. [Quantitative Analysis of Heavy Metals in Water with LIBS Based on Signal-to-Background Ratio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li; Zhao, Nan-jing; Liu, Wen-qing; Fang, Li; Zhang, Da-hai; Wang, Yin; Meng, De Shuo; Yu, Yang; Ma, Ming-jun

    2015-07-01

    There are many influence factors in the precision and accuracy of the quantitative analysis with LIBS technology. According to approximately the same characteristics trend of background spectrum and characteristic spectrum along with the change of temperature through in-depth analysis, signal-to-background ratio (S/B) measurement and regression analysis could compensate the spectral line intensity changes caused by system parameters such as laser power, spectral efficiency of receiving. Because the measurement dates were limited and nonlinear, we used support vector machine (SVM) for regression algorithm. The experimental results showed that the method could improve the stability and the accuracy of quantitative analysis of LIBS, and the relative standard deviation and average relative error of test set respectively were 4.7% and 9.5%. Data fitting method based on signal-to-background ratio(S/B) is Less susceptible to matrix elements and background spectrum etc, and provides data processing reference for real-time online LIBS quantitative analysis technology.

  20. Validation of a dual-isotope plasma ratio method for measurement of cholesterol absorption in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilversmit, D.B.; Hughes, L.B.

    1974-01-01

    Several methods for measuring cholesterol absorption in the rat have been compared. After administration of an oral dose of labeled cholesterol ( 14 C or 3 H) and an intravenous dose of colloidal labeled cholesterol ( 3 H or 14 C) the ratio of the two labels in plasma or whole blood 48 hr or more after dosing compared closely to the ratio of areas under the respective specific activity-time curves. The area ratio method is independent of a time lag between the appearance of oral and intravenous label in the bloodstream. Both measures of cholesterol absorption agree fairly well with a method based on measuring the unabsorbed dietary cholesterol in a pooled fecal sample. The plasma isotope ratio method gave more reproducible results than the fecal collection method when the measurement was repeated in the same animals 5 days after the first measurement. Cholesterol absorption was overestimated by the use of Tween 20-solubilized labeled cholesterol for the intravenous dose. The plasma disappearance curves of injected labeled colloidal cholesterol and cholesterol-labeled chylomicrons infused intravenously over a 3.5-h period in the same animal coincided within experimental error from the first day until 75 days after injection. The plasma isotope ratio method for cholesterol absorption gave the same results in rats practicing coprophagy as in those in which this practice was prevented. The addition of sulfaguanidine to the diet lowered cholesterol absorption as measured by the plasma isotope ratio to the same degree as that measured by the fecal collection method. (U.S.)

  1. Comparative study on DuPont analysis and DEA models for measuring stock performance using financial ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsad, Roslah; Shaari, Siti Nabilah Mohd; Isa, Zaidi

    2017-11-01

    Determining stock performance using financial ratio is challenging for many investors and researchers. Financial ratio can indicate the strengths and weaknesses of a company's stock performance. There are five categories of financial ratios namely liquidity, efficiency, leverage, profitability and market ratios. It is important to interpret the ratio correctly for proper financial decision making. The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of listed companies in Bursa Malaysia using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and DuPont analysis Models. The study is conducted in 2015 involving 116 consumer products companies listed in Bursa Malaysia. The estimation method of Data Envelopment Analysis computes the efficiency scores and ranks the companies accordingly. The Alirezaee and Afsharian's method of analysis based Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (CCR) where Constant Return to Scale (CRS) is employed. The DuPont analysis is a traditional tool for measuring the operating performance of companies. In this study, DuPont analysis is used to evaluate three different aspects such as profitability, efficiency of assets utilization and financial leverage. Return on Equity (ROE) is also calculated in DuPont analysis. This study finds that both analysis models provide different rankings of the selected samples. Hypothesis testing based on Pearson's correlation, indicates that there is no correlation between rankings produced by DEA and DuPont analysis. The DEA ranking model proposed by Alirezaee and Asharian is unstable. The method cannot provide complete ranking because the values of Balance Index is equal and zero.

  2. A biamperometric method for the determination of O/U ratio in uranium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Mary; Nair, P.R.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    The methodology based on the dissolution of the uranium dioxide samples in H 2 SO 4 + HF mixture and the indirect determination of U(VI) by biamperometric redox titration is a simple method for determining ratio in hyperstoichiometric UO 2 powders.Analytical methods for % measurements in hyperstoichiometric. The present paper describes a simple method based on the determination of U(IV) and total U by biamperometric titration

  3. Solving Ratio-Dependent Predator-Prey System with Constant Effort Harvesting Using Homotopy Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul R. Ghotbi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to wide range of interest in use of bioeconomic models to gain insight into the scientific management of renewable resources like fisheries and forestry, homotopy perturbation method is employed to approximate the solution of the ratio-dependent predator-prey system with constant effort prey harvesting. The results are compared with the results obtained by Adomian decomposition method. The results show that, in new model, there are less computations needed in comparison to Adomian decomposition method.

  4. ANALYSIS OF RICIN TOXIN PREPARATIONS FOR CARBOHYDRATE AND FATTY ACID ABUNDANCE AND ISOTOPE RATIO INFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Colburn, Heather A.; Moran, James J.; Melville, Angela M.

    2009-12-01

    This report describes method development and preliminary evaluation for analyzing castor samples for signatures of purifying ricin. Ricin purification from the source castor seeds is essentially a problem of protein purification using common biochemical methods. Indications of protein purification will likely manifest themselves as removal of the non-protein fractions of the seed. Two major, non-protein, types of biochemical constituents in the seed are the castor oil and various carbohydrates. The oil comprises roughly half the seed weight while the carbohydrate component comprises roughly half of the remaining “mash” left after oil and hull removal. Different castor oil and carbohydrate components can serve as indicators of specific toxin processing steps. Ricinoleic acid is a relatively unique fatty acid in nature and is the most abundant component of castor oil. The loss of ricinoleic acid indicates a step to remove oil from the seeds. The relative amounts of carbohydrates and carbohydrate-like compounds, including arabinose, xylose, myo-inositol fucose, rhamnose, glucosamine and mannose detected in the sample can also indicate specific processing steps. For instance, the differential loss of arabinose relative to mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine indicates enrichment for the protein fraction of the seed using protein precipitation. The methods developed in this project center on fatty acid and carbohydrate extraction from castor samples followed by derivatization to permit analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Method descriptions herein include: the source and preparation of castor materials used for method evaluation, the equipment and description of procedure required for chemical derivatization, and the instrument parameters used in the analysis. Two types of derivatization methods describe analysis of carbohydrates and one procedure for analysis of fatty acids. Two types of GC-MS analysis is included in the method development, one

  5. Flash Flood Hazard Susceptibility Mapping Using Frequency Ratio and Statistical Index Methods in Coalmine Subsidence Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Cao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on producing flash flood hazard susceptibility maps (FFHSM using frequency ratio (FR and statistical index (SI models in the Xiqu Gully (XQG of Beijing, China. First, a total of 85 flash flood hazard locations (n = 85 were surveyed in the field and plotted using geographic information system (GIS software. Based on the flash flood hazard locations, a flood hazard inventory map was built. Seventy percent (n = 60 of the flooding hazard locations were randomly selected for building the models. The remaining 30% (n = 25 of the flooded hazard locations were used for validation. Considering that the XQG used to be a coal mining area, coalmine caves and subsidence caused by coal mining exist in this catchment, as well as many ground fissures. Thus, this study took the subsidence risk level into consideration for FFHSM. The ten conditioning parameters were elevation, slope, curvature, land use, geology, soil texture, subsidence risk area, stream power index (SPI, topographic wetness index (TWI, and short-term heavy rain. This study also tested different classification schemes for the values for each conditional parameter and checked their impacts on the results. The accuracy of the FFHSM was validated using area under the curve (AUC analysis. Classification accuracies were 86.61%, 83.35%, and 78.52% using frequency ratio (FR-natural breaks, statistical index (SI-natural breaks and FR-manual classification schemes, respectively. Associated prediction accuracies were 83.69%, 81.22%, and 74.23%, respectively. It was found that FR modeling using a natural breaks classification method was more appropriate for generating FFHSM for the Xiqu Gully.

  6. Methods of nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bellman, Richard Ernest

    1970-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  7. Unsteady transonic flow analysis for low aspect ratio, pointed wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, K. R.; Ruo, S. Y.; Wu, J. M.; Liu, D. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Oswatitsch and Keune's parabolic method for steady transonic flow is applied and extended to thin slender wings oscillating in the sonic flow field. The parabolic constant for the wing was determined from the equivalent body of revolution. Laplace transform methods were used to derive the asymptotic equations for pressure coefficient, and the Adams-Sears iterative procedure was employed to solve the equations. A computer program was developed to find the pressure distributions, generalized force coefficients, and stability derivatives for delta, convex, and concave wing planforms.

  8. High precision isotopic ratio analysis of volatile metal chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachey, D.L.; Blais, J.C.; Klein, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    High precision isotope ratio measurements have been made for a series of volatile alkaline earth and transition metal chelates using conventional GC/MS instrumentation. Electron ionization was used for alkaline earth chelates, whereas isobutane chemical ionization was used for transition metal studies. Natural isotopic abundances were determined for a series of Mg, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Zn chelates. Absolute accuracy ranged between 0.01 and 1.19 at. %. Absolute precision ranged between +-0.01-0.27 at. % (RSD +- 0.07-10.26%) for elements that contained as many as eight natural isotopes. Calibration curves were prepared using natural abundance metals and their enriched 50 Cr, 60 Ni, and 65 Cu isotopes covering the range 0.1-1010.7 at. % excess. A separate multiple isotope calibration curve was similarly prepared using enriched 60 Ni (0.02-2.15 at. % excess) and 62 Ni (0.23-18.5 at. % excess). The samples were analyzed by GC/CI/MS. Human plasma, containing enriched 26 Mg and 44 Ca, was analyzed by EI/MS. 1 figure, 5 tables

  9. Analysis of brood sex ratios: implications of offspring clustering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krackow, S.; Tkadlec, Emil

    Roc. 50, č. 4 (2001), s. 293-301 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/1316 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : generalized linear mixed models * random coefficients * multilevel analysis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2001

  10. S-ratio method as criteria for renewable energy development in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldy Dalimi

    2000-01-01

    One of the strategy for national energy development in Indonesia is energy diversification, such as, by exploiting more renewable energy. Renewable energy development in the near future, particularly, is for rural electrification and remote area, where the electricity is not available and the price of conventional energy is higher than the possible electricity price. The government will give a priority to the rural area who already pay more for energy conventional. The conventional energy price is called as a substitute energy price (or willingness to pay). To determine which area can afford the renewable energy price, S-ratio method could also be used for the criteria. S-ratio is the ratio between net present value of the possible benefit and the investment needed. The possible benefit is calculated by using the substitute energy price. If the value of S-ratio is greater than 1 (one), it is the area can afford the renewable energy as a substitute energy. (Author)

  11. FSH to estradiol ratio can be used as screening method for mild cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestiantoro, A; Wiwie, M; Shadrina, A; Ibrahim, N; Purba, J S

    2017-12-01

    To determine the role of anthropometric measurement, menopausal symptoms and biochemical marker changes as screening methods for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in postmenopausal women Methods: A cross-sectional study included 282 postmenopausal women in Jakarta, further classified into two groups, with and without MCI. Some related variables such as age, body mass index (BMI), duration of menopause, vasomotor symptoms, hormone levels such as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone, leptin, estradiol, and cognitive status, were assessed and analyzed. The FSH levels significantly correlated with MCI incidence (p = 0.018), along with the ratio of FSH/estradiol levels (p = 0.029) and ratio of FSH/soluble leptin receptor (p = 0.011), while other variables did not. By multivariate analysis, the ratio of FSH/estradiol was known as the most significant factor with a probability of having MCI in menopausal women of 1.15. Using the ROC curve, the threshold of the ratio FSH/estradiol to predict MCI was 1.94, with sensitivity 66.5% and specificity 46.8%. The ratio of FSH to estradiol (>1.94) can be used as a screening method for the occurrence of MCI in postmenopausal women.

  12. Analysis on burnup step effect for evaluating reactor criticality and fuel breeding ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saputra, Geby; Purnama, Aditya Rizki; Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi

    2014-01-01

    Criticality condition of the reactors is one of the important factors for evaluating reactor operation and nuclear fuel breeding ratio is another factor to show nuclear fuel sustainability. This study analyzes the effect of burnup steps and cycle operation step for evaluating the criticality condition of the reactor as well as the performance of nuclear fuel breeding or breeding ratio (BR). Burnup step is performed based on a day step analysis which is varied from 10 days up to 800 days and for cycle operation from 1 cycle up to 8 cycles reactor operations. In addition, calculation efficiency based on the variation of computer processors to run the analysis in term of time (time efficiency in the calculation) have been also investigated. Optimization method for reactor design analysis which is used a large fast breeder reactor type as a reference case was performed by adopting an established reactor design code of JOINT-FR. The results show a criticality condition becomes higher for smaller burnup step (day) and for breeding ratio becomes less for smaller burnup step (day). Some nuclides contribute to make better criticality when smaller burnup step due to individul nuclide half-live. Calculation time for different burnup step shows a correlation with the time consuming requirement for more details step calculation, although the consuming time is not directly equivalent with the how many time the burnup time step is divided

  13. A dual tracer ratio method for comparative emission measurements in an experimental dairy housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Joachim; Zeyer, Kerstin; Keck, Margret; Keller, Markus; Zähner, Michael; Poteko, Jernej; Emmenegger, Lukas; Schrade, Sabine

    2018-04-01

    Agriculture, and in particular dairy farming, is an important source of ammonia (NH3) and non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This calls for the development and quantification of effective mitigation strategies. Our study presents the implementation of a dual tracer ratio method in a novel experimental dairy housing with two identical, but spatially separated housing areas. Modular design and flexible floor elements allow the assessment of structural, process engineering and organisational abatement measures at practical scale. Thereby, the emission reduction potential of specific abatement measures can be quantified in relation to a reference system. Emissions in the naturally ventilated housing are determined by continuous dosing of two artificial tracers (sulphur hexafluoride SF6, trifluoromethylsulphur pentafluoride SF5CF3) and their real-time detection in the ppt range with an optimized GC-ECD method. The two tracers are dosed into different experimental sections, which enables the independent assessment of both housing areas. Mass flow emissions of NH3 and GHGs are quantified by areal dosing of tracer gases and multipoint sampling as well as real-time analysis of both tracer and target gases. Validation experiments demonstrate that the technique is suitable for both areal and point emission sources and achieves an uncertainty of less than 10% for the mass emissions of NH3, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), which is superior to other currently available methods. Comparative emission measurements in this experimental dairy housing will provide reliable, currently unavailable information on emissions for Swiss dairy farming and demonstrate the reduction potential of mitigation measures for NH3, GHGs and potentially other pollutants.

  14. Analysis of the Structure Ratios of the Funding Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Daniela Bondoc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The funding sources of the assets and liabilities in the balance sheet include equity capitals and the debts of the entity. The analysis of the structure rates of the funding sources allows for making assessments related to the funding policy, highlighting the financial autonomy and how resources are provided. Using the literature specializing in economic and financial analysis, this paper aims at presenting these rates that focus, on the one hand, to reflect the degree of financial dependence (the rate of financial stability, the rate of global financial autonomy, the rate of on-term financial autonomy and on the other hand the debt structure (the rate of short-term debts, the global indebtedness rate, the on-term indebtedness rate. Based on the financial statements of an entity in the Argeş County, I analysed these indicators, and I drew conclusions and made assessments related to the autonomy, indebtedness and financial stability of the studied entity.

  15. Improved analysis of bacterial CGH data beyond the log-ratio paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakra Ågot

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing methods for analyzing bacterial CGH data from two-color arrays are based on log-ratios only, a paradigm inherited from expression studies. We propose an alternative approach, where microarray signals are used in a different way and sequence identity is predicted using a supervised learning approach. Results A data set containing 32 hybridizations of sequenced versus sequenced genomes have been used to test and compare methods. A ROC-analysis has been performed to illustrate the ability to rank probes with respect to Present/Absent calls. Classification into Present and Absent is compared with that of a gaussian mixture model. Conclusion The results indicate our proposed method is an improvement of existing methods with respect to ranking and classification of probes, especially for multi-genome arrays.

  16. Ratio Utility and Cost Analysis for Privacy Preserving Subspace Projection

    OpenAIRE

    Al, Mert; Wan, Shibiao; Kung, Sun-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    With a rapidly increasing number of devices connected to the internet, big data has been applied to various domains of human life. Nevertheless, it has also opened new venues for breaching users' privacy. Hence it is highly required to develop techniques that enable data owners to privatize their data while keeping it useful for intended applications. Existing methods, however, do not offer enough flexibility for controlling the utility-privacy trade-off and may incur unfavorable results when...

  17. Study by the Prandtl-Glauert method of compressibility effects and critical Mach number for ellipsoids of various aspect ratios and thickness ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert V; Gardner, Clifford S

    1947-01-01

    By using the Prandtl-Glauert method that is valid for three-dimensional flow problems, the value of the maximum incremental velocity for compressible flow about thin ellipsoids at zero angle of attack is calculated as a function of the Mach number for various aspect ratios and thickness ratios. The critical Mach numbers of the various ellipsoids are also determined. The results indicate an increase in critical Mach number with decrease in aspect ratio which is large enough to explain experimental results on low-aspect-ratio wings at zero lift.

  18. A modified method of calculating the lateral build-up ratio for small electron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyner, E; McCavana, P; McClean, B

    2006-01-01

    This note outlines an improved method of calculating dose per monitor unit values for small electron fields using Khan's lateral build-up ratio (LBR). This modified method obtains the LBR directly from the ratio of measured, surface normalized, electron beam percentage depth dose curves. The LBR calculated using this modified method more accurately accounts for the change in lateral scatter with decreasing field size. The LBR is used along with Khan's dose per monitor unit formula to calculate dose per monitor unit values for a set of small fields. These calculated dose per monitor unit values are compared to measured values to within 3.5% for all circular fields and electron energies examined. The modified method was further tested using a small triangular field. A maximum difference of 4.8% was found. (note)

  19. An Alternative Method for Computing Unit Costs and Productivity Ratios. AIR 1984 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstead, Wayland H.; And Others

    An alternative measure for evaluating the performance of academic departments was studied. A comparison was made with the traditional manner for computing unit costs and productivity ratios: prorating the salary and effort of each faculty member to each course level based on the personal mix of course taught. The alternative method used averaging…

  20. The measurement of house prices : A review of the sale price appraisal ratio method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, J.; Van der Wal, E.B.; De Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    The sale price appraisal ratio (SPAR) method has been applied in a number of countries to construct house price indexes. This paper reviews the statistical and index number properties of the SPAR approach. Three types of SPAR indexes are distinguished: a weighted index, which aims at tracking the

  1. A Novel Frequency Measurement Method Suitable for a Large Frequency Ratio Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Wei; XUAN Zong-Qiang; YU Jian-Guo; WANG Hai; ZHOU Hui; LI Zhi-Qi

    2004-01-01

    @@ As for the obstacles to direct comparison between superhigh and lower frequencies, we accomplish the accurate comparison between low and microwave frequencies with the 105 ratios of the operating frequencies on the basis of phase comparison between the signals whose frequencies are related by an arbitrary integer. This method is simple and accurate, and will be widely used as a special frequency comparison approach.

  2. Validation of Likelihood Ratio Methods Used for Forensic Evidence Evaluation: Application in Forensic Fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haraksim, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter the Likelihood Ratio (LR) inference model will be introduced, the theoretical aspects of probabilities will be discussed and the validation framework for LR methods used for forensic evidence evaluation will be presented. Prior to introducing the validation framework, following

  3. Solving Ratio-Dependent Predatorprey System with Constant Effort Harvesting Using Variational Iteration Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghotbi, Abdoul R; Barari, Amin

    2009-01-01

    Due to wide range of interest in use of bio-economic models to gain insight in to the scientific management of renewable resources like fisheries and forestry, variational iteration method (VIM) is employed to approximate the solution of the ratio-dependent predator-prey system with constant effort...

  4. Analysis of Large-Strain Extrusion Machining with Different Chip Compression Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jun Deng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-Strain Extrusion Machining (LSEM is a novel-introduced process for deforming materials to very high plastic strains to produce ultra-fine nanostructured materials. Before the technique can be exploited, it is important to understand the deformation behavior of the workpiece and its relationship to the machining parameters and friction conditions. This paper reports finite-element method (FEM analysis of the LSEM process to understand the evolution of temperature field, effective strain, and strain rate under different chip compression ratios. The cutting and thrust forces are also analyzed with respect to time. The results show that LSEM can produce very high strains by changing in the value of chip compression ratio, thereby enabling the production of nanostructured materials. The shape of the chip produced by LSEM can also be geometrically well constrained.

  5. A note on imperfect hedging: a method for testing stability of the hedge ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Companies producing, processing and consuming commodities in the production process often hedge their commodity expositions using derivative strategies based on different, highly correlated underlying commodities. Once the open position in a commodity is hedged using a derivative position with another underlying commodity, the appropriate hedge ratio must be determined in order the hedge relationship be as effective as possible. However, it is questionable whether the hedge ratio determined at the inception of the risk management strategy remains stable over the whole period for which the hedging strategy exists. Usually it is assumed that in the short run, the relationship (say, correlation between the two commodities remains stable, while in the long run it may vary. We propose a method, based on statistical theory of stability, for on-line detection whether market movements of prices of the commodities involved in the hedge relationship indicate that the hedge ratio may have been subject to a recent change. The change in the hedge ratio decreases the effectiveness of the original hedge relationship and creates a new open position. The method proposed should inform the risk manager that it could be reasonable to adjust the derivative strategy in a way reflecting the market conditions after the change in the hedge ratio.

  6. Financial and Staffing Ratio Analysis: Predicting Fiscal Distress in School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert Alan

    1983-01-01

    From analysis of data from 579 school districts it is concluded that financial ratios have the ability to forecast fiscal distress a year in advance. Liquidity ratios and salary and fringe benefit ratios were found to be strong forecasters, while per pupil expenditure data had little predictive value. (MJL)

  7. Isotope ratio analysis by a combination of element analyzer and mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichlmayer, F.

    1987-06-01

    The use of stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur as analytical tool in many fields of research is of growing interest. A method has therefore been developed, consisting in essential of coupling an Elemental Analyzer with an Isotope Mass Spectrometer, which enables the gas preparation of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and sulfur dioxide from any solid or liquid sample in a fast and easy way. Results of carbon isotope measurements in food analysis are presented, whereat it is possible to check origin and treatment of sugar, oils, fats, mineral waters, spirituous liquors etc. and to detect adulterations as well. Also applications in the field of environmental research are given. (Author)

  8. Ratio-of-Mediator-Probability Weighting for Causal Mediation Analysis in the Presence of Treatment-by-Mediator Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guanglei; Deutsch, Jonah; Hill, Heather D.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional methods for mediation analysis generate biased results when the mediator--outcome relationship depends on the treatment condition. This article shows how the ratio-of-mediator-probability weighting (RMPW) method can be used to decompose total effects into natural direct and indirect effects in the presence of treatment-by-mediator…

  9. An alternative approach to estimate the W/C ratio of hardened concrete using image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valcke, S.; Nijland, T.G.; Larbi, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The water cement (w/c) ratio is a typical quality parameter for concrete. The NT Build 361 Nordtest method is a standard for estimating the w/c ratio in hardened concrete and is based on the relationship between the ilc ratio and the capillary porosity in the cement paste. The latter can be

  10. Odds Ratio or Prevalence Ratio? An Overview of Reported Statistical Methods and Appropriateness of Interpretations in Cross-sectional Studies with Dichotomous Outcomes in Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brayan Alexander Fonseca Martinez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most commonly observational study designs employed in veterinary is the cross-sectional study with binary outcomes. To measure an association with exposure, the use of prevalence ratios (PR or odds ratios (OR are possible. In human epidemiology, much has been discussed about the use of the OR exclusively for case–control studies and some authors reported that there is no good justification for fitting logistic regression when the prevalence of the disease is high, in which OR overestimate the PR. Nonetheless, interpretation of OR is difficult since confusing between risk and odds can lead to incorrect quantitative interpretation of data such as “the risk is X times greater,” commonly reported in studies that use OR. The aims of this study were (1 to review articles with cross-sectional designs to assess the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association and (2 to illustrate the use of alternative statistical methods that estimate PR directly. An overview of statistical methods and its interpretation using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines was conducted and included a diverse set of peer-reviewed journals among the veterinary science field using PubMed as the search engine. From each article, the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association were registered. Additionally, four alternative models for logistic regression that estimate directly PR were tested using our own dataset from a cross-sectional study on bovine viral diarrhea virus. The initial search strategy found 62 articles, in which 6 articles were excluded and therefore 56 studies were used for the overall analysis. The review showed that independent of the level of prevalence reported, 96% of articles employed logistic regression, thus estimating the OR. Results of the multivariate models

  11. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Andrew A.

    1984-01-01

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine.

  12. Directional ratio based on parabolic molecules and its application to the analysis of tubular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labate, Demetrio; Negi, Pooran; Ozcan, Burcin; Papadakis, Manos

    2015-09-01

    As advances in imaging technologies make more and more data available for biomedical applications, there is an increasing need to develop efficient quantitative algorithms for the analysis and processing of imaging data. In this paper, we introduce an innovative multiscale approach called Directional Ratio which is especially effective to distingush isotropic from anisotropic structures. This task is especially useful in the analysis of images of neurons, the main units of the nervous systems which consist of a main cell body called the soma and many elongated processes called neurites. We analyze the theoretical properties of our method on idealized models of neurons and develop a numerical implementation of this approach for analysis of fluorescent images of cultured neurons. We show that this algorithm is very effective for the detection of somas and the extraction of neurites in images of small circuits of neurons.

  13. Polarization ratio property and material classification method in passive millimeter wave polarimetric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yayun; Qi, Bo; Liu, Siyuan; Hu, Fei; Gui, Liangqi; Peng, Xiaohui

    2016-10-01

    Polarimetric measurements can provide additional information as compared to unpolarized ones. In this paper, linear polarization ratio (LPR) is created to be a feature discriminator. The LPR properties of several materials are investigated using Fresnel theory. The theoretical results show that LPR is sensitive to the material type (metal or dielectric). Then a linear polarization ratio-based (LPR-based) method is presented to distinguish between metal and dielectric materials. In order to apply this method to practical applications, the optimal range of incident angle have been discussed. The typical outdoor experiments including various objects such as aluminum plate, grass, concrete, soil and wood, have been conducted to validate the presented classification method.

  14. Signal-to-noise ratio application to seismic marker analysis and fracture detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui-Qun; Gui, Zhi-Xian

    2014-03-01

    Seismic data with high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are useful in reservoir exploration. To obtain high SNR seismic data, significant effort is required to achieve noise attenuation in seismic data processing, which is costly in materials, and human and financial resources. We introduce a method for improving the SNR of seismic data. The SNR is calculated by using the frequency domain method. Furthermore, we optimize and discuss the critical parameters and calculation procedure. We applied the proposed method on real data and found that the SNR is high in the seismic marker and low in the fracture zone. Consequently, this can be used to extract detailed information about fracture zones that are inferred by structural analysis but not observed in conventional seismic data.

  15. Ratio manipulating spectrophotometry versus chemometry as stability indicating methods for cefquinome sulfate determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehia, Ali M; Arafa, Reham M; Abbas, Samah S; Amer, Sawsan M

    2016-01-15

    Spectral resolution of cefquinome sulfate (CFQ) in the presence of its degradation products was studied. Three selective, accurate and rapid spectrophotometric methods were performed for the determination of CFQ in the presence of either its hydrolytic, oxidative or photo-degradation products. The proposed ratio difference, derivative ratio and mean centering are ratio manipulating spectrophotometric methods that were satisfactorily applied for selective determination of CFQ within linear range of 5.0-40.0 μg mL(-1). Concentration Residuals Augmented Classical Least Squares was applied and evaluated for the determination of the cited drug in the presence of its all degradation products. Traditional Partial Least Squares regression was also applied and benchmarked against the proposed advanced multivariate calibration. Experimentally designed 25 synthetic mixtures of three factors at five levels were used to calibrate and validate the multivariate models. Advanced chemometrics succeeded in quantitative and qualitative analyses of CFQ along with its hydrolytic, oxidative and photo-degradation products. The proposed methods were applied successfully for different pharmaceutical formulations analyses. These developed methods were simple and cost-effective compared with the manufacturer's RP-HPLC method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Invariant Imbedding T-Matrix Method for Axial Symmetric Hydrometeors with Extreme Aspect Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissier, C.; Clune, T.; Kuo, K. S.; Munchak, S. J.; Adams, I. S.

    2017-12-01

    The single-scattering properties (SSPs) of hydrometeors are the fundamental quantities for physics-based precipitation retrievals. Thus, efficient computation of their electromagnetic scattering is of great value. Whereas the semi-analytical T-Matrix methods are likely the most efficient for nonspherical hydrometeors with axial symmetry, they are not suitable for arbitrarily shaped hydrometeors absent of any significant symmetry, for which volume integral methods such as those based on Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) are required. Currently the two leading T-matrix methods are the Extended Boundary Condition Method (EBCM) and the Invariant Imbedding T-matrix Method incorporating Lorentz-Mie Separation of Variables (IITM+SOV). EBCM is known to outperform IITM+SOV for hydrometeors with modest aspect ratios. However, in cases when aspect ratios become extreme, such as needle-like particles with large height to diameter values, EBCM fails to converge. Such hydrometeors with extreme aspect ratios are known to be present in solid precipitation and their SSPs are required to model the radiative responses accurately. In these cases, IITM+SOV is shown to converge. An efficient, parallelized C++ implementation for both EBCM and IITM+SOV has been developed to conduct a performance comparison between EBCM, IITM+SOV, and DDSCAT (a popular implementation of DDA). We present the comparison results and discuss details. Our intent is to release the combined ECBM & IITM+SOV software to the community under an open source license.

  17. Steady state likelihood ratio sensitivity analysis for stiff kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, M; Vlachos, D G

    2015-01-28

    Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation is an integral tool in the study of complex physical phenomena present in applications ranging from heterogeneous catalysis to biological systems to crystal growth and atmospheric sciences. Sensitivity analysis is useful for identifying important parameters and rate-determining steps, but the finite-difference application of sensitivity analysis is computationally demanding. Techniques based on the likelihood ratio method reduce the computational cost of sensitivity analysis by obtaining all gradient information in a single run. However, we show that disparity in time scales of microscopic events, which is ubiquitous in real systems, introduces drastic statistical noise into derivative estimates for parameters affecting the fast events. In this work, the steady-state likelihood ratio sensitivity analysis is extended to singularly perturbed systems by invoking partial equilibration for fast reactions, that is, by working on the fast and slow manifolds of the chemistry. Derivatives on each time scale are computed independently and combined to the desired sensitivity coefficients to considerably reduce the noise in derivative estimates for stiff systems. The approach is demonstrated in an analytically solvable linear system.

  18. Multivariate analysis: models and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz Perucha, J.

    1990-01-01

    Data treatment techniques are increasingly used since computer methods result of wider access. Multivariate analysis consists of a group of statistic methods that are applied to study objects or samples characterized by multiple values. A final goal is decision making. The paper describes the models and methods of multivariate analysis

  19. Multivariate analysis methods in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolter, M.

    2007-01-01

    A review of multivariate methods based on statistical training is given. Several multivariate methods useful in high-energy physics analysis are discussed. Selected examples from current research in particle physics are discussed, both from the on-line trigger selection and from the off-line analysis. Also statistical training methods are presented and some new application are suggested [ru

  20. Methods in algorithmic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrushkin, Vladimir A

    2009-01-01

    …helpful to any mathematics student who wishes to acquire a background in classical probability and analysis … This is a remarkably beautiful book that would be a pleasure for a student to read, or for a teacher to make into a year's course.-Harvey Cohn, Computing Reviews, May 2010

  1. Communication Network Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Richard V.; Mabee, Timothy

    This paper reviews a variety of analytic procedures that can be applied to network data, discussing the assumptions and usefulness of each procedure when applied to the complexity of human communication. Special attention is paid to the network properties measured or implied by each procedure. Factor analysis and multidimensional scaling are among…

  2. Complementing Gender Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anant

    2016-01-01

    The existing gender analysis frameworks start with a premise that men and women are equal and should be treated equally. These frameworks give emphasis on equal distribution of resources between men and women and believe that this will bring equality which is not always true. Despite equal distribution of resources, women tend to suffer and experience discrimination in many areas of their lives such as the power to control resources within social relationships, and the need for emotional security and reproductive rights within interpersonal relationships. These frameworks believe that patriarchy as an institution plays an important role in women's oppression, exploitation, and it is a barrier in their empowerment and rights. Thus, some think that by ensuring equal distribution of resources and empowering women economically, institutions like patriarchy can be challenged. These frameworks are based on proposed equality principle which puts men and women in competing roles. Thus, the real equality will never be achieved. Contrary to the existing gender analysis frameworks, the Complementing Gender Analysis framework proposed by the author provides a new approach toward gender analysis which not only recognizes the role of economic empowerment and equal distribution of resources but suggests to incorporate the concept and role of social capital, equity, and doing gender in gender analysis which is based on perceived equity principle, putting men and women in complementing roles that may lead to equality. In this article the author reviews the mainstream gender theories in development from the viewpoint of the complementary roles of gender. This alternative view is argued based on existing literature and an anecdote of observations made by the author. While criticizing the equality theory, the author offers equity theory in resolving the gender conflict by using the concept of social and psychological capital.

  3. Intestinal absorption of radiocalcium. Measurement by the oral and intraveinous activity ratio and by the inverse convolution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, L.; Collet, H.; Suquet, P.; Mirouze, J.

    1975-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of calcium was measured by a double isotopic labelling method, the results being obtained by a mathematical deconvolution technique. This analytical method was compared with the simple measurement of the plasma radioactivity ratio for the two isotopes administered orally and intraveinously respectively. The study covered 29 determinations. It was possible to estimate the total fractional absorption of calcium (TFACa) by calculating the average of the 47 Ca/ 45 Ca quotients measured on the 3rd and 8th hour after simultaneous administration of 45 Ca intraveinously and 47 Ca by mouth. The advantages of this method are obvious: need for only two blood samplings, simplicity of calculations which nevertheless give TFACa values comparable to those obtained by deconvolution analysis. However the only information supplied by the quotients method is the total fractional absorption, whereas inverse convolution analysis provides several interesting parameters such as the maximum absorption and the mean transit time of radiocalcium through the intestinal wall [fr

  4. A novel fabrication method for suspended high-aspect-ratio microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao-Joe; Kuo, Wen-Cheng

    2005-11-01

    Suspended high-aspect-ratio structures (suspended HARS) are widely used for MEMS devices such as micro-gyroscopes, micro-accelerometers, optical switches and so on. Various fabrication methods, such as SOI, SCREAM, AIM, SBM and BELST processes, were proposed to fabricate HARS. However, these methods focus on the fabrication of suspended microstructures with relatively small widths of trench opening (e.g. less than 10 µm). In this paper, we propose a novel process for fabricating very high-aspect-ratio suspended structures with large widths of trench opening using photoresist as an etching mask. By enhancing the microtrenching effect, we can easily release the suspended structure without thoroughly removing the floor polymer inside the trenches for the cases with a relatively small trench aspect ratio. All the process steps can be integrated into a single-run single-mask ICP-RIE process, which effectively reduces the process complexity and fabrication cost. We also discuss the phenomenon of corner erosion, which results in the undesired etching of silicon structures during the structure-releasing step. By using the proposed process, 100 µm thick suspended structures with the trench aspect ratio of about 20 are demonstrated. Also, the proposed process can be used to fabricate devices for applications which require large in-plane displacement. This paper was orally presented in the Transducers'05, Seoul, Korea (paper ID: 3B1.3).

  5. Signal-to-noise ratio measurement in parallel MRI with subtraction mapping and consecutive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Hiroshi; Miyati, Tosiaki; Ogura, Akio; Doi, Tsukasa; Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Machida, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Masato; Shimizu, Kouzou; Kitou, Yoshihiro

    2008-01-01

    When measuring the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of an image the used parallel magnetic resonance imaging, it was confirmed that there was a problem in the application of past SNR measurement. With the method of measuring the noise from the background signal, SNR with parallel imaging was higher than that without parallel imaging. In the subtraction method (NEMA standard), which sets a wide region of interest, the white noise was not evaluated correctly although SNR was close to the theoretical value. We proposed two techniques because SNR in parallel imaging was not uniform according to inhomogeneity of the coil sensitivity distribution and geometry factor. Using the first method (subtraction mapping), two images were scanned with identical parameters. The SNR in each pixel divided the running mean (7 by 7 pixels in neighborhood) by standard deviation/√2 in the same region of interest. Using the second (consecutive) method, more than fifty consecutive scans of the uniform phantom were obtained with identical scan parameters. Then the SNR was calculated from the ratio of mean signal intensity to the standard deviation in each pixel on a series of images. Moreover, geometry factors were calculated from SNRs with and without parallel imaging. The SNR and geometry factor using parallel imaging in the subtraction mapping method agreed with those of the consecutive method. Both methods make it possible to obtain a more detailed determination of SNR in parallel imaging and to calculate the geometry factor. (author)

  6. Time Series Analysis of Monte Carlo Fission Sources - I: Dominance Ratio Computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Taro; Brown, Forrest B.; Parsons, D. Kent; Warsa, James S.

    2004-01-01

    In the nuclear engineering community, the error propagation of the Monte Carlo fission source distribution through cycles is known to be a linear Markov process when the number of histories per cycle is sufficiently large. In the statistics community, linear Markov processes with linear observation functions are known to have an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) representation of orders p and p - 1. Therefore, one can perform ARMA fitting of the binned Monte Carlo fission source in order to compute physical and statistical quantities relevant to nuclear criticality analysis. In this work, the ARMA fitting of a binary Monte Carlo fission source has been successfully developed as a method to compute the dominance ratio, i.e., the ratio of the second-largest to the largest eigenvalues. The method is free of binning mesh refinement and does not require the alteration of the basic source iteration cycle algorithm. Numerical results are presented for problems with one-group isotropic, two-group linearly anisotropic, and continuous-energy cross sections. Also, a strategy for the analysis of eigenmodes higher than the second-largest eigenvalue is demonstrated numerically

  7. Mixture Analysis and Mammalian Sex Ratio Among Middle Pleistocene Mouflon of Arago Cave, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchot, Hervé

    1999-09-01

    In archaeological studies, it is often important to be able assess sexual dimorphism and sex ratios in populations. Obtaining sex ratio is easy if each individual in the population can be accurately sexed through the use of one more objective variables. But this is often impossible, due to incompleteness of the osteological record. A modern statistical approach to handle this problem is Mixture Analysis using the method of maximum likelihood. It consists of determining how many groups are present in the sample, two in this case, in which proportions they occur, and to estimate the parameters accordingly. This paper shows the use of this method on vertebrate fossil populations in a prehistoric context with implications on prey acquisition by early humans. For instance, the analysis of mouflon bones from Arago cave (Tautavel, France) indicates that there are more females than males in the F layer. According to the ethology of the animal, this indicates that the hunting strategy could be the result of selective choice of the prey. Moreover, we may deduce the presence of Anteneandertalians on the site during spring and summer periods.

  8. Improved modified energy ratio method using a multi-window approach for accurate arrival picking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minho; Byun, Joongmoo; Kim, Dowan; Choi, Jihun; Kim, Myungsun

    2017-04-01

    To identify accurately the location of microseismic events generated during hydraulic fracture stimulation, it is necessary to detect the first break of the P- and S-wave arrival times recorded at multiple receivers. These microseismic data often contain high-amplitude noise, which makes it difficult to identify the P- and S-wave arrival times. The short-term-average to long-term-average (STA/LTA) and modified energy ratio (MER) methods are based on the differences in the energy densities of the noise and signal, and are widely used to identify the P-wave arrival times. The MER method yields more consistent results than the STA/LTA method for data with a low signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. However, although the MER method shows good results regardless of the delay of the signal wavelet for signals with a high S/N ratio, it may yield poor results if the signal is contaminated by high-amplitude noise and does not have the minimum delay. Here we describe an improved MER (IMER) method, whereby we apply a multiple-windowing approach to overcome the limitations of the MER method. The IMER method contains calculations of an additional MER value using a third window (in addition to the original MER window), as well as the application of a moving average filter to each MER data point to eliminate high-frequency fluctuations in the original MER distributions. The resulting distribution makes it easier to apply thresholding. The proposed IMER method was applied to synthetic and real datasets with various S/N ratios and mixed-delay wavelets. The results show that the IMER method yields a high accuracy rate of around 80% within five sample errors for the synthetic datasets. Likewise, in the case of real datasets, 94.56% of the P-wave picking results obtained by the IMER method had a deviation of less than 0.5 ms (corresponding to 2 samples) from the manual picks.

  9. Generalized weighted ratio method for accurate turbidity measurement over a wide range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Ping; Song, Hong; Guo, Yilu; Zhan, Shuyue; Huang, Hui; Wang, Hangzhou; Tao, Bangyi; Mu, Quanquan; Xu, Jing; Li, Dejun; Chen, Ying

    2015-12-14

    Turbidity measurement is important for water quality assessment, food safety, medicine, ocean monitoring, etc. In this paper, a method that accurately estimates the turbidity over a wide range is proposed, where the turbidity of the sample is represented as a weighted ratio of the scattered light intensities at a series of angles. An improvement in the accuracy is achieved by expanding the structure of the ratio function, thus adding more flexibility to the turbidity-intensity fitting. Experiments have been carried out with an 850 nm laser and a power meter fixed on a turntable to measure the light intensity at different angles. The results show that the relative estimation error of the proposed method is 0.58% on average for a four-angle intensity combination for all test samples with a turbidity ranging from 160 NTU to 4000 NTU.

  10. Numerical studies of the flux-to-current ratio method in the KIPT neutron source facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Y.; Gohar, Y.; Zhong, Z.

    2013-01-01

    The reactivity of a subcritical assembly has to be monitored continuously in order to assure its safe operation. In this paper, the flux-to-current ratio method has been studied as an approach to provide the on-line reactivity measurement of the subcritical system. Monte Carlo numerical simulations have been performed using the KIPT neutron source facility model. It is found that the reactivity obtained from the flux-to-current ratio method is sensitive to the detector position in the subcritical assembly. However, if multiple detectors are located about 12 cm above the graphite reflector and 54 cm radially, the technique is shown to be very accurate in determining the k eff this facility in the range of 0.75 to 0.975. (authors)

  11. Source Attribution of Cyanides using Anionic Impurity Profiling, Stable Isotope Ratios, Trace Elemental Analysis and Chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirjankar, Nikhil S.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Carman, April J.; Moran, James J.

    2016-01-08

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) for chemical threat agents (CTAs) are being investigated to provide an evidentiary link between CTAs and specific sources to support criminal investigations and prosecutions. In a previous study, anionic impurity profiles developed using high performance ion chromatography (HPIC) were demonstrated as CAS for matching samples from eight potassium cyanide (KCN) stocks to their reported countries of origin. Herein, a larger number of solid KCN stocks (n = 13) and, for the first time, solid sodium cyanide (NaCN) stocks (n = 15) were examined to determine what additional sourcing information can be obtained through anion, carbon stable isotope, and elemental analyses of cyanide stocks by HPIC, isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), respectively. The HPIC anion data was evaluated using the variable selection methods of Fisher-ratio (F-ratio), interval partial least squares (iPLS), and genetic algorithm-based partial least squares (GAPLS) and the classification methods of partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLSDA), K nearest neighbors (KNN), and support vector machines discriminate analysis (SVMDA). In summary, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of anion impurity profiles from multiple cyanide stocks from six reported country of origins resulted in cyanide samples clustering into three groups: Czech Republic, Germany, and United States, independent of the associated alkali metal (K or Na). The three country groups were independently corroborated by HCA of cyanide elemental profiles and corresponded to countries with known solid cyanide factories. Both the anion and elemental CAS are believed to originate from the aqueous alkali hydroxides used in cyanide manufacture. Carbon stable isotope measurements resulted in two clusters: Germany and United States (the single Czech stock grouped with United States stocks). The carbon isotope CAS is believed to

  12. STOCHASTIC METHODS IN RISK ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra OSADSKÁ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review basic stochastic methods which can be used to extend state-of-the-art deterministic analytical methods for risk analysis. We can conclude that the standard deterministic analytical methods highly depend on the practical experience and knowledge of the evaluator and therefore, the stochastic methods should be introduced. The new risk analysis methods should consider the uncertainties in input values. We present how large is the impact on the results of the analysis solving practical example of FMECA with uncertainties modelled using Monte Carlo sampling.

  13. Liquidity Analysis Using Cash Flow Ratios as Compared to Traditional Ratios in the Pharmaceutical Sector in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Sulayman H. Atieh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the liquidity position of the Jordanian pharmaceutical sector using the traditional ratios as compared to the more recently developed cash flow ratios. The research involved the comparison between traditional ratios and cash flow ratios of the big seven companies of the pharmaceutical industry in Jordan over six years period (2007¨C2012). The companies were all from the same sector, and the data was obtained from the annual reports of these companies. T...

  14. Variability of signal-to-noise ratio and the network analysis of gravitational wave burst signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, S D; Rakhmanov, M; Klimenko, S; Mitselmakher, G

    2006-01-01

    The detection and estimation of gravitational wave burst signals, with a priori unknown polarization waveforms, requires the use of data from a network of detectors. Maximizing the network likelihood functional over all waveforms and sky positions yields point estimates for them as well as a detection statistic. However, the transformation from the data to estimates can become ill-conditioned over parts of the sky, resulting in significant errors in estimation. We modify the likelihood procedure by introducing a penalty functional which suppresses candidate solutions that display large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) variability as the source is displaced on the sky. Simulations show that the resulting network analysis method performs significantly better in estimating the sky position of a source. Further, this method can be applied to any network, irrespective of the number or mutual alignment of detectors

  15. Improvements in heavy water analysis using a ratio recording infrared spectrophotometer (Preprint No. CA-12)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutawane, U B; Alphonse, K P; Rathi, B N [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Heavy Water Div.

    1989-04-01

    With a view to optimise existing analytical procedures for routine analyses of heavy water, studies were carried out using a ratio recording instrument with and without a reference beam attenuator in infrared spectrophotometric method. Absorbance difference as well as absorbance values with different path length cells were used for measurements. Due to various practical considerations, a method based on measurement of absorbance values rather than absorbance difference was found to be convenient for all routine work. However, scanning is essential since there is slight shifting of peak position. Measurements at fixed wave lengths should generally be avoided. Use of standards for calibration of instrument is essential and frequent check of calibration is recommended. Optimum conditions for analysis of heavy water in different ranges on the instrument used in this study are tabulated. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Improvements in heavy water analysis using a ratio recording infrared spectrophotometer (Preprint No. CA-12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutawane, U.B.; Alphonse, K.P.; Rathi, B.N.

    1989-04-01

    With a view to optimise existing analytical procedures for routine analyses of heavy water, studies were carried out using a ratio recording instrument with and without a reference beam attenuator in infrared spectrophotometric method. Absorbance difference as well as absorbance values with different path length cells were used for measurements. Due to various practical considerations, a method based on measurement of absorbance values rather than absorbance difference was found to be convenient for all routine work. However, scanning is essential since there is slight shifting of peak position. Measurements at fixed wave lengths should generally be avoided. Use of standards for calibration of instrument is essential and frequent check of calibration is recommended. Optimum conditions for analysis of heavy water in different ranges on the instrument used in this study are tabulated. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  17. An improved FT-TIMS method of measuring uranium isotope ratios in the uranium-bearing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yan; Wang, Fan; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Li, Li-Li; Zhang, Yan; Shen, Yan; Chang, Zhi-Yuan; Guo, Shi-Lun; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Cui, Jian-Yong; Liu, Yu-Ang

    2015-01-01

    An improved method of Fission Track technique combined with Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (FT-TIMS) was established in order to determine isotope ratio of uranium-bearing particle. Working standard of uranium oxide particles with a defined diameter and isotopic composition were prepared and used to review the method. Results showed an excellent agreement with certified values. The developed method was used to analyze isotope ratio of single uranium-bearing particle in swipe samples successfully. The analysis results of uranium-bearing particles in swipe samples accorded with the operation history of the origin. - Highlights: • The developed method was successfully applied in the analysis of real swipe sample. • Uranium-bearing particles were confined in the middle of track detector. • The fission tracks of collodion film and PC film could be confirmed each other. • The thickness of collodion film should be no more than about 60 μm. • The method could avoid losing uranium-bearing particles in the etching step.

  18. Different methods to alter surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leber, M., E-mail: moritz.leber@utah.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shandhi, M.M.H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hogan, A. [Blackrock Microsystems, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Solzbacher, F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bhandari, R.; Negi, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Blackrock Microsystems, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Surface engineering of high aspect ratio silicon structures. - Highlights: • Multiple roughening techniques for high aspect ratio devices were investigated. • Modification of surface morphology of high aspect ratio silicon devices (1:15). • Decrease of 76% in impedance proves significant increase in surface area. - Abstract: In various applications such as neural prostheses or solar cells, there is a need to alter the surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures so that the real surface area is greater than geometrical area. The change in surface morphology enhances the devices functionality. One of the applications of altering the surface morphology is of neural implants such as the Utah electrode array (UEA) that communicate with single neurons by charge injection induced stimulation or by recording electrical neural signals. For high selectivity between single cells of the nervous system, the electrode surface area is required to be as small as possible, while the impedance is required to be as low as possible for good signal to noise ratios (SNR) during neural recording. For stimulation, high charge injection and charge transfer capacities of the electrodes are required, which increase with the electrode surface. Traditionally, researchers have worked with either increasing the roughness of the existing metallization (platinum grey, black) or other materials such as Iridium Oxide and PEDOT. All of these previously investigated methods lead to more complicated metal deposition processes that are difficult to control and often have a critical impact on the mechanical properties of the metal films. Therefore, a modification of the surface underneath the electrode's coating will increase its surface area while maintaining the standard and well controlled metal deposition process. In this work, the surfaces of the silicon micro-needles were engineered by creating a defined microstructure on the electrodes surface using several

  19. Characteristic vector analysis of inflection ratio spectra: New technique for analysis of ocean color data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grew, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    Characteristic vector analysis applied to inflection ratio spectra is a new approach to analyzing spectral data. The technique applied to remote data collected with the multichannel ocean color sensor (MOCS), a passive sensor, simultaneously maps the distribution of two different phytopigments, chlorophyll alpha and phycoerythrin, the ocean. The data set presented is from a series of warm core ring missions conducted during 1982. The data compare favorably with a theoretical model and with data collected on the same mission by an active sensor, the airborne oceanographic lidar (AOL).

  20. Basic methods of isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochkin, A.V.; Rozenkevich, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    The bases of the most applied methods of the isotope analysis are briefly presented. The possibilities and analytical characteristics of the mass-spectrometric, spectral, radiochemical and special methods of the isotope analysis, including application of the magnetic resonance, chromatography and refractometry, are considered [ru

  1. Discontinuous Galerkin method for computing gravitational waveforms from extreme mass ratio binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, Scott E; Hesthaven, Jan S; Lau, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational wave emission from extreme mass ratio binaries (EMRBs) should be detectable by the joint NASA-ESA LISA project, spurring interest in analytical and numerical methods for investigating EMRBs. We describe a discontinuous Galerkin (dG) method for solving the distributionally forced 1+1 wave equations which arise when modeling EMRBs via the perturbation theory of Schwarzschild black holes. Despite the presence of jump discontinuities in the relevant polar and axial gravitational 'master functions', our dG method achieves global spectral accuracy, provided that we know the instantaneous position, velocity and acceleration of the small particle. Here these variables are known, since we assume that the particle follows a timelike geodesic of the Schwarzschild geometry. We document the results of several numerical experiments testing our method, and in our concluding section discuss the possible inclusion of gravitational self-force effects.

  2. Novel method for equivalent stiffness and Coulomb's damping ratio analyses of leaf spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Jun, Wu; Yu, Xiang; Le Mei, Zhu; Li Jun, He

    2012-01-01

    The leaf spring is a representative type of laminated structure. Based on the linear theories of curve beams, the first derivatives of the leave's status vector of the leaf spring are provided. The first derivatives of the combination status-vector are obtained by properly dealing with the nonlinear interacted forces between adjacent leaves. Moreover, the precise integration technology and the transform matrix method are introduced to solve the equations. The force displacement curve of a leaf spring is then calculated separately by using the present method and the finite element software ANSYS. From the results, the precision and advantages of the present methods for analyzing the leaf spring are revealed. The Coulomb's damping ratio of the leaf spring is studied by using the present method

  3. A new strain gage method for measuring the contractile strain ratio of Zircaloy tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.K.; Sabol, G.P.

    1988-01-01

    An improved strain gage method for determining the contractile strain ratio (CSR) of Zircaloy tubing was developed. The new method consists of a number of load-unload cyclings at approximately 0.2% plastic strain interval. With this method the CSR of Zircaloy-4 tubing could be determined accurately because it was possible to separate the plastic strains from the elastic strain involvement. The CSR values determined by use of the new method were in good agreement with those calculated from conventional post-test manual measurements. The CSR of the tubing was found to decrease with the amount of deformation during testing because of uneven plastic flow in the gage section. A new technique of inscribing gage marks by use of a YAG laser is discussed. (orig.)

  4. Hepatic MR imaging for in vivo differentiation of steatosis, iron deposition and combined storage disorder: Single-ratio in/opposed phase analysis vs. dual-ratio Dixon discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, Mustafa R.; Merkle, Elmar M.; Smith, Alastair D.; Boll, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether in vivo dual-ratio Dixon discrimination can improve detection of diffuse liver disease, specifically steatosis, iron deposition and combined disease over traditional single-ratio in/opposed phase analysis. Methods: Seventy-one patients with biopsy-proven (17.7 ± 17.0 days) hepatic steatosis (n = 16), iron deposition (n = 11), combined deposition (n = 3) and neither disease (n = 41) underwent MR examinations. Dual-echo in/opposed-phase MR with Dixon water/fat reconstructions were acquired. Analysis consisted of: (a) single-ratio hepatic region-of-interest (ROI)-based assessment of in/opposed ratios; (b) dual-ratio hepatic ROI assessment of in/opposed and fat/water ratios; (c) computer-aided dual-ratio assessment evaluating all hepatic voxels. Disease-specific thresholds were determined; statistical analyses assessed disease-dependent voxel ratios, based on single-ratio (a) and dual-ratio (b and c) techniques. Results: Single-ratio discrimination succeeded in identifying iron deposition (I/O Ironthreshold Fatthreshold>1.15 ) from normal parenchyma, sensitivity 70.0%; it failed to detect combined disease. Dual-ratio discrimination succeeded in identifying abnormal hepatic parenchyma (F/W Normalthreshold > 0.05), sensitivity 96.7%; logarithmic functions for iron deposition (I/O Iron d iscriminator (0.01−F/W Iron )/0.48 ) and for steatosis (I/O Fatdiscriminator > e (F/W Fat −0.01)/0.48 ) differentiated combined from isolated diseases, sensitivity 100.0%; computer-aided dual-ratio analysis was comparably sensitive but less specific, 90.2% vs. 97.6%. Conclusion: MR two-point-Dixon imaging using dual-ratio post-processing based on in/opposed and fat/water ratios improved in vivo detection of hepatic steatosis, iron deposition, and combined storage disease beyond traditional in/opposed analysis.

  5. Ratio of geometric means to analyze continuous outcomes in meta-analysis: comparison to mean differences and ratio of arithmetic means using empiric data and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Jan O; Adhikari, Neill K J; Beyene, Joseph

    2012-07-30

    Meta-analyses pooling continuous outcomes can use mean differences (MD), standardized MD (MD in pooled standard deviation units, SMD), or ratio of arithmetic means (RoM). Recently, ratio of geometric means using ad hoc (RoGM (ad hoc) ) or Taylor series (RoGM (Taylor) ) methods for estimating variances have been proposed as alternative effect measures for skewed continuous data. Skewed data are suggested for summary measures of clinical parameters restricted to positive values which have large coefficients of variation (CV). Our objective was to compare performance characteristics of RoGM (ad hoc) and RoGM (Taylor) to MD, SMD, and RoM. We used empiric data from systematic reviews reporting continuous outcomes and selected from each the meta-analysis with the most and at least 5 trials (Cochrane Database [2008, Issue 1]). We supplemented this with simulations conducted with representative parameters. Pooled results were calculated using each effect measure. Of the reviews, 232/5053 met the inclusion criteria. Empiric data and simulation showed that RoGM (ad hoc) exhibits more extreme treatment effects and greater heterogeneity than all other effect measures. Compared with MD, SMD, and RoM, RoGM (Taylor) exhibits similar treatment effects, more heterogeneity when CV ≤0.7, and less heterogeneity when CV > 0.7. In conclusion, RoGM (Taylor) may be considered for pooling continuous outcomes in meta-analysis when data are skewed, but RoGM (ad hoc) should not be used. However, clinicians' lack of familiarity with geometric means combined with acceptable performance characteristics of RoM in most situations suggests that RoM may be the preferable ratio method for pooling continuous outcomes in meta-analysis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana Tapia

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  7. A Feature Selection Method Based on Fisher's Discriminant Ratio for Text Sentiment Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Suge; Li, Deyu; Wei, Yingjie; Li, Hongxia

    With the rapid growth of e-commerce, product reviews on the Web have become an important information source for customers' decision making when they intend to buy some product. As the reviews are often too many for customers to go through, how to automatically classify them into different sentiment orientation categories (i.e. positive/negative) has become a research problem. In this paper, based on Fisher's discriminant ratio, an effective feature selection method is proposed for product review text sentiment classification. In order to validate the validity of the proposed method, we compared it with other methods respectively based on information gain and mutual information while support vector machine is adopted as the classifier. In this paper, 6 subexperiments are conducted by combining different feature selection methods with 2 kinds of candidate feature sets. Under 1006 review documents of cars, the experimental results indicate that the Fisher's discriminant ratio based on word frequency estimation has the best performance with F value 83.3% while the candidate features are the words which appear in both positive and negative texts.

  8. Analytic expressions of amplitudes by the cross-ratio identity method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Kang

    2017-01-01

    In order to obtain the analytic expression of an amplitude from a generic CHY-integrand, a new algorithm based on the so-called cross-ratio identities has been proposed recently. In this paper, we apply this new approach to a variety of theories including the non-linear sigma model, special Galileon theory, pure Yang-Mills theory, pure gravity, Born-Infeld theory, Dirac-Born-Infeld theory and its extension, Yang-Mills-scalar theory, and Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. CHY-integrands of these theories which contain higher-order poles can be calculated conveniently by using the cross-ratio identity method, and all results above have been verified numerically. (orig.)

  9. New titrimetric method for oxygen to metal ratio in uranium oxide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Vinod Kumar; Brahmananda Reddy, G.; Balaji Rao, Y.; Subba Rao, Y.

    2015-01-01

    O/U ratio is of high importance to both U 3 O 8 and UO 2 powders for different reasons. In UO 2 powder it is a guiding parameter for sintering process where as for U 3 O 8 , it indicates efficiency of ammonium di-uranate (ADU) to U 3 O 8 conversion process. In the present method for O/U determination, UO 2 and U 3 O 8 powders are dissolved in 4.5 M sulphuric acid and little HF by heating on hot plate. Subsequently, optimized quantity of phosphoric acid is added on cooling, for getting sharp end point. The resultant solution is titrated with standard potassium dichromate using barium diphenylamine sulphonate (BDS) as an indicator. The expanded uncertainties calculated for UO 2 and U 3 O 8 powders are ±0.004 and ±0.006 O/U ratio units respectively at 95 % confidence level. (author)

  10. Analytic expressions of amplitudes by the cross-ratio identity method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Kang [Zhejiang University, Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics, Hangzhou (China)

    2017-06-15

    In order to obtain the analytic expression of an amplitude from a generic CHY-integrand, a new algorithm based on the so-called cross-ratio identities has been proposed recently. In this paper, we apply this new approach to a variety of theories including the non-linear sigma model, special Galileon theory, pure Yang-Mills theory, pure gravity, Born-Infeld theory, Dirac-Born-Infeld theory and its extension, Yang-Mills-scalar theory, and Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. CHY-integrands of these theories which contain higher-order poles can be calculated conveniently by using the cross-ratio identity method, and all results above have been verified numerically. (orig.)

  11. Practical Guidance for Conducting Mediation Analysis With Multiple Mediators Using Inverse Odds Ratio Weighting

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quynh C.; Osypuk, Theresa L.; Schmidt, Nicole M.; Glymour, M. Maria; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent flourishing of mediation analysis techniques, many modern approaches are difficult to implement or applicable to only a restricted range of regression models. This report provides practical guidance for implementing a new technique utilizing inverse odds ratio weighting (IORW) to estimate natural direct and indirect effects for mediation analyses. IORW takes advantage of the odds ratio's invariance property and condenses information on the odds ratio for the relationship be...

  12. Accuracy of signal-to-noise ratio measurement method for magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Akio; Miyai, Akira; Maeda, Fumie; Fukutake, Hiroyuki; Kikumoto, Rikiya

    2003-01-01

    The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a magnetic resonance image is a common measure of imager performance. However, evaluations for the calculation of the SNR use various methods. A problem with measuring SNR is caused by the distortion of noise statistics in commonly used magnitude images. In this study, measurement accuracy was compared among four methods of evaluating SNR according to the size and position of regions of interest (ROIs). The results indicated that the method that used the difference between two images showed the best agreement with the theoretical value. In the method that used a single image, the SNR calculated by using a small size of ROI showed better agreement with the theoretical value because of noise bias and image artifacts. However, in the method that used the difference between two images, a large size of ROI was better in reducing statistical errors. In the same way, the methods that used air noise and air signal were better when applied to a large ROI. In addition, the image subtraction process used to calculate pixel-by-pixel differences in images may reach zero on a minus pixel value when using an image processor with the MRI system and apparatuses associated with it. A revised equation is presented for this case. It is important to understand the characteristics of each method and to choose a suitable method carefully according to the purpose of the study. (author)

  13. Sequential Probability Ratio Testing with Power Projective Base Method Improves Decision-Making for BCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining a fast and reliable decision is an important issue in brain-computer interfaces (BCI), particularly in practical real-time applications such as wheelchair or neuroprosthetic control. In this study, the EEG signals were firstly analyzed with a power projective base method. Then we were applied a decision-making model, the sequential probability ratio testing (SPRT), for single-trial classification of motor imagery movement events. The unique strength of this proposed classification method lies in its accumulative process, which increases the discriminative power as more and more evidence is observed over time. The properties of the method were illustrated on thirteen subjects' recordings from three datasets. Results showed that our proposed power projective method outperformed two benchmark methods for every subject. Moreover, with sequential classifier, the accuracies across subjects were significantly higher than that with nonsequential ones. The average maximum accuracy of the SPRT method was 84.1%, as compared with 82.3% accuracy for the sequential Bayesian (SB) method. The proposed SPRT method provides an explicit relationship between stopping time, thresholds, and error, which is important for balancing the time-accuracy trade-off. These results suggest SPRT would be useful in speeding up decision-making while trading off errors in BCI. PMID:29348781

  14. A Novel Quasi-3D Method for Cascade Flow Considering Axial Velocity Density Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Ming; Xu, Quanyong; Huang, Xudong

    2018-03-01

    A novel quasi-3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method of mid-span flow simulation for compressor cascades is proposed. Two dimension (2D) Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method is shown facing challenge in predicting mid-span flow with a unity Axial Velocity Density Ratio (AVDR). Three dimension (3D) RANS solution also shows distinct discrepancies if the AVDR is not predicted correctly. In this paper, 2D and 3D CFD results discrepancies are analyzed and a novel quasi-3D CFD method is proposed. The new quasi-3D model is derived by reducing 3D RANS Finite Volume Method (FVM) discretization over a one-spanwise-layer structured mesh cell. The sidewall effect is considered by two parts. The first part is explicit interface fluxes of mass, momentum and energy as well as turbulence. The second part is a cell boundary scaling factor representing sidewall boundary layer contraction. The performance of the novel quasi-3D method is validated on mid-span pressure distribution, pressure loss and shock prediction of two typical cascades. The results show good agreement with the experiment data on cascade SJ301-20 and cascade AC6-10 at all test condition. The proposed quasi-3D method shows superior accuracy over traditional 2D RANS method and 3D RANS method in performance prediction of compressor cascade.

  15. Mechanical properties investigation on single-wall ZrO2 nanotubes: A finite element method with equivalent Poisson's ratio for chemical bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Li, Huijian; Hu, Minzheng; Liu, Zeliang; Wärnå, John; Cao, Yuying; Ahuja, Rajeev; Luo, Wei

    2018-04-01

    A method to obtain the equivalent Poisson's ratio in chemical bonds as classical beams with finite element method was proposed from experimental data. The UFF (Universal Force Field) method was employed to calculate the elastic force constants of Zrsbnd O bonds. By applying the equivalent Poisson's ratio, the mechanical properties of single-wall ZrNTs (ZrO2 nanotubes) were investigated by finite element analysis. The nanotubes' Young's modulus (Y), Poisson's ratio (ν) of ZrNTs as function of diameters, length and chirality have been discussed, respectively. We found that the Young's modulus of single-wall ZrNTs is calculated to be between 350 and 420 GPa.

  16. Hepatoblastoma Biology Using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry: Utility of a Unique Technique for the Analysis of Oncological Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Taran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary liver tumor in children. However, it occurs rarely, with an incidence of 0.5-1.5 cases per million children. There is no clear explanation of the relationship between clinicopathologic features, therapy, and outcome in hepatoblastoma cases, so far. One of the most widely accepted prognostic factors in hepatoblastoma is histology of the tumor. The aim of the study was to determine the potential differences in biology of hepatoblastoma histological subtypes at the atomic level using the unique method of isotope ratio mass spectrometry, which is especially valuable in examination of small groups of biological samples.Material/Methods: Twenty-four measurements of nitrogen stable isotope ratio, carbon stable isotope ratio and total carbon to nitrogen mass ratio in fetal and embryonal hepatoblastoma tissue were performed using a Sercon 20-22 Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (CF-IRMS coupled with a Sercon SL elemental analyzer for simultaneous carbon-nitrogen-sulfur (NCS analysis.Results: A difference of about 1.781‰ in stable nitrogen isotope 15N/14N ratio was found between examined hepatoblastoma histological subtypes.Conclusions: The prognosis in liver tumors cases in children may be challenging particularly because of the lack of versatile methods of its evaluation. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry allows one to determine the difference between hepatoblastoma histological subtypes and clearly indicates the cases with the best outcome.

  17. A Financial Ratio Analysis of For-Profit and Non-Profit Rural Referral Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J.; Nayar, Preethy

    2009-01-01

    Context: National financial data show that rural referral center (RRC) hospitals have performed well financially. RRC hospitals' median cash flow margin ratio was 10.04% in 2002 and grew to 11.04% in 2004. Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the ratio analysis of key operational and financial performance measures of for-profit RRCs to…

  18. Likelihood ratio data to report the validation of a forensic fingerprint evaluation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ramos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Data to which the authors refer to throughout this article are likelihood ratios (LR computed from the comparison of 5–12 minutiae fingermarks with fingerprints. These LRs data are used for the validation of a likelihood ratio (LR method in forensic evidence evaluation. These data present a necessary asset for conducting validation experiments when validating LR methods used in forensic evidence evaluation and set up validation reports. These data can be also used as a baseline for comparing the fingermark evidence in the same minutiae configuration as presented in (D. Meuwly, D. Ramos, R. Haraksim, [1], although the reader should keep in mind that different feature extraction algorithms and different AFIS systems used may produce different LRs values. Moreover, these data may serve as a reproducibility exercise, in order to train the generation of validation reports of forensic methods, according to [1]. Alongside the data, a justification and motivation for the use of methods is given. These methods calculate LRs from the fingerprint/mark data and are subject to a validation procedure. The choice of using real forensic fingerprint in the validation and simulated data in the development is described and justified. Validation criteria are set for the purpose of validation of the LR methods, which are used to calculate the LR values from the data and the validation report. For privacy and data protection reasons, the original fingerprint/mark images cannot be shared. But these images do not constitute the core data for the validation, contrarily to the LRs that are shared.

  19. A method for determination of [Fe3+]/[Fe2+] ratio in superparamagnetic iron oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changzhao; Yang, Siyu; Gan, Neng; Pan, Hongchun; Liu, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION), as a kind of nanophase materials, are widely used in biomedical application, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), drug delivery, and magnetic field assisted therapy. The magnetic property of SPION has close connection with its crystal structure, namely it is related to the ratio of Fe3+ and Fe2+ which form the SPION. So a simple way to determine the content of the Fe3+ and Fe2+ is important for researching the property of SPION. This review covers a method for determination of the Fe3+ and Fe2+ ratio in SPION by UV-vis spectrophotometry based the reaction of Fe2+ and 1,10-phenanthroline. The standard curve of Fe with R2 = 0.9999 is used for determination the content of Fe2+ and total iron with 2.5 mL 0.01% (w/v) SPION digested by HCl, pH = 4.30 HOAc-NaAc buffer 10 mL, 0.01% (w/v) 1,10-phenanthroline 5 mL and 10% (w/v) ascorbic acid 1 mL for total iron determine independently. But the presence of Fe3+ interfere with obtaining the actual value of Fe2+ (the error close to 9%). We designed a calibration curve to eliminate the error by devising a series of solution of different ratio of [Fe3+]/[Fe2+], and obtain the calibration curve. Through the calibration curve, the error between the measured value and the actual value can be reduced to 0.4%. The R2 of linearity of the method is 0.99441 and 0.99929 for Fe2+ and total iron respectively. The error of accuracy of recovery and precision of inter-day and intra-day are both lower than 2%, which can prove the reliability of the determination method.

  20. Probabilistic methods for rotordynamics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Torng, T. Y.; Millwater, H. R.; Fossum, A. F.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of the methods and a computer program to compute the probability of instability of dynamic systems that can be represented by a system of second-order ordinary linear differential equations. Two instability criteria based upon the eigenvalues or Routh-Hurwitz test functions are investigated. Computational methods based on a fast probability integration concept and an efficient adaptive importance sampling method are proposed to perform efficient probabilistic analysis. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the methods.

  1. A numerical test method of California bearing ratio on graded crushed rocks using particle flow modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjun Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the mechanical properties of graded crushed rocks (GCRs and to optimize the relevant design, a numerical test method based on the particle flow modeling technique PFC2D is developed for the California bearing ratio (CBR test on GCRs. The effects of different testing conditions and micro-mechanical parameters used in the model on the CBR numerical results have been systematically studied. The reliability of the numerical technique is verified. The numerical results suggest that the influences of the loading rate and Poisson's ratio on the CBR numerical test results are not significant. As such, a loading rate of 1.0–3.0 mm/min, a piston diameter of 5 cm, a specimen height of 15 cm and a specimen diameter of 15 cm are adopted for the CBR numerical test. The numerical results reveal that the CBR values increase with the friction coefficient at the contact and shear modulus of the rocks, while the influence of Poisson's ratio on the CBR values is insignificant. The close agreement between the CBR numerical results and experimental results suggests that the numerical simulation of the CBR values is promising to help assess the mechanical properties of GCRs and to optimize the grading design. Besides, the numerical study can provide useful insights on the mesoscopic mechanism.

  2. Similarity ratio analysis for early stage fault detection with optical emission spectrometer in plasma etching process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    Full Text Available A Similarity Ratio Analysis (SRA method is proposed for early-stage Fault Detection (FD in plasma etching processes using real-time Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES data as input. The SRA method can help to realise a highly precise control system by detecting abnormal etch-rate faults in real-time during an etching process. The method processes spectrum scans at successive time points and uses a windowing mechanism over the time series to alleviate problems with timing uncertainties due to process shift from one process run to another. A SRA library is first built to capture features of a healthy etching process. By comparing with the SRA library, a Similarity Ratio (SR statistic is then calculated for each spectrum scan as the monitored process progresses. A fault detection mechanism, named 3-Warning-1-Alarm (3W1A, takes the SR values as inputs and triggers a system alarm when certain conditions are satisfied. This design reduces the chance of false alarm, and provides a reliable fault reporting service. The SRA method is demonstrated on a real semiconductor manufacturing dataset. The effectiveness of SRA-based fault detection is evaluated using a time-series SR test and also using a post-process SR test. The time-series SR provides an early-stage fault detection service, so less energy and materials will be wasted by faulty processing. The post-process SR provides a fault detection service with higher reliability than the time-series SR, but with fault testing conducted only after each process run completes.

  3. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T...

  4. Analysis apparatus and method of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A continuous streaming method developed for the excution of immunoassays is described in this patent. In addition, a suitable apparatus for the method was developed whereby magnetic particles are automatically employed for the consecutive analysis of a series of liquid samples via the RIA technique

  5. Alternative method for variable aspect ratio vias using a vortex mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepis, Anthony R.; Levinson, Zac; Burbine, Andrew; Smith, Bruce W.

    2014-03-01

    Historically IC (integrated circuit) device scaling has bridged the gap between technology nodes. Device size reduction is enabled by increased pattern density, enhancing functionality and effectively reducing cost per chip. Exemplifying this trend are aggressive reductions in memory cell sizes that have resulted in systems with diminishing area between bit/word lines. This affords an even greater challenge in the patterning of contact level features that are inherently difficult to resolve because of their relatively small area and complex aerial image. To accommodate these trends, semiconductor device design has shifted toward the implementation of elliptical contact features. This empowers designers to maximize the use of free device space, preserving contact area and effectively reducing the via dimension just along a single axis. It is therefore critical to provide methods that enhance the resolving capacity of varying aspect ratio vias for implementation in electronic design systems. Vortex masks, characterized by their helically induced propagation of light and consequent dark core, afford great potential for the patterning of such features when coupled with a high resolution negative tone resist system. This study investigates the integration of a vortex mask in a 193nm immersion (193i) lithography system and qualifies its ability to augment aspect ratio through feature density using aerial image vector simulation. It was found that vortex fabricated vias provide a distinct resolution advantage over traditionally patterned contact features employing a 6% attenuated phase shift mask (APM). 1:1 features were resolvable at 110nm pitch with a 38nm critical dimension (CD) and 110nm depth of focus (DOF) at 10% exposure latitude (EL). Furthermore, iterative source-mask optimization was executed as means to augment aspect ratio. By employing mask asymmetries and directionally biased sources aspect ratios ranging between 1:1 and 2:1 were achievable, however, this

  6. Sex ratio and time to pregnancy: analysis of four large European population surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, Mike; Bennett, James; Best, Nicky

    2007-01-01

    To test whether the secondary sex ratio (proportion of male births) is associated with time to pregnancy, a marker of fertility. Design Analysis of four large population surveys. Setting Denmark and the United Kingdom. Participants 49 506 pregnancies.......To test whether the secondary sex ratio (proportion of male births) is associated with time to pregnancy, a marker of fertility. Design Analysis of four large population surveys. Setting Denmark and the United Kingdom. Participants 49 506 pregnancies....

  7. Sr/Ca mass ratio determination in bones using fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hult, Mikael; Fessler, Andreas

    1998-01-01

    The Sr/Ca mass ratio in human bones reveals information regarding the diet which is of interest in archaeology. By using fast neutron activation analysis this ratio can be measured in a non-destructive manner, which is important when bones are considered too precious to allow for destructive analysis. Simulations and measurements showed that the nuclear reactions 88 Sr(n, 2n) 87m Sr and 44 Ca(n, p) 44 K are highly useful for the purpose

  8. Comprehensive assessment of firm financial performance using financial ratios and linguistic analysis of annual reports

    OpenAIRE

    Renáta Myšková; Petr Hájek

    2017-01-01

    Indicators of financial performance, especially financial ratio analysis, have become important financial decision-support information used by firm management and other stakeholders to assess financial stability and growth potential. However, additional information may be hidden in management communication. The article deals with the analysis of the annual reports of U.S. firms from both points of view, a financial one based on a set of financial ratios, and a linguistic one based on the anal...

  9. Short Circuit Ratio analysis of multi-infeed HVDC system with a VSC-HVDC link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    As an important indicator of system stability, Short Circuit Ratio (SCR) is commonly used in power system analysis. For systems include HVDC link connection, the Effective SCR (ESCR) is mostly applied to indicate the strength of HVDC infeed bus. The contribution of VSC-HVDC link to multi......-infeed HVDC system stability has been analyzed a lot but the study on ESCR of this kind of system is still insufficient. This paper presents a calculation method for ESCR of the hybrid multi infeed HVDC system based on a simple two-infeed HVDC system model. The equivalent circuit of this system under short...... circuit situation is firstly obtained based on the model. Then its Thevenin equivalent circuit is derived and system ESCR can be calculated. At last, simulation study verified that the calculated ESCR value under different cases can indicate the change of system stability....

  10. Nonlinear programming analysis and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avriel, Mordecai

    2012-01-01

    This text provides an excellent bridge between principal theories and concepts and their practical implementation. Topics include convex programming, duality, generalized convexity, analysis of selected nonlinear programs, techniques for numerical solutions, and unconstrained optimization methods.

  11. Chemical methods of rock analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D

    1981-01-01

    A practical guide to the methods in general use for the complete analysis of silicate rock material and for the determination of all those elements present in major, minor or trace amounts in silicate...

  12. Evaluation of atmospheric particulate concentrations derived from analysis of ratio Thematic Mapper data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, W. H.; Mausel, P. W.; Zhou, G. P.

    1984-01-01

    An approach for atmospheric particulate concentration evaluation above urban areas using ratio Thematic Mapper (TM) data is discussed. October 25, 1982 TM data over Chicago, IL are analyzed using TM band ratios of 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, and 1/6 and particulate concentration estimates derived from TM ratios are tested over low reflective turbid water sites and highly reflective concrete highways. From analysis of the data it is evident that for water, the pattern of increasing particulate concentration is associated with decreasing ratio values in all band combinations used. Over concrete features, the TM band 1/4 ratio values follow the predicted pattern, while the TM band 1/6 has ratios which are reversed from anticipated values.

  13. 15N/14N isotopic ratio and statistical analysis: an efficient way of linking seized Ecstasy tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palhol, Fabien; Lamoureux, Catherine; Chabrillat, Martine; Naulet, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the 15 N/ 14 N isotopic ratios of 106 samples of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) extracted from Ecstasy tablets are presented. These ratios, measured using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS), show a large discrimination between samples with a range of δ 15 N values between -17 and +19%o, depending on the precursors and the method used in clandestine laboratories. Thus, δ 15 N values can be used in a statistical analysis carried out in order to link Ecstasy tablets prepared with the same precursors and synthetic pathway. The similarity index obtained after principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis appears to be an efficient way to group tablets seized in different places

  14. {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N isotopic ratio and statistical analysis: an efficient way of linking seized Ecstasy tablets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhol, Fabien; Lamoureux, Catherine; Chabrillat, Martine; Naulet, Norbert

    2004-05-10

    In this study, the {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N isotopic ratios of 106 samples of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) extracted from Ecstasy tablets are presented. These ratios, measured using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS), show a large discrimination between samples with a range of {delta}{sup 15}N values between -17 and +19%o, depending on the precursors and the method used in clandestine laboratories. Thus, {delta}{sup 15}N values can be used in a statistical analysis carried out in order to link Ecstasy tablets prepared with the same precursors and synthetic pathway. The similarity index obtained after principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis appears to be an efficient way to group tablets seized in different places.

  15. Review of strain buckling: analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, D.

    1987-01-01

    This report represents an attempt to review the mechanical analysis methods reported in the literature to account for the specific behaviour that we call buckling under strain. In this report, this expression covers all buckling mechanisms in which the strains imposed play a role, whether they act alone (as in simple buckling under controlled strain), or whether they act with other loadings (primary loading, such as pressure, for example). Attention is focused on the practical problems relevant to LMFBR reactors. The components concerned are distinguished by their high slenderness ratios and by rather high thermal levels, both constant and variable with time. Conventional static buckling analysis methods are not always appropriate for the consideration of buckling under strain. New methods must therefore be developed in certain cases. It is also hoped that this review will facilitate the coding of these analytical methods to aid the constructor in his design task and to identify the areas which merit further investigation

  16. Forecast and analysis of the ratio of electric energy to terminal energy consumption for global energy internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhong, Ming; Cheng, Ling; Jin, Lu; Shen, Si

    2018-02-01

    In the background of building global energy internet, it has both theoretical and realistic significance for forecasting and analysing the ratio of electric energy to terminal energy consumption. This paper firstly analysed the influencing factors of the ratio of electric energy to terminal energy and then used combination method to forecast and analyse the global proportion of electric energy. And then, construct the cointegration model for the proportion of electric energy by using influence factor such as electricity price index, GDP, economic structure, energy use efficiency and total population level. At last, this paper got prediction map of the proportion of electric energy by using the combination-forecasting model based on multiple linear regression method, trend analysis method, and variance-covariance method. This map describes the development trend of the proportion of electric energy in 2017-2050 and the proportion of electric energy in 2050 was analysed in detail using scenario analysis.

  17. Determination of SB2 masses and age: introduction of the mass ratio in the Bayesian analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarrusso, M.; Leone, F.; Tognelli, E.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Prada Moroni, P. G.

    2018-04-01

    Stellar age assignment still represents a difficult task in Astrophysics. This unobservable fundamental parameter can be estimated only through indirect methods, as well as generally the mass. Bayesian analysis is a statistical approach largely used to derive stellar properties by taking into account the available information about the quantities we are looking for. In this paper we propose to apply the method to the double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2), for which the only available information about masses is the observed mass ratio of the two components. We validated the method on a synthetic sample of Pre-Main Sequence (PMS) SB2 systems showing the capability of the technique to recover the simulated age and masses. Then, we applied our procedure to the PMS eclipsing binaries Parenago 1802 and RX J0529.4+0041 A, whose masses of both components are known, by treating them as SB2 systems. The estimated masses are in agreement with those dynamically measured. We conclude that the method, if based on high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopy, represents a robust way to infer the masses of the very numerous SB2 systems together with their age, allowing to date the hosting astrophysical environments.

  18. Determination of SB2 masses and age: introduction of the mass ratio in the Bayesian analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarrusso, M.; Leone, F.; Tognelli, E.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Prada Moroni, P. G.

    2018-07-01

    Stellar age assignment still represents a difficult task in Astrophysics. This unobservable fundamental parameter can be estimated only through indirect methods, as well as generally the mass. Bayesian analysis is a statistical approach largely used to derive stellar properties by taking into account the available information about the quantities we are looking for. In this paper, we propose to apply the method to the double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2), for which the only available information about masses is the observed mass ratio of the two components. We validated the method on a synthetic sample of pre-main-sequence (PMS) SB2 systems showing the capability of the technique to recover the simulated age and masses. Then, we applied our procedure to the PMS eclipsing binaries Parenago 1802 and RX J0529.4+0041 A, whose masses of both components are known, by treating them as SB2 systems. The estimated masses are in agreement with those dynamically measured. We conclude that the method, if based on high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopy, represents a robust way to infer the masses of the very numerous SB2 systems together with their age, allowing to date the hosting astrophysical environments.

  19. A new approach for the analysis of facial growth and age estimation: Iris ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Palhares Machado

    Full Text Available The study of facial growth is explored in many fields of science, including anatomy, genetics, and forensics. In the field of forensics, it acts as a valuable tool for combating child pornography. The present research proposes a new method, based on relative measurements and fixed references of the human face-specifically considering measurements of the diameter of the iris (iris ratio-for the analysis of facial growth in association with age in children and sub-adults. The experimental sample consisted of digital photographs of 1000 Brazilian subjects, aged between 6 and 22 years, distributed equally by sex and divided into five specific age groups (6, 10, 14, 18, and 22 year olds ± one month. The software package SAFF-2D® (Forensic Facial Analysis System, Brazilian Federal Police, Brazil was used for positioning 11 landmarks on the images. Ten measurements were calculated and used as fixed references to evaluate the growth of the other measurements for each age group, as well the accumulated growth (6-22 years old. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC was applied for the evaluation of intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliability within a specific set of images. Pearson's Correlation Coefficient was used to assess the association between each measurement taken and the respective age groups. ANOVA and Post-hoc Tukey tests were used to search for statistical differences between the age groups. The outcomes indicated that facial structures grow with different timing in children and adolescents. Moreover, the growth allometry expressed in this study may be used to understand what structures have more or less proportional variation in function for the age ranges studied. The diameter of the iris was found to be the most stable measurement compared to the others and represented the best cephalometric measurement as a fixed reference for facial growth ratios (or indices. The method described shows promising potential for forensic

  20. Fabrication method to create high-aspect ratio pillars for photonic coupling of board level interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaes, C.; Van Erps, J.; Karppinen, M.; Hiltunen, J.; Suyal, H.; Last, A.; Lee, M. G.; Karioja, P.; Taghizadeh, M.; Mohr, J.; Thienpont, H.; Glebov, A. L.

    2008-04-01

    An important challenge that remains to date in board level optical interconnects is the coupling between the optical waveguides on printed wiring boards and the packaged optoelectronics chips, which are preferably surface mountable on the boards. One possible solution is the use of Ball Grid Array (BGA) packages. This approach offers a reliable attachment despite the large CTE mismatch between the organic FR4 board and the semiconductor materials. Collimation via micro-lenses is here typically deployed to couple the light vertically from the waveguide substrate to the optoelectronics while allowing for a small misalignment between board and package. In this work, we explore the fabrication issues of an alternative approach in which the vertical photonic connection between board and package is governed by a micro-optical pillar which is attached both to the board substrate and to the optoelectronic chips. Such an approach allows for high density connections and small, high-speed detector footprints while maintaining an acceptable tolerance between board and package. The pillar should exhibit some flexibility and thus a high-aspect ratio is preferred. This work presents and compares different fabrication methods and applies different materials for such high-aspect ratio pillars. The different fabrication methods are: photolithography, direct laser writing and deep proton writing. The selection of optical materials that was investigated is: SU8, Ormocers, PU and a multifunctional acrylate polymer. The resulting optical pillars have diameters ranging from 20um up to 80um, with total heights ranging between 30um and 100um (symbol for micron). The aspect-ratio of the fabricated structures ranges from 1.5 to 5.

  1. Searching for degenerate Higgs bosons using a profile likelihood ratio method

    CERN Document Server

    Heikkilä, Jaana

    ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider have observed a new resonance con- sistent with the standard model Higgs boson. However, it has been suggested that the observed signal could also be produced by multiple nearly mass-degenerate states that couple differently to the standard model particles. In this work, a method to discriminate between the hypothesis of a single Higgs boson and that of multiple mass-degenerate Higgs bosons was developed. Using the matrix of measured signal strengths in different production and decay modes, parametrizations for the two hypotheses were constructed as a general rank 1 matrix and the most general $5 \\times 4$ matrix, respectively. The test statistic was defined as a ratio of profile likelihoods for the two hypotheses. The method was applied to the CMS measurements. The expected test statistic distribution was estimated twice by generating pseudo-experiments according to both the standard model hypothesis and the single Higgs boson hypothesis best fitting...

  2. Air-fuel ratio control of a lean burn Si engine using fuzzy self tuning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhlaghi, M.; Bakhtiari Nejad, F.; Azadi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Reducing the exhaust emission of an spark ignition engine by means of engine modifications requires consideration of the effects of these modifications on the variations of crankshaft torque and the engine roughness respectively. Only if the roughness does not exceed a certain level the vehicle do not begin to surge. This paper presents a method for controlling the air-fuel ratio for a lean burn engine. Fuzzy rules and reasoning are utilized on-line to determine the control parameters. The main advantages of this method are simple structure and robust performance in a wide range of operating conditions. A non-linear model of an Si engine with the engine torque irregularity simulation is used in this study

  3. Hepatoblastoma Biology Using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry: Utility of a Unique Technique for the Analysis of Oncological Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, Katarzyna; Frączek, Tomasz; Sitkiewicz, Anna; Sikora-Szubert, Anita; Kobos, Józef; Paneth, Piotr

    2016-07-07

    Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary liver tumor in children. However, it occurs rarely, with an incidence of 0.5-1.5 cases per million children. There is no clear explanation of the relationship between clinicopathologic features, therapy, and outcome in hepatoblastoma cases, so far. One of the most widely accepted prognostic factors in hepatoblastoma is histology of the tumor. The aim of the study was to determine the potential differences in biology of hepatoblastoma histological subtypes at the atomic level using the unique method of isotope ratio mass spectrometry, which is especially valuable in examination of small groups of biological samples. Twenty-four measurements of nitrogen stable isotope ratio, carbon stable isotope ratio and total carbon to nitrogen mass ratio in fetal and embryonal hepatoblastoma tissue were performed using a Sercon 20-22 Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (CF-IRMS) coupled with a Sercon SL elemental analyzer for simultaneous carbon-nitrogen-sulfur (NCS) analysis. A difference of about 1.781‰ in stable nitrogen isotope 15N/14N ratio was found between examined hepatoblastoma histological subtypes. The prognosis in liver tumors cases in children may be challenging particularly because of the lack of versatile methods of its evaluation. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry allows one to determine the difference between hepatoblastoma histological subtypes and clearly indicates the cases with the best outcome.

  4. Green Pharmaceutical Analysis of Drugs Coformulated with Highly Different Concentrations Using Spiking and Manipulation of Their Ratio Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Bassam M

    2017-07-01

    Introducing green analysis to pharmaceutical products is considered a significant approach to preserving the environment. This method can be an environmentally friendly alternative to the existing methods, accompanied by a validated automated procedure for the analysis of a drug with the lowest possible number of samples. Different simple spectrophotometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of empagliflozin (EG) and metformin (MT) by manipulating their ratio spectra in their application on a recently approved pharmaceutical combination, Synjardy tablets. A spiking technique was used to increase the concentration of EG in samples prepared from the tablets to allow for the simultaneous determination of EG with MT without prior separation. Validation parameters according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines were acceptable over a concentration range of 2-12 μg/mL for both drugs using derivative ratio and ratio subtraction coupled with extended ratio subtraction. The optimized methods were compared using one-way analysis of variance and proved to be suitable as ecofriendly approaches for industrial QC laboratories.

  5. A guideline for the validation of likelihood ratio methods used for forensic evidence evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwly, Didier; Ramos, Daniel; Haraksim, Rudolf

    2017-07-01

    This Guideline proposes a protocol for the validation of forensic evaluation methods at the source level, using the Likelihood Ratio framework as defined within the Bayes' inference model. In the context of the inference of identity of source, the Likelihood Ratio is used to evaluate the strength of the evidence for a trace specimen, e.g. a fingermark, and a reference specimen, e.g. a fingerprint, to originate from common or different sources. Some theoretical aspects of probabilities necessary for this Guideline were discussed prior to its elaboration, which started after a workshop of forensic researchers and practitioners involved in this topic. In the workshop, the following questions were addressed: "which aspects of a forensic evaluation scenario need to be validated?", "what is the role of the LR as part of a decision process?" and "how to deal with uncertainty in the LR calculation?". The questions: "what to validate?" focuses on the validation methods and criteria and "how to validate?" deals with the implementation of the validation protocol. Answers to these questions were deemed necessary with several objectives. First, concepts typical for validation standards [1], such as performance characteristics, performance metrics and validation criteria, will be adapted or applied by analogy to the LR framework. Second, a validation strategy will be defined. Third, validation methods will be described. Finally, a validation protocol and an example of validation report will be proposed, which can be applied to the forensic fields developing and validating LR methods for the evaluation of the strength of evidence at source level under the following propositions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Romanian wines characterization with CF-IRMS (Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) isotopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costinel, Diana; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Vremera, Raluca; Stanciu, Vasile

    2007-01-01

    Wine growing has been known for centuries long in Romania. The country has been favored by its geographical position in south-eastern Europe, by its proximity to the Black Sea, as well as by the specificity of the local soil and climate. Alongside France, Italy, Spain, Germany, countries in this area like Romania could also be called 'a vine homeland' in Europe. High quality wines produced in this region were object of trade ever since ancient times. Under current EU research projects, it is necessary to develop new methods of evidencing wine adulteration and safety. The use of mass spectrometry (MS) to determine the ratios of stable isotopes in bio-molecules now provides the means to prove the botanical and geographical origin of a wide variety of foodstuffs - and therefore, to authenticate and eliminate fraud. Isotope analysis has been officially adopted by the EU as a means of controlling adulteration of wine. Adulteration of wine can happen in many ways, e.g. addition of non-grape ethanol, addition of non-grape sugar, water or other unauthorized substances, undeclared mixing of wines from different wards, geographical areas or countries, mislabelling of variety and age. The present paper emphasize the isotopic analysis for D/H, 18 O/ 16 O, 13 C/ 12 C from wines, using a new generation Isotope Ratio MS, Finnigan Delta V Plus, coupling with a three flexible continuous flow preparation device (GasBench II, TC Elemental Analyser and GC-C/TC). Therefore authentication of wines is an important problem to which isotopic analysis has made a significant contribution. (authors)

  7. Analysis of syringyl and guaiacyl (S/G) ratio in lignin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spark, A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available the acidolysis products – Validate the new S/G ratio method Why are S/G ratios important? Gives a good indication of the reactivity of the lignin Experimental design Literature Review Establishing Acidolysis conditions Permanganate oxidation Lignin...-method is quick • Permanganate oxidation-method is slow but it is the standard method used at present • Nitrobenzene Oxidation, Pyrolysis, Cupric Oxidation and Thioacidolysis Lignin can be broken down to syringyl and guaiacyl subunits: OCH3 OH OCH3 OH...

  8. Seismic design and analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varpasuo, P.

    1993-01-01

    Seismic load is in many areas of the world the most important loading situation from the point of view of structural strength. Taking this into account it is understandable, that there has been a strong allocation of resources in the seismic analysis during the past ten years. In this study there are three areas of the center of gravity: (1) Random vibrations; (2) Soil-structure interaction and (3) The methods for determining structural response. The solution of random vibration problems is clarified with the aid of applications in this study and from the point of view of mathematical treatment and mathematical formulations it is deemed sufficient to give the relevant sources. In the soil-structure interaction analysis the focus has been the significance of frequency dependent impedance functions. As a result it was obtained, that the description of the soil with the aid of frequency dependent impedance functions decreases the structural response and it is thus always the preferred method when compared to more conservative analysis types. From the methods to determine the C structural response the following four were tested: (1) The time history method; (2) The complex frequency-response method; (3) Response spectrum method and (4) The equivalent static force method. The time history appeared to be the most accurate method and the complex frequency-response method did have the widest area of application. (orig.). (14 refs., 35 figs.)

  9. Cardiothoracic ratio for prediction of left ventricular dilation: a systematic review and pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomba, Rohit S; Shah, Parinda H; Nijhawan, Karan; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Arora, Rohit

    2015-03-01

    Increased cardiothoracic ratio noted on chest radiographs often prompts concern and further evaluation with additional imaging. This study pools available data assessing the utility of cardiothoracic ratio in predicting left ventricular dilation. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify studies comparing cardiothoracic ratio by chest x-ray to left ventricular dilation by echocardiography. Electronic databases were used to identify studies which were then assessed for quality and bias, with those with adequate quality and minimal bias ultimately being included in the pooled analysis. The pooled data were used to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of cardiomegaly in predicting left ventricular dilation. A total of six studies consisting of 466 patients were included in this analysis. Cardiothoracic ratio had 83.3% sensitivity, 45.4% specificity, 43.5% positive predictive value and 82.7% negative predictive value. When a secondary analysis was conducted with a pediatric study excluded, a total of five studies consisting of 371 patients were included. Cardiothoracic ratio had 86.2% sensitivity, 25.2% specificity, 42.5% positive predictive value and 74.0% negative predictive value. Cardiothoracic ratio as determined by chest radiograph is sensitive but not specific for identifying left ventricular dilation. Cardiothoracic ratio also has a strong negative predictive value for identifying left ventricular dilation.

  10. Prognostic value of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lung cancer: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongmei; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xuedong; Gu, Lan; Pei, Hao; Kuai, Shougang; Zhang, Yingying; Shang, Zhongbo

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a series of studies explored the correlation between the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and the prognosis of lung cancer. However, the current opinion regarding the prognostic role of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lung cancer is inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of published articles to investigate the prognostic value of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in lung cancer. The hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. An elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio predicted worse overall survival, with a pooled HR of 1.243 (95%CI: 1.106-1.397; P(heterogeneity)=0.001) from multivariate studies and 1.867 (95%CI: 1.487-2.344; P(heterogeneity)=0.047) from univariate studies. Subgroup analysis showed that a high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio yielded worse overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (HR=1.192, 95%CI: 1.061-1.399; P(heterogeneity)=0.003) as well as small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (HR=1.550, 95% CI: 1.156-2.077; P(heterogeneity)=0.625) in multivariate studies. The synthesized evidence from this meta-analysis of published articles demonstrated that an elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was a predictor of poor overall survival in patients with lung cancer.

  11. Landslide susceptibility mapping by comparing weight of evidence, fuzzy logic, and frequency ratio methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vakhshoori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A regional scale basin susceptible to landslide located in Qaemshahr area in northern Iran was chosen for comparing the reliability of weight of evidence (WofE, fuzzy logic, and frequency ratio (FR methods for landslide susceptibility mapping. The locations of 157 landslides were identified using Google Earth® or extracted from archived data, from which, 22 rockslides were eliminated from the data-set due to their different conditions. The 135 remaining landslides were randomly divided into two groups of modelling (70% and validation (30% data-sets. Elevation, slope degree, slope aspect, lithology, land use/cover, normalized difference vegetation index, rainfall, distance to drainage network, roads, and faults were considered as landslide causative factors. The landslide susceptibility maps were prepared using the three mentioned methods. The validation process was measured by the success and prediction rates calculated by area under receiver operating characteristic curve. The ‘OR’, ‘AND’, ‘SUM’, and ‘PRODUCT’ operators of the fuzzy logic method were unacceptable because these operators classify the target area into either very high or very low susceptible zones that are inconsistent with the physical conditions of the study area. The results of fuzzy ‘GAMMA’ operators were relatively reliable while, FR and WofE methods showed results that are more reliable.

  12. Beta-binomial model for meta-analysis of odds ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakbergenuly, Ilyas; Kulinskaya, Elena

    2017-05-20

    In meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs), heterogeneity between the studies is usually modelled via the additive random effects model (REM). An alternative, multiplicative REM for ORs uses overdispersion. The multiplicative factor in this overdispersion model (ODM) can be interpreted as an intra-class correlation (ICC) parameter. This model naturally arises when the probabilities of an event in one or both arms of a comparative study are themselves beta-distributed, resulting in beta-binomial distributions. We propose two new estimators of the ICC for meta-analysis in this setting. One is based on the inverted Breslow-Day test, and the other on the improved gamma approximation by Kulinskaya and Dollinger (2015, p. 26) to the distribution of Cochran's Q. The performance of these and several other estimators of ICC on bias and coverage is studied by simulation. Additionally, the Mantel-Haenszel approach to estimation of ORs is extended to the beta-binomial model, and we study performance of various ICC estimators when used in the Mantel-Haenszel or the inverse-variance method to combine ORs in meta-analysis. The results of the simulations show that the improved gamma-based estimator of ICC is superior for small sample sizes, and the Breslow-Day-based estimator is the best for n⩾100. The Mantel-Haenszel-based estimator of OR is very biased and is not recommended. The inverse-variance approach is also somewhat biased for ORs≠1, but this bias is not very large in practical settings. Developed methods and R programs, provided in the Web Appendix, make the beta-binomial model a feasible alternative to the standard REM for meta-analysis of ORs. © 2017 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Comparison of gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for carbon stable-isotope analysis of carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja C. W.; Schierbeek, Henk; Houtekamer, Marco; van Engeland, Tom; Derrien, Delphine; Stal, Lucas J.; Boschker, Henricus T. S.

    2015-01-01

    We compared gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) for the measurement of δ(13)C values in carbohydrates. Contrary to GC/IRMS, no derivatisation is needed for LC/IRMS analysis of carbohydrates. Hence, although

  14. Comparison of gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for carbon stable-isotope analysis of carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Schierbeek, H.; Houtekamer, M.; van Engeland, T.; Derrien, D.; Stal, L.J.; Boschker, H.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    We compared gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) for the measurement of d13C values in carbohydrates. Contrary to GC/IRMS, no derivatisation is needed for LC/IRMS analysis of carbohydrates. Hence, although

  15. Comparison of gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for carbon stable-isotope analysis of carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Schierbeek, H.; Houtekamer, M.; van Engeland, T.; Derrien, D.; Stal, L.J.; Boschker, H.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: We compared gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) for the measurement of δ13C values in carbohydrates. Contrary to GC/IRMS, no derivatisation is needed for LC/IRMS analysis of carbohydrates. Hence,

  16. Estimating HIES Data through Ratio and Regression Methods for Different Sampling Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqir Muhammad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, comparison has been made for different sampling designs, using the HIES data of North West Frontier Province (NWFP for 2001-02 and 1998-99 collected from the Federal Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Division, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad. The performance of the estimators has also been considered using bootstrap and Jacknife. A two-stage stratified random sample design is adopted by HIES. In the first stage, enumeration blocks and villages are treated as the first stage Primary Sampling Units (PSU. The sample PSU’s are selected with probability proportional to size. Secondary Sampling Units (SSU i.e., households are selected by systematic sampling with a random start. They have used a single study variable. We have compared the HIES technique with some other designs, which are: Stratified Simple Random Sampling. Stratified Systematic Sampling. Stratified Ranked Set Sampling. Stratified Two Phase Sampling. Ratio and Regression methods were applied with two study variables, which are: Income (y and Household sizes (x. Jacknife and Bootstrap are used for variance replication. Simple Random Sampling with sample size (462 to 561 gave moderate variances both by Jacknife and Bootstrap. By applying Systematic Sampling, we received moderate variance with sample size (467. In Jacknife with Systematic Sampling, we obtained variance of regression estimator greater than that of ratio estimator for a sample size (467 to 631. At a sample size (952 variance of ratio estimator gets greater than that of regression estimator. The most efficient design comes out to be Ranked set sampling compared with other designs. The Ranked set sampling with jackknife and bootstrap, gives minimum variance even with the smallest sample size (467. Two Phase sampling gave poor performance. Multi-stage sampling applied by HIES gave large variances especially if used with a single study variable.

  17. Hardness evaluation of cured urea-formaldehyde resins with different formaldehyde/urea mole ratios using nanoindentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byung-Dae Park; Charles R. Frihart; Yan Yu; Adya P. Singh

    2013-01-01

    To understand the influence of formaldehyde/urea (F/U) mole ratio on the properties of urea–formaldehyde (UF) resins, this study investigated hardness of cured UF resins with different F/U mole ratios using a nanoindentation method. The traditional Brinell hardness (HB) method was also used...

  18. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foutes, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were developed and input into the analysis. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. Total costs of each level of a standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, was calculated for each alternative standard. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis

  19. Amino acid δ13C analysis of hair proteins and bone collagen using liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; McCullagh, James S. O.; Lynnerup, Niels

    2010-01-01

    We report a novel method for the chromatographic separation and measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios (delta(13)C) of individual amino acids in hair proteins and bone collagen using the LC-IsoLink system, which interfaces liquid chromatography (LC) with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS......). This paper provides baseline separation of 15 and 13 of the 18 amino acids in bone collagen and hair proteins, respectively. We also describe an approach to analysing small hair samples for compound-specific analysis of segmental hair sections. The LC/IRMS method is applied in a historical context...... by the delta(13)C analysis of hair proteins and bone collagen recovered from six individuals from Uummannaq in Greenland. The analysis of hair and bone amino acids from the same individual, compared for the first time in this study, is of importance in palaeodietary reconstruction. If hair proteins can be used...

  20. Performance evaluation of tile-based Fisher Ratio analysis using a benchmark yeast metabolome dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathanial E; Parsons, Brendon A; Synovec, Robert E

    2016-08-12

    Performance of tile-based Fisher Ratio (F-ratio) data analysis, recently developed for discovery-based studies using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS), is evaluated with a metabolomics dataset that had been previously analyzed in great detail, but while taking a brute force approach. The previously analyzed data (referred to herein as the benchmark dataset) were intracellular extracts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), either metabolizing glucose (repressed) or ethanol (derepressed), which define the two classes in the discovery-based analysis to find metabolites that are statistically different in concentration between the two classes. Beneficially, this previously analyzed dataset provides a concrete means to validate the tile-based F-ratio software. Herein, we demonstrate and validate the significant benefits of applying tile-based F-ratio analysis. The yeast metabolomics data are analyzed more rapidly in about one week versus one year for the prior studies with this dataset. Furthermore, a null distribution analysis is implemented to statistically determine an adequate F-ratio threshold, whereby the variables with F-ratio values below the threshold can be ignored as not class distinguishing, which provides the analyst with confidence when analyzing the hit table. Forty-six of the fifty-four benchmarked changing metabolites were discovered by the new methodology while consistently excluding all but one of the benchmarked nineteen false positive metabolites previously identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Numerical analysis on the ion species ratios in a steady state hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Saeki, Setsuo; Osaki, Katashi; Sakiyama, Satoshi; Itatani, Ryohei.

    1984-07-01

    Ion species ratios in a hydrogen plasma are calculated systematically as a function of plasma parameters, i.e. the electron density, the electron temperature, the pressure of hydrogen gas and the plasma volume. Furthermore, in the present analysis, the recombination factor for hydrogen atoms at the wall surface of a vacuum vessel is treated as another plasma parameter. The most significant point is that ion species ratios depend strongly not only on plasma parameters, but also on the recombination factor. The proton ratio increases with decreasing value of the recombination factor. Primary electrons also play an important role for ion species ratios, and the presence of primary electrons causes the proton ratio to decrease. (author)

  2. Oxygen isotopic ratio of the diatom siliceous valves: development of a new method in quantitative paleoclimatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeyrie, Laurent.

    1979-07-01

    This paper describes a new method allowing the measurement of the 18 O/ 16 O ratio of the biogenic silica oxygen, which takes into account the effects due to the organic matter and hydration water associated with this type of silica. By isotopic exchange with enriched water, we have been able to fix a treatment which eliminate all contamination and memory effects. This has permitted us to study the temperature dependance of the hydrated silica-water oxygen isotopic fractionation. As application, we present a study of the variations of the delta 18 O of fossil diatoms valves along an Equatorial Pacific sediment core covering the last 20.000 years. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the delta 18 O of the diatom silica for paleoclimatic investigations [fr

  3. Electron density profile measurements from hydrogen line intensity ratio method in Versatile Experimental Spherical Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, YooSung; Shi, Yue-Jiang, E-mail: yjshi@snu.ac.kr; Yang, Jeong-hun; Kim, SeongCheol; Kim, Young-Gi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Yang, Seongmoo; Jo, Jungmin; Chung, Kyoung-Jae [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Soo-Ghee [Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advanced Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Electron density profiles of versatile experiment spherical torus plasmas are measured by using a hydrogen line intensity ratio method. A fast-frame visible camera with appropriate bandpass filters is used to detect images of Balmer line intensities. The unique optical system makes it possible to take images of H{sub α} and H{sub β} radiation simultaneously, with only one camera. The frame rate is 1000 fps and the spatial resolution of the system is about 0.5 cm. One-dimensional local emissivity profiles have been obtained from the toroidal line of sight with viewing dumps. An initial result for the electron density profile is presented and is in reasonable agreement with values measured by a triple Langmuir probe.

  4. Formulation of probabilistic models of protein structure in atomic detail using the reference ratio method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Jan B; Andreetta, Christian; Boomsma, Wouter; Bottaro, Sandro; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Frellsen, Jes; Mardia, Kanti V; Tian, Pengfei; Hamelryck, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    We propose a method to formulate probabilistic models of protein structure in atomic detail, for a given amino acid sequence, based on Bayesian principles, while retaining a close link to physics. We start from two previously developed probabilistic models of protein structure on a local length scale, which concern the dihedral angles in main chain and side chains, respectively. Conceptually, this constitutes a probabilistic and continuous alternative to the use of discrete fragment and rotamer libraries. The local model is combined with a nonlocal model that involves a small number of energy terms according to a physical force field, and some information on the overall secondary structure content. In this initial study we focus on the formulation of the joint model and the evaluation of the use of an energy vector as a descriptor of a protein's nonlocal structure; hence, we derive the parameters of the nonlocal model from the native structure without loss of generality. The local and nonlocal models are combined using the reference ratio method, which is a well-justified probabilistic construction. For evaluation, we use the resulting joint models to predict the structure of four proteins. The results indicate that the proposed method and the probabilistic models show considerable promise for probabilistic protein structure prediction and related applications. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A novel method for contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) evaluation of digital mammography detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldelli, P.; Phelan, N.; Egan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a new, simple method of evaluating the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) over the entire image field of a digital detector and to compare different mammography systems. Images were taken under clinical exposure conditions for a range of simulated breast thicknesses using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). At each PMMA thickness, a second image which included an additional 0.2-mm Al sheet was also acquired. Image processing software was used to calculate the CNR in multiple regions of interest (ROI) covering the entire area of the detector in order to obtain a 'CNR image'. Five detector types were evaluated, two CsI-αSi (GE Healthcare) flat panel systems, one αSe (Hologic) flat panel system and a two generations of scanning photon counting digital detectors (Sectra). Flat panel detectors exhibit better CNR uniformity compared with the first-generation scanning photon counting detector in terms of mean pixel value variation. However, significant improvement in CNR uniformity was observed for the next-generation scanning detector. The method proposed produces a map of the CNR and a measurement of uniformity throughout the entire image field of the detector. The application of this method enables quality control measurement of individual detectors and a comparison of detectors using different technologies. (orig.)

  6. Bosch-like method for creating high aspect ratio poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) structures

    KAUST Repository

    Haiducu, Marius

    2012-02-02

    This paper presents a method for etching millimetre-deep trenches in commercial grade PMMA using deep-UV at 254 nm. The method is based on consecutive cycles of irradiation and development of the exposed areas, respectively. The exposure segment is performed using an inexpensive, in-house built irradiation box while the development part is accomplished using an isopropyl alcohol (IPA):H2O developer. The method was tested and characterized by etching various dimension square test structures in commercial grade, mirrored acrylic. The undercut of the sidewalls due to the uncollimated nature of the irradiation light was dramatically alleviated by using a honeycomb metallic grid in between the irradiation source and the acrylic substrate and by rotating the latter using a direct current (DC) motor-driven stage. By using an extremely affordable set-up and non-toxic, environmentally friendly materials and substances, this process represents an excellent alternative to microfabricating microfluidic devices in particular and high aspect ratio structures in general using PMMA as substrate. © 2012 SPIE.

  7. Biometrics from the carbon isotope ratio analysis of amino acids in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Glen P; An, Yan; Konstantynova, Kateryna I; Rashaid, Ayat H B

    2015-01-01

    This study compares and contrasts the ability to classify individuals into different grouping factors through either bulk isotope ratio analysis or amino-acid-specific isotope ratio analysis of human hair. Using LC-IRMS, we measured the isotope ratios of 14 amino acids in hair proteins independently, and leucine/isoleucine as a co-eluting pair, to provide 15 variables for classification. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids were mostly independent variables in the classification rules, thereby enabling the separation of dietary factors of isotope intake from intrinsic or phenotypic factors of isotope fractionation. Multivariate analysis revealed at least two potential sources of non-dietary factors influencing the carbon isotope ratio values of the amino acids in human hair: body mass index (BMI) and age. These results provide evidence that compound-specific isotope ratio analysis has the potential to go beyond region-of-origin or geospatial movements of individuals-obtainable through bulk isotope measurements-to the provision of physical and characteristic traits about the individuals, such as age and BMI. Further development and refinement, for example to genetic, metabolic, disease and hormonal factors could ultimately be of great assistance in forensic and clinical casework. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative effects of composting state variables on C/N ratio through GA-aided multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Huang, Guo H.; Zeng Guangming; Qin Xiaosheng; Yu Hui

    2011-01-01

    It is widely known that variation of the C/N ratio is dependent on many state variables during composting processes. This study attempted to develop a genetic algorithm aided stepwise cluster analysis (GASCA) method to describe the nonlinear relationships between the selected state variables and the C/N ratio in food waste composting. The experimental data from six bench-scale composting reactors were used to demonstrate the applicability of GASCA. Within the GASCA framework, GA searched optimal sets of both specified state variables and SCA's internal parameters; SCA established statistical nonlinear relationships between state variables and the C/N ratio; to avoid unnecessary and time-consuming calculation, a proxy table was introduced to save around 70% computational efforts. The obtained GASCA cluster trees had smaller sizes and higher prediction accuracy than the conventional SCA trees. Based on the optimal GASCA tree, the effects of the GA-selected state variables on the C/N ratio were ranged in a descending order as: NH 4 + -N concentration > Moisture content > Ash Content > Mean Temperature > Mesophilic bacteria biomass. Such a rank implied that the variation of ammonium nitrogen concentration, the associated temperature and the moisture conditions, the total loss of both organic matters and available mineral constituents, and the mesophilic bacteria activity, were critical factors affecting the C/N ratio during the investigated food waste composting. This first application of GASCA to composting modelling indicated that more direct search algorithms could be coupled with SCA or other multivariate analysis methods to analyze complicated relationships during composting and many other environmental processes. - Research Highlights: → A genetic algorithm aided stepwise cluster analysis method in food waste composting. → Nonlinear relationships between the selected state variables and the C/N ratio. → Introduced proxy tables save around 70% computational

  9. Quantitative effects of composting state variables on C/N ratio through GA-aided multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Wei [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada); Huang, Guo H., E-mail: huangg@iseis.org [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada); MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, Sino-Canada Energy and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Zeng Guangming [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan, 410082 (China); Qin Xiaosheng [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yu Hui [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada)

    2011-03-01

    It is widely known that variation of the C/N ratio is dependent on many state variables during composting processes. This study attempted to develop a genetic algorithm aided stepwise cluster analysis (GASCA) method to describe the nonlinear relationships between the selected state variables and the C/N ratio in food waste composting. The experimental data from six bench-scale composting reactors were used to demonstrate the applicability of GASCA. Within the GASCA framework, GA searched optimal sets of both specified state variables and SCA's internal parameters; SCA established statistical nonlinear relationships between state variables and the C/N ratio; to avoid unnecessary and time-consuming calculation, a proxy table was introduced to save around 70% computational efforts. The obtained GASCA cluster trees had smaller sizes and higher prediction accuracy than the conventional SCA trees. Based on the optimal GASCA tree, the effects of the GA-selected state variables on the C/N ratio were ranged in a descending order as: NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N concentration > Moisture content > Ash Content > Mean Temperature > Mesophilic bacteria biomass. Such a rank implied that the variation of ammonium nitrogen concentration, the associated temperature and the moisture conditions, the total loss of both organic matters and available mineral constituents, and the mesophilic bacteria activity, were critical factors affecting the C/N ratio during the investigated food waste composting. This first application of GASCA to composting modelling indicated that more direct search algorithms could be coupled with SCA or other multivariate analysis methods to analyze complicated relationships during composting and many other environmental processes. - Research Highlights: {yields} A genetic algorithm aided stepwise cluster analysis method in food waste composting. {yields} Nonlinear relationships between the selected state variables and the C/N ratio. {yields} Introduced proxy tables

  10. FULLPROF as a new tool for flipping ratio analysis: further improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontera, C.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.

    2004-01-01

    In the international workshop on polarized neutron for condensed matter investigation (Juelich, September 2002), we presented the implementations done in FULLPROF in order to introduce the ability of performing flipping ratio analysis. During this year we have modified the program in order to extend the initial features. We have tested these new implementations by re-analyzing flipping ratio data on Metrz-Nit (C 10 H 16 N 5 O 2 ) compound

  11. Laser assisted ratio analysis - An alternative to GC/IRMS for CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murnick, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    A new technique for laser based analysis of carbon isotope ratios, with the acronym LARA, based on large isotope shifts in molecular spectra, the use of fixed frequency isotopic lasers, and sensitive detection via the laser optogalvanic effect is reviewed and compared with GC/IRMS for carbon dioxide in specific applications. The possibility for development of new classes of isotope ratio measurement systems with LARA is explored. (author)

  12. Analysis of signal to background ratio in synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kenji; Gohshi, Yohichi; Iida, Atsuo.

    1988-01-01

    The signal to background (S/B) ratio in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SR) was quantitatively analyzed. The S/B ratio, which has been significantly improved by taking advantage of the polarized nature of SR, was found to be strongly dependent on geometrical factors of the measurement system. From the analysis on the origin of the scattered background, the dependence of the S/B ratio on the geometry was quantitatively explained, mainly by the polarization properties of SR. Experimental conditions could be optimized by adjusting the degree of polarization of the incident beam and the detector solid angle. (author)

  13. [Use of sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in preeclampsia : a monocentric retrospective analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeurgt, L; Chantraine, F; De Marchin, J; Minon, J-M; Nisolle, M

    2017-09-01

    Soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) is an anti-angiogenic factor released in higher amounts in preeclampsia and implicated in endothelial dysfunction. sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is used in the prediction of preeclampsia. An sFlt-1/PlGF ratio inferior to 38 predicts the short-term absence of preeclampsia. A ratio ? 85 (early-onset PE) or ? 110 (late-onset of PE) could diagnose preeclampsia. In this study, sFlt-1/PlGF ratio has been measured in 183 patients. Sixty-seven preeclampsia have been diagnosed preeclamptic at delivery. The median sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was 100.3. The median ratio among women with preeclampsia (N=67) versus no preeclampsia (N=116) was 212.7 versus 35.4. In accordance with this analysis, an sFlt-1/PlGF ratio ? 38 has a sensibility of 95,5 % and a specificity of 73.3 %. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 67.4 % and 96.6 %, respectively. These results suggest that sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is helpful in the diagnosis of preeclampsia.

  14. Statistical methods for improving verification of claims of origin for Italian wines based on stable isotope ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dordevic, N.; Wehrens, R.; Postma, G.J.; Buydens, L.M.C.; Camin, F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The assessment of claims of origin is of enormous economic importance for DOC and DOCG wines. ► The official method is based on univariate statistical tests of H, C and O isotopic ratios. ► We consider 5220 Italian wine samples collected in the period 2000–2010. ► Multivariate statistical analysis leads to much better specificity and easier detection of false claims of origin. ► In the case of multi-modal data, mixture modelling provides additional improvements. - Abstract: Wine derives its economic value to a large extent from geographical origin, which has a significant impact on the quality of the wine. According to the food legislation, wines can be without geographical origin (table wine) and wines with origin. Wines with origin must have characteristics which are essential due to its region of production and must be produced, processed and prepared, exclusively within that region. The development of fast and reliable analytical methods for the assessment of claims of origin is very important. The current official method is based on the measurement of stable isotope ratios of water and alcohol in wine, which are influenced by climatic factors. The results in this paper are based on 5220 Italian wine samples collected in the period 2000–2010. We evaluate the univariate approach underlying the official method to assess claims of origin and propose several new methods to get better geographical discrimination between samples. It is shown that multivariate methods are superior to univariate approaches in that they show increased sensitivity and specificity. In cases where data are non-normally distributed, an approach based on mixture modelling provides additional improvements.

  15. Statistical methods for improving verification of claims of origin for Italian wines based on stable isotope ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dordevic, N.; Wehrens, R. [IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, via Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all' Adige (Italy); Postma, G.J.; Buydens, L.M.C. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Camin, F., E-mail: federica.camin@fmach.it [IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, via Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all' Adige (Italy)

    2012-12-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assessment of claims of origin is of enormous economic importance for DOC and DOCG wines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The official method is based on univariate statistical tests of H, C and O isotopic ratios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We consider 5220 Italian wine samples collected in the period 2000-2010. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multivariate statistical analysis leads to much better specificity and easier detection of false claims of origin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the case of multi-modal data, mixture modelling provides additional improvements. - Abstract: Wine derives its economic value to a large extent from geographical origin, which has a significant impact on the quality of the wine. According to the food legislation, wines can be without geographical origin (table wine) and wines with origin. Wines with origin must have characteristics which are essential due to its region of production and must be produced, processed and prepared, exclusively within that region. The development of fast and reliable analytical methods for the assessment of claims of origin is very important. The current official method is based on the measurement of stable isotope ratios of water and alcohol in wine, which are influenced by climatic factors. The results in this paper are based on 5220 Italian wine samples collected in the period 2000-2010. We evaluate the univariate approach underlying the official method to assess claims of origin and propose several new methods to get better geographical discrimination between samples. It is shown that multivariate methods are superior to univariate approaches in that they show increased sensitivity and specificity. In cases where data are non-normally distributed, an approach based on mixture modelling provides additional improvements.

  16. Parametric analysis of diffuser requirements for high expansion ratio space engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, C. J.; Anderson, P. G.

    1981-01-01

    A supersonic diffuser ejector design computer program was developed. Using empirically modified one dimensional flow methods the diffuser ejector geometry is specified by the code. The design code results for calculations up to the end of the diffuser second throat were verified. Diffuser requirements for sea level testing of high expansion ratio space engines were defined. The feasibility of an ejector system using two commonly available turbojet engines feeding two variable area ratio ejectors was demonstrated.

  17. Measurement system analysis (MSA) of the isotopic ratio for uranium isotope enrichment process control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Josue C. de; Barbosa, Rodrigo A.; Carnaval, Joao Paulo R., E-mail: josue@inb.gov.br, E-mail: rodrigobarbosa@inb.gov.br, E-mail: joaocarnaval@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Rezende, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Currently, one of the stages in nuclear fuel cycle development is the process of uranium isotope enrichment, which will provide the amount of low enriched uranium for the nuclear fuel production to supply 100% Angra 1 and 20% Angra 2 demands. Determination of isotopic ration n({sup 235}U)/n({sup 238}U) in uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6} - used as process gas) is essential in order to control of enrichment process of isotopic separation by gaseous centrifugation cascades. The uranium hexafluoride process is performed by gas continuous feeding in separation unit which uses the centrifuge force principle, establishing a density gradient in a gas containing components of different molecular weights. The elemental separation effect occurs in a single ultracentrifuge that results in a partial separation of the feed in two fractions: an enriched on (product) and another depleted (waste) in the desired isotope ({sup 235}UF{sub 6}). Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) has used quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) by electron impact (EI) to perform isotopic ratio n({sup 235}U)/n({sup 238}U) analysis in the process. The decision of adjustments and change te input variables are based on the results presented in these analysis. A study of stability, bias and linearity determination has been performed in order to evaluate the applied method, variations and systematic errors in the measurement system. The software used to analyze the techniques above was the Minitab 15. (author)

  18. A multiscale method for modeling high-aspect-ratio micro/nano flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerby, Duncan; Borg, Matthew; Reese, Jason

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we present a new multiscale scheme for simulating micro/nano flows of high aspect ratio in the flow direction, e.g. within long ducts, tubes, or channels, of varying section. The scheme consists of applying a simple hydrodynamic description over the entire domain, and allocating micro sub-domains in very small ``slices'' of the channel. Every micro element is a molecular dynamics simulation (or other appropriate model, e.g., a direct simulation Monte Carlo method for micro-channel gas flows) over the local height of the channel/tube. The number of micro elements as well as their streamwise position is chosen to resolve the geometrical features of the macro channel. While there is no direct communication between individual micro elements, coupling occurs via an iterative imposition of mass and momentum-flux conservation on the macro scale. The greater the streamwise scale of the geometry, the more significant is the computational speed-up when compared to a full MD simulation. We test our new multiscale method on the case of a converging/diverging nanochannel conveying a simple Lennard-Jones liquid. We validate the results from our simulations by comparing them to a full MD simulation of the same test case. Supported by EPSRC Programme Grant, EP/I011927/1.

  19. Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)--part 1: instrument validation of the DELTAplusXP IRMS for bulk nitrogen isotope ratio measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Sarah J; Lennard, Christopher J; Hill, David M; Maynard, Philip; Roux, Claude

    2010-01-01

    A significant amount of research has been conducted into the use of stable isotopes to assist in determining the origin of various materials. The research conducted in the forensic field shows the potential of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to provide a level of discrimination not achievable utilizing traditional forensic techniques. Despite the research there have been few, if any, publications addressing the validation and measurement uncertainty of the technique for forensic applications. This study, the first in a planned series, presents validation data for the measurement of bulk nitrogen isotope ratios in ammonium nitrate (AN) using the DELTA(plus)XP (Thermo Finnigan) IRMS instrument equipped with a ConFlo III interface and FlashEA 1112 elemental analyzer (EA). Appropriate laboratory standards, analytical methods and correction calculations were developed and evaluated. A validation protocol was developed in line with the guidelines provided by the National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia (NATA). Performance characteristics including: accuracy, precision/repeatability, reproducibility/ruggedness, robustness, linear range, and measurement uncertainty were evaluated for the measurement of nitrogen isotope ratios in AN. AN (99.5%) and ammonium thiocyanate (99.99+%) were determined to be the most suitable laboratory standards and were calibrated against international standards (certified reference materials). All performance characteristics were within an acceptable range when potential uncertainties, including the manufacturer's uncertainty of the technique and standards, were taken into account. The experiments described in this article could be used as a model for validation of other instruments for similar purposes. Later studies in this series will address the more general issue of demonstrating that the IRMS technique is scientifically sound and fit-for-purpose in the forensic explosives analysis field.

  20. White Matter Fiber-based Analysis of T1w/T2w Ratio Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiwei; Budin, Francois; Noel, Jean; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Gilmore, John; Rasmussen, Jerod; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Styner, Martin

    2017-02-01

    To develop, test, evaluate and apply a novel tool for the white matter fiber-based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio maps quantifying myelin content. The cerebral white matter in the human brain develops from a mostly non-myelinated state to a nearly fully mature white matter myelination within the first few years of life. High resolution T1w/T2w ratio maps are believed to be effective in quantitatively estimating myelin content on a voxel-wise basis. We propose the use of a fiber-tract-based analysis of such T1w/T2w ratio data, as it allows us to separate fiber bundles that a common regional analysis imprecisely groups together, and to associate effects to specific tracts rather than large, broad regions. We developed an intuitive, open source tool to facilitate such fiber-based studies of T1w/T2w ratio maps. Via its Graphical User Interface (GUI) the tool is accessible to non-technical users. The framework uses calibrated T1w/T2w ratio maps and a prior fiber atlas as an input to generate profiles of T1w/T2w values. The resulting fiber profiles are used in a statistical analysis that performs along-tract functional statistical analysis. We applied this approach to a preliminary study of early brain development in neonates. We developed an open-source tool for the fiber based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio maps and tested it in a study of brain development.

  1. Validation of CBZ code system for post-irradiation examination analysis and sensitivity analysis of (n,γ) branching ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Yosuke; Chiba, Go; Tsuji, Masashi; Narabayashi, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    A code system CBZ is being developed in Hokkaido University. In order to validate it, PIE data, which are nuclide composition data of a spent fuel, have been analyzed with CBZ. The validity is evaluated as ratios of the calculation values to the experimental ones (C/E ratios). Differences between experimental values and calculation ones are smaller than 20% except some nuclides. Thus this code system is validated. Additionally, we evaluate influence of change of (n,γ) branching ratio on inventories of fission products and actinides. As a result, branching ratios of Sb-121, Pm-147, and Am-241 influence inventories of several nuclides. We perform PIE analysis using different (n,γ) branching ratio data from the ORIGEN-2 library, JNDC-Ver.2, and JEFF-3.1A, and find that differences in (n,γ) branching ratios between different nuclear libraries have a non-negligible influence on inventories of several nuclides. (author)

  2. A new approach for the analysis of facial growth and age estimation: Iris ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Carlos Eduardo Palhares; Flores, Marta Regina Pinheiro; Lima, Laíse Nascimento Correia; Tinoco, Rachel Lima Ribeiro; Bezerra, Ana Cristina Barreto; Evison, Martin Paul; Guimarães, Marco Aurélio

    2017-01-01

    The study of facial growth is explored in many fields of science, including anatomy, genetics, and forensics. In the field of forensics, it acts as a valuable tool for combating child pornography. The present research proposes a new method, based on relative measurements and fixed references of the human face—specifically considering measurements of the diameter of the iris (iris ratio)—for the analysis of facial growth in association with age in children and sub-adults. The experimental sample consisted of digital photographs of 1000 Brazilian subjects, aged between 6 and 22 years, distributed equally by sex and divided into five specific age groups (6, 10, 14, 18, and 22 year olds ± one month). The software package SAFF-2D® (Forensic Facial Analysis System, Brazilian Federal Police, Brazil) was used for positioning 11 landmarks on the images. Ten measurements were calculated and used as fixed references to evaluate the growth of the other measurements for each age group, as well the accumulated growth (6–22 years old). The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was applied for the evaluation of intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliability within a specific set of images. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient was used to assess the association between each measurement taken and the respective age groups. ANOVA and Post-hoc Tukey tests were used to search for statistical differences between the age groups. The outcomes indicated that facial structures grow with different timing in children and adolescents. Moreover, the growth allometry expressed in this study may be used to understand what structures have more or less proportional variation in function for the age ranges studied. The diameter of the iris was found to be the most stable measurement compared to the others and represented the best cephalometric measurement as a fixed reference for facial growth ratios (or indices). The method described shows promising potential for forensic applications

  3. SWOT ANALYSIS ON SAMPLING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIS ANCA OANA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Our article aims to study audit sampling in audit of financial statements. As an audit technique largely used, in both its statistical and nonstatistical form, the method is very important for auditors. It should be applied correctly for a fair view of financial statements, to satisfy the needs of all financial users. In order to be applied correctly the method must be understood by all its users and mainly by auditors. Otherwise the risk of not applying it correctly would cause loose of reputation and discredit, litigations and even prison. Since there is not a unitary practice and methodology for applying the technique, the risk of incorrectly applying it is pretty high. The SWOT analysis is a technique used that shows the advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities. We applied SWOT analysis in studying the sampling method, from the perspective of three players: the audit company, the audited entity and users of financial statements. The study shows that by applying the sampling method the audit company and the audited entity both save time, effort and money. The disadvantages of the method are difficulty in applying and understanding its insight. Being largely used as an audit method and being a factor of a correct audit opinion, the sampling method’s advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities must be understood by auditors.

  4. Statistical analysis of COMPTEL maximum likelihood-ratio distributions: evidence for a signal from previously undetected AGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, O. R.; Bennett, K.; Much, R.; Schoenfelder, V.; Blom, J. J.; Ryan, J.

    1997-01-01

    The maximum likelihood-ratio method is frequently used in COMPTEL analysis to determine the significance of a point source at a given location. In this paper we do not consider whether the likelihood-ratio at a particular location indicates a detection, but rather whether distributions of likelihood-ratios derived from many locations depart from that expected for source free data. We have constructed distributions of likelihood-ratios by reading values from standard COMPTEL maximum-likelihood ratio maps at positions corresponding to the locations of different categories of AGN. Distributions derived from the locations of Seyfert galaxies are indistinguishable, according to a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, from those obtained from ''random'' locations, but differ slightly from those obtained from the locations of flat spectrum radio loud quasars, OVVs, and BL Lac objects. This difference is not due to known COMPTEL sources, since regions near these sources are excluded from the analysis. We suggest that it might arise from a number of sources with fluxes below the COMPTEL detection threshold

  5. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as an independent predictor for survival in patients with localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation: a propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Tieshi; Wang, Wei; Guo, Hongqian

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic indicator in patients with localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma treated with radiofrequency ablation. We retrospectively analyzed data from patients with renal cell carcinoma who underwent radiofrequency ablation from 2006 to 2013. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to generate the survival curves according to different categories of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. Relationships between preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio or the change of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and survival were evaluated with multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A propensity score matching analysis was carried out to avoid confounding bias. A total of 185 patients were included in present study. When stratified by preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio cutoff value of 2.79, 5-year recurrence-free survival, 5-year disease-free survival, and 5-year overall survival rates of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio analysis, 5-year recurrence-free survival, 5-year disease-free survival, and 5-year overall survival rates of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ratio with the change of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, patients with both preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥2.79 and the change of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥0.40 had the worst disease-free survival. Results of multivariable analysis showed that preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and the change of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio correlated with cancer relapse remarkably. High preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and elevated postoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio are associated with significant increase in risk of local recurrence as well as distant metastasis. The combination of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio with the other prognostic indicators can be applied in the evaluation of relapse risk in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation.

  6. Stochastic seismic floor response analysis method for various damping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Y.; Hattori, K.; Ogata, M.; Kanda, J.

    1991-01-01

    A study using the stochastic seismic response analysis method which is applicable for the estimation of floor response spectra is carried out. It is pointed out as a shortcoming in this stochastic seismic response analysis method, that the method tends to overestimate floor response spectra for low damping systems, e.g. 1% of the critical damping ratio. An investigation on the cause of the shortcoming is carried out and a number of improvements in this method were also made to the original method by taking correlation of successive peaks in a response time history into account. The application of the improved method to a typical BWR reactor building is carried out. The resultant floor response spectra are compared with those obtained by deterministic time history analysis. Floor response spectra estimated by the improved method consistently cover the response spectra obtained by the time history analysis for various damping ratios. (orig.)

  7. Trade-off analysis of high-aspect-ratio-cooling-channels for rocket engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzarelli, Marco; Nasuti, Francesco; Onofri, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Aspect ratio has a significant effect on cooling efficiency and hydraulic losses. • Minimizing power loss is of paramount importance in liquid rocket engine cooling. • A suitable quasi-2D model is used to get fast cooling system analysis. • Trade-off with assigned weight, temperature, and channel height or wall thickness. • Aspect ratio is found that minimizes power loss in the cooling circuit. -- Abstract: High performance liquid rocket engines are often characterized by rectangular cooling channels with high aspect ratio (channel height-to-width ratio) because of their proven superior cooling efficiency with respect to a conventional design. However, the identification of the optimum aspect ratio is not a trivial task. In the present study a trade-off analysis is performed on a cooling channel system that can be of interest for rocket engines. This analysis requires multiple cooling channel flow calculations and thus cannot be efficiently performed by CFD solvers. Therefore, a proper numerical approach, referred to as quasi-2D model, is used to have fast and accurate predictions of cooling system properties. This approach relies on its capability of describing the thermal stratification that occurs in the coolant and in the wall structure, as well as the coolant warming and pressure drop along the channel length. Validation of the model is carried out by comparison with solutions obtained with a validated CFD solver. Results of the analysis show the existence of an optimum channel aspect ratio that minimizes the requested pump power needed to overcome losses in the cooling circuit

  8. Tolerance analysis in manufacturing using process capability ratio with measurement uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahshid, Rasoul; Mansourvar, Zahra; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2017-01-01

    . In this paper, a new statistical analysis was applied to manufactured products to assess achieved tolerances when the process is known while using capability ratio and expanded uncertainty. The analysis has benefits for process planning, determining actual precision limits, process optimization, troubleshoot......Tolerance analysis provides valuable information regarding performance of manufacturing process. It allows determining the maximum possible variation of a quality feature in production. Previous researches have focused on application of tolerance analysis to the design of mechanical assemblies...... malfunctioning existing part. The capability measure is based on a number of measurements performed on part’s quality variable. Since the ratio relies on measurements, elimination of any possible error has notable negative impact on results. Therefore, measurement uncertainty was used in combination with process...

  9. Simulation Analysis of Computer-Controlled pressurization for Mixture Ratio Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Leslie A.; Bishop-Behel, Karen; Benfield, Michael P. J.; Kelley, Anthony; Woodcock, Gordon R.

    2005-01-01

    A procedural code (C++) simulation was developed to investigate potentials for mixture ratio control of pressure-fed spacecraft rocket propulsion systems by measuring propellant flows, tank liquid quantities, or both, and using feedback from these measurements to adjust propellant tank pressures to set the correct operating mixture ratio for minimum propellant residuals. The pressurization system eliminated mechanical regulators in favor of a computer-controlled, servo- driven throttling valve. We found that a quasi-steady state simulation (pressure and flow transients in the pressurization systems resulting from changes in flow control valve position are ignored) is adequate for this purpose. Monte-Carlo methods are used to obtain simulated statistics on propellant depletion. Mixture ratio control algorithms based on proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller methods were developed. These algorithms actually set target tank pressures; the tank pressures are controlled by another PID controller. Simulation indicates this approach can provide reductions in residual propellants.

  10. Differences in Movement Pattern and Detectability between Males and Females Influence How Common Sampling Methods Estimate Sex Ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fabrício Mota Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Sampling the biodiversity is an essential step for conservation, and understanding the efficiency of sampling methods allows us to estimate the quality of our biodiversity data. Sex ratio is an important population characteristic, but until now, no study has evaluated how efficient are the sampling methods commonly used in biodiversity surveys in estimating the sex ratio of populations. We used a virtual ecologist approach to investigate whether active and passive capture methods are able to accurately sample a population's sex ratio and whether differences in movement pattern and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex-ratios when using these methods. Our simulation allowed the recognition of individuals, similar to mark-recapture studies. We found that differences in both movement patterns and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex ratios. However, increasing the sampling effort or the number of sampling days improves the ability of passive or active capture methods to properly sample sex ratio. Thus, prior knowledge regarding movement patterns and detectability for species is important information to guide field studies aiming to understand sex ratio related patterns.

  11. Differences in Movement Pattern and Detectability between Males and Females Influence How Common Sampling Methods Estimate Sex Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, João Fabrício Mota; Coelho, Marco Túlio Pacheco

    2016-01-01

    Sampling the biodiversity is an essential step for conservation, and understanding the efficiency of sampling methods allows us to estimate the quality of our biodiversity data. Sex ratio is an important population characteristic, but until now, no study has evaluated how efficient are the sampling methods commonly used in biodiversity surveys in estimating the sex ratio of populations. We used a virtual ecologist approach to investigate whether active and passive capture methods are able to accurately sample a population's sex ratio and whether differences in movement pattern and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex-ratios when using these methods. Our simulation allowed the recognition of individuals, similar to mark-recapture studies. We found that differences in both movement patterns and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex ratios. However, increasing the sampling effort or the number of sampling days improves the ability of passive or active capture methods to properly sample sex ratio. Thus, prior knowledge regarding movement patterns and detectability for species is important information to guide field studies aiming to understand sex ratio related patterns.

  12. Comparison of gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for carbon stable-isotope analysis of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja C W; Schierbeek, Henk; Houtekamer, Marco; van Engeland, Tom; Derrien, Delphine; Stal, Lucas J; Boschker, Henricus T S

    2015-07-15

    We compared gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) for the measurement of δ(13)C values in carbohydrates. Contrary to GC/IRMS, no derivatisation is needed for LC/IRMS analysis of carbohydrates. Hence, although LC/IRMS is expected to be more accurate and precise, no direct comparison has been reported. GC/IRMS with the aldonitrile penta-acetate (ANPA) derivatisation method was compared with LC/IRMS without derivatisation. A large number of glucose standards and a variety of natural samples were analysed for five neutral carbohydrates at natural abundance as well as at (13)C-enriched levels. Gas chromatography/chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (GC/CIMS) was applied to check for incomplete derivatisation of the carbohydrate, which would impair the accuracy of the GC/IRMS method. The LC/IRMS technique provided excellent precision (±0.08‰ and ±3.1‰ at natural abundance and enrichment levels, respectively) for the glucose standards and this technique proved to be superior to GC/IRMS (±0.62‰ and ±19.8‰ at natural abundance and enrichment levels, respectively). For GC/IRMS measurements the derivatisation correction and the conversion of carbohydrates into CO2 had a considerable effect on the measured δ(13)C values. However, we did not find any significant differences in the accuracy of the two techniques over the full range of natural δ(13)C abundances and (13)C-labelled glucose. The difference in the performance of GC/IRMS and LC/IRMS diminished when the δ(13)C values were measured in natural samples, because the chromatographic performance and background correction became critical factors, particularly for LC/IRMS. The derivatisation of carbohydrates for the GC/IRMS method was complete. Although both LC/IRMS and GC/IRMS are reliable techniques for compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of carbohydrates (provided that derivatisation is complete and the

  13. Raman scattering method and apparatus for measuring isotope ratios and isotopic abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harney, R.C.; Bloom, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    Raman scattering is used to measure isotope ratios and/or isotopic abundances. A beam of quasi-monochromatic photons is directed onto the sample to be analyzed, and the resulting Raman-scattered photons are detected and counted for each isotopic species of interest. These photon counts are treated mathematically to yield the desired isotope ratios or isotopic abundances

  14. Flows method in global analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Minh Duc.

    1994-12-01

    We study the gradient flows method for W r,p (M,N) where M and N are Riemannian manifold and r may be less than m/p. We localize some global analysis problem by constructing gradient flows which only change the value of any u in W r,p (M,N) in a local chart of M. (author). 24 refs

  15. Finite element analysis of surface acoustic waves in high aspect ratio electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2008-01-01

    This paper elaborates on how the finite element method is employed to model surface acoustic waves generated by high aspect ratio electrodes and their interaction with optical waves in a waveguide. With a periodic model it is shown that these electrodes act as a mechanical resonator which slows...

  16. A new method for the determination of the mixing ratio hydrogen to helium in the giant planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, D.; Grossman, K.

    1972-01-01

    By using a numerical iterative method, it is demonstrated that the mixing ratio H2/He on the giant planets can be inferred from spectral measurements of the intensity emitted by these planets in the far infrared range. The method is successfully applied to synthetic spectra of Saturn computed from atmospheric thermal models. The effect of random and systematic measurement errors on the determination of the mixing ratio is also studied.

  17. Neutron activation analysis of calcium/phosphorus ratio in rib bone of healthy humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzaphlidou, Margaret; Zaichick, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    The Ca/P ratio was estimated in intact rib bone samples from healthy humans, 37 women and 45 men, aged from 15 to 55 years using instrumental neutron activation analysis. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) age- or sex-related differences in the Ca/P ratio were observed. The mean value (M±SD) for the investigated parameter for the whole group studied, 2.33±0.34, was within a very wide range of published data and close to the median value

  18. Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Analysis of Orbital Conjunction Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis; Gold, Dara

    2013-01-01

    We propose a Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test for analysis of commonly available predictions associated with spacecraft conjunctions. Such predictions generally consist of a relative state and relative state error covariance at the time of closest approach, under the assumption that prediction errors are Gaussian. We show that under these circumstances, the likelihood ratio of the Wald test reduces to an especially simple form, involving the current best estimate of collision probability, and a similar estimate of collision probability that is based on prior assumptions about the likelihood of collision.

  19. Analysis of enhanced modal damping ratio in porous materials using an acoustic-structure interaction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kook, Junghwan; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the enhancement of the damping ratio of a structure with embedded microbeam resonators in air-filled internal cavities. In this context, we discuss theoretical aspects in the framework of the effective modal damping ratio (MDR) and derive an approximate...... relation expressing how an increased damping due to the acoustic medium surrounding the microbeam affect the MDR of the macrobeam. We further analyze the effect of including dissipation of the acoustic medium by using finite element (FE) analysis with acoustic-structure interaction (ASI) using a simple...... phenomenological acoustic loss model. An eigenvalue analysis is carried out to demonstrate the improvement of the damping characteristic of the macrobeam with the resonating microbeam in the lossy air and the results are compared to a forced vibration analysis for a macrobeam with one or multiple embedded...

  20. Spectral-ratio radon background correction method in airborne γ-ray spectrometry based on compton scattering deduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yi; Xiong Shengqing; Zhou Jianxin; Fan Zhengguo; Ge Liangquan

    2014-01-01

    γ-ray released by the radon daughter has severe impact on airborne γ-ray spectrometry. The spectral-ratio method is one of the best mathematical methods for radon background deduction in airborne γ-ray spectrometry. In this paper, an advanced spectral-ratio method was proposed which deducts Compton scattering ray by the fast Fourier transform rather than tripping ratios, the relationship between survey height and correction coefficient of the advanced spectral-ratio radon background correction method was studied, the advanced spectral-ratio radon background correction mathematic model was established, and the ground saturation model calibrating technology for correction coefficient was proposed. As for the advanced spectral-ratio radon background correction method, its applicability and correction efficiency are improved, and the application cost is saved. Furthermore, it can prevent the physical meaning lost and avoid the possible errors caused by matrix computation and mathematical fitting based on spectrum shape which is applied in traditional correction coefficient. (authors)

  1. Use of a range scaling method to determine alanine/water stopping power ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, M.R.; Sephton, J.P.; Sharpe, P.H.G.; Shipley, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    A phantom composed of alanine dosimeter material has been constructed and depth-dose measurements made in a 10 MeV electron beam. The results have demonstrated the feasibility of using relative depth-dose measurements to determine stopping power ratios in materials of dosimetric interest. Experimental stopping power ratios for alanine dosimeter material and water agreed with the data of ICRU Report 37 within the uncertainty of the experiment (±1.2% at a 95% confidence level)

  2. Profitability and efficiency of Italian utilities: cluster analysis of financial statement ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, E.

    2008-01-01

    The last ten years have witnessed conspicuous changes in European and Italian regulation of public utility services and in the strategies of the major players in these fields. In response to these changes Italian utilities have made a variety of choices regarding size, presence in more or less capital-intensive stages of different value chains, and diversification. These choices have been implemented both through internal growth and by means of mergers and acquisitions. In this context it is interesting to try to establish whether there is a nexus between these choices and the performance of Italian utilities in terms of profitability and efficiency. Therefore statistical multivariate analysis techniques (cluster analysis and factor analysis) have been applied to several ratios obtained from the 2005 financial statement of 34 utilities. First, a hierarchical cluster analysis method has been applied to financial statement data in order to identify homogeneous groups based on several indicators of the incidence of costs (external costs, personnel costs, depreciation and amortization), profitability (return on sales, return on assets, return on equity) and efficiency (in the utilization of personnel, of total assets, of property, plant and equipment). Five clusters have been found. Then the clusters have been characterized in terms of the aforementioned indicators, the presence in different stages of the energy value chains (electricity and gas) and other descriptive variables (such as turnover, number of employees, assets, percentage of property, plant and equipment on total assets, sales revenues from electricity, gas, water supply and sanitation, waste collection and treatment and other services). In a second round cluster analysis has been preceded by factor analysis, in order to find a smaller set of variables. This procedure has revealed three not directly observable factors that can be interpreted as follows: i) efficiency in ordinary and financial management

  3. Flutter analysis of hybrid metal-composite low aspect ratio trapezoidal wings in supersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrollahi Saeed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An effective 3D supersonic Mach box approach in combination with non-classical hybrid metal-composite plate theory has been used to investigate flutter boundaries of trapezoidal low aspect ratio wings. The wing structure is composed of two main components including aluminum material (in-board section and laminated composite material (out-board section. A global Ritz method is used with simple polynomials being employed as the trial functions. The most important objective of the present research is to study the effect of composite to metal proportion of hybrid wing structure on flutter boundaries in low supersonic regime. In addition, the effect of some important geometrical parameters such as sweep angle, taper ratio and aspect ratio on flutter boundaries were studied. The results obtained by present approach for special cases like pure metallic wings and results for high supersonic regime based on piston theory show a good agreement with those obtained by other investigators.

  4. Simultaneous determination of the brand new two-drug combination for the treatment of hepatitis C: Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir using smart spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Maya S.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, various sensitive and selective spectrophotometric methods were first introduced for the simultaneous determination of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir in their binary mixture without preliminary separation. Ledipasvir was determined simply by zero-order spectrophotometric method at its λmax = 333.0 nm in a linear range of 2.5-30.0 μg/ml without any interference of sofosbuvir even in low or high concentrations and with mean percentage recovery of 100.05 ± 0.632. Sofosbuvir can be quantitatively estimated by one of the following smart spectrophotometric methods based on ratio spectra developed for the resolution of the overlapped spectra of their binary mixture; ratio difference spectrophotometric method (RD) by computing the difference between the amplitudes of sofosbuvir ratio spectra at 228 nm and 270 nm, first derivative (DD1) of ratio spectra by measuring the sum of amplitude of trough and peak at 265 nm and 277 nm, respectively, ratio subtraction (RS) spectrophotometric method in which sofosbuvir can be successfully determined at its λmax = 261.0 nm and mean centering (MC) of ratio spectra by measuring the mean centering values at 270 nm. All of the above mentioned spectrophotometric methods can estimate sofosbuvir in a linear range of 7.5-90.0 μg/ml with mean percentage recoveries of 100.57 ± 0.810, 99.92 ± 0.759, 99.51 ± 0.475 and 100.75 ± 0.672, respectively. These methods were successfully applied to the analysis of their combined dosage form and bulk powder. The adopted methods were also validated as per ICH guidelines and statistically compared to an in-house HPLC method.

  5. Analysis of root surface properties by fluorescence/Raman intensity ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shino; Ando, Masahiro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-O; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the existence of residual calculus on root surfaces by determining the fluorescence/Raman intensity ratio. Thirty-two extracted human teeth, partially covered with calculus on the root surface, were evaluated by using a portable Raman spectrophotometer, and a 785-nm, 100-mW laser was applied for fluorescence/Raman excitation. The collected spectra were normalized to the hydroxyapatite Raman band intensity at 960 cm -1 . Raman spectra were recorded from the same point after changing the focal distance of the laser and the target radiating angle. In seven teeth, the condition of calculus, cementum, and dentin were evaluated. In 25 teeth, we determined the fluorescence/Raman intensity ratio following three strokes of debridement. Raman spectra collected from the dentin, cementum, and calculus were different. After normalization, spectra values were constant. The fluorescence/Raman intensity ratio of calculus region showed significant differences compared to the cementum and dentin (p Raman intensity ratio decreased with calculus debridement. For this analysis, the delta value was defined as the difference between the values before and after three strokes, with the final 2 delta values close to zero, indicating a gradual asymptotic curve and the change in intensity ratio approximating that of individual constants. Fluorescence/Raman intensity ratio was effectively used to cancel the angle- and distance-dependent fluctuations of fluorescence collection efficiency during measurement. Changes in the fluorescence/Raman intensity ratio near zero suggested that cementum or dentin was exposed, and calculus removed.

  6. Data Analysis Methods for Paleogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    (Danmarks Grundforskningfond) 'Centre of Excellence in GeoGenetics' grant, with additional funding provided by the Danish Council for Independent Research 'Sapere Aude' programme. The thesis comprises five chapters, all of which represent different projects that involved the analysis of massive amounts......, thanks to the introduction of NGS and the implementation of data analysis methods specific for each project. Chapters 1 to 3 have been published in peer-reviewed journals and Chapter 4 is currently in review. Chapter 5 consists of a manuscript describing initial results of an ongoing research project......The work presented in this thesis is the result of research carried out during a three-year PhD at the Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, under supervision of Professor Tom Gilbert. The PhD was funded by the Danish National Research Foundation...

  7. A New Boron Analysis Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitman, J; Daaverhoeg, N; Farvolden, S

    1970-07-01

    In connection with fast neutron (n, {alpha}) cross section measurements a novel boron analysis method has been developed. The boron concentration is inferred from the mass spectrometrically determined number of helium atoms produced in the thermal and epithermal B-10 (n, {alpha}) reaction. The relation between helium amount and boron concentration is given, including corrections for self shielding effects and background levels. Direct and diffusion losses of helium are calculated and losses due to gettering, adsorption and HF-ionization in the release stage are discussed. A series of boron determinations is described and the results are compared with those obtained by other methods, showing excellent agreement. The lower limit of boron concentration which can be measured varies with type of sample. In e.g. steel, concentrations below 10-5 % boron in samples of 0.1-1 gram may be determined.

  8. [Paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and sex ratio of the offspring: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shu-Hui; Liu, Yi-Ting; Liu, Yang

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the association between paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and the sex ratio of the offspring. We searched various databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, OVID, Bioscience Information Service (BIOSIS), China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and Wanfang Database, for the literature relevant to the association of paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation with the sex ratio of the offspring. We conducted a meta-analysis on their correlation using Stata 11.0. There was no statistically significant difference in the sex ratio between the offspring with paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and those without (pooled OR = 1.00 [95% CI: 0.95 -1.05], P = 0.875). Subgroup analysis of both case-control and cohort studies revealed no significant difference (pooled OR = 1.03 [95% CI: 0.99 -1.08], P = 0.104 and pooled OR = 0.98 [95% CI: 0.99 -1.08], P = 0.186, respectively). Paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation is not correlated with the sex ratio of the offspring.

  9. Composite flexible skin with large negative Poisson’s ratio range: numerical and experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. J.; Scarpa, F.; Farrow, I. R.; Liu, Y. J.; Leng, J. S.

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the manufacturing, characterization and parametric modeling of a novel fiber-reinforced composite flexible skin with in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio (auxetic) behavior. The elastic mechanical performance of the auxetic skin is evaluated using a three-dimensional analytical model based on the classical laminate theory (CLT) and Sun’s thick laminate theory. Good agreement is observed between in-plane Poisson’s ratios and Young’s moduli of the composite skin obtained by the theoretical model and the experimental results. A parametric analysis carried out with the validated model shows that significant changes in the in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio can be achieved through different combinations of matrix and fiber materials and stacking sequences. It is also possible to identify fiber-reinforced composite skin configurations with the same in-plane auxeticity but different orthotropic stiffness performance, or the same orthotropic stiffness performance but different in-plane auxeticity. The analysis presented in this work provides useful guidelines to develop and manufacture flexible skins with negative Poisson’s ratio for applications focused on morphing aircraft wing designs.

  10. Composite flexible skin with large negative Poisson’s ratio range: numerical and experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y J; Leng, J S; Scarpa, F; Farrow, I R; Liu, Y J

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the manufacturing, characterization and parametric modeling of a novel fiber-reinforced composite flexible skin with in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio (auxetic) behavior. The elastic mechanical performance of the auxetic skin is evaluated using a three-dimensional analytical model based on the classical laminate theory (CLT) and Sun’s thick laminate theory. Good agreement is observed between in-plane Poisson’s ratios and Young’s moduli of the composite skin obtained by the theoretical model and the experimental results. A parametric analysis carried out with the validated model shows that significant changes in the in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio can be achieved through different combinations of matrix and fiber materials and stacking sequences. It is also possible to identify fiber-reinforced composite skin configurations with the same in-plane auxeticity but different orthotropic stiffness performance, or the same orthotropic stiffness performance but different in-plane auxeticity. The analysis presented in this work provides useful guidelines to develop and manufacture flexible skins with negative Poisson’s ratio for applications focused on morphing aircraft wing designs. (paper)

  11. Efficient isotope ratio analysis of uranium particles in swipe samples by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Kazuo; Fukuyama, Hiroyasu; Onodera, Takashi; Esaka, Konomi T.; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu

    2004-01-01

    A new particle recovery method and a sensitive screening method were developed for subsequent isotope ratio analysis of uranium particles in safeguards swipe samples. The particles in the swipe sample were recovered onto a carrier by means of vacuum suction-impact collection method. When grease coating was applied to the carrier, the recovery efficiency was improved to 48±9%, which is superior to that of conventionally-used ultrasoneration method. Prior to isotope ratio analysis with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) was applied to screen the sample for the presence of uranium particles. By the use of Si carriers in TXRF analysis, the detection limit of 22 pg was achieved for uranium. By combining these methods with SIMS, the isotope ratios of 235 U/ 238 U for individual uranium particles were efficiently determined. (author)

  12. Quantitative EEG analysis using error reduction ratio-causality test; validation on simulated and real EEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrigiannis, Ptolemaios G; Zhao, Yifan; Wei, Hua-Liang; Billings, Stephen A; Fotheringham, Jayne; Hadjivassiliou, Marios

    2014-01-01

    To introduce a new method of quantitative EEG analysis in the time domain, the error reduction ratio (ERR)-causality test. To compare performance against cross-correlation and coherence with phase measures. A simulation example was used as a gold standard to assess the performance of ERR-causality, against cross-correlation and coherence. The methods were then applied to real EEG data. Analysis of both simulated and real EEG data demonstrates that ERR-causality successfully detects dynamically evolving changes between two signals, with very high time resolution, dependent on the sampling rate of the data. Our method can properly detect both linear and non-linear effects, encountered during analysis of focal and generalised seizures. We introduce a new quantitative EEG method of analysis. It detects real time levels of synchronisation in the linear and non-linear domains. It computes directionality of information flow with corresponding time lags. This novel dynamic real time EEG signal analysis unveils hidden neural network interactions with a very high time resolution. These interactions cannot be adequately resolved by the traditional methods of coherence and cross-correlation, which provide limited results in the presence of non-linear effects and lack fidelity for changes appearing over small periods of time. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A modified time-of-flight method for precise determination of high speed ratios in molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador Palau, A.; Eder, S. D., E-mail: sabrina.eder@uib.no; Kaltenbacher, T.; Samelin, B.; Holst, B. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allégaten 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway); Bracco, G. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allégaten 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway); CNR-IMEM, Department of Physics, University of Genova, V. Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Time-of-flight (TOF) is a standard experimental technique for determining, among others, the speed ratio S (velocity spread) of a molecular beam. The speed ratio is a measure for the monochromaticity of the beam and an accurate determination of S is crucial for various applications, for example, for characterising chromatic aberrations in focussing experiments related to helium microscopy or for precise measurements of surface phonons and surface structures in molecular beam scattering experiments. For both of these applications, it is desirable to have as high a speed ratio as possible. Molecular beam TOF measurements are typically performed by chopping the beam using a rotating chopper with one or more slit openings. The TOF spectra are evaluated using a standard deconvolution method. However, for higher speed ratios, this method is very sensitive to errors related to the determination of the slit width and the beam diameter. The exact sensitivity depends on the beam diameter, the number of slits, the chopper radius, and the chopper rotation frequency. We present a modified method suitable for the evaluation of TOF measurements of high speed ratio beams. The modified method is based on a systematic variation of the chopper convolution parameters so that a set of independent measurements that can be fitted with an appropriate function are obtained. We show that with this modified method, it is possible to reduce the error by typically one order of magnitude compared to the standard method.

  14. Quantitative effects of composting state variables on C/N ratio through GA-aided multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Huang, Guo H; Zeng, Guangming; Qin, Xiaosheng; Yu, Hui

    2011-03-01

    It is widely known that variation of the C/N ratio is dependent on many state variables during composting processes. This study attempted to develop a genetic algorithm aided stepwise cluster analysis (GASCA) method to describe the nonlinear relationships between the selected state variables and the C/N ratio in food waste composting. The experimental data from six bench-scale composting reactors were used to demonstrate the applicability of GASCA. Within the GASCA framework, GA searched optimal sets of both specified state variables and SCA's internal parameters; SCA established statistical nonlinear relationships between state variables and the C/N ratio; to avoid unnecessary and time-consuming calculation, a proxy table was introduced to save around 70% computational efforts. The obtained GASCA cluster trees had smaller sizes and higher prediction accuracy than the conventional SCA trees. Based on the optimal GASCA tree, the effects of the GA-selected state variables on the C/N ratio were ranged in a descending order as: NH₄+-N concentration>Moisture content>Ash Content>Mean Temperature>Mesophilic bacteria biomass. Such a rank implied that the variation of ammonium nitrogen concentration, the associated temperature and the moisture conditions, the total loss of both organic matters and available mineral constituents, and the mesophilic bacteria activity, were critical factors affecting the C/N ratio during the investigated food waste composting. This first application of GASCA to composting modelling indicated that more direct search algorithms could be coupled with SCA or other multivariate analysis methods to analyze complicated relationships during composting and many other environmental processes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of the Geographical Origin of All Commercial Hake Species by Stable Isotope Ratio (SIR) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Mónica; Gallardo, José M

    2017-02-08

    The determination of the geographical origin of food products is relevant to comply with the legal regulations of traceability, to avoid food fraud, and to guarantee food quality and safety to the consumers. For these reasons, stable isotope ratio (SIR) analysis using an isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) instrument is one of the most useful techniques for evaluating food traceability and authenticity. The present study was aimed to determine, for the first time, the geographical origin for all commercial fish species belonging to the Merlucciidae family using SIR analysis of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N). The specific results enabled their clear classification according to the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) fishing areas, latitude, and geographical origin in the following six different clusters: European, North African, South African, North American, South American, and Australian hake species.

  16. Maintaining high precision of isotope ratio analysis over extended periods of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A

    2009-06-01

    Stable isotope ratios are reliable and long lasting process tracers. In order to compare data from different locations or different sampling times at a high level of precision, a measurement strategy must include reliable traceability to an international stable isotope scale via a reference material (RM). Since these international RMs are available in low quantities only, we have developed our own analysis schemes involving laboratory working RM. In addition, quality assurance RMs are used to control the long-term performance of the delta-value assignments. The analysis schemes allow the construction of quality assurance performance charts over years of operation. In this contribution, the performance of three typical techniques established in IsoLab at the MPI-BGC in Jena is discussed. The techniques are (1) isotope ratio mass spectrometry with an elemental analyser for delta(15)N and delta(13)C analysis of bulk (organic) material, (2) high precision delta(13)C and delta(18)O analysis of CO(2) in clean-air samples, and (3) stable isotope analysis of water samples using a high-temperature reaction with carbon. In addition, reference strategies on a laser ablation system for high spatial resolution delta(13)C analysis in tree rings is exemplified briefly.

  17. Traceability of synthetic drugs by position-specific deuterium isotope ratio analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenna, Elisabetta [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e di Ingegneria Chimica del Politecnico di Milano and Istituto CNR per la Chimica del Riconoscimento Molecolare, Via Mancinelli 7, Milan I-20131 (Italy)], E-mail: elisabetta.brenna@polimi.it; Fronza, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e di Ingegneria Chimica del Politecnico di Milano (Italy) and Instituto CNR per la Chimica del Riconoscimento Molecolare, Via Mancinelli 7, Milan I-20131 (Italy)], E-mail: giovanni.fronza@polimi.it; Fuganti, Claudio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e di Ingegneria Chimica del Politecnico di Milano (Italy) and Istituto CNR per la Chimica del Riconoscimento Molecolare, Via Mancinelli 7, Milan I-20131 (Italy)

    2007-10-10

    Samples of fluoxetine of different origin were submitted to natural abundance {sup 2}H NMR spectroscopy. The deuterium content at the various sites of the molecule was found to depend on its synthetic history. Hints on the synthetic procedure can be obtained by comparison with standard compounds, whose synthesis is known. These preliminary results give an idea of the potential of site-specific isotope ratio analysis in the fight against patent infringement and drug counterfeiting.

  18. Traceability of synthetic drugs by position-specific deuterium isotope ratio analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenna, Elisabetta; Fronza, Giovanni; Fuganti, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Samples of fluoxetine of different origin were submitted to natural abundance 2 H NMR spectroscopy. The deuterium content at the various sites of the molecule was found to depend on its synthetic history. Hints on the synthetic procedure can be obtained by comparison with standard compounds, whose synthesis is known. These preliminary results give an idea of the potential of site-specific isotope ratio analysis in the fight against patent infringement and drug counterfeiting

  19. A method for determination of cirrus extinction-to-backscatter ratio from CALIOP data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jingbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting an empirical equation to retrieve cirrus lidar ratio by using CALIOP 532 nm level 1 data for nighttime cases. Retrieval results have non-relationship with cirrus multiple scattering effects and not affected by the error of transmission. The average CALIPSO 532 nm cirrus lidar ratio over Longitude 120+/- 10 and Latitude 25+/-10 for whole year of 2008 are 21.66±0.06sr for the year of 2008 respectively, with the maximum bias of 9.25% for the year 2008, the results is fairly stable and reasonable.

  20. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS - SCENARIOS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Valeriu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Keeping a company in the top performing players in the relevant market depends not only on its ability to develop continually, sustainably and balanced, to the standards set by the customer and competition, but also on the ability to protect its strategic information and to know in advance the strategic information of the competition. In addition, given that economic markets, regardless of their profile, enable interconnection not only among domestic companies, but also between domestic companies and foreign companies, the issue of economic competition moves from the national economies to the field of interest of regional and international economic organizations. The stakes for each economic player is to keep ahead of the competition and to be always prepared to face market challenges. Therefore, it needs to know as early as possible, how to react to others’ strategy in terms of research, production and sales. If a competitor is planning to produce more and cheaper, then it must be prepared to counteract quickly this movement. Competitive intelligence helps to evaluate the capabilities of competitors in the market, legally and ethically, and to develop response strategies. One of the main goals of the competitive intelligence is to acknowledge the role of early warning and prevention of surprises that could have a major impact on the market share, reputation, turnover and profitability in the medium and long term of a company. This paper presents some aspects of competitive intelligence, mainly in terms of information analysis and intelligence generation. Presentation is theoretical and addresses a structured method of information analysis - scenarios method – in a version that combines several types of analysis in order to reveal some interconnecting aspects of the factors governing the activity of a company.

  1. Analysis of tin-ore samples by the ratio of Rayleigh to Compton backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao Qi; Cao Liguo; Ding Yimin

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the ratio of gamma-ray Rayleigh to Compton backscattering intensities (R/C) and the weight fraction of heavy element in light matrixes were investigated. An improved (R/C) eff analytical technique for tin-ore samples was described. The technique can be regarded as a substitute for the XRF method in which the self-absorption process worsens the analytical accuracy of heavy elements

  2. Numerical analysis of energetic particle stabilization of ballooning modes in finite-aspect-ratio tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qibing; Peng Qiyang; Qu Wenxiao

    1993-09-01

    The effect of energetic trapped particles on the stabilization of ballooning modes in finite-aspect-ratio tokamaks is numerically analyzed. The numerical solution of boundary value problem of an integro-differential equation is successfully obtained by RKF integral method with variable step size. The results show that the instability domain of ballooning modes becomes small along with the increase of energetic particles pressure. The energetic trapped particles can partially or completely suppress the instability of ballooning modes

  3. The Rejuvenating Effect in Hot Asphalt Recycling by Mortar Transfer Ratio and Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fusong; Wang, Zipeng; Li, Chao; Xiao, Yue; Wu, Shaopeng; Pan, Pan

    2017-05-24

    Using a rejuvenator to improve the performance of asphalt pavement is an effective and economic way of hot asphalt recycling. This research analyzes the rejuvenating effect on aged asphalt by means of a Mortar Transfer Ratio (MTR) test, which concerns the ratio of asphalt mortar that moves from recycled aggregates (RAP aggregates) to fresh added aggregates when aged asphalt is treated with a regenerating agent and comes into contact with fresh aggregates. The proposed MTR test analyzes the regeneration in terms of the softening degree on aged asphalt when the rejuvenator is applied. The covered area ratio is studied with an image analyzing tool to understand the possibility of mortar transferring from RAP aggregates to fresh aggregates. Additionally, a micro-crack closure test is conducted and observed through a microscope. The repairing ability and diffusion characteristics of micro-cracks can therefore be analyzed. The test results demonstrate that the proposed mortar transfer ratio is a feasible way to evaluate rejuvenator diffusion during hot recycling. The mortar transfer ratio and uncovered area ratio on fresh aggregates are compatible, and can be used to quantify the contribution of the rejuvenator. Within a certain temperature range, the diffusing effect of the rejuvenator is better when the diffusing temperature is higher. The diffusion time of the rejuvenator is optimum when diffusion occurs for 4-8 h. When the rejuvenator is properly applied, the rough and cracking surface can be repaired, resulting in better covered aggregates. The micro-closure analysis visually indicates that rejuvenators can be used to repair the RAP aggregates during hot recycling.

  4. The awareness and want matrix with adoption gap ratio analysis for e-service diffusion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Te-Hsin

    2011-03-01

    Since the hierarchical stages of a customer purchasing decision or innovation adoption process are interrelated, an analysis of all their stages, including awareness, want, and adoption, in relation to product or service diffusion, is urgently needed. Therefore, this study proposes the use of an awareness and want matrix, together with an adoption gap ratio analysis, to assess the effectiveness of innovation and technology diffusion for e-services. This study also conducts an empirical test on the promotion performance evaluation of 12 e-services promoted by the Taiwanese government.

  5. On the Decay Ratio Determination in BWR Stability Analysis by Auto-Correlation Function Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behringer, K.; Hennig, D.

    2002-11-01

    A novel auto-correlation function (ACF) method has been investigated for determining the oscillation frequency and the decay ratio in BWR stability analyses. The neutron signals are band-pass filtered to separate the oscillation peak in the power spectral density (PSD) from background. Two linear second-order oscillation models are considered. These models, corrected for signal filtering and including a background term under the peak in the PSD, are then least-squares fitted to the ACF of the previously filtered neutron signal, in order to determine the oscillation frequency and the decay ratio. Our method uses fast Fourier transform techniques with signal segmentation for filtering and ACF estimation. Gliding 'short-term' ACF estimates on a record allow the evaluation of uncertainties. Numerical results are given which have been obtained from neutron data of the recent Forsmark I and Forsmark II NEA benchmark project. Our results are compared with those obtained by other participants in the benchmark project. The present PSI report is an extended version of the publication K. Behringer, D. Hennig 'A novel auto-correlation function method for the determination of the decay ratio in BWR stability studies' (Behringer, Hennig, 2002)

  6. Evaluation of the Reference Numerical Parameters of the Monthly Method in ISO 13790 Considering S/V Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jeong Kwak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the accuracy of the numerical parameters in the application of the quasi steady-state calculation method. The aim of this study is to derive the reference numerical parameters of the ISO 13790 monthly method by reflecting the surface-to-volume (S/V ratio and the characteristics of the structures. The calculation process was established, and the parameters necessary to derive the reference numerical parameters were calculated based on the input data prepared for the established calculation processes. The reference numerical parameters were then derived through regression analyses of the calculated parameters and the time constant. The parameters obtained from an apartment building and the parameters of the international standard were both applied to the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP and EnergyPlus programs, and the results were analyzed in order to evaluate the validity of the results. The analysis revealed that the calculation results based on the parameters derived from this study yielded lower error rates than those based on the default parameters in ISO 13790. However, the differences were shown to be negligible in the case of high heat capacity.

  7. Comparison of exact, efron and breslow parameter approach method on hazard ratio and stratified cox regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatekurohman, Mohamat; Nurmala, Nita; Anggraeni, Dian

    2018-04-01

    Lungs are the most important organ, in the case of respiratory system. Problems related to disorder of the lungs are various, i.e. pneumonia, emphysema, tuberculosis and lung cancer. Comparing all those problems, lung cancer is the most harmful. Considering about that, the aim of this research applies survival analysis and factors affecting the endurance of the lung cancer patient using comparison of exact, Efron and Breslow parameter approach method on hazard ratio and stratified cox regression model. The data applied are based on the medical records of lung cancer patients in Jember Paru-paru hospital on 2016, east java, Indonesia. The factors affecting the endurance of the lung cancer patients can be classified into several criteria, i.e. sex, age, hemoglobin, leukocytes, erythrocytes, sedimentation rate of blood, therapy status, general condition, body weight. The result shows that exact method of stratified cox regression model is better than other. On the other hand, the endurance of the patients is affected by their age and the general conditions.

  8. Analysis on Filling Ratio and Shield Supporting Pressure for Overburden Movement Control in Coal Mining with Compacted Backfilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the weight of overburden is sustained by both the backfill body and the unmined solid coal in coal mining with compacted backfilling (CMCB panels, the stress and deformation characteristics of the surrounding rocks in coal mining are radically changed. The overburden movement control mechanism by coordinating with backfill body and shield in CMCB was studied systematically in this paper. Based on the analysis of deformational and structural characteristics of surrounding rock in CMCB panels, the methods of theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and engineering test are employed. The results show that the fracture of the main roof is mainly controlled by the filling ratio φ and is non-correlated to the shield supporting pressure p. However, p has a significant control effect on the deflection of roof within the shield canopy length, and adversely affects the filling ratio. With the increase of the filling ratio of the gob, the maximum sagging of the immediate and the main roofs, the peak front and the influence range of the abutment pressures are gradually reduced. Correspondingly, the stable period of internal pressure of backfill body in the gob is shortened. Engineering practice shows that the sagging of the gob roof, the distribution of the abutment pressure, the distribution of the internal pressure in the backfill body, and the ground surface sagging results obtained by the in-situ measurement are approximately corresponding to the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results.

  9. Gravimetric and titrimetric methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rives, R.D.; Bruks, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Gravimetric and titrimetric methods of analysis are considered. Methods of complexometric titration are mentioned, as well as methods of increasing sensitivity in titrimetry. Gravimetry and titrimetry are applied during analysis for traces of geological materials

  10. Analysis of high aspect ratio jet flap wings of arbitrary geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissaman, P. B. S.

    1973-01-01

    Paper presents a design technique for rapidly computing lift, induced drag, and spanwise loading of unswept jet flap wings of arbitrary thickness, chord, twist, blowing, and jet angle, including discontinuities. Linear theory is used, extending Spence's method for elliptically loaded jet flap wings. Curves for uniformly blown rectangular wings are presented for direct performance estimation. Arbitrary planforms require a simple computer program. Method of reducing wing to equivalent stretched, twisted, unblown planform for hand calculation is also given. Results correlate with limited existing data, and show lifting line theory is reasonable down to aspect ratios of 5.

  11. Alternative methods for CYP2D6 phenotyping: comparison of dextromethorphan metabolic ratios from AUC, single point plasma, and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Wang, Haotian; Shi, Jun; Hu, Pei

    2016-05-01

    CYP2D6 is a high polymorphic enzyme. Determining its phenotype before CYP2D6 substrate treatment can avoid dose-dependent adverse events or therapeutic failures. Alternative phenotyping methods of CYP2D6 were compared to aluate the appropriate and precise time points for phenotyping after single-dose and ultiple-dose of 30-mg controlled-release (CR) dextromethorphan (DM) and to explore the antimodes for potential sampling methods. This was an open-label, single and multiple-dose study. 21 subjects were assigned to receive a single dose of CR DM 30 mg orally, followed by a 3-day washout period prior to oral administration of CR DM 30 mg every 12 hours for 6 days. Metabolic ratios (MRs) from AUC∞ after single dosing and from AUC0-12h at steady state were taken as the gold standard. The correlations of metabolic ratios of DM to dextrorphan (MRDM/DX) values based on different phenotyping methods were assessed. Linear regression formulas were derived to calculate the antimodes for potential sample methods. In the single-dose part of the study statistically significant correlations were found between MRDM/DX from AUC∞ and from serial plasma points from 1 to 30 hours or from urine (all p-values < 0.001). In the multiple-dose part, statistically significant correlations were found between MRDM/DX from AUC0-12h on day 6 and MRDM/DX from serial plasma points from 0 to 36 hours after the last dosing (all p-values < 0.001). Based on reported urinary antimode and linear regression analysis, the antimodes of AUC and plasma points were derived to profile the trend of antimodes as the drug concentrations changed. MRDM/DX from plasma points had good correlations with MRDM/DX from AUC. Plasma points from 1 to 30 hours after single dose of 30-mg CR DM and any plasma point at steady state after multiple doses of CR DM could potentially be used for phenotyping of CYP2D6.

  12. An Accurate Method for Inferring Relatedness in Large Datasets of Unphased Genotypes via an Embedded Likelihood-Ratio Test

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Jesse M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies that map disease genes rely on accurate annotations that indicate whether individuals in the studied cohorts are related to each other or not. For example, in genome-wide association studies, the cohort members are assumed to be unrelated to one another. Investigators can correct for individuals in a cohort with previously-unknown shared familial descent by detecting genomic segments that are shared between them, which are considered to be identical by descent (IBD). Alternatively, elevated frequencies of IBD segments near a particular locus among affected individuals can be indicative of a disease-associated gene. As genotyping studies grow to use increasingly large sample sizes and meta-analyses begin to include many data sets, accurate and efficient detection of hidden relatedness becomes a challenge. To enable disease-mapping studies of increasingly large cohorts, a fast and accurate method to detect IBD segments is required. We present PARENTE, a novel method for detecting related pairs of individuals and shared haplotypic segments within these pairs. PARENTE is a computationally-efficient method based on an embedded likelihood ratio test. As demonstrated by the results of our simulations, our method exhibits better accuracy than the current state of the art, and can be used for the analysis of large genotyped cohorts. PARENTE\\'s higher accuracy becomes even more significant in more challenging scenarios, such as detecting shorter IBD segments or when an extremely low false-positive rate is required. PARENTE is publicly and freely available at http://parente.stanford.edu/. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting [Ventura, CA

    2011-04-26

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  14. Ratio analysis and Piotroski scoring system in the automobile industry in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morana Mesarić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To gain insight into operational efficiency, sustainable profitability, the ability to fulfil commitments, use of funds borrowed or investment risk or operational self-sufficiency, it is necessary to conduct analyses of financial statements usually known as ratio analysis. The paper provides analyses of five Croatian general distributors of the automobile industry. Ratios used in the analyses are those used in the Piotroski f-scoring analyses, which are famous for assessing financial capacities of enterprises on the stock exchange market. Based on ratios used in Piotroski scoring systems the assessment of five enterprises, as well as the sector as a whole was carried out. The analysis covers the period 2007-2012. That is the period of the rise, falling and recovery of the automotive industry throughout the world as well as the rise, falling and recession of the whole economy including the automobile market. In general, the sector itself is financially unstable and consequently risk exposed. Results are used for preliminary analyses and prediction of the future financial strength of the auto industry in Croatia.

  15. Stable isotope methods: The effect of gut contents on isotopic ratios of zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J. M.; McQuaid, C. D.

    2011-05-01

    In the past decade there has been an increased awareness of the potential for methodological bias resulting from multiple pre-analytical procedures in foodweb interpretations based on stable isotope techniques. In the case of small organisms, this includes the effect of gut contents on whole body signatures. Although gut contents may not reflect actual assimilation, their carbon and nitrogen values will be isotopically lighter than after the same material has been assimilated. The potential skewing of isotopic ratios in whole organism samples is especially important for aquatic environments as many studies involve trophic relationships among small zooplankton. This is particularly important in pelagic waters, where herbivorous zooplankton comprise small taxa. Hence this study investigated the effect of gut contents on the δ13C and δ15N ratios of three size classes of zooplankton (1.0-2.0, 2.0-4.0 and >4.0 mm) collected using bongo net tows in the tropical waters of the south-west Indian Ocean. Animals were collected at night, when they were likely to be feeding, sieved into size classes and separated into genera. We focused on Euphausia spp which dominated zooplankton biomass. Three treatment types were processed: bulk animals, bulk animals without guts and tail muscle from each size class at 10 bongo stations. The δ15N ratios were influenced by zooplankton size class, presumably reflecting ontogenetic changes in diet. ANOVA post hoc results and correlations in δ15N signatures among treatments suggest that gut contents may not affect overall nitrogen signatures of Euphausia spp., but that δ13C signatures may be significantly altered by their presence. Carbon interpretations however, were complicated by potential effects of variation in chitin, lipids and metabolism among tissues and the possibility of opportunistic omnivory. Consequently we advocate gut evacuation before sacrifice in euphausiids if specific tissue dissection is impractical and recommend

  16. Two-step estimation in ratio-of-mediator-probability weighted causal mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bein, Edward; Deutsch, Jonah; Hong, Guanglei; Porter, Kristin E; Qin, Xu; Yang, Cheng

    2018-04-15

    This study investigates appropriate estimation of estimator variability in the context of causal mediation analysis that employs propensity score-based weighting. Such an analysis decomposes the total effect of a treatment on the outcome into an indirect effect transmitted through a focal mediator and a direct effect bypassing the mediator. Ratio-of-mediator-probability weighting estimates these causal effects by adjusting for the confounding impact of a large number of pretreatment covariates through propensity score-based weighting. In step 1, a propensity score model is estimated. In step 2, the causal effects of interest are estimated using weights derived from the prior step's regression coefficient estimates. Statistical inferences obtained from this 2-step estimation procedure are potentially problematic if the estimated standard errors of the causal effect estimates do not reflect the sampling uncertainty in the estimation of the weights. This study extends to ratio-of-mediator-probability weighting analysis a solution to the 2-step estimation problem by stacking the score functions from both steps. We derive the asymptotic variance-covariance matrix for the indirect effect and direct effect 2-step estimators, provide simulation results, and illustrate with an application study. Our simulation results indicate that the sampling uncertainty in the estimated weights should not be ignored. The standard error estimation using the stacking procedure offers a viable alternative to bootstrap standard error estimation. We discuss broad implications of this approach for causal analysis involving propensity score-based weighting. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Digital image analysis supports a nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio cutoff value of 0.5 for atypical urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Jen-Fan; Charu, Vivek; Zhang, M Lisa; VandenBussche, Christopher J

    2017-09-01

    An elevated nuclear-to-cytoplasmic (N:C) ratio of ≥0.5 is a required criterion for the diagnosis of atypical urothelial cells (AUC) in The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology. To validate the N:C ratio cutoff value and its predictive power for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC), the authors retrospectively reviewed the urinary tract cytology specimens of 15 cases of AUC with HGUC on follow-up (AUC-HGUC) and 33 cases of AUC without HGUC on follow-up (AUC-N-HGUC). The number of atypical cells in each case was recorded, and each atypical cell was photographed and digitally examined to calculate the nuclear size and N:C ratio. On average, the maximum N:C ratios of atypical cells were significantly different between the AUC-HGUC and AUC-N-HGUC cohorts (0.53 vs 0.43; P =.00009), whereas the maximum nuclear sizes of atypical cells (153.43 μM 2 vs 201.47 μM 2 ; P = .69) and the number of atypical cells per case (10.13 vs 7.88; P = .12) were not found to be significantly different. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the maximum N:C ratio alone had high discriminatory capacity (area under the curve, 79.19%; 95% confidence interval, 64.19%-94.19%). The optimal maximum N:C ratio threshold was 0.486, giving a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 84.8% for predicting HGUC on follow-up. The identification of AUC with an N:C ratio >0.486 has a high predictive power for HGUC on follow-up in AUC specimens. This justifies using the N:C ratio as a required criterion for the AUC category. Individual laboratories using different cytopreparation methods may require independent validation of the N:C ratio cutoff value. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:710-6. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  18. Practical guidance for conducting mediation analysis with multiple mediators using inverse odds ratio weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh C; Osypuk, Theresa L; Schmidt, Nicole M; Glymour, M Maria; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J

    2015-03-01

    Despite the recent flourishing of mediation analysis techniques, many modern approaches are difficult to implement or applicable to only a restricted range of regression models. This report provides practical guidance for implementing a new technique utilizing inverse odds ratio weighting (IORW) to estimate natural direct and indirect effects for mediation analyses. IORW takes advantage of the odds ratio's invariance property and condenses information on the odds ratio for the relationship between the exposure (treatment) and multiple mediators, conditional on covariates, by regressing exposure on mediators and covariates. The inverse of the covariate-adjusted exposure-mediator odds ratio association is used to weight the primary analytical regression of the outcome on treatment. The treatment coefficient in such a weighted regression estimates the natural direct effect of treatment on the outcome, and indirect effects are identified by subtracting direct effects from total effects. Weighting renders treatment and mediators independent, thereby deactivating indirect pathways of the mediators. This new mediation technique accommodates multiple discrete or continuous mediators. IORW is easily implemented and is appropriate for any standard regression model, including quantile regression and survival analysis. An empirical example is given using data from the Moving to Opportunity (1994-2002) experiment, testing whether neighborhood context mediated the effects of a housing voucher program on obesity. Relevant Stata code (StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas) is provided. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Analysis of fission ratio distribution in spherical lithium metal assembly with a graphite reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yasushi; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Toru; Hirota, Jitsuya; Moriyama, Masatoshi.

    1975-08-01

    For the investigation of neutronics in the fusion reactor blanket, a spherical lithium assembly with a graphite reflector was prepared by piling up lithium and graphite blocks. The ratio of U-238 to U-235 fission rates was measured by micro fission chambers, and the result of the measurement was compared with that of the preliminary calculation. It has been shown that there is a large discrepancy between experiment and calculation, which is too large to be explained only by the experimental error. In this paper, the calculational procedure is reviewed and probable causes of the calculational error are listed. Further calculation of the fission ratio is carried out employing refined methods and with varied calculational models. As the result, it is concluded that the cause of the discrepancy is most likely the uncertainties of the nuclear data of the constituent elements of the assembly. (auth.)

  20. Prognostic value of pretreatment albumin/globulin ratio in digestive system cancers: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui-Wen; Yuan, Tang-Zhan; Chen, Jia-Xi; Zheng, Yang

    2018-01-01

    The albumin/globulin ratio (AGR) has been widely reported to be a potential predictor of prognosis in digestive system cancers (DSCs), but convincing conclusions have not been made. Therefore, herein, we performed a meta-analysis of relevant studies regarding this topic to evaluate the prognostic value of AGR in patients with DSCs. Three databases, including PubMed, EMBase, and Web of science, were searched comprehensively for eligible studies through September 8, 2017. The outcomes of interest included overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS). In our meta-analysis, pooled analysis of 13 studies with 9269 patients showed that a low AGR was significantly correlated with poor OS (HR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.57-2.38; P digestive system cancers. A low pretreatment AGR may be a useful predictive prognostic biomarker in human digestive system cancers.

  1. Experimental micro mechanics methods for conventional and negative Poisson's ratio cellular solids as Cosserat continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, R.

    1991-01-01

    Continuum representations of micromechanical phenomena in structured materials are described, with emphasis on cellular solids. These phenomena are interpreted in light of Cosserat elasticity, a generalized continuum theory which admits degrees of freedom not present in classical elasticity. These are the rotation of points in the material, and a couple per unit area or couple stress. Experimental work in this area is reviewed, and other interpretation schemes are discussed. The applicability of Cosserat elasticity to cellular solids and fibrous composite materials is considered as is the application of related generalized continuum theories. New experimental results are presented for foam materials with negative Poisson's ratios.

  2. A new method of organizing spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations of nightglow emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, B.

    1986-02-01

    In this paper a new kind of linearization effect between the atmospheric night airglow emissions is presented. The same kind of linearization effect has previously been studied with spectrochemical light sources together with a spectrometer. A linear graph was obtained for atomic spectral lines and vibrational bandspectra when the spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations were plotted versus the photon energies of these emissions. To study this effect data from a number of different photometer investigations of night airglow emissions at different times and places have been used. (author)

  3. [Effect of elastic strain rate ratio method and virtual touch tissue quantification on the diagnosis of breast masses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, LiJie; He, Yan; Tian, Peng; Yan, Yan

    2016-07-01

    To determine the effect of elastic strain rate ratio method and virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) on the diagnosis of breast masses.
 Sixty female patients with breast cancer, who received surgical treatment in Daqing Oilfield General Hospital, were enrolled. All patients signed the informed consent paperwork and they were treated by routine ultrasound examination, compression elastography (CE) examination, and VTQ examination in turn. Strain ratio (SR) was checked by CE and shear wave velocity (SWV) value was measured by VTQ. The diagnostic values of different methods were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in the diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors.
 The maximum diameter and SWV value of the benign tumors were lower than those of the malignant tumors, and the SR ratio of benign masses was higher than that of malignant tumors (Pbreast mass than that used alone.

  4. Prognostic roles of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio in ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis of retrospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhe; Zhao, Xinrui; Lu, Jingjing; Xue, Jing; Liu, Peishu; Mao, Hongluan

    2018-04-01

    The systemic inflammatory response markers have been reported to be associated with the prognosis of various cancers. We conducted this meta-analysis of retrospective studies to evaluate and identify the prognostic impact of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) on ovarian cancer. PubMed, EMBASE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were included to search for eligible studies. The following terms were used: "neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio", "NLR", "platelet to lymphocyte ratio", "PLR", "ovarian cancer", "ovary cancer", "ovarian carcinoma", "ovary carcinoma", "ovarian neoplasm", "ovary neoplasm", "ovarian tumor", and "ovary tumor". The random-effects model was chosen to estimate the pooled HR with 95% CI. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by Higgins I 2 value. The stability and heterogeneity of studies were analyzed by sensitivity analysis. Publication bias was examined by Egger's test and Begg's test with the funnel plots. 13 studies consisting of 3467 patients were considered for meta-analysis. We found that the high NLR had a poor prognostic impact on OS and PFS in ovarian cancer, with a pooled HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.35-2.15 and HR 1.77, 95% CI 1.48-2.12, respectively. Similarly, the results showed the high PLR adversely affected OS and PFS in ovarian cancer, with a pooled HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.70-2.48 and HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.53-2.25, respectively. In conclusion, we found that both NLR and PLR had an unfavorable impact on PFS and OS of patients with ovarian cancer. Our meta-analysis supported that NLR/PLR could be effective prognostic predictors of ovarian cancer.

  5. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foutes, C.E.; Queenan, C.J. III

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were evaluated both in absolute terms and also relative to a base case (current practice). Incremental costs of the standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, defined as the incremental cost per avoided health effect, was calculated for each alternative standard. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis. 15 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  6. Advancing individual tree biomass prediction: assessment and alternatives to the component ratio method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron Weiskittel; Jereme Frank; David Walker; Phil Radtke; David Macfarlane; James Westfall

    2015-01-01

    Prediction of forest biomass and carbon is becoming important issues in the United States. However, estimating forest biomass and carbon is difficult and relies on empirically-derived regression equations. Based on recent findings from a national gap analysis and comprehensive assessment of the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (USFS-FIA) component...

  7. Prognostic value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio in acute pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Ma, Junfen; Jiang, Zhiyun; Ming, Liang

    2018-02-01

    Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been reported to predict prognosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the prognostic value of NLR and PLR remained inconsistent between studies. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the prognostic role of NLR and PLR in acute PE. We systematically searched Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science and CNKI for relative literature up to March 2017. The pooled statistics for all outcomes were expressed as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The statistical analyses were performed using Review Manager 5.3.5 analysis software and Stata software. Totally 7 eligible studies consisting of 2323 patients were enrolled in our meta-analysis. Elevated NLR was significantly associated with overall (short-term and long-term) mortality (OR 10.13, 95% CI 6.57-15.64, Panalysis revealed that NLR and PLR are promising biomarkers in predicting prognosis in acute PE patients. We suggest NLR and PLR be used routinely in the PE prognostic assessment.

  8. Development and validation of new spectrophotometric ratio H-point standard addition method and application to gastrointestinal acting drugs mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehia, Ali M.

    2013-05-01

    New, simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric technique utilizing ratio spectra is developed for simultaneous determination of two different binary mixtures. The developed ratio H-point standard addition method (RHPSAM) was managed successfully to resolve the spectral overlap in itopride hydrochloride (ITO) and pantoprazole sodium (PAN) binary mixture, as well as, mosapride citrate (MOS) and PAN binary mixture. The theoretical background and advantages of the newly proposed method are presented. The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range of 5-60 μg/mL, 5-40 μg/mL and 4-24 μg/mL for ITO, MOS and PAN, respectively. Specificity of the method was investigated and relative standard deviations were less than 1.5. The accuracy, precision and repeatability were also investigated for the proposed method according to ICH guidelines.

  9. Novel method for measurement of glutathione kinetics in neonates using liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schierbeek, Henk; te Braake, Frans; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Fay, Laurent-Bernard; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2007-01-01

    A novel analytical method using liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) was developed for measuring the fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of glutathione (GSH) in neonates after infusion of [1-(13)C]-glycine as a tracer. After transformation of GSH into GSSG, its

  10. Analysis methods (from 301 to 351)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis methods of materials used in the nuclear field (uranium, plutonium and their compounds, zirconium, magnesium, water...) and determination of impurities. Only reliable methods are selected [fr

  11. Monthly analysis of PM ratio characteristics and its relation to AOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; Broday, David M; Chatfield, Robert; Esswein, Robert; Stafoggia, Massimo; Lepeule, Johanna; Lyapustin, Alexei; Kloog, Itai

    2017-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) is derived from diverse sources-natural and anthropogenic. Climate change processes and remote sensing measurements are affected by the PM properties, which are often lumped into homogeneous size fractions that show spatiotemporal variation. Since different sources are attributed to different geographic locations and show specific spatial and temporal PM patterns, we explored the spatiotemporal characteristics of the PM 2.5 /PM 10 ratio in different areas. Furthermore, we examined the statistical relationships between AERONET aerosol optical depth (AOD) products, satellite-based AOD, and the PM ratio, as well as the specific PM size fractions. PM data from the northeastern United States, from San Joaquin Valley, CA, and from Italy, Israel, and France were analyzed, as well as the spatial and temporal co-measured AOD products obtained from the MultiAngle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm. Our results suggest that when both the AERONET AOD and the AERONET fine-mode AOD are available, the AERONET AOD ratio can be a fair proxy for the ground PM ratio. Therefore, we recommend incorporating the fine-mode AERONET AOD in the calibration of MAIAC. Along with a relatively large variation in the observed PM ratio (especially in the northeastern United States), this shows the need to revisit MAIAC assumptions on aerosol microphysical properties, and perhaps their seasonal variability, which are used to generate the look-up tables and conduct aerosol retrievals. Our results call for further scrutiny of satellite-borne AOD, in particular its errors, limitations, and relation to the vertical aerosol profile and the particle size, shape, and composition distribution. This work is one step of the required analyses to gain better understanding of what the satellite-based AOD represents. The analysis results recommend incorporating the fine-mode AERONET AOD in MAIAC calibration. Specifically, they indicate the need to revisit

  12. 3D analysis methods - Study and seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daaviittila, A.

    2003-10-01

    The first part of the report results from a study that was performed as a Nordic co-operation activity with active participation from Studsvik Scandpower and Westinghouse Atom in Sweden, and VTT in Finland. The purpose of the study was to identify and investigate the effects rising from using the 3D transient com-puter codes in BWR safety analysis, and their influence on the transient analysis methodology. One of the main questions involves the critical power ratio (CPR) calculation methodology. The present way, where the CPR calculation is per-formed with a separate hot channel calculation, can be artificially conservative. In the investigated cases, no dramatic minimum CPR effect coming from the 3D calculation is apparent. Some cases show some decrease in the transient change of minimum CPR with the 3D calculation, which confirms the general thinking that the 1D calculation is conservative. On the other hand, the observed effect on neutron flux behaviour is quite large. In a slower transient the 3D effect might be stronger. The second part of the report is a summary of a related seminar that was held on the 3D analysis methods. The seminar was sponsored by the Reactor Safety part (NKS-R) of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme (NKS). (au)

  13. The effect of different aspect ratio and bottom heat flux towards contaminant removal using numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadun, M N A; Manaf, M Z A; Zakaria, M S; Hafidzal, M H M; Azwadi, C S Nor; Malek, Z A A

    2013-01-01

    Cubic Interpolated Pseudo-particle (CIP) numerical simulation scheme has been anticipated to predict the interaction involving fluids and solid particles in an open channel with rectangular shaped cavity flow. The rectangular shaped cavity is looking by different aspect ratio in modelling the real pipeline joints that are in a range of sizes. Various inlet velocities are also being applied in predicting various fluid flow characteristics. In this paper, the constant heat flux is introduced at the bottom wall, showing the buoyancy effects towards the contaminant's removal rate. In order to characterize the fluid flow, the numerical scheme alone is initially tested and validated in a lid driven cavity with a single particle. The study of buoyancy effects and different aspect ratio of rectangular geometry were carried out using a MATLAB govern by Navier-Stokes equation. CIP is used as a model for a numerical scheme solver for fluid solid particles interaction. The result shows that the higher aspect ratio coupled with heated bottom wall give higher percentage of contaminant's removal rate. Comparing with the benchmark results has demonstrated the applicability of the method to reproduce fluid structure which is complex in the system. Despite a slight deviation of the formations of vortices from some of the literature results, the general pattern is considered to be in close agreement with those published in the literature

  14. Pupil to limbus ratio: Introducing a simple objective measure using two-box method for measuring early anisocoria and progress of pupillary change in the ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Kumar Mojumder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Measurement of static pupillary size in the ICU is of importance in cases of acutely expanding intracranial mass lesions. The inaccuracies with subjective assessment of pupillary size by medical personnel preclude its use in emergent neurological situations. Objective: To determine if the ratio of pupil to limbus diameter (PLD ratio measured by a two-box method is a reliable measure of pupil size for detecting early anisocoria and measuring pupillary changes. Materials and Methods: The PLD ratio was defined as the ratio of the pupillary diameter measured at a para-horizontal axial plane with the limbus diameter measured at the same or parallel axial plane. A two-box method was used to estimate the diameters of imaged pupils. Eyes were imaged using an iPhone 4S cellphone camera. Background illumination was measured and kept constant. The pupils of a 78-year-old woman, who presented with a large intra-axial parenchymal hemorrhage, were imaged. The patient had left pupillary miosis in dark but not in bright light. After presenting this case along with the images of the pupillary examination, a group of 21 medical staff were asked several questions on the pupillary examination. Reliability of PLD ratio were assessed via standard error of mean (S.E.M of PLD ratios for 3 different subjects each imaged under constant illumination and fixation but from different angles to the optical axis. Results: Analysis of questionnaire data together with PLD ratios revealed that ~ 14% and 10% of participants could estimate the pupillary size in darkness and bright light respectively but none were simultaneously accurate indicating that subjective assessment of pupillary size was unreliable. The approach towards a systematic pupillary examination was inconsistent among the participants. The PLD ratio was found to be a reliable measure of pupillary size with standard error of mean below 0.1 mm for the three subjects tested. Conclusion: Static pupillary

  15. The Prognostic Role of the Platelet-Lymphocytes Ratio in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengshui Xu

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory parameters, such as the elevator PLR (platelet-lymphocyte ratio, the NLR (neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and the platelet count (PLT, have been found to be associated with the prognosis in gastric cancer; however, these results, especially those relating to the PLR, remain inconsistent. So we aimed to evaluate the prognostic role of the PLR in gastric cancer by conducting and presenting the findings of this meta-analysis.We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library to evaluate the prognostic value of the PLR in gastric cancer. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using the Newcastle Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS. The hazard ratio (HR /Odds Ratio (OR and its 95% confidence were pooled using a random effects model. A funnel plot based on overall survival was used to evaluate the publication bias.It total, 8 studies comprising 4513 patients with gastric cancer met the pre-setting inclusion criteria. In comparison to the normal PLR, an elevated PLR was correlated with a higher risk of lymph node metastasis with an OR of 1.50 (95% Cl:1.24-1.82; I2 = 17% and serosal invasion (T3 +T4 risk with an OR of 2.01 (95% Cl: 1.49-2.73; I2 = 55%, and an elevated PLR also increased the advanced stage (III +IV risk with an OR of 1.99 (95% Cl: 1.60-2.46; I2 = 28%. An elevated PLR was not a reliable predictor for OS with an HR of 0.99 (95% CI: 0.9-1.1; I2 = 12%.An elevated PLR was correlated with a higher risk of lymph node metastasis, serosal invasion and advanced stage (III +IV risk in gastric cancer; however, the PLR may not act as a negative predictor for the overall survival of gastric cancer.

  16. A new method of organizing spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations of auroral emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, B.

    1986-02-01

    In this paper a new kind of linearization effect between the atmospheric auroral emissions is presented. The same kind of linearization effect has previously been found in nightglow emissions from photometer measurements and in the spectrochemical field from studies of optical light sources. Linear graphs have been obtained for atomic spectral lines and vibrational bandspectra when the spectral line ratio fluctuations were plotted versus the photon energies of these emissions. This new effect has been studied with a spectrophotometer in auroral emissions, where linear graphs have been obtained on different auroral occasions. By doing such studies of auroral light it is possible to see the importance of the inelastic scattering cross section between electrons - atoms and electrons - molecules. In this way it has shown to be possible to determine the mean energy of the interacting thermal electrons that are active in the different auroral phases. (author)

  17. An empirical method for peak-to-total ratio computation of a gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesana, A.; Terrani, M.

    1989-01-01

    A simple expression for peak-to-total ratio evaluation of gamma-ray detectors in the energy range 0.3-10 MeV is proposed. The quantities one needs to know for the computation are: Detector dimensions and chemical composition, photon corss sections and an empirical energy dependent function which is valid for all the detector materials considered. This procedure seems able to produce peak-to-total values with an accuracy comparable with the most sophisticated Monte Carlo calculations. It has been tested using experimental peak-to-total values of Ge, NaI, CsI and BGO detectors but it is reasonable to suppose that it is valid for any detector material. (orig.)

  18. Electron temperature measurement by a helium line intensity ratio method in helicon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boivin, R.F.; Kline, J.L.; Scime, E.E.

    2001-01-01

    Electron temperature measurements in helicon plasmas are difficult. The presence of intense rf fields in the plasma complicates the interpretation of Langmuir probe measurements. Furthermore, the non-negligible ion temperature in the plasma considerably shortens the lifetime of conventional Langmuir probes. A spectroscopic technique based on the relative intensities of neutral helium lines is used to measure the electron temperature in the HELIX (Hot hELicon eXperiment) plasma [P. A. Keiter et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 2741 (1997)]. This nonintrusive diagnostic is based on the fact that electron impact excitation rate coefficients for helium singlet and triplet states differ as a function of the electron temperature. The different aspects related to the validity of this technique to measure the electron temperature in rf generated plasmas are discussed in this paper. At low plasma density (n e ≤10 11 cm -3 ), this diagnostic is believed to be very reliable since the population of the emitting level can be easily estimated with reasonable accuracy by assuming that all excitation originates from the ground state (steady-state corona model). At higher density, secondary processes (excitation transfer, excitation from metastable, cascading) become more important and a more complex collisional radiative model must be used to predict the electron temperature. In this work, different helium transitions are examined and a suitable transition pair is identified. For an electron temperature of 10 eV, the line ratio is measured as a function of plasma density and compared to values predicted by models. The measured line ratio function is in good agreement with theory and the data suggest that the excitation transfer is the dominant secondary process in high-density plasmas

  19. Interacting Psycho-economic Expectations Ratios with Equity/debt Realities Suggests a Crisis Warning Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Thornton

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent April 2011 meeting of the G20 countries considered possible development of a global early warning system to avoid any future financial crisis. Psycho-economic factors are strong drivers of greed, fear and non-rational behavior and experience shows that they should not be excluded from such a project. Rational, logical behavior for attitude and actions has been an assumption in most financial models prior to the advent of the 2008 crisis. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in relating financial activity to phenomena in physics, turbulence, neurology and recent fMRI experiments show that cortical interactions for decisions are affected by previous experience. We use an extension of two Lotka-Volterra (LV interactive equations used in a model for the 2008 crisis but now with fluctuation theory from chemical physics to interact the two previously used heterogenous interacting agents, the psycho-economic ratio CE of investor expectations (favourable/unfavourable and the reality ratio of equity/debt. The model provides a variable, M, for uncertainties in CE arising from the ability of the economy to affect the financial sector. A condition obtained for keeping rates of change in M small to avoid divergence of spontaneous fluctuations, provides a quantifiable time dependent entity which can act as a warning of impending crisis. The conditional expression appears to be related to an extension of Ohm's law as in a recently discovered "chip" and memory; the memristor. The possible role of subthreshold legacies in CE from the previous crisis appears to be possible and related to recent neurological findings.

  20. Method for Predicting Void Ratio and Triaxial Friction Angle from Laboratory CPT at Shallow Depths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim André; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    In this report an investigation of the relationship between the tip resistance, qc of a laboratory CPT-probe versus the relative density, Dr and friction angle, ∏ of Aalborg University Sand No. 0 is carried out. A method for estimating the relative density and the triaxial friction angle from...... the cone resistance of the laboratory probe is proposed. The suggested method deals with the fact that the friction angle is depended of the stress level especially at low stresses. The method includes a calibration of the cone resistance from the laboratory CPT at shallow depths i.e. low values of d...

  1. Evaluating the Coda Phase Delay Method for Determining Temperature Ratios in Windy Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Sarah [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bowman, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodgers, Arthur [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Seastrand, Douglas [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We evaluate the acoustic coda phase delay method for estimating changes in atmospheric phenomena in realistic environments. Previous studies verifying the method took place in an environment with negligible wind. The equation for effective sound speed, which the method is based upon, shows that the influence of wind is equal to the square of temperature. Under normal conditions, wind is significant and therefore cannot be ignored. Results from this study con rm the previous statement. The acoustic coda phase delay method breaks down in non-ideal environments, namely those where wind speed and direction varies across small distances. We suggest that future studies make use of gradiometry to better understand the effect of wind on the acoustic coda and subsequent phase delays.

  2. Formulation of probabilistic models of protein structure in atomic detail using the reference ratio method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Jan B.; Andreetta, Christian; Boomsma, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method to formulate probabilistic models of protein structure in atomic detail, for a given amino acid sequence, based on Bayesian principles, while retaining a close link to physics. We start from two previously developed probabilistic models of protein structure on a local length s....... The results indicate that the proposed method and the probabilistic models show considerable promise for probabilistic protein structure prediction and related applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  3. Spectral analysis software improves confidence in plant and soil water stable isotope analyses performed by isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A G; Goldsmith, G R; Matimati, I; Dawson, T E

    2011-08-30

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for large errors to occur when analyzing waters containing organic contaminants using isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS). In an attempt to address this problem, IRIS manufacturers now provide post-processing spectral analysis software capable of identifying samples with the types of spectral interference that compromises their stable isotope analysis. Here we report two independent tests of this post-processing spectral analysis software on two IRIS systems, OA-ICOS (Los Gatos Research Inc.) and WS-CRDS (Picarro Inc.). Following a similar methodology to a previous study, we cryogenically extracted plant leaf water and soil water and measured the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of identical samples by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and IRIS. As an additional test, we analyzed plant stem waters and tap waters by IRMS and IRIS in an independent laboratory. For all tests we assumed that the IRMS value represented the "true" value against which we could compare the stable isotope results from the IRIS methods. Samples showing significant deviations from the IRMS value (>2σ) were considered to be contaminated and representative of spectral interference in the IRIS measurement. Over the two studies, 83% of plant species were considered contaminated on OA-ICOS and 58% on WS-CRDS. Post-analysis, spectra were analyzed using the manufacturer's spectral analysis software, in order to see if the software correctly identified contaminated samples. In our tests the software performed well, identifying all the samples with major errors. However, some false negatives indicate that user evaluation and testing of the software are necessary. Repeat sampling of plants showed considerable variation in the discrepancies between IRIS and IRMS. As such, we recommend that spectral analysis of IRIS data must be incorporated into standard post-processing routines. Furthermore, we suggest that the results from spectral analysis be

  4. Prognostic and clinicopathological significance of platelet to lymphocyte ratio in esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Juhong; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Yue; Peng, Ping; Huang, Yu

    2018-03-01

    The prognostic and clinicopathological significance of the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) has been studied in various cancers. However, studies examining the role of PLR in esophageal cancer have not yielded consistent results. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to study the prognostic and clinicopathological significance of PLR in esophageal cancer patients. We performed a literature search in three major databases: PubMed, Web of Science and Embase (up until May 1, 2017). The clinicopathologic significance of PLR and its prognostic significance were analyzed. Our meta-analysis consisted of 13 studies with 4,621 patients. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) showed that a high PLR was associated with poor survival of esophageal cancer [HR =1.283; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.173-1.404; Panalysis revealed that elevated PLR was associated with poor survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (HR =1.281; 95% CI: 1.098-1.493; P=0.002). The pooled odds ratio (OR) indicated that high PLR was also associated with the depth of tumor invasion (OR =1.543, 95% CI: 1.269-1.876, P<0.001), lymph node metastasis (OR =1.427, 95% CI: 1.195-1.705, P<0.001), tumor length (OR =1.81, 95% CI: 1.331-2.461, P<0.001), and Tumor stage (OR =1.459, 95% CI: 1.235-1.724, P<0.001). Our results demonstrate that elevated PLR was significantly associated with poor prognosis of esophageal cancer. Furthermore, the high PLR might predict worse clinicopathological features of esophageal cancer patients.

  5. Measurement of mercury isotopic ratio in stone meteorites by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    196 Hg and 202 Hg isotopes have been measured by neutron activation analysis in samples of twelve stone meteorites. Hg is extracted from an irradiated sample by stepwise heating. The mercury concentrations vary from 0.07 to 33 ppm. While most of the samples give 196 Hg/ 202 Hg ratios similar to terrestrial value within error limits, in some cases large anomalies are observed. A number of control experiments have been devised, that show the absence of experimental artifacts, during sample preparation, neutron irradiation, chemical separation and counting stages. Several anomalous and normal Hg distillate have been re-irradiated as Hg-diethyl-dithio-carbamate complex to eliminate the influence of neutron self shielding and interfering reactions from matrix elements. The isotopic ratio patterns persist in the distillates too proving that any artifacts during meteorite irradiation and measurement are essentially absent. Both positive and negative anomalies are observed: however, the negative anomalies are much more frequent and abundant. In an extreme case of fine grained magnetic particles of Ambapur Nagla the 196 Hg is apparently absent in the Hg released at 100 deg C. A 2σ 196 Hg/ 202 Hg value is only 6% relative to the monitor. This experiment shows the robustness of neutron activation analysis and suggest some constrains on the formation history of stone meteorites. (author)

  6. Propensity score analysis of recurrence for neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balde, Alpha I; Fang, Suzhen; He, Linyun; Cai, Zhai; Han, Shuai; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Zhou; Kang, Liang

    2017-11-01

    The perioperative serum neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been proposed to predict adverse prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its interpretation remains unclear. The present study aimed to clarify the prognostic value of NLR in predicting survival among CRC patients. A single-centre, retrospective, propensity score-matched study of adenocarcinoma patients who underwent D3 lymphadenectomy via laparoscopic or open surgery between 2010 and 2016 was conducted. A cutoff of 3.5 was used based on the receiver operating characteristic curve. To overcome selection biases, we performed a 1:1 match using six covariates. The high-preoperative NLR group had a higher recurrence rate than the low group (P analysis showed that increased NLR (P analysis showed that N2 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.492; P = 0.008) was an adverse prognostic factor for RFS. Univariate analysis for overall survival (OS) revealed that high perioperative NLR (P = 0.001), N1 (P = 0.01), N2 (P analysis showed that M1 (HR, 3.973; P < 0.001) and N2 (HR, 2.381; P = 0.013) were highly adverse factors for OS. Clinical assessments performed during a 21.14 (±16.20)-mo follow-up revealed that OS (P = 0.001) and RFS (P < 0.001) were worse in the high-perioperative group than in the low group between the matched groups. An elevated preoperative NLR is a strong predictor of worse RFS and OS in CRC patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stationary analysis of signals and ratio decay determination in BWR type reactors by neuronal network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchis, R.; Palomo, M. J.; Munoz-Cobo, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    The signals registered in the nuclear plants have non stationary characteristics, in numerous times. This made difficult the application of the methods of analysis. There are determinate temporal intervals in that the signal is stationary with determinate mean, value together of zones with corrupt registers, and other zones with mean value distinct, but stationary during a temporal interval. The methodology consist in a stationary analysis to the signal received of the nuclear plant. With the Gabor Transformation are determined the temporal intervals of the stationary signals, synthesised it, as previous phase to the application of the methods of the analysis of stability parameters with methods ARMA, SVD, Neural Net,... to the reconstructed signal. 4 refs. (Author)

  8. DTI analysis methods : Voxel-based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hecke, Wim; Leemans, Alexander; Emsell, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Voxel-based analysis (VBA) of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data permits the investigation of voxel-wise differences or changes in DTI metrics in every voxel of a brain dataset. It is applied primarily in the exploratory analysis of hypothesized group-level alterations in DTI parameters, as it does

  9. Analysis of high-aspect-ratio jet-flap wings of arbitrary geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissaman, P. B. S.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical technique to compute the performance of an arbitrary jet-flapped wing is developed. The solution technique is based on the method of Maskell and Spence in which the well-known lifting-line approach is coupled with an auxiliary equation providing the extra function needed in jet-flap theory. The present method is generalized to handle straight, uncambered wings of arbitrary planform, twist, and blowing (including unsymmetrical cases). An analytical procedure is developed for continuous variations in the above geometric data with special functions to exactly treat discontinuities in any of the geometric and blowing data. A rational theory for the effect of finite wing thickness is introduced as well as simplified concepts of effective aspect ratio for rapid estimation of performance.

  10. Bayesian methods for data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Carlin, Bradley P.

    2009-01-01

    Approaches for statistical inference Introduction Motivating Vignettes Defining the Approaches The Bayes-Frequentist Controversy Some Basic Bayesian Models The Bayes approach Introduction Prior Distributions Bayesian Inference Hierarchical Modeling Model Assessment Nonparametric Methods Bayesian computation Introduction Asymptotic Methods Noniterative Monte Carlo Methods Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods Model criticism and selection Bayesian Modeling Bayesian Robustness Model Assessment Bayes Factors via Marginal Density Estimation Bayes Factors

  11. MULTICRITERIA METHODS IN PERFORMING COMPANIES’ RESULTS USING ELECTRONIC RECRUITING, CORPORATE COMMUNICATION AND FINANCIAL RATIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bilić

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human resources represent one of the most important companies’ resources responsible in creation of companies’ competitive advantage. In search for the most valuable resources, companies use different methods. Lately, one of the growing methods is electronic recruiting, not only as a recruitment tool, but also as a mean of external communication. Additionally, in the process of corporate communication, companies nowadays use the electronic corporate communication as the easiest, the cheapest and the simplest form of business communication. The aim of this paper is to investigate relationship between three groups of different criteria; including main characteristics of performed electronic recruiting, corporate communication and selected financial performances. Selected companies were ranked separately by each group of criteria by usage of multicriteria decision making method PROMETHEE II. The main idea is to research whether companies which are the highest performers by certain group of criteria obtain the similar results regarding other group of criteria or performing results.

  12. Substoichiometric method in the simple radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, N.; Noguchi, K.

    1979-01-01

    The substoichiometric method is applied to simple radiometric analysis. Two methods - the standard reagent method and the standard sample method - are proposed. The validity of the principle of the methods is verified experimentally in the determination of silver by the precipitation method, or of zinc by the ion-exchange or solvent-extraction method. The proposed methods are simple and rapid compared with the conventional superstoichiometric method. (author)

  13. Kramers-Kronig method for determination of optical properties of PZT nanotubes fabricated by sol-gel method and porous anodic alumina with high aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakizeh, Esmaeil; Moradi, Mahmood

    2018-03-01

    Ferroelectric Pb(ZrTi)O3 (PZT) nanotubes were prepared by sol-gel method and porous anodic alumina (PAA) membrane using spin-coating technique. This method is based on filling-pyrolysis-filling process and the use of one-stage alumina membranes. One of the advantages of this method is its rapidity, which takes only 1 h time before the calcination step. The effect of repeated pores filling was investigated to get the required size of nanotubes. The field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images were shown that the PZT nanotubes have inner diameters in the range of 65-90 nm and length of about 50-60 μm. This means that the samples have a significant aspect ratio (700-800). Also the FE-SEM image confirmed that the highly ordered, hexagonally distributed PAA membranes with the pore diameter about 140-150 nm were formed. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the PZT nanotubes have a tetragonal structure. The metal oxide bands like ZrO6 and TiO6 of the final PZT nanotubes were detected by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis and confirmed the formation of perovskite structure. By using FT-IR spectroscopy and Kramers-Kronig transformation method, the optical constants like real 𝜀1(ω) and imaginary 𝜀2(ω) parts of dielectric function, extinction coefficient k(ω) and refractive index n(ω) were determined. It was shown that the optical constants of PZT nanotubes are different from PZT nanoparticles.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of a variable compression ratio diesel engine running with palm oil methyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, Biplab K.; Sahoo, Niranjan; Saha, Ujjwal K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Energy and exergy analysis of palm oil methyl ester (POME) run diesel engine. ► Engine was run at various compression ratios (CRs) and injection timings (ITs). ► POME can recover around 26% of the energy supplied by the fuel. ► CR rise and IT change cause shaft energy per unit fuel supply to increase. ► CR of 18 and IT of 20°BTDC reduce more entropy generation. - Abstract: The present work is set to explore the effect of compression ratio (CR) and injection timing (IT) on energy and exergy potential of a palm oil methyl ester (POME) run diesel engine. Experiments are carried out in a single cylinder, direct injection, water cooled variable compression ratio diesel engine at a constant peed of 1500 rpm under a full load of 4.24 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The study involves four different CRs of 16, 17, 17.5 and 18; and three different ITs of 20°, 23° and 28°BTDC. Here, the CR of 17.5 and IT of 23°BTDC are the standard ones. The energy analysis performed for the experimental data includes shaft power, energy input through fuel, output by cooling water and exhaust, uncounted loss per unit time. Side by side, the effects of varying CR and IT on peak pressure, peak heat release rate, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust gas temperature are also studied. The exergy analysis is carried out for availability input, shaft, cooling water and exhaust availability, availability destruction and entropy generation. It shows that higher values of CR increase the shaft availability and cooling water availability, however, they decrease the exhaust flow availability. The retardation and advancement of IT give similar results. The exergy analysis also shows that with the increase of CR, the injection retardation and advancement increase the shaft availability and exergy efficiency, while it reduces the exergy destruction. The entropy generation is also reduced for the similar CR and IT modifications.

  15. Ratio of late to early radionuclide uptake: a method for distinguishing osteoporosis from osteomalacia in animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.S.; Genant, H.K.; Hattner, R.S.; Hoffer, P.B.

    1978-01-01

    The ratio of late to early uptake of several radionuclides was examined as a method for distinguishing states of abnormal bone metabolism. Nutritional osteoporosis (secondary hyperparathyroidism) and osteomalacia were produced in young rats and compared to a control group. The ratio of early (3 to 6 hrs) to late (4 to 6 days) uptake of barium-131, nitrate, indium-111 EDTMP, and lead-203 were studied, as was that of strontium-85 chloride, a calcium analogue. Ratios of late to early uptake were found to distinguish osteomalacia from osteoporosis in the models when strontium-85 or barium-131 were used. Barium-131 may be a clinically useful alternative to strontium-85 in the evaluation of metabolic bone disease due to its shorter half-life and lower radiation dose

  16. Effect of different drying methods on moisture ratio and rehydration of pumpkin slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremet Ceclu, Liliana; Botez, Elisabeta; Nistor, Oana-Viorela; Andronoiu, Doina Georgeta; Mocanu, Gabriel-Danut

    2016-03-15

    This study was carried to determine the influence of hot air drying process and combined methods on physicochemical properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) samples. The experiments in hot air chamber were lead at 50, 60 and 70 °C. The combined method consists of a triple combination of the main drying techniques. Thus, in first stage the samples were dried in hot air convection at 60 °C followed by hot air ventilation at 40 °C simultaneous with microwave. The time required to reduce the moisture content to any given level was highly dependent on the drying conditions. So, the highest value of drying time in hot air has been 540 min at 50 °C, while the lowest time has been 189 min in hot air combined by microwave at 40 °C and a power of 315 W. The samples dried by hot air shows a higher rehydration capacity than samples dried by combined method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical methods of rock analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D

    1981-01-01

    .... Such methods include those based upon spectrophotometry, flame emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, as well as gravimetry, titrimetry and the use of ion-selective electrodes...

  18. Determining the water-cement ratio, cement content, water content and degree of hydration of hardened cement paste: Method development and validation on paste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, H.S.; Buenfeld, N.R.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new method to estimate the initial cement content, water content and free water/cement ratio (w/c) of hardened cement-based materials made with Portland cements that have unknown mixture proportions and degree of hydration. This method first quantifies the composition of the hardened cement paste, i.e. the volumetric fractions of capillary pores, hydration products and unreacted cement, using high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) in the backscattered electron (BSE) mode and image analysis. From the obtained data and the volumetric increase of solids during cement hydration, we compute the initial free water content and cement content, hence the free w/c ratio. The same method can also be used to calculate the degree of hydration. The proposed method has the advantage that it is quantitative and does not require comparison with calibration graphs or reference samples made with the same materials and cured to the same degree of hydration as the tested sample. This paper reports the development, assumptions and limitations of the proposed method, and preliminary results from Portland cement pastes with a range of w/c ratios (0.25-0.50) and curing ages (3-90 days). We also discuss the extension of the technique to mortars and concretes, and samples made with blended cements.

  19. Application of neutron-gamma analysis for determination of C/N ratio in compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutron-gamma analysis is based on the acquisition of gamma rays from neutron irradiated study objects. The intensity and energy of the registered gamma rays gives information on the types and amounts of elements in the studied object. The use of this method for measurements of soil carbon demonstra...

  20. Prognostic significance of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Wei-Kai; Chen, Dong; Li, Shao-Qiang; Fu, Shun-Jun; Peng, Bao-Gang; Liang, Li-Jian

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has recently been reported as a predictor of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its prognostic value in HCC still remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between NLR and clinical outcome of HCC patients by performing meta-analysis. A comprehensive literature search for relevant studies published up to August 2013 was performed by using PubMed, Ovid, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. Meta-analysis was performed using hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) as effect measures. A total of 15 studies encompassing 3094 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Our pooled results showed that high NLR was associated with poor overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) in HCC initially treated by liver transplantation (HR = 3.42, 95% CI:2.41-4.85,P = 0.000; HR = 5.90, 95% CI:3.99-8.70,P = 0.000, respectively) and surgical resection (HR = 3.33, 95% CI:2.23-4.98, P = 0.000; HR = 2.10, 95% CI: 2.06–2.14, respectively). High NLR was also associated with poor OS in HCC treated by radiofrequency-ablation (HR = 1.28, 95%CI: 1.10-1.48, P = 0.000), TACE (HR = 2.52, 95% CI: 1.64-3.86, P = 0.000) and mixed treatment (HR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.40-2.44, P = 0.000), respectively. In addition, high NLR was significantly correlated with the presence of vascular invasion (OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 2.01–3.59, P = 0.000), tumor multifocality (OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.30–2.34, P = 0.000) and higher incidence of AFP ≥ 400 ng/ml (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.01–2.09, P = 0.04). Elevated NLR indicates a poor prognosis for patients with HCC. NLR may be a convenient, easily-obtained, low cost and reliable biomarker with prognostic potential for HCC

  1. Impedance ratio method for urine conductivity-invariant estimation of bladder volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schlebusch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive estimation of bladder volume could help patients with impaired bladder volume sensation to determine the right moment for catheterisation. Continuous, non-invasive impedance measurement is a promising technology in this scenario, although influences of body posture and unknown urine conductivity limit wide clinical use today. We studied impedance changes related to bladder volume by simulation, in-vitro and in-vivo measurements with pigs. In this work, we present a method to reduce the influence of urine conductivity to cystovolumetry and bring bioimpedance cystovolumetry closer to a clinical application.

  2. Microscopic silicon-based lateral high-aspect-ratio structures for thin film conformality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Feng; Arpiainen, Sanna; Puurunen, Riikka L.

    2015-01-01

    Film conformality is one of the major drivers for the interest in atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes. This work presents new silicon-based microscopic lateral high-aspect-ratio (LHAR) test structures for the analysis of the conformality of thin films deposited by ALD and by other chemical vapor deposition means. The microscopic LHAR structures consist of a lateral cavity inside silicon with a roof supported by pillars. The cavity length (e.g., 20–5000 μm) and cavity height (e.g., 200–1000 nm) can be varied, giving aspect ratios of, e.g., 20:1 to 25 000:1. Film conformality can be analyzed with the microscopic LHAR by several means, as demonstrated for the ALD Al 2 O 3 and TiO 2 processes from Me 3 Al/H 2 O and TiCl 4 /H 2 O. The microscopic LHAR test structures introduced in this work expose a new parameter space for thin film conformality investigations expected to prove useful in the development, tuning and modeling of ALD and other chemical vapor deposition processes

  3. Stable isotope ratio analysis: A potential analytical tool for the authentication of South African lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Sara Wilhelmina; Muller, Magdalena; van der Rijst, Marieta; Hoffman, Louwrens Christiaan

    2016-02-01

    Stable isotope ratios ((13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N) of South African Dorper lambs from farms with different vegetation types were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), to evaluate it as a tool for the authentication of origin and feeding regime. Homogenised and defatted meat of the Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle of lambs from seven different farms was assessed. The δ(13)C values were affected by the origin of the meat, mainly reflecting the diet. The Rûens and Free State farms had the lowest (p ⩽ 0.05) δ(15)N values, followed by the Northern Cape farms, with Hantam Karoo/Calvinia having the highest δ(15)N values. Discriminant analysis showed δ(13)C and δ(15)N differences as promising results for the use of IRMS as a reliable analytical tool for lamb meat authentication. The results suggest that diet, linked to origin, is an important factor to consider regarding region of origin classification for South African lamb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Traceability of different apple varieties by multivariate analysis of isotope ratio mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimmo, Tanja; Camin, Federica; Bontempo, Luana; Capici, Calogero; Tagliavini, Massimo; Cesco, Stefano; Scampicchio, Matteo

    2015-11-15

    The awareness of customers of the origin of foods has become an important issue. The growing demand for foods that are healthy, safe and of high quality has increased the need for traceability and clear labelling. Thus, this study investigates the capability of C and N stable isotope ratios to determine the geographical origin of several apple varieties grown in northern Italy. Four apple varieties (Cripps Pink, Gala, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith) have been sampled in orchards located in the Districts of Bolzano, Ferrara, Verona and Udine (northern Italy). Carbon (δ(13) C) and nitrogen (δ(15) N) isotope values of the whole apple fruits and three sub-fractions (peel, pulp and seed) have been determined simultaneously by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The δ(13) C and δ(15) N values of apples and apple sub-fractions, such as peel, seed and pulp, were significantly affected by the geographical origin and the fruit variety. The four varieties could be distinguished to a certain extent only within each district. A 99% correct identification of the samples according to their origin was, however, achieved by cross validation with the 'leave-one-out' method. This study proves the potential of stable isotopes to discriminate the geographical origin of apples grown in orchards located only a few hundreds of kilometres apart. Stable isotopes were also able to discriminate different apple varieties, although only within small geographical areas. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in biliary tract cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haowen; Lu, Wenping; Li, Bingmin; Li, Chonghui; Xu, Yinzhe; Dong, Jiahong

    2017-05-30

    Inflammation was considered to perform crucial roles in the development and metastasis of malignancies. A heightened neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio has been described to be associated with detrimental survivals in different malignancies. Debate remains over the impact of heightened neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio on survivals in biliary tract cancer. The review evaluated the prognostic value of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in biliary tract cancer. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and the Chinese SinoMed were systematically searched for relevant articles. Associations between neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and long-term outcomes were expressed as the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The odds ratio was utilized to assess the association between neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and clinicopathological parameters. Fourteen studies consisting of 3217 patients were analyzed: 1278 (39.73%) in the high pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio group and 1939 (60.27%) in the low pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio one. The results proved that heightened pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was significantly associated with detrimental overall survival and relapse free survival for biliary tract cancer patients. In addition, elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was positively correlated with higher carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels, advanced TNM staging and greater lymph node involvement. This meta-analysis marked that an increased pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was significantly linked with detrimental long-term outcomes and clinicopathological parameters for patients with biliary tract cancer.

  6. An analysis of the Mariner 10 color ratio map of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rava, Barry; Hapke, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Errors that emerged in the Hapke et al. (1980) geological analysis reproduction of the Mariner 10 orange/UV color ratio map of Mercury are presently noted, and it is judged that the relationships that emerge between the color and the terrain are nonlunar in that they lack Mercurian analogs of high Fe-Ti lunar maria basalts. The crust is found to be low in Fe(2+) and Ti(4+) in view of three major considerations: (1) rays and ejecta blankets are exceptionally blue; (2) the Fe(2+) band of the reflectance spectrum of Mercury is weak; and (3) Mercury albedo contrasts are less pronounced than the lunar ones. The extrusive origin of the smooth plains is supported by these observations.

  7. Contrast to Noise Ratio and Contrast Detail Analysis in Mammography:A Monte Carlo Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metaxas, V; Delis, H; Panayiotakis, G; Kalogeropoulou, C; Zampakis, P

    2015-01-01

    The mammographic spectrum is one of the major factors affecting image quality in mammography. In this study, a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation model was used to evaluate image quality characteristics of various mammographic spectra. The anode/filter combinations evaluated, were those traditionally used in mammography, for tube voltages between 26 and 30 kVp. The imaging performance was investigated in terms of Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) and Contrast Detail (CD) analysis, by involving human observers, utilizing a mathematical CD phantom. Soft spectra provided the best characteristics in terms of both CNR and CD scores, while tube voltage had a limited effect. W-anode spectra filtered with k-edge filters demonstrated an improved performance, that sometimes was better compared to softer x-ray spectra, produced by Mo or Rh anode. Regarding the filter material, k-edge filters showed superior performance compared to Al filters. (paper)

  8. Probabilistic methods in combinatorial analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sachkov, Vladimir N

    2014-01-01

    This 1997 work explores the role of probabilistic methods for solving combinatorial problems. These methods not only provide the means of efficiently using such notions as characteristic and generating functions, the moment method and so on but also let us use the powerful technique of limit theorems. The basic objects under investigation are nonnegative matrices, partitions and mappings of finite sets, with special emphasis on permutations and graphs, and equivalence classes specified on sequences of finite length consisting of elements of partially ordered sets; these specify the probabilist

  9. Optimization of cooling tower performance analysis using Taguchi method

    OpenAIRE

    Ramkumar Ramakrishnan; Ragupathy Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    This study discuss the application of Taguchi method in assessing maximum cooling tower effectiveness for the counter flow cooling tower using expanded wire mesh packing. The experiments were planned based on Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array .The trail was performed under different inlet conditions of flow rate of water, air and water temperature. Signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression were carried out in order to determine the effects of process...

  10. Methods in quantitative image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholzer, M; Ostreicher, M; Christen, H; Brühlmann, M

    1996-05-01

    The main steps of image analysis are image capturing, image storage (compression), correcting imaging defects (e.g. non-uniform illumination, electronic-noise, glare effect), image enhancement, segmentation of objects in the image and image measurements. Digitisation is made by a camera. The most modern types include a frame-grabber, converting the analog-to-digital signal into digital (numerical) information. The numerical information consists of the grey values describing the brightness of every point within the image, named a pixel. The information is stored in bits. Eight bits are summarised in one byte. Therefore, grey values can have a value between 0 and 256 (2(8)). The human eye seems to be quite content with a display of 5-bit images (corresponding to 64 different grey values). In a digitised image, the pixel grey values can vary within regions that are uniform in the original scene: the image is noisy. The noise is mainly manifested in the background of the image. For an optimal discrimination between different objects or features in an image, uniformity of illumination in the whole image is required. These defects can be minimised by shading correction [subtraction of a background (white) image from the original image, pixel per pixel, or division of the original image by the background image]. The brightness of an image represented by its grey values can be analysed for every single pixel or for a group of pixels. The most frequently used pixel-based image descriptors are optical density, integrated optical density, the histogram of the grey values, mean grey value and entropy. The distribution of the grey values existing within an image is one of the most important characteristics of the image. However, the histogram gives no information about the texture of the image. The simplest way to improve the contrast of an image is to expand the brightness scale by spreading the histogram out to the full available range. Rules for transforming the grey value

  11. Biomedical and Forensic Applications of Combined Catalytic Hydrogenation-Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Sephton

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of biological molecules such as fatty acids and the steroid hormones have the potential to benefit enormously from stable carbon isotope ratio measurements of individual molecules. In their natural form, however, the body’s molecules interact too readily with laboratory equipment designed to separate them for accurate measurements to be made.Some methods overcome this problem by adding carbon to the target molecule, but this can irreversibly overprint the carbon source ‘signal’. Hydropyrolysis is a newly-applied catalytic technique that delicately strips molecules of their functional groups but retains their carbon skeletons and stereochemistries intact, allowing precise determination of the carbon source. By solving analytical problems, the new technique is increasing the ability of scientists to pinpoint molecular indicators of disease, elucidate metabolic pathways and recognise administered substances in forensic investigations.

  12. Biomedical and Forensic Applications of Combined Catalytic Hydrogenation-Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sephton, Mark A.; Meredith, Will; Sun, Cheng-Gong; Snape, Colin E.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of biological molecules such as fatty acids and the steroid hormones have the potential to benefit enormously from stable carbon isotope ratio measurements of individual molecules. In their natural form, however, the body’s molecules interact too readily with laboratory equipment designed to separate them for accurate measurements to be made. Some methods overcome this problem by adding carbon to the target molecule, but this can irreversibly overprint the carbon source ‘signal’. Hydropyrolysis is a newly-applied catalytic technique that delicately strips molecules of their functional groups but retains their carbon skeletons and stereochemistries intact, allowing precise determination of the carbon source. By solving analytical problems, the new technique is increasing the ability of scientists to pinpoint molecular indicators of disease, elucidate metabolic pathways and recognise administered substances in forensic investigations. PMID:19662175

  13. Rocket nozzle expansion ratio analysis for dual-fuel earth-to-orbit vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James A.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from a recent study of the effects of Space Shuttle Main Engine expansion ratio modifications, in the cases of both single-stage and two-stage systems. Two-position nozzles were employed; after varying the lower expansion ratio while the higher was held constant at 120, the lower expansion ratio was held constant at 40 or 60 while the higher expansion ratio was varied. The expansion ratios for minimum vehicle dry mass are different for single-stage and two-stage systems. For two-stage systems, a single expansion ratio of 77.5 provides a lower dry mass than any two-position nozzle.

  14. Moyer's method of mixed dentition analysis: a meta-analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The applicability of tables derived from the data Moyer used to other ethnic groups has ... This implies that Moyer's method of prediction may have population variations. ... Key Words: meta-analysis, mixed dentition analysis, Moyer's method

  15. Sensitivity analysis of tritium breeding ratio and startup inventory for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Lei; Chen, Hongli; Zeng, Qin, E-mail: zengqin@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Through the calculation method of the model, it was found that the increase of the artificially determined startup inventory I0 causes significant increase of TBRreq and the increase of the achievable tritium breeding ratio TBRachiv leads to the decrease of the Im. • The increase of fueling efficiency and fractional burnup significantly contributes to the decrease of both Im and TBRreq, while the increase of the duty time and availability results in the decrease of TBRreq and the proportional increase of Im. • The outer tritium plant parameters of some subsystems that have relatively big tritium throughput have intense influence on either Im or TBRreq. - Abstract: In order to evaluate the tritium self-sufficiency of fusion plant, citing CFETR (Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor) as an example, a modified tritium fuel cycle model was developed. The calculation method of this model to obtain the minimum startup inventory I{sub m} and its corresponding required minimum tritium breeding ratio TBR{sub req} was first introduced. Then the model was utilized to analyze the influence on I{sub m} and TBR{sub req} by all tritium cycle parameters that were classified into two categories, namely, the tritium burning parameters and the outer tritium plant parameters. As for the tritium burning parameters, the increase of fueling efficiency and fractional burnup significantly contributes to the decrease of both I{sub m} and TBR{sub req}, while the increase of the duty time and availability results in the decrease of TBR{sub req} and the proportional increase of I{sub m}. As for the outer tritium plant parameters, it was found that the outer tritium plant parameters of some subsystems that have relatively big tritium throughput have intense influence on either I{sub m} or TBR{sub req}.

  16. An empirical likelihood ratio test robust to individual heterogeneity for differential expression analysis of RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Maoqi; Chen, Liang

    2018-01-01

    The individual sample heterogeneity is one of the biggest obstacles in biomarker identification for complex diseases such as cancers. Current statistical models to identify differentially expressed genes between disease and control groups often overlook the substantial human sample heterogeneity. Meanwhile, traditional nonparametric tests lose detailed data information and sacrifice the analysis power, although they are distribution free and robust to heterogeneity. Here, we propose an empirical likelihood ratio test with a mean-variance relationship constraint (ELTSeq) for the differential expression analysis of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). As a distribution-free nonparametric model, ELTSeq handles individual heterogeneity by estimating an empirical probability for each observation without making any assumption about read-count distribution. It also incorporates a constraint for the read-count overdispersion, which is widely observed in RNA-seq data. ELTSeq demonstrates a significant improvement over existing methods such as edgeR, DESeq, t-tests, Wilcoxon tests and the classic empirical likelihood-ratio test when handling heterogeneous groups. It will significantly advance the transcriptomics studies of cancers and other complex disease. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The clinical use of the platelet/lymphocyte ratio and lymphocyte/monocyte ratio as prognostic predictors in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya-Huan; Sun, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Yan-Bing; Liao, Zi-Jun; Zhao, Lei; Cui, Jie; Wu, Tao; Lu, Jian-Rong; Nan, Ke-Jun; Wang, Shu-Hong

    2017-03-21

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding the effects of platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and lymphocyte/monocyte ratio(LMR) on the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. This study aimed to evaluate the roles of the PLR and LMR in predicting the prognosis of CRC patients via meta-analysis. Eligible studies were retrieved from the PubMed, Embase,andChina National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases, supplemented by a manual search of references from retrieved articles. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using the generic inverse variance and random-effect model to evaluate the association of PLR and LMR with prognostic variables in CRC, including overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Thirty-three studies containing 15,404 patients met criteria for inclusion. Pooled analysis suggested that elevated PLR was associated with poorer OS (pooled HR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.41 - 1.75, p< 0.00001, I2=26%) and DFS (pooled HR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.31 - 1.92, p< 0.00001, I2=66%). Conversely, high LMR correlated with more favorable OS (pooled HR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.50 - 0.68, p< 0.00001, I2=44%), CSS (pooled HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.40 - 0.72, p< 0.00001, I2=11%) and DFS (pooled HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.71- 0.94,p=0.005, I2=29%). Elevated PLR was associated with poor prognosis, while high LMR correlated with more favorable outcomes in CRC patients. Pretreatment PLR and LMR could serve as prognostic predictors in CRC patients.

  18. Applying critical analysis - main methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Araujo Alonso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the usefulness of critical appraisal of literature? Critical analysis is a fundamental condition for the correct interpretation of any study that is subject to review. In epidemiology, in order to learn how to read a publication, we must be able to analyze it critically. Critical analysis allows us to check whether a study fulfills certain previously established methodological inclusion and exclusion criteria. This is frequently used in conducting systematic reviews although eligibility criteria are generally limited to the study design. Critical analysis of literature and be done implicitly while reading an article, as in reading for personal interest, or can be conducted in a structured manner, using explicit and previously established criteria. The latter is done when formally reviewing a topic.

  19. Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio as Novel Markers for Diagnosis of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Bahrami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL is a common otologic disease characterized by a loss of hearing greater than 30 dB in three consecutive frequen­cies which occurs in less than 72 hours. Objective: To investigate the role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR on sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL. Search strategy: A PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, OVID, EMBASE and Google Scholar search (date last searched April 2016 without any time, language and location restriction was done. Inclusion criteria: All case-control studies, which have been investigated the relationship of NLR and PLR with the occurrence of SSNHL were included in our meta-analysis. Results: A total of 5 case-control studies were included in the study. All 5 studies have been reported NLR of patients and control groups (611 patients and 804 controls. Our analysis showed that the mean NLR of patients is 1.12 (0.82-1.43 unit higher than that of controls with 95% CI which is statistically significant. Also, 3 studies have been reported PLR of patients and control groups (512 patients and 705 controls. Our analysis showed that the mean PLR of patients is 0.57 (0.08-1.05 unit higher than that of controls with 95% CI which is statistically significant too. Conclusions: This meta-analysis confirmed the relationship of NLR and PLR with SSNHL. Therefore, these parameters can be considered as new markers in diagnosis of SSNHL. 

  20. Comparison between IRMS and CRDS methods in the determination of isotopic ratios 2H/1H and 18O/16O in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, T. H. R.; Zucchi, M. R.; Lemaire, T.; Azevedo, A. E. G.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, the method used for measuring the isotope ratios is the Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometers (IRMS). A new method has been used to determine the isotopic abundances, the Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). It consists of a technique of direct absorption, of high sensitivity, which is based on measuring the absorption ratio, as a function of time, of the light confined in a high finesse optical cavity, instead of the magnitude of light beam absorption. The values of 18 O/ 16 O and D/H ratios are determined with respect to international standards VSMOW, GISP and SLAP from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In this work, the IRMS and CRDS techniques are compared, verifying that the CRDS technique is promising and has some advantages compared to IRMS. It uses a smaller amount of sample, the isotope measurements are made simultaneously from the steam, reducing the analysis time. It also shows good reproducibility and accuracy, and it does not require a preliminary sample preparation.

  1. On the interference of Kr during carbon isotope analysis of methane using continuous-flow combustion–isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, J.; Seth, B.; Bock, M; van der Veen, C.; Möller, L.; Sapart, C.J.; Prokopiou, M.; Sowers, T.; Röckmann, T.; Fischer, H

    2013-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis of methane ( 13C of CH4) on atmospheric samples is one key method to constrain the current and past atmospheric CH4 budget. A frequently applied measurement technique is gas chromatography (GC) isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) coupled to a

  2. Evaluation of method for phthalate extraction from milk related to milk dilution ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojković Danica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid extraction techniques were compared coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, for the extraction and the determination of four phthalates: dimethyl phthalate (DMP, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP and di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP in six different kinds of milk-based samples. Extraction factors: sample preparation, organic solvent type and volume, salt effect, agitation and the extraction time were optimized. The ion of base peaks (m/z 149 for DBP, BBP and DEHP and m/z 163 for DMP for investigated phthalates were selected for the screening studies. The acquisition was performed at the selected ion monitoring mode. The MSD response for GC-MS phthalate calibration standards was linear between 0.25 and 2.50 μg mL-1 with calculated LODs between 0.01 μg mL-1 to 0.04 μg mL-1 and LOQs of 0.05 μg mL-1 to 0.12 μg mL-1, while repeatability was between 1.7 % to 4.9 % RSD. The study demonstrated an increase of the recovery of less polar phthalates in matrix milk standards by matrix dilution. Recovery for hydrophilic phthalates, like DMP, was not changed by matrix dilution and it was continuously low for the investigated method. Two spiking levels were tested for influence of matrix dilution on phthalate recovery, showed the same trend. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31060

  3. Three Dimensional Simulations of Multiphase Flows Using a Lattice Boltzmann Method Suitable for High Density Ratios - 12126

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokaltun, Seckin; McDaniel, Dwayne; Roelant, David [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Multiphase flows involving gas and liquid phases can be observed in engineering operations at various Department of Energy sites, such as mixing of slurries using pulsed-air mixers and hydrogen gas generation in liquid waste tanks etc. The dynamics of the gas phase in the liquid domain play an important role in the mixing effectiveness of the pulsed-air mixers or in the level of gas pressure build-up in waste tanks. To understand such effects, computational fluid dynamics methods (CFD) can be utilized by developing a three-dimensional computerized multiphase flow model that can predict accurately the behavior of gas motion inside liquid-filled tanks by solving the governing mathematical equations that represent the physics of the phenomena. In this paper, such a CFD method, lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), is presented that can model multiphase flows accurately and efficiently. LBM is favored over traditional Navier-Stokes based computational models since interfacial forces are handled more effectively in LBM. The LBM is easier to program, more efficient to solve on parallel computers, and has the ability to capture the interface between different fluid phases intrinsically. The LBM used in this paper can solve for the incompressible and viscous flow field in three dimensions, while at the same time, solve the Cahn-Hillard equation to track the position of the gas-liquid interface specifically when the density and viscosity ratios between the two fluids are high. This feature is of primary importance since the previous LBM models proposed for multiphase flows become unstable when the density ratio is larger than 10. The ability to provide stable and accurate simulations at large density ratios becomes important when the simulation case involves fluids such as air and water with a density ratio around 1000 that are common to many engineering problems. In order to demonstrate the capability of the 3D LBM method at high density ratios, a static bubble simulation is

  4. Trial Sequential Methods for Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Wood, John

    2014-01-01

    Statistical methods for sequential meta-analysis have applications also for the design of new trials. Existing methods are based on group sequential methods developed for single trials and start with the calculation of a required information size. This works satisfactorily within the framework of fixed effects meta-analysis, but conceptual…

  5. Part 1--Factors Associated with School Nurse Ratios: An Analysis of State Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Despite the recognized importance of school nurses, the ratios of nurse to pupil are insufficient in many states across the country. The purpose of this study was to describe school nurse-to-pupil ratios by state and to statistically identify factors that may influence these ratios. Funding per pupil unit in general and support services and laws…

  6. Landslide susceptibility mapping by combining the three methods Fuzzy Logic, Frequency Ratio and Analytical Hierarchy Process in Dozain basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tazik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are among the most important natural hazards that lead to modification of the environment. Therefore, studying of this phenomenon is so important in many areas. Because of the climate conditions, geologic, and geomorphologic characteristics of the region, the purpose of this study was landslide hazard assessment using Fuzzy Logic, frequency ratio and Analytical Hierarchy Process method in Dozein basin, Iran. At first, landslides occurred in Dozein basin were identified using aerial photos and field studies. The influenced landslide parameters that were used in this study including slope, aspect, elevation, lithology, precipitation, land cover, distance from fault, distance from road and distance from river were obtained from different sources and maps. Using these factors and the identified landslide, the fuzzy membership values were calculated by frequency ratio. Then to account for the importance of each of the factors in the landslide susceptibility, weights of each factor were determined based on questionnaire and AHP method. Finally, fuzzy map of each factor was multiplied to its weight that obtained using AHP method. At the end, for computing prediction accuracy, the produced map was verified by comparing to existing landslide locations. These results indicate that the combining the three methods Fuzzy Logic, Frequency Ratio and Analytical Hierarchy Process method are relatively good estimators of landslide susceptibility in the study area. According to landslide susceptibility map about 51% of the occurred landslide fall into the high and very high susceptibility zones of the landslide susceptibility map, but approximately 26 % of them indeed located in the low and very low susceptibility zones.

  7. Noninvasive method using multidetector CT for calculating the relative blood supply ratio of duplicated renal arteries in renal donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Masatomo; Kim, Tonsok; Nakamura, Hironobu; Narumi, Yoshifumi; Takahashi, Satoru; Sato, Yoshinobu; Murakami, Takamichi

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the renal artery cross-sectional area measured by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and the nephrogram area calculated by renal arteriography in potential living renal donors with duplicated renal arteries. Medical records of 18 patients with duplicated renal arteries who underwent both MDCT angiography and renal arteriography between 2001 and 2003 were retrospectively reviewed. All 20 kidneys were evaluated. Renal artery cross-sectional areas were measured using the workstation to which the CT data were transferred; the nephrogram areas on the digitized angiographic images were calculated using public domain software. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to compare the cross-sectional area ratio of the accessory arteries to the main renal arteries, with the ratios obtained from the nephrogram areas calculated from the arteriograms. The mean cross-sectional areas of the accessory and main renal arteries were 6.78 and 20.9 mm 2 , respectively. The ratio of the nephrogram areas calculated from the arteriograms ranged from 0.094 to 0.809. Bland-Altman analysis showed no significant difference. It is possible to predict the supply volume of accessory renal arteries by measuring the cross-sectional area of the accessory and main renal arteries in potential living renal donors. (author)

  8. Continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry method for carbon and hydrogen isotope measurements on atmospheric methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brass

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS technique for high-precision δD and δ13C measurements of atmospheric methane on 40 mL air samples. CH4 is separated from other air components by utilizing purely physical processes based on temperature, time and mechanical valve switching. Chemical agents are avoided. Trace amounts of interfering compounds can be separated by gas chromatography after pre-concentration of the CH4 sample. The purified sample is then either combusted to CO2 or pyrolyzed to H2 for stable isotope measurement. Apart from connecting samples and refilling liquid nitrogen as coolant the system is fully automated and allows an unobserved, continuous analysis of samples. The analytical system has been used for analysis of air samples with CH4 mixing ratios between ~100 and ~10 000 ppb, for higher mixing ratios samples usually have to be diluted.

  9. Development of a method for calculating steady-state equipment sensible heat ratio of direct expansion air conditioning units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Liang; Chan, M.Y.; Deng Shiming

    2008-01-01

    A complete set of calculation method for steady-state equipment sensible heat ratio (SHR) for a direct expansion (DX) cooling coil has been developed and reported. The method was based on the fundamentals of energy conservation and heat and mass transfer taking place in the DX cooling coil, and was experimentally validated using an experimental DX A/C rig. With the method developed, the effect of refrigerant evaporating temperature at fixed inlet air conditions on equipment SHR has been theoretically analyzed. The validated method can be useful in further studying the inherent operating characteristics of a DX air conditioning (A/C) unit and in developing suitable control strategies for achieving higher energy efficiency and better indoor thermal environment

  10. Hybrid methods for cybersecurity analysis :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Warren Leon,; Dunlavy, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Early 2010 saw a signi cant change in adversarial techniques aimed at network intrusion: a shift from malware delivered via email attachments toward the use of hidden, embedded hyperlinks to initiate sequences of downloads and interactions with web sites and network servers containing malicious software. Enterprise security groups were well poised and experienced in defending the former attacks, but the new types of attacks were larger in number, more challenging to detect, dynamic in nature, and required the development of new technologies and analytic capabilities. The Hybrid LDRD project was aimed at delivering new capabilities in large-scale data modeling and analysis to enterprise security operators and analysts and understanding the challenges of detection and prevention of emerging cybersecurity threats. Leveraging previous LDRD research e orts and capabilities in large-scale relational data analysis, large-scale discrete data analysis and visualization, and streaming data analysis, new modeling and analysis capabilities were quickly brought to bear on the problems in email phishing and spear phishing attacks in the Sandia enterprise security operational groups at the onset of the Hybrid project. As part of this project, a software development and deployment framework was created within the security analyst work ow tool sets to facilitate the delivery and testing of new capabilities as they became available, and machine learning algorithms were developed to address the challenge of dynamic threats. Furthermore, researchers from the Hybrid project were embedded in the security analyst groups for almost a full year, engaged in daily operational activities and routines, creating an atmosphere of trust and collaboration between the researchers and security personnel. The Hybrid project has altered the way that research ideas can be incorporated into the production environments of Sandias enterprise security groups, reducing time to deployment from months and

  11. Carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric methane by isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Dawn A.; Hayes, J. M.; Des Marais, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Less than 15 min are required for the determination of delta C(sub PDB)-13 with a precision of 0.2 ppt(1 sigma, single measurement) in 5-mL samples of air containing CH4 at natural levels (1.7 ppm). An analytical system including a sample-introduction unit incorporating a preparative gas chromatograph (GC) column for separation of CH4 from N2, O2, and Ar is described. The 15-min procedure includes time for operation of that system, high-resolution chromatographic separation of the CH4, on-line combustion and purification of the products, and isotopic calibration. Analyses of standards demonstrate that systematic errors are absent and that there is no dependence of observed values of delta on sample size. For samples containing 100 ppm or more CH4, preconcentration is not required and the analysis time is less than 5 min. The system utilizes a commercially available, high-sensitivity isotope-ratio mass spectrometer. For optimal conditions of smaple handling and combustion, performance of the system is within a factor of 2 of the shot-noise limit. The potential exists therefore for analysis of samples as small as 15 pmol CH4 with a standard deviation of less than 1 ppt.

  12. Comparison of analysis and experiment for dynamics of low-contact-ratio spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Rebbechi, Brian; Zakrajsek, James J.; Townsend, Dennis P.; Lin, Hsiang Hsi

    1991-01-01

    Low-contact-ratio spur gears were tested in NASA gear-noise-rig to study gear dynamics including dynamic load, tooth bending stress, vibration, and noise. The experimental results were compared with a NASA gear dynamics code to validate the code as a design tool for predicting transmission vibration and noise. Analytical predictions and experimental data for gear-tooth dynamic loads and tooth-root bending stress were compared at 28 operating conditions. Strain gage data were used to compute the normal load between meshing teeth and the bending stress at the tooth root for direct comparison with the analysis. The computed and measured waveforms for dynamic load and stress were compared for several test conditions. These are very similar in shape, which means the analysis successfully simulates the physical behavior of the test gears. The predicted peak value of the dynamic load agrees with the measurement results within an average error of 4.9 percent except at low-torque, high-speed conditions. Predictions of peak dynamic root stress are generally within 10 to 15 percent of the measured values.

  13. Theoretical analysis and experimental study of spray degassing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ruizhi; Shu Da; Sun Baode; Wang Jun; Li Fei; Chen Haiyan; Lu YanLing

    2005-01-01

    A new hydrogen-removal method of aluminum melt, spray degassing, is presented. The thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of the method are discussed. A comparison between the thermodynamics and kinetics of the spray degassing method and rotary impellor degassing method is made. The thermodynamic analysis shows that the relationship between the final hydrogen content of the aluminum melt and the ratio of purge gas flow rate to melt flow rate is linear. The result of thermodynamic calculation shows that, in spray degassing, when the ratio of G/q is larger than 2.2 x 10 -6 , the final hydrogen content will be less than 0.1 ml/100 g Al. From the kinetic analysis, the degassing effect is affected by both the size of melt droplets and the time that melt droplets move from sprayer to the bottom of the treatment tank. In numerical calculation, the hydrogen in aluminum melt can be degassed to 0.05 ml/100 g Al from 0.2 ml/100 g Al in 0.02 s with the spray degassing method. Finally, the water-model experiments are presented with the spray degassing method and rotary impellor degassing method. Melt experiments are also presented. Both the water-model experiments and the melt experiments show that the degassing effect of the spray degassing method is better than that of the rotary impeller method

  14. A method of encountering the ratio of adjacent sides and its applied study in nuclear engineering survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jingqin

    1996-01-01

    The cross side or range net survey method is to compute the average error of the measured lengths of sides. With the increment of the side length, the viewing variance increases greatly. Generally the photo-electrical distance survey equipment has a high inside precision, but it is affected by typical weather error so that the outside precision is decreased, and this weather error similar to systematic error greatly decreases the viewing side precision. To solve this problem, theoretical study and field test were carried out for the correlation of ratios among short sides by photo-electrical survey, and the stability degree of the ratios of sides, a new method of ratio encountering of adjacent sides is put forward. Because of the weights of the ration variance σ γ 2 = 2η 2 γ 2 and the angular variance σ β 2 = 2J 2 ρ 2 match each other, so the systematic error can be eliminated completely, and a survey point co-ordinate of high precision can be obtained. It is easy to operate, as it does not require multi-photo-band survey or to operate at the optimal observation time, and is especially suitable to nuclear engineering survey applications. (3 tabs.)

  15. A new method for the determination of the nitrogen content of nitrocellulose based on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alinat, Elodie; Delaunay, Nathalie; Archer, Xavier; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Gareil, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New insights into the nitrocellulose alkaline denitration mechanism. • Linear correlation for molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions and nitrogen content. • Capillary electrophoresis monitoring of nitrite and nitrate ions. • Applications to explosive and non-explosive nitrocellulose-containing samples. • Improved performances (including safety) over classical methods. - Abstract: A new method was proposed to determine the nitrogen content of nitrocelluloses (NCs). It is based on the finding of a linear relationship between the nitrogen content and the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis. Capillary electrophoresis was used to monitor the concentration of nitrite and nitrate ions. The influences of hydrolysis time and molar mass of NC on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions were investigated, and new insights into the understanding of the alkaline denitration mechanism of NCs, underlying this analytical strategy is provided. The method was then tested successfully with various explosive and non-explosive NC-containing samples such as various daily products and smokeless gunpowders. Inherently to its principle exploiting a concentration ratio, this method shows very good repeatability in the determination of nitrogen content in real samples with relative standard deviation (n = 3) inferior to 1.5%, and also provides very significant advantages with respect to sample extraction, analysis time (1 h for alkaline hydrolysis, 3 min for electrophoretic separation), which was about 5 times shorter than for the classical Devarda's method, currently used in industry, and safety conditions (no need for preliminary drying NC samples, mild hydrolysis conditions with 1 M sodium hydroxide for 1 h at 60 °C)

  16. A new method for the determination of the nitrogen content of nitrocellulose based on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alinat, Elodie, E-mail: elodie.alinat@chimie-paristech.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech, Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Electrolytes, Colloids and Analytical Sciences (PECSA), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Central Laboratory of Police Prefecture (LCPP), 39 bis rue de Dantzig, 75015 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195 PECSA, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Delaunay, Nathalie, E-mail: nathalie.delaunay@espci.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech, Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Electrolytes, Colloids and Analytical Sciences (PECSA), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195 PECSA, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Archer, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.archer@interieur.gouv.fr [Central Laboratory of Police Prefecture (LCPP), 39 bis rue de Dantzig, 75015 Paris (France); Mallet, Jean-Maurice, E-mail: jean-maurice.mallet@es.fr [École Normale Supérieure-PSL Research University, Département de Chimie, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7203 LBM, F-75005 Paris (France); Gareil, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.gareil@chimie-paristech.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech, Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Electrolytes, Colloids and Analytical Sciences (PECSA), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195 PECSA, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • New insights into the nitrocellulose alkaline denitration mechanism. • Linear correlation for molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions and nitrogen content. • Capillary electrophoresis monitoring of nitrite and nitrate ions. • Applications to explosive and non-explosive nitrocellulose-containing samples. • Improved performances (including safety) over classical methods. - Abstract: A new method was proposed to determine the nitrogen content of nitrocelluloses (NCs). It is based on the finding of a linear relationship between the nitrogen content and the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis. Capillary electrophoresis was used to monitor the concentration of nitrite and nitrate ions. The influences of hydrolysis time and molar mass of NC on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions were investigated, and new insights into the understanding of the alkaline denitration mechanism of NCs, underlying this analytical strategy is provided. The method was then tested successfully with various explosive and non-explosive NC-containing samples such as various daily products and smokeless gunpowders. Inherently to its principle exploiting a concentration ratio, this method shows very good repeatability in the determination of nitrogen content in real samples with relative standard deviation (n = 3) inferior to 1.5%, and also provides very significant advantages with respect to sample extraction, analysis time (1 h for alkaline hydrolysis, 3 min for electrophoretic separation), which was about 5 times shorter than for the classical Devarda's method, currently used in industry, and safety conditions (no need for preliminary drying NC samples, mild hydrolysis conditions with 1 M sodium hydroxide for 1 h at 60 °C)

  17. Microparticle analysis system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A device for analyzing microparticles is provided which includes a chamber with an inlet and an outlet for respectively introducing and dispensing a flowing fluid comprising microparticles, a light source for providing light through the chamber and a photometer for measuring the intensity of light transmitted through individual microparticles. The device further includes an imaging system for acquiring images of the fluid. In some cases, the device may be configured to identify and determine a quantity of the microparticles within the fluid. Consequently, a method for identifying and tracking microparticles in motion is contemplated herein. The method involves flowing a fluid comprising microparticles in laminar motion through a chamber, transmitting light through the fluid, measuring the intensities of the light transmitted through the microparticles, imaging the fluid a plurality of times and comparing at least some of the intensities of light between different images of the fluid.

  18. Determination of isotopic ratios of osmium and ruthenium in meteorites by pretreatment and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinfang Chai; Yongzhong Liu; Xueying Mao

    1996-01-01

    The isotopic abundance ratios of 190 Os/ 184 Os and 96 Ru/ 102 Ru for the metal phases of the Jilin and Taonan stone meteorites were determined by pretreatment and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. All experimental factors affecting Os and Ru isotopic ratios were discussed, including sampling, standard, irradiation, separation and counting. The statistical errors of measurements for the 199 Os/ 184 Os ratio can be controlled within 1%. The experimental results indicate that the statistically significant anomalies of the 190 Os/ 184 Os and 96 Ru/ 102 Ru ratios have not been found relative to the terrestrial Os and Ru standards. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  19. Quantitative analysis of the myelin g-ratio from electron microscopy images of the macaque corpus callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stikov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We provide a detailed morphometric analysis of eight transmission electron micrographs (TEMs obtained from the corpus callosum of one cynomolgus macaque. The raw TEM images are included in the article, along with the distributions of the axon caliber and the myelin g-ratio in each image. The distributions are analyzed to determine the relationship between axon caliber and g-ratio, and compared against the aggregate metrics (myelin volume fraction, fiber volume fraction, and the aggregate g-ratio, as defined in the accompanying research article entitled ‘In vivo histology of the myelin g-ratio with magnetic resonance imaging’ (Stikov et al., NeuroImage, 2015.

  20. T2 relaxation time analysis in patients with multiple sclerosis: correlation with magnetization transfer ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Papadaki, Eufrosini; Karampekios, Spyros; Maris, Thomas; Prassopoulos, Panos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; Spilioti, Martha

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to perform T2 relaxation time measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and correlate them with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) measurements, in order to investigate in more detail the various histopathological changes that occur in lesions and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). A total number of 291 measurements of MTR and T2 relaxation times were performed in 13 MS patients and 10 age-matched healthy volunteers. Measurements concerned MS plaques (105), NAWM (80), and ''dirty'' white matter (DWM; 30), evenly divided between the MS patients, and normal white matter (NWM; 76) in the healthy volunteers. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time analysis was performed, and also possible linearity between MTR and mean T2 relaxation times was evaluated using linear regression analysis in all subgroups. Biexponential relaxation was more pronounced in ''black-hole'' lesions (16.6%) and homogeneous enhancing plaques (10%), whereas DWM, NAWM, and mildly hypointense lesions presented biexponential behavior with a lower frequency(6.6, 5, and 3.1%, respectively). Non-enhancing isointense lesions and normal white matter did not reveal any biexponentional behavior. Linear regression analysis between monoexponential T2 relaxation time and MTR measurements demonstrated excellent correlation for DWM(r=-0.78, p<0.0001), very good correlation for black-hole lesions(r=-0.71, p=0.002), good correlation for isointense lesions(r=-0.60, p=0.005), moderate correlation for mildly hypointense lesions(r=-0.34, p=0.007), and non-significant correlation for homogeneous enhancing plaques, NAWM, and NWM. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time behavior is seen in only very few lesions (mainly on plaques with high degree of demyelination and axonal loss). A strong correlation between MTR and monoexponential T2 values was found in regions where either inflammation or demyelination predominates; however, when both pathological conditions coexist, this linear

  1. Regional analysis of the magnetization transfer ratio of the brain in mild Alzheimer disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascalchi, M; Ginestroni, A; Bessi, V; Toschi, N; Padiglioni, S; Ciulli, S; Tessa, C; Giannelli, M; Bracco, L; Diciotti, S

    2013-01-01

    Manually drawn VOI-based analysis shows a decrease in magnetization transfer ratio in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer disease. We investigated with whole-brain voxelwise analysis the regional changes of the magnetization transfer ratio in patients with mild Alzheimer disease and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Twenty patients with mild Alzheimer disease, 27 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and 30 healthy elderly control subjects were examined with high-resolution T1WI and 3-mm-thick magnetization transfer images. Whole-brain voxelwise analysis of magnetization transfer ratio maps was performed by use of Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software and was supplemented by the analysis of the magnetization transfer ratio in FreeSurfer parcellation-derived VOIs. Voxelwise analysis showed 2 clusters of significantly decreased magnetization transfer ratio in the left hippocampus and amygdala and in the left posterior mesial temporal cortex (fusiform gyrus) of patients with Alzheimer disease as compared with control subjects but no difference between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and either patients with Alzheimer disease or control subjects. VOI analysis showed that the magnetization transfer ratio in the hippocampus and amygdala was significantly lower (bilaterally) in patients with Alzheimer disease when compared with control subjects (ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, at P ratio values in the hippocampus and amygdala in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment were between those of healthy control subjects and those of patients with mild Alzheimer disease. Support vector machine-based classification demonstrated improved classification performance after inclusion of magnetization transfer ratio-related features, especially between patients with Alzheimer disease versus healthy subjects. Bilateral but asymmetric decrease of magnetization transfer ratio reflecting microstructural changes of the

  2. Infinitesimal methods of mathematical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, J S

    2004-01-01

    This modern introduction to infinitesimal methods is a translation of the book Métodos Infinitesimais de Análise Matemática by José Sousa Pinto of the University of Aveiro, Portugal and is aimed at final year or graduate level students with a background in calculus. Surveying modern reformulations of the infinitesimal concept with a thoroughly comprehensive exposition of important and influential hyperreal numbers, the book includes previously unpublished material on the development of hyperfinite theory of Schwartz distributions and its application to generalised Fourier transforms and harmon

  3. Development of advanced MCR task analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, J. C.; Park, J. H.; Lee, S. K.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, E. S.; Cho, S. B.; Kang, J. S.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes task analysis methodology for advanced HSI designs. Task analyses was performed by using procedure-based hierarchical task analysis and task decomposition methods. The results from the task analysis were recorded in a database. Using the TA results, we developed static prototype of advanced HSI and human factors engineering verification and validation methods for an evaluation of the prototype. In addition to the procedure-based task analysis methods, workload estimation based on the analysis of task performance time and analyses for the design of information structure and interaction structures will be necessary

  4. Recent advances in ratio primary reference measurement procedures (definitive methods) and their use in certification of reference materials and controlling assigned values in proficiency testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczyñski, R.S.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Chajduk, E.; Danko, B.; Pyszynska, M.

    2014-01-01

    The idea of definitive methods based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA), consists in combination of neutron activation with the highly selective and quantitative post-irradiation isolation of the desired radionuclide by column chromatography followed by γ-ray spectrometric measurement. The principles of construction of such methods, which were devised in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, are reminded and the significance of these methods for analytical quality assurance is emphasized. According to VIM 3 nomenclature these methods may be called: ratio primary reference measurement procedures (RPRMPs). RPRMP for the determination of Se is briefly presented and its use for checking the accuracy of 'assigned values' established by expert laboratories in some proficiency tests, is demonstrated

  5. Comparison and applicability of landslide susceptibility models based on landslide ratio-based logistic regression, frequency ratio, weight of evidence, and instability index methods in an extreme rainfall event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunhung

    2016-04-01

    -induced landslide are interesting and meaningful. Eight landslide-related factors, including elevation, slope, aspect, geology, accumulated rainfall during 2009 Typhoon Morakot, landuse, distance to the fault, and distance to the rivers, were considered in this research. The research builds and compares the difference of the LS maps based on four methods. The average LS value from each method is 0.27 for LRBLR, 0.368 for FR, 0.553 for WOE, and 0.498 for II. The correlation analysis was conducted to identify similarities between the four LS maps. The correlation coefficients are 0.913, 0.829, 0.930, 0.756, 0.729, and 0.652 for the LRBLR vs FR, LRBLR vs WOE, FR vs WOE, LRBLR vs II, FR vs II, and WOE vs II. The research compares the model performance of four LS maps by calculating the AUC value (area under the ROC curve) and ACR value (average correct-predicted ratio). The AUC values of LS maps based on LRBLR, FR, WOE, and II methods are 0.819, 0.819, 0.822 and 0.785. The ACR values of LS maps based on LRBLR, FR, WOE, and II methods are 75.1%, 73.7%, 68.4%, and 64.2%. The results indicate that the model performance based on LRBLR method in an extreme rainfall-landslide event is better than that based on the other three methods.

  6. Current status of methods for shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engle, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Current methods used in shielding analysis and recent improvements in those methods are discussed. The status of methods development is discussed based on needs cited at the 1977 International Conference on Reactor Shielding. Additional areas where methods development is needed are discussed

  7. STUDY ON FRY PERFORMANCE OF BLACK TIGER SHRIMP Penaeus monodon WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS MORPHOLOGY AND RNA/DNA RATIO ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanti Haryanti; Ketut Mahardika; Sari Budi Moria; I Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2006-01-01

    Standard method to asses the performance of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) fry was needed for successful shrimp culture. The main purpose of this study was to determine standard method fry performance of P. monodon assesment based on its morphology and molecular RNA/DNA ratio analysis. Samples of P. monodon fry were collected from hatcheries in Bali, six hatcheries in East Java, three hatcheries in Central Java and six hatcheries in South Sulawesi. Each hatchery gave 25 appropriate size...

  8. Visualization of time series statistical data by shape analysis (GDP ratio changes among Asia countries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirota, Yukari; Hashimoto, Takako; Fitri Sari, Riri

    2018-03-01

    It has been very significant to visualize time series big data. In the paper we shall discuss a new analysis method called “statistical shape analysis” or “geometry driven statistics” on time series statistical data in economics. In the paper, we analyse the agriculture, value added and industry, value added (percentage of GDP) changes from 2000 to 2010 in Asia. We handle the data as a set of landmarks on a two-dimensional image to see the deformation using the principal components. The point of the analysis method is the principal components of the given formation which are eigenvectors of its bending energy matrix. The local deformation can be expressed as the set of non-Affine transformations. The transformations give us information about the local differences between in 2000 and in 2010. Because the non-Affine transformation can be decomposed into a set of partial warps, we present the partial warps visually. The statistical shape analysis is widely used in biology but, in economics, no application can be found. In the paper, we investigate its potential to analyse the economic data.

  9. Canyon transfer neutron absorber to fissile material ratio analysis. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmons, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Waste tank fissile material and non-fissile material estimates are used to evaluate criticality safety for the existing sludge inventory and batches of sludge sent to Extended Sludge Processing (ESP). This report documents the weight ratios of several non-fissile waste constituents to fissile waste constituents from canyon reprocessing waste streams. Weight ratios of Fe, Mn, Al, Mi, and U-238 to fissile material are calculated from monthly loss estimates from the F and H Canyon Low Heat Waste (LHW) and High Heat Waste (HHW) streams. The monthly weight ratios for Fe, Mn and U-238 are then compared to calculated minimum safe weight ratios. Documented minimum safe weight ratios for Al and Ni to fissile material are currently not available. Total mass data for the subject sludge constituents is provided along with scatter plots of the monthly weight ratios for each waste stream

  10. A comparative study of frequency ratio, weights of evidence and logistic regression methods for landslide susceptibility mapping: Sultan Mountains, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Adnan; Altural, Tolga

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated and compared landslide susceptibility maps produced with three different methods, frequency ratio, weights of evidence, and logistic regression, by using validation datasets. The field surveys performed as part of this investigation mapped the locations of 90 landslides that had been identified in the Sultan Mountains of south-western Turkey. The landslide influence parameters used for this study are geology, relative permeability, land use/land cover, precipitation, elevation, slope, aspect, total curvature, plan curvature, profile curvature, wetness index, stream power index, sediment transportation capacity index, distance to drainage, distance to fault, drainage density, fault density, and spring density maps. The relationships between landslide distributions and these parameters were analysed using the three methods, and the results of these methods were then used to calculate the landslide susceptibility of the entire study area. The accuracy of the final landslide susceptibility maps was evaluated based on the landslides observed during the fieldwork, and the accuracy of the models was evaluated by calculating each model's relative operating characteristic curve. The predictive capability of each model was determined from the area under the relative operating characteristic curve and the areas under the curves obtained using the frequency ratio, logistic regression, and weights of evidence methods are 0.976, 0.952, and 0.937, respectively. These results indicate that the frequency ratio and weights of evidence models are relatively good estimators of landslide susceptibility in the study area. Specifically, the results of the correlation analysis show a high correlation between the frequency ratio and weights of evidence results, and the frequency ratio and logistic regression methods exhibit correlation coefficients of 0.771 and 0.727, respectively. The frequency ratio model is simple, and its input, calculation and output processes are

  11. System and method to estimate compressional to shear velocity (VP/VS) ratio in a region remote from a borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2012-10-16

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

  12. Neutron activation analysis: A primary method of measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Robert R., E-mail: robert.greenberg@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8395 (United States); Bode, Peter, E-mail: p.bode@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A., E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-03-15

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA), based on the comparator method, has the potential to fulfill the requirements of a primary ratio method as defined in 1998 by the Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere - Metrologie en Chimie (CCQM, Consultative Committee on Amount of Substance - Metrology in Chemistry). This thesis is evidenced in this paper in three chapters by: demonstration that the method is fully physically and chemically understood; that a measurement equation can be written down in which the values of all parameters have dimensions in SI units and thus having the potential for metrological traceability to these units; that all contributions to uncertainty of measurement can be quantitatively evaluated, underpinning the metrological traceability; and that the performance of NAA in CCQM key-comparisons of trace elements in complex matrices between 2000 and 2007 is similar to the performance of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS), which had been formerly designated by the CCQM as a primary ratio method.

  13. Hedging Effectiveness and Optimal Hedge Ratios: An Analysis of Malaysian Crude Palm Oil Futures Market

    OpenAIRE

    OH, STELLA JIA XIN

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of hedge ratios and hedging effectiveness of crude palm oil futures market in Malaysia for the period from January 2000 to August 2015. To measure hedging performances of optimal hedge ratio, different measures have been employed such as the static hedge ratio estimation models of conventional Ordinary Least Square (OLS) model and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), while the time-varying model is presented by the Diagonal Vech Multivariate Generalized A...

  14. A preliminary analysis of the Mariner 10 color ratio map of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rava, Barry; Hapke, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary geological analysis of the Mariner 10 orange/UV color ratio map of Mercury is given, assuming a basaltic crust. Certain errors in the map are pointed out. The relationship between color and terrain are distinctly non-lunar. Rays and ejecta are bluer than average on Mercury, whereas they are redder on the Moon. This fact, along with the lack of the ferrous band in Mercury's spectral reflectance and smaller albedo contrasts, implies that the crust is low in Fe and Ti. There is no correlation between color boundaries and the smooth plains on Mercury, in contrast with the strong correlation between color and maria-highlands contacts on the Moon. The smooth plains are not Mercurian analogs of lunar maria, and a lunar-type of second wave melting did not occur. Ambiguous correlations between color and topography indicate that older, redder materials underlie younger, bluer rocks in many places on the planet, implying that the last stages of volcanism involved low-Fe lavas covering higher-Fe rocks. There is some evidence of late Fe-rich pyroclastic activity.

  15. Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)--discrimination of ammonium nitrate sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Sarah J; Lennard, Christopher J; Maynard, Philip; Hill, David M; Andrew, Anita S; Roux, Claude

    2009-06-01

    An evaluation was undertaken to determine if isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) could assist in the investigation of complex forensic cases by providing a level of discrimination not achievable utilising traditional forensic techniques. The focus of the research was on ammonium nitrate (AN), a common oxidiser used in improvised explosive mixtures. The potential value of IRMS to attribute Australian AN samples to the manufacturing source was demonstrated through the development of a preliminary AN classification scheme based on nitrogen isotopes. Although the discrimination utilising nitrogen isotopes alone was limited and only relevant to samples from the three Australian manufacturers during the evaluated time period, the classification scheme has potential as an investigative aid. Combining oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope values permitted the differentiation of AN prills from three different Australian manufacturers. Samples from five different overseas sources could be differentiated utilising a combination of the nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen isotope values. Limited differentiation between Australian and overseas prills was achieved for the samples analysed. The comparison of nitrogen isotope values from intact AN prill samples with those from post-blast AN prill residues highlighted that the nitrogen isotopic composition of the prills was not maintained post-blast; hence, limiting the technique to analysis of un-reacted explosive material.

  16. Computational local stiffness analysis of biological cell: High aspect ratio single wall carbon nanotube tip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TermehYousefi, Amin, E-mail: at.tyousefi@gmail.com [Department of Human Intelligence Systems, Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology (Kyutech) (Japan); Bagheri, Samira; Shahnazar, Sheida [Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT), IPS Building, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahman, Md. Habibur [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Asia Pacific, Green Road, Dhaka-1215 (Bangladesh); Kadri, Nahrizul Adib [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are potentially ideal tips for atomic force microscopy (AFM) due to the robust mechanical properties, nanoscale diameter and also their ability to be functionalized by chemical and biological components at the tip ends. This contribution develops the idea of using CNTs as an AFM tip in computational analysis of the biological cells. The proposed software was ABAQUS 6.13 CAE/CEL provided by Dassault Systems, which is a powerful finite element (FE) tool to perform the numerical analysis and visualize the interactions between proposed tip and membrane of the cell. Finite element analysis employed for each section and displacement of the nodes located in the contact area was monitored by using an output database (ODB). Mooney–Rivlin hyperelastic model of the cell allows the simulation to obtain a new method for estimating the stiffness and spring constant of the cell. Stress and strain curve indicates the yield stress point which defines as a vertical stress and plan stress. Spring constant of the cell and the local stiffness was measured as well as the applied force of CNT-AFM tip on the contact area of the cell. This reliable integration of CNT-AFM tip process provides a new class of high performance nanoprobes for single biological cell analysis. - Graphical abstract: This contribution develops the idea of using CNTs as an AFM tip in computational analysis of the biological cells. The proposed software was ABAQUS 6.13 CAE/CEL provided by Dassault Systems. Finite element analysis employed for each section and displacement of the nodes located in the contact area was monitored by using an output database (ODB). Mooney–Rivlin hyperelastic model of the cell allows the simulation to obtain a new method for estimating the stiffness and spring constant of the cell. Stress and strain curve indicates the yield stress point which defines as a vertical stress and plan stress. Spring constant of the cell and the local stiffness was measured as well

  17. An ancillary method in urine cytology: Nucleolar/nuclear volume ratio for discrimination between benign and malignant urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tone, Kiyoshi; Kojima, Keiko; Hoshiai, Keita; Kumagai, Naoya; Kijima, Hiroshi; Kurose, Akira

    2016-06-01

    The essential of urine cytology for the diagnosis and the follow-up of urothelial neoplasia has been widely recognized. However, there are some cases in which a definitive diagnosis cannot be made due to difficulty in discriminating between benign and malignant. This study evaluated the practicality of nucleolar/nuclear volume ratio (%) for the discrimination. Using Papanicolaou-stained slides, 253 benign urothelial cells and 282 malignant urothelial cells were selected and divided into a benign urothelial cell and an urothelial carcinoma (UC) cell groups. Three suspicious cases and four cases in which discrimination between benign and malignant was difficult were prepared for verification test. Subject cells were decolorized and stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole for detection of the nuclei and the nucleoli. Z-stack method was performed to analyze. When the cutoff point of 1.514% discriminating benign urothelial cells and UC cells from nucleolar/nuclear volume ratio (%) was utilized, the sensitivity was 56.0%, the specificity was 88.5%, the positive predictive value was 84.5%, and the negative predictive value was 64.4%. Nuclear and nucleolar volume, number of the nucleoli, and nucleolar/nuclear volume ratio (%) were significantly higher in the UC cell group than in the benign urothelial cell group (P benign and malignant urothelial cells, providing possible additional information in urine cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:483-491. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Analysis of spastic gait in cervical myelopathy: Linking compression ratio to spatiotemporal and pedobarographic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Taro; Takahashi, Yasuhito; Endo, Kenji; Ikegami, Ryo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2018-01-01

    Gait dysfunction associated with spasticity and hyperreflexia is a primary symptom in patients with compression of cervical spinal cord. The objective of this study was to link maximum compression ratio (CR) to spatiotemporal/pedobarographic parameters. Quantitative gait analysis was performed by using a pedobarograph in 75 elderly males with a wide range of cervical compression severity. CR values were characterized on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Statistical significances in gait analysis parameters (speed, cadence, stride length, step with, and toe-out angle) were evaluated among different CR groups by the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Mann-Whitney U test using Bonferroni correction. The Spearman test was performed to verify correlations between CR and gait parameters. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant decline in gait speed and stride length and significant increase in toe-out angle with progression of cervical compression myelopathy. The post-hoc Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences in these parameters between the control group (0.45test revealed that CR was significantly correlated with speed, cadence, stride length, and toe-out angle. Gait speed, stride length, and toe-out angle can serve as useful indexes for evaluating progressive gait abnormality in cervical myelopathy. Our findings suggest that CR≤0.25 is associated with significantly poorer gait performance. Nevertheless, future prospective studies are needed to determine a potential benefit from decompressive surgery in such severe compression patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Receiver-operating characteristic curves and likelihood ratios: improvements over traditional methods for the evaluation and application of veterinary clinical pathology tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Ian A.; Greiner, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves provide a cutoff-independent method for the evaluation of continuous or ordinal tests used in clinical pathology laboratories. The area under the curve is a useful overall measure of test accuracy and can be used to compare different tests (or...... different equipment) used by the same tester, as well as the accuracy of different diagnosticians that use the same test material. To date, ROC analysis has not been widely used in veterinary clinical pathology studies, although it should be considered a useful complement to estimates of sensitivity...... and specificity in test evaluation studies. In addition, calculation of likelihood ratios can potentially improve the clinical utility of such studies because likelihood ratios provide an indication of how the post-test probability changes as a function of the magnitude of the test results. For ordinal test...

  20. Managing female urinary incontinence: A regional prospective analysis of cost-utility ratios (curs and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Costantini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To evaluate the cost-utility of incontinence treatments, particularly anticholinergic therapy, by examining costs and quality-adjusted life years. Materials and methods: A prospective cohort study of women who were consecutively referred by general practitioners (GPs to the Urology Department because of urinary incontinence. The primary outcome was evaluation of the cost-utility of incontinence treatments (surgery, medical therapy and physiotherapy for stress and/or urgency incontinence by examining costs and quality-adjusted life years. Results: 137 consecutive female patients (mean age 60.6 ± 11.6; range 36-81 were enrolled and stratified according to pathologies: SUI and UUI. Group A: SUI grade II-III: 43 patients who underwent mid-urethral sling (MUS; Group B: SUI grade I-II 57 patients who underwent pelvic floor muscle exercise and Group C: UUI: 37 patients who underwent antimuscarinic treatment with 5 mg solifenacin daily. The cost utility ratio (CUR was estimated as saving more than €1200 per QALY for surgery and physiotherapy and as costing under € 100 per QALY for drug therapy. Conclusions: This study shows that appropriate diagnosis and treatment of a patient with incontinence lowers National Health Service costs and improves the benefits of treatment and quality of life.

  1. Comparative analysis of cell proliferation ratio in plaque and erosive oral lichen planus: An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redder, C Pramod; Pandit, Siddharth; Desai, Dinkar; Kandagal, V Suresh; Ingaleshwar, Pramod S; Shetty, Sharan J; Vibhute, Nupura

    2014-05-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a nuclear protein synthesized in the late G1 and S-phase of the cell cycle. Detection of this protein represents a useful marker of the proliferation status of lesions. This study has been carried out to evaluate the cell proliferation rate in oral lichen planus (OLP) and comparison between plaque and erosive lichen planus, which indicates the potential for malignant transformation. This study was comprised of 64 cases of histologically proven lichen planus, out of which 32 cases of plaque and erosive each was taken. Two sections were taken from each, one for H and E staining to verify histological diagnosis according to Eisenberg criteria, other sections were stained according to super sensitive polymer horse radish peroxidise method for identifying immunohistochemical expression of PCNA. Data were statistically analyzed by Tukey high-range statistical domain test. Statistically significant P value was considered lichen planus, erosive type (66.86%) showed higher expression of PCNA followed by plaque (17.07%). Overall, P value was lichen planus followed by plaque type, which ultimately results in increased rate of malignant transformation. PCNA is a good nuclear protein marker to evaluate the proliferation status of OLP. Out of the two types of lichen planus, erosive type possesses more proliferative ratio and chances of malignant change is more in this type. It emphasizes the importance of long-term follow-up with erosive type when compared with plaque type.

  2. Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Wright, Jerry P [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-09-27

    Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

  3. Comparative analysis of cell proliferation ratio in plaque and erosive oral lichen planus: An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Pramod Redder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is a nuclear protein synthesized in the late G1 and S-phase of the cell cycle. Detection of this protein represents a useful marker of the proliferation status of lesions. This study has been carried out to evaluate the cell proliferation rate in oral lichen planus (OLP and comparison between plaque and erosive lichen planus, which indicates the potential for malignant transformation. Materials and Methods: This study was comprised of 64 cases of histologically proven lichen planus, out of which 32 cases of plaque and erosive each was taken. Two sections were taken from each, one for H and E staining to verify histological diagnosis according to Eisenberg criteria, other sections were stained according to super sensitive polymer horse radish peroxidise method for identifying immunohistochemical expression of PCNA. Data were statistically analyzed by Tukey high-range statistical domain test. Statistically significant P value was considered <0.05. Results: In two types of lichen planus, erosive type (66.86% showed higher expression of PCNA followed by plaque (17.07%. Overall, P value was <0.001, which was statistically significant. It indicates that proliferation activity is more in erosive lichen planus followed by plaque type, which ultimately results in increased rate of malignant transformation. Conclusion: PCNA is a good nuclear protein marker to evaluate the proliferation status of OLP. Out of the two types of lichen planus, erosive type possesses more proliferative ratio and chances of malignant change is more in this type. It emphasizes the importance of long-term follow-up with erosive type when compared with plaque type.

  4. Parametric Methods for Order Tracking Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm

    2017-01-01

    Order tracking analysis is often used to find the critical speeds at which structural resonances are excited by a rotating machine. Typically, order tracking analysis is performed via non-parametric methods. In this report, however, we demonstrate some of the advantages of using a parametric method...

  5. A Flexible Power Control Method of VSC-HVDC Link for the Enhancement of Effective Short-Circuit Ratio in a Hybrid Multi-Infeed HVDC System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    . To evaluate the contribution of the VSC-HVDC link on the voltage stability of HMIDC system, this paper proposes an effective short circuit ratio (ESCR) calculation method. Through the calculation, the voltage support capability of the VSC-HVDC link can be quantitatively represented by the ESCR. Furthermore......, based on the calculation results, a flexible power control strategy for the VSC-HVDC link is developed to provide maximum reactive power support under grid faults. The theoretical analysis of the HMIDC system is based on the Danish transmission grid, evaluated through PSCAD simulations under different...

  6. Removal method of fluorescent dyes as pretreatment for measurement of major ion concentrations and hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Kotaro; Hasegawa, Takuma; Kashiwaya, Koki; Kodama, Hiroki; Miyajima, Tohru

    2011-01-01

    The major ion concentration and isotope ratio of hydrogen and oxygen can provide important information for migration of groundwater. Sometimes, quantitative estimation of these chemical and isotopic characteristics of solution is necessary for groundwater containing fluorescent dyes, which are used in drilling borehole and tracer experiments. However, sometimes correct estimation is disturbed by dyes and they become a cause of troubles for measurement equipments. Thus development of method to remove dyes is required so that the characteristics of groundwater can be estimated without the negative effect of dyes on measurement or equipments. In this study, removal of four representative dyes (Uranin, Eosin, Naphthalenesulfonic acid sodium(NAP) and Amino G acid potassium salt (AG)) was investigated. Uranin and Eosin were found to be removed by non-ionic synthetic resin: HP2MG. 99.99% of the dyes were removed from initial solutions containing dyes with 10 mg/L after contact with resin, while the contact had little effect on ion concentrations and oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios. Thus the chemical and isotopic characteristics of groundwater samples containing Uranin and Eosin can be obtained by using the HP2MG resin. On the other hand, the NAP and AG were found to be difficult to remove by the HP2MG resin but they were able to be removed by anion exchange resin (Dowex 1x8). Though contact of solution with Dowex 1x8 did not affect cation concentrations and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, anion concentrations were changed by the contact. Therefore the Dowex 1x8 is only applicable to estimation of the cation concentrations and isotope ratio of hydrogen and oxygen. When both anion and cation concentrations from the samples were necessary, Uranin or Eosin were recommended as a tracer in drilling or tracer experiments. (author)

  7. Simultaneous stable carbon isotopic analysis of wine glycerol and ethanol by liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabañero, Ana I; Recio, Jose L; Rupérez, Mercedes

    2010-01-27

    A novel procedure was established for the simultaneous characterization of wine glycerol and ethanol (13)C/(12)C isotope ratio, using liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS). Several parameters influencing separation of glycerol and ethanol from wine matrix were optimized. Results obtained for 35 Spanish samples exposed no significant differences and very strong correlations (r = 0.99) between the glycerol (13)C/(12)C ratios obtained by an alternative method (gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry) and the proposed new methodology, and between the ethanol (13)C/(12)C ratios obtained by the official method (elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry) and the proposed new methodology. The accuracy of the proposed method varied from 0.01 to 0.19 per thousand, and the analytical precision was better than 0.25 per thousand. The new developed LC-IRMS method it is the first isotopic method that allows (13)C/(12)C determination of both analytes in the same run directly from a liquid sample with no previous glycerol or ethanol isolation, overcoming technical difficulties associated with complex sample treatment and improving in terms of simplicity and speed.

  8. Application of Microtremor Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (MHVSR) Analysis for Site Characterization: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, S.; Cassidy, J. F.; Castellaro, S.; Cornou, C.; Crow, H.; Hunter, J. A.; Matsushima, S.; Sánchez-Sesma, F. J.; Yong, A.

    2018-03-01

    Nakamura (Q Rep Railway Tech Res Inst 30:25-33, 1989) popularized the application of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis of microtremor (seismic noise or ambient vibration) recordings to estimate the predominant frequency and amplification factor of earthquake shaking. During the following quarter century, popularity in the microtremor HVSR (MHVSR) method grew; studies have verified the stability of a site's MHVSR response over time and validated the MHVSR response with that of earthquake HVSR response. Today, MHVSR analysis is a popular reconnaissance tool used worldwide for seismic microzonation and earthquake site characterization in numerous regions, specifically, in the mapping of site period or fundamental frequency and inverted for shear-wave velocity depth profiles, respectively. However, the ubiquity of MHVSR analysis is predominantly a consequence of its ease in application rather than our full understanding of its theory. We present the state of the art in MHVSR analyses in terms of the development of its theoretical basis, current state of practice, and we comment on its future for applications in earthquake site characterization.

  9. Application of microtremor horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (MHVSR) analysis for site characterization: State of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, S.; Cassidy, J. F.; Castellaro, S.; Cornou, C.; Crow, H.; Hunter, J. A.; Matsushima, S.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Yong, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Nakamura (Q Rep Railway Tech Res Inst 30:25–33, 1989) popularized the application of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis of microtremor (seismic noise or ambient vibration) recordings to estimate the predominant frequency and amplification factor of earthquake shaking. During the following quarter century, popularity in the microtremor HVSR (MHVSR) method grew; studies have verified the stability of a site’s MHVSR response over time and validated the MHVSR response with that of earthquake HVSR response. Today, MHVSR analysis is a popular reconnaissance tool used worldwide for seismic microzonation and earthquake site characterization in numerous regions, specifically, in the mapping of site period or fundamental frequency and inverted for shear-wave velocity depth profiles, respectively. However, the ubiquity of MHVSR analysis is predominantly a consequence of its ease in application rather than our full understanding of its theory. We present the state of the art in MHVSR analyses in terms of the development of its theoretical basis, current state of practice, and we comment on its future for applications in earthquake site characterization.

  10. Statistical analysis of the ratio of electric and magnetic fields in random fields generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, R.; Nijenhuis, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present statistical models of the ratio of random electric and magnetic fields in mode-stirred reverberation chambers. This ratio is based on the electric and magnetic field statistics derived for ideal reverberation conditions. It provides a further performance indicator for

  11. Analysis of Case-Parent Trios Using a Loglinear Model with Adjustment for Transmission Ratio Distortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lam Opal; Infante-RIvard, Claire; Labbe, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of the two parental alleles to offspring deviating from the Mendelian ratio is termed Transmission Ratio Distortion (TRD), occurs throughout gametic and embryonic development. TRD has been well-studied in animals, but remains largely unknown in humans. The Transmission Disequilibrium...

  12. FRAN: financial ratio analysis and more (Version 2.0 for Windows)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Hansen; Arnold J., Jr. Palmer

    1999-01-01

    FRAN is a computer-based, stand-alone program designed to generate important financial and operating ratios from tax and wage forms filed with the Internal Revenue Service. FRAN generates standard profitability, financial/leverage, liquidity/solvency, and activity ratios, as well as unique measures of workforce and capital cost and acquisition. Information produced by...

  13. Aged and Dependency Ratios among Autism, Intellectual Disability and Other Disabilities: 10-Year Trend Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Dependency ratios are useful as general indicators of future economic and social health. The present paper focuses on the description of dependency ratios and over time change in different kind of disability which include autism, intellectual disability, vision, hearing, and limb impairments. We analyzed data mainly from the public web-access…

  14. Improvement of the 99mTc-ECD brain uptake ratio (BUR) method for measurement of cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Shigeki; Takaki, Akihiro; Inoue, Shinya

    2012-01-01

    The brain uptake ratio (BUR) method for the 99m Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), a non-invasive measurement method of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), has been used in clinical practice in Japan, because it is simple to use. However, the accuracy of this method is limited, as it has problems in the determination of input function and the regression equation. The purpose of this study is to improve the BUR method by reconstructing the determination process of the input function and regression equation based on measurement of the rCBF by H 2 15 O positron emission tomography (PET). The input function was obtained by setting the region of interest on the ascending aorta instead of the aortic arch. The 3DSRT algorithm was used to obtain the anatomically standardized rCBF, and developed a semi-automatic analyzing software using C++ in order to stabilize the repeatability of the improved BUR (IBUR) method. The regression equation for the IBUR method was obtained by the H 2 15 O PET rCBFs in 15 patients with the arterial blood sampling method. All the measurements in this study were performed with the patient in the resting state. A good correlation was observed between the rCBF values measured by H 2 15 O PET and the regional BURs measured by the IBUR method (r=0.86, p 2 15 O PET. This finding indicates the potential clinical usefulness of this method. (author)

  15. Comparison of Prevalence- and Smoking Impact Ratio-Based Methods of Estimating Smoking-Attributable Fractions of Deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Ae Kong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is a major modifiable risk factor for premature mortality. Estimating the smoking-attributable burden is important for public health policy. Typically, prevalence- or smoking impact ratio (SIR-based methods are used to derive estimates, but there is controversy over which method is more appropriate for country-specific estimates. We compared smoking-attributable fractions (SAFs of deaths estimated by these two methods. Methods: To estimate SAFs in 2012, we used several different prevalence-based approaches using no lag and 10- and 20-year lags. For the SIR-based method, we obtained lung cancer mortality rates from the Korean Cancer Prevention Study (KCPS and from the United States-based Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II. The relative risks for the diseases associated with smoking were also obtained from these cohort studies. Results: For males, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were similar to those obtained using prevalence-based methods. For females, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were markedly greater than all prevalence-based SAFs. Differences in prevalence-based SAFs by time-lag period were minimal among males, but SAFs obtained using longer-lagged prevalence periods were significantly larger among females. SAFs obtained using CPS-II-based SIRs were lower than KCPS-based SAFs by >15 percentage points for most diseases, with the exceptions of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusions: SAFs obtained using prevalence- and SIR-based methods were similar for males. However, neither prevalence-based nor SIR-based methods resulted in precise SAFs among females. The characteristics of the study population should be carefully considered when choosing a method to estimate SAF.

  16. Stope Stability Assessment and Effect of Horizontal to Vertical Stress Ratio on the Yielding and Relaxation Zones Around Underground Open Stopes Using Empirical and Finite Element Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Mohammadali; Apel, Derek; Liu, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Predicting the stability of open stopes can be a challenging task for underground mine engineers. For decades, the stability graph method has been used as the first step of open stope design around the world. However, there are some shortcomings with this method. For instance, the stability graph method does not account for the relaxation zones around the stopes. Another limitation of the stability graph is that this method cannot to be used to evaluate the stability of the stopes with high walls made of backfill materials. However, there are several analytical and numerical methods that can be used to overcome these limitations. In this study, both empirical and numerical methods have been used to assess the stability of an open stope located between mine levels N9225 and N9250 at Diavik diamond underground mine. It was shown that the numerical methods can be used as complementary methods along with other analytical and empirical methods to assess the stability of open stopes. A three dimensional elastoplastic finite element model was constructed using Abaqus software. In this paper a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the impact of the stress ratio "k" on the extent of the yielding and relaxation zones around the hangingwall and footwall of the understudy stope.

  17. Flood susceptibility analysis through remote sensing, GIS and frequency ratio model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Sailesh; Pal, Dilip Kumar; Palsamanta, Babita

    2018-05-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) is saddled with frequent natural disasters like earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, drought, flood etc. Flood, as a hydrological disaster to humankind's niche brings about a powerful and often sudden, pernicious change in the surface distribution of water on land, while the benevolence of flood manifests in restoring the health of the thalweg from excessive siltation by redistributing the fertile sediments on the riverine floodplains. In respect to social, economic and environmental perspective, flood is one of the most devastating disasters in PNG. This research was conducted to investigate the usefulness of remote sensing, geographic information system and the frequency ratio (FR) for flood susceptibility mapping. FR model was used to handle different independent variables via weighted-based bivariate probability values to generate a plausible flood susceptibility map. This study was conducted in the Markham riverine precinct under Morobe province in PNG. A historical flood inventory database of PNG resource information system (PNGRIS) was used to generate 143 flood locations based on "create fishnet" analysis. 100 (70%) flood sample locations were selected randomly for model building. Ten independent variables, namely land use/land cover, elevation, slope, topographic wetness index, surface runoff, landform, lithology, distance from the main river, soil texture and soil drainage were used into the FR model for flood vulnerability analysis. Finally, the database was developed for areas vulnerable to flood. The result demonstrated a span of FR values ranging from 2.66 (least flood prone) to 19.02 (most flood prone) for the study area. The developed database was reclassified into five (5) flood vulnerability zones segmenting on the FR values, namely very low (less that 5.0), low (5.0-7.5), moderate (7.5-10.0), high (10.0-12.5) and very high susceptibility (more than 12.5). The result indicated that about 19.4% land area as `very high

  18. An Analysis of Agency Costs and Dividend Payout Ratio of Non-financial Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Natalia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aim to analyze the effect of Insider Ownership, Institutional Ownership, Dispersion of Ownership, Debt to Total Assets, Collateralizable Assets and Free Cash Flow on the Dividend Payout Ratio. These independent variables are proxies of agency costs. This study uses panel data of 90 non-financial companies in the period of 2009-2011. The findings indicate that (1 All independent variables (Insider Ownership, Institutional Ownership, Dispersion of Ownership, Debt to Total Assets, Collateralizable Assets and Free Cash Flow have significant effect on the dependent variable (Dividend Payout Ratio simultaneously; (2 Institutional Ownership and Collateralizable Assets have a significant positive effect on Dividend Payout Ratio; (3 Insider Ownership, Debt to Total Assets, and Dispersion of Ownership have a significant negative effect on Dividend Payout Ratio; (4 Free Cash Flow has no significant positive effect on Dividend Payout Ratio.

  19. The delayed neutron method of uranium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, T.

    1989-01-01

    The technique of delayed neutron analysis (DNA) is discussed. The DNA rig installed on the MOATA reactor, the assay standards and the types of samples which have been assayed are described. Of the total sample throughput of about 55,000 units since the uranium analysis service began, some 78% has been concerned with analysis of uranium ore samples derived from mining and exploration. Delayed neutron analysis provides a high sensitivity, low cost uranium analysis method for both uranium exploration and other applications. It is particularly suitable for analysis of large batch samples and for non-destructive analysis over a wide range of matrices. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Analysis of the width ratio and wear rate of maxillary anterior teeth in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yeon-Ah; Yang, Hong-So; Park, Sang-Won; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Park, Chan

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the width ratio of maxillary anterior teeth according to age in the Korean population and to evaluate the maxillary central incisor width-to-length (W/L) ratio, given differences in age and gender. Ninety-three Korean adults were divided into 3 groups (n = 31) by age. Group I was 20 - 39 years old, Group II was 40 - 59 years old, and Group III was over 60 years of age. After taking an impression and a cast model of the maxillary arch, the anterior teeth width ratio and central incisor W/L ratio were calculated from standard digital images of the cast models using a graph paper with a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera. The calculated ratios were compared among all groups and central incisor W/L ratio were analyzed according to age and gender. All comparative data were statistically analyzed with one-sample t-tests, one-way ANOVAs with Tukey tests, and independent t-tests. No significant differences in maxillary anterior teeth ratios were found among the age groups. The maxillary central incisor W/L ratios in Group III were the greatest and were significantly higher than those in the other groups. The central incisor W/L ratio of men was higher than that of women in Group II. Maxillary anterior teeth width ratios were similar in all age groups in the Korean population. The maxillary central incisor was observed as worn teeth in the group over 60 years of age, and a significant difference between genders was found in 40 to 50 year olds.

  1. Radiochemistry and nuclear methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, W.D.; Vance, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides both the fundamentals of radiochemistry as well as specific applications of nuclear techniques to analytical chemistry. It includes such areas of application as radioimmunoassay and activation techniques using very short-lined indicator radionuclides. It emphasizes the current nuclear methods of analysis such as neutron activation PIXE, nuclear reaction analysis, Rutherford backscattering, isotope dilution analysis and others

  2. Computational methods in power system analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Idema, Reijer

    2014-01-01

    This book treats state-of-the-art computational methods for power flow studies and contingency analysis. In the first part the authors present the relevant computational methods and mathematical concepts. In the second part, power flow and contingency analysis are treated. Furthermore, traditional methods to solve such problems are compared to modern solvers, developed using the knowledge of the first part of the book. Finally, these solvers are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally, clearly showing the benefits of the modern approach.

  3. Development of precise analytical methods for strontium and lanthanide isotopic ratios using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Takeshi; Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2007-01-01

    We have developed precise analytical methods for strontium and lanthanide isotopic ratios using multiple collector-ICP-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) for experimental and environmental studies of their behavior. In order to obtain precise isotopic data using MC-ICP-MS, the mass discrimination effect was corrected by an exponential law correction method. The resulting isotopic data demonstrated that highly precise isotopic analyses (better than 0.1 per mille as 2SD) could be achieved. We also adopted a de-solvating nebulizer system to improve the sensitivity. This system could minimize the water load into the plasma and provided about five times larger intensity of analyte than a conventional nebulizer system did. (author)

  4. Development of a Method to Isolate Glutamic Acid from Foodstuffs for a Precise Determination of Their Stable Carbon Isotope Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Masaharu; Yatsukawa, Yoichi; Tanabe, Soichi; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2018-01-01

    Recent growing health awareness is leading to increasingly conscious decisions by consumers regarding the production and traceability of food. Stable isotopic compositions provide useful information for tracing the origin of foodstuffs and processes of food production. Plants exhibit different ratios of stable carbon isotopes (δ 13 C) because they utilized different photosynthetic (carbon fixation) pathways and grow in various environments. The origins of glutamic acid in foodstuffs can be differentiated on the basis of these photosynthetic characteristics. Here, we have developed a method to isolate glutamic acid in foodstuffs for determining the δ 13 C value by elemental analyzer-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS) without unintended isotopic fractionation. Briefly, following acid-hydrolysis, samples were defatted and passed through activated carbon and a cation-exchange column. Then, glutamic acid was isolated using preparative HPLC. This method is applicable to measuring, with a low standard deviation, the δ 13 C values of glutamic acid from foodstuffs derived from C3 and C4 plants and marine algae.

  5. Metabolic flux ratio analysis and cell staining suggest the existence of C4 photosynthesis in Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, A; Liu, L; Zhao, P; Yang, C; Wang, G C

    2016-03-01

    Mechanisms for carbon fixation via photosynthesis in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin were studied recently but there remains a long-standing debate concerning the occurrence of C4 photosynthesis in this species. A thorough investigation of carbon metabolism and the evidence for C4 photosynthesis based on organelle partitioning was needed. In this study, we identified the flux ratios between C3 and C4 compounds in P. tricornutum using (13)C-labelling metabolic flux ratio analysis, and stained cells with various cell-permeant fluorescent probes to investigate the likely organelle partitioning required for single-cell C4 photosynthesis. Metabolic flux ratio analysis indicated the C3/C4 exchange ratios were high. Cell staining indicated organelle partitioning required for single-cell C4 photosynthesis might exist in P. tricornutum. The results of (13)C-labelling metabolic flux ratio analysis and cell staining suggest single-cell C4 photosynthesis exists in P. tricornutum. This study provides insights into photosynthesis patterns of P. tricornutum and the evidence for C4 photosynthesis based on (13)C-labelling metabolic flux ratio analysis and organelle partitioning. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Multiple Beta Spectrum Analysis Method Based on Spectrum Fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Jung, Yun Song; Kim, Hee Reyoung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    When the sample of several mixed radioactive nuclides is measured, it is difficult to divide each nuclide due to the overlapping of spectrums. For this reason, simple mathematical analysis method for spectrum analysis of the mixed beta ray source has been studied. However, existing research was in need of more accurate spectral analysis method as it has a problem of accuracy. The study will describe the contents of the separation methods of the mixed beta ray source through the analysis of the beta spectrum slope based on the curve fitting to resolve the existing problem. The fitting methods including It was understood that sum of sine fitting method was the best one of such proposed methods as Fourier, polynomial, Gaussian and sum of sine to obtain equation for distribution of mixed beta spectrum. It was shown to be the most appropriate for the analysis of the spectrum with various ratios of mixed nuclides. It was thought that this method could be applied to rapid spectrum analysis of the mixed beta ray source.

  7. Constructing an Intelligent Patent Network Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chan Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Patent network analysis, an advanced method of patent analysis, is a useful tool for technology management. This method visually displays all the relationships among the patents and enables the analysts to intuitively comprehend the overview of a set of patents in the field of the technology being studied. Although patent network analysis possesses relative advantages different from traditional methods of patent analysis, it is subject to several crucial limitations. To overcome the drawbacks of the current method, this study proposes a novel patent analysis method, called the intelligent patent network analysis method, to make a visual network with great precision. Based on artificial intelligence techniques, the proposed method provides an automated procedure for searching patent documents, extracting patent keywords, and determining the weight of each patent keyword in order to generate a sophisticated visualization of the patent network. This study proposes a detailed procedure for generating an intelligent patent network that is helpful for improving the efficiency and quality of patent analysis. Furthermore, patents in the field of Carbon Nanotube Backlight Unit (CNT-BLU were analyzed to verify the utility of the proposed method.

  8. Introducing axonal myelination in connectomics: A preliminary analysis of g-ratio distribution in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Matteo; Giulietti, Giovanni; Dowell, Nicholas; Spanò, Barbara; Harrison, Neil; Bozzali, Marco; Cercignani, Mara

    2017-09-14

    Microstructural imaging and connectomics are two research areas that hold great potential for investigating brain structure and function. Combining these two approaches can lead to a better and more complete characterization of the brain as a network. The aim of this work is characterizing the connectome from a novel perspective using the myelination measure given by the g-ratio. The g-ratio is the ratio of the inner to the outer diameters of a myelinated axon, whose aggregated value can now be estimated in vivo using MRI. In two different datasets of healthy subjects, we reconstructed the structural connectome and then used the g-ratio estimated from diffusion and magnetization transfer data to characterize the network structure. Significant characteristics of g-ratio weighted graphs emerged. First, the g-ratio distribution across the edges of the graph did not show the power-law distribution observed using the number of streamlines as a weight. Second, connections involving regions related to motor and sensory functions were the highest in myelin content. We also observed significant differences in terms of the hub structure and the rich-club organization suggesting that connections involving hub regions present higher myelination than peripheral connections. Taken together, these findings offer a characterization of g-ratio distribution across the connectome in healthy subjects and lay the foundations for further investigating plasticity and pathology using a similar approach. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The analysis of optimal crack ratio for PWR pressure vessel cladding using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mike Susmikanti; Roziq Himawan; Jos Budi Sulistyo

    2018-01-01

    Several aspects of material failure have been investigated, especially for materials used in Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) cladding. One aspect that needs to be analyzed is the crack ratio. The crack ratio is a parameter that compares the depth of the gap to its width. The optimal value of the crack ratio reflects the material's resistance to the fracture. Fracture resistance of the material to fracture mechanics is indicated by the value of Stress Intensity Factor (SIF). This value can be obtained from a J-integral calculation that expresses the energy release rate. The detection of the crack ratio is conducted through the calculation of J-integral value. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) is one way to determine the optimal value for a problem. The purpose of this study is to analyze the possibility of fracture caused by crack. It was conducted by optimizing the crack ratio of AISI 308L and AISI 309L stainless steels using GA. Those materials are used for RPV cladding. The minimum crack ratio and J-Integral values were obtained for AISI 308L and AISI 309L. The SIF value was derived from the J-Integral calculation. The SIF value was then compared with the fracture toughness of those material. With the optimal crack ratio, it can be predicted that the material boundaries are protected from damaged events. It can be a reference material for the durability of a mechanical fracture event. (author)

  10. Evaluation of NO2 predictions by the plume volume molar ratio method (PVMRM) and ozone limiting method (OLM) in AERMOD using new field observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Elizabeth M; Tino, Vincent R; Hanna, Steven R; Egan, Bruce A

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plume volume molar ratio method (PVMRM) and the ozone limiting method (OLM) are in the AERMOD model to predict the 1-hr average NO2/NO(x) concentration ratio. These ratios are multiplied by the AERMOD predicted NO(x) concentration to predict the 1-hr average NO2 concentration. This paper first briefly reviews PVMRM and OLM and points out some scientific parameterizations that could be improved (such as specification of relative dispersion coefficients) and then discusses an evaluation of the PVMRM and OLM methods as implemented in AERMOD using a new data set. While AERMOD has undergone many model evaluation studies in its default mode, PVMRM and OLM are nondefault options, and to date only three NO2 field data sets have been used in their evaluations. Here AERMOD/PVMRM and AERMOD/OLM codes are evaluated with a new data set from a northern Alaskan village with a small power plant. Hourly pollutant concentrations (NO, NO2, ozone) as well as meteorological variables were measured at a single monitor 500 m from the plant. Power plant operating parameters and emissions were calculated based on hourly operator logs. Hourly observations covering 1 yr were considered, but the evaluations only used hours when the wind was in a 60 degrees sector including the monitor and when concentrations were above a threshold. PVMRM is found to have little bias in predictions of the C(NO2)/C(NO(x)) ratio, which mostly ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 at this site. OLM overpredicted the ratio. AERMOD overpredicts the maximum NO(x) concentration but has an underprediction bias for lower concentrations. AERMOD/PVMRM overpredicts the maximum C(NO2) by about 50%, while AERMOD/OLM overpredicts by a factor of 2. For 381 hours evaluated, there is a relative mean bias in C(NO2) predictions of near zero for AERMOD/PVMRM, while the relative mean bias reflects a factor of 2 overprediction for AERMOD/OLM. This study was initiated because the new stringent 1-hr NO2

  11. Effect of crown-to-implant ratio on peri-implant stress: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verri, Fellippo Ramos; Batista, Victor Eduardo de Souza; Santiago, Joel Ferreira; Almeida, Daniel Augusto de Faria; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate stress distribution in the fixation screws and bone tissue around implants in single-implant supported prostheses with crowns of different heights (10, 12.5, 15 mm - crown-to-implant ratio 1:1, 1.25:1, 1.5:1, respectively). It was designed using three 3-D models. Each model was developed with a mandibular segment of bone block including an internal hexagon implant supporting a screw-retained, single metal-ceramic crown. The crown height was set at 10, 12.5, and 15 mm with crown-to-implant ratio of 1:1, 1.25:1, 1.5:1, respectively. The applied forces were 200N (axial) and 100 N (oblique). The increase of crown height showed differences with the oblique load in some situations. By von Mises' criterion, a high stress area was concentrated at the implant/fixation screw and abutment/implant interfaces at crown-to-implant ratio of 1:1, 1.25:1, 1.5:1, respectively. Using the maximum principal criteria, the buccal regions showed higher traction stress intensity, whereas the distal regions showed the largest compressive stress in all models. The increase of C/I ratio must be carefully evaluated by the dentist since the increase of this C/I ratio is proportional to the increase of average stress for both screw fixation (C/I 1:1 to 1:1.25 ratio=30.1% and C/I 1:1 to 1:1.5 ratio=46.3%) and bone tissue (C/I 1:1 to 1:1.25 ratio=30% and C/I 1:1 to 1:1.5 ratio=51.5%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing connectivity of estuarine fishes based on stable isotope ratio analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzka, Sharon Z.

    2005-07-01

    Assessing connectivity is fundamental to understanding the population dynamics of fishes. I propose that isotopic analyses can greatly contribute to studies of connectivity in estuarine fishes due to the high diversity of isotopic signatures found among estuarine habitats and the fact that variations in isotopic composition at the base of a food web are reflected in the tissues of consumers. Isotopic analysis can be used for identifying nursery habitats and estimating their contribution to adult populations. If movement to a new habitat is accompanied by a shift to foods of distinct isotopic composition, recent immigrants and residents can be distinguished based on their isotopic ratios. Movement patterns thus can be reconstructed based on information obtained from individuals. A key consideration is the rate of isotopic turnover, which determines the length of time that an immigrant to a given habitat will be distinguishable from a longtime resident. A literature survey indicated that few studies have measured turnover rates in fishes and that these have focused on larvae and juveniles. These studies reveal that biomass gain is the primary process driving turnover rates, while metabolic turnover is either minimal or undetectable. Using a simple dilution model and biomass-specific growth rates, I estimated that young fishes with fast growth rates will reflect the isotopic composition of a new diet within days or weeks. Older or slower-growing individuals may take years or never fully equilibrate. Future studies should evaluate the factors that influence turnover rates in fishes during various stages of the life cycle and in different tissues, as well as explore the potential for combining stable isotope and otolith microstructure analyses to examine the relationship between demographic parameters, movement and connectivity.

  13. Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Paul D; Willse, Alan R; Lopresti, Charles A; White, Amanda M

    2014-10-28

    Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis method includes accessing information indicative of data content of a collection of text comprising a plurality of different topics, using a computing device, analyzing the information indicative of the data content, and using results of the analysis, identifying a presence of a new topic in the collection of text.

  14. The ratio of right ventricular volume to left ventricular volume reflects the impact of pulmonary regurgitation independently of the method of pulmonary regurgitation quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Śpiewak, Mateusz, E-mail: mspiewak@ikard.pl [Department of Coronary Artery Disease and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Małek, Łukasz A., E-mail: lmalek@ikard.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Petryka, Joanna, E-mail: joannapetryka@hotmail.com [Department of Coronary Artery Disease and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Mazurkiewicz, Łukasz, E-mail: lmazurkiewicz@ikard.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Cardiomyopathy, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Miłosz, Barbara, E-mail: barbara-milosz@o2.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Radiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Biernacka, Elżbieta K., E-mail: kbiernacka@ikard.pl [Department of Congenital Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Kowalski, Mirosław, E-mail: mkowalski@ikard.pl [Department of Congenital Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Hoffman, Piotr, E-mail: phoffman@ikard.pl [Department of Congenital Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Demkow, Marcin, E-mail: mdemkow@ikard.pl [Department of Coronary Artery Disease and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Miśko, Jolanta, E-mail: jmisko@wp.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Radiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Rużyłło, Witold, E-mail: wruzyllo@ikard.pl [Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    Background: Previous studies have advocated quantifying pulmonary regurgitation (PR) by using PR volume (PRV) instead of commonly used PR fraction (PRF). However, physicians are not familiar with the use of PRV in clinical practice. The ratio of right ventricle (RV) volume to left ventricle volume (RV/LV) may better reflect the impact of PR on the heart than RV end-diastolic volume (RVEDV) alone. We aimed to compare the impact of PRV and PRF on RV size expressed as either the RV/LV ratio or RVEDV (mL/m{sup 2}). Methods: Consecutive patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot were included (n = 53). PRV, PRF and ventricular volumes were measured with the use of cardiac magnetic resonance. Results: RVEDV was more closely correlated with PRV when compared with PRF (r = 0.686, p < 0.0001, and r = 0.430, p = 0.0014, respectively). On the other hand, both PRV and PRF showed a good correlation with the RV/LV ratio (r = 0.691, p < 0.0001, and r = 0.685, p < 0.0001, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that both measures of PR had similar ability to predict severe RV dilatation when the RV/LV ratio-based criterion was used, namely the RV/LV ratio > 2.0 [area under the curve (AUC){sub PRV} = 0.770 vs AUC{sub PRF} = 0.777, p = 0.86]. Conversely, with the use of the RVEDV-based criterion (>170 mL/m{sup 2}), PRV proved to be superior over PRF (AUC{sub PRV} = 0.770 vs AUC{sub PRF} = 0.656, p = 0.0028]. Conclusions: PRV and PRF have similar significance as measures of PR when the RV/LV ratio is used instead of RVEDV. The RV/LV ratio is a universal marker of RV dilatation independent of the method of PR quantification applied (PRF vs PRV)

  15. Analysis of the influence factors on myocardium to liver ratio of 99Tcm-MIBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinming; Tian Jiahe; Zhao Xiaoguang; Liu Zilai; Wang Shengcai

    1995-01-01

    The resting myocardial SPECT by different MIBI kits for 113 cases of normal and ischemic heart disease is performed. The preparation of kits, reducing agents, and the time of imaging are checked using myocardium to liver (M/L) ratio as the parameter of myocardium uptake of MIBI. It shows that MIBI uptake of myocardium has no relation with the reducing agents, the time of imaging between 60-120 min, while M/L ratio varied in every individual case. The ratio of M/L has also no relation to the Radiochemical Purity (RCP) as long as RCP is more than 95%

  16. Nuclear analysis methods. Rudiments of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear analysis methods are generally used to analyse radioactive elements but they can be used also for chemical analysis, with fields such analysis and characterization of traces. The principles of radiation protection are explained (ALARA), the biological effects of ionizing radiations are given, elements and units used in radiation protection are reminded in tables. A part of this article is devoted to how to use radiation protection in a nuclear analysis laboratory. (N.C.)

  17. Parameter estimation in astronomy through application of the likelihood ratio. [satellite data analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, W.

    1979-01-01

    Many problems in the experimental estimation of parameters for models can be solved through use of the likelihood ratio test. Applications of the likelihood ratio, with particular attention to photon counting experiments, are discussed. The procedures presented solve a greater range of problems than those currently in use, yet are no more difficult to apply. The procedures are proved analytically, and examples from current problems in astronomy are discussed.

  18. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sung-Eun; Park, Min-Ji; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; Phamstring-to-quadriceps ratio was 4% greater in ACL deficient than in uninjured limbs (95% CI: 1.7% to 6.3%; Phamstring muscles of patients with ACL tear, with the decrease in quadriceps strength being 3-fold greater. These uneven reductions slightly increase the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in ACL deficient knees. PMID:26745808

  19. The likelihood ratio as a random variable for linked markers in kinship analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Thore; Slooten, Klaas

    2016-11-01

    The likelihood ratio is the fundamental quantity that summarizes the evidence in forensic cases. Therefore, it is important to understand the theoretical properties of this statistic. This paper is the last in a series of three, and the first to study linked markers. We show that for all non-inbred pairwise kinship comparisons, the expected likelihood ratio in favor of a type of relatedness depends on the allele frequencies only via the number of alleles, also for linked markers, and also if the true relationship is another one than is tested for by the likelihood ratio. Exact expressions for the expectation and variance are derived for all these cases. Furthermore, we show that the expected likelihood ratio is a non-increasing function if the recombination rate increases between 0 and 0.5 when the actual relationship is the one investigated by the LR. Besides being of theoretical interest, exact expressions such as obtained here can be used for software validation as they allow to verify the correctness up to arbitrary precision. The paper also presents results and advice of practical importance. For example, we argue that the logarithm of the likelihood ratio behaves in a fundamentally different way than the likelihood ratio itself in terms of expectation and variance, in agreement with its interpretation as weight of evidence. Equipped with the results presented and freely available software, one may check calculations and software and also do power calculations.

  20. Binary black hole coalescence in the large-mass-ratio limit: The hyperboloidal layer method and waveforms at null infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Nagar, Alessandro; Zenginoglu, Anil

    2011-01-01

    We compute and analyze the gravitational waveform emitted to future null infinity by a system of two black holes in the large-mass-ratio limit. We consider the transition from the quasiadiabatic inspiral to plunge, merger, and ringdown. The relative dynamics is driven by a leading order in the mass ratio, 5PN-resummed, effective-one-body (EOB), analytic-radiation reaction. To compute the waveforms, we solve the Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli equations in the time-domain on a spacelike foliation, which coincides with the standard Schwarzschild foliation in the region including the motion of the small black hole, and is globally hyperboloidal, allowing us to include future null infinity in the computational domain by compactification. This method is called the hyperboloidal layer method, and is discussed here for the first time in a study of the gravitational radiation emitted by black hole binaries. We consider binaries characterized by five mass ratios, ν=10 -2,-3,-4,-5,-6 , that are primary targets of space-based or third-generation gravitational wave detectors. We show significative phase differences between finite-radius and null-infinity waveforms. We test, in our context, the reliability of the extrapolation procedure routinely applied to numerical relativity waveforms. We present an updated calculation of the final and maximum gravitational recoil imparted to the merger remnant by the gravitational wave emission, v kick end /(cν 2 )=0.04474±0.00007 and v kick max /(cν 2 )=0.05248±0.00008. As a self-consistency test of the method, we show an excellent fractional agreement (even during the plunge) between the 5PN EOB-resummed mechanical angular momentum loss and the gravitational wave angular momentum flux computed at null infinity. New results concerning the radiation emitted from unstable circular orbits are also presented. The high accuracy waveforms computed here could be considered for the construction of template banks or for calibrating analytic models such